AMCS Activities Newsletter

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AMCS Activities Newsletter

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Title:
AMCS Activities Newsletter
Series Title:
AMCS Activities Newsletter
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Association for Mexican Cave Studies
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Association for Mexican Cave Studies
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English

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Regional Speleology ( local )
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serial ( sobekcm )
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Mexico

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Edited by Terri Treacy and Dale Pate, 92 pagesContents: Mexico News, compiled by Peter Sprouse -- International News, compiled by Peter Sprouse -- Long and Deep Cave Lists, compiled by Peter Sprouse -- Xilitla Karst / Peter Sprouse -- Sistema Huautla / Jerry Atkinson -- Tilaco Project Report / Sergio Zambrano -- Sierra de Guatemala / Bill Elliott -- Purificación Area Project Report / Terri Treacy -- Eulogy to Dr. Féderico Bonet Marco / James Reddell -- Golondrinas . . . ¡Otra Vez!, /Don Broussard -- Recent Biological Discoveries in Mexico / James Reddell -- The Piloztoc Connection / Bill Liebman -- Unstudied Karst Areas of Mexico / Peter Sprouse -- Caving in Western Mexico / James Reddell -- The Exploration of Sumidero de Oyamel / Dale Pate -- Across the Sima Grande / Mark Minton -- AMCS Cave Map Symbols / Peter Sprouse -- The Caves of Cuesta Colorada / George Veni -- Sumidero de San Bernardo / Steve Knutson -- Short Penetration Sump Diving / Bill Stone -- La Silleta / Peter Sprouse -- Computer-Drawn Passage Walls / David McKenzie. The Association for Mexican Cave Studies is a non-profit, volunteer organization whose goals are the collection and dissemination of information concerning Mexican caves. The AMCS publishes a Newsletter, Bulletin, and Cave Report Series which are available to any sincerely interested, conservation-minded person.
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Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Version:
No. 11 (1982)
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See Extended description for more information.

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k26.359 ( USFLDC Handle )
12784 ( karstportal - original NodeID )

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Number11December 1980EDITORIALCopyright1980byAssociation for Mexican Cave Studies ASSOCIATIONFORMEXICAN CAVE STUDIESP.O. Box7672U.T.StationAustin, Texas78712TheAMCSActivities NewsletterispublishedbytheAssociation for Mexican Cave Studies, a non-profitgroupdedicatedtotheconser vation and studyofthe cavesofMexico. Articles, maps, andphotographs on caving and speleology in Mexico are solicited. A listofpublications and pricesisavailableonrequest. Publisher Association for Mexican CaveStudiesEditorsTerri Treacy, Dale PateStaffJerryAtkinson, Anne Baxter, Steve Boehm, J ocieHooper,JeffHorowitz, Peter Keys, David McKenzie, Mike McWhirter, Martha Meacham, Bill Mixon,JohannaReece, William Russell, MarkShumate,Peter Sprouse, GeorgeVeniTranslationsJoseCavazos, SteveRobertson,Peter SprouseThecaves and caving in Mexico are spectacular,andit isnotsurprisingthattheyhaveattractedworld wideattention.Thedramaticincrease inthenumberofactive cavers in Mexico overthelasttwodecades hashad,andis goingtohave, a significantimpactonMexican caves andtheirexploration.Forthemostpart,thisimpacthasbeenvery positive.Thediscover ies, studies, andaccomplishmentshavebeencarriedoutcooperatively,andwithcontinuousemphasisontheir preservation bythe\MCS,several Mexican caving groups, and various groups fromtheU.S., Canada, and Europe.Recently,however, thisimpacthasbeenshowing negative signs.Thetwomostserious areas arethatofcave vandalism and rivalry.Ithas alwaysbeenan AMCS policythatcavers conservethefragile caveenvironment;thismeanscarryingoutall personal belong ings, including garbage andspentcarbide. Caves are a wilderness; someofthelast wildernessleftontheentireplanet-let'skeepthemthatway!Theunexploredcaving areasofMexico are vast;therefore,rivalry and unfriendlycompetitionare pointless and non-productive.Ithas alwaysbeenAMCStraditiontocooperatewithgroupsthatare actively working in a cave.Thecooperationenhances the qualityofthework and avoidsoverpopulationofthecaves. Initiative,notrivalry,isthekeytosuccess and satisfaction inthediscovery andexplorationofcaves.Wewould also like to take thisopportunitytoclearupsomeoftheambiguitiesoftheAMCS.TheAMeSwas conceived in1962byseveral Texas caversforthe"advancementofknowledgeofMexican caves."Throughtheyears it has remained apolitical andunstructured.TodaytheAMCS asan"organization"isonlya post-office box and a small closet wherethepublications arekept.It has very little inthewayofstructure-noactual membership,nomeetings,noofficers,nooffice. Itdocsoccasionallyproducea newsletterora bulletin,butagain, even this aspect has littlestructure-theexistenceofthepublications relies exclusivelyonindividual initiative. In essence,theAMCSisa setofideals:Toexplore andstudythegreat cavesofMexico;Topreservethewondrousbeautyand magicofthese caves;Toproducea high levelofquality inoursurveys, studies, and publications;Toimpartadeeprespectforthelands, caves, and peoplesofMexico; Andtoachievetheseideals in a friendlyand cooperative way.TheAMCSisnota political, national,orrival group.Itisopento,and includes, all caverswhoshare these ideals.TheActivities ewsletterisa tangible exampleofthis, and we encourageeveryonetoparti cipatebysend ing intheirtripreports,articles, maps,photos,etc.Thenewsletterisan invaluable repository forthevastamountofinformationthatis continually being acquired. By developing a feelingofunity,we all stand abetterchanceofachievingourcommongoals:toexploreand learnaboutthecavesweall think aremagnificent-thecavesofMexico. DalePateTerri TreacybytheSpeleo Press 2 Mexico News 4InternationalNews 8 Long and Deep CavesofMexico10XilitlaKarst-ProjectReport13 SistemaHuautla-ProjectReport18Tilaco-ProjectReport20 SierradeGuatemala-ProjectReport24PurificacionArea-ProjectReport30 A Eulogy to Dr. FedericoBonetMarco 32 Golondrinas ...jOtraV ez! 37 Recent Biological Discoveries in Mexico40The PiloztocConnection42 Unstudied Karst AreasofMexico 46 Caving in Western Mexico54TheExplorationofSumiderodeOyamel61 AcrosstheSima Grande64AMCS Cave Map Symbols 68TheCavesofCuesta Colorada 71 Sumidero de San Bernardo74ShortPenetrationSumpDiving80La Silleta86Computer-Drawn Passage Walls 90 Book Review 91Letter-Carta92 Traduccion de Editorial Printed in U.S.A. Peter SprouseJerryAtkinson Sergio Zambrano William\{.1':1IiottTerri Treacy J ames Reddell Don Broussard J ames ReddellBillLiebman Peter Sprouse .lames \{eddell Dale Pate Mark Minton Russell, Sprouse George Veni SteveKnutsonBillStone Peter Sprouse David McKenzie

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MexicoNevvsThreeFloridadiversoftheNSSVerticalSectionhavemappedover1100metersinalargelysubmergedcaveonthecoastoftheYucatanPeninsulacalledCuevadeXcaret.NedDeLoach,SheckExley,andKarenExleyfoundthatdivingwashamperedby astrangephenomena:ceilingsiltdisturbedbyexhaustbubbleswouldcollectonthefreshwater/saltwatercontact,andcreatea"falsefloor"effectsuspendedinthepassage.ThesystemhasawidemainentranceandseveralcenoteentrancesamongtheruinsoftheMayancityofXcaret.ItisthelongestmappedunderwatercaveinMexico.SouthofXcaret,thediversexploredtheextensivecenotesystemofNonec.Visibilitywassoclearintheunderwatertunnelsthatfromthemaincenote,thelightfromanadjacentcenotecouldbeseen116metersaway.Troglobiticisopodstwocentimeterslongwereseeninthesaltwater(lower)layer.Source:SheckExley,CavingInternationalNo.8PaulDuncanandmembersoftheGreaterSouthTexasGrottohavebeenexploringseveraldeepcavesintheSierraSabinas,nearSabinasHidalgo,NuevoLeon.Onecavehasalargechamberwiththreepitsinthefloor,andhasbeenmappedtoatotaldepthof100meters.Anotherpithasbeenbottomedataround-200meters.Theowneroftheranchisencouragingthecaversinthehopethattheymightfindawatersource.Downtherange,andconsiderablylower,isthelargeresurgenceofOjodeAgua.Source:PaulDuncanMEXICODESCONOCIDOisamonthlyoutdoormagazinepublishedbyEditorialNovaroinMexico,D.F.VirtuallyeveryissuecontainsreferencestocavesinMexico.Number47,October1980,isperhapstypicalinthatrespect.ItcontainsawellwrittenarticleontherescueofthePolishcaversfronSotanodeSanAgustin,withexcellentcolorphotographs.AnotherwellillustratedarticledescribesthekarstlandformsaroundTaxco,Guerrero.Elsewhere,mentionismadeofaCuevadelaMalinche,apictographcavenearSanAgustlnMezquititlan,Hidalgo.ThereisanaccountofahelicoptertriptoadeepcanyoninDurangoinsearchofacliffdwelling.Parkingthehelicopteratthecanyonbottom,theauthorclimbed3hourstoreachtheruin,locatedinashelter10meterswideand2metershigh.ThefeaturedstateinthisissueisCoahuila,andmanycavesarementionedaroundTorreon:CuevadelTabaco,CuevadeCandelaria,Cueva delosIndios,CuevaTlaxcalteaca,CuevadelCoyote,CuevadelAguila,CuevadelMacho,andCuevaHundida.SeveraloftheseareapparentlythosedescribedbyJamesReddellelsewhereinthisissueoftheActivitiesNewsletter.AgroupofAustincaversvisitedPozodeGavilannearGaleana,Nuevo LeoninMay1980.Theyinitiallyfailedtorecognizeitbecausethelake,normally100metersbelowtheentrance,hadrisentowithin30metersofthesurface.Apparently,recentrechargehadraisedthewatertableinthegypsumplain.Source:TomByrd

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MembersoftheGreaterHoustonGrottohaveencounteredasecondsumpat-150metersinSumiderodeCebolla,astreamcave35kilometerssouthofMonterrey-Thissumpliesonly60metersfromtheupstreamsumpinCuevadelasColaciones,aresurgencecaveformedonacliff,fromwhichtumblesthe45meterCascadadelasColaciones.The 6km2 LaTrinidadvalleydrainsintoSumiderodeCebolla.HoustoncaverBillCampbellwasthefirsttoenterCebollain1970,exploring150meterstowherethepassagewasblockedbylogs,sticks,andmud.OverseveralyearsCharlesFromenandMikeConnallymadeseveralunsuccessfulattemptstopasstheblockage.In1976,FromenandMarcConoverdugthrough,andexplored170meterstoa sump. FromenthenattemptedtogainaccesstoCueva delasColacionesbyrappellingdowntheclifffromarigpoint50metersabovetheentrance,butcouldnotgetcloseenoughtoswingin.InJuly1980,sevenoftheHoustoncaversenteredSumiderodeCebollawithscubatankstodivethefirstsump. Thedrysummerhadopeneda 10centimeterairspaceatthesump,whichtheypassedthroughtofindasecondentrance,CuevadelTabaco.From ajunctionroomnearthisoverflowentrance,theyexploreddowntothesecondsumpina17hourtrip.AnotherattempttoreachCueva delasColacioneswas made byFromen,DickCruse,MicheleandDaveBoltoninSeptember1980.After2-1/2hoursofslingingagrapplinghook,Fromen managedtopullhimselfintothewaterfallentrance.Thestream,flowingatarateof100literspersecond,sumpedoutafter30meters.Source:CharlesFromenoCUEVADELTABACOSUMIDERODECEBOLLAPreliminaryl1ap1stsiphon2ndsiphon,//'CUEVADELASCOLACIONES-169meters-100GLA3

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FranceThePierreSt.Martinsystemhaspassed40kilometersinlength.Connectionsareclosebutstillelusivewiththegrotted'Arphidia,reseaudeArresPlaneres,gouffreNo.3deBourrugues,andSC60.Frenchdivershavebeenquiteactiveinlonganddeepcavedives.TheEmergencedelaFinouhasbeenpushedto2100metersinlength,andintheEmergencedel'Infernet,divershavepenetrated1100meters.TheEmergenceduResselhasbeenpushedby aGenevagroupsto1150meters,depth-56meters.TheSpeleoClub deParisclaimsa"coldwaterdepthrecord"(!)fortheir-99meterdiveinfontainedesChartrea.Source:ClaudeChabertInMarch1980,FrenchdiverPatrickPenezsucceededindiving40metersthroughthesumpatthebottomofthe1358meterdeepreseauJeanBernard.Hefoundadescendingpassagethatwent300meterstoan8meterdrop.Thedepthatthebottomofthisdrop,1410meters,isa newworlddepthrecord,althoughnotsurveyed.Source:PaulCourbonItalyClimbingeffortsinearly1980byItaliancaverstoconnectAntrodelCorchiawithAbissoC.Fighierahaveresultedinthediscoveryofaseriesofhighgalleriesandbreakdownareas.Thispassageascends180metersthusfar,andisstillgoing.Source:Sottoterra554SpainInthePicosdeEuropa,theLancasterUniversitySpeleologicalSocietyhaspushedSimaTerato-550meters.Theyhadstoppedat-484metersin1979.ThePozudelXitu,exploredlastyearto-356meters,hasnowbeenpushedto-831metersbytheOxfordUniversityCavingClub.TheSpeleoClubdelaM.J.C.de RodezhasconnectedTorcadelosCaballostoCuevadelValle,makinga 23kilometerlongsystemwithathroughtripof10.6kilometers.Source:ClaudeChabertDuringthesummerof1980,two moreSpanishsystemspassedbelowthekilometerlevel.CaversoftheGroupoEspeleologicoBadalonaconnectedSimaB.15(elev.2200m)withFuentedeEscuain,providingan1105meterdeepthroughtrip.Unusualdroughtconditionsopenedup sumpsthatnormallywouldbeclosed.InthePSMkarstalongtheFrenchborder,aSpanish-Frenchteampushedthenew SimaBudoguiadowntoadepthof1195meters.Theystoppedatthetopofalargewaterfall.Source:PaulCourbonTurkeyFrenchcavershaveexploredTurkey'ssecondandthirddeepestcaves.SakalTutandudeniis303metersdeep,andSakalTutandeligiis302meters.Source:ClaudeChabert

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HondurasInspring1980,anAmericanexpeditionledbySteveKnutsoninvestigatedthe2700meter"cloudforest"karstoftheMontanaSantaBarbara.Theirmajorfindwas SumideroMaigual,bottomedat-420meters.Source:SteveKnutsonTexasHoneyCreekCave,aresurgencewestofSanAntonio,hasbeenopenedupaftersuccessfulattemptstolowerthewaterlevelinthelowairspacecanals.RapidmappingprogressbyTexascavershasrackedup4.2kilometersofsurvey.Thecaveinvolvesswimminglongdistanceswithlowceilings.Source:GaryPooleSorcerer'sCaveinWestTexashasbeenconnectedtonearbyApprenticeCavethroughashortdignotfarfromtheentrance.Thisaddeda fewmeterstothecave,whichremainsTexas'deepestat178meters.CompletionofmappingtotheupstreamsumpintheSirionRiverbroughtthetotallengthto2440meters.Source:GeorgeVeniTexascavershauleddivegeartothedownstreamsumpin0-9WellforadiveattemptinJuly,1980.ThisCrockettCountystreamcaveisoneofthestate'slongest(1400m)anddeepest.DiversGeorgeVeniandSteveDamonfoundthesumptosiltupat5.4metersdepth,deepeningthecaveto101meters.Source:GeorgeVeniU.S.A.Wyoming'sGreatEx Cavehasbeenbottomedandconnectedtoaresurgencecave,GreatExit.Alasertheodolitesurveybetweenthetwoentrances,andasurveybetweenthelowerentranceandthelowestpointinthecave,showthedepthtobe429meters,(1408ft.),a newu.S.depthrecord.Effortstosurveytheconnectionhavebeenhamperedbyalow,300meterlongwatercrawlinwetsuitshreddingrock.Source:LouiseHoseAmericancaverscontinuedexplorationinMontana'sSilvertipCirqueduringthesummerof1980.ThemainfocusoftheexpeditionwasBloodCave,wherea newsouthernextensionwasdiscoveredthrougha windowinadomepit.ThissectionhascrossedunderneathSilvertipMountainandoutunderthecirquetothesouth,givingrisetohopesofanotherentrance.NewsurveysbroughtthelengthofBloodCaveto4kilometers.WhileaconnectionwithBloodstillproveselusive,themainSilvertipSystemgrewto9.6kilometersafteraconnectionwithTipfishCaveandfurthermappingintheBellsection.Source:MikeMcEachernRonaldLangston,33,adiverfromRome,Georgia,diedinasmallcavenearSublinga,GeorgiaonAugust1,1980.Althoughhewasanexperienceddiver,heapparentlywasn'tfamiliarwithcavediving.Usinga"pony"tank,heentereda sumpalone,withnodiveline.Histankfloatedoutashorttimelater.Hehadapparentlytakenifoffinaconstriction.Source:ThePotomacCaver5

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AthirtyyearoldDenvercaver,BruceUnger(NSS10663),drownedwhileexploringinoneoftheLostCreekgranitecavesinParkCounty,Colorado,onAugust9,1980.Bruce,LouiseHose,TomStrong,andScottTrossenfollowedacold600l/sstream80metersintothecavewhereBrucebeganascendingasteeplyslopedwaterchute.Whileattemptingtobridgeovertherushingstreamatthetopofthechute,Bruceslippedandhislegjammedinanunderwatercrack.Attemptsbyhiscompanionstohelphimwerethwartedbytheforceofthewaterandalackoffootholds.Theywererepeatedlyflusheddownthechute,whilewaterforcedBruceunder.Thebodywascompletelyinsidetheunderwatervoid,andcouldnotbepulledout.Aretrievalteamof8caverscameinthenextday,butalsofailedtoremovethebodyfromthecrack.Thebodywassuccessfullyretrievedtwoweekslaterwithawinchandpulleysystem.Source:LouiseHoseDuringthesummerof1980,aneightmemberBritishexpeditionspentasuccessfulfiveweeksinvestigatinglavatubesontheislandofHawaii.Twenty-fourkilometersofpassagesweremappedinmanycaves.Theinitialobjectivewastherecent1974 MaunaUlulaveflowonthesouthslopeofKilauea(1228m).ApuaCave,alarge,welldecoratedtube,wasmapped,totalling1.3kilometers.Twoother300meterlongcavesweremappedinthisflow.FurtherwestonKilauea,AinahouRanch Caveprovedtobealmost7kilometerslong;however,brokenupinthemiddlebyalargecollapse.Thissystem,andseveralothers,contained6artifactsandburialsleftbyearlyHawaiians.Interestingly,someimportantburialchamberswereprotectedbyboobytraps,suchasperchedboulderswithtrippingmechanisms,whichseemedtohavebeensubsequentlytriggeredbythemanyvolcanictremors.KazumuraCave,alongknowntubeattheeasternendoftheisland,wasmappedbytheexpeditionto11.55kilometers.Thus,itpassesKenya's11.1kilometerLeviathanCavetobecometheworld'slongestlavatube.Theexpeditionheldhighhopesforthevastflowon4170meterhighMaunaLoa,stretching50kilometersoveraverticalrangeof3200meters.UpwardpushesinKaumanaCave,atouristcavenearHilo,andatthebottomoftheflow,showedittoendafterakilometer,withthecavebeingsurveyedtoalengthof2kilometers.Theypointouthowever,thatexplorationonHawaii'svastlavafieldshashardlyevenbegun.Source:ChrisWood,CavingInternationalRapidgrowthinWestVirginia'sFriar'sHoleSystemhasrecentlymadeitthirdlongestintheU.S.at60.75kilometers.BillStoneandBobJefferyscompletedthewaterfallclimbintheMonsterCavernroominJuly,1980,discovering200metersofcanyonpassage.InSeptember,alargegrouphauledindivinggearforStonetoattemptthedownstreamCrookshanksump,onlytofindthesumpopenduetoa summerdrought.Over2.5kilometersoflargepassagewas mappedtoanothersump.Highleadswithairflowprovidehopeformoreprogresstowardsthesuspectedresurgence,over11kilometersaway.Atthenorthernendofthesystem,

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aconsiderableamountofpassagehasalsobeensurveyedintheareaoftheRockyRiverII.TheFriar'sHoleSystemnowstretchesanamazing6,280metersendtoendinmaximumlinearextent.Sources:DugMedville,RoyJamesonRecentexplorationshaveopenedup a newsectionatthebottomofWestVirginia'sWaltAllenCave.Abaselevelcrawlwaywaspushedthroughtightsqueezes,lotsofmud,andalongsumptoastreamway.Downstream,acanyoncrossesabovethestreamandleadstoalargetrunkpassage.Thiswassurveyed450meterstoaterminus.SeveraltightleadsandanelusivewindstillprovidehopeofaconnectiontonearbyShinaberryCave.Caversshouldnotethataccesstothiscaveisverytentativeatthistime.Source:BobAndersonThesurveyofRoppelCave nowstandsat36kilometers.AninterestingrecentdiscoverywasthepresumedupperreachesofFlint-Mammoth'snew HawkinsRiver.WhetheraconnectioncanbemadeornotisproblematicforapermanentsumpmarkstheupstreamlimitinFlint-Mammoth.OtherleadsinRoppelareheadingfor17kilometerCrumpSpringCaveandotherpotentialconnections.Source:BobAndersonKentuckycavershavebeenbusyinthecavessurroundingthe345kilometerFlint-MammothCavesystem.WhigpistleCave nowhas26kilometersofsurveyedpassage.Inthefirstpartof1980,amajorupperlevelextensionwaspushedintoaridgetothesouthofknownpartsofthecave.Manyleadsarewithina fewhundredmetersoftheSinkholePlain.NorthtownCaveisa newfindwith3.5kilometersofpassage,andprospectsaregoodforaconnectionwithnearbyRoppelCave.Source:DonCoonsHotCave,a newfindinPerryCounty,Missouri,couldprovidethelongsoughtlinkbetweenMysteryCave(25.5km)andRimstoneRiverCave(22.5km).Tex Yokumandothershavethusfarexploredabout5kilometersofpassage,headingtowardsMystery.Source:SteveBoehmTheWorld's1000metersystems1.ReseauJeanBernard,France2.Complexe delaPierreSainte-Martin,FranceandSpain3.SistemaHuautla,Mexico4.SimaBudoguia,Spain5.Snieznaya,USSR6.GouffreBerger,France7.Schneeloch,Austria8.SimaB.15-FuentedeEscuain,Spain9.SimaGESM,Spain10.Lamprechtsofen,Austria11.ReseauTrombe,France*Needverificationbysurveyorresurvey.1410meters*1332meters1222meters1195meters1180meters*1148meters1111meters1105meters1098meters1024meters1018metersSource:PaulCourbon7

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LongCavesofMexico1.SistemaPurificacion,Tamaulipas2.SistemaHuautla,Oaxaca3.SistemaCuetzalan,Puebla4.LaGrieta,Oaxaca5.SotanodelArroyo,SanLuisPotosl6.ActunKaua,Yucatan7.Atepolihuitde SanMiguel,Puebla*8.GrutadelR10Chontalcoatlan,Guerrero9.GrutadelR10SanJeronimo,Guerrero10.GrutasdeJuxtlahuaca,Guerrero11.SotanodeLasCalenturas,Tamaulipas12.SumiderodeJonotla,Puebla13.CuevadelNacimientodelRlo SanAntonio,Oaxaca14.Cueva delaTinaja,SanLuisPotosl15.SotanodeJapones,SanLuisPotOS116.SimaZoquiapan-CuevaPiloztoc,Puebla17.SotanodelRloIglesla,Oaxaca18.SimadelBorrego,Guerrero19.Atepolihuitde SanAndres,Puebla20.CuevadelRroJalpan,Queretaro21.ActunXpukil,Yucatan22.Cueva delaLagunaVerde,Oaxaca23.SumideroChiapas24.Cueva deElChorreadero,Chiapas25.SumideroLaJoya,Guerrero26.AtepolihuitdeNauzontla,Puebla27.SistemadeMontecillos,SanLuisPotosl28.SotanodeHuitzmolotitla,SanLuisPotosl29.SotanodelTigre,SanLuisPOtOS130.BocadelRloApetlanca,Guerrero31.ActunLoltun,Yucatan32.SistemaSantaLuc1a,Puebla33.Cueva deJuanSanchez,Oaxaca-Veracruz34.Grutasde SanCristobal(RanchoNuevo),Chiapas35.Xocomanetlan,Guerrero36.GrutasdeEstrella,Mexico37.SotanodeYerban1z,SanLuisPotos138.GrutasdeTenextepec,Puebla39.CuevadelaMantilla,Michoacan40.Cueva delaPuente,SanLuisPotosl41.CuevaTecolo,Puebla42.SistemaGuayateno,Puebla43.Cueva SanFransisco,Chiapas44.SotanodeMatapalma,SanLuisPotos145.Sotanode Agua deCarrizo,Oaxaca46.GrutasdeBalankanche,Yucatan47.GrutasdeXtacumbilxunam,Campeche48.Cueva de LosSabinos,SanLuisPotosl49.SotanodeTlamaya,SanLuisPotos!50.Zacatecolotla,Guerrero*FormerlyknownasSumiderodeAtepolihuit.36,79521,300 21,0008,7827,2006,7006,5025,8275,6005,0985,078 5,0004,5704,5024,500 4,107 4,100 4,007 4,0003,4403,3533,3503,3163,280 3,1003,0663,022 3,0023,0002,7502,6822,5002,4932,2502,2232,1001.980 1.9201,9001,830 1,8301,7821,7501,7221,6931,6001,600 1,5001,500 1,500PeterS.Sprouse

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DeepCavesofMexico1.SistemaHuautla,Oaxaca2.SistemaPurificacion,Tamaulipas3.SotanodeAguaDeCarrizo,Oaxaca4.LaGrieta,Oaxaca5.CuevadeDiamante,Tamaulipas6.NitaHe,Oaxaca7.SotanodeTrinidad,SanLuisPotosi8.SotanodelRloIglesia,Oaxaca9.SotanodeNogal,Queretaro10.SotanodelasGolondrinas,SanLuisPotosl11.HoyadelasConchas,Queretaro12.SotanodelBuque,Queretaro13.SistemaCuetzalan,Puebla14.HoyadeLasGuaguas,SanLuisPotosi15.CuevadeSanAgustin.Oaxaca16.SotanodelBarro.Queretaro17.SotanoItamo.Veracruz18.SotanodeTlamaya.SanLuisPotosl19.CuevadelaPena,SanLuisPotosi20.NitaNanta,Oaxaca21.Atepolihuitde SanMiguel,Puebla*22.Sotanode LaJoyadeSalas,Tamaulipas23.Cueva deElChorreadero,Chiapas24.Cueva deXocotlat,Puebla25.GrutasdeSanCristobal,Chiapas26.SotanodelosHernandez,Queretaro27.SotanitodeAhuacatlan.Queretaro28.HoyadeZimapan,SanLuisPotosi29.Cueva deSantaCruz,Oaxaca30.SotanodeJavalin,Queretaro31.SotanodelosMonos,SanLuisPotosi32.SotanodeSoyate,SanLuisPotosi33.CuevadelRancho de AguaAmarga,SanLuisPotosi34.SotanodeVasquez,Tamaulipas35.SumideroLaJoya,Guerrero36.SotanodeHuitzmolotitla,SanLuisPotosi37.SotanodelMachoRey.Queretaro38.SotanodeOtates.Tamaulipas39.PozoMelendez.Guerrero40.SotanodeOjodeAgua,Queretaro41.ElSotanito,Queretaro42.SotanodeSendero,Tamaulipas43.SotanodeSauz,Chihuahua44.SotanodeSanLuisPotosl45.SotanodelaCuesta.SanLuisPotosi46.Sotanode SanFrancisco,SanLuisPotosi47.SotanodelArbolSangre,Tamaulipas48.CuevadeSaIto,Queretaro49.ElSocavon,Queretaro50.SumideroYochib,Chiapas51.SumiderodeTenejapa,Chiapas52.SotanodelaNavidad,SanLuisPotosi1,222895 848 760 621 600 559 535 529 512 508 506 490 478 458 455 454 454 448 445 443 376 345 339 330 330 320 320 314 308 291 287 283 275 257 245 244 244229228 225 223 220 219 217 217 216 215 214213209200allunitsinmetersPeterS.Sprouse

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PROJECT REPORTTHEXILITLAKARSTPeter SprouseViewoftheXilitlaconekarstfromthetopofLaSilleta.(TerriTreacy)TheextensiveXilitlakarstareaofSanLuisPotoslandQuereterowas amongthefirststudiedbyspeleologists,namelyDr.FredericoBonetin1953andDr.RobertW.Mitchellin1958.ItwasthesceneoftheblossomingofMexicancavingduringthe1960s.BythemiddleofthedecadeSotanodeTlamayahadbeenbottomedat454meters,settingaWesternHemispheredepthrecord.In1967,theworld'sdeepestfreefallpitwasdescended,andstillyieldsnew 10discoveriestoday.ThepitisSotanodelasGolondrinas.AconsiderableamountofinformationoncavesoftheXilitlaareahasappearedinAMCSpublications,andbeendocumented.Iamcurrentlycompiling,withJohnFish,informationontheareaforanAMCSBulletin,hopefullytobepublishedin1981.Thegeographicboundariesoftheareatobecoveredareasfollows:onthenorth,theRloSantaMarla;ontheeast,theInter-AmericanHighway;

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onthesouth,theRioMoctezuma;andonthewest,theeasternedgeoftheSanJuanPlateau,whichwasdescribedinAMCSBulletin7.Elevationsinthearearangefrom100to2900metersabovesealevel;vegetationchangescorrespondinglyfromlushtropicaljungletohighpineandhardwoodcommunities.Karstlandformsarespectacularthroughouttheregion,withsomeofMexico'sbestexamplesofconekarstlocatedsouthofTampaxal.Althoughthenumberofdocumentedcavesintheareacurrentlytotals206,thereareundoubtedlyhundredsmoreremainingtobediscovered.FieldeffortstowardstheXilitlabulletinhavenecessarilybeenlimitedtocompletingaccuratesurveysofmajorcavesinthearea.Whenthebulletinispublished,itmaythenserveasaframeworkforfuturework.Severalmappingtripsweremadetotheareain1980,andhelp1Sneededtosurveyothermajorcavesinthecomingmonths.InMarch,1980,13caversparticipatedinsurveyandexplorationworkatSotanodelasGolondrinas.(Seearticleinthisissue.)DonBroussardledcontinuedmappingeffortsinTheCreviceoffthebottomoftheentrancepit,whileothersupplementalsurveyworkwasdoneonthepitfloor.AsurfacesurveywasdonetothewesttotieinnearbySotanodeGuadalupe,a 22meterdeepcave,significantmostlyforitsfauna.DuringApril,thesamegroupspentsixdaysintheLaSilletaarea.(Seearticleinthisissue.)They mappedSotanode LaSilleta,Cueva de LaSilleta,andfivenewcaves.InlateAugust,anotherAMCSgroupattemptedtocollecttroglobiticcrayfishinthesumppoolinRoyadelasGuaguas,andbeganthesurveyofCueva deOxtaljanearTamapatz.Oxtaljaisa 150meterdeepcaveformedalongathrustfaultbetweentheAgua NuevaandEIDoctorformations.Itwasexploredin1966and1968,butnomappingwasdone.CobbletrailfromTamapatztoSotanodelasGolondrinas.(DalePate)Severalothersignificantcavesneedmappingandwouldbegoodforgroupslookingforaproject.Theseinclude:SOTANODETLAMAYANeedstobesurveyed.This3kilometerlong,454meterdeepcaveisoneofthelargestinthearea,yetlacksagoodmap.Itwillbeanextensivemappingproject.11

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CUEVADEPOTRERILLOS-LocatednearthevillageofPotrerillos,1kilometerwestofAhuacatlan,S.L.P.Needsmapping.CUEVADEMURAUT-Thisisa450meterlongcavethatneedsmapping.Itlies300meterssoutheastofMuhaut,southofTamapatz.SOTANODESIETESEGUNDOSandSOTANODELASPENAS-Twoundescendedpits,with6-7and5secondrockfalltimesrespectively,thatneedchecking.SOTANODELALINJANO.2-Alargepit100metersdeepandneedsmap-ping.It1Slocated1500metersnortheastofLaLinja,northofLaLaja.SOTANODELALAJA-A 100meterundescendedshaftnearLaLaja,firstlocatedbyaerialreconnaissance.Needscheckingandmapping.Ifyouareinterestedinanyoftheseprojects,orintheXilitlaBulletin,pleasecontactPeterSprouse,P.O.Box8424,Austin,Texas,78712.Wearealsolookingforcontributionsofgoodphotosorslidestohelpillustratethebulletin.lEU 181'8'181 181181;;;;tla181IElI181IElIIElI181G GSecomenzaronlosestudiosdelaregionkarsticaextensivadeXilitlaWenS.L.P.yQueretaroen1953porelDr.FedericoBonet,yporelDr.WGRobertMitchellen1958.Aunqueyasehandocumentado206cuevasenlaGregion,sindudaquedancentenaresparadescubrir.WPeterSprouseyJohnFishestanjuntadoinformaciondelaregionparaWGproducirunboletinAMCS.Ademas deproporcionarlainformacionrecolec-tada,serviracomobaseparafuturasinvestigaciones.IWEnlassigientesmeses,senecesitaayudaparatopografiarunascuevasGprincipalesenlaregion.Algunasdelascuevasimportantesquenoestanlevantadosson:SatanodeTlamaya,CuevadePotrerillos,CuevadeMuhaut,IWSotanitoOccidental,SotanitoEscondido,SotanodeLaLinjaNo.2,Satanom\de LaLaja.Sitieneinteresenalgunodeestosproyectos,0enelboletin,WcomunicaseconPeterSprouse,P.O.Box8424,Austin,Texas78712.Wr1(;]1181181 181lElI181'81181'81181'8'IElI18118@TAKENOTHINGBUTPICTURESLEAVENOTHINGBUTFOOTPRINTS12

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PROJE.CTRE.PORTHUAUTLAC!)PROJECTSistemaHuautlaGerald AtkinsonOnMay9,1980theHuautlaProjectcomposedofJerryAtkinson,JillDorman,JanFitzsimmons,BobJeffreys,DinoLowrey,MarkMinton,DougPowell,HenrySchneicker,RonSimmons,JimSmith,BillSteele,BillStone,andSteveZemansucceededinconnectingLiNitaandSotanodeSanAgustln,achievingatotaldepthof1221.5metersandalengthof21.3kilometers.ThisbroughtSistemaHuautlauptothenumber3slotontheworlddepthlist.ItistheonlykilometerdeepcaveoutsideofEurope.Thespringactivitiesculminatedmanyyearsofworkinthearea,asthefirstconnectionbetweenanyoftheHuautlacaveswasrealized.Althoughthepotentialthrough-tripwouldbequitespectacular,itnonethelesswillbearareevent,astheLiNitaSanAgustlnbreakthroughrequiredtheuseofdivinggearthroughaseriesof4sumps.Theconnectionoccurredlateintheexpedition,whichwasfieldedfromFebruary21toMay21,andcameasthecrowningeventinwhatwasanextremelyeventfultrip.Ontheeveofdeparture,theexpeditionwasnotifiedthata memberofaPolishcavingteamhadreceivedaseriousbackinjuryinSotanodeSanAgustlnwhileattemptingtogiveaidetoafellowteammatewithabrokenankle.UponarrivalinMexicoCitythenextday,ourgrouplearnedthatatleastoneoftheinjuredmenwasstillundergroundandthatourassistancewasrequested.TwentyhourslaterfoundusinthemiddleofawildarrayoftentsstrungaroundtheSanAgustlnschoolhouseandabarrageofinquiriesinFrench,English,German,British,Spanish,andPolish.APEMEXhelicoptorlaypark-edbelowthetownwithanarmedguardquietlydozinginthehotsun.Windingourway downtotheSotanoamidstwhirringmoviecameras,weaddedourenergytothisalreadymassiveinternationaleffort.Despitelanguagebarriersandsheerfatigue,thevictimwassuccessfullypulledoutofthecaveonthe22nd.Afterthegeneralhubbubdieddown,theexpeditionsettleddowntothespringobjectives,oneofwhichRescuingJosefCuberofthePolishExpeditioninSotanodeSanAgustln.(HenrySchneiker)13

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wasthepossibleconnectionofSotanodelRioIglesiatoSotanodeSanAgustln.Althoughseveralhass1eintensivetripsinRloIglesianettedabout400metersofnewpassage,allleadschokedorledbacktoknowncave.Themainpassageitselfhadsiltedshutatthe-400meterlevel,precludinganydiggingattemptsinthE:lowerreacheswl,icharenearesttoSotanodeSanAgustln.AnothercavethatreceivedconsiderableattentionwasNitaHe(Deep CaveinMazatec),whichhadbeendiscovered,butnotentered,theDecemberbefore.Thecavewasexploreddown aseriesofspectacularshaftsandlargeroomstoa sumpat-599meters.The sumppresentedaratherdismaldivingprospect,andagenerallackofairflowinthelowerportionswouldseemtoprecludeanypossibleconnectiontothelargercaves.Distractionsaside,themainfocusoftheexpeditionbecameLiNita,whichmeans"FlashlightCave"inMazatec.DiscoveredonDecember29,1979byErnieGarzaandothers,ithadbeenpushedto-162meterspriortothespringexpedition.Twotripsdownpredominantlydipslopefissure-typepassagebroughtthedepthto-525metersandthelengthtoalittleover2kilometers.Atthispoint,thebottomdroppedoutofthecaveinaseriesofwatershaftsthatledthethirdattemptto-681meters.Afourthassaultfromthesurfacereached-812meters,andadecisionwas madetoestablisha campatthe-630-meterlevel.Atotaloftwenty-sevendayswerespentinthiscampduringthreeseparatestaysofseven,seven,andthirteendays.ThefirstpushfromcampseemedtobestymiedwhentheteamdiscoveredTheentranceseriesofLiNita.(BillStone)14

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o50010001221.5METERSLI NITAPROFILE-2250rightSISTEMAHUAUTLA-1980OAXACA.MEXICOSOTANO DE SAN AGUSTINY(-355)CAMP1(-630)S'PHON(-1221.5)GLA

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LiNita.(BillStone)a sumpat-825meters,butcarefulcheckinguncoveredahigh-levelgallerybypass.Thisledtoanothersumpat-1020metersandthediscoveryoftheMilMetro,ahigher-leveltrunkpassageatthe-1005-meterlevel.Withseveralhighleadstocheck,theteamleftforthesurface.Duringthesecondcamp, acombinationofdiggingandaid-climbingbroughtUStoadigwithin50metersofSotanodeSanAgustln.Elsewhere,anastyfissurewasnegotiatedtoa newdownstreamsumpat-1028meters.Asthissump wasplottedtobeonly130metersfromSanAgustln,theteamoptedtosurfaceandreturnwithdivinggearforthesumpandexplosivesforthedig.Accordingly,anattemptwasmadeonthe-1028sumpearlyinthethird16camp.Unfortunately,thesumpcontinuedwellbeyondtheaircapacityofthesmalltanksbeingused,andtheteamturnedtopushingotherleads.Aseriesofdiggingandaid-climbingtripssucceededinextendingthecaveanadditionalkilometertoyetanothersumpat-1030meters.Inwhatwastobethefinalpushoftheexpedition,alast-ditchdivingattemptwas madeonthe-1030sump.Withonly2metersofdivelineleft,BillStoneemergedintheEastRedballCanyonofSotanodeSanAgustlnafterhavingdivedfourshallowsumps.Thus,ironically,anexpeditionthathadbegunwithaneartragedyhadmadethefirstmajorconnectionintheHuautlasystemandbrokenthekilometermarkinMexicanspeleology.

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JimSmithandBillStonepreparingtodivethe1030SumpinLiNita.(Ron Simmons)r'e.'0',e,.e,,e,Sis;:ma.e,,e,".,,.",e,8LaprimeraconexionentrecualquieradelascuevasprofundasdeHuautla,Oaxaca,fuedescubridadespuesdevariosanosdetrabajoenlaregion.LaillGconexionentreLiNitaySotanodeSanAgust1nfuehechae19demayode1980.DespuesdecuatroviajesparadentrodeLiNita,elgrupobajo812metrosyIsehizounadecisionparaestablecerun campamentoalnivelde-630metros.GEntresdiferentesocasioneselgrupopasosiete,siete,ytreced1asrespec8tivamenteenestecampamento,haciendountotalde 27dias.Delcampamentosubterraneoelgrupoencontrovariossifones,percencontraronotrospasajesGGparapasarlos.Finalmente,despuesdevariasexcavacionesyescaladasartificialesalcanzaronunsifona-1020metros.BillStone,enequipocom-ill llipletodebuceo,pasoestesifonytresmassifones.EmergioenelSotanoG8deSanAgust1n.ElSistemaHuautlatieneuntotalde1,221.5metrosdepro-I:'d,:,'SI'S'lei'st'e''Si'St"J17

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PROJECTREPORTASOCIACIONALPINADEMEXICO,A.C.TILACOGrupoExpedicionarioXAMAN-EKOurfirstV1SlttoSatanodeTilaco,QueretarowasoverEasterweekof1975.Atthattime,RaulPerezMart1nez,HugoMontejo,andI(allmembersoftheAsoci-acionAlpinadeMexico,A.C.)exploredthecavetothe150meterlevel.Wereturned8monthslater,inDecemberof1975,tocontinueourexploration.RaulP.Martinez,EnriqueMendoza,GuadalupeHernandez,andmyself(allA.A.M. members)exploreddowntothe250meterlevelwiththecavecontinuingdownward.DuringEasterweekof1977,wereturnedwithGabrielBarrerajoiningourgroup.Ourexplorationsendedatthe350meterlevel.WereturnedinNovemberof1980andreachedthe500meterlevelbeforerunningoutofrope.OnMarch24,1980,membersoftheGrupoExpedicionarioXaman-EkandtheA.A.M.reachedthebottomofTilaco.A sump wasencounteredatadepthof600metersplus.AgroupofcaversfromtheU.S.joinedusforthepurposeofmakingasurveyofthecave.Thesurveywasdonetothe-175meterlevel.Ajointexpeditionisplannedin1981tocompletethesurvey.18Sergio ZambranoSergioZambranoatentranceofSatanodeTilaco.(DalePate)

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RaulP.MartlnezintheSalondelasColumnas.(SergioZambrano)TUacoLaprimeravisitaaSotanodeTilaco,QueretarofuedurantelaSemanaSantaenelana1975.Enaqueltiempo,losespeleologosRaulPerezMartinez,HugoMontego,ySergioZambrano(MiembrosdelaAsociacionAlpinodeMexico,A.c.)exploraronelsotanohacialaprofundidadde 150metros.Volvieronochomesesdespuesparacontinuarsuexploracion.RaulPerezM.,EnriqueMendoza,GuadalupeHernandez,ySergioZambrano(todosmiembrosdelaAAM)exploraronhasta250metroscanlacuevacontinuandohaciaabajo.DurantelaSemanaSantade 1977regresoestegrupocanGabrielBarrera.Susexploracionesterminaronenelnivelde-350metros.EnNoviembre1978,llegaronhasta500metrosantesdequeselesacabolacuerda.Enel29 de mayo1980,miembrosdelGrupoExpedicionarioXamanEkylaAAMllegaronalfondadelsotano.Encontraronunsifonalniveldemasde600metros.UngrupodeespeleologosdelosEstadosUnidossejuntaroncanlaintenciondelevantarlacueva.Una mapaestabahechahastaelnivelde 175metros.Otraexpedicioncolectivaestaplaneadaenelfuturoparacompletarellevantamiento.19

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PROJECT REPORTSierradeGuatemalaWilliamR.ElliottAtleast115caveshavebeenreportedintheSierradeGuatemalaregion,afrontrangeoftheSierraMadreOrientalinsouthernTamaulipas,bordered(roughly)onthenorthbytheRloGuayalejoandonthesouthbytheRloBoquillas/Comandante.FamiliartownsintheareaareEncino,JoyadeSalas,GomezFarlas,Chamal,andOcampo.SincethefirstAMCStriptoGomezFarlasin1964,therehavebeenatleast70speleologicalexpeditionstothearea.Themajorcaveofinterest,SatanodeLaJoyadeSalas,hasbeenvisitedeleventimessince1965.Thissatanocontinuestofrustratethedesignsofverticalspeleologistsdespiteitsgreatdepthpotential.Cavetypesaboundinthearea.SatanosinthelowlandGomezFarlasareaoftenhaveshortarroyosleadingtomulti-pitchfissuresandblindfishpools.Deep,openshaftsarefoundintheChamal/Ocampoarea.Manysmallblindpitsarefoundinthehighlykarstedhighlands,alongwith376meterdeepSatanode LaJoyadeSalas.Smallphreaticcavesandspacious,well-decorated"grutas"arefoundinmanyareas.Somecaves,suchasCuevadelosMisioneros,appeartobeabandonedresurgences.CerroPartido,avolcanicpeakofMioceneagesouthwestofOcampo,hasseverallavatubes,completewithtroglobites.In1978,JamesReddellandIconceivedanAMCSBulletin,CavesoftheSierradeGuatemala,TamauMexico.--Workhasbeenprogressingslowlysincethen.AprogressreportbymeappearedinAMCSActivitiesNewsletter#10.Since20thentherehavebeenfivetripstotheareawithseveralcavessurveyedandstudiedbiologically.OneofthegoalsoftheBulletinistodocumentabout65cavesthathavebeenbiologicallysampled,andothercavesaswell.ThecavesandpitsoftheareaharborawidevarietyofcavernicolesthathaveattractedbiospeleologistsfromMexico,theU.S.A.,Switzerland,Italy,andJapan.ThefaunarangesfromblindAstyanaxfishesinthelowlandstomanyspeciesoftroglobiticplanariansandarthropodsinthehighlandsandinbetween.ThecavefaunaisoneofthemorespectacularinNorthAmerica.ReportsonthecavesandfaunaoftheareamaybefoundinAMCSBulletins1,4,and5,andmanyissuesoftheAMCSNewsletter(nowmoribund).InNovember,1979 ImailedadetailedBulletinproposalto25interestedcavers.OldsurveysandphotographshaveappearedandtheAMCSfileshavedisgorgedmanyoldtripreports,sketches,andBillRussellareamaps.IamcurrentlycompilingalengthychronologyofallthetripsI know0ftothearea.ThiswillbeabasicreferenceforwritingmanyofthecavedescriptionsintheBulletin.Wehopetoreceivecontributedarticlesongeology/physiographyandarchaeology.ReddellandIareupdatingafaunachecklistandwillwriteanarticleonthefauna.Ihavedraftedmany mapsandnowhave22inkedandseveralothersnearingcompletion.TheBulletinwillprobablycontain40to50cavemapsandmanyphotographs.Itmayalsoincludeadetailedareamaptoaid

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LakeinSotanodeCaballoMoro.(WilliamElliott)futurefieldwork.Consideringtheknowndistributionofcaves(nearroads),theremaybemanyhundredslefttobefound.Findingcavesisdifficultbecauseoftheroughterrainanddenseforest.Forinstance,twolargesotanoswerediscoveredbyairplanereconnaissancein1969,buthaveneverbeenvisited.InAugust,1979PaulDuncan,JimClements,andWayneRussellvisitedCerroPartidoanddiscovereda newlavatube,"TubodelPisoColorado"nearthepeak.Duncanrappelleddown a6meterpitwhichhungintoalowerlevellikeastovepipe.Furtherdetailsareforthcoming.InSeptember,1979DavidMcKenzie,CraigRudolph,FrankEndres,andIreturnedtoCuevadelOjodeAguadeManantialesandfinishedoursurveyintwodays.Thecurrentlengthis1293meters,depth56 meters.A fewcrawlwayswereleftforfuturesurveyorstotakeon.BlindplanarianswerediscoveredinapoolandsenttoDr.RomanKenk.Theyarethefirstonesfromalowlandcaveinthearea.A newspeciesoftroglobiticPtomaphagusbeetlewasalsofoundinManantialesinJanuary,1979.DavidMcKenziewillsoonhavethemapofthiscavereadyforinking.WealsoinvestigatedareasnorthwestofOcampowherewelocateda 25meterpit,SotanodelMonumento,nearAnicetoMedrano(Allende).CraigandIcollectedinthepitandmade asketch.Wewereamusedbytheshakyladderthathadbeenplacedbylocalsinthepittoaidanapparentlyaborteddigatthebottom.WecontinuedtoLosFloresandLaLaguna,onthewestsideoftherange,wherewehikeduptoJoyadeDonJuanMesa.TheJoyawasanicelargedolina,buttherumoredsotanoprovedtobeonly8or10metersdeep.WethendrovebacktoChamalandouttoCuevadelosMisioneros,acaveIhadnotvisitedsince1969,21

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whereweexplored,collected,andphotographed.McKenzierappelled40metersintoapitattheend,butranoutofropebeforereachingbottom.scendingthe41slopeatthesoutheastendofthedolinawastreacherousbecauseofloosetalus.Duwain,Del,andIsurveyedthesatano,whichhasa49meterentrancedroptoaInNovember,1979theeleventhslopethatplungesintoalarge,deepexpeditiontoJoyadeSalaswasmade.lake(seephoto).AfewfishwereIhavenotreceivedawrittenreportnotedonthistrip,butwedidn'tofthistrip,butBillStone,Markspendmuchtimelookingatthem.Minton,BillSteele,andotherspush-Thelakehadapopulationofhybrideda newsystemofshaftsparallelingeyedandblindfishin1970.Wetheoldsectionofthesatano.Ap-surveyedalongtherightwall,thenparentlylittledepthwasaddedtoacrossthelakeontubesandintoathesurvey.(SeearticleinthisActi-163meterlongpassagewithasecond,vitiesNews.)Duringthesametrip,smallerlakeandaterminalcrawlwayTerrySayther,DenisBreining,andthatwasnotpushedforlackoftime.MargaretHarthiked5kilometersBackatthelargelakeIplumbedthenorthofJoyadeSalas,theneastdepthsintwoplacesat4and15me-tocheckoutsinksandintermittentters.Astrongcurrentmovesthelakesmarkedonthetopographicclearwatertoasiphonatthenorthsheet.Thesinkswereheavilyover-(far)end.Ataconstriction,Ies-grownwithscrubandthorns.Notimatedthesurfaceflowataboutcavesorparticularlyinteresting1or2kilometersperhour(myfeatureswereseen.Theyconnectedspeedinatube),andthevolumewithapassableroadleadingsouthflowat10-20m 3/sec.Itwouldbeto"LaTrementinera."interestingtoseeadyetracebe-InJanuary,1980ItravelledtweenhereandtheNacimientodelwithsixcaversfromTexasA&MRloFrlo,15kilometerstothenorth-(BarbraVinson,DuwainWhitis,east.Wesurveyed326metersintheSteveBoehm,DelHolman,Sheilacave,whichis67.5metersdeepbe-Jones,HeatherFannin)andtwootherlowtheentrance,or196metersinbiologists(CraigRudolphandJenni-cludingthedolina.ferMatos).WesurveyedCuevadeThenextdaywehikedtoCerrolosMisionerosandfoundittobePartidotoseeCuevadelCerroPar-about450meterslongand60meterstido.Thevolcanicpeakwastoodeep.BoehmandIdescendedthepitovergrowntolocatethecaveintheattheend,onlytofindterrificallyshorttimeavailable,butwedidcolbadair.Boehm'scarbidelampwouldlectfaunainaone-roomcaveonthenotburn,soheprusikedupbyelec-southside.nvospeciesofblindtriclightwhileIsomehowmanagedtomillipedweretaken,andsomeothersketchthebottomandnotea muddyarthropodsaswell.Inotedanap-pitattheendwherearockrattledparentlyunexploredpitinasmalldownforsevenseconds.IttookconeonthesouthsideoftheCerro.mostofourenergytoclimbbackup.WereturnedtoTexasthenextday.TheairdidgetprogressivelybetterApparentlySatanodelosGuaca-towardthetopofthe50meterpit.mayoswasvisitedinJanuary,1980ThenextdaywewereguidedbybyMikeWhartonandothers,butfullAlfonsoHerreratoSatanodelCaballodetailshavenotyetbeenobtained.Moro,whichIhadlastvisitedin1970.NoothertripshavebeenmadeAlfonso,alocalrancher,hadbeenintotheareain1980,tomyknowledge.thesatanowithT.R.EvansandothersAtripIplannedforMaynevergelled.in1969.Thelarge,overgrownDolinaMuchmorefieldworkcouldbedonedelCaballoMorowassurveyedbyhalftoaddtotheBulletin,buttheworkofourcrewandprovedtobe128me-couldbeendless,soatsomepointtersdeeptothelipofthepit.De-wewilljustworkupwhatisavail-22

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ableandpublish.RumorhasitthatRoyJamesonmayresurveySotanodeVasquezthisfall.ThiswouldbewelcomeastheoldmapwasneverfinishedandVasquezisprobablytheworld'sdeepest(about275meters)blindfishcave.ItishopedthatsomeonewillbeabletodosomegeologyworkintheSierradeGuatemalafortheBulletin.NodeadlineshavebeensetfortheBulletin,butIhopetohaveitreadyforpublicationin1981.IneedfinishedmapsofSotanodeLaJoyadeSalasandSotanodeVasquez.Icouldusesomeexpertdraftinghelponamyriadofsmallmaps.ColorslidesorblackandwhiteprintsofSalasandanyothercaveswouldbeappreciated.Icancopytheslidestoblackandwhitenegativesandreturnthempromptly.Photos,tripreports,maps,andothermaterialshouldbesenttome,BillElliott,at2225NorthParkwood,Harlingen,Texas78550.lSIlSIlSI1(;)1lSIlSI101lSIlSIlSI1[;]1101lSIIEIiml'SierradeGuatemalam,'WWilliamElliottestatrabajandoenunboletlndelAMCStratandoconilllascuevasdelaSierradeGuatemala,unpartedelaSierraMadreOrientalenelsurdeTamaulipas.LaregionestarodeadoalnorteporelRloGuayalejo,yalsurporelRloBoquillas/Comandant.Desde1964,sehanlocalizado115cuevas,yestudiosbiologicosextensivassehanrealizado.Elboletlnincluiradescripcionesdelascuevasy de 30 a40mapas yvariasfotograflas.Contendrareportajesdelabiologladelascuevas.ml'Elliottesperarecibirarticulostratandoconlageologla,fisiografla,yWarqueologladelaregion.PosiblementeincluiraunamapadetaIladadel8areaparafacilitarfuturasexploraciones.Elliottesperapublicarelboletlnen1981.Aunquesindudahaycientosm,'Wdecuevaspordescubrir,yaeslahoradepublicarlainformacionenunsoloill8informe.Elinformeseradeayudaincalculableparafuturasexploraciones8enIeregion.Sitienealguninteresenlaregionyelboletln,favordeWdeponerseencomunicacionconWilliamR.Elliott,2225NorthParkwood,W8L 'Harlingen,TX78550.8LSilSI1[;]1lSilSI101lSIlSI1(;)1lSI1[;]11011[;]1 1[;]1PACKITINPACKITOUT!23

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PROJECTREPORTESPELEOLCGICO0+TerriTreacypreviouslyexploredbyanon-PEPgroup,whounfortunatelysawfittowriteonthewallswithcarbidesoot,andleavespentcarbideinthepassageandcansintheterminalsump.BelowtheGonzoPit,thispassagewassurveyedfor1000metersdownclimbs,ropedrops,andcanalstothesumpat683metersbelowthehighestpointofthesystem.SincethelastreportinActivitiesNewsletter#10Jprojectmembershavespent3-1/2monthsinthePurificacionarea.ThelengthofSistemaPurificacionhasincreased8833meters,bringingthetotallengthupto36,795meters.Duetosome newloopsthatweresurveyed,theadjusteddepthofthesystemis895meters.OnelargechunkofthesekilometerscamewiththeconnectionofSumideroOyameltoUpstreamWorldBeyond.(Pleaseseeseparatearticleinthisnewsletter.)AsidepassageJofftheconnectionarea,yieldedanadditionalkilometerandahalfofpassage.TheDragonRiverbeginswithaseriesofswimsinawidepassagewithaverylowceiling.Thepassagecontinuallybecomesnarrowerandtheceilingrises.Eventuallythepassagetakestheshapeofanarrowcanyonwithgravelbars,shallowpools,andsmallcascades.Atonepointalargeflowstonemassfillsthepassage;theonlywayonwas abelly-crawlinwaterunderneaththemound.Growingfromtheundersideofthisflowstonewas aforestofhelictites,spawningthenameMacaroonSaloon.Beyond,thesoundofwatercascadingdownDragonFallscouldbeheard.Thisflowstonecascadeleduptomorestreampassagewithdeep,greenpoolsandgravelbars.Thepassagewallswerecomposedofhighlysculpturedandsharplimestoneandcalcite.Thepassagewasexploredashortwaybeyondthesurvey;itappearedtobepinchingdown. AttheoppositeendoftheWorldBeyond,belowtheFool'sParadise,theAngel'sStaircasesectionwassurveyed.Thissectionhadbeen24Angles'Staircase.(DonBroussard)

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karstareahasnumerouscaves,thoughtimeonlypermittedtheexplorationandmappingofafew.Mostwereblindpits,10to60metersdeep,filledatthebottomwithsedimentanddebris.SotanodelaCuchilla,tothenorthoftheCuevadelBrincoentrance,isamulti-dropcavewhichwasmappedto-177meterswhereitendedatahopelesspinch.Themainroutetothebottomconsistedof8ropedropsbetween10-20meterslong.Thenastiestdrop,RockDrop,wasnamedforthechunksofrockthatcontinuallypeeledoffaspeopleloweredthemselvespastseveralsharpledges.Thelongestdrop,AnothersectionofSistemathathadbeenexplored,butnotmapped,wastheValkyrieRiverinValhalla.About200metersbelowtheentrance,thewateroftheValkyrieRiverflowsfromalarge,deepsumpthroughapleasantstreampassageofsandandgravelbarsandclearpools;beautifulformationsadorntheceiling.Thepassagenarrowstoacanyonfilledwithdeepwater.LouiseHoseplacedfluoresceindyeinthisstreamaspartofherthesiswork,andwhenthedownstreamsectionwassurveyedonemonthlaterthecanalswerestillvividgreen.DowninthelowerportionofSistema,2kilometerswereaddedtotheConfusionTubes.Dozensofloopsweresurveyedintheunique,multi-levelmazeofbedrocktubes.Generally,thetubesarepleasantwalking-sizepassage,though,occasionallytheyshrinkdowntocrawlwaysizeoropenupintolargeborehole.Namingthetubesisallpartofthefunof"tubing,"andsomeofthenamesadoptedwereMistyBorehole,CarrotTube,PotatoTube,Mrs.Lubner'sTube,OctupusTube,RedneckBorehole,andSillyRabbitTube.Throughouttherestofthesystemsmallermappingprojectswereundertaken,includingthefall1979connectionofthefifthentrancetoSistemathroughCuevadeloso.Onthesurface,muchoverlandsurveyingandcavehuntingwasdone.Todatethereare65cavesinthePurificacionareawhichhavebeenmapped,orina fewcasesonlysketched.Apre-numbered,aluminumtaghasbeenplacedateachentrance.Themainpurposeofthetagsistoavoidconfusionandduplication;somecavesintheareahavebeen"discovered"4and5times!Acoupledayswerespentonthehighestpointoftheridge(2700meters)intheMesasJuarezareasearchingforcaves.ThisintenseTheHalloftheAngles.(DonBroussard)25

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HelictitesinSistemaPurificacion.(DalePate)ChevronDrop,ledtoalargeroom(20x 30meters)notedforthechevronfoldintheceiling.Snow Drop was byfartheprettiestdrop.Therappeldown awhiteflowstonedraperyledintoa roomwhichwas named December Madnessforitsabundanceofpurewhiteflowstoneformationswhichsparkledlikeafreshsnowfall.Overakilometerofpassagewas mappedinCuchilla;manyofthosemeterscamefrompushingsideleadswhicheitherloopedbackintothemainpassageorpinchedoff.Othercavesintheareawereexploredandmapped,includings6tanodelasCalenturas,(5kmlong,26120metersdeep),andCuevadeTecolote,(1341meterslong,106metersdeep).ElHundido,thelargeopen-airpitdiscoveredbyPASScaversin1973,wasdescendedandthebottomcheckedforleads,butnothingwasfound.SistemainfloodInadditiontotheusualprojectmappingandexploration,LouiseHosehasspentseveralmonthsdoingfieldworkforhermaster'sthesisonthegeologyofthecavesystemandsurroundingarea.Shewillbefinishingupinearly1981andherresultswillbeavailableatalaterdate.InDecember1979shehadauniqueexperienceofobservingSistemainflood.Followingarea fewinterestingstatistics.Duringa50hourperiod,Louisemeasured19centimetersofrainfall.SheandJosephLieberzmadedailytripstocheckstreamflowsintheupperpartofthesystem."Thestreamactivityhadbeenhigh.ThenormaltrickleofFirstStreamhadaflowof1.5to2literspersecond.AnotherstreamofsimilarsizeflowedneartheBatRoom(theBye-ByeStream-ed.).TheChutehadnotbeenflowingbeforetherain,butweobservedan18to20literpersecondflowduringtherain.IspentseveralhoursinTinCanAlley;ithadanestimatedflowofatleast15literspersecond."Twodaysaftertherainfinallystopped,LouiseandJosephmade atriptoInfiernillo."TwospringscascadeddownthecliffwallsdownstreamfromtheInfiernilloentrance.Eachspringhadaflowofapproximately10to20literspersecond.Atthebaseofthecliffbelowtheentrance,twospringsgushedmorethan50literspersecondofwater."Afteratreacherousascentintothecavetheydiscoveredthatthenor-

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SISTEMAPURIFICACION'00!.00!'00!'00!'00!.00!'00!1000!MunicipioVillaHidalgo,Tamaulipas,MexicoPreliminary PlanBasedona Suuntos, Brunton,andtapesurvey1973-1980bythePROYECTO ESPELEOLOG'CO PURIFICACIONCUEVA DEL BRINCOPROYECTOESPELEOLOGICOPURIFICACIONSUMIDERODEOYAMEL"LENGTH: 36,795 m DEPTH: 895 m DRAFT:PeterSprouse-OCT.1980ASSOCIATIONFORMEXICANCAVESTUDIES

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mallydryboulderswerequitewetandslippery."Justbeyonddaylighttherewasapoolofwaterwhichnecessitatedwading.Finally,atthe4-WayJunctionweencounteredthesumps."Atthispointthesumps,normallybelowCampI,wereup52metersfromtheirnormallevel."SinceCamp Iwasunder24metersofwater,wetookourbackpacksupthenowdryEastPassage.Alongthewaywefoundthehighwaterline.Theflood,issuingfromthesumps,hadreached-827metersbelowthesystem'shighestpoint,EntradadelosFranceses.Thiswasariseofabout64metersabovethesurveyedlevelofthesumps.Thepassagewecampedin,whichisalsothemainthroughwayintothesystem,hadbeenclosedbyasumponlyafewhoursprevioustoourarrival."DuringthistimeLouiseandJosephwereexperiencingincredible,loudrumblingnoises.Fearingatfirstthatawallofwaterwasgoingtocomerushingatthem,theylaterconcludedthatthenoisesweretheresultofroomsanddomesopeninguptothecave'sbarometricsystemasthewaterrecededbackintothesumps."IntheeveningIreturnedtothelakestogatherwaterandonceagainthepassageroared.Thesoundwasrhythmic,butdifferentfromwhatwehadheardbefore.Itwasalowpitchednoisesimilartowaterbeingdrainedfromasink.Isatattheedgeofthelakeandwatchedtheshoreline.Afteraboutaminute,smallwaveswithanamplitudeof5millimeterswereonthelake.Theypulsedinthesamerhythmasthesound.ThewaterlevelwasdroppingsorapidlythatIcouldobservethechange.Sincewehadplacedourstonewater-levelmarker80minutesprevious,thewaterlevelhaddropped60centimeters."ThetwotookatripbacktotheNileRiver,fourkilometersfromtheentrance.Waterlevelsinthestreamalongthewayseemedtobebackdowntonearnormalflow,howeverevidenceofrecentfloodingintheseareaswasobserved.UpontheirreturntotheupperportionofthesysteminBrincotheyobservedthatthewaterflowswerealmostbacktonormal."Allthespringsweredryexcepttheperennialonesusedaswatersupplies.TheChuteandTinCanAlleybothweredown,butstillflowing.Belowthesystem,largeriverswereflowinginthenormallydrycanyonsofInfiernilloandHervores."ElevendaysaftertherainhadstoppedLouiseandJosephreturnedtotheInfiernilloportionofthesystem."TheMainSumphaddropped24meterssinceourfirstvisitsixdaysearlier.Camp IformedtheshoresoftheMainSump.Thesoundsofthecavewerestillpresent,butquieter,andmostofthefrontportionofInfiemillohaddriedout,leavingnoevidenceoftheveryrecentflood."TwoweekslaterLouisemadeatriptoTheCanal,attheendoftheRioVerdeinBrinco."WediscoveredthatTheCanalhadfloodedtotheceilingsincemytripthepreviousmonth.SistemaPurificacionhaddefinitelybeensumped-offatbothends.Thiscave,andprobablymanyothercavesinMexico,aremuchmoredangerousinearlywinterthancommonlythought.Theydeserveourrespectaswellasourcuriosity."Followingisalistofthepeoplewhoparticipatedintheabovementionedprojects:JerryAtkinson,SheilaBalsdon,DonBroussard,LeslieClarfield,RuffDaniels,FrankEndress,PaulFambro,DavidHonea,JocieHooper,JeffHorowitz,LouiseHose,PeterKeys,JosephLieberz,DavidMcKenzie,MarthaMeacham,DalePate,PeterQuick,JamesReddell,SteveRobertson,ElizabethRoss,RandyRumer,WilliamRussell,MarkShumate,PeterSprouse,PeterStrickland,TerriTreacy,andLisaWilko27

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InDecember1979,DonAntonioGrimaldoCamerodiedathishomeinPuertoPurificacionattheageof81.DonAntoniowas agreatfriendofcaversinthearea.Hehadspentmostofhisyearsinthesierras,exceptforaperiodduringtherevolucion.Hishome wasalwaysopentotravellersinthemountains,andmanycaversshelteredthereovertheyears.DonAntoniohadagreatknowledgeofthecavesofthearea.HeguidedCharlesFromenandotherstotheentranceofCuevadeInfiemilloin1976.HehadcompleteconfidencethatBrincoandInfiemillowouldbeconnected,astheywerein1978.DonAntonio'sdepartureleavesagreatvoidinthesierras.PSSDonAntonioGrimaldo.(TerriTreacy)lir'811811811811811811811811811811811811811(;)1!8llJ,Purificacionml'rnDebidoalosesfuerzosdelosespeleologosdelProyectoEspeleologicoillml'Purificacion,elSistemaPurificacionhaalcanzadounalongitudde36,795rnmetrosyunaprofundidadde895metros.LaconexiondelSumiderodeOyamelanadio2.5kilometrosalsistema(veaelarticuloenesteboletin).Unml'pasajecercadelaareadelaconexion,elDragonRiver(RioDragon),rendioml'rndoskilometrosadicionales.LaseccionaguasabajodelWorldBeyond (MundoillGMasAlIa)fuelevantadomilmetrossobresubidas,tiros,ycanalesaunGsifonenelnivelde-683metros.Otrochorro,elRioValkyrie,fuemapeadornaguasarribaaunsifon,ytrescientosmetrosaguasabajo.Enlaporcionill8bajadelsistema,laCuevadeInfiernillo,masdedoskilometrosfueron8levantadosenlosConfusionTubes(TubosdeConfusion)unlaberintoGnicornconnivelesmultiplesdepasajestubolares.ill8Otrascuevasenlaregionquefueronlevantadosson:Sotanodela8Cuchilla--masdeunkilometerdelongitudy 177metrosdeprofundidad.rnSotanodeLasCalenturas--5kilometrosdelongitudy 120metrosdeprofun-illdidad.CuevadelTecolote--1341metrosdelongitud,106metrosdeprofun-GIdidad.ElHundido--unhoyograndequefuedescendidadyelpisofueexami-nadoperoningGnpasajefueencontrado.illLouiseHose,unageologaestudiandoelsistematuvolaexperienciaIsingulardeobservarSistemaPurificacionduranteunaindunacionendiciembre,I1979.Enunperiododecincuentahoras,19centimetrosdelluviafueronmedidos.ChorrosenCuevadelBrincoquepreviamenteestabansecosteniancorrientesde10 a 20litrosdeaguasporsegundodurantelainundacion.LossifonesdeInfiemillosubieron64metrosarribadeSUnivelnormal.mIndicacionesdeinundacionesfueronobservadasdesdeelNileRiver,a4WkilometrosdelaentradadeCueva deInfiernillo.TambienseobservoqueRElCanal,180metrosbajolaentradadeBrincosehabiasifoneado.LouiseGIadviertequeestacueva,yquizaotrasenMexico,seinundanmasfrecuentementeenelinviemode10quepreviamentesepensaba.illB 8181lSI181181181lSI181IE)!181181181'811(;)1'iJ28

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1906.1980FedericoBonetMarco wasbornonOctober18,1906,inMadrid,Spain.HereceivedhisDoctorofSciencedegreefromtheUniversidadCentralinMadridin1931,becomingProfessorofZoologyattheEscuelaVeterinaria,UniversidaddeMadridin1932.HeremainedinthispositionuntilheemigratedtoMexicoin1939.In1940hebecameheadoftheDepartmentofZoologyoftheEscuelaNacionaldeCienciasBiologicas,InstitutoPolitecnicoNacionalinMexicoCity.Duringthelatterpartofhiscareer,heheldapositionasastratigraphicgeologistforPetroleosMexicanos.HediedinMexicoCityonJune10,1980.30Dr.Bonet,likeotherbiospeleologistsfromSpain(includingCandidoBollvaryPieltain),ghttoMexicoanexpertiseandusiasmforcavebiologynotnthereatthattime.AlreadyngpublishedseveralpapersheCollembola(springtails)ofn,heimmediatelybegananac-programofcollectionandstudyhethenvirtuallyunknowncaveendogeanfaunaofMexico.Hisectingforays,frequentlyinanywithBollvaryPieltain,himthroughoutmuchofthetry.UntiltheworkoftheciationforMexicanCaveStud-intheearly1960's,virtuallyythingknownaboutthecavefaunaexicowasthedirectresultofworkofDr.BonetandhiscolAlthoughhepublishedseverajarpapersontheCollembolaofco,whichincludedmanytroglo-candtroglophilicspecies,hisrcontributiontoMexicancaveogywascertainlyhispioneeringections.Bonet'sstudiesonMexicancavesnotrestrictedtobiology,however,hepublishedthreeimportantre-sonthecavesofdifferentre-gionsinMexico.Adeepknowledgeofstratigraphicgeologyassistedhimgreatlyinhisspeleologicalwork.ThefirstofhisreportsonMexicancaveareaswaspublishedin1953andcoveredthecavesoftheSierradeElAbra.InthesameyearhepublishedavolumeonthecavesoftheXilitlaregion,whichincludedmaps,carefuldescriptions,andmeteorologicalandbiologicaldata.ItremainsanoutstandingreportandwascertainlyasgoodasanythingbeingdoneinNorthAmericaatthetime.HisfinalmajorcontributiontophysicalspeleologywasadetailedstudyofthecavesoftheCacahuamilparegioninGuerreroandadjacentMexico.Thisstudy,richlyprovidedwithmapsandphotographs,isanoutstandingcontributiontoourknowledgeofthecavesofMexico.

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AfinalwordshouldbesaidabouthisotherworkofgreatvaluetothestudyofMexicanspeleology.InadditiontomanyhighlytechnicalreportsonthegeologyoftheSierraMadreOrientalandotherareas,hepublishedseveralpapersonthegeneralstratigraphyoftheSierraMadreOriental.Inparticular,hisguidestothegeologyoftheInterAmericanHighwaybetweenCiudadVictoriaandTamazunchale,preparedforthe20thInternationalCongressofGeologyinMexicoin1956,areofgreatvalueforanunderstandingofthegeologyandkarsthydrologyofthisarea.In1963apaperwithDr.JacquesButterlindefinedthemajorgeologicformationsoftheYucatanPeninsula;alsoincludedwas ageologicmapwhichremainsthebestavailablemapforthePeninsula.ThedeathofDr.BonetmarkstheendofthefirsteraofthestudyofMexicanspeleology.Hiscontributions,bothgeologicalandbiological,tothestudyofMexicoanditscaveswillremainformanyyearsmodelstofollow.JamesReddellPhotoby:RobertMitchellSelectBibliography1947.MonografiadelafamiliaNeelidae(Collembola).Rev.Soc.MexicanaHist.Nat.,8:131-192.1942.Notassinonrmicassabreelordencolembolos.Ciencia,Mexico,3:56-59.1943.Sobrelaclasificaciondelos1947.onocopoduridae(Collembola),condescripciondeespeciesnuevas.Anal.Esc.Nac.eiene.BioI.,3:127-1531944.TullberginosdeMexico(Collem-1953.bola).Rev.Soc.MexicanaHist.Nat.,5:51-72.1945.Nuevasgenerosyespeciesdehipogastruridosde Mexico(Collembola).Rev.Soc.Mex-1953.icanaHist.Nat.,6:13-45,pis.2-6.1946.LaboratoriodeZoologia.Bol.InformacionEsc.Nac.eiene.BioI.,Mexico,4:105-117.1956.1946.MashipogastruridosanoftalmosdeMexico(Collembola).Rev.Soc.MexicanaHist.Nat.,7:51-62.1956.(withC.Tellez).Unnuevogeneradeesminturidos(C01lernbola).Rev.Soc.MexicanaHist.Nat.,8:193-203,pis.22-23.Cuevasde1aSierraMadreOrientalenlaregiondeXilitla.Univ.Nac.Auton.Mexico,lnst.Geol.,Bol.57.vi+96pp.,1963.11pis.DatossabrelascavernasyatrasfenomenoserosivosdelascalizasdelaSierradeEIAbra.Mem.Congr.Cient.Mexicana,5:238-273.1963.ExcursionA-14(sentidonortesur).ItinerarioCuidadVictoria,Tamps.-Taninul,S.L.P.pp.69-91inEstratigrafiadelCenozoicoydelMesozoicoa10largodelaCarreterraentreReynosa,Tamps.yMexico,D.F.Congr.Geol.Internac.,20thSesion.ExcursionA-14(sentidonortesur).ItinerarioTaninul,S.L.P.-Tamazunchale,S.L.P.pp.93-117inEstratigrafiadelCenozoicoydelMesozoicoa10largode1aCarreterraentraReynosa,Tamps.yMexico,D.F.Congr.Geol.lntemac.,20thSesion.BiostratigraphicnotesontheCretaceousofeasternMexico.pp.36-48inGeolugyofPeregrinaCanyonandSierradeElAbra,Mexico.CorpusChristiGeol.Soc.Ann.FieldTrip,May23-26,1963.(withJ.Butterlin).MapasgeologicosdelaPeninsuladeYucatan.I.-Lasformacionescenozoicasde1apartemexicanade1aPeninsuladeYucatan.lng.Hidrau1.Mexico,17(1):63-71,map.rGII(:JI I(:JI I(:JI181I(:JIIGII181l(:JiI(:JI I(:JII(:JI181mlFedericoBonetMarcoillElDr.FedericoBonetM.murioenlaCiudaddeMexicoel10 de8Junio,1980.ElDr.BonetfueunpioneroenlarecolecciondefaunadelasMexico.Suscontribucion:sgeologicasybiologicasillillaldeysuscuevaspermanecerancomoejemplos8mI(:JIIElII(:JI181I(:JII(:JI181I(:JI I(:JI181I(:JI I(:JI1831

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OnthelastdayofDecember,1978BethDayton,BobLloyd,KatherineMcClure,RussellHillandIrappelledintoSotanodelasGolondrinas.TheobjectiveofourtripwastofinishcheckingleadsintheCreviceinordertofinishthemapwhichJohnBassettandNealMorrisbeganin1969.Althoughwewerecamped 350metersbelowthesurfaceforthreedays,wewereabletomaintaincommunications,viaC.B.radio,withthetopsidecrewofCynthiaVanHoosen,KenSmith,andMike Mooney.Afterreachingthebottomofthedroponthefirstday,weriggedthefirsttwopitchespasttheawkwardchimney/crawlareasatthe.topoftheCrevice.TheseconddaywasspentcheckingtherestoftheCreviceforpassagespossiblymissedontheprevioussurveys.Thegoalwastofinda waypastthemudplugwhereGolondrinasnowendsat-512meters.AircouldbefeltblowingstronglythroughtheconstrictedareaatthetopoftheCrevice,butsincethepassagebellowsoutintocomfortabledimensionsbelowtheconstriction,noonehasbeenabletotracetheairflowtoanyparticularsidepassage.Inmyavocationalopinion,theCreviceisaseriesoffracturessecondaryinsolutionalimportancetothefracturewhichformedtheentrancechamber.Theeastendofthisseriesoffractureswassolutionedintothelargeoffsetdomepitsthroughwhichacaverrappels.Thewestendhadlessvadosewaterinitandretaineditsparallelwalledcrackappearance.Inthisnarrowerwestend,therearetwo majorhorizontalsidepassages,one24metersabovetheotherandparalleltothevertical"trunk"crack.Thepassagesintersectitatbothoftheirends.Therewaspossiblyverylittlephreaticdevelopmentinthesesmallsidepassages,justvadoseenlargementandwallcollapse.The(PaulFambro)Don BroussardwestsectionoftheCrevicehasbreakdownwedgedbetweenthewallswhichcomprisessuspendedfloorssometimescementedtogetherwithflowstone,butoccasionallyheldinplacewithonlyawedgingaction.Athinlayerofmudhascoatedtherocksinsectionsoftheupperhalf;whereasinthebottomhalfoftheCrevice,thickmudcoverseverything.Althoughnonewpassageswerefound,whileRussellwasprusikingupthe43meterGrietapitchhediscoveredrocksfallingpast.IhadprusikedupthepitchbeforehedidandchimneyedwithBethtotheextremewestsidetocheckaleadinthehalf-meterwide,breakdownchokedcrack.Noairflowcouldbedetectedthroughthebreakdown,thus,wedecideditwasn'tworthchimneyingfurtherdownthroughtheprecariousboulders.ApparentlytherocksItosseddownthecrackcameoutsomewhereaboveRussell,soIassumedthecrackdidtoo.Ourbasecampontheflooroftheentrancechamberwasspreadouton aflatclay-fecesareainthelowendofthesixacrefloor.Waterwas afifteenminutewalkupthebreakdownfloortoaseepinthewallabovesomeblackflowstone,buttheentrancetotheCrevicewasonlyacoupleminutesfromoursleepingbags.Katherinefoundaswallowwithaslightwinginjury.HernewfriendperchedonhershoulderfortwodayslisteningtoKatherineplayherflute.Threemouse-sizedrodentswereobservedscurryingovervariousareasofthefloor.Perhapstheycanliveofftheyoungcoffeebeanseedlingssproutingovermuchofthesunlitbottom,buthowdidtheygetthereinthefirstplace?Onthethirdday,thesurfacecrewtoldusofhailfallingontheirheadsandofhotcoffeethelocalcoffeegrowerhadsupplied.Wehadnoticedacoldbreezeflowingdownthebreakdownslopeandacrossbasecamp.Everyonehadalreadyput33

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BobLloydinthetopoftheCrevice.(DonBroussard)onextrashirtsandweregladtobeonthebottom.Thesurfacecrewhadicecrystalsgrowingontheirmustaches.Bythetimeeveryoneonthecoldsurfacehadwaitedforthelastcavertoprusiktothetoptheywelcomedtheactivityofpullingout50kilosofrope.ReturntotheCreviceOverayearlater,inMarchof1980,IreturnedtocheckouttheCreviceonceagain.TherocksbouncingdownpastRussellHillin'79meantthattherewasstillsome 34caveIhadn'tpushedyet.SheilaBalsdon,DavidHonea,andIrappelledinthefirstnightwearrived.I wasfirstonrope.Itwasrathereerierappellingfor45minutesintotaldarknessandnotknowingforsurethattheropeevenreachedthebottomuntilI was onthebottom! Thenightwasspenttotheaccompanimentofthebirdstwitteringincessantly.ThenextmorningPeterSprousecame downtosketchintheentrancechamber,whileRandy RumerandPeterQuickcame downtohelpSheila,David,andIrigtheCrevice.WestoppedatthetopoftheGrietapitchbecauseatthislevelisthenastycrackwhereIhadstoppedlastyear,andwherewebegansurveyingthisyear.Thecrackwaseasilyclimbabletoaholeinthefloorwhichdropped3meterstoasteeplyslopingshelflookingoutintoashaft.Wethoughtatfirstthiswasthe43meterGrietapitch,butitmaynotbe.Onthewayout,attheroomwherethenastycrackbegan,westoppedataleadwhichIhadseenbefore,butnotmapped.The 4meterlong,butlow,passageturned900intoalargebreakdownmaze.Wemapped a fewstationsintothemazeandcalleditquits.IthadbeenalongdayofCrevicepushing.AsIsquattedontopofabouldertryingtomakesenseoutofmysurveynotes,Randycrawledup,PeterQ.wiggledaway,andDavidscrambledoffsomewhereelse.Thethreecamebackravingaboutroomsbigenoughtostandin,formations,andenoughpassagedescriptionstoconvincemethatitreallydoesgo.Weleftthemazeforafuturemappingtrip.TheCrevicestillgoes!MAPnextpage

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SOTANODELASGOLONDRINASr360metersbelowentranceLEVEL I460conlinuesto-512mGAIETAoPARTIAL PROFILE OFTHECREVICEP,ov'SIQnalmapby 0B'oussa'dandPSprouse,basedonamapbyJBassett,G Ed,ger,andN.Moms,andonslJIveysbytheAMeS1975-1980viewlookingnorth(@lUO'.,S.,"."Editors'Note:Onthe1980triptoSotanodelasGolondrinas,anenormousquantityofgarbagewasfoundonthefloorofthepit.Allofthetrash,whichincludedanassortmentofbatteries,boots,cans,cookingpots,plastic,andpaperwaspackagedintothreelargebagsandhauledoutofthepit.Manythanksgotothecrewforhaulingthegarbageout.Pleasecavers,takeallofyourbelongingsandtrashwithyouwhenyouleaveacave.Andshouldyouhavethemisfortuneofencounteringtrashwhichothershaveleftpreviously,pleasedoyourshareinhelpingtocleanup.'0''a''a''a',.",a,'a',,",a,'e',a,DebajodelainmensaentradadelSotanodelasGolondrinas,LaSGrietaseextiendehastalos-512metrosyalIiterminaenlodo.UnaScorrientedeaireenlaentradadelafisurahecausadoquevariousmgrupostratendelhallarunamaneradiferentedesegiuradelante.LosmSutimosdosesfuerzosdeespeleologostexanosconducieronaunafisuraquecirculahaciaotrasycontinuametiendosea amboslafisuraprincipalImy unlaberintodecantosrodados.Estelaberintoestaparcialmenteml'exploradoylevantado.Estaareapuedeserextensiva,peromasexplora-ml'mcionttopografiaseranecesariaparaaveriguarla.WSElGrupoencontromuchabasuradeotrosvisitantes.LimpiaronelSml'sotanocompletamente,yesperanquepuedenconservirlomuylimpioenmelfuturo.WS SfiliiIGIIGi10!leiIGiIGIIGiIGIleiIGIIG!=ID35

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36I>elightfulbytheO'recoveredinwrappedinOrTrussingguttTrashcanRubbishcoulAllthingsIvingmakeSomewaste;it'sjustIIowthingsaredone.YetthoughOuttasightlJnderneaththegrounRangingovercavernTrashisouttabouFteturnthegiftsEntrustedtoourAsubterrainofStrainseyeleslJndercalcitcuRimstonewaExcrementsexcremeSwinewern'tdesi

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Recent Biological Mexican Caves Discoveries inJamesReddellIntheTenthAnniversaryissueoftheAssociationforMexicanCaveStudiesNewsletter(vol.4,no.1,1973),1prepareda summaryofthebiologicalworkoftheAMCSduringitstenyearsofexistence.Atthattime,145species,including64troglobites,hadbeendescribedonthebasisofcollectionsmadebymembersoftheAMCS.Intheeightyearssincethatreportwaswritten,workonthebiologicalcollectionsoftheAMCShadcontinuedunabated.Anaddtional168species,including86troglobites,havenowbeenaddedtotheMexicancavefaunaasaresultofthecollectingeffortsofAMCScavers.Alargepartofthematerialobtainedduringthelast18yearsremainsunstudied,particularlythatmater-ialcollectedinthePurificacion,HuautladeJimenez,andCuetzalanregions.Thepurposeofthisbriefreportistosummarizeworkintheseanda fewotherareas.Mostofthespeciescollectedduringthelastfewyearsremainundescribed,butmanywillbepublishedinaforthcomingbiologicalbulletinoftheAMCS.PurificacionArea,Tamaulipas:ThefirstcollectionstobemadeinthisareawerebyRoyJamesonandDavidMcKenziein1973.Thisearlyreconnaissancetripresultedinthediscoveryofseveralofthemorenotablespeciesknownfromthisregion,butbyfarthemostexcitingfindswerenottobemadeuntiltheProyectoEspeleologicoPurificaciongotwellunderway.Theonlytroglobitedescribedfromtheareaisablindleiodidbeetle,Ptomaphagus(Adelops)mckenzieiPeck,fromCuevadeCaliforniaandCuevadelBrinco.ThisisonlythesecondknowntroglobiteinthisfamilyinMexico,theotherbeingknownfromtheSierradeGuatemala.Otherexcitingspeciesofterrestrialtroglobitesknownfromthisareaincludea newgenusandspeciesofchactidscorpion(now knownfromthreecaves),threenewspeciesofeyelesspseudoscorpion,ablindtarantula,blindharvestmenofthegenusHoplobunus,themosthighlycaveadaptedcentipedinMexico(anewspeciesofthescolopendridgenusNewportia),blindmillipedsbelongingtoseveralfamiliesbutstilllargelyunstudied,andthreespeciesofeyelesstrechinebeetleofthegenusMexaphaenops.ThislastfindisparticularlynotableinthatnowhereelseinMexicodomorethantwospeciesoftrechinebeetleoccurinasinglearea(andthentheybelongtoverydifferentgenera).Furthermore,thereareonlyfourotherspeciesofthegenusknown;thus,almosthalfoftheknownspeciesofthegenusoccurinthelimitedconfinesofthePurificacionarea.Anotherremarkableaspectofthecavefaunaoftheregionisthepresenceinitoffourspeciesoftroglobiticaquaticisopod.Undescribedspeciesofthedelicate,elongateisopodsofthegeneraMexistenasellusandCaecidoteaoccurinthesumplakesinCuevadelInfiernillo.A newspeciesofSpeocirolanaisknownonlyfromSotanodelasCalenturas,whereitisfairlyabundantinthedeeperlakesinthatcave.SpeciesofMexistenasellusareknowfromcavesandspringsinCoahuila,NuevoLeon,SanLuisPotoSl,andVeracruz.ThenearestrecordsofCaecidoteaareinTexastothenorthandVeracruztothesouth.37

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SpeocirolanaisawidespreadgenusrangingfromCoahuilasouthtoPueblaintheSierraMadreOriental.Themostspectaculardiscoveryinthearea,however,was aspeciesofmarine-derivedisopodofthesuborderValvifera.TherearenorecordsofthissuborderfromcavesintheNewWorldandonlyoneortwodoubtfulrecordsofitsoccurrenceinfreshwater.ItspresenceinthestreamintheWorldBeyondinSistemaPurificacionisamazing.CuetzalanArea,Puebla:Althoughsomecollectionsweremadeinthisareain1973and1976,littleofthismaterialhasbeenstudied.TheonlytroglobitedescribedfromtheareaisthespirobollelidmillipedReddellobustroglobiusCausey.ThisistheonlyNewWorldtroglobiteintheorderSpirobolidaandisagoodindicationoftheuniquefaunaofthisregion.Amongthemoreunusualanimalsknownfromtheregionareseveralspeciesofblindspider(includingablindtarantula),glomeridmillipeds(commonlyreferredtoaspillmillipedsbecausetheyrollintoatightballmuchlikepillbugs,withwhichtheycanbeeasilymistaken),apossiblytroglobiticscorpionofthegenusVaejovis,andatroglobiticbeetleofthegenusMexisphodrus.Recentfindshaveincludeda newspeciesoftroglophiliccrayfishofthegenusProcambarus,subgenusVillalobosus-.-Thisbringstothreethenumberofcrayfishknownfromthecavesofthearea,morethaninanyotherpartofMexico.SanPabloZoquitlanArea,Pueb-la:Fewcollectionshavebeenmadeinthisinterestingkarstregion,butthesegivepromiseofmanyexcitingthingstofollow.Includedinthefaunaisa newgenusandspeciesofsnailbelongingtothefamilyCharopidaeandacompletelyeyelessspiderofthegenusNesticus(onlythesecondspeciesinMexicotototallylackeyes.RuautladeJimenezArea,Oaxaca:A fewcollectionsweremadeinthis38areaasearlyas1966,anJtroglobiticmillipeds,collembola,andcarabidbeetleshavebeendescribed.Themostnotablefinds,however,havebeenmadeduringtherecentexpeditionstoLaGrieta,SotanodeSanAgustin,andothercaves.Onediscoverystandsoutmorethananyother:thelargestandmosthighlycaveadaptedscorpionknownfromcavesintheworld.ThisamazingnewgenusandspecieswasfoundfirstbyRoyJamesonandPattyMothesinCuevadelEscorpion.Ithasmorerecentlybeencollectedatdepthsupto820metersinSotanodeSanAgustin,LaGrieta,andLiNita.StudyhasshownthatitsclosestrelativesarethesmalltroglobiticandendogeanspeciesofthegenusTyphlochactas.OthernotablefindsintheRuautlaregionincludethefirstcompletelyeyelesstarantulaintheworld,onespecimenofwhichwasfoundinLaGrieta.XilitlaPlateauArea,SanLuisPOtOSlandQueretaro:A fewsmallcollectionswerefirstmadeinthisareainthelate1960s.Recentcollectionshaveincludedspecimensofblindplanarian,acompletelyeyelessdipluridspider,a newrecordforthetroglobitictarantulaSchizopelmastygia(Gertsch)(previouslyknownonlyfromcavesnearAhuacatlan),andnewspeciesofblindmillipedsandharvestmen.Mostofthesecollectionsremainunstudied.AquismonArea,SanLuisPotosi:A fewrecentcollectionshavebeenmadebyPeterSprouse,TerriTreacy,andothersinthearea,butallremainunstudied.Themostimportantfindsincetheinitialcollectionsinthe1960swasofaneyelesscray-fishofthegenusProcambarusfromthesumppoolinRoyadelasGuaguas.Thisspecies,collectedbyAndyGrubbs,istheonlytroglobiticcrayfishinMexiconorthofOaxacaandVeracruzandpossiblybelongstoasubgenus(Scapulicambarus)notpreviouslyknowntohavecaverepresentatives.

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Thesignificanceofthisdiscoveryisthatthedeepbase-levelwatersofmorenorthernMexicomayharboraverydistinctivefauna.PotreroRedondoArea,NuevoLeon:RecentcollectionsweremadeinthispoorlyknownareabyWilliamElliottinMay1980.Theonlymaterialidentifiedfromhiscollectionsarethecarabidbeetles.Surprisingly,aseriesofsmalleyelessbeetlesprovednottobetrechinesbutinsteadwererepresentativeofa newblindspeciesofRhadine.TheonlyotherrecordofblindRhadinefromMexicoisfromCuestadeChipinque,NuevoLeon,collectedin1969byStewartPeckandlostuntila fewweeksbeforeElliott'sspecimenswereidentified.ThesetwospeciesaremostcloselyrelatedtoRhadinepersephoneBarrfromToothCave,TravisCounty,Texas.ThisindicatesthatthenorthernendoftheSierraMadreOriental,sorelyneglectedbycavers,ispotentiallyofgreatinterest.ThemostinterestingthingaboutalloftherecentbiologicalworkinMexico,mostofitquiteincidentaltoothergoals(suchasmappingrecordsetting,andbasicreconnaissance),isthatwestillknowappallinglylittleaboutthebiologyofMexico'sunderground.TherecentcollectionsinMexicancaves,inareasreasonablywellknownnow,stillproducestartlingfinds.Onlyinthemostintensivelystudiedregions(SierradeGuatemala,YucatanPeninsula,SierradeElAbra)do wehaveanyhopethatwehavefoundthemajorityofthespeciespresent.Andevenherewecannotbeallthatsure.Asanexample,tworecentcollectionsmadeinSotanodelArroyoandSotanodelaTinaja,twoofthebeststudiedcavesinMexico,producedinterestingspecimens:inone,a newrecordfortheraretroglobiticmysid,Spelaeomysisquinterensis(Villalobos),andintheothera newspeciesoftroglobiticpseudoscorpion.Thesetwocasualcollectionspointupvividlytheneedforcollectingbyanycaverwillingtostickasmallbottleofalcoholinhispocketandtakea fewminutestoturnoverrocksorlookinapool.(Editors'Note:Allbiologicalcollectionsmustbelabeledwiththefollowinginformation:1)Nameofcaveanditslocation,includingthestate.2)Nameofperson(s)whocollected.3)Datecollected.Printthisinformationwithapencil(inkwillsmearinalcohol)onasmallpieceofpaperandputthepaperinthebottle.SendthecollectiontotheAMCS,P.O.Box7672,Austin,Texas78712.ro ,':esu:en':e':'ex:ana''''"..UnresumendelascoleccionesbiologicasdelAMCSde1963Wa1973sepublicoenelAMCSNewsletter,Vol.4,No.1,1973.ml'Enaquelentonces,sehabiandescrito145especies,incluyendoami'w64troglobios.Durantelos8anossubsiguientes,otros168es-WGpeciesadicionales,incluyendo86troglobiossehananadidoa8lafaunasubterraneadeMexico.EstearticuloesunresumendelWtrabajoqueseharealizadoenvariasregionesdeMexicodesdeWG1973.G"...""""""'''''0''0''''' "..,,@,,,.,,,J39

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ThePiloztoc ConnectionBill LiebmanOnChristmasevening,1978,inCuetzalanplansweremadetoinvestigatea4.1secondvirginpitinCuevaPiloztoc.Thecavewasfoundinlate1977byPeterLordwhoexploreditashortwaytoa3meterdrop.InthelateSpringof1978Peter,RickRigg,andotherscontinuedtheexplorationandmappingto300meterswheretheyencounteredthedeeppitandtheytimedrockfallsat4.1seconds.Lowongearandtime,thepitwaslefttogounchallengeduntilthenextseason.CuevaPiloztocisperchedhighalongandattheoppositeendofthevalleyfromSimaZoquiapan.Aconnectionseemedinevitable.December16foundRickRigg(ID),WillHowie (MS),JimEyre(England),GarethDavies(England),AlejandroVillagomez(Mexico),andmyself(CA)gettingtheusuallatemorningearlystart.WithvisionsofuncertaindepthandapossibleconnectiontoSimaZoquiapanakilometeraway,weloadedourselvesdownwithgearandropes.CuevaPiloztocislocatedinalargesink,akilometerlong,500meterswideandnearly200metersdeep.Lyingtothenorth,attheoppositeendofthesinkisthe62meterentranceshafttoSimaZoquiapan.ArelativelysmallstreamenteredthesomewhathiddenentrancetoCuevaPiloztoc.TheentranceissmallbyCuetzalanstandards.Youcanstandupinside,butthat'saboutall.Thepassageis2metershighandaverages2meterswide.Ittookabout30minutesforustoscrambledownthefirstfewhundredmetersofcavetothelipofthepit.Theupperportionofcaveismostlywalkingpassagewitha fewareaswhereyouhavetostoop.Thepassageiserodedoutofathinlyinterbeddedshaleseamthatisblack40incolorwithdarkgray-blacklimestone.Theshaleseamcrosssectionexposedinthewallofthepassageisverycontortedwithindividuallayersbrokenanddiscontinuous.Manykinkfoldsarevisibleamongthecontortionsdisplayedinthewallsofthepassage.Thisexplainstheeasewithwhichthepassageformedwhereitis.Unlikethewalls,whichyoucanpullpiecesofbrokenrockoutof,theceilingisofgoodgray-blacklimestone.Thisuppersectionofcaveexhibitssignsoffrequentfloodingintheformofstringersofclothinganddebrishangingoffofprotrusionsinthewalls.Consideringthefrequentfloodingandtheeaseoferosionoftheshaleoutofthecountryrock,itisnotsurprisingthatthissectionofcaveisdevoidofformations.Uponreachingthepit,a fewrocksweretossedtostimulateoursenses,andthenwebeganthetaskofrigging.Lookingacrossthepit,youcan'thelpbutnoticethattheshaleseamdoesnotcontinueinthefarlimestonewall.Thepitisformedontheplaneofaverticalfault.Thelipofthepitservesasalaunchingpointforthedebrispileandoveranhourwasspentcleaningloosematerialawayfromtheedge.Finallytheropewasloweredintothepit,andweallmadethedescent.Thebottomofthepitwasunimpresseive.Infact,itwasdown-rightdisappointing.Itwastriangularinshape,about4metersonaside.Nottoobigfora4.1seconddrop.Therewere3leadsoffthebottom,allofthemcrawlways.Wecrawledoffdownthelargestoftheleads,ahandsandkneescrawlthattakesthemainflowofthestreamwithalittleairflow.Afterabout10meterswegottoa

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1-1/2meterwaterfallandmorecrawling.Wecrawledandperiodicallystoopedondownthepassageforwelloveranhour.Duetothelogisticsofsixpeopleincrawlingpassage,weweremovingveryslow.Thishowever,gaveonetheopportunitytotakeinthefeaturesofthecave.Thisportionofthecavewasinlimestone,unliketheupperportionofthecavethatisashaleseam.Thepassageisverylowandverynarrow.Theaverageheightofthepassageis1.5metersandwidthaboutahalfmeteronthefloor,becomingnarrowertowardsthenearbyceiling.Thepassageevidentlyhaserodeddowntothepresentfloorwhichisaveryresistantbasalconglomerate,typicalofmostcavesinthearea.Notbeingabletopenetratethisresistantunit,thepassagehaserodedsideways,forminganupsidedown"T"shape.Manybendsandhalfmeterwaterfallsandcascadesconstitutethecontinuationofthepassage.Interestingsodastrawswereseeninvariousplaces,includingsomewhichstair-steppeddownwindinhelictitefashion.Manychertlenseswerepresentinthewallsofthemuddy browncoloredlimestone.Finally,wordcamebackthatwehadenteredaboreholeupahead!Thispassageimmediatelysplit,goingtwodirections.Toourright,about60metersaway,wecouldseedaylight.Wanderingovertothelight,wefoundalargelakeatthebottomofabeautifulsunlitshaft;adeepone.AlthoughnoneofuShadvisitedSimaZoquiapan,weassumedthatwehadmadeourconnec-tion.Everybodywasratherburnedoutfromhavingcrawledatleastahalfkilometerandknowingwehadtoreturnthroughthatnastystuff.Wediscussedthemeritsofgettingthisnewsectionmappedandgettingtheheckout.Nobodyreallyfeltlikemapping,butweallknewtherule:Mapwhatyouscoop!Sowebrokeintotwosurveyteams,andleapfroggedbackthroughthecrawltothepit-Atthebottomofthepitsomefossilswerepreservedinthelimestone.Ididnotviewthem,buttheirdescriptionmatchesthecretaceouspelecypodsandcephlapodsIhaveencounteredinnearbyCuevaLaProvidencia.Theclimboutofthepitwasinteresting.Thelimestoneisa muddybrowncolorwithahighconcentrationoflensoidalchertinterbeds.Asyouascendthepit,theconcentrationandthethicknessofthechertlayersreducesdrastically.Thechertismuchmoreresistantthanthelimestoneandweathersoutasledges,sometimesupto3or4incheswideprotrudingfromthewall.Asyouclimb,thefarwalloverhangsthepit,andforashortwayyouarevirtuallyagainstthewall.Thewallrecedesagainanditisoncemorefreethelast20feettothelip.Aftereverybodywas uptopwegotthemeasurementofthepit...itwas226feetdeep.Weexitedthecaveatmidnight,havingspent12hoursunderground.Itwasdrizzlingoutsideandamightchilly.Wewarmed upwithsomehotBoonStewuponourreturn,mellowedout,andgotsome muchearnedsleep.TheSewerwasbigger!CuevaPiloztocEsteart1culodescribelaCuevaPiloztocenCuetzalan,Puebla,ysuconexionconSimaZoquiapanendiciembre1978.Lasdoscuevasquedanenextremidadesopuestasdeunadolinaquetieneunkilometrodelongitudy 200metrosdeprofundidad.41

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UnstudiedKarstAreasofMexicoPeterSprouseDespitetheintensiveexplorationoverthelasttwodecades,thecavesandkarstofMexicoremainpoorlyknown.Manysignificantkarstareashavenotbeenvisited.Thisarticlewilldescribesome,butbyno meansall,ofthekarsts(limestone,gypsum,andlava),thatarelargelyuninvestigatedandlikelytobefruitfulforcaveexploration.TheseareasrepresentlargevoidsinourknowledgeofthecavesofMexico.ThedescriptionsherearemadeinthehopethatgroupsinvestigatingthesecaveareaswillsendinreportstotheAMCS.Thefollowinglistwillgenerallydescribeareasratherthanspecificleads,aswasthecaseinanarticlebyWilliamRussellinInsideEarthNo.1,(Russell,1972).Manyoftheleadslistedinthatarticleremainunchecked.Areasaregroupedbystateand,ifavailable,theDetenal1:50,000topographicmapislistedinparentheses.Thesemapswereusedtodescribemostoftheseareas,andshouldbeconsideredessentialforfielduse.TheUTMcoordinategridonthesemapsprovidesagoodmethodforrecordingcavelocations.Ihavelistedhighandlowelevationsforlocalareas,althoughtheseshouldnotnecessarilybeinterpretedastheverticalpotential,whichcanbeaffectedbyanynumberofgeologicalandgeographicalfactors.ChihuahuaRIOBRAVORANGES(coveredbyseveraltopomaps).AstringofisolatedlimestoneridgesextendsnorthwestfromOjinagaalongtheTexasborder.42Onlyafewcavesareknowninthislarge(5000km2 )area.CoahuilaSIERRALAGAVIA(G14A83Reata).Adesertlimestoneridgewithtwocaves,"Cueva(Guano),CuevaPrieta",shownat1300meterselevation.LOSLIRIOS (G14C35 SanAntoniodelasAlazanas).NearthetownofLosLiriosareseveralhighlimestoneridgeswithgoodcavepotential.Peaksat3700meters,baselevelat2000meters.HUACHICHIL(G14C44Huachichil)CoahuilaandNuevoLeon.Threeridgesupto3000metersnearHuachichil.Caveindicativefeaturesareshown onthetopo:"CerrolaCueva,CanadalaCueva,CerrolasCuevas."GuerreroPLAZADEGALLaS(E14A67Pilcayos).PlazadeGallosislocatedonalimestoneridge15kilometerswestofTaxcoontheroadtoIxcateopandeCuautemoc.Themapshowsseveraldolinasatelevationsupto2400 meters,withnearbybaselevelsat1400meters.TLAMACAZAPA(E14A68Taxco,E14A78Iguala).A2200meterhighuvalakarstplateaucontainingthevillageofTlamacazapa,baselevel1200 meters.Located10kilometerseastsoutheastofTaxco,and15kilometerssouthofDosBocas.Goodcavepotential.

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HIDALGOHIGHLANDS.Alarge,high(2000+meters)areaalongtheInter-AmericanhighwaybetweenTamazuncha1eandActopan.Somecavesareknown,butmanypartsofthearearemainuninvestigated.GrutasdeXofafi,anunmapped,butwe11knowncavenortheastofLaguni11a,isacomplexdescendingcavethat1Srumoredtobequitedeep.HIDALGOLOWLANDS.TheeasternflankoftheHidalgohighlands.ThisareaundoubtedlycontainslargecavesasdoestheadjacentCuetza1antotheeast.NortheastofIxmiqui1panisanotherwell-known,butunmappedcave,TheGrutasdeTono1tongo-ahotwaterresurgencecave.ThenearbyLagunadeMeztit1anisrumoredtomysteriouslydrainattimes.AlargeriverisreportedtogoundergroundeastofGrutasdeXofafi.MexicoMONTEGRANDEAREA(E14A58Tenancingo).Akarstplateau10kilometerssouthwestofthereligiousshrineofCha1ma.Elevation2300meters,base1500meters.SIERRALAGOLETA(E14A66Amatepec).Awiderange,elevation2200meters,withseveralcavesmarkedonthemap:"CavernaPedroAscencio,CavernasLeonaVicario,LaCueva(threeofthese)."Located50kilometersnorthwestofIgua1a.NayaritLACUEVA(F13B81 SanPedroIxtacan).Twofeaturescalled"LaCueva"and"LaCuevaPrieta"at1400meters,baselevel500meters,possiblyinvolcanics.Locatedinaremotearea30kilometerseastnortheastofE1Venado.NuevoLeonSIERRAELAZUL(f14A35Sierrae1Azul).NuevoLeonandSanLuisPotosi.A2500meterhigh,1400meterbaselevelrangewitha"CuevadelosRiscos"markedonthemap.Located30kilometerssoutheastofMatehua1a.POTREROLASHOYAS(F14A36MieryNoriega).A2000meterhighrangewithcaveindicativelocalities:"Canon1aCuevaCaida,CanonlasCuevas,ArroyoCuevaUrbana,Picachoe1Socavon."Basearound1400 meters.Located15kilometerssouthwestofMieryNoriega.CANONDEHUASTECA(G14C25GarzaGarcia).Aseriesofhighlyfoldedlimestoneridgeswithgoodcavepotential,stretchingwesttoSaltilloandbeyond.Highelevations2000meters,base900meters.Severalcavesknown.LAVENTANAAREA(G14C46Rayones).Ahighlimestonearea,2700meters,withalarge"window"100meterswidenearthetopofaridge.Thisentrance,LaVentana,apparentlyopensinthebottomofalargepit.Cavershavenotreachedit.Baselevel1ntheareaisaround1100meters.GALEANAAREA(G14C56Galeana).A2500meterhighgypsumkarstplateaulies10kilometerssouthwestofGaleanaand6kilometerssouthwestofPozodeGavi1an.Baselevelmaybearound1800meters,leveloftheGaleanaplain.Goodpotentialfordeepgypsumcaves.LAPOZA(G14C66SanJosedeRaices).A gypsumkarstarea15kilometersnorthofPabil10,atanelevationof1800meters.Twofeaturesmarkedonmapare"Dolina"and"Resumidero."LAGUNASANTAROSA(G14C67Iturbide).ASkm2po1jesitsatanelevationof1500meters,whosewaterprobablyresurgestothenortheastatawetweatherresur-43

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genceontheroadfromLinarestoIturbide,elevation600meters.Limestonepeaksinbetweenriseupto2400meters.SanLuisPOtOSISIERRALATRINIDAD(F14A65Guadalcazar).A gypsumkarstridge.6kilometersnorthwestofthetownofGuadalcazar.Elevation2100 meters,base1800meters.SIERRAELPINAL(F14A68SaitodelAgua).Amassivelimestonekarstridge,1800meterswithseveralparallelkarstridges.Baselevel700meters,20kilometersnortheastofCd.delMaiz.PAPAGAYOS(F14A78 Cd.delMaiz).Fourhundredsquarekilometersofcloseddrainage,tropicalkarst.Aseriesofnorth-southridgeswithlargeuvalasandseveralpoljes.Highpointsat1800meters,baselevelat500meters.ThisareaissouthofHighway 80betweenAntiguoMorelosandCd.delMaiz.Fewcavesareknown.SIERRATREJO(F14A85SantaCatarina).Aridge6kilometersnortheastofSantaCatarinawithaclusterofdeepdolinasorpitsonitswesternslope.Elevation1600meters,baselevelat1200meters.LLANOELRESUMIDERO(F14A87 SanFrancisco).A gypsumplain,elevation1000meters,withsinkingstreams.Sixkilometerssoutheast.ofSanFrancisco.LAGUNAGRANDE(F14A88Alaquines).Sixhundredplussquarekilometersofcloseddrainage,tropicalkarst.AsoutherncontinuationofthePapagayoskarst.Containsa4km2polje,LagunaGrande.LocatednorthofHighway70betweenCd.VallesandRioVerde.A fewcavesareknown,buttheareaismostlyunexplored44andverypromising.MICaS(F14A89 DamianCarmona).A 700meterhighkarstridgecutthroughbytheRioVallesatMicos.Baselevel100meters.Fewcavesareknowninthishighlykarstedrange.TamaulipasMESALALIBERTAD(F14A48LlanodeAzuas).Anextensive,2000 meterhighlimestonekarstridgeflankedbytwoparallelridges.Baselevel800meters.Goodcavepotential.LAGUNALAESCONDIDA(F14A58Ocampo).Awidelimestonekarstridgeat1400meters.Baselevelisprobablyat400metersintheMalpaisLavafield,althoughthisalsohasundergrounddrainage.Theridgecontainsseveralpoljes,includingLagunalaEscondida.Averypromisingarealocated20kilometerswestofOcampo.SIERRADETAMAULIPAS.AlargelimestoneupliftsoutheastofCd.Victoria.Pitsandkarsthavebeenseenontopfromtheair.Alargeunmapped"drivethru"cave,CuevadeCuarteles,isminedforphosphatesnorthwestofAldama,offHighway180.SIERRACUCHARAS(F14A59 LomaAlta,F14A69Quintero).ThenorthernextensionofthehighlycavernousSierradeElAbra,this35kilometerlongridgeextendsfromthethenorthernElAbrapasstotheSierradeGuatemala.Elevation400meters,baselevel100meters.SeveralspringsemergeatthebaseoftherangeincludingthelargeNacimientodelRio Mante(seeExley,1979).A fewlargecavesareknowninthesouthernsection.InarumoredpitaboveQuintero,rocksbouncefor12secondstowater.

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TabascoNorthernextensionsoftheChiapasrangesinTabascoareknownfortheircockpitkarsts(Jennings,1971).Howeverthispromisingarearemainsalmostentirelyuninvestigated.VeracruzCOFREDEPEROTE.Avolcanicareaofgoodlavatubepotential.Onetube,CuevadelVolcancillo,hasbeenmappedtoalengthof590metersandadepthof140metersandmaycontinue(ReddellandElliott,1974).MoreinformationontheseareasmaybeobtainedfromtheAMCSanditspublications.InAustin,theAMCSmaintainsfilesonthecavesofMexicoandalsoacollectionoftopographicmaps.TheDetenalmapsmaybepurchasedinMexico,D.F.atBalderasNo.71P.B.,Col.Centro,Mexico1,andinMonterreyat15deMayo545Oriente,EscobedoyZaragoza.Reports,mapsandphotosarerequestedfromallcavingprojectsinMexicoforAMCSpublications.ItisalsohopedthatgroupscavinginMexicowillpracticegoodcaveconservationandextendutmostcourtesytolandownersandlocalinhabitants.ItisgenerallyAMCSpolicytoapplylocalnamestocaves.Shouldacavenothaveaname,thenthenameofalocalplaceornearbyfeatureisusuallygiven.ReferencesExley,Sheck,1979,jNacimientos:AMCSActivitiesNewsLetterNo.10,p.22-31.Jennings,J.N.,1979,Karst,TheMITPress,p.192.Reddell,JamesandWilliamElliott.Tripreport,CofredePerote,Veracruz.AMCSNewsletterV.1:7-13.Russell,William1972,Mexico,whatneedsdoing.InsideEarth1:8-10.[181101181 18118118!18110118118118118![;JRegionesnoestudiadosdelkarstmexicano[;JMuchosregionesdekarstenMexiconohansidovisitadasporIespeleologos.Esteartlculodescribevariasdeestasareas(decal-Wiza,yeso,ylava)cualesson,porsumayorparte,inexploradas.[;JIEstasdescripcionessepresentanconesperanzasdequegruposinves-tigandoestasregionesproporcionaraninformesalAMCS.Lasregiones[;Jestanagrupadassegunelestadoenqueselocalizan,ysiesdisponible,ml'sedaelnumerodelamapatopograficaDETENAL1:50,000.W18118!18!10118118!18!18!18!101181181ISE=II!PRACTICECAVECONSERVATION45

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CavinginWesternMexicoJamesReddellEntrancetoCuevaHundidalntheSierradeSanLorenzo.(DavidMCKenzie)DespitetheproximityofnorthwesternMexicotowesternTexastNewMexicotandArizonathevastlimestoneareasofChihuahuatCoahuilatandDurangohavebeenseldomvisited.In1977,Iwrotea summaryofourknowledgeofthecavesofChihuahuaandDurango(AMCSNews.vol.Stnos.2-3tpp.84-93),inwhichIlistedsevenexploredcavesforChihuahuaandfourforDurango.Nonewcaveshavebeenvisitedsincethattime.ThecavesofCoahuilahavebeenalittlebetterstudied,butwiththeexceptionofCuevadelPorvenirsouthofCuatroCienegas,nomajorfindshavebeen46madeinthelasttenyears.Thisentireareaholdsconsiderablepromiseforsignificantcaves.Thelimestoneexposuresareextensivetandtherearemanyrumorsoflargecavesthroughouttheregion.OnJune6,1980,DavidMcKenzie,MarkShumate,andIleftAustinwiththeintentionofcheckingsomeofthemanyleadsinsouthwesternCoahuila,Durango,andChihuahua.Iwashopefulthatwewouldfindsomegoodbiologicalcollectingcavessinceallofthelargecavesthathadbeenpreviouslyvisitedcontainedarichfauna.Inthiswe_weredis-

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appointed,partlybecauseofthetimeofyearandpartlybecausesomeofourbetterleadscouldnotbevisitedthistrip.SierradeTexasSouthofCuatroCienegasintheSierradeTexas,thetopographicmapshowedCuevadeTabaco.Wewerestartledtoseeahighwaysignpointingtheway down apavedroadto"CuevadeTabaco."Certainthatwewereontoagreatstartinsome commercialorsemi-commercialcavewesoonarrivedatanimpressivemonument.Thisconsistedofalargeplatformonwhichhadbeenbuiltlargestela-likepillars.OnthesewereinscribedthenamesoftheheroesofabattleinwhichBenitoJuarezhadsavedthearchivesofMexicowhichhadbeenhiddeninCueva deTabaco.Thecaveitself,however,was somewhatlessimpressivethanthemonument.Itconsistedofasingledustychamberabout6meterslongand8metershigh,withonlyanarrowslopingfissureleadingfromit.SierradeSanLorenzoAtthetownofCoyotewefoundanexcellentguidewhotookustotheSierradeSanLorenzo,whereIhadheardofacavecontainingalakewithblindanimals.Ourguideproceededtotakeustosixcaveentrances:CuevadelVapor,CuevadelGranjeno,CuevadelGuano,Cueva delosIndios,CuevaHundida,andanunnamedcave.CuevadelosIndios,supposedlyoncealongcave,hadonlyashortcrawlwayleftfollowingacollapseoftheentrance.CuevaHundidawas alargesinkholeabout15metersindiameterand10metersdeep.Thisdropsintoalargebreakdownflooredroom,butwedidnotenter.ItsupposedlyhadheldIndianmummiesatonetime.The unnamedcavewas aclimbablesinkleadingintoasinglebreakdownflooredpassageabout5meterswideandupto3metershigh.Itendedinabreakdownchokeafterabout25meters.WemappedCuevadelVapor,whichissituatedatthebaseoftheSierraandhasalargeopening10meterswideand5metershigh.Abreakdownflooredpassageextendsbackforabout50metersbeforeendingincollapse.Totheleftofthemainpassage,alowcrawlwayextendsdown ashortslopebeforeitdrops3metersintoahigh200meterlongwalkingpassage.Astrongair-flowthroughoutthecaveindicatesthatadditionalpassagemightbefound.CuevadelGranjenoislocatedontheoppositesideofaridgefromCuevadelVaporandisenteredbyasteeplyslopingsinkholeintowhichsomewaterruns.Atthebottomoftheentranceslopeanarrowwindingpassageabout1.5meterswideandupto3metershighextendsforapproximately100metersbeforewashed-insiltmakesitnecessarytodigtocontinue.Airflowindicatesthatthecavemaybemuchlonger.Awhitescorpion,andnumerousdeadtroglobiticmillipedesindicatethatthecaveisofpossiblebiologicalinterestanditshouldberevisitedduringawettertimeofyear.CuevadelGuano,oncecalledCuevade Aguabecauseofa nowdried-upstreaminit,wasenteredthrougharubbleflooredsinkholebetweentwolimestoneridges.Ascrambledownthisslopeleadsintoalargebreakdownflooredroom.Afterabout75metersamineshaftintersectsthecave.Beyondtheshaftthecavechangescharacterandbecomesasteeplyslopingpassage.Thebottomsideofthisslopesoonendsinbreakdown,butitispossibletowalkalongtheupperpartofthepassageforseveralhundredmeterstowhereanarrowpassageleadsintoanextensionofthemainpassageforahundredormoremetersbeforeapparentlyending.Themostnotablethingaboutthecavewasanenormousnumberofdeadbats.Theselitteredthefloorandsomestillhungfromthecavewalls.Nolivebatswereseen.The47

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presenceofsickanddeadbatswasalsonoticedinCuevadelVapor.Whetherthisrepresentspoisoningfrompesticides(heavilyusedintheLagunaDistrictofCoahuila)orfromarabiesepidemicisnotknown.ThecavesinvestigatedintheSierradeSanLorenzoappeartobeformedastheresultofthesolutionofgypsumbedsfromthesurroundinglimestone.InCuevadelVaporandCuevadelGuano,virtuallyno gypsumisleft;onlyina fewplacescangypsumbeseenonthecavewalls.CuevadelGranjeno,however,isa goodintermediateexampleofcavedevelopment.Withtheexceptionoftheentranceroom,wherealittlelimestoneisexposed,theentirecaveisformedingypsum.ItwillbeinterestingtolookatmorecavesintheSierradeSanLorenzotoseeifthereareanylimestonecaves.Manycaveswereknowntoourguideintheimmediatevicinityandothersdoubtlessexistinthemoreeasternpartoftherange.TorreonAreaWespentseveraldayslookingforcavesinthevicinityofTorreon.AcopyoftheTorreon1:250,000topographicmaphadthreecavesmarkedonthem.Thefirstone,CuevadelIndio,wasneverreached.Thesecondleadledustoahighfissure-likeopeningseveralhundredmetersuponacliffface.Withnoeasywaytoreachthecave,wedecidedtolookforthethirdlead.LocatednearPresaFranciscoZarca,CuevadelGuano wasfoundtobeashortcavewithalargeshelter-likeentrance.Thecavewasdryanddusty,andwasoflittleinterest.FromPresaFranciscoZarca,wedrovethroughashorttunneltoemergeinabeautifulcanyon.Highcliffswithknife-edgedridgesofverticalbeddedlimestoneremindeduSofHaustecaCanyonnearMonterrey.Severalcaveentranceswerespotted,butonlyone10meterlongcavewaschecked.48MapimiGrutasdeMapimrislocatedintheSierradelRosarioandisabout18kilometersSSWofMapimr. Aroadextendstojustbelowtheentrance,andsomemininghasbeendonenearthecave.Thecaveitselfisgatedandonlyourofficialguidehadakey.Justinsidetheentrance,anironspiralstaircaseleadsdownthe8meterdroptothefloorofthecave.Oneenormous,welldecoratedroomcontainsnumerousformations,someofwhichremainintact.Itwassurprisingtoseethatthecavehadnotbeencompletelyvandalized,althoughsomeverylargeformationshadbeensawedoff.Stillthereremainanabundanceoftotempolesandotherdelicateformations.Thecavewasnotmapped,butitisestimatedtobeseveralhundredmeterslongandupto50meterswideinplaces.AcollectionhereincludedarareeyedspeciesofRhadinebeetle.Ourguideknewofseveralothercavesinthearea,andalsodescribedalong,lower-levelpassage(unknowntous)inCuevadelosRiscos.(Riscosislocated6kilometerssouthofMapimi,andisdescribedinthePEMEXGuidetoMexicanCavestobeGrutasde Mapimr. )GomezPalacioNearGomezPalacio,thereisacavedescribedinGeografiadeChihuahuaas"oneofthemarvelsoftheSierra."Thiscave,GrutasdeSantoDomingo,islocatednearthevillageofGuadalupeyCalvoclosetotheborderofChihuahuaandSinaloa.Welearnedthata 20to30kilometerhikethroughsomeruggedcountryisrequiredtoreachthecave.Wewerenotpreparedforsuchahike,soweturnedback.Onroute,westoppedatCuevadelDiablonearSalaices(seeAMCSNews.vol.5,

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no.2-3fordescriptionandmap)ttolookforaquaticisopods.RocksdroppedintoapreviouslyunenteredpitseemedtohitwatertsoIdecidedtocheckit.Thispitprovedtobeabout15metersdeePtdead-end,anddry.JimenezAreaBackonthemainhighwaytoChihuahuatweinquiredaboutcavesintheJimenezarea.Weweretoldofacaveorminesome 20kilometerssouth.Uponinvestigationtwhatwefoundwas MinaAdargastwhichhadbeenabandonedforabout40years.TherewereseveraldeepshaftsnearbYtbutthemainmineentrancewaseasilyrecognizedbyalargeflightofbatsexitingfromitatdusk.Atthebottomoftwo 10meterdropswas asteepslopeheldbackbytimbers.Fromthebottomofthisslopeanadditionaldropleddown aslopeintoaminetunnel.Fromhereseveraltunnelsextendedteitherdeadendingorendingabruptlyinpits.Ourenthusiasmwasnotwhettedbythesightofgreatmassesofrockbeingheldinplacebycrackedtimbersandeventhethoughtoftroglobiticcrustaceanscouldn'tsendusbackintothecavewhenwewerefinallystoppedbyanunclimbabledrop.WeclimbedoutofthecavetcoughedpartofthedustoutofourlungstandheadedforthecoolhighlandsoftheSierraMadreOccidental.SantoTomasIhadvisitedtheSantoTomasareatChihuahuawithBillBellinFebruary1966 tbutwehadnotfoundthefabledSocavondeSantoTomas.ThistimetaftermanywrongturnswefinallylocatedtherealSocavontaswellastwocavesBillandIhadbeentoearlier.TwolongarroyosextendfromthebaseoftheigneoushillstotheEntrancetoSocavondeSantoTomas.(DavidMCKenzie)southandthenintersectthelimestonetwheretheyjoinandshortlyafterwardsemptyintothesocavon.Aseriesof3dropsleadstothemaincavepassage.Upstreamahightnarrowtfissure-likepassageconnectsalltheupperentrancesbeforefinallyendinginbreakdown.Downstreamitcontinuesabout15meterstothetopofa15meterdroPtintoasmallcircularroom. Ablastofcold(12C)airblowsthroughthisroom t down a5metershandlinedroPtandondown adeeppit.Markdescendedabout35meterstoaledgeanddiscoveredthattheropewasnotonbottom.Wereturnedtothispitacoupledayslater;Daviddescendedtoaterminalroomwitha muddylakealongoneside.49

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/(V, ,\1')\-===-11020MetersoD.McKenzieJ.ReddellM.ShumateE-z-__CHIHUAHUA,MEXICOSuuntosandTapeSurvey-June1980SOCAVONDESANTOTOMASDrafted:D.McKenzieandG.Atkinson

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InCoyame,northeastofChihuahua,I knewofalargecavewhichhadbeenbrieflyvisitedbyRonaldFieselerandothersacoupleyearsago.GrutasdeCoyame wasatonetimeacommercialcave.Theonemeterindiameterentrancedropsabout10meterstoaslopingfloor.Atthebottomoftheslopethecaveopensintoanelongateroomabout40meterswideandmorethan200meterslong.Thisroommusthaveoncebeenextremelybeautiful,butthereisnownothingleftbutthestubsofthousandsofstalactitesandstalagmites.Trashandgraffitiareeverywhere.Alcovesalongthesidesandanarrowpassageatthebackleadingintoaseriesofsmallroomsstillretainmuchoftheirbeauty,andindicatewhatthecavewasoncelike.NumerousdelicateAnothercaveinthearea,whichwenamedSocavondelPino,hasasmallarroyoemptyingintoit.TWoclimbabledropsledtoadiggingcrevicelead.Iexcavatedmywaytothetopofa5meterdrop.Ilookeddownintoasmallroominwhichthewallswerecoveredwithnames.CreelAreaTheGeografladeChihuahuahaddescribedalargecaveknownasGrutasdeChumachinearCreel,andwasalsomarkedonatouristmapoftheCreelarea.LocatednearthelumbercampofChumachi,themostobviouscaveinthecanyon,CuevadeMurcielagos,isalargeshelterentranceontherightsideofthearroyo.Theentranceisabout20meterswideand10metershighandextendsoverbreakdownintoacoupleroomsabout10metersindiameterandinhabitedbyalargecolonyofbats.Oneshortpassageloopsbacktothemainentrance.Severalothersmall,nearbycaveswerechecked,butnone,wefelt,couldbetheGrutasdeChumachi.ATarahumaraIndianappearedandtoldusthemaincavewasacrossthecanyon.ThecrawlwayentranceofGrutasde Chumachiledintoanelongatedroomparallelingthecliffface.Itcontinuedthroughaconstrictionanduptoanotherentrance.Totheright,itledintoanotherroomwithseveralalcovesandfinallybackthroughafissure-likepassagewithbreakdownalongonewallandended.Athirdentrancewasfoundnearthesecondentrance.MappingbecamedifficultwhenseveralTarahuamaraIndiansappearedinthecavecarryingpitch-pinetorches.Ofinterestisthefactthatthesecavesarefoundinash-flowtuff,anigneousextrusiverock.GRUTASDECHUMACHIQl.IHUAHUA.MEXICOSuuntosandtapesurvey19June1980D.Mc.Kenzie,J.Reddell,H.ShumateDraftedbyD.McKenzie,P.SprouseE__'0I20I51

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{j':;"L1mnto"..d:Jtr6Ir10MetersCUEVA DELVAPORRanchoCoyote,Coahuila,MexicoSuuntosandTopeSurvey-June1980D.McKenzieJ.ReddellM.ShumateDrafted:D.McKenzieandG.AtkinsonSurveyedlength:286mP/Q;0

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formations,includinghelictites,canbefoundintheseout-of-thewayplaces.Theflooroftheroomisofmudandflowstoneandgenerallyflat.Acollectionhereincludedtroglobiticisopods,manysmallspiders,andaspeciesofRhadinebeetle.ThistriptonorthwesternMexicowassomewhatlesssuccessfulthanearliertrips,butstillwewereabletolocateandexploreseveralnicemedium-sizedcaves,andtoobtainleadstomanyothers.CavinginwesternMexicocanbebothafrustratingandarewardingexperience,butthepotentialisthereformajorcaves.Forthecaverinterestedingeology,thecavesarefascinating.Forthebiologist,thereisthepossibilityofdiscoveringcompletelynewgroupsofspecies.InthemiddleoftheChihuahuanDesert,twotropicalspeciesofricinuleidwerediscovered.Ourtripyieldedfournewspeciesofspiderandtwo newrecordsforRhadinebeetlesinMexico.Othercollectionsarestillnotstudied,butshouldproveofinterest.Anycavingtriparmedwiththenewtopomapsofthislargeareashouldresultinthediscoveryofsomemajorcaves.181 lEI!IElIIElI181IElIIElI181IElI181IElIIElIlEI,EJMexicoOccidentalmlEsteartlculotrataconexploraciondecuevasenlosestadosdeWWEJChihuahua,Coahuila,yDurango.EnJuniode1980,lassiguientescuevasfueronlevantados:SocavondeSantaTomas(Chih.),CuevadeVapor(SierradeSanLorenzo),yGrutasdeChumachi(Creel,Chih.).EJAdemas de Cueva deVapor,cincocuevasmasfueronvisitadasenlaSierradeSanLorenzo.EstascuevasseformarondeladisoluciondeEJW.Wyesoenlacaliza.CuevadeTabaco(SierradeTexas),GrutasdeMapiml(SierradelRosario),ylasGrutasde Coyamesoncuevassemi-ffi!comercializadoparaturistas.WLaposibilidaddeencontrarcuevasmayoresenlaoccidentaldeml'Mexicoesmuybuenaaunquemuypocotrabajosehahechoenelarea.WDelascuevasquehansidovisitadas,lamayorlasonmuyinteresantesWEJgeologicamenteybiologicamente.EJLEI!lEI!I[OlI18!IElIIElIIElIIElIIElI181lEI!IElI18...J153

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THEEXPLORATIONOFSUMIDERODEOYAMELTheUpperSectionsofOyamel.(DalePate)54

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LateoneeveningsawDavidHonea,WilliamRussell,PeterSprouse,TerriTreacy,JerryAtkinson,andmyselfrollingsouth,headedforthemountainsofTamaulipasandacavecalledCuevadelBrinco.AtthistimeBrincohadbeensurveyedforadistanceof5.2kilometersandTheWorldBeyondwasonlyrecentlydiscovered.WewereplanningonspendingafullweekduringtheThanksgiving1977holidaysinthePurificacionareaandseeinghowitwasmyfirsttriptothisparticulararea,I waseagertoseeit.WeweretomeetGillEdiger,SaraCloyd,CindyKane,WayneRanney,JohnDelano,andMarkBurnsattheProyectoEspeleologicoPurificacioncampgroundlocatednearBrinco,atanelevationof1900meters.ThefirstcoupledayswerespentsurveyinginBrinco,sothefourthdaywastobeadayofrest.William,whoisusuallyupbeforeeveryoneelse,tookashorthiketoahighridgesouthofBrincoandlookingbacktothenorth,hesawaninterestingkarstfieldthatappearedtodrainasmallarroyo.Itwasonlyakilometerorsofromcamp.Returningtocamp,hepersuadedSara,Mark,John,Jerry,Wayne,andCindyintotakingashorthiketocheckouthisnewfind.Theydiscoveredasmallarroyoemptyingintoakarstedareaanddisappearing.SixentrancestoSumiderode Oyamelwerefoundonthisday.ThreesmallentrancesledtoacrawlwaymazeareanamedtheWormTubes.Alarger,doubleentranceshaft(theSumideroentrance)fell20meterstoadeeppoolandtheLowerPitentrancedropped8meterstoconnectintoawaterpassagethatledtothe20meterentrancetothenorth.Headingsouthfromthispoint,thecavecontinued3meterswideand1to1-1/2metershighandhadastrongairflowblowingin.Itwas knownthatBrincohadstrongairmovement,andalsofurtherdownthemountain,CuevadeInfiernilloat4.1kilometersinlengthhadstrongairmovement.ThissuggestedtoUSthatthecaveDalePatewasprobablytiedintothesamesystem,thoughverylittlewas knownatthattimeconcerningthetrueextentofwhatlaybeforeus.Thename,SumiderodeOyamel,camefromthemanyhemlocktreesgrowinginthearea.ThefollowingdayWilliam,John,Jerry,andmyselfreturnedtothisnewfindwiththepurposeofexploring,mapping,andbiologicalcollectinginit.Riggingthe8meterLowerPitdropwitha 10meterlongcableladder,weenteredandimmediatelybeganmapping.Jerryhadwornhiswetsuitbottoms,whiletherestofusworeregularcavingclothes.Westartedmappingtothesouthandthepassagewefollowedstayedaboutthesame,3metersby1to1-1/2meters,foragooddistanceandthenitbeganhittingsmall,climbablepits.Thefirstpitwas namedApricotPit(8meters)whichledtoatightverticalsqueezeaptlynamedApricotSqueeze.Justahead,wetookabreakforsomelunchandnamedthespotComidaCorrida.Beyondthispoint,thingsstartedgettingoutofhandasfarasnamesgo.AlittlefurtherdownthepassagewecameuponAvocadoPit,another8meterdropthathadabeautifullyscouredtinajainthebottomofit.Thepassageturnedunderneathitselfhereandwadingaroundadeeppoolwasnecessarybeforereachingthenextpit,ApplePit.This8meterdropledintoajunctionroomwherewecontinueddown,reachinganother10meterdropnamed AnchovyPit.Wewereabletobypassthepitandbelowthiswetookarestinanicecozyroomwithapoolandcobbles.Wehadbeencollectinginsectsontheway down,butherewefoundtheminlargernumbers,sowe namedtheroom The BugFarm.Twonewspeciesoftroglobiticpsuedo-scorpionshavebeenfoundinthissmallroomaswellasotherinsects.Exploringashortdistanceonward,wecameupona7meterdrop,ArtichokePit,thatledtothetopofyetanotherdrop.55

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TypicalDimensionsinGodwanaland.(DonBroussard)Weturnedaroundandleftitforanotherday.Thecavewasgettingbiggerandwestillhadgoodairflow.Thursday,ThanksgivingDay,sawanother4vehiclesfullofcaversarriveatthePEPcampground.Thisthreweverythingintomassconfusion.Nevertheless,thefollowingday,Jerry,BillMayne,andmyselfreturnedtoArtichokePitandstartedthesurveywherewehadleftoff.BeyondArtichokePit,weencountered2pitsclosetogetherandthesearenow knownastheJohnDelanoMemorialDoublePits.Theirtotaldropwas 15metersorso.Itwasherethatthedropsstartedgettingalothardertoclimbdown. Belowthisthepassageenteredaveryscoured,cheesyareawithdeeptinajasandmanysmallholes.HerewasthebeginningofGodwanaland,acrawlwaymazeareathatangleddowndipat30.Beingleadtape,Billforgedonto56brieflyscoutahead.Almost30minuteslaterJerryandIwerewonderingwhathadhappenedtoBill.Wethoughthewouldbegoneformaybe5minutes.Ashorttimelaterwecouldhearhimcrawlinguptous,buthewascomingfromadifferentway.Hisreportconfirmedourworstsuspicions-aheadlaya 3-Dcrawlwaymaze.Theairflowwasnotasdetectablesinceithadmanysmallholestogo down.Wedecidedtoendthesurveyandreturntothesurface.Thatsameday,WilliamandSarahadenteredthecaveviatheWormTubesandbegansurveyingthatportionofthecave.MoremappingwasdonethefollowingdaybyWilliamandJerry,buttheydidnotsucceedintieingtheseentrancestotherestofthecave.Bythistime,itwastimetoheadhome.Ourtotalsurveyedlengthfortheweekwasapproaching1kilometerinlengthand100metersindepth.

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Slightlymorethan3monthslater,Oyamel wasrevisitedduringtheSpringof1978.Brincowas now6.5kilometersinlengthand257metersdeep.March19,MarciaCossey,CeceGreen,AndyGrubbs,andmyselftookashortcollectingtripintothecave.Thefollowingdayturnedouttobeapushdaywithsixofusenteringthecavetocontinuetheexplorationandmapping.Atthistime,ithadbeenthoughtthatthecavecouldpossiblyintercepttheupstreamportionoftheWorldBeyondinBrinco,butthepossibilitiesofitmissingtheWorldBeyondandcontinuingdowndiptoInfiernillo,400to500 metersbelowwereneverruledout.RobertHemperly,JocieHooper,andmyselfweretobethesurveyteam,whileKurtSchultz,HenrySchneiker,andPeteStricklandweretheleadexplorersmarkingtheroutethroughGodwanaland.Fortunately,only125metersorsoawaylaylargerpassagewhereadefinitechannellingofthewaterflowwasevidentagain.Alwaysdroppingdownward,thecavetrendeddowndiptothewestandtheleadteamexploreddowntinajalinedpassagesandstoppedinacanyonpassagethatwasinplaces8to10metershigh,butdividedupbyoldflowstonepartitions.Theairflowwasgood.Meanwhile,oursurveyteamspenthoursmappingthecrawlwaysandsqueezesthroughGodwanaland.The twoteamsmetjustaswewerebreakingoutofthemazyareaandeveryoneoptedforreturningtothesurface.ThisdownstreamportionofOyamel wasnotreturnedtofor2yearsafterthis.ThemaineffortofthePEPwasconcentratedinBrincoandInfiernillo,whichwereconnectedinJuly,1978toformtheSistemaPurificacion.Workstillcontinuedintheupperlevels,however.PeterSprouseandJerryAtkinsonreturn-edtotheWormTubes on March21,1978tobeginaresurveyofthatsection,andtheysucceededintieingalltheentrancestogether.Eventu-ally6entranceswereconnectedin.ThetotallengthofOyamel wasthen1040metersand125metersindepth.InNovember,1979PeterS.,TerriTreacy,andMarkShumatebegantheresurveyfromthemainentrancedowntothelastsurveyedstationneartheendofGodwanaland.ThesketchesfromtheprevioussurveyshadnotbeenuptothehighstandardsofqualitythatwerebeingusedinSistemaPurificacionandwewereallsurethatthecavewouldeventuallyconnectin.Ononesuchtrip,thetriofoundanicehorizontalpassageatthetopofApricotPit.Smallleadsoftenyieldlargediscoveries.ThisteamsucceededinresurveyingtothepointwheretheinitialsurveyhadendedintheSpringof1978.Aftera3weekcavingtourfurthersouth,acrewoftencaversarrivedintheareaonApril8,1980.ThesecaversincludedDavidHonea,PeterSprouse,TerriTreacy,Randy Rumer,PeterKeys,LeslieClarfield,JeanneWilliams,DonBroussard,PeterQuick,andmyself.AlreadypresentwasLouiseHosewhoisworkingonaMaster'sthesisofthegeologyofthecavesystem.Bythistime,SistemaPurificacionhadbeenarealityforalmost2yearsandithadbecomethedeepestcaveinthewesternhemisphereat893metersdeepandthelongestinMexicoat29kilometers.ItwastimetoseewhatOyamelwasdoing.Itcouldprovideamajorlinktothedrainagethatwascorninginfromthenorthifwecouldconnectitin.OnMarch10,Randy,PeterQ.,andmyselfenteredOyamelwithwetsuitson.Ourintentionsweretopushandmapfromthelastsurveystationthepreviousteamhadset,ifwecouldfindit.Althoughthewetsuitsweworewerefairlycomfortable,mostplungepoolsweresoughtouttocooloffin.Aftermany moansandgroansandseveralwrongturnsinGodwanaland,westoppedfora muchneededrest.Muchtooursurprise,thestation57

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wesoughtlayrightinfrontofus.Amazing!Thiswas a goodsignandwebegansurveyingingoodspirits.Thepassagewasdroppingrapidly,butwewerestillabletoclimbdowneverythingweencountered.Inplacesweclimbedfromonewaterfilledtinajatothenext.Thepassagecontinuedtoenlargeandthescouredlimestonewallswerebeautiful.Oneareawhichwasinthesectionthe1978leadteamhadexploredwas namedPoolsandJewelsforthemanytinajasandroundedcobbleswefoundthere.Belowthisstretch,thepassagestartedtrendingwestandstoppedthezig-zaggingthathadbeenprevalentuptothattime.Offtotherightapassageemptiedintothemainpassagewewerefollowing.NamingthisPineConeJunction,wecontinuedon.Immediatelypastthiswecametoapieceofflaggingtape;thisindicatedthepointwheretheexplorationteamof2yearsagohadstopped.Finally,wewereenteringvirginpassageonceagain.SoonafterPineConeJunction,thepassagedroppedintooneofthemorebeautifulpartsofthecave,BlackCanyon.Thiswas asteeplydipping,waterscoured,blacklimestonecanyon.Asalways,itwasdroppingdown.Afteradistance,thecanyonbecamemorenarrowandwewereafraidthatitwasgoingtoenteranotherGodwanalandtypearea.Insteadthough,itemptiedintoahorizontal,widetrunkpassage.WeknewthispassagehadtobeanextensionofUpstreamWorldBeyondinBrinco.Wewereattherightlevel,butweestimatedthatwewereakilometerorsofromthelastsurveyedstationintheWorldBeyond.Therewasstillalotofcavetogothrough,andthatlastsurveystationintheWorldBeyondhadbeensetatthetopofaveryslimy,muddy, 5meterdrop.Aftermappingashortdistanceinthisnewpassage,wecameuponwhatappearedtobedeepwaterandlowairspace.Atthispointweturnedaroundandbeganthelong58climbout,leavingthehopedforconnectionforanotherday.Atthispointwewereover200metersbelowtheentrance.Up,up,up,andmoreup,thewholewayoutwasoneclimbafteranother.Thepinescentedmountainsandtwinklingstarswereaperfectendingtothistrip.Aconnectionseemedimminent,andthefollowingdayPeterS.,PeterK.,andLeslieenteredCuevadelBrincotopushupstreamintheWorldBeyond.David,Don,andTerrienteredOyamelandtraveledtothelastsurveyedpointandthelowairspace.TotheOyamelteam'sdismay,thesurveypencilhadnoleadinitsotheycouldn'tsurvey.Aftergoingallthatdistance,theydecidedtoexploreahead.Thelowairspacestartedat15centimetersandgraduallyincreased.Soonitwasastoopwaywithacoupleoflargemud roomsandthenmorelowairspace.Theyreacheda"T"Junction,exploredrighttoa sump,andthenlefttoanotherjunction.Therewerenosignsoftheotherteam,sotheyplacedacairnandleftthecavewithplanstoreturnthenextdaytosurvey.Meanwhile,Peter,LeslieandPeterhadriggedthemudfunneldrop,laternamedtheGatesoftheNorth.Atthebottom,acleanscouredpassageledtwodirections.Downstreamwentthrough200metersofcanaltoasump,butitwastheupstreamwaywhichpointednorthtowardsOyamel.Sixtymetersdownthis,ashortpassagewentrighttoasump,and80metersfurtheronthepassageenlargedintoahigh,40meterwidechamberwithamudmountaininthemiddle.PeterKeysattemptedaclimbintoahighleadwhilePeterSprouseinvestigatedthecontinuationofthepassagetothenorth.There,whereasandbarcrossedthepassage,werefootprints!TheyhurriedlycontinuedthesurveyonfromtheHalloftheFootprintsandsooncametotheotherteam'scairn.Surelythetie-instationmustbeclosenow,butPeterK.re-

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The NoseDives.(DalePate)connedaheadforseveralhundredmeterswithoutfindingastation.Butwithaconnectionrealized,thesurveyhadtobedone,sotheymappedonpastthe"T"Junction,throughthelowairspace,TheNosedives,totieintothestationRandy,PeterQ.,andIhadsetthedaybefore.Theirtotalsurveywas 922metersina 17hourstripandtheyhadmadetheconnection.Oyamel was nowofficiallypartofSistemaPurificacionanditadded6entrancestothealreadyknown 5entrances.Thisconnectionaddedapproximately2.5kilometerstothelengthofSistema,bringingittoafieldtotalof31,567meters.PeterS.,PeterK.,andLesliecontinuedonoutoftheOyamelentrance,thusmakingthefirstentrancetoentrancetripfromBrinco.A fewdayslater,LouiseandDonenteredtheOyamelentrancetoinspectthegeologyinthispartofthecaveandcameouttheBrincoentrance,thus,makingthefirstentrancetoentrancetripfromOyameltoBrinco.TheconnectionofOyameltotheWorldBeyondinBrincoaddedasignificantlink,anotherpiecetothepuzzle,inthehydrologicresearchpresentlygoingoninSistemaPurificacion.TheconnectionrepresentsonlyapartofthesystematicexplorationandsurveyingthatmembersoftheProyectoEspeleologicoPurificacionareinvolvedin.59

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'GJ' 'GJ''GJIIS'IGJI'GJ''S''GJ''GJI'GJIIGJI'8''GJ0SumiderodeOyamelIGlLasseisentradasdeSumiderodeOyamelselocalizanalnorteGldeCuevadelBrinco,unaentradasuperiordelSistemaPurificacion,illTamaulipas.Laexploracionytopograffafueiniciadaen1977 y 1978Glillhasta125metrosdeprofundidady1040metrosdelongitudeEn1979,levantaronunospasajesnuevosyrepitieronunaspartesdelatopo-illIgraffa.Enlaprimaverade1980,secontinuoconlaexploracionylatopograflaalnivel-200enunlagocontechobajo.SepensoqueIestepasajeeraunaextensiondelpasaje"WorldBeyond"deSistema\Purificacion.Aldfasiguiente,unequipoentroaBrincoy comenzolatopografladesdelaultimaestacionenlaparteaguasarribadelWorldBeyond.Alterminode922metrosdelevantamiento,sehablanGlillconectadolasdoscuevas.,'GJ''(;)I'GJ'IGJIIGJ''GJ''GJI18''GJ'IGJI1860

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AcrosstheSimaGrandeMarkMintonTheEntrancetoSatanodeLaJoyadeSalas.(SteveRobertson)StillconvincedthatamajordeepsystemlaybelowJoyadeSalas,alargegroupofcavers(DenisBreining,TomByrd,MonteFisher,MargaretHart,RussellHill,HalLloyd,JohannaReece,SteveRobertson,TerrySayther,BillSteele,BillStone,LisaWilk,andI),returnedforyetanotherlookattheSatanoandsurroundingareaoverThanksgivingof1979.Themainobjectivewas aseriesofpassagesandshaftsfoundonthelastdayofourtripthepreviousyearbytraversingaroundtheSimaGrande,theseconddropinSatanodelaJoyadeSalas(seeAMCSAct.News.No.8).Inaddition,someinterestinglookingsinkstothenortheastandanoldleadnearthelakeweretobecheckedout.BillStoneledtheshort,buttreacherous,traversearoundtheSimaGrande.Asidepassage,previouslyassumedtoendinaplungepool,wasdescendedbyBillSteelewhobeckonedusonward-itwent!Keepingoutofthescuzfilledpoolisnoeasyfeat,andthepassagewasdubbed"CanYouStayDry."Unfor-61

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MonteFisheronRopeTraverse.(SteveRobertson)tunatelyitendsacouplehundred,enjoyablemeterslateratanotherpool.Backinthe"main"passage,asportingclimboveradeep(Sam)hole,whichconnectstothe"old"cavebelow,andashortsectionofstoopwayleadstoadecoratedcrossfissure.Atightsqueezethroughflowstonewhileonrope,followedbyashortrappel,bringsonetoacomplexlowerlevel.Theprimeleadwas a 100+meterdeepshaftcomplexattheendofalarge,decoratedchamber.Severalledgesbreakupthedescent,andprovideaccesstootherparallelshaftsandinterconnectingcrawls.Unfortunatelyalloftheseendinmudfillorwater.62BillSteeledivingthesump.(SteveRobertson)Theonlyremainingleadwasanarrowcanyonwithtremendousairflowleadingoffthesecondledgeoftheshaftcomplex.Itquicklyopensintoanotherdropwhichendsinaspacious,dirtflooredroom.Atight,dampcrawlleadstoabalconyoverlookingashortdropwithwhatappearedtobewalkingpassagebelow.Bynowweweresurewehadcrackedthesystem,butourelationwaspremature.Thepassageatthebottombecametootighttotheleft,andsumpedtotheright.Indesperationwereturnedwithheavyartillery:Kinepakandscubagear.Theblastwasspectacularlyresonantinthe30meterdomewherewestood,

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butthepassagedidn'tgo.Stone'sdive,initiatedthroughanextremelytightcrevice,halffilledwithwater,alsofailedtouncovergoingcave.Meanwhile,alittlesearchingaroundthekarstnearthemainentrancefinallyturnedupthe"lost"secondentrancetotheSatano.Ashortdropthroughatightcrackleadstoatrashflooredroomwithsomebeautifulflowstone.Apleasantcanyonleadstoaseconddrop.Bothacrawlwaytakingoffmidwaydownthedrop,andacanyonpassageatthebottomofthedroploopbackintotheSimaGrandenearthemainentrance.Mostofthenewpassagesweresurveyed,butthedepthofthecavewasnotincreased,exceptperhapsbyoneortwometersgainedbytyinginthesecondentrance.Afewleadsstillremainunchecked,andthebafflingaircirculationinthecavemakesonewonderifthemastersystemstilleludesexplorers.Wealsocheckedaleadontheeastfaceoftherangenearabaritemine.RoyadelaMinaBarita,whichhadbeendescribedasaverylargepit,turnedouttobeatleast50metersacross,butonlyadisappointing40metersdeep.Theovergrownbottomcontainednofurtherpassage.Wewerealsotoldofalargepit,biggerthanSalas,9kilometerstothenorthwest,butwedidn'thavetimetocheckitout.lSIlSIlSIIB!'S!lSIIBIlSIlSIlSIlSIIBIlSIIS1EnNoviembre1979,ungrupofuealSatanodelaJoyadeSalasenla[;]ISierradeGuatemaladeTamaulipasconelintentodeexplorarunospasajescualeshablansidodescubiertoselanoanterior.Dichospasajesseter-Wminaron0sevolvieronaconectarcongalerlasconocidas,yunpasajecon-dujoaunanuevaentrada.Semapearontodoslospasajes.Enelladoorientaldelasierra,unsatanollamadoRoyadelaMinadeBaritaseexplora.Tiene40metrosdeprofundidad,sinpasajesenelfondo.mIlksllSIlSIIBIlSIlSIlSIlSIlSIlSIlSIIB!'SIIsdlBATSNEEDFRIENDS63

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AMCSCAVEMAPSYMBOLSPeter Sprouse and William RussellAcurrentlistoftheAMCSStandardCaveMapSymbolshasnotbeenpublishedsince1975(Russell,1975).Subsequentevolutionofthesymbolsisreflectedinthis1980list.Incompilingit,foremostconsiderationhasbeengiventothetechniquesofAMCScavemappersandtothecomponentsofmoderncavemaps.ArevisionoftheNSScavemapsymbolswaspublishedinApril,1979intheNSSBulletin,Vol.41,No.2,compiledlargelybyJamesHedges.Thislistcontainedmanyunconventionalsymbolsanddraftingtechniquesand waswidelyregardedasimpracticalbyAmericancavers.Itcontainedavastnumberofsymbolsforthingsrarelyencounteredincaves,withmostofthesymbolsbearingnovisualresemblancetowhattheyweresupposedtorepresent.AlthoughtheNSSlistiscurrentlyunderrevision,thereislittlehopeofmajorchanges.Therefore,cartographersareencouragedtoutilizetheAMCSlist.Itshouldbeusedasdesiredbythedrafter,whoisencouragedtousehisowndifferentorsupplementarysymbolsifneeded.EvolutionanduseofthesymbolsSomesymbolshavebeenchangedordeleted,andsymbolshavebeenaddedforobviousneeds.Butanattempthasbeenmadetokeepthelistconcise,andithasnotchangeddrasticallysincethefirsteditionin1965(Anon.,1965).Changes,64additions,andsuggestionsforusearediscussedintheordertheyappearinthelist.Thesymbolforlowerlevelpassagewalls,adottedline,hasbeenstretchedintoshortdashestohelpshowwallshapeandaidclarity.Asymbolforbreakdownwallshasbeenadded,whichisessentiallyonlyanexplicituseofthepassagewallsymbol.Ceilingheightandwaterdepthsymbolshavebeeneliminatedforseveralreasons.Thesefeaturesmaybestbeshownincrosssectionsandprofilesinaformthatconveysvastlymoreinformation.Theplanviewisintrinsicallynotdesignedtodisplaythesefeatures,andtheiruseinsidethepassagewallsdisplacesfloordetail,aprimaryfunctionoftheplan.Forthisreasonalso,theelevationaboveandbelowtheentranceshouldbeindicatedoutsidethepassagewallswhenpossible.Insurveyswhereloopsprovidestatisticalinformationonaccuracy,thestandarderrormaybeindicatedinparenthesiswiththeelevation.Arrowsindicatingairflowdirection,scallopdirection,orflowdirectionofalargestreamshouldalsobeoutsidethepassagewalls.Twonewwatersymbols:intermittentpools,andrapids(merelyanundulationinthewatersymbol).Thedepictionofwaterinabluescreenisdesirableandincreasinginuse.Whenbluescreenisused,rapidsmaybedepictedassmallparallelhachuresinsolidblue.Thefloorflowstonesymbolisincommonuse,andisbeingincreasinglyusedtoalsodepict

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thedirectionofslopeonflowstone.Rimstonedamsaredrawnwithboldlines,andshouldbedrawntotheircorrectshapeandscalewhenpossible.Theoldsolidblacksymbolforflowstoneonwallswasunpopularsinceittendedtoproduceadominant,lopsidedeffectonthemap.Itisreplacedwiththefloorflowstonesymbolattachedtothewall.Thestalactite,stalagmite,andsodastrawsymbolsremainunchanged,butagain,thesefeaturesmayagainbebestshowninprofilesandcrosssections,sotheiruseshouldbeminimized.Breakdownmaybedrawn"stacked"toindicateslope,andthelargerbreakdownblocksshouldbedrawntoscaleandshape,ratherthanastandardblockshape.Shadingorblockdetailmaybeshown,andifcoveredwithmud,guano,etc.,thesesymbolsmaybedrawn onthebreakdown.Thesymbolforsurveystationsshouldbeusedforthedatum,orveryimportantstations;thedepictionofallstationsdetractsfromtruefloordetailandisoflittleinteresttothereader.Atrailsymbolhasbeenaddedandisusefulincaveswheretherehasbeenmuchprehistoric(ormodern)use.Thesplayed"crow'sfoot"slopesymbolisanothersymbolthatlikeceilingheights,isbeingphasedoutofthemoderncavemap.Slopesarebestshownincrosssectionandprofile,andtheuseoftheslopesymbolinaplandisplacesfloorsymbolsthatdepicttheactualfloorcontent.Inlargeroomswithcomplexrelief,contourlineswithelevationsmaybeused.Asymbolfororganicdebrishasbeenadded;thedraftermaywishtodrawlargerbranchesandlogstoshapeandscale.Theuseofthegeologysymbolsincreasesthevalueofacavemap;theseshouldbemoreutilizedthantheyare.Again,thesegenerallyappearoutsidethepassagewalls.Suchbasicmapcomponentsasascaleandnortharrowhardlyneedpointingout;thisarticleisn'tintendedasacompleteguidetocavemapdrafting.However,webelievethatthesesymbolscanbeusedtoconstructa"stateoftheart"cavemap.Suchamapwouldhavethreeviews,allnecessaryfordepictingathreedimensionalcave:plan,profile,andcrosssections.Floordetailshouldbecomplete,withnoblankspotsinthepassage,forthereisasymbolforanyfloorcomposition.Theuseofgraphicsymbols(thatlooklikewhattheyrepresent)andthede-emphasisofnumbersandlettersinthedrawinghaveresultedinmoreinformativeandvisuallypleasingcavemaps.REFERENCESAnon.1965.AMCSNewsletter1:9:93.Russell,WilliamH.1975.AMCSMapSymbols.AMCSActivitiesLetterNo. 3:29.SimbolostopograficosEsteesunrevisiondelossimbolostopograficosdelaAMCS.Elart1culodescribelastecnicasdeconstruirmapasmodernasdecuevasconlossimbolos.La mapanecesitatenerdetallacompletadelpisoconsimbolosgraficos,enlugardenumeros0palabras.Tambiensenecesitalastresvistas:elplan,cortolongitudinal,ylasseccionestransversales.65

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P,\SSAGE SYMOOLS..'WATERsn1BOLSSTAL SY\lIlOLS,ASSOCIATIONFORMEXICAN CAVE STUDIES STANDARD CAVE MAP SYMBOLS,1980Lowerlevel pass.agcUpperUm:urvcycd passage;indefinitewallsBreakdownwallsSharpdropin flour,downinhatchureddirectionPit;jfsoindicated,entr
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CEILI'IGSnmOLSFLOORSY'IBOLS'ifxXx xx\".....GEOLOGYSY'IBOLSA25"\Sharpdropin ceiling,hatchurespointtowarulow ceilingDomeflour'ludordaySandor<;raIRoundedstreameobLIe:::Talll::iI1reakdowllureakduwn,drawn10shape<.tlld::icaleGuanuPotter)' orotherarcheologicalTrailSurveystation.surveydatumpointanrl dipofstrata;dip int1egrcl:sVp.rticaljointDippingjointFault,D sidemoveddownrelativetoU sideSIMBOLOS DELTECHOTechoLajoDomoSIMBOLOS DEL PISOPisodepiedraLodo.barroGravaGuijarrosPiedras RocasCantosrodadosGuanoMakriaarchcolog:icaPcndicnleMateria organicaVeredaESlaci6n topogrMicaSIMBOLOS DE GEOLOGIAEehadosFraduraFradurainclinadaFalla

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TheCavesofCuestaGeorgeVeniMexicohasbeenknownasthelandof"instantcaves."Rumorhasitthatit'shardnottofindacave,evenifyou'renotlookingforone!ThiswasthecaseinDecember,1979 whenScottHarden,GaryPooleandIwerecruisingalongHighway85inthestateofHidalgoandMr.Poolespokethosefatefulwords,"When wegetpastthistown,stopthecarsoIcangopee."Offhewentdownthehillsideandintothebushes.Carefulnottooffendthelocals,hekeptglancingtoeithersideuntilhefinallylookeddowntoseealargesink"takingwater."Checkingitout,hefoundthatasmallarroyoactuallydidfeedintothesinkandthatitspresentlydrywatercourseledtoasmallhole.Grinningliketheproverbialcheshirecat,hereturnedtothevehicleforalight.The3meterentrancechimneywasdescendedandfollowedashortwaytowhatappearedtobea 25meterpit.Exitingthecave,theland'sproprietorwasencounteredandhetoldusofa "masgrandecueva"acrosstheroadandupthehill.Thecavewasn'tquiteuptoitsdescription,butitwasnice;a 20meterrappelintoanovalroom,20by8meters.Atoneendaslopeleddown a5meterdrop,intoadry,decorated,terminalroom.Decidingtogetabetterlookatthefirstcave,weriggeda 40meterropeandwen t down.At25meterswefoundthatthe"bottom"wasactuallyalargeledge.Duetoitssteepoverhangingnature,thetruebottomcouldn'tbeseen.Anadded33 metersofropewastiedonandIcontinueddown.Aftergoingaways,Idecidedtostopandhaveagoodlookaround.Ahugeflowstoneshieldgraced68COloradatheoppositewallthatlay8to10metersaway.Incontrasttothefirst25metersofdrypitwalls,thingsherewerestartingtogetmoist.Poolsofwatercouldbeseenfarbelowonthefloor.Italsoappearedthatanotherlargepitborderedthefloorofthispit.Unfortunately,itcouldn'tbecheckedoutbecausetheendofallourropewashanging25to30metersabovethefloor.Aswedroveoffintothedarknight,weweremakingplanstoreturn.EarlyMay,1980,GaryandIreturnedwithTeeniKern.Ourfirstgoalwastobottomandsurveythisdeeppitcave.WehadnameditHoyadeCuestaColorada,afterthetownitislocatednear.Aswecarriedallourgeartothesink,theproprietor'sbrotherrandowntogreetus.Excitedbyourreturn,hewantedtoshowussomeothercaves.Hefirsttookustoacoupleholes,norealcaves;buthesoonmade upforitbytakingustoapitthatwas5metersindiameterandrockstossedinwouldbouncefor11-1/2seconds.Weestimatedittobeabout100metersdeep.Weweren'tabletocheckitoutthen,however,becauseourenthusiasticguidehadmorecavestoshowus,andthat'sjustwhathedidforthenextcoupledays.WespentmoretimelookingatcaveentrancesthangoingintothemandI'lladmitI wasstartingtogetabitflustered.Wedidn'twanttoberude,butwedidn'thavethatmuchtimeandwewantedtogetunderground.Besides,outofthemanycaveentrancesheshowedus,noneshowedanythingnearthepotentialoftheHoyaorthe100meterpit.Decidingtodothe100meterpitfirst,GaryandIrappelledtoasmallledgeabout17metersdown,

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Hidalgo,Mexicoidealizedprofiles;memorysketches:g.veni,9/30180bottom.Inviewofthesurfacecircumstances,mybeingalone,andthatwewereshortontime,Iturnedbackatthispoint.Otherthandoingthetwomaincaves,wesurveyedSotanitoSinFrenos,acaveneararoadwhosedrainageditchourcarrolledinto.Thecaveissimplya 22meterpitfollowedbyan8meterdroptoaterminalroom,notedforitsincrediblyhigharachnidpopulation.Whilebeingshownthemanycaves,weobservedthatmanylargekarstpinnacleshaveassociatedpitsattheirbase.Theonlyonewecheckedwas a15meterblindpit.An8metershaftonthesideofahugesinkdeadended,butthefloorofthesinkdroppedintoalargeopen-airpit.Fromthesurfaceitdidn'tseemtohaveanyoffgoingpassages,butitlookedlikeafunrappel.Acoupleofothercaveswerebrieflycheckedandlocationsweremadetovariouspitentrancesrangingfromabout8to25metersindepth.Wealsosawlotsofotherholesthatwedidn'tgetthechancetodrawup alocationmapfor.Sofar,r'dsaythatthisareahasonlytwomajorcavesandplentyofleads.TI10ughthecavesfromtheseleadsdon'tappearthatthey'llgofar,thereisonlyonewaytofindoutandthat'swhatcavingisallabout.Bigorsmall,thecavesofthisareapromisetogivethevisitorsomeeasygoing,interestingandfuntimes.HOYADECUESTA COLORADA(m)1151006080SOTANODElOSPARANOICOSthenIcontinuedtoalargerledgeatabout-80meters.Whilewaitingfortheotherstocome down, Inoticedsomecommotionfromabove.Itseemsthatoneofthelocals,fromthegatheringcrowd,hadgonetotheropeandstartedtoexamine(7)theknotwhilewewereonrope.LanguagedifferencesmadeitdifficultforTeenitoexerttheauthorityneededtopolitelykeepthepeopleawayfromtheropeandtheedgeofthepit.Knowing amalepresencewouldhaveastrongereffect,Garyclimbedout.Becauseofthisnervousincidentthepitwas namedSatanodelosParanoicos.Hopingthatthesituationabovewaswelltakencareof,Iproceeded25meterstothebottomofthepit.Fromtherea downwardslopeledtoaflat,dirtflooredchamberwithnoapparentleads.Itwasalsohometoasmallcolonyofvampires.Fromthisfirstexperience,wetriednottoattractacrowdwhenwewenttotheHoya.Wewereunsuccessful.Garyvolunteeredtostayatthetopofthepitandwatchtherope.Teeniwenttotheledgeat25meterstofacilitatecommunicationasIproceededtothebottom.Afinerappelwasspoiledwhenmy90meterropeprovedtobe3metersshortofreachingthefloor.Ofcourse,I wascarryinganextraropeforthepitIhadseeninDecember,butatthispoint,3 metersoffthefloor,I sawthatwasnosecondpit.What I sawfromfarabovewerelongshadowsoflargebreakdownblocksthatgavetheimpressionofanotherlargepit.Imaginethefrustrationoftyingonanother90meterrope,justtorappelthreemeters!Thecave'sdrainwasintoaseriesofshortfreeclimbabledrops.Atonepointitpinchedsmallandsomesharpprojectionshadtoberemoved. Evenenlarged,itstilltoreoffa fewshirtbuttonsandsomeskin.Iwentdownabout12metersbelowthemainpitandsawyetanotherfreeclimbofabout4meters.Thereappearedtobepassageatthe69

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fu'0''0'"..'0'"...'0''0''0''0'En1aregionde1aearreteraInteramerieana(85),eereadelpueblodeCuestaColoradaenelestadodeHidalgo,haynumerosascuevas.AlgunasWmdelasmasaprometadorasfueronexplorados.HoyadeCuestaColorada:Una8 8chimeneacortaconducea untirode90metros.Alfondo,hayunaseriedetiroscortosquesepuedenescalarenlibre.Exploracianfueterminadaenmmlabordede untirode4metros.SatanodelosParanoicos:Untirode 10088metrostieneunpisoplanosinpasajeslaterales.Unapequenacoloniademurcielagosvampiroshabitaelfondo.SatanosinFresnos:UntirodemWentradade 22metrosconducea untirode8metros.Alfondahayungranml'salonterminalconunagrancantidaddearacnidos.UnsatanograndeenunaIWinmensadolinafuevisto,peronoseexplora.8@.IElIIEl'IEll'81181'Ell18118118!18!IEl!18!18!illENTRANCEo481216PLANSotanitosinFrenosMunicipiod.Cut.Color.claHid.leo.M'eoSurv.y:T.an;K.rnGinI'Poole.DraftOct16.'80Caorg.VaniSuuntos&tapaSECTION24....70oMETERS4810283234

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SurnideroSanBernardoSteveKnutsonCanyonpassagelnSumideroSanBernardo.(ErnestoGarza)TheRlOZempoalaisthenorthernlimitoftheCuetzalancavingareainnortheastPuebla.TheverycavernousterrainaroundCuetzalanispartoftheslopeofthehighplateauofcentralMexicoasitisreducedtothecoastalplainbyriversliketheZempoala.Ifonetravelswest,southoftheZempoala,alongthisterrain,yougetoutofthewondrouskarstintonormalsurfacestreamvalleys.ThefirstoftheseisthevalleyoftheSanBernardo.InJanuaryof1980,wetookareconuptheZempoalaandretracedsomeofthestepsofDavidMcKenzie,whohaddoneasimilarreconyearsbefore.TheSanBernardohastheappearanceofanordinarystreamvalley.However,belowthetownofXochitlan,beforeitcanjointheZempoala,theSanBernardorunsintoasumidero.McKenziecalledthisCuetzalTemanas,butfolksatthelocalhaciendacallitSumideroSanBernardo,andsodowe.Thesumiderolookedlikea goodlittlecave,soBillLiebman,MaureenCavanaugh,andI moved camptoafieldneartheentranceandcommencedtoexploreit.Theentrancewasknowntohaveashortdropsowetookacoupleofshortropes.Thisfirstdropturnedouttobeabout7metersoverahugeboulderwedgedinthepassage.Beyondlayacathedral-likecorridorover26meterstallandsome 7to10meterswide.Thefloorissandywithlargeroundedboulders.Nowaterwasflowing;theflowoftheSanBernardowasapparentlybeingpiratedawayhigherupthevalley,but71

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guanoonsomebouldersindicatedseasonalflowatleastameterdeep.Thewallsaresmoothandvertical.ThisisnotthetypicalbedrockoftheCuetzalancaves,whichisthinnerbeddedandpronetobreakdown.Itappearedtobemetamorphosedintoonecompletebed,thougha2meterfossiliferousbandwasobviousinthesmoothwall.Wecontinuedpastasecondshortdrop,admiringtheeasy,magnificentpassage.Acouplehundredmeterstookustoasomewhatdeeperdrop.Athrownrocktookasecondorsotoproduceanechoingsplash.The 8meterrappeltookonetoaledgebesideabroad,silentlake.Twoswimsandwewereagainmovingdownourfinepassage.Soon,though,itabruptlybroadened,dividedbyalargephreaticarchandslopeddownsteeplytoasecondlake.Theedgewas twometershigh,andoverhung.Wewereoutofrope.ThenextdaywewerejoinedbyAlejandroVillagomezandreturnedtothecavewithmorerope.Thelake,whichlookedsodeep,provedtohaveasandybottomandwasneveroveryourheadindepth.Attheothersidewasa7meterdrop.Beyondthis,weranintowatershoweringdownandthepassagecamealivewiththesoundsofflowingwater.A4meterdropledtoalongswim. Thepassagethenbecameabsolutelycharming,withplungepools,smoothsurfaces,waterfallsandthesamegrandsize.Withnoropeleft,weweresoonlookingdown a5meterdropneedingaboltorpiton.Thecaveconsistentlyshowedsignsoflargevolumeflowwithallsurfacesroundedandsmooth,hugeplungepoolsandnonarrowcanyons.Certainlyitwas72BillLiebmanInSumideroSanBernardo.(ErnieGarza)

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showingmoreresistancetoexplorationthanwehadexpected.Twotripshadgottenusonlyalittleover500metersandused5ropes.ThecavewasheadingfortheprecipitouscanyonoftheRionotfaraway.MaureenandIhada goatreachingthebutthe"trail"wefolloweddownforahundredmetersorrequiredtheuseofvinesforverticalhandlineandwegaveup.OnJanuaryErnieGarzatookAlejandro'splaceandwepushedon.Theswimbelowthe5meterdropledtoaturninthepassageandfromthereyoucouldseedaylightwehadathrutrip!Acouplemoredropshadtobedoneandbythetimewereachedourdaylighthadfadedtonight.Thecavebrokeoutonasmallshelfofthesheercanyon.MaureenandItriedtodescend.Toonesidewasasmallareaofcoffeebutsearchingdidnotproducethetrail.Therewerecliffsaboveandtoallsides.Ohthecavehadtobederiggedanyway.SumideroSanBernardoisanextremelyspiritualthrutrip.Thecaveis(only600metersbuthas10shortropedropsand5moredropsrequiringhandlines.These15dropsneedseveralpitonsandandthereareseveralswims.Boththecaveandthecanyonitemptiesintoaremagnificent.SteveKnutsoninSumideroSanBernardo.(BillLiebman)181IEll18118118118!18118118!181 18118118131SumideroSanBernardoGWSumideroSanBernardoestalocalizadodebajodelpueblodePuebla.EIsumideroesunacuevagrandeconmuchostirosensudescensoWI8queterminaenunaentradabajaenelcanondelRloAteno.Elautorde-scribeladiciendoqueesmuytieneparedespisosare-Gm,largoytiene15tirosquerequierenelusodevariospitonesyclavijasWdeexpansion.Tambienhaylagunasdondeesnecesarionadar.818!18118118118118118118118118118118118!m73

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SHORTPENETRATION SUMP DIVINGBillStoneA fewyearsagotherewas apopularsloganinAustin,"A sumpisGod'swayoftellingyouthecaveendsthere."Thoughitseemedlikegoodcommonsenseatthetime,cavinghaschangedconsiderablysincethen-teamsnow commonlywearfullwetsuits,andusedualmountingsforcarbideandelectriclights.Longdurationundergroundcampsarebeingutilizedfordeepassaults.Climbersarescalingunderground"bigwalls."Cavingcanbeahighlytechnicalsportthecuttingedgeofwhichiscloselydependentontheavailabletechnologyanditsadaptabilitytomeetaspecificchallenge.Ofallthe"secondary"explorationtechniquesbeingusedbycaversthesedaysnoneismorecontroversialthansumpdiving.Thisstemsfromthefactthatitiscloselyrelatedtocavedivinganditslonghistoryoffatalities.True,sumpdivingdoesinvolvetheuseofsimilartechnology,buttheobjectivesandpersonnelinvolvedarequitedifferent.The sumpdiverisacaverwhoishopingtobreakintocontinuingairspace.Thecavediverisadiverwhoexploresunderwatercaves.Thedistinctionisaprofoundone.Withnorestrictionsonportability,cavedivershavebeenabletodevelopsoundmethodsforsafelyeffectingexplorationsoflong(upto3kilometers)anddeep(upto107meters)underwatercaves.Thereisstill,however,arelativepaucityofinformationonwhattechniquesarebestforsumpdiving,owinglargelytothefactthattherearestillonlya fewseriousgroupsofsumpdiversinthe74U.S.Weareatanevolvingstateoftheartwherethelimitsofwhathasbeen"acceptable"arebeingchallenged.Atimelyforumofideasandrebuttalisthuswarranted.Thefollowingdiscussiondealswiththeveryspecializedtopicofshortpenetration,deepcavesumpdiving,andtheevolutionofideasonhowtodoitwiththeleastamountofhassle.Inessence,thegoalhasbeentoachievethe"qualitypoke,"onestepinrangebeyondfreesumpdiving.Thequalitypoke.Thatnotiondroppedintoyourmindeverytimeyourappelledintotheso-called"terminalsump"whichpunctuallyendedsomanydeepsystems.Someofthem,ofcourse,werequiteterminal-thekindofsubmergedmudplugsthatrequiredtheflipofacointoseewhowouldcheckitout.Thekindwhereeveryonebreathedasighofreliefwhenthesludgeencrustedchosen-oneflashedbackathinsmile,eyebrowscreased,andsaid,"Yep,terminal.Guessweoughttoderig,huh?"Itwasthoseoneswhereyoucouldseethecrystalgreenfluidrecedingbeneathabroadarchedceiling...theoneswiththecleangravelfloors...thatdroveyounuts!The more ambitioustypes-notablyJimSmithinthesoutheast-begancarryingmasksasstandardequipment.Freesumpdivingbecameanacceptable,ifnotrespected,art.Butthishaditslimitations-a twotofivemeterpenetrationwasaboutthesafelimitononebreathofair.Eventhenyouranaheavyrisk.Youcouldpopupintoanairbellfilledwithbadair(suchasthe

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oneinLangstrothPotinEnglandwhichclaimedthreelivesin1976),oryoumightgetmomentarilystuckcountingdownthosepreciousseconds.Meanwhile,cavediversinFlorida-SheckExley,JohnZumrick,CourtSmith,andothermembersoftheNSSCavingDivingSection-wereroutinelyeffectingkilometerpenetrationsintothelargespringsystemsthere.InColorado,NormPace,TornTaylor,JimPisarowiczandcrewwereworkingonthesump 4inSpringCave.SCUBAappearedtobeanattractivemeansofforgingbeyondthefreediveradiusfordeepcavesumpdiving.Itwasalsoclear,however,thatthetechnologywhichtheyhadsosuccessfullyappliedtothebigspringsofFloridawouldnotworkinmanydeepcavesituations.Thetwinhard-lined100cubicfoottanksusedbytheFloridadiversweighedwellover100pounds-aratherponderousloadtobeferrying43pitchesinandoutfroma sumpat-800meters.Addtothisanother50or70poundsofperipheralequipment-fins,foursourcesoflight(thelargerprimarylampsusedinFloridacanweighupto20pounds),linereel,regulators,etc.-andyouwindupwithaseriouslogisticaldilemma:howwillyougetitalltotheobjective?EnterSpringCave,Colorado.SumpI,wheretheyfirstbeganthedivingeffort,isapproximatelytwokilometersfromtheentrancethroughsomearduousterritory,albeithorizontal.TheColoradocavers'planevolvedintoaseriesofmini-weekend-expeditionsoftheclassicalBritishcharacter:10ormore"Sherpas"hadtoberoundedupsoastoferrythedivinggearintoSumpI.ThingsbecamemorecomplexwhenSumpIV wasreached.Then,miniexpeditions,includingdivingsherpas,hadtobeorganizedtostagemajormini-expeditionpenetrationdives.VariousdifficultieswithsherpaorganizationatSpringCaveleftCarryingSherwoodsteel15cubicfoottankat-700minSanAgustin.usallabitpensive.Clearlyitwasgoingtobeanon-trivialmattertocoerce20gunghosherpastoleavetheirjobsforthreemonthsandgleefullycarrythoselong,metalcylindersto-800meters.Mosttimeswewereluckytofield5to8,includingthedivers.Thedescentwasnotallthatbad,mindyou.Itwastheahh...weightofthematter...thatfirstcaughtyourimagination(andbreath)whenitbecametimetoderig.ItgaveyouawinkofaninsightintowhatmotivatedtheunusualassaulttacticsusedfortheFrenchdivingefforts75

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atthe-1122metersumpintheGouffreBergerduringthemid1960s.SCUBAtanks,beingtheheaviestitemintheirinventory,becameexpendable,andwereconveniently"stored"atthebottomofthesumpfollowingtheBeingconservationminded,aswellasmonetarilyconscious,disposabledivegearnevercaughtoninAustin.Whichbringsusbacktocarryingallthatmetalout.Thelogicalsolutionwastolightentheloadbyremovingallnon-essentialitems,andusesmallertanks.Handinhandwiththiswenttheunderstandingthattheequipmentforthreediversweighed50%morethanthegearfortwodiversand300%morethanthegearfordiver.Theideaofsolocavedivinghasalwaysbeenoneofthosenot-tobe-discussedtaboosamongthesportdivingcommunity.Certainly,itisnottoberecommendedofficially,andbuddydivingshouldbeadheredtowheneverfeasible.Butthefactsarethatthemajorityoftheserioussumpdiversintheworldtoday-theonesdoingtheoriginalexploratorywork-willconfirmthattheyprefertodivesolowhenlayingalineintovirginterritorywheremaybeaproblem.Anyone whohashadtoworryaboutwhata"buddY"wasdoinginazerovisibilitysiltoutinconstrictedquarterscanappreciatethestatement.Additionally,divingsoloactuallyincreasesthediver'sairreservesafetyfactorwhenusingthethirdrule.The waytherulenormallyworksisthatthediveiscalledwhenthefirstdiverreaches2/3ofhisstartingpressure,readfromasubmersiblegauge.Onehalfofwhatisleftshouldbeenoughtogeteachdiverout.Theremainingisincasethereturnisslow,orforyourbuddy,shouldhislifesupportmalfunction.Whendivingsolo,thisextraairconstitutesahighersafetymarginsincetheprobabilityofhavingtobuddybreatheiszero.Forshortpenetrationsumpdiving,thisextramarginmaybecriticalsince76anydelaywillconsumealargerpercentageoftheairsupplyinasmalltank.AtthetimeIbegandivingitwascommonpracticetouseoneback-mountedtankwithoneregulatorandsub-gauge.Theideaofsolodivingwithsuchequipmentimmediatelybeckonedthequestion:"Supposeitwasyourgearthatmalfunctioned?"Thisleftmewonderingforsometime,untilonedayMike Boonhappenedtopassthroughtown."So,Ihearyou'vetakenup sumpdiving,"hesaid,raisinghisthick,blackrimmedglassesandrubbingashortstubbleofabeard,"dangerousstuffyouknow."AsInodded,hepointedabonyfingerattheTexasemblemonmyT-shirtandcautioned,"Well,youhadbestgetitrightthen."Boon,forthosewhohavenevermetthefellow,orreadanyofhisbooks,isanengagingBritishCanadianwhoseinternationalcavingescapadesspanmorethanascoreofyears.PerhapsmostnotablyhewasBritian'sbestsumpdiverthroughoutmostofthe1960s.Boon'ssystemforsumpdivingcalledforusingtwocompletelyindependent,hip-mountedairsupplies."Thekeyisredundancyyouunderstand,"helectured,"theoddsofbothofthemgoingonthesamedivearequitesmall.""You moun tthemonyourhips,likethis...see,"hemotioned,positioningthebottominaholster-likefashion,"fortworeasons.Firstitgivesyoualowerdivingprofile,andsecond,perhapsmoreimportantly,youcaneasilyreachthevalveshouldyoursecondstagefreeflow-veryimportantwithsmalltanks,youknow.I'veknownofchapsturningthemonandoffallthewayoutwhensiltcloggedtheregulator."Meanwhile,analternatesolutiontotheredundancyproblemhadrecentlybeendevelopedinFloridabyNSSdivers.Insteadofthestandarddoubletankyoke-whichallowedforonlyonefirststagetobeattached-a"DualValveManifold"wasdesignedinwhichtwoindependentwereattachedto

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theyoke,eachcapableofaccessingtheentireairsupply(bothtanks),evenifoneregulatorwereturnedoff.Althoughthissystemwasactuallysaferthantwoindependenttanks-ifthefirststageononeofthetanksjammedyoucouldnotaccessthatreserveair-itwaslogisticallyunacceptable.Singletanksareeasier(andsafer)tohandleinruggedterrain.Intheory,asitisyetuntested,theinher-entsafetyoftheDualValveManifoldcouldbeobtainedwithsingletanksbyusing"slingshot"Y-typevalves(insteadofthestandardK-valves),andlinkingthemtogetherwithaflexible,highpressureequalizeratthesump.Bothitemsarecurrentlyavailableonthecommercialmarket.Asforairconsumption,the"British"methodallowedforonehalfofthestartingpressureononetank(eachtankhasacompleteregulatorandsub-gauge)tobeusedbeforecallingthedive.Onewouldthusreturnwithacompletelyfullbackuptankundernormalcircumstances.MostBritsdiveddual"40s,"butweconsideredthistobetooweightyfortheshortdiveswehadinmind,preferringinsteadtousetwoofthemuchlighter15cubicfootcapacity"pony"tanks.Giventheshortdurationoftheairsupplyforthesetanks,a moreconservativerationingschedulewasadopted:a"1/6rule"wherebyonly1/3ofonetankisusedforexplorationbeforethediveiscalled.Undergoodconditions(clearwater,nosilt,finsforpropulsion),thisgivesthedivera5to7minutepenetrationradius,whichcanbeasubstantialdistance(upto100meters)atshallowdepth.Thisradiuscanbeextendedwithminimalextraweightby"overfilling"thetanksto150%oftheratedcapacity.A2250psitankwouldthusbefilledtoslightlyover3000psi,withtheblowoutdiskspluggedtopreventleakage.Althoughthismayappeartobeanalarmingproceduretosome,hydrostaticultimatestrengthtestsindicatethatpres-Zemanmounting15cubicfootsteeltankforportagingto861m sumpinSanAgustin.Quickreleaseseatbeltsareusedforfasteningthetanks.Duringadivethetankismountedathiplevel.suresashighas10,000psicanbetoleratedbeforeruptureofa 2250psiratedsteeltank.EngineersattheLuxferCo.statedthat5625psiwastheabsoluteminimumultimatepressureachievedfortheiraluminumtanks(2015psirated),andthatduringtherequiredhydrostatictestthatalltanksmustundergoeveryfiveyears,pressuresreach5/3oftheratedvalue,or3750psi.Itistobeemphasizedthatthis3houldbedoneonlywithrelativelynew,cleantanks.Weightwise,the7pound"Luxfer"2015psialuminumtank(15cu.ft.)istobepreferredoverthe8.5pound"Sherwood"3300psisteeltank.Itis77

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alsomucheasiertoobtainthe150%overfillintheformercasesincemostdiveshopsarenotyetcapableofpumping5000psipressures.Thealuminumtanks,althoughlighter,areatleast50%morebulkythanthesteeltanks.Insomecases,theuseofthelowerprofiletankmaybejustified.Therearea fewcaveatstobebroughtupconcerninghighpressuretanks.Forone,itmaynotbepossibletofindacooperativediveshoptodoanoverfill,despitethedatapresentedabove.Whendealingwith3000psipressuresinthealuminumtanks(2015psirated),therewillbelittleproblemwithusingoff-the-shelfregulators.The jumpto4000andeven5000psi,tothecontrary,hasaprofoundeffect.TheTeflonpistonseatsforthefirststageofa 3000psiratedregulatorcanwearout,andbegintoleakseriouslyinfewerthantentankfills.Worse,however,isthefactthattheyolk-typearrangementwhichcoupletheregulatortothetankissubjecttorelativelylargedeflectionsunderhighpressure.Theyolksaredesignedforwhatisknownasa"plasticyield,"thatistosaynotabrittlerupture.Ifextremecareisnottakenintheseatingoftheregulator(tightenscrews,pressurizeto3000psi,release,retightenscrews,pressurizeto4000psi,etc.upto5000psi)thepossibilityisgoodforblowingthemainO-ringpressuresealiftheregulatorisbangedduringthecourseofthedive...withratherdisastrousconsequences.TheonlysystempresentlyonthemarketthatcansolvethisproblemisthePoseidonhighpressurevalveandregulatorthatareratedto6000psioperatingpressures.Inthissystemthefirststageisactuallyscrewedintothevalve-noyolkassemblyisused.AllmajorSCUBAmanufacturersintheU.S.haveprototypesystemssimilartothispresentlyonthedrawingboards,ashighpressuretechnologywillbethenextstepforwardinSCUBAduringthe1980s.78ItisinterestingtonotethatsystemsverysimilartothedualponytankmethodmentionedabovewereindependentlydevelopedandusedrecentlybyBelgiancaversoftheG.S.A.B.(EtienneDegrave)todivethesumpat-970metersinSchneeloch(Austria),andbyFrenchcavers(FredericsPoggiaandVergier)todivethe-1077metersumpintheSimaGESM(Spain).Thebasicphilosophyappearstobethesame:alimitedpenetrationdivecanbesafelyeffectedwithaverysmallteamatgreatdepth.Thebenefitsofsuchtacticsarethreefold:Ifa sumpturnsouttobeshort(lessthan10meters),ahandlinecanberiggedforequipmenthaulingandfreediving.Ifthesumpcontinuesbeyondthepenetrationlimititsexactnaturecanbeascertainedforplanninga moreseriouseffort.Andlastly,derigginglogisticshavebeenminimized.Withtheairsupplyoutoftheway,a fewothermodificationsweremadetolessentheperipheralequipmentload.Wheat Lamps(Koehler)havebeenusedforprimarydivelightssince1978foralldeepsystemdivesinvolvingU.S.cavers.SimilarlightsareregularlyusedbybothBritishandEuropeansumpdivers.Eithertwoorthreeoftheseweremountedonastandardcavinghelmet.Thissystemoflightingoffersnumerousadvantagesforshortpenetrationdivesoverthelargehand-heldmodelsusedinFlorida;thehelmetnotonlyprotectsthediverfromanunpleasantraptothehead,butitalsofreesthehandsfortheintricatemaneuversmorelikelytobeencounteredina sumpthaninabigspring.Eachlamphasatwinfilamentbulbsothatintherareeventofaburnoutoneneedonlytofliptheswitch.Thebulbsthemselveshavebeentestedto70meterwaterdepthswithnoilleffects.Althoughtheheadpiecewillleakwateratexcessivedepths,thiswillnotcausefailureofthelight,providedtheworkingpartsandcontactsarecleanedandgreasedbeforeeachmajordive.

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techniquemaybequiteuseful.Duetothelightnessofthetanks,andtheliftgivenbythewetsuit,thediverwillalmostalwayshavepositivebuoyancy.Forthissituation,itispossible,toflipupside-downandcrawlalongtheroofforpropulsion,providedthatceilingsiltingisnotamajorproblem.Thistechniquehasanumberofadvantages.Allairbellswillbeeasilylocated;thedepthofthedivewillbeminimized(thusilicreasingtheallowableduration);andbottomsiltingwillbeavoided.Ifthediverfindsthathemustdecreasebuoyancy,thereis,technically,onlythealternativeofcarryinginleadweightsandaBuoyancyCompensator,orifheisnotgreatlypositivebuoyant,tuckinganappropriaterockunderthewetsuittoachievethesameeffect.Theformersolutionmaybeadifficultitemtoselltothesherpas.Asforthefuture,wecancountontechnologicalimprovementstoenablebolderexplorationsthanheretoforeachieved.Highpressure,lightweightFiberglassandKevlarwrappedtanks-suchasthoseusedontheSpaceShuttle-maybeadaptabletocavediving.Hundredcubicfoottanksweighinglessthan20poundswillbeavailablesoon.Andthatwillmarktheadventofthegoldenageofdeepcavediving.Theabovedataispresentedforreferenceonly.Itisunlikelythatonewouldwanttogo muchdeeperthan10meterswithponytanksonashortpenetrationdive.Atshallowdepths,theWheatLampcanactuallybemadewatertight.ThespecialemphasisplacedhereonusingtheWheatLampisduetothefactthatmosteveryoneon adeepcavingteamwillalreadybeusingoneforregularcaving,andtheyneedonlytobepooledforthediverwhenthesumpisreached.Thus,noextraprimarylightshavetobecarriedin.Thisdoesnotpreclude,however,thenecessityofhavinganadditionaltwoorthreesecondarylightsalong.Commerciallightweightmodelssuchasthe"Tekna-lite"andthe"SuperQlight"arepreferable.Thelastitem,oneofsomecontroversy,ispropulsiontechnique.Themethodtobeusedon ashortpenetrationdivingeffortwilldependagreatdealonthenatureofwhatmustbetraversedonthewaytothesump,andduringthediveitself.Thereisnoquestionthatfinswillgivethediverathreefoldincreaseinpenetrationradius,providedthesumpisalargeone.Intight,awkward sumpstheymaybemoreofahinderancethanastrategicedge;bothfromtheirsizeandtendencytostirupsilt.Iffinsarenotused,thefollowingalternativepropulsionNote:Commentsandsuggestionsontheabovearticleareencouraged.Forfurtherreadingonthegeneralsubjectofcavedivingthereaderisreferredto"BasicCaveDiving-aBlueprintforSurvival"bySheckExley,availablefromtheNSSCaveDivingSection,10259CrystalSpringsRoad,Jacksonville,Florida32221.IElIIElIIElIlEI!lEI!IElIlEI!lEI!IElI1(;)1lEI,Espe/eobuceoillEsteartfculodiscutelastecnicasqueseestanusandoyill(;]desarrollandoparabucearatravesdesifones.Laslogfsticas(;]detravesdecuevasprofundasrequierenelusodelucesytan-illquespequenosylivianos.ill(;J(;]bEllIElI1(;)1lEI!lEI!IElI1(;)1IElIIElIlEI!IElIIEld79

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80CerrodelaSilleta.(PeterKeys)LASILLETAGatewayto the Xilitla Plateau

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CerrodelaSilleta,theMatterhorn-likepinnacleaboveXilitla,SanLuisPotosl,isawellknownlandmarktocavers.ThekarstoftheXilitlaareawas amongthefirstvisitedbyTexascavers,andit'sstillnotuncommontorunintooneoftheminthestreetsofXilitlatoday.Afterthesuccessfulexplorationof488meterdeepSotanodeTlamayaintheearlysixties,caverslookedtowardthehighplateauaroundLaSilleta.OnDecember22,1966 areconnaissanceteamofDannyEvans,KirkHolland,KenKrans,RichardSchreiber,andTony ThompsonsetoffforLaSilletawithaguidewhosaidheknewofadeepsotanonocavershadeverseen.Along,steephikebroughtthemtoanimpressivepitentranceintheshadowofLaSilleta.ThegroupreturnedtwodayslatertoexploreSotanode LaSilleta,pushingthecavedowntoapinchatanestimateddepthof215meters.ReturntripstotheLaSilletaareain1967,1968,and1969resultedinthediscoveryofseveralmorecaves,includingSotanodelaNavidad,awetmulti-dropfissurecavewhichwassurveyedtoadepthof200meters.Sotanode LaSilleta,however,wasnotsurveyed.NocavingexpeditionsreturnedtoLaSilletaforelevenyears.OnMarch28,1980,anAMCSgroupreturnedtohikeintothehighlandstomapSotanode LaSilleta,toseeifitcouldbepusheddeeper,andtolocateanynewcaves.DonBroussard,LeslieClairfield,DavidHonea,PeterKeys,DalePate,PeterQuick,Randy Rumer,TerriTreacy,andmyselfleftourvehiclesatthephosphatemineaboveTlamayaandpackedup awestwardtrailtowardstheplateau.WepassedthroughthesmallvillagesofSanPedroandLaTinajaaswedreweverclosertothetoweringLaSilleta.WepausedforacervezainEjidoLaSilleta,locatedinaflatflooreddolina800metersPeterSprousebelowthepeak.Abouthalfwayupthefinalclimbtothepeak,welocatedGrutadelaNavidad,a 200meterlong,horizontalcaveusedbythepreviousexpeditionsasacamp,andalsoourobjectivefortheday.Wefoundittobeanice,flatflooredentrancepassage,ampletohouseourwholecrew.Thecavehadawellusedfeeltoit--hundredsofpotsherdslitteredthefloor.WelaterdiscoveredthatthelocalnameforthiscaveisCuevadelosMuertos.Thefollowingmorning,welocatedaguidefromtheejido,GregorioGalfan,whowouldguideusuptothesotanoandalsoguideustothetopofLaSilleta.Gregoriosaidhehadguidedclimbersupbeforewhichsurprisedus,astheascentlookedtrickyatbest.Afterbreakfast,allofus,butDaleandRandy,hikedupthesteeptrailwhichledthefinal300metersuptherimoftheplateauitself.Thevegetationontheplateau(2000meterselev.)waslesstropicalthanlowerdown;tallhardwoodsandpineswereabundant.Gregorioshowedusasmallcaveabout500meterseastofLaSilletahecalledCuevadelSilgero,thentookusontotheentranceofSotanode LaSilleta.Thehighsideoftheentranceisundercutforabout15metershorizontally,thendropsverticallyinheavilyflowstonedwalls.Weleftaduffleofropeswe'dneedforthenextday'ssurveytripandsetoffforthetopofLaSilleta,200metershigher.Atrailledaroundthesouthsideandswitchbackedup,gettingprogressivelysteeper.Atonlyonepointwas aropereallyuseful,andsoonwereachedthefalsewestsummit.Ourmountaineeringguideledusalongthewindy,knifeedgetothesummitwhereanorgyof"sununitshot"picturetakingensued.Theviewwasspectacular.WecouldseenorthtoTamapatzandthevalleyinwhichliesSotanodelasGolondrinas.Eastlaythecoastalplain.Tothe81

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EntranceshaftofSotanodeLaSilleta.(DonBroussard)southwecouldseelimestonekarstbeyondTamazunchalewhichledovertowardsCuetzalan.JustbelowusweretwofunnelshapeddolinascontainingSotanodelaNavidadandCueva(notSotano)deLaSilleta.Andtothewest,wasthekarstoftheXilitlaPlateau,graduallyclimbingsome 800metersaboveus.Gregorioandsomeofhiscompanionswhohadjoinedussaidtheyknewofadeeppitabout2kilometerstothewest,sowesetoffwiththemtoseeit.Ontheway,wewereshownanothercavecalledCuevadelosLadrones.Itconsistedofalarge,slopingpassage,70meterslong,leadingtoaflat,mudfloorwitha fewpoolsatthedepthof36meters.Onfurther,82weencounteredasmallloggingcampwithatreehut,whichinspiredthename"CuevadelosVietCong"forasmallcavethatwelocatednearby.Furtherprogressonvaguetrailsgotustotheirpit,calledSotanodelTigre.Itwasalargefissurepitwithadoubleentrance.Wecouldwalkdownpartwayintotheeasthole,butwerestoppedataverticalpitchofaround30meters.Wemade asketchofwhatwecouldsee,butnevergotbacktothispittodo aproperexploration.WesplitintotwosurveyteamsforthemappingofSotanode LaSilleta.RandyRumer,PeterKeys,andPeterQuickweretoproceedtothemiddleofthecaveandmaptothebottom,whileDavidHonea,TerriTreacy,andIsurveyedinfromtheentrance.Wedroppedaminusninetydegreeshotfor51.6metersandrappelleddowntheentrancedrop,spectacularlyadornedwithhugedraperiesandstalactites.AsIsketchedtheflowstoneflooroftheentrancechamber,DavidandTerriuncoveredseveralnewtroglobiticspeciesinthewashed-insurfacedebris.Twostalagmiteswereencounteredatthetopofaslopingflowstonehandlinedrop.Aledgetraverseontheleftledtoashortsidepassageandabalconyoverlookingthehandlineslope,providinganexcellentvistaofthespaciousentranceroom.Atthebottomofthe20meterhandline,thepassageabruptlyconstricteddowntoahalfmeterdiameterhole.Areasonablebreezeandasmall,butcold,streamofwatertumbleddown a7meterdrop.Thebottomteamhadwetsuits,butwedidnot,andthecavetemperaturewas asurprisinglycold11.5Celsius.Onanarrowledgebelow,welookedatasmallroomofftotherightandrappelleddownanother7meterdrop,basicallyacontinuationoftheoneabove(kindlyriggedbythebottomAtthislevel,wedidasideshotintoacircularmudflooredroom 12metersindia-

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SotanodeLaSilletaXllltla,SLP,MexIco$uuntosandtapesurvey30March1980David Honea, Peter Keys. Peter Quick. Randy Rumer. Peter Sprouse.TerriTreacyAMeSDrawingbyP.Keys.R.Rumer.P,SprouseDraftingbyP.SprousePlottingbyEllipseLength:638m Depth:191m,4>,noSo, ",.'6::::,:

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meter.Afurther6meterdropandflowstoneclimbdowntiedusintotheotherteam'ssurveyatahorizontalstreampassage.Wemetthemreturningfromhavingmapped 80metersupstream,pasttwosmallsideleads,toaflowingsumpwithaclimbingleadonthefarside.Weagreedtosurveytheseleadswhilethewetsuiterspushedonintotheincreasinglywetcave.The twosideleadsendedshortly,andwepassedupthewadetoreachtheclimbinglead.Itappearedtogo,however,andpineneedlesinthestreamsuggestthatitcouldleadtoanotherentrance.ThispassagewenamedtheBlindwormRiver,foritslarge,white,aquaticearthworms.Thebottomteammapped 250metersfurthertotwoterminalbreakdownpinchesat192metersbelowtheentrance.Oursurveylinethroughthecavewas638meterslong.Inourremainingfewdaysontheplateau,wesurveyedseveralcavestothesouthandwestofLaSilleta,includingCuevadeLaSilleta.DonandDavidmapped 150metersinthiscavetoahalfsubmerged,tightconstriction.Astrongbreezeindicatedthatthisconstrictionmightbeworthpushing.ClosebyourbasecampatGrutadelaNavidadwas100meterlongCuevadeAgua,whereweobtainedourdrinkingwaterinpoolsneartheentrance.WhileatthebackofthecaveaddinginformationtoRonBridgemon'smap, Inoticedastrangething.Awelldecoratedstoopwayloweredtoanapparentendinamudfloor,buttherushofafaststreamcouldplainlybeheardbeyond.Certainlyapromisingdigginglead.Peter,Peter,andLesliereturnedtothewestofLaSilletatomapSatanodelTigre,failedtolocateit,andinsteadfoundaninterestingcaveinanarroyo.Containingmanypotsherdsandbones,thecavewas namedCuevadelosAntiguos.Peter,Peter,andDonstayedtomapAntiguoswhiletherestofusbeganourhikedownthemountain.InLaTinaja,DavidandIobtainedaguidetoshowusapitwe'dheardof500metersnorthofthevillage.ItwascalledSatanodeElRanchito.Wefoundittobealargediameterpitdroppingwhatlookedtobe50metersorsointoalarge,welldecoratedpassagegoingtwodirections.ThiswouldbeagooddaylongmappingprojectaccessiblefromtheTlamayaMineroad.".""."'''',.,'"',.,La;';/Iet:"""'"',.,'G''C"8EstearticulodiscutelaexploracionylevantamientodevariascuevasdebajodelpinaculodeCerrodelaSilleta.SatanodeLaSilletafueex-illillploradaporlaprimeravezen1966,peronofuemapeadahasta1980.La88bellaentradadetravertinatiene51.6metrosdeprofundidad.Atreintametrosporenzimadecantosrodadoshayuntiroempinadode20metros.Elill illpasajebruscamenteseencojehaciaunaestrechurademediometroendia-8 8metro.Dostiroscortosyunadesescaladaconducena unpasajehorizontalconunchorro.Ochentametrosaguasarribaelpasajeterminaenunsifan.illillUndomoaltoarribadelsifanaparececontinuarmasperonofuerevisado.8Aguasabajodelchorroelpasajecontinua250metrosmas yterminaenunIcantorodado.Lacuevatiene192metrosdeprofundidad,con638metrosilldelongitud.Latemperaturaregistradafuede11.SoC.Tambienlevantaronml'variasotrascuevas,inclusivalaCuevadeLaSilletade150metrosdeilllongitud.8lSIIS!lSIlSilSIlSIlSIIS!IEIIIEli101lEI!IElI11:10

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XILITLA,SLP,MEXICOSUUNTOSAND TAPE SURVEY 1 DON BROUSSARD. DAVID HONEA.--airllowE__largebonefragments.iskull.bonesSILLETAAPRIL1980LADELENGTH:166mDEPTH:43mCUEVAo102030401IIII.0METERSEXTENDEDPROFILEMETERS0...t--airllow'0203040 43@1980PeterSprousepss8-80

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Computer Drawn Passage WallsDavidMcKenzieRecently,whileinspectingtheexistingmapofPowell'sCave,Texaswiththethoughtof"computerizing"thedata,Inoticedthatthepassagesweresufferingfromaself-avoidancesyndrome.Differentpartsofthis16kilometerlongcrawlway-mazewouldencroacheachotheronthemap,butinsteadofjoiningneatly,thepassagesoneachsidewouldsuddenlyjustfadeaway,perhapsoverlappingfirstasifondifferentlevels.Youwouldrecognizethephenomenonif,likePeteLindsley,youhaveevertriedtocoordinatetheeffortsofmanysurveyingteamsinalargecaveoveraperiodofyears.Inthiscase,Petewasunwillingtoseverelydistortnewsurveystomakethemfittheextensivedrawingsalreadymadeonhismastermap.Soinfacttheydonotfit.Oneofmyinterestsduringthepastseveralyearshasbeenindevelopingacomputerprogram,ELLIPSE,formanipulatingcavesurveydata.ItispresentlybeingusedformostAMCSmappingprojects.Onemightexpectthatamoderncomputersystem(unavailabletothePowell'sCavesurveyors)wouldhaveeliminatedthekindofproblemdescribedabove.Now,withtheadditionofnewsurveystoaproject,alloftheexistinginformationcanbeexaminedforconsistencyandthen"averaged"inastatisticallyappropriateway.Nolongerdowehavetheconfusioncausedby"closingloops"sequentially--anarchaicmethodwithvirtuallynoadvantages.Unfortunately,eventhoughELLIPSEwilldosimultaneousadjustmentsanderroranalysesofthelargestnetworks,itstillturnsoutthatdraftedversionsofmajorcave86systemshardlyeverreflectthemostrecentstationlocationestimates.Forexample,ifyouoverlayPeterSprouse'spencildraftofSistemaPurificacionwiththelatestcomputerplotofthebaseline,therewillbesignificantdisagreement.Obviously,nooneisgoingtoredrawlargeportionsofhismapeachtimea newadjustmentchangestheexistingbaseline.Thecomputer-processedinformation,however,isimportanttomaintainifonecaresaboutsurveyquality.Particularlyimportantistheabilitytoisolatebadmeasurementswhichnewloopsmayreveal.Atthesametime,upto-datemapswithaccuratepassageoutlinesarenicetohaveifyouaretryingtosurveyacomplexcavesystematically.Therefore,IrecentlydecidedtoincludeinELLIPSE afeaturewhichatanearliertimeIwouldhavejudgedcompletelyimpractical:anoptiontoprocessanddrawpassage"walls"inadditiontotheusualbaselinesandannotation.Thecomputer-drawnwallsIhadpreviouslyseen,whichwerederivedfrompassagedimensionsrecordedinthecaveateachstation,werenotrealisticenough.Besides,manysurveyorsdon'tbothertoobtainthisinformation.(Some mazecavesarebadenoughtomapwithoutworryingaboutdistancesto"rightandleftwalls".)Attheotherextreme,adequatedepictionofthedetailedsketchesmadebygoodsurveyorswouldrequire,Ithought,expensivegraphicshardware.Fortunately,thislastpointisnolongervalid.Digitizingtablets,whencomparedtolineplottersandprinters,areinexpensivecomputerperiferals.(Afancygraphicstabletisavail-

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ablefortheAppleIIfor$650.)TIlelineplotaccompanyingthisarticle,a windowviewintotheNorthMazeofActunKaua,demonstratesthetypeofoutputpossiblewiththerevisedprogram.ItwasproducedwithaZeta3600series(4-color)plotterusingablackfelttippen.Othercolors,ofcourse,mightdepictsurveyvectors,stationmarkersandnames,ordifferentpassagelevels.Moreimportantthanversatilityinscalesandformats,however,istheabilityofthesewallstomaintaintheirpositionswithrespectto"local"stationsthatchangeslightlyinrelationtooneanotherasmoreofthemazeissurveyed,andloopsareadjusted.Otherwise,wewouldbeaskingthecomputertodosomethingagooddraftsmancoulddobetterandmorecheaply.Hence,walldigitizingisnotrecommendedforcavesthatarefinishedinacoupleofsurveyingtrips.Thoughelegantintheory,thisapproachwouldbeinappropriateforourpurposessinceitwouldignoretheway acavesurveyingteamactuallyobtainsitsdata.Whendrawingwalls,thesketcherdoesn't"see"stationshundredsofmetersaway,oreventhreemetersawayiftheyresideinseparatepassages.Forreferenceheusesonlya fewstationscloseby,perhapsaidedbyastretchedtapeconnectingthem.Somesketchers,infact,takepainstodothisquiteaccurately,usingprotracterandruler.Therefore,whatwewouldliketopreserveinasurveyadjustmentaretherelativepositionsofwallfeatureswithrespecttothedisplacementvectors(usuallysightlines)betweenstationsthatarenearby.Nowsupposethatthecoordinatepairs(X1,Y1)and(Xz,Yz),obtainedfromthedigitizingtablet,aretheheadandtailpositionsofachosen"referencevector"forawallpointwithcoordinates(X,Y).TIlenwecanreplace(X,Y)withtransverseandnormalcomponentsinthevector'sframeofreference:WallAdjustmentDetailsUseofdigitizingequipmentisreasonablystraightforward;withalittlepracticeitsnotmuchharderto"trace"apencilsketch,oracopyofone,withabuttoncursorthanwitharapidograph.TIleproblemthatinterestedmemostwas howtorepresentdigitizedwallssotheycanbeefficientlyadjusted,stored,anddrawn.TIleU.s.GeologicalSurveyrecentlyusedan"elasticbodyfit"programtobringtheirdigitizedIdahoStateBaseMap(1:500,000)uptorequiredstandardsofaccuracy(seeUSGSYearbook,FiscalYear1978,p.64).Presumably,theirmethodisanalogoustocopyingtheoriginalfigureon aninfinite,stretchedsheetofelastic,attachingpinsataselectedsetof"criticalcontrolpoints"(37inthecaseofIdaho),thenmovingthepinstotherevisedcontrolpointpositionsandphotographingtheresultingfigure.xZ-Y1)(X-X1)-(XZ-X1)(Y-Y1TI/R Z ,Y(X-X 1)+(Yz -Y1)(Y-Y1B/RZ h Z ZZwereR=(XZ-X1 ) +(Y Z -Y 1 ). TIle newrepresentation(X,Y)issuchthatwhatevertranslation,rotation,orscalingofthereferencevectorwemaydesiretodolater,thewalllocationwouldbeobtainedsimplyasY'(Y;-Yi)Y+(X;-Xi)X+Y 1wheretheprimesdenotecoordinatesinthefEameofreference.TIlenumbers(X,Y)havetheaddedvirtureofbeingofrelativelysmallsizerange,sotheycanbeefficientlystoredprovidedtheyaregroupedwithvectoridentifiers.Howcanthe"nearby"reference87

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('I'"LIvMLf"Ivh',aNOflY.(\lYL2vll:LI'I 1"'0,," vyv,.....TTTU....QEFJ;R[JolCE!TI'rIl"N"'..,MES,O..,E"EqlIN!,'II;""''''''EOQ"51...SH(11INCOLI...._lI"'[S0"UALn0'""IolEOS1'ATlnltl$r14CII.V1'.I::LLI-:oIo[.[,CwTtIIL!!'Altf'MAS'lot[1I"0I.LO"I"'r.FOQ..,Tnnl,fitT"i1.....wE:QEL1...'InL2'liE["IOICE!0'"hI'::'QC)......S1nFII[CTt'HfE"lI'll""I..T!tFJPE"'-l,(10ELSETloif.T...ANR\lF"Ai'H; "'''10.mA"HI.N'"'L.LpnINT'filTI"IIfSPECT'0\I[CT(11OIFIPEN:l23:T"'Fu..,tT.Cj'''E1"'11-'8OF,nil"T"'Fv-:CTOIl1ll51oI(l0110"'T'LLf"'CTIol."'["tCE,IF('H,IIY)'liET"'FCV)("l.\lV,,)ITSTAILPOSTTlO........'ERT4f!\T"'tO'"CO("l"l")t'l"'1'E!I.O"T.,tOFltVw'LlS.1o'{TWE...C"IOI'LLHAvl"'CTHFFnLLCl"'T'lr.LnCALflo:l',lULL"0,,,,,COOAntlt.i"TE-."asfln_,-nq0\.LnC"'Lw"LlI0TNT COOADIJrrt"H",IAOj....(\r"'GLOC"'LAEFE"E"'C!I".:Tl-'F."'ALL"'YPI':JI'J=:awHLII!SUL'IJrrt,LINf.cn"'NJ:"C'TY"'r. T"4"'T......Le1>0y""T "'1Tiol'''IFProt"".COOADPUTf0,101'''''REIti'-lOofn.4CCf;pTSl')lGITtlEOPAS!hGE('iIITL!"!:!f2."0TQf.N"'OQ..SO.TA"AAl'::Tcot'lQOpn"TO"IE_cnfiIlOPUT!S_trwIlE!tPtCTTOLrIC&I.,PDSSIFILYAnJlJ"TF.11 SIIPVF't''P'TtONS."HEOUTPUTISy"FOlhUTSUIHJIILE1="01"Pll'fTllllGIIlIT'""IoIE."'::..:,,.!'lOTTnNllolELl.IPSE_PLANnPH:CTIII'.rNISPI!'!I/COLOR:)AFTI:.:0DOOr.F.,q!IIIlJi..TIolEFtoST....,nL'sr1t1)'t'llT l"F ,"'LLOlILL8FnEn..tr...RI!:SPECTTO''''F.Lr'lC'L"Illf.tt"'fASIn!':,,UoIll[1",!:q"F.DIUF"'ILLI'll:'OJI!"!!)'0EFIl"Il"CT,TA'I.IStTJONRF.tlOn.'olLOC"LT...TnI"'!IUQ(CrlNTIlIlurrv.,JlALL LOC...oqFSFNT"REC'''''III'''CORf!'Hlf\'o;TIolOIIl'LLSF.:QU""Cf!t.I'A OF nNf:ClC'St"'f:CL!')nO\.IIlE80U"'OEOIll"TotE..0tlllOF"1J"EIlE""CE"!1..TQOTIo4"L'CE!1'"ToofF'L.c,.""**_er.WALLAD"lIST"l["lT,t,U:"AITJollle e e e e e,cTJolE.IooALlS_OIIlf:CT!vE."!'lIT"nor1(!v"Oliln""'THIN!Ie er rer._ _._ _..,...__..____err,e,,ee e,,eee,r;1ll0T/;!\1e eee e e e e,rLOC',0FFrOr"'r.F.",Rtto!:"'TIFIEOfloV'Gon:TO;/1'\o('NCte;ll",IYS("",';I"'CI"':S'.'rIlO!\S.Iol..1llCllll!OD15E1STlvAEPOSJTIO"'EOC TO..'i\1"'ITll0'"...IINITS/INCHT"IIL!".eC_ .ee,e,,e,ee, ,e,eCN(t't,.....r::'"OO"lOloJG"'LLSElLIPSE_ILLIG"'Oof."OrllHOUT!tDfTlotfCnoy...etrnr"LOCI(.Ort,'''OS!WIIO.!""fFJ;At"NCt"SUTIO"'SC .....v!"'OTRI")''''IIin:NSC'LEnRVTWEIt.t.OTtCIIL'o.ltl.t.N.ntoECTIYf:,,C. .severeadjustmentstothenetworkduetoearlierbadmeasurementsorplottingerrorscould,onmanyoccasions,resultinan"acceptable"reshapingofthepassagewalls.Themethodsoutlinedabovecannodoubtbeimprovedupon,andIhopethisdiscussionencouragesfurtherexperimentation.Digitizingthepassagesofalargecaveiscertainlynolesstediousthandraftingwithpenandink.Butacomputercandoremarkablethingswithdigitaldata,andthereissatisfactioninknowingthateachpassageneedbe"drawn"onlyonce.vectorbechosen?AfterconsideringseveralwaysofautomatingthenoneofwhichwereconsistentlyreaIdecideditwouldbebetteranywaytoletthedraftsmanhavefullcontrol.Withthecursorin"pointmode"heenterseachwallasasequenceoftwoormorestationcoordinatepairsinterspersedwitha muchlargernumberofwallcoordinatepairs.Eachwallpointinacoordinatesequencewouldthenassumeforreferencethevectorwhoseendpointsarethestationsoneitherside.Forsignalingthetypeofcoordinatepaira4-buttoncursorworksparticularlywell(buttonssignify"moveto"drawtowall,"and"erasetolaststationorterminate")andtheresultingdatafileisstructuredsothatitcanbeeasilyeditedifnecessary.Havingdecidedonsucharepwemustsolveafinalproblemrelatingtothewalladjustmentitself.Manywallsequenceswillcontainseveralpointsoftransitionfromonereferencevectortothenext.IfwesimplyusetheaboveformulaforY)allowingabrupttransitionsbetweenreferencevectors,thenthereisa goodchancethatourpassageswouldliterallycomeapartattheseamswhentheyarefinallydrawnbytheplotter.Thereasonforofisthatpatternsformedbyadjacentsurveyvectorsarenotpreservedinanadjustment.theequationsforXandYhavetobecomplicatedbytheadditionofa"smoothing"term.SincewearedealingwithrelativelysmalllocaldiscrepancieswhichcanbesmoothedoutoverthewallpointsinanumberofsatisfactoryIomittheparticularequationsusedinELLIPSE. Theresultisstrictlyeachwallpositioninheritsitsadnotfromonebutfromaweightedaverageofuptothreevectorsinsequence.Itworkswellenough,Ibelieve,that88

PAGE 95

)qS0125ACTUNKRUA-MAZEYUCATAN,MEXICelPRELIHINRRTHAP-1975/76[RHCS)tCURRENTLENGTH:6643 HDEPTH:2SHPLAN:ROTATED0.0DEGREESM?IIIIMETERS5-17 Navo

PAGE 96

BOOK REVIEWATLASSOUTERRAINDELAPROVENCEETDESALPESDELUMIEREbyPaulCourbonandS.C.Sanary.SecondEdition1980.Aha!ItinevitablYhappenstoanyonewhohasbeencavingforanylengthoftime,andwhohasreturnedtothosebeautifulcavesofthepasttofindthemgone.Theholeisstillthere,butunrecognizableasthatplacethatheldsomuchattraction.Likegoingbacktosomechildhoodfishingspotandseeingonlyamudhole.Andboy,areyoumadatwh:Jeverdidthis,but...maybeasayoung,novicecaveryoupluckedastalactitewhennoonewaslooking?Youcanseetheresultsofyourcarelessnessnow,andyouwanttowarneverybodyaboutwhatyou'velearned.Andyou'dbetterdoitbecausewehumanshavetheutterlyamazinginabilitytoseebeyondournoses.Weactwithoutthinking.Theauthorofthispublicationseemstohavehadthisexperience.Hehasbeencavingatleast25yearsandhasseenlotsofcavesfallbythewayside,someatthehandsofcaversthemselves.So,hehascleverlyaddedanti-pollutionchapters,cartoonsandsloganstothisdeepcavepublication.Infact,thepublicationbeginswithachapterontherespectandcleanlinessofcaves.WhyhasittakenFrenchcaverssolongtodosomethingaboutthisproblem?Especiallysincetheirhistoryofcavinggoesalongwayback,andtosomeveryrenownedcaverswhothemselvesrecognizedsomeoftheseproblems?AlthoughMartelhadhiscollectionofformations(asCourbonstates),herealizedthehealthdangerpresentedbydumpinganimalcarcassesincaves,andgotalawpassedoutlawingthis.Also,NorbertCasteretrepeatedlyrecountstalesofbeautifulcavernsbeingtotallystrippedofallformations.Courbonsug-90geststhatsinceantipollutionconcernjustisn'tanintegralpartofFrenchdailylife,muchasitishereintheU.S.,thenthereisnoconservationconsciousnessunderlyingFrenchcaving.Hence,Frenchcaversthemselvesjustbytheirnumbers(inanareahalfthesizeofTexastherearemorecaversthanintheentireU.S.),willwreakhavociftheyarenotconservationminded.Itseemsprettyobviousthatsincemostpeoplearen'tcarefulontheirowninitiative,thentheymustbetaughttobecarefuland"sneaking"thisinstructionintocavingpublicationsisonewayofexposingconservationtothegeneralcavingpublic.Asfortherestofthepublication,itisbasicallyareferencelistofthedeepestvertical("gouffres"not"grottes"whicharehorizontalcaves),inthesoutheasternmostpartofFrance.Nocavesunder100metersdeepareincludedinthedescriptionsandmaps,butaremerelynamed.Onehundredandfifteen"gouffres"arebrieflydescribed,(location,maps,history,bibliography,andresurgencewhenappropriate).Thereisabsolutelynoinformationonbiology,andverylittleongeology.Thisisstrictlybigpitsanddeepcaves.The mapsaremostlyprofileswithveryfewplans,andtheprofilesemphasizeonething,depth.However,forareferencebook(Courbonimplicitlystatesthatthisisnotaguide)itispoorlyorganized.Thereisnousefultableofcontents(theonegivenhasnopagenumbers),andnolistofcavesandmapswithcorrespondingpagenumberswhichwouldbeimmenselyusefulinapublicationsuchasthis.Basically,thispublication'smostfavorablefeatureisitsconcernforthedestructionofcaves,anditsattempttoteachothercaversaboutthisproblem.Itisgoodtoseethishappeninginothercountries.TeeniKern

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LETTERDearCavers,BillStone,incooperationwiththeNationalCaveRescueCommission(NCRC),isattemptingtoexpandtheNCRnetworktoprovideassistancetocaversintheeventofaseriousaccidentinMexico.ThismightbeorganizedalongthelinesofthepresentNCRsystemintheUnitedStateswherearrangementshavebeenmadewiththeAmericanAirForcetoflyateamtoaseriousrescuewhenthelocalcaversrequestspecializedhelporadditionalmanpower.ToextendthisserviceintoMexicoandtoenabletheNCRtoquicklyreachthecave,advancearrangementsneedtobemadewiththeMexicanGovernmenttoallowtheAirForceplanetoenterMexicoandwiththeMexicanRedCrosstoprovidelocaltransportandcoordination.InviewoftheeventuallikelihoodofaseriousaccidentdeepwithinaMexicancavethatcouldinvolvearescuebeyondthecapabilityofthegrouppresent,thisservicewouldbeavaluableassettoallwhocaveinMexico.Allinterestedgroupsandpersonsareurgedtosendsuggestionsandlettersofsupportto:Lee Noon,DirectorN.C.R.C.169S.BathAvenueWaynsboro,VA22980WilliamH.RussellCARTAEstimadosespeleologos,BillStone,encooperacionconelSistemaNacionaldeRescateCavernario,estatrabajandoparaextenderestesistemaparaayudarenaccidentessubterraneasenMexico.Enesteplan,seraposibleobtenerlaayudadelaFuerzaAereadeunequipoderescateaMexico.Pareextenderesteservicio,esnecesarioobtenerpermisooficialypermanenteparalaentradadelosavionesaMexico.Tambien,esnecesariotenerlacooperaciondelaCruzRojaparaproporcionarlatransportacionlocalyayudamedica.Siendoaltalaprobabilidaddeunaccidentegraveenunacuevaprofunda,estesistemaderescateesimportanteparaespeleologosenMexico.Personasygruposquequierenayudarenesteproyectopuedencomunicarsecon:Lee Noon,DirectorN.C.R.C.169S.BathAvenueWaynsboro,VA22980WilliamH.RussellCaveSafelVisNOaCCIDENT91

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TraducciondelLasCavernasylaespeleologladeMexicosonespectaculares,aSlquenoessorprendentequehanatraidoatencionmundial.LamultiplicacionfenomenaldeespeleologosdiligentesenMexicodurantelosultimos20anoshatenidoyseguirateniendounimpactosignificantesabrelascavernasysuexploracion.Parsumayorparte,esteimpactohasidomuypositivo.Losdescubrimientosyestudioshansidollevadasacabo,cooperativamenteycancontinuoenfasissabrelaconservacionparlaAMCS,variosgruposespeleologicosmexicanosyotrosgruposdelE.U.A.,Europa,yCanada.Sinembargo,recientemanteesteimpactohademonstradorastrosnegativos.Lasdostemasmasseriassonelvandalismoylarivalidad.ConservarelfragilambientesubterraneosiemprehasidoelcursodeacciondelAMCS;estoincluyeelsacardetodoslosequipospersonales,incluyendolabasurayelcarburogastadodelascuevas.Lascuevassonunmundovirginal,elultimoquequedamantenemoslosintactosylimpias.LasareasdegrutasinexploradasenMexicosonmuyextensivos;par10tanto,larivalidadycompeticionantipaticosonsinrazonycontraproductivos.LaAMCSsiemprehaseguidolatradiciondecooperarcangruposqueestantrabajandoactivamenteenunacuevaaregion.Estecooperacionenriqueselacalidaddeltrabajoyevitaelpopularizaciondelascuevas.Iniciativasinrivalidadeslavlaalexitoysatisfaccioneneldescubrimientoyexploraciondelascuevas.Quisieramostamaresteoportunidadparaaclararalgunosdelas92EditorialambigUedadessabrelaAMCS.LaAMCSfueformadoen1962parvariosespeleologostexanosparaelavanzamientodelosconocimientosdelascavernasmexicanas.Atravesdelosalioshapermanecidosinpoliticayestructera.HoydlaelAMCScomoorganizacionessolamenteunapartadopostalyungabineteendondeseguardianlaspublicaciones.Tienemuypocaestructura--nohaymiembrosofficiales,niasambleas.Devezencuando,produceboletlnes,perohastaenestotienepocaestructura.Laexistenciadelaspublicacionescuentaexclusivamentecanlainiciativoindividual.Enpocaspalabras,elAMCStieneciertosideales:ExploraryestudiarlascavernasmagnlficasdeMexico;Conservarlabellezaymagiadeestascavernas;Paraproducirunnivelaltodecalidadennuestrastopograflas,estudiosypublicaciones;Impartirungranrespetoparalatierra,lascuevas,ylagentedeMexico;yalcanzarestasmetasdemaneracooperativayamistosa.ElAMCSnoesungrupopolltico,ninacionalista.Estaabiertoatodoslosespeleologosquecompartenestasideales.El"ActivitiesNewsletter"esunejemplodeesto,yquisieramosquetodosparticiparan,mandandoinformes,artlculos,mapas,fotos,et.Elboletlnesunrepositoriodevalorincalculable,canunagrancantidaddeinformacionespeleologicaqueseestajuntandocontinuamente.Parmediadedesarollarunsentimientodeunidad,todostendremasmejorprobabilidaddealcanzarnuestrametacomun;laexploracionyestudioacercadelascavernasdeMexico.DalePateTerriTreacy


Description
Edited by Terri Treacy and Dale Pate, 92
pagesContents: Mexico News, compiled by Peter Sprouse
--
International News, compiled by Peter Sprouse --
Long and Deep Cave Lists, compiled by Peter Sprouse --
Xilitla Karst / Peter Sprouse --
Sistema Huautla / Jerry Atkinson --
Tilaco Project Report / Sergio Zambrano --
Sierra de Guatemala / Bill Elliott --
Purificacin Area Project Report / Terri Treacy --
Eulogy to Dr. Fderico Bonet Marco / James Reddell --
Golondrinas . ¡Otra Vez!, /Don Broussard --
Recent Biological Discoveries in Mexico / James Reddell
--
The Piloztoc Connection / Bill Liebman --
Unstudied Karst Areas of Mexico / Peter Sprouse --
Caving in Western Mexico / James Reddell --
The Exploration of Sumidero de Oyamel / Dale Pate --
Across the Sima Grande / Mark Minton --
AMCS Cave Map Symbols / Peter Sprouse --
The Caves of Cuesta Colorada / George Veni --
Sumidero de San Bernardo / Steve Knutson --
Short Penetration Sump Diving / Bill Stone --
La Silleta / Peter Sprouse --
Computer-Drawn Passage Walls / David McKenzie.
The Association for Mexican Cave Studies is a
non-profit, volunteer organization whose goals are the
collection and dissemination of information concerning Mexican
caves. The AMCS publishes a Newsletter, Bulletin, and Cave
Report Series which are available to any sincerely interested,
conservation-minded person.


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