Alaskan Caver

Citation
Alaskan Caver

Material Information

Title:
Alaskan Caver
Series Title:
Alaskan Caver
Alternate Title:
Alaska Caver
Creator:
Pease, Chuck
Publisher:
National Speleological Society (Alaskan Cave Areas Conservation Task Force)
National Speleological Society (Glacier Grotto)
University of Alaska Southeast (School of Arts and Sciences)
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Regional Speleology ( local )
Genre:
Newsletter
serial ( sobekcm )
Location:
United States

Notes

General Note:
Contents: Karst Inventory Performed on Kosciusko Island and Prince of Wales Island by Tongrass Cave Project, August 19-25, 2003 -- Zina Cave Report / Pete Smith, Kevin Allred -- Zina Cave Map, Plan View of Southwest Portion -- Zina Cave Map, Profie View of Southwest Portion -- Zina Cave Map, Plan and Profile of Northern Portion -- Dave's Den, Report and Map / Kevin Allred -- Cave Rescue Seminar / Bruce White -- Island Hopping to a New World / Alex Markels -- Who's Who in Alaskan Caving / Bruce White -- Letter to the Editor -- Rope Cutter / Dr. Science.
Restriction:
Open Access - Permission by Author(s)
Original Version:
Vol. 24, no. 4 (2004)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
K26-00240 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.240 ( USFLDC Handle )
4400 ( karstportal - original NodeID )

USFLDC Membership

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Added automatically
Karst Information Portal

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serial

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Full Text

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THE AL ASKAN CA VER THE AL ASKAN CA VER THE AL ASKAN CA VER Volume 24 Number 4 October, 2004

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Front cover: Rescue practice held in June of this year on Prince of Wales Island, photo by Dan Monteith THE ALASKAN CAVER EDITOR: Carlene Allred 2525 Fourth AveKetchikan, Alaska 99901hm: 907 225-1116carleneallred@kpunet.net PRESIDENT : David Love 6740 MargueriteJuneau, AK 99803 VICE PRESIDENT : David Valentine 11976 N. Tongass HwyKetchikan, AK 99901hm: 907 225-2289 SECRETARY/TREASURER: David Love6740 MargueriteJuneau, AK 99803 CONSERVA TION: Steve Lewis Box 53Tenakee Spr ., AK 99841 tenakeetwo@yahoo.com CAVE RESCUE: Gary SonnenbergTONGASS CAVE PROJECT : Pete Smith PO Box WWP Ketchikan, AK 99950hm: 907 846-5223waleswood@starband.net Steve Lewis Box 53Tenakee Spr AK 99841 tenakeetwo@yahoo.com Kevin Allred 2525 Fourth AveKetchikan, AK 99901hm: 907 225-1116carleneallred@kpunet.net THE ALASKAN CAVER (ISSN 07350481) is the periodic publication of the Glacier Grotto of the National Speleological Society (NSS). Back issues are available from the Glacier Grotto secretary for $2.50 each. Materials not copyrighted by individuals or by other groups may be used by NSS publications provided credit is given to the author and to The Alaskan Caver Opinions are not necessarily that of The ALaskan Caver, the Glacier Grotto or the NSS. The editor welcomes contributions such as letters, trip reports, cave reports, photos, cartoons, stories, cave maps, etc. Annual dues are $15 per individual and $20 per family or organization. The Alaskan Caver is included in the membership fee. For an additional $8, six The Alaskan Cavers will be sent overseas via airmail. Send dues to the treasurer. T ABLE OF CONTENTS Karst inventory performed on Kosciusko Island and Prince of Wales Island by the T ongass Cave Project, August 19-25, 2003 -----------page 3 Zina Cave report, by Pete Smith and Kevin Allr ed--------------------------page 5 Zina Cave map, plan view of southwest portion---------------------------page 6 Zina Cave map, profile view of southwest portion------------------------page 7 Zina Cave map, plan and profile of northern portion--------------------page 8 Dave’s Den, report and map by Kevin Allred------------------------------page 9 Cave Rescue Seminar, by Bruce White--------------------------------------page 10 Island Hopping to a New World, by Alex Markels-------------------------page 12 Who ’s Who in Alaskan Caving, by Bruce White---------------------------page 13 Letter to the editor----------------------------------------------------------------page 14 Rope Cutter, Dr Science--------------------------------------------------------page 15 From the Editor: The Alaskan Caver beginning with the April 2004 issue is also available in digital format. Some of the maps and most photos included are in color. Anyone interested in obtaining these can contact me by email. I would like to apologize to Bruce White for getting the paragraphs in his April issue “Who ’s Who in Alaskan Caving” column mixed up. And I would like to thank Kevin, my husband, for being my faithful proofreader The Alaskan Caver Volume 24 No. 4 page 2 10/20/04 President’s Corner The 2004 summer caving season has passed, with fall rains beginning early, nevertheless, this year has again been eventful for the karst systems here in Alaska and cavers involved in their exploration and preservation: Andi Hunter, of F airbanks, has been doing some “ridgewalking” in the White Mountain areas north of Fairbanks. She reported in April, 2004, “… Also doing some more White Mountain surveys this summer with the BLM…basically helicopter trips with a caving twist. Always looking for more volunteers for that project but they have to get their names in soon as we are doing our BLM orientation in the next couple weeks (Maybe she will need help again in the summer of 2005?…). The trips range between 2-4 days and include helicopter drop off for a max team of 4, walking through loads of tussicks and grid searching each mountain…poking our heads into every bear den and rabbit hole we see looking for cave. Last year we were successful finding 2 decent walkable caves but one requires returning with rope and bolting equipment and the other requires some fine-tuned rock maneuvering techniques…” Andi can be contacted at Hunter Environmental Associates, Inc., 3570 Basin Street, Fairbanks, AK 99709. Tim Heaton continued paleontological exploration of caves on the Northwest coast in 2003, with excavations on Dall, at Hole 52 near Wrangell and on the Queen Charlottes. An excerpt from some of the findings of that work published in F eb, 2004 follow: “…Queen Charlotte Islands last summer, 21-year -old Christina Heaton hardly noticed the triangular piece of chipped stone she'd unearthed in a pile of muddy debris. But as her scientist father, Timothy, sifted through the muck, he r ealized she'd struck pay dirt. "Oh my God!" he yelled to her and the team of other researchers scouring the remote site off the coast of British Columbia. "It's a spear point!" Bear bones found near the artifact suggested that its owner had probably speared the beast, which later retreated into the cave and eventually died with the point still lodged in its loins. Radiocarbon tests soon dated the remains at about 12,000 (continues on page 14)

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The Alaskan Caver Volume 24 No. 4 page 3 T ongass Cave Project (TCP) directors and volunteers from It is important to note that features previously located by URS Greenpeace collaborated in karst inventories of 4 areas proposed and the Forest Service (appendix E, Final Report, Karst for harvest on Kosciusko Island as well as in an area proposed as a Vulnerability Assessment, Kosciusko Island, T ongass National Karst Research Natural Area on Prince of Wales Island. Note should Forest, Alaska, prepared by URS, November 2001) were not be taken that this work was performed during an unusually dry adequately buffered per the unit card in the DEIS. When these summer, so resurgences noted as active or even moist ar e almost buffers are properly placed, Feature A will also be protected. certainly active during most or all of normal years in southeastern However, Feature B will still require additional protection. Alaska. Unit 546-571 Surveyed 8/20/2003: Steve Lewis in lead. All survey was done with teams of 5-8 persons working systematically along a bearing and close enough together to see One new resurgence (Featur e A) was located above the stream essentially all features within the transects. Features on Kosciusko on the northern end of the unit. This resurgence and another ( Island were noted based on their significance according to the Forest Feature B) located by F ish Crews (D.S and D.L.) and marked on 6Service karst standards and guidelines, while a higher standard was 8-2000, have not been adequately buffered per the Unit Card. required for the features reported within the high vulnerability karst Additionally, resurgences located along the slopes of the eastern on P rince of Wales Island. portion of the unit have not been adequately buffered per the Unit Work on Kosciusko Island resulted in the location of several Card. Generally the buffers are missing downslope of the important karst featur es that had not been located previously, some resurgences and the carbonate rock. While it might be argued that within areas proposed for harvest, but most in areas already streams below the resurgence are no longer part of the karst, it excluded. We did find that most significant karst featur es in the units seems clear that the standards and guidelines and common sense examined had been previously located. However, buffers as shown suggest that the actual resurgence still needs buffering on all sides to in the draft EIS for the Kosciusko Island Timber Sale(s) suggest that adequately protect it Forest Service and contractor have failed to properly and Numerous new features were located along the upper edge of adequately buffer many of the features that they themselves this unit. These have all been adequately protected by exclusions located. We sincerely hope that this problem will have been rectified provided on the DEIS unit card and are provided only to provide in the final EIS. information for the Forest Service Karst database. In addition, we The two days spent inventorying slopes above and to the north confirmed the locations of all the features noted on the Harvest Unit and south of Eagle's Roost Cave resulted in the discovery of Design Card with which we were provided except as noted numerous important and highly significant features. These included below. a pit with a free and unobstructed drop of 6 seconds as well as Feature A is a resurgence (dry but with a clearly delineated several other going leads and numerous choked pits. While channel). It is slightly higher relative to the creek below as is previous cursory exploration suggests that areas to the north and Feature B. west contain even more extraordinary karst, our inventory confirms Feature B is a beautiful r esurgence, running well even in this the importance of this segment, especially since it lies above highly dry weather. It emerges from a rock face into a pool, then drains significant Eagle's Roost Cave and above a suspected connection down towards the creek below It was previously located by Fish between Eagle's Roost and Blowing in the Wind Cave. Several of Crews on 6-8-2000, and was apparently noted in Appendix E of the the features discovered this season may offer improved access to the karst report, but not buffered on the Unit Card, nor noted in the upper portions of Eagle's Roost Cave which currently requires original Harvest Unit Design Card provided to TCP extensive vertical and drysuit work, and is only accessible during Features C and D ar e a dramatic pair of insurgences associated periods of low flow. with small caves. The stream drops into 20 to 30-foot deep slots. Following are reports on the individual units surveyed. Exact Feature C is located, well outside the unit, and F eature D is located locations of features are provided to the F orest Service and should 16 feet away on a bearing of 70. be viewed only by the Forest Geologist and other personnel on a Features E and F ar e a large sink and associated small cave, need-to-know basis per requirements of the F ederal Cave about 10 feet deep. The Sink is 15 feet deep and 25 feet across. The Resources Protection Act. cave is approximately 40 feet away on a bearing of 200. We wer e unable to locate the cave shown in appendix E, which suggests the Kosciusko Island possibility that Feature E and the cave are the same. Our northing is Unit 543-555 Surveyed 8/19/2003: Pete Smith in lead. approximately the same, but we show the feature about 1 block to T wo significant features were located that affected this unit per the east of the location given in the appendix. Either location the unit card within the DEIS. appears to be protected adequately by the area deferred from Feature A is a r esurgence in a 6 foot deep sink that emerges harvest on the unit card in the DEIS. into a "mud wallow". A 300 foot diameter buffer centered on the Feature G is a small insurgence cave appro ximately 13 feet middle (in practice it should be laid out in the field and measured long from the edge) of this feature eliminates a large portion of the Feature H is an insurgence located on the contact running southern section of the proposed harvest unit. along the west edge of the harvest unit as originally proposed. Feature B is a 20-foot deep sink located outside the unit. Feature I is a small cave associated with a grike. However, an adequate buffer of at least 300 feet should be placed Feature J is an additional r esurgence adjacent to the one noted around the feature. This precludes harvest in a significant section of in the URS survey. They are very close and probably part of the the NW corner of the unit. same system. Correct downslope buffering of the originally noted . . . . . . . KARST INVENTORY PERFORMED on KOSCIUSKO ISLAND AND PRINCE OF WALES ISLAND (continues on page 4) by the T ongass Cave Project, August 19-25, 2003

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The Alaskan Caver Volume 24 No. 4 page 4 resurgence will protect both. Untagged Cave with waterfall and 300' of downsloping passage Only Feature A is a newly located featur e that will require Prince of Wales Island additional buffering of the unit as proposed on the DEIS unit card. However, buffering is also requir ed around Feature B and other These locations were made running systematic surveys features previously located at the northwest end of the unit. In approximately parallel to the band of cliffs above the road running addition, downslope buffers need to be placed below all the features below Eagle's Roost Cave. Over 2 days we discovered 7 significant located along the geological contact between the carbonate and pits or groups of pits, 2 significant areas of grikes, and a massive non-carbonate bands along what shows as the western edge of the sinkhole. Pits included one with a clean drop of 6 seconds, unit on the DEIS unit card. continuing beyond that with bounces. This area is clearly all high vulnerability karst, and we only made locations of highly significant Unit 544-691 Surveyed 8/21/2003 by 2 teams, one run by Steve features. Numerous additional high vulnerability features occurred Lewis, the other by Pete Smith. throughout the area. Some of these features have the potential to This unit is a second growth unit proposed for commercial bypass difficult sections in upper Eagle's Roost Cave and should be thinning. It was precommercially thinned relatively recently Portions pursued vigorously over the next few seasons. of the unit were difficult to inventory due to residual slash both from The following are the features discovered in what we believe is thinning and the original harvest. We relocated the features located proposed as part of the El Cap RNA. in the south end of the unit along with several new features. Feature A, dubbed the Mystery Steps, is a resurging maze of 4' P -1 This is a 30 foot plus deep pit, It is choked and apparently phreatic tubes extending over 100 feet before sumping. There is a plugged with rubble. heavy accumulation of silt and soil in these cave systems which most P -2 This is a nice offset drop in a sink that definitely goes tight likely washed in during previous surface disturbances in the area. and clean. This is exactly the type of problem that we are working to avoid. This area is obviously a major resurgence in wet weather and would have P -3 This is a highly significant feature with numerous a significant recharge area. If a second rotation of timber harvest is to pits/sinks, 25 to 50 feet deep. They all are apparently plugged be considered for this area then information needs to be gathered to although we did not get to the bottom of all. delineate any future impacts to these caves. At a minimum this work P -4 This is a 45 foot deep pit near muskeg sink which Steve would include dye tracing and searching out insurgence points even Lewis located several years ago on a survey between Blowing in the if they are way outside the unit boundaries. Even though these caves Wind and Eagle's Roost caves. are located in second growth and have been harmed once from logging, we believe they would be even more heavily damaged the Muskeg Sink was located several years ago but not reported second time around. W e expect that once proper studies have been as a single feature. It is a massive sink with no openings. Much of performed in the area it will be clear that the whole recharge area this section of the slope consists of linear muskeg like features above these caves should be deleted from future timber harvest. running up and down the slope and ending in sinks or pits at their Feature B & C are two other cave/resurgences that are lower ends. associated with and similar to feature A. P -5 This is a grike/pit combination. A pit in the grike appears Feature D is a meadow/pond ar ea with two deep pits which in to go with a 2 second drop. Two small pits to the north may go This wet weather would be major resurgences. Dropping rocks into these area needs a caver with rope. pits showed the water table to be about 20' below the surface at the time of inventory. The recharge area for these resurgences needs to P -6 This is an exciting find! It was named Atoma Cavatoni by be looked at and studied before logging plans continue. the finder, Hillary Host. This is in Italian and promised to be proper Feature E is an 8-foot deep sink with a continuing passage for a cave name. Atoma Cavatoni is a clean pit with a free 6 second partially plugged. It was named Hillary's Well of Lost Light because a drop. Good tie offs exist on nearby trees. headlight fell into the sink and disappeared into the diggable G-1 This is a deep grike with 6-10 feet of passage choked with material at the bottom, never to be found again. It is the kind of dig organics. The area has numerous other deep grikes, some that one would want to be on rope to pursue. This feature is located might go with digging. outside the proposed harvest area. However, a buffer might need to extend slightly into the proposed area in order to protect the feature. S-1 is a massive sink below a fen, much like Muskeg Sink. These features may require small portions of the areas There is a diggable lead at the bottom with air blowing out. proposed for commercial thinning to be removed from the sale to P -7/ Hillary's Cave is surrounded by a complex of sinks/pits. provide adequate buffers. Generally we commend the Forest The most promising was Hillary's Cave. A map is attached. This Service for pursuing timber harvest in second growth. This is the cave consisted of an entrance sink about 20 feet deep that led to a wave of the future and will have less impact on the systems above too tight crack at the bottom. An offset pit dropped 15 feet. Steve and beneath the T ongass than will similar harvest in old growth. Lewis rigged a handline and descended to a breakdown covered The Hot Spot entered by P ete Smith and others on 8/20/2003 sloping floor that led to a 3 inch crack. The cave continued down a 10 foot pit beyond the crack, but stones tossed through dropped to a Three caves were located by GPS in this area. We are muck floor. T wo GPS units gave significantly different reading for providing the locations to the Forest Service just in case they are not this location so both are included here. yet in the records. Shangra Na/DDH G-2 is an insurgence/and overflow resurgence grike about 15 Broken Stairwell to 20 feet deep. . . KARST INVENTORY ... continued from page 3

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Ke vin A llr ed in a low er ca ny on se cti on of Zi na C av e, ph oto by S tev e C arl ey INTRODUCTION AND DESCRIPTION. Zina Cave was discovered in the summer of 1997 by BIOLOGY a Forest Service wildlife crew while walking a proposed Amphipods were discovered by T erry Brown during “salvage sale” unit. The Area geologist had already the 2001 survey in small pools in the upper section. The investigated the unit and signed it off as Moderate species is unknown. Steve Lewis is presently monitoring the Vulnerability karst (which meant it would be clearcut) even cave for bat visitation. No recent bones have been discovered though there were a multitude of 10 foot deep sinkholes in the cave. throughout the unit which is covered by a healthy old growth forest. Subsequently, several other smaller caves have also MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS. been located in or adjacent to this planned unit. Once Zina Zina Cave is already one of the largest caves in Cave had been found, the geologist returned to do a line Alaska, and its survey should continue. Besides the ongoing survey with Pete Smith on January 18th, 1998 to see if the bat survey, an inventory should be done on the invertebrates. cave went under the harvest unit. After they found that the The unknown “cotton” speleothems should be studied. A dye cave was extensive, the vulnerablility rating was upgraded to trace study is also in order High, requiring that the forest be left intact. They also noted Because of its outstanding recreational and scientific several bone deposits in the cave, one of which had a very values, Zina Cave should be protected from road building weird antler associated with it. The antler’s shape was similar and timber harvest impacts. The cave should only be visited to something like a small caribou with one main stalk with a by experienced and well prepared cavers. Cer tain passages double top. The main eyeguards were facing backwards, and are too fragile to continue exploration, while extreme caution the entire stalk had erratic growths on it. The date that is r equired in others to pass delicate speleothems without subsequently came out of that deer skeleton was ~7800 damaging them. For these reasons, the Forest Service should years before present. Dates on some other bear and deer discourage recreational trips beyond the 150 foot drop down bones found in the cave range from 5,000 to 11,000 ybp. The to the active stream. full name of the cave is Hautlazinacantli, which is the Aztec bat god. The name was chosen because of the light carpet of bat guano spread over the entire upper section of the cave. In the summer of 2000 the TCP began a comprehensive survey of the cave. The constriction [to the lower levels] was widened to allow easier passage to the lower levels, and the downstream section was mapped to the point where the stream reconnects to the passage after the first sump. In the summer of 2001 we mapped most of the upstream tributaries and continued the downstream Warrior River survey to the terminal sump. Several climbs above this sump were pushed to try and find a bypass, but none have gone yet. The leads above Warrior River are difficult to access, and may prove quite a challenge to survey. T otal surveyed length is presently 5785.2 feet (1763.3 meters) and the depth is 391.7 feet (119.4 meters). Zina Cave gives one the impression of being older than some other caves in Southeast Alaska. The walking size phreatic passages in the upper section of the cave, the 150 foot drop to the active stream level, and the “topless” canyons contribute to this effect. The cave is formed in Heceta Limestone, and is very fossiliferous in the lower stream passage where the bedrock is washed clean. Igneous dikes are found in several places in the active stream passages. These have formed resistant barriers to the downcutting vadose streams, and have been the cause of the terminal sump. Speleothems include soda straws, stalactites, stalagmites, columns, flowstone, rimstone, moonmilk, and manganese formations. Gypsum flowers and strange, white cottony growths, so far unidentified have been discovered in a few dry areas. . . . . ZINA CA VE PRINCE OF WALES ISLAND, TONGASS NA TIONAL FOREST ALASKA PRELIMINARY REPORT #319, TONGASS CAVE PROJECT NATIONAL SPELEOL OGICAL SOCIETY March 27, 2002 by P ete Smith and Kevin Allred The Alaskan Caver Vo lume 24 No 4 page 5

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The Alaskan Caver Volume 24 No 4 page 6

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Kevin Allred Sketches in Zina Cave, photo by Steve Carley T erri Brown begins descent into Zina Cave, photo by Carlene Allred The Alaskan Caver Volume 24 No 4 page 7

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The Alaskan Caver Volume 24 No. 4, page 8

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The Alaskan Caver Volume 24 No. 4 page 9 Dave’s Den was first discovered and explored by in, however, after only 35 feet or so the passage becomes members of the Glacier Grotto of the National Speleological plugged with rubble. The Dave’s Den appears to have once Society in 1996. Allen Murray and Dave Valentine left been part of a much larger cave, but without digging, the way flagging at the entrance with a date of 4/13/96. Al notified the down is impossible. Total surveyed passage is 55.5 feet and author of the cave location, and it was subsequently surveyed the surveyed depth is 31.7 feet. on June 28, 2001. The cave entrance is located in a spectacular and healthy old growth karst landscape amid M A N A G M E N T R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S : sinkholes and solution channels. It is not yet known how this The forest around Dave’s Den should not be cut cave relates to nearby Zina Cave, but the whole area was down as it meets the criteria for high vulnerability karst. In being planned for a “salvage” logging operation a few years addition, there are several other caves nearby. Those ago. The entrance has an impr essive natural bridge and discovered so far, ar e: Zina Cave, Spark Plug #5, T om’s slopes steeply to the west. Canyon-like in cross section, the T unnel, and Photo Ice Cave. Dave’s Den could be visited by passage walls are frost-shattered nearer the entrance. Further the general public. . DAVE’S DEN PRINCE OF WALES ISLAND, ALASKA TONGASS NATIONAL FOREST REPORT #230 by Kevin Allred TONGASS CAVE PROJECT NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY Oct. 31, 2001 2002 Cave Rescue Seminar photos by Dan Monteith

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The 2004 caving expedition was preceded by a seminar for self-rescue/small party cave rescue put on as ajoint venture between Glacier Grotto and the For est Service. It should be noted that Alaska Cave Rescue(a separate organization in the Glacier Grotto) haddwindled to a few locals practicing once in a whilebefore Connie and Marcel left for Sitka. With theirleaving Ketchikan, Dr. Dan moving to Juneau, and BarbMorgan moving to Thorne Bay, the guts of the caverescue squad disappeared like rain in a karst sinkhole. The rescue account had a little money left from the sale of T -shirts (now for $10 each), rock clearing in a quarry and manning a salmon weigh station in daysgone by. W e had all talked about getting another rescue seminar going and Kevin Casey (Fearless Leader#2) agreed to put the idea before Jim Baichtal (GrandKarster of our geological resources) and the ForestService. Jim agreed to budget for the bulk of theseminar cost so the rescue account was closed and themoney added to a generous contribution from the USFS. The BC cavers were then hired to put on a rescueseminar before the expedition. Kevin sent out e-mailsto the active Alaskan cavers along with theannouncement of this years expedition. Sadly only myself (Whojigger #1), Dr. Dan, Steve (Batman) Lewisand lovely Rachel Myron represented Alaska, but participation by the whole expedition (mostly lower48s) rounded out the numbers. We all met up for the first time on the ferry, c a v i n g a b i l i t y t h e r e i s n o f i n e r g r o u p everyone except Fearless Leader who would meet us with of cavers to be found. Another suspicious thing about t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n H o l l i s I r e m i n d e d e v e r y these BC cavers was that they must be making a pile participant that to be on the Expedition, they need to off us or the exchange rate is better than I thought be members of the Glacier Grotto. I fleeced them all because these guys came prepared! T op of the line room tent, right then and there, on the ferry, collecting all t he fo od yo u cou ld im agin e, fa ncy n ew addresses and money from everyone. W e met up with truck, bomber gear; what was I to think? Could it be the BC cavers officially when we got to Thorne Bay. that it is normal for BC cavers to have real jobs and These men were here to teach us how to do that which families that support them? Naw, I found them to be we a ll h ope nev er t o ha ve t o do in r eal lif e, h aul real cavers, rich and affluent to say the least. I some poor soul out of the depths, up the nylon just f ound i t hard to bel ieve t hat th ey all took hi gh wa y. vacation time off from their jobs for our little Let me describe our instructors. First of all, if I rescue seminar Hmmmm, maybe socialism works. These was a customs officer at the border, IÂ’d be tearing guys were ripe for the picking. I fed them my line thei r veh icle apart look ing f or su spic ious cont raba nd. about the Glacier Grotto and signed them up as I guess h aving a r eal RCMP Don (th e Chef) d oing a members. Heh heh heh, Canadians are so gullible. little wink, wink, nudge, nudge made the difference. We all camped a t the new Community Y outh Center Phil Whit fiel d, th eir l eade r loo ks a b it li ke a f ish next to the school in downtown Thorne Bay. I scooped pirate but Holy Humpies, can he cave. Cassidy, Verne the diggs, found a couch next to our sweet cave babe, and Bob rounded out the power of BC caving with one Sarah. With the vast array of snoring, I had a pretty more in tow ... an Aussie named Mark. Mark must have good spot. I noted that Fearless Leader and the BC th ou gh t I wa s s o d um b a s t o b el ie ve he ha d a jo b cavers were nowhere to be found. I guess they caving much less be taken in by his fake down under c o u l d nÂ’ t s t a n d t h e s n o r i n g a n d s l e p t o u t s i d e accent, but for sheer strength, heÂ’s who IÂ’d pick to We started the seminar the next mor ning at 9 AM rescue my cat from a tree. Just looking at this crew sharp, r ight after Kevin and the instru ctors showed would put you off a good dinner but as far as knowledge and up. I liked these BC cavers, they knew better than to Caving ability, there is no finer group of cavers to be found. Another suspicious thing aboutthese BC cavers was that they must be making a pileoff us or the exchange rate is better than I thoughtbecause these guys came prepared! T op of the line room tent, all the food you could imagine, fancy newtruck, bomber gear; what was I to think? Could it bethat it is normal for BC cavers to have real jobs andfamilies that support them? Naw, I found them to bereal cavers, rich and affluent to say the least. I just found it hard to believe that they all took vacation time off from their jobs for our littlerescue seminar. Hmmmm, maybe socialism works. Theseguys were ripe for the picking. I fed them my lineabout the Glacier Grotto and signed them up asmembers. Heh heh heh, Canadians are so gullible. We all camped at the new Community Y outh Center next to the school in downtown Thorne Bay. I scoopedthe diggs, found a couch next to our sweet cave babe,Sarah. With the vast array of snoring, I had a prettygood spot. I noted that Fearless Leader and the BCcavers were nowhere to be found. I guess theycouldnÂ’t stand the snoring and slept outside.We started the seminar the next morning at 9 AMsharp, right after Kevin and the instructors showedup. I liked these BC cavers, they knew better than toexpect anything out of cavers before a good breakfastand french pressed Ravens Brew coffee. W e cleared the bones of a 4 star Thorne Bay breakfast, formed a THE CA VE RESCUE SEMINAR C h o o s e S m a l l C a v e r s t o C a v e W i t h . C h o o s e S m a l l C a v e r s t o C a v e W i t h . By Bruce White or (continues on page 11) The Alaskan Caver Volume 24 N o. 4 page 10 2002 Cave Rescue Seminar photos by Dan Monteith

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The Alaskan Caver Volume 24 N o. 4 page 11 T yson Lee, Gainesville, FL Sarah Cervone, Gainesville, FLFelicie Andersen & Bjarne Knudsen (Denmark) HighSprings, FLRyan Eklund, Sitka, AKJason Lachniet, Damascus, VASteve Lewis & Rachel Myran, T enakee Springs, AK Kevin Casey, T oronto, Canada Phil Whitfield, Kamloops BCBob Rutherford, Prince George, BCVern Richardson, Quesnel, BCSheila Griffin, Thorne Bay, AKCassidy Simpson, Kamloops, BCDon T orry, Kamloops, BC Dr. Dan Monteith, Juneau, AKWhojigger #1 and Caver Barbie, Ketchikan, AK expect anything out of cavers before a good breakfast and french go od at tr ib ut e fo r ca ve rs wi th su ch ac ci de nt pr on e pressed Ravens Brew coffee. We clear ed p e n c h a n t s the bones of a 4 star Thorne Bay breakfast, formed a In al l hon esty, t his s emin ar wa s pow erf ul, t he cir cle w ith o ur ch airs and start ed th e lec tur e part teaching and materials excellent, the concern for of the seminar. I cornered Kevin and got his money d e l i c a t e e g o s ex c e p t i o n a l a n d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n and membership, but he still hates me for breaking his in va lu ab le I t w as wo r th ev er y p en ny th e G ro tt o arm. W e nee ded a subj ect f or th e fir st ai d part of donated and was money well spent by the Forest th e co ur se an yw ay s. Service. The information and practice we got will What was this? Now I am a pretty good caver and so is s u r e l y r e d u c e t h e r i s k o f f a i l u r e t o e x t r a c t a n Dan ; wh y al l th is t alk ing ins tea d of pra cti cin g? B y injured person in a timely fashion with only the gear afternoon it was getting hot so a little practice of we c arry in o ur c ave pac ks. I ca n sp eak for all the these new te chniq ues wa s on th e menu We mes sed participants when I say this was worth more than the around at the school setting anchors, passing a victim money s pent, a lot mor e than w e spent togeth er As a on rope, pick offs and this new counter weight haul. te ac he r b y p ro fe ss io n, I c an sa y t he co ur se an d Next we practiced a little first aide and improvised instructo rs were prof essional and compl ete. Practi ce stretchers a long with a l ong talk on h arness in duced was evaluated and additional instruction given so that p a t h o l o g y a n d o f c o u r s e h y p o t h e r m i a all participants were competent in the techniques The next day we packed up and said goodbye to the instr ucted cosmopolitan town of Thorne Bay heading for El Cap Jim, Kevin and the Forest Service need to be Ca ve We tr av el ed in co nv oy al on g t he ne w s up er commended for their support and gratefully thanked for highway not noticing the sun bearing down on us until t h i s i n v a l u a b l e i n s t r u c t i o n T h i s t r u l y s h o w s t h e we h it t he d ir t ro ad. Str ict int er val s we re k ept to concern for safety the Forest Service is committed to. keep from choking the vehicles behind with billows of We lo cal cav ers kno w th at w hen the cal l go es o ut dust. We arrived at the El Cap campground in the heat for a rescu e, we have only ours elve s to c all o n. Wit h of the day. Bugs, heat, sunshine and extr eme t h e d e m i s e o f A l a s k a C a v e R e s c u e i t w i l l b e u p t o u s humidity; something was very wrong with this picture. to make the IÂ’ll be on it next year as long as Don We met Sheila Griffin, El CapÂ’s tour guide coming out is there to cook or we get another course on cave rescue by this fine of th e sk oo ku m tr ai le r sh e an d he r in vi si bl e pa rt ne r group of cavers. [So important is the] difference in the critical time li ve d i n. I w en t f or a r id e w it h h er to ge t t o a window we have between saving a soul and doing a recovery. We place wher e we could r each out wit h the radio and are still in need of a course on all out, full scale, sto le t he k eys to t he t ruc k, r efu sin g to giv e th em labor and equipment intensive style rescue which with ba ck un le ss sh e j oi ne d t he Gr ot to. He h h eh he h, I any luck we can get from BC Cave Rescue next year. I was so good, I would have gotten the bear and cloud of hav e it on goo d aut hor ity t hat e ver y one o f the B C mosquitos signed up except they couldnÂ’t write. cav ers are exc ite d at the pro spe ct o f jo ini ng n ext We rounded out the day sweltering in the heat hanging years expedition after that seminar. around (literally) the bridge. We taught Sheila somerope work and competed with each other on which pair P .S. Her e is a list of participants: : of cavers could come up with the most erotic position we could get in on rope. Steve and Rachel won but Dr.Dan and Mark came in a close second. Since I was theonly person with bug dope, I was everyones bestfriend and no pictures of me were taken.If there is one thing I learned, it is to make sureyou have a Canadian on future expeditions. Don andthe BC crew were truly excellent chefs. W e had a meal that couldnÂ’t be beat and from that moment on, wedonated all our food to the instructors to add totheir larder. T ake it from me, an expedition would gain enough weight with them along to require excessweight charges on T aquan Air The next morning after a super breakfast we finally got to the part we all came here for, cave rescue in acave. It was about time too. The temperature hit 100degrees but El Cap was its normal cool self. It madeus all want to stay underground. Several of theparticipant laughed at discovering they had to come toSE Alaska to get a tan. P .P .S Glacier Grotto T -Shirts are available for $10 If we had any doubt about the value of this each (all sizes) please include shipping from counterweight haul system, it was replaced by a new Ketchikan by contacting Bruce White, 192 Raspberry Rd. sense of confidence as we practiced rescuing our Ketchikan, AK 99901 (907)247-1979 instructors. I couldnt believe these BC cavers. We couldnÂ’t go 50 meters in El Cap before one of them gotstuck, hurt or took a good fall. I take back all thatI said about them being good cavers. The only goodthing is that they heal fast. Once we had extractedthem, their limbs healed miraculously, a decidedly . . . whojigger@yahoo.com. CAVE RESCU E... continued from page 10

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Digging in a dank limestone cave in Canada's Queen Coast may even indicate pre-Clovis travel across the northern Charlotte Islands last summer, 21-year-old Christina Heaton Atlantic from Europe.Such finds have dovetailed with genetic, hardly noticed the triangular piece of chipped stone she'd biological, and climate research to paint a far more complex-unearthed in a pile of muddy debris. But as her scientist father, and, many scientists believe, more realistic--picture of America's Timothy, sifted through the muck, he r ealized she'd struck pay first explorers. Rather than a single migration of Clovis people, dirt. "Oh my God!" he yelled to her and the team of other "there were clearly several waves of human e xploration," says researchers scouring the remote site off the coast of British Douglas Wallace, a geneticist at the University of CaliforniaColumbia. "It's a spear point!” Irvine. Wallace's DNA studies of American natives identify at Bear bones found near the artifact suggested that its least five genetically distinct waves, four from Asia and one owner had probably speared the beast, which later retreated possibly of European descent, the earliest of which could have into the cave and eventually died with the point still lodged in its arrived more than 20,000 years ago. That diversity jibes with loins. Radiocarbon tests soon dated the remains at about research by linguists who argue that the Americas' 143 native 12,000 years old, making them among the earliest signs of languages couldn't possibly have all developed from a single human activity in the region or, for that matter in all of the 11,500-year-old tongue. And if they had, then the languages Americas. would be most diverse along the mainland route the Clovis “It's not the smoking gun, but we're getting closer and people traveled. closer to finding one," says Timothy Heaton, who is the director In fact, the number of languages is greatest along the of earth sciences at the University of South Dakota. He and his Pacific coast, adding to suspicions that at least some of the first colleagues are trying to rewrite prehistory and show that the immigrants came that way. Until recently, many geologists people who first explored the Americas at the waning of the last assumed that the Ice-Age shore was a glaciated wasteland. But Ice Age may have come earlier than archaeologists thought and new studies of fossil records and ancient climates imply a by routes they never suspected. navigable coastline full of shellfish, seals, and other foods, with patches of grassy inland tundra capable of supporting big gameWALK THIS WA Y Almost from the moment the first -and perhaps seafaring humans wending their way south. white explorers set eyes on America's indigenous "Indians," Unfortunately, looking for evidence that could clinch people have wonder ed where the natives came from. Among the coastal-migration scenario is akin to searching for the lost the first to guess right was Fray Jose Acosta, a Jesuit priest who city of Atlantis. Warming temperatures since the last Ice Age in 1590 speculated that a small group from Asia's northernmost have helped transform the ancient tundra into thick forests, latitudes must have walked or floated to the New World. rendering most signs of early human exploration a ll but Indeed, since the 1930s archaeologists have taught that the first invisible. And as Ice-Age glaciers melted, the world's sea level Americans were big-game hunters who walked across the has risen hundreds of feet, submerging most of the coastal Bering land bridge from Siberia, chasing woolly mammoths campsites where the ancient mariners may have sojourned. southward through Canada down a nar row corridor between "Most of those places are under 300 to 400 feet of water which two ice sheets. By about 11,500 years ago, they'd tromped as makes the searching a bit difficult," explains Daryl Fedje, an far south as Clovis, N.M., near where archaeologists first found archaeologist with the Canadian park service who has overseen their distinctive fluted spear points. The Clovis hunters didn't the decade-long search in the Queen Charlotte Islands. stop there. Their descendants ultimately reached the tip of Beginning in the mid-1990s, he traversed the waters off South America after a footslogging journey begun more than the foggy archipelago on a research vessel, mapping the ocean 20,000 miles away Or so the story goes. bottom and dredging up sediments including, in 1998, a 4-inchY et the Heatons' find is the latest addition to a small but long basalt blade that showed telltale flaking from use by an increasingly weighty pile of tools and remains suggesting that ancient hunter. Retrieved from a site that might have made an the first Americans may have come from Asia not by foot down ideal beachside camp 10,200 years ago, it was one of the oldest the center of the continent but along the coast in boats, human artifacts yet found in the region and the first inkling of the centuries or millenniums before the Clovis people. The potential treasure-trove on the sea bottom. The find made evidence, detailed in scientific articles and a new book by headlines and inspired some to call for a comprehensive highjournalist T om Koppel called Lost World, has turned up along tech search of the seafloor. the Pacific coast all the way from Alaska to southern Chile. So CAVE DIGGERS. Y et the immense costs of a seafloor far it does not include any human remains of pre-Clovis age. survey have prevented the idea from becoming more than a But a woman whose bones were found on Santa Rosa Island pipe dream. So Fedje and other r esearchers have instead off Santa Barbara, Calif., was only 200 to 300 years more focused on caves on the nearby islands and in Alaska, where recent. And scientists excavating Chile's Monte V erde site, over artifacts are protected from weather and decay. "The caves have 6,000 miles from the southernmost Clovis find, have been a real windfall," says Heaton of the animal bones he has discovered caches of medicinal herbs, twine, and other artifacts found. He's confident that "it's really just a matter of time" before that date back 12,500 years--even older than those of the he and his colleagues find pre-Clovis human remains, "because Clovis people. Still other, more controversial digs near the East in almost every cave we put our shovels to, we find something new.” . (Continues on page 15) Spe cia l Re por t 2/ 23/ 04 TH E F IRS T A ME RIC AN S M AY H AVE AR RIV ED NO T O N F OO T B UT BY BO AT FR OM AS IA, EV EN EU RO PE By Alex Ma rke ls Firs t pr inte d in US Ne ws and Wo rld Rep ort Feb. 23 to Ma r. 1, 200 4 is sue Is la n d H o p p in g To A N e w W o rl d Is la n d H o p p in g To A N e w W o rl d The Alaskan Caver Volume 24 N o. 4 page 12

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Once upon a time in Alaska, there was a caving showers in the creek, she suggested we all converge expedition planned for the South East P anhandle where the next night and take a steam while we waited for the g rea t Hec eta L ime sto ne for mat ion re sts Man y dinner to be made. We were sad to see the salmon great cavers wer e gather ed to explore the underground lea ve, but wit h an oth er b ox f or l eaf y gr een stu ff rea che s of Kos ius ko Isl and a nd her m ass ive k ars t added to the dinner we went to bed that night with features. Fearless Leader #1 had set up the base camp dreams of a 4 star restaurant dinner, Edna Bay style. next to the school in Edna Bay He then sent us out The next evening we arrived sort of timidly at the in pairs to a series of ca ves along a p irated creek appointed hour to the sound of a viscous declaration be d. Th e cre ek wa s ne ar ly dr y an d se ve ra l ca ve of TRESPASSERS by the dog. Barb dressed in a b right entrances were discovered. Great bravado and stories tie-dyed T -shirt came to the d oor, threw the do g off were the standard as we gathered in the evening for a the porch and invited us in. As we sheepishly made m e a t l e s s m e a l a n d a l i t t l e m a p m a k i n g our way up the gangway plank to the house, Lois A pair of pretty young local girls (most likely ( B a r b s m o t h e r ) c a m e o u t t o g r e e t u s attracted by the excellent specimens of manhood found Som eth ing was str ang e abo ut thi s fam ily, the y all in our camp) showed up on a 3 wheeler named, for good dr es se d th e sa me Th ey al l dr es se d in ti edy ed reason, Phoenix, around supper time on the third day T -shirt s, size extra large. Loi s is graced by a shock of exploring. Mariah (a friend of the Morgans) and of si lv er ha ir, th e f ri en dl ie st fa ce an d b ig ge st Ba rb ar a, bo th in Xt ra -Tuff s a nd He ll y-H an se ns smile, big enough to match her boisterous laughter. baseball hats on backwards got off while Barb killed Lo is is th e q ui nt es se nt ia l m ot he r c on fe ss or an d the eng ine on t he g utl ess won der and sai d he llo. councilor. She naturally draws out the best in people They then asked us the obvious, What on earth were we and helps us with her healing arts of the soul. Bob d o i n g ? heals the body with all his herbs and native Chris Esterson (Fearless Leader #1) introduced medic ines. Their secret s to en richi ng lif e may c ome himself to Edna BayÂ’s local crop of young ladies and from t heir q uiet b elie f in the Bahi ` fait h. Betw een explained that we were cavers, searching for an th em no pa rt o f b ei ng a h um an go es wi th ou t s up po rt underground paradise. They were duly impressed. As from their expertise. Kris talked they couldnÂ’t help but notice all the In th e s ha do ws ne ar th e r ad io sa t B ob li st en in g t o a fres h vegg ies sc atter ed abo ut the booni e barn a long distant talk radio station fading in and out about with the smell of another pot of beans simmering on aliens, Sasquaches or conspiracy theories. I sat down the camp stove. Beans again! Kris must have thought to listen quietly as Bob tweaked the tuner back a nd we were all rabbits considering the food he brought forth to bring in the rece ption. He was like a man for the expedition. We wer e near mutiny by this time studying for an exam by the way his concentration was after 3 days of vig orous cavin g. Kri sÂ’s exp lanat ion held, teasing the radio like a micro surgeon. All at for a meat ban was that it attracted bears, but it fell on once he flicke d off the radio and said, Well, thats carnivorous deaf ears. We were now so hungry for meat enough, heÂ’s got it all wrong and proceeded to punch that a curious bear or spruce chicken would be invited logic al holes in the argum ent of the whack o being into camp for dinn er. With all our grou sing abou t interviewed. Then he stood up. If you have ever seen only frui t and vegg ies t o eat we d idnt noti ce th e a brown bear stand up on his hind legs, well thats covetous look in the eyes of Barbara. Right then and what he looked like. A Tie-dyed brown bear as big as there Barb concocted a deal; trade vegg ies for fresh the side of a mountain, sniffing the air and looking salmon her father caught and apple pies for sharing over his glasses at this motley crew of cavers, towels our abundant fruit. Thus be gun a long and wonderful in hand and drooling at the delicious smells coming relationship with the Morgans of Edna Bay. f r o m t h e o v e n The very next day as we returned from another Lois started organizing the crew cutting up veggies glorious day of caving, Barb showed up with several for the salad, making spuds and getting out dinnerware apple pies and a 23 pound King salmon. We wolfed for us all as Bob tended the fire on the wood stove down the pies and looked lovingly at the beautiful smack d ab in th e middl e of the cabin. On it sa t a pot salmon. Our dilemma was what to do with the salmon? big, enough to hold 10 gallons of water, heating up If we hacked away at it and fried it in a skillet, we for the steam bath and shower Bob seemed to ignore would be cooking all night long! Barb suggested we us all, ambling off down the back porch stairs to tend come over for dinner at her parentsÂ’. Noticing our to the sauna rank odor from marginal spit bathing and Cold ? . BOB & LOIS MORGAN OF EDNA BA Y The Alaskan Caver Volume 24 N o. 4 page 13 W H O Â’S W H O I n A l a s k a n C a v i n g B y B r u c e W h it e Ph ot o by D ia ne R aa b (continues on page 15)

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PRESIDENT’ S CORNER, continued fro m page 2 Dear Editor, I have subscribed to the Alaskan Caver for many years. Most of the articles are fairly accurate and informative. However in the last issue [Vol.24, no.2] Dr K. A. Science presents some data that is lacking in more explanation. He addr esses the problem of large goldfish in large tanks, yet does not mention how much they are fed. Also no statistics are given for the small size of cavers in his study In short, I suggest all future papers in the Alaskan Caver be peer reviewed by someone with professional degrees. Sincerely, Anonamouse Reply by K. A. Science: The Alaskan Caver has graciously allowed me to answer the P eromyscus person ’s concerns regarding my paper, New Evidence for Exponential Growth of Spelunkers. First, I must emphasize that this was never meant to be a complete disclosure of all my data; that is referenced in the paper Second, I assumed the readers were aware of my own professional degrees: BS, PhDs in Hydrological Residential Plumbing, and nocturnal pinworm behavioral patterns. I also have an honorary degree from the Mud Bay Institute of T echnology and an AAS degree. Of all scholars, I should not require peer reviews. Humbly, Dr. Science for the project from the Black Bear Hydroelectric project will (Hopefully) be spent on POW island roadside recreation (maybe in the form of cabins), accessible to more of the locals than a trail and campsite only accessible to larger boats on an outer-coast island. Later this year, in June, the Glacier Grotto and USFS sponsored the British Columbia Cave Rescue unit to come to Thorne Bay prior to the USFS caving expedition for training expedition participants in self-rescue techniques. By all accounts the training was well received and instructive to all who attended, including practice setting anchors, pick offs and counter weight hauling in addition to a refresher in first aid. Alaskan cavers in attendance included Steve Lewis, Rachel Myron, Dan Monteith and Bruce White. Perhaps we could convince these Alaskan cavers to share their newly gained knowledge with the rest of us prior to summer 2005? Any one of you karstophiles interested? [Editor’s note, see article on page 10] The USFS sponsored cave expedition to Kosciusko and Heceta Island followed the cave rescue training. Steve Lewis and Kevin Casey were the only members of previous expeditions able to attend this year however, cavers from Florida filled out the ranks. The expedition appeared to have been successful with more caves discovered on Kosciusko and additional passage accessible due to the dry conditions and low water in Icy Fate Cave on Heceta. Connie LaP erriere will be adding the additional cave passage onto the already impressive map of Icy Fate for the ne xt draft. A number of caves and karst features in low moderate and high vulnerability karst were GPS located during the Heceta Island portion of the expedition, in preparation for evaluating the proposed timber thinning activities described in the Heceta Commercial Thinning Study. Hopefully, USFS will ask cavers for further participation and conversation regarding this project? On the education front, Marcel and Connie LaPerriere (they moved to Sitka last fall) are offering a new course on Caves and Caving at Sheldon Jackson College. Some of the subjects to be covered in the class include: Types of caves and how they form including dissolution caves, ash caves, lava tubes, ice caves, eolian caves; caving basics including safety equipment, clothing, lighting, technical equipment; vertical caving basics including belays, knots, anchors, descending and ascending devices, self rescue and limited and large scale rescue. A March spring break field trip is year s old, m akin g them a mong t he ear lies t sign s of hum an planned to visit Beaver Falls, Star Light, Roaring Road, and acti vity i n the re gion o r, for tha t matt er, in all o f the maybe Bear's Plunge. Good luck and good job Connie and Amer icas ….” Can’t wait to hear the rest of this inte rest ing Marcel! I hope the snows on the nor th end of POW have stor y [Edi tor’ s note see pa ge 12 fo r the co mple te ar ticl e]. melted sufficiently by spring… In other news: during March of 2004, the USFS’s Finally, Kevin Casey Bruce White, Dan Monteith, environmental assessment of the trail proposed for Baker Diane Raab and myself are finally finishing the trip report and Island between Port San Antonio and Little Vita Bay was maps for the USFS funded expedition to the caves in the released. The For est Service received 30 letters during the 30vertically bedded marble of Carroll Inlet in the late summer of day comment period, all of which were against despoiling the 2003. Look for the complete story of that 5-day expedition in wilderness on Baker Island. No recreation development will the next issue (hopefully!) of the Caver Happy Caving! take place on Baker Island at this time. The decision was to take No Action, meaning that the mitigation monies to be used The Alaskan Caver Volume 24 N o. 4 page 14 Letter to the Edi tor:

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R o p e C u t t e r Y ours, Phreada Phreatic Dear Phreada, ---Dr K. A. Science WHO’S WHO... continued from page 13 ISLAND HOPPING... continued from page 12 The Alaskan Caver Volume 24 N o. 3 page 15 plastic buckets, being careful not to splash it on by bare feet. I started creeping along the rain-soaked deck to the sauna. Slipped and dumped some of the scalding water on the boards right in front of me. Bob looked up and turned back to his fire tending. As I filled In the last article you wrote the trash can with four gallons of hot water, Bob muttered under his for the Caver you mentioned something breath, “Won ’t be hot for the second steam”, so I dutifully went that I have always wondered about. I back for a second load. I figured I might as well haul another full was thinking that the subject might be five gallons. Bob just looked at me. It’ll be too hot. I didn’t know worthy of your attention. Or the subject what to do. Needless to say we had a great steam, but the shower might even be a topic for future studies, was a bit too hot for us and just right for the second group. perhaps some kind of thesis. The It would have been fine if the theme song for Jesus Christ, subject has to do with the following questions: Why does it Superstar had been playing as I emerged squeaky clean and seem that only poor people are cavers? How many rich cavers revitalized for the steam and HOT shower. I made my w ay into the do you know? Or don’t rich people have to go underground? Is house to a sight I hadn’t expected. Everyone was eating big chinks the effort involved in caving too much for people who think of salmon, mounds of potatoes, peas, quarter pie slices of apple pie other people should “eat cake”? Doesn ’t it cost enough to draw and herbal iced tea. There was plenty of food left, but not a single their attention? Are there no caving adventure guided tours that horizontal surface except the floor to sit on. I piled on the food and would draw their attention like the bucks it costs to go up Mt. drew up a piece of rug. Everest? Is ther e some unwritten slogan that says “Republicans The house was warm, the food was good, and the hour don’t cave”, or “capitalists don’t like the dark”? Please let me was getting late, but we had to wait for the third group to finish their know if you, with all your scientific knowledge, can shed some steam. I slowly drifted in and out of blissful sleep when Bob and “light” on these questions for me. Lois headed for the door. They had had enough of teaming humanity, leaving with a rifle in hand to take a walk. When they returned, Bob casually mentioned that in a couple of days we would have bear burritos. He had shot a bear on the way home and already had it hanging in the woodshed. Such is the life of the In your letter you inquired about Morgans. We have availed ourselves of their hospitality every several sociospeleological mysteries, most summer as we search for caves. They have provided us with of which fall under one category, “Why do people go into countless meals, saunas, the use of their phone, washing machine, caves?” At first this may seem like a simple question with a kitchen and oven, rides to the caves and trips to the store. Most of simple answer. But before I answer I should let all the all, we have enjoyed the warm friendship and stimulating spelunkers be aware that some years ago yours truly conversations of our adopted mother and father of the Kos spearheade d one of the most grand and marvelo us Expeditions. They have been the Alaskan emissaries of the true socioemotional studies of all time. After 3.2 million dollars of subsistance lifestyle that exists in Bush Alaska to many a lower 48 software research, we at the Mud Bay Institute developed a caver, May God bless them. computer with a capacity of 55,000,000,000 trilobites of RAM. The purpose was to determine the answer to three questions: “Where did I come from, Why am I here and Where am I going to?”. After much outpouring of smoke, these questions were answered with “more memory required”. Archealogists working on the other side of the continent So after your request, I re-entered the sealed room are also seeking a smoking gun, for a different migration route. where this massive computer still reposes, then entered two Clovis-style spear points recovered from barrier islands near the questions: “Why do people climb mountains?”, and “Why do Chesapeake Bay and inland in Virginia and P ennsylvania bear a people go into caves?”. After a time the answer appeared striking resemblance to tools made by the ancient Solutrean exactly as this: “Because mountains are there and caves ar e people of northern Spain, leading some to speculate about a not.” I should point out that rich people tend to work for prehistoric crossing of the Atlantic. something, and poor people generally do not. “That could explain how DNA from ancient Europeans showed up in some of the first Americans,”says Dennis Stanford, chairman of anthropology at the Smithsonian Institution. In an upcoming book, Stanford and coauthor Bruce Bradley make the seemingly far-fetched case that an adventurous lot of Iberians walked over an ice bridge or boated across open water to What a dilemma, eat or get clean. I carefully measured the Newfoundland during the last ice age. amount of food being prepared, estimating that there was Whether they threaded their way through Pacific enough to feed 20 hungry loggers, so I chose to steam first. I archipelagos of negotiated the ice-choked Atlantic, “we need to found Bob stoking the fire in his unique rear entry stove that open our minds and give these early explorers their due,” says heated the cedar wood sauna. He asked me to get the water off Stanford. The first people to explore the Americas “were modern the stove in the house and mix it in with the cold water in a trash humans very much like ourselves. .smart, adventurous, and very can just outside the sauna. I slogged it to the sauna in 5 gallon much capable of making their way in the world.” Dear Dr. Science,

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2004 Cave Rescue Seminar held on Prince of W ales Island, photo by Dan Monteith The Alaskan Caver 2525 F ourth Ave. Ketchikan, AK 99901 Address Service Requested


Description
Contents: Karst
Inventory Performed on Kosciusko Island and Prince of Wales
Island by Tongrass Cave Project, August 19-25, 2003 --
Zina Cave Report / Pete Smith, Kevin Allred --
Zina Cave Map, Plan View of Southwest Portion --
Zina Cave Map, Profie View of Southwest Portion --
Zina Cave Map, Plan and Profile of Northern Portion --
Dave's Den, Report and Map / Kevin Allred --
Cave Rescue Seminar / Bruce White --
Island Hopping to a New World / Alex Markels --
Who's Who in Alaskan Caving / Bruce White --
Letter to the Editor --
Rope Cutter / Dr. Science.


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