Alaskan Caver

Alaskan Caver

Material Information

Alaskan Caver
Series Title:
Alaskan Caver
Alternate Title:
Alaska Caver
Pease, Chuck
National Speleological Society (Alaskan Cave Areas Conservation Task Force)
National Speleological Society (Glacier Grotto)
University of Alaska Southeast (School of Arts and Sciences)
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Regional Speleology ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )
United States


General Note:
Contents: Junea's UAS Caving Club Happenings -- Chitistone Expedition Report / Donald G. Davis -- Map of Whispering Cave and Others in the Vicinity -- Map of Birthday Cave -- Map of Ominous Crack Cave -- Map of Upper Sheep Cave -- Ketchikan Caving Club Happenings -- Map of Frost Ring Cave -- World's Largest Cave Crystals -- Grotto Election Results -- Dr. Science.
Open Access - Permission by Author(s)
Original Version:
Vol. 27, no. 2 (2007 (Part 2))
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
K26-00254 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.254 ( USFLDC Handle )
4414 ( karstportal - original NodeID )

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turned more steeply down and was blocked by an inhaling breakdown choke. They then returned and surveyed outward, meeting the A team midway through the cave. The total survey ended up with only 751 feet of passage. When plotted, Frost Ring Cave did run essentially directly above the entrance section of Whispering Cave (Fig. 8). However, it did not plot high enough to pass over an upper-level breakdown zone ("Don't Count Y our Chickens") that had been surveyed in the 1990s in Whispering Cave. The closest parts of the Frost Ring and Whispering surveys plot less than 80 feet apart. The inner part of Frost Ring does curve around to the left in such a way that bypassing the Whispering breakdown would still be possible if the Frost Ring breakdown can be penetrated. This would probably require a little microblasting to break up overarching rocks beyond which Kevin saw some space. Since we had not planned for excavating, we were not able to further extend the new cave. chambers of walking height or more, but the average Most of Frost Ring Cave is controlled by a minor passage dimensions were only about 12-15 feet wide by fault in the host Chitistone Limestone. This fault has 3-4 feet high--not the big borehole we had hoped for little displacement, but has caused shattering of the rock Kevin and I started the “A survey” at the that had made the ceiling shed sufficient small-sized entrance, while Pete and Steve went several hundr ed blocks during passage enlargement and afterward, that feet in to start the “B survey”, intending that the A team the floor is mostly tightly-packed angular breakdown should leapfrog the B team after tying in. However, the blocks averaging 4-5 inches wide. The spaces between B team had made only six shots when the crouchway these rocks are filled with fine silty sediment that is probably glacial in origin. There is very little secondary calcite decoration, although one section in the B survey had a few incipient soda straws up to 3/4 inch long, with a patch of thin flowstone below. The cave does have some interesting and puzzling features. In a few places there are scattered, well-rounded igneous cobbles 3-4 inches long, lying atop the angular limestone floor rocks or in hollows among them. Where these came from, and how they were transported to their present locations, are unknown. No sediments between silt and cobble-size were found in the cave. If more diverse sediments had once been present (as in Whispering Cave), but those below cobblesize had been flushed by powerful floods, one might expect that remnants of such materials would have been Figure 7. Kevin Allred in typical segment of Frost Ring Cave phreatic passage. Note fault-sheared ceiling, with shear planes dipping right, and floor of shattered ceiling blocks with interstitial silt. Photo by Steve Lewis. CHITISTONE ... continued from page 4 Figure 8. Above, plan; below, profile view of Whispering Cave system: Whispering Cave and surface cliff surveys, red; Frost Ring Cave, black; Dark Star resur gence cave, green. Plots from Compass program ( Larry Fish). (continues on page 6) The Alaska n Caver V olume 27 N o. 2 page 5


The Alaskan Caver Volume 27 No. 2 p age 6 CHITISTONE ... continued from page 5 Figure 9. Unattached miniature raft-like speleothems in floor hollow of Frost Ring Cave. Photo by Steve Lewis. Figure 10. Mummified bat (presumed to be Myotis sp.) In inner Frost Ring Cave, Sept. 3, 2006. Photo Steve Lewis. Figur e 11. K evin Allr ed in entr ance secti on of Wh ispering C ave, Sept. 3, 2 006, amid ice drips tone, flow stone, an d frost crystals. Note hor izontal bo undary b etween la rge fr ost above and sma ll frost be low flood pulse ma rker? Ph oto by St eve Lew is. (continues on page 7) trapped in the interstices between the floor rocks. possibility. However, if the flaky objects are gypsum However, nothing of that sort was seen. An explanation rafts, this would have necessitated conditions so perhaps more probable: the cobbles might have been strongly evaporat ive as to develop a gypsumembedded in blocks of ice flushed through the passage supersaturated pool--a rare situation even in gypsumwhen it still carried water, and stranded as "erratics" rich caves in arid climates, and highly improbable in this where the ice melted. subarctic periglacial environment. We did not have the resources to resolve these puzzles. The inner portion of Frost Ring Cave also had considerable evidence of use by bats. Mummified bodies of at least eight small bats (Fig. 10; Myotis sp.?) were found on the floor Dried guano pellets were scattered through the area, and floor rocks showed many whitish patches that appeared to be splotches of dried bat urine. We saw no living bats or other animals. (For additional information on the significance of these observations, see Appendix 1 by Steve Lewis.) The first room beyond the entrance crawl had a clump of old organic matter, mostly grass and leaves, that was probably a small-mammal nest. This material could have been obtained from the entrance chamber, where there are a few willow bushes and other vegetation under the overhang. There are also at least two hollows in the cave floor where there are cryptic unattached secondary deposits in the form of small white objects. These have three forms: (1) irregular chalky blobs; (2) balls, up to 3/8 inch wide, of radiating needle-like crystals; (3) thin, flat fenestrate and/or serrate-edged plates and spears up to 3/4 inch or more long. The flat for m (Fig. 9) resembles cave rafts, but the context does not have the subaqueous crust normally associated with calcite rafts. A taste of one of the amorphous blobs showed that it seemed too soft for calcite, but was flavorless, which would eliminate such saline evaporites as epsomite or mirabilite. Gypsum remains possible; Kevin did see an apparent gypsum needle nearby, which supports this On Sept. 3, Frost Ring Cave was photographed and de-rigged. In the process of roping down the cliff, a reconnaissance was made in Whispering Cave to a sump a few hundred feet inside. Interesting ice and frost-crystal deposits (Fig. 11) were seen in Whispering Cave (see Kevin's daily log, Appendix 2, which gives more details of the expedition). Other expedition time was devoted to surface hikes. Another cave (Birthday Cave), 95 feet long, was found by Steve and Nick at an elevation much higher than Frost Ring Cave. The Frost Ring survey has been plotted in Compass, and Steve and Nick took many digital photographs, both cave and surface. The group (Fig. 12) intends to submit an NSS News article.


8/28/06 Saturday, August 26, took a jet from Ketchikan to Anchorage. It was difficult passing the gas-powered hammer drill through security even though it was checked baggage. I had put water in the gas tank, but another flushing was needed to eliminate the gas smell. In Anchorage, I emptied it and put "heat" into it for a day. I drove a rent-a-car to Julius Rockwell's place and we went out to eat and shop before picking up P ete Smith. Then Pete and I picked up Donald Davis at about midnight. Had nice conversations with Jay and after a night there went shopping (again) with the others and drove to the foot bridge at McCarthy. Steve Lewis and Nick Olmsted were already in Kennecott working on Nick's cabin. They met us on the car side of the river and we sorted loads of gear. My stuff weighed 150 pounds. There is a good 50 pounds of The end-of-summer timing of the expedition climbing gear alone. We got a free van ride with turned out to be good. Biting insects were virtually Wrangell Mountain Air (who we fly with) to the airstrip gone, but temperatures were not too cold; frost was where we spent the night. No rain, but dew and in the seen only on our first morning in camp. Although the mid 30s. Nick and Steve heard stories from locals of a weather was largely cloudy, and brief showers fell most nice stream cave up "Hidden Valley" next to the days, only on Sept. 2 was there enough rain to make Kennecott glacier I am anxious to go to this c ave area hiking unpleasant, and even then it was light. soon, as there are others reported in the same area. At 8:30 am, Dan? our pilot, a graying, bearded gent loaded up all our gear and us in a wheeled Beaver and we flew to the entrance of the Chitistone Canyon and past the Whispering Cave entrance and the two larger entrances far above it on the cliff face. I was confused, so at first missed seeing the correct holes, as The evidence of substantial use by Myotis bats is there were so many others. Our goal is to climb ~200 a very exciting find. T o my knowledge, this is the first feet up to the right hole of the two above Whispering; evidence of a hibernaculum for bats in Interior Alaska. the one with frost lining we saw 10 years ago on the It shows that some Interior caves with proper air flow flight out. can be very useful to bats, and implies that any mine At ~10:00 am we hiked out of the biggest of two closures done by federal agencies in the Interior should Peavine public use cabins towards the Whispering ar ea. only be done following at least a basic inventory for bats Partway over Donald complained of feeling or bat sign--and that it should be done throughout the lightheaded, weak and slightly queasy. P ete, who had a mine, not just at the entrance. We saw no bat sign till sore knee, accompanied him back to the cabin while the well into the cave. rest of us went up the slope and scoped out the routes The amount of guano was greater than I've seen and crack systems to the holes. Best bet seemed to in any Alaskan cave--a few have significant areas of access the left, and much larger hole, which has the guano, but not so consistent along a passage. I'm quite appearance of an inverted triangle. (see page #1 for sure that the bats were continuing beyond the proposed route). Our theory was that there was a good breakdown choke, so the cave may be very significant-chance the two large entrances had a connection inside and we should probably avoid winter expeditions that the mountain. could disturb the bats with fatal consequences. We hiked back along the base of the cliff to Dark So, biologically this e xpedition came back with Star Cave and I saw the short piece of goldline rope still some very important information. I think that it may tied onto a boulder where I had cut it off ~13 years ago very well be important enough to warrant figuring out a since it was encased in ice and was an unwanted fixed way back up to re-examine the bat evidence and, if we rope. can do it without major change to airflow resulting, check to see what is going on beyond the choke. The Alaskan Caver Volume 27 No. 2 p age 7 APPENDIX 1: SIGNIFICANCE OF EVIDENCE OF BAT USE by Steve Lewis CHITISTONE ... continued from page 6 Figure 12. C hitistone expedition team in Chitistone valley Sept. 5, 2006: left to right, Steve L ewis, Nick Olmsted, K evin Allred, Donald Davis, P ete Smith. Looking NW w ith Chitistone River and "Mile High Cliffs" s yncline (beyond hidden Nizin a River) in background. Photo by Steve Lewis . Appendix 2: CHITISTONE TRIP LOG by Kevin Allred (continues on page 8)


The Alaskan Caver Volume 27 No. 2 p age 8 CHITISTONE ... continued from page 7 Drawings from age 1 of Kevin AllredÂ’s field log (continues on page 9) We traversed further to stop at a steep ravine of the bolt hangers off. Then went direct aid up about 25 before heading down to the river and grabbing Donald's feet. It was really dicey in some places, requiring tricky pack. Back at the cabin we found the others well, and chocks and questionable pitons. I managed to get over they said they had an encounter (about 50 feet away) an overhang and up to a dirt and rubble slope in the with possibly the same big Brown Bear we had seen "open book" which left a final chimney climb of about earlier on the flats. T omorrow the climb, then hopefully 40 feet to (hopefully) booming cave passage. At the in a day or two there will be going cave. end, my forearms and hands were cramping. After Pete came up with the r est of the gear and 8/29/06 drill, we rappelled off a static rope and called it a day. I'm glad we chose the open book rather than the left crack, Pete and I left Peavine about 7:30am, got to the for the other way went a long way up as a calcite seam timber cut-up at 8:30, and at the traverse ledge at 9:30. rather than a crack. We also avoided a gigantic loose This would cut about 50 feet off of the ver tical climb. I flake of several tons. Pete stood on it at one point, and it led along the rotten ledge. It went about 50 feet. At first I moved. Nick and Steve watched us briefly, then left to was really scared, because there were few places to check a black hole way up the mountain at about 4500 hammer in pitons and the sloping ledge was very rotten feet. It turned out to be 95 feet long when surveyed. Our with angular chunks of rock, making footing extremely first cave in the Nizina Limestone, it was a spacious dicey. I got a bolt in fairly soon, and then the rock phreatic tube until finally becoming plugged. Steve gradually improved. At the end a couple decent pitons named it Birthday Cave after his 52nd Birthday. (one of them a bong) made a reasonable anchor. Pete passed me and led across and upwards up August 30, 2006 slightly overhanging solid rock using our new gas-powered hammer drill to put about 8 bolts in. He came T oday P ete and I got another early start and got back to the belay ledge and I went up and cleaned some back at the open book climb. I ended up leading the remainder All the gear made it difficult. The big hole is, unfortunately, a frost pocket. W e were so disappointed that we rappelled off to take a closer look at a possible traverse horizontally to the hole in which we had seen the frost rind. Pete had gotten hit on the helmet with a large rock while belaying me, and felt less than enthusiastic about the rotten climb to come. He did, however, check a small phreatic passage in the wall of the open book heading in the direction of the hole we are after It ended after 30 feet with no anticipated connection. Donald was feeling better, and was able to slowly hike up to the cliff and watch the proceedings. He had felt weak, light-headed and queasy and had stayed at the cabin the day before, cutting and splitting some firewood. Steve and I went up to see what we could do with the traverse. The wall was all broken up along a four-foot high area of horizontal bedding. Stacks of loose blocks were leaning outwards seemingly to nearly fall out at the least disturbance. I hammered pitons between the ceiling above and the top of the stacks of blocks in hopes it would help push them more firmly in place. One tilting block allowed a loop of webbing. Finally I was able to reach a point around the nose where a couple of huge blocks hung way outwards, tilting at a precarious angle. I was most concerned that should any of the blocks fall out, the climbing rope would be cut. I went back for the drill and set several bolts in good rock above the loose blocks. It was very difficult as it was overhanging below the blocks.


The Alaskan Caver Volume 27 No. 2 p age 9 CHITISTONE ... continued from page 8 (continues on page 10) Running low on energy and daylight, we digging through another 30 feet to open going cave retreated, and with any luck will get the remaining six to while Donald and I slowly hiked up. eight feet tomorrow. W onderful pasta for dinner was One notable experience was when Donald and served, as was typical, by Steve, Pete, and Nick at I were partway up the slope in the light rain and fog. We Peavine. watched in fascination as Pete ascended the wall in wisps of mist, seemingly creeping right up the rock, 8/31/06 since no rope was visible. He appeared like some kind of human spider in a fictional movie. The cave turned Pete and I got a later start (we were very tired). out to finally end at a boulder choke after about over We ascended the rope to "Upper Sheep Cave" and 700 feet. We noted strange white crystals in one low surveyed it. Then came the moment of truth. I finished section. Mystery animal droppings and a mix of angular the traverse around the nose with a heavy lead rack. and cobble floor rocks were totally unexplainable to us. Past the bolts, I drove in about four pitons into the On Sept. 3, I took the following notes in the cave uppermost horizontal crack to a ledge of the entrance while helping Steve photograph in Frost Ring Cave. we had seen the frost in. Pete and I wer e able to "Nesting ~18 feet closer to entrance from the other communicate by yelling down at the others at the base nesting. Back in an alcove on clay/silt hill. Also several of the cliff and they would relay the instructions back to animal pellets ~one meter out from the wall. Most ~5/8 Pete by radio (in in his pack), and yell back up to me. As inch long, but one composite one about one inch long usual, it was scary. When P ete was partway across, we (photo). One smashed (photo). Altogether seven could communicate directly. When P ete was over, he set counted. Typical one photographed. More white flakes some bolts for the 300 foot static line which we had in inward end of side tube of "Bare Poop" roo m. pulled in along with him. We set it directly over the Slickensides six feet towards entrance from A12 on entrance of Whispering Cave. ceiling. These run perpendicular to passage axis. White The new cave soon turned low and nasty from frost wedging. Steve and Nick came up, and Steve went ahead clearing a way open enough for belly crawling. The others helped pull stuff out from behind him. The dig went about 30 feet on this day. Ther e was a very slight draft inwards, but some indication that the cave was breathing. The ceiling was so unstable, we crystals glob has ~5 sides (see sketch above). Pure built several pillars out of rubble in hopes that if the white flakes look like mini evergr een tr ees in one ar ea ceiling did come down, it would be at least partly (sketch). Rod-like things are serrated and flattened. supported. Even so, Steve touched the ceiling with his (See sketch to left) Some forms back and had a bunch of rock drop on him. Nick felt too are like gypsum flowers and some uncomfortable to return to this cave. Donald took a rest like fibrous globs more than one day and hauled and filtered water I'm glad the climbing cm across. Center area has more is over. W e hauled the climbing gear all out back to big chalky flakes less than one Peavine except the drill. inch by 3/4 inch semi-rounded with some voids visible. Overall, 9/1/06 most deposits are restricted to upper exposed surfaces of the angular rocks on the floor. Some, however are We had a day off and walked about four miles down in crevices. T wo feet towards entrance from A12 is up to Glacier Creek. We took our time and got a round "sea urchin" -shaped display about 3/8 inch separated from Pete, who went all the way to some diameter with many spines. Many are "mats" of fibers. cabins left from prospecting days. I'm glad of the restful These crystals are tasteless, and Donald reports they day. Matt and Kathy a couple from Eagle River, just flew dissolve when tasted, and are most likely gypsum into the airstrip and are staying at the other smaller derived. Further in, I noticed one single gypsum? needle public cabin. Nice folks who are staying several days. about one inch long on the floor. We told them we were looking for caves. Steve and Pete found numerous bat skeletons and mummies along with extensive guano scattered 9/4/06 about. In the same bat roosting and flight areas were odd white stains on silt and rocks -presumably urea Wow I have not written for days. On Sept. 2, from bats. These were located only in places where we surveyed the cave, and called it "Frost Ring Cave." flight or roosting was possible. At the boulder choke, Steve and Pete were on one team, and surveyed the one would have to break off a foot or so off two large back part while Donald and I surveyed the front section. boulders to continue in the cave. This could only occur after Pete and Steve finished After the photographing was done, we exited


CHITISTONE ... continued from page 9 The Alaskan Caver Volume 2 7 No. 2 pag e 10 Sk et ch fr om m em or y of th e en tra nc e po rti on o f W hi sp er in g C av e and set up the fixed rope by tying on additional 145 feet, then the river flats and we communicated by radio. Pete told us anchored and pulled it from Whispering Cave and then later where visible holes were above us. I managed to get into a from the bottom of the cliff 60 feet further down. We found cave entrance about 12 feet up an overhang. Someone had Whispering well decorated with ice formations. Fantastic! We been there before and had built a cairn at least three feet high photographed and found the cave sumped a few hundred feet to aid in entering. I decided to make it more safe by tying in. Near the entrance portion where the passage had been a loops in a piece of webbing and attaching it around a belly crawl over smooth ice in previous visits, it is now a chokestone. The cave went nearly 40 feet until pinching. It stoopway with a little ice on the floor. The side tube I remember was a phreatic enlargement of a near-vertical crack. W e called with platy ice crystals is now a walkway to an ice-filled phreatic it Ominous Crack Cave (I had heard a "crack" when I first tried tube. a handhold). Continuing the traverse, finally we felt we could continue no further, for it got very s t e e p a n d dangerous looking. Steve got a great photo of one of two pikas we spotted. We ran down a talus slope and joined the others on an open wash or old road bed before hiking to camp. Then Steve tried out his new drysuit and crossed the Chitistone River in a fairly difficult spot. His walking stick vibrated a lot in the thigh-deep rapids. We know now we can easily do it in braided places. T omorrow mid-day we get picked up. A large room further in the main passage was filled 9/6/06 with large crystals down to a distinct level at about shoulder It was bath day. When I went to the river for mine, the height. This was one sign that the cave had flooded this spring, soap didn't work too well in the glacial silt, but I'm reasonably washing off lower crystals. Beyond this room towards the clean. When we asked Donald if he was taking a bath, he said entrance, the water must have either completely filled the "God forbid -I'm waiting for a hot shower in Anchorage." We passage, or large crystals had not grown, for only the small packed, waited, and enjoyed our mid-day flight out. After the crystals covered most surfaces. This room had some ice long drive to Anchorage, we again enjoyed Jay's hospitality stalactites/mites and a few leads taking off I did not remember, and a wonderful Chinese Buffet. but are on the original map. Further in, the way became somewhat low again (more as I remember) and the ice on the floor started getting rotten and wet with ripples running horizontally. Near the bottom of the second slight slope, the cave sumped. The water was atop some ice, and there was a skim of ice on the water surface. I suspect the sump will drain out after freeze-up, allowing cold air to again cool all rock surfaces. The creek bed below the cave certainly looks like very little woody/leaf debris had accumulated since the last flood occurred. I think it belched water briefly during spring runoff. The cave register at chest level had not been touched by flooding, as there was a loose scrap of paper held between the hanging container and the wall. 9/4/06 T oday we all hiked directly up the slope of P eavine to a nice waterfall (some 2000 vertical feet), then back down partway around to the west and up to a vantage point below the Peavine mine adit, which is located near the top of a 100 foot cliff. A yellow drill rig was perched on a ledge above the mine. They must have winched it right up the cliff. It was supposed to be another rest day, but I'm tir ed. 9/5/06 T oday, Steve and I traversed along the cliff base southwards from Whispering Cave. The others stayed down at


The Alaskan Caver Volume 2 7 No. 2 pag e 11 Rachel Wall is learning to clean a vertical pitch. Note that she has the remaining rope coiled and is letting it out as she rappels. This will keep the rocks that she is knocking down from hitting and damaging the rope. Photo by C. Allred Practicing in the gym. In the foreground Mira Wilhem is “ rescuing” Samantha Barnes, who is enjoying an ice cream cone. Photo by C. Allred. The Caving Club of Ketchikan has been holding regular meetings every Friday afternoon. Gatherings have been taking place at the Allred’s house, at a local church that has a large gym available for vertical practices, and at a nearby roadcut cliff. Prospective cavers have been studying speleology and caving techniques, and have been acquiring and learning to use their own personal caving gear. The immediate goal of the group has been to prepare for an upcoming caving trip in March (during spring break), to Prince of Wales Island. The July issue of the Alaskan Caver will feature their POW adventures. KETCHIKAN CAVING CLUB HAPPENINGS t o o t ig h t O M I N O U S C R A C K C A V E W R A N G E L L S A I N T E L I A S N A T I O N A L P A R K A L A S K A Surveyed with compass, clinometer and tape September 5, 2006 by Kevin Allred and Steve Lewis. Map by K. and C. Allred. S u r v e y e d le n g t h : 5 5 f e e t ( 1 6 8 m e t e r s ) V e r t ic a l e x t e n t : 1 6 f e e t ( 4 9 m e t e r s ) T O N G A S S C A V E P R O J E C T P R O F I L E P L A N 0 d a t u m e n t r a n c e L E G E N D p a s s a g e w a ll r o c k f il l s il t f il l lo w e r s lo p e ( s p la y s d o w n w a r d ) v e r t ic a l d r o p c a ir n 1 0 f e e t 5 0 m e t e r s 5 2 0 0 1 0 f e e t 5 5 0 1 0 1 5 N m 2 3 .3 2 0 0 7 N C 2 0 0 7 b y C a r l e n e A l l r e d e n t r a n c e c a ir n 0 d a t u m t o o t ig h t t o o t ig h t t o o t ig h t m a n y g n a t s U P P E R S H E E P C A V E W R A N G E L L S A I N T E L I A S N A T I O N A L P A R K A L A S K A Surveyed with compass, clinometer and tape August 31, 2006 by Kevin Allred and Pete Smith. Map by K. and C. Allred. S u r v e y e d le n g t h : 5 3 1 f e e t ( 1 6 2 m e t e r s ) V e r t ic a l e x t e n t : 3 7 f e e t ( 1 1 m e t e r ) T O N G A S S C A V E P R O J E C T P R O F I L E P L A N 0 2 0 f e e t 1 0 0 1 0 m e t e r s 5 4 0 0 d a t u m 2 0 0 f e e t 4 0 2 0 e n t r a n c e e n t r a n c e N m 2 3 .3 2 0 0 7 N 0 d a t u m o p e n b o o k C 2 0 0 7 b y C a r l e n e A l l r e d L E G E N D p a s s a g e w a ll r o c k f il l lo w e r O u ts id e s lo p e ( s p la y s d o w n w a r d ) e n t r a n c e d r ip li n e v e r t ic a l d r o p in f e e t 6 R o d e n t f is h a n d b ir d b o n e s a lo n g le d g e C R O S S S E C T I O N P h o to b y S te v e L e w is 8 3 1 5 0 P h o to b y S te v e L e w is

Contents: Junea's UAS
Caving Club Happenings --
Chitistone Expedition Report / Donald G. Davis --
Map of Whispering Cave and Others in the Vicinity --
Map of Birthday Cave --
Map of Ominous Crack Cave --
Map of Upper Sheep Cave --
Ketchikan Caving Club Happenings --
Map of Frost Ring Cave --
World's Largest Cave Crystals --
Grotto Election Results --
Dr. Science.


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