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Association of Mexican Cave Studies newsletter

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Title:
Association of Mexican Cave Studies newsletter
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Association of Mexican Cave Studies Newsletter (1965-1977)
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Association for Mexican Cave Studies
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Association for Mexican Cave Studies
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Regional Speleology ( local )
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Mexico

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Contents: Trip Reports - December 1964 -- Caves of the Sierra de El Abra, Part I Tamaulipas -- The Biology of the Caves of the Northern El Abra Range.
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Open Access - Permission by Publisher
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Vol. 1, no. 2 (1965)
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See Extended description for more information.

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4647 ( karstportal - original NodeID )

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THEASSOCIATIONFORMEXICANCAVESTUDIES.NEWSLETTERContentsTripReportsDecember1964CavesoftheSierradeElAbraPartITamaulipasTheBiologyoftheCavesoftheNorthernElAbraRange Volume 1 Number 2ReprintFebruary1965THEASSOCIATIONFORMEXICANCAVESTUDIES.NEWSLETTERContentsTripReportsDecember1964CavesoftheSierradeElAbraPartITamaulipasTheBiologyoftheCavesoftheNorthernElAbra Range Volume 1 Number 2ReprintFebruary1965

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12TripReports--December 1964OneofthegroupsintheVallesareaduringtheChristmasvacationwas composedofMikeCollins,LinnCollins,SamYoung, andDianeYoung.AttemptingtoenterSotanodelArroyo,wewereinformedbythechildrenatLosSabinosthatwecouldnotgotothecavewithoutthepermissionofacertainofficialinValles.Weleftwithoutinvestigationofthematter.(Arecaversfailingtomaintaingood ownerrelationsinMexico,thegreatestcavingareaintheworld?)WecontinuedontoSotanodelaTinajawhereweexploredthe"sandyfloored"passagewayurtothelake.NearthelakeanupperlevelvirginpassagewaywaLdiscoveredandexploredtotheend.Dianecollectedtwoblindfish.Thefollowingday,MikeandIexploreda 130footpitabouttwomilesfromTinaja.WedubbeditCollins'BlindPit.(Helefthisglassesatthebottom.)AfterenjoyingtheNewYear'scelebrationinValles,wereturnedtoAustinwithashortstopatCueva deElAbra.Duringthethreedaysfromthe29thtothe31stDavid McKenzieanJBillStriblingmadeashorttriptoGrutadelPalmitoatBustamante,N.L.Whileatthecavetheymadeseverebiologicalcollectionsandlatertheyhikedandexploredintheareaabovethecave.26Dec.WehadaroutinetriptotheborderatLaredo.MuchhellwasencounteredattheMexicansideofthecustoms.Manytouristswerethrongedtogetherwaitingfortheirvisas.WetraveledthroughthenightmissingmanyofthesightsfromMonterreytoValles.27Dec.Weawoketoverygreen,tropicalsceneryandtremendousmountains.Banana,orange,avocado,andlimetreesweregrowingalongtheroads.WereachedthetownofHuichihuayan,S.L.P.anproceededabout8milestotheturnoffatYGriega.Wecrossedtheferryandbeganwhat wastobeamostscenicridetoourdestination-Tlamaya.WeencounteredmanylargesinksandcaVEalongthesteep,windingroadwhichleadstoXilitla.AbouttwcmilesfromXilitlawetookthecutofftoTlamaya.Muchhellwafhadwiththetruckwhichwasconstructedtoomuchlikeacartoprovidesuitableclearance.Taeroadwindedfor5milestowhel ashortroadledtoourhost'shouse.WetalkedtoSenorModestGomezaboutourplanstoexplorethedeepsotanosaroundhislar.Wethensetupcampinaverylargepatioinhisyardandenjoyeagoodmeal.AfterthisTedPeters,JimmyPeters,GlennBoydstoTerryRainsandI(DannyEvans)hikeddowntoSotanodeHuitzmolotitla.Arocktookatleast5secondstohitthebottomofthefirstdropwhichis344feetdeep.WealsotookalookattcaveweweretopartiallyexploreandmaplocatedaboutamilefHuitzmolotitlaontheothersideofaridge.(ThmcavehadbeeLexploredtoadepthof1281feet.)ItwasthoroughlywiththeLowerEntrancedropat277feet.Weweretoexploreahigherentranceinordertoextendthedepthofthecavewhichiyetunexploredbeyondthe1281footlevel.Terryand12TripReports--December 1964OneofthegroupsintheVallesareaduringtheChristmasvacationwas composedofMikeCollins,LinnCollins,SamYoung, andDianeYoung.AttemptingtoenterSotanodelArroyo,wewereinformedbythechildrenatLosSabinosthatwecouldnotgotothecavewithoutthepermissionofacertainofficialinValles.Weleftwithoutinvestigationofthematter.(Arecaversfailingtomaintaingood ownerrelationsinMexico,thegreatestcavingareaintheworld?)WecontinuedontoSotanodelaTinajawhereweexploredthe"sandyfloored"passagewayurtothelake.NearthelakeanupperlevelvirginpassagewaywaLdiscoveredandexploredtotheend.Dianecollectedtwoblindfish.Thefollowingday,Mike and Iexploreda 130footpitabouttwomilesfromTinaja.WedubbeditCollins'BlindPit.(Helefthisglassesatthebottom.)AfterenjoyingtheNewYear'scelebrationinValles,wereturnedtoAustinwithashortstopatCueva deElAbra.Duringthethreedaysfromthe29thtothe31stDavid McKenzieanJBillStriblingmade ashorttriptoGrutadelPalmitoatBustamante,N.L.Whileatthecavetheymadeseverebiologicalcollectionsandlatertheyhikedandexploredintheareaabovethecave.26Dec.Wehad aroutinetriptotheborderatLaredo.MuchhellwasencounteredattheMexicansideofthecustoms.Manytouristswerethrongedtogetherwaitingfortheirvisas.WetraveledthroughthenightmissingmanyofthesightsfromMonterreytoValles.27Dec.Weawoketoverygreen,tropicalsceneryandtremendousmountains.Banana,orange,avocado,andlimetreesweregrowingalongtheroads.WereachedthetownofHuichihuayan,S.L.P.anproceededabout8milestotheturnoffatYGriega.Wecrossedtheferryandbeganwhat wastobe amostscenicridetoourdestination-Tlamaya.WeencounteredmanylargesinksandcaVEalongthesteep,windingroadwhichleadstoXilitla.About twcmilesfromXilitlawetookthecutofftoTlamaya.Muchhellwafhadwiththetruckwhichwasconstructedtoomuchlikeacartoprovidesuitableclearance.Taeroadwindedfor5milestowhel ashortroadledtoourhost'shouse.WetalkedtoSenorModestGomezaboutourplanstoexplorethedeepsotanosaroundhislar.Wethensetupcampinaverylargepatioinhisyardandenjoyea goodmeal.AfterthisTedPeters,JimmyPeters,GlennBoydstoTerryRainsand I (DannyEvans)hikeddowntoSotanodeHuitzmolotitla.Arocktookatleast5secondstohitthebottomofthefirstdropwhichis344feetdeep.WealsotookalookattcaveweweretopartiallyexploreandmaplocatedaboutamilefHuitzmolotitlaontheothersideofaridge.(Thmcavehad beeLexploredtoadepthof1281feet.)ItwasthoroughlywiththeLowerEntrancedropat277feet.Weweretoexploreahigherentranceinordertoextendthedepthofthecavewhichiyetunexploredbeyondthe1281footlevel.Terryand

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13IdecidedtohikeeastofGomez'intoaterrainlittletraveledbygringos.Wehikeduptoahighhillandpickedatrailwhidhledtoanareafilledwithkarstandtropicalvegetation.Wefound oneinterestingspotwhichwasliterallyriddledwithjaggedrocksandholesresemblingcaves.Wetookpicturesandproceededtowardalimestonefaceinthedistance.Wegotsidetracked,however,andwoundupgoingincircles.Thevegetationwasverydenseandjungly.Wemanagedtofindawaterholewhichthepeasantshaddugandfilledourcanteens.Wecontinuedonwarduntilwelocatedonecavewhichhadaveryimpressiveentrancebuthadonlyaninsignificantdrop.Bananavines,anddensejungleslowedourprogresstoanothercavewhichwesightedonthesideofamountain.Wehikeduptotheentrancewherewefound someveryoldlookingpottery.The cave wasnothing.RainesandIhikedfurthereastencounteringsomeofthemostbeautifulsceneryIhaveeverseen.Butrealizingthatitwasgettinglate,wecontinuedonly1/4milefurther.28Dec.WeawoketothemountainsceneryandpreparedtoenterSotanodeTlamaya.Wegotequipmentready,atebreakfast,andproceededtothecave.Theentrance(UpperEntrance)wassurroundedwithvinesandjunglevegetation.Weriggedacableladderfora15footdropattheentrance.IwasgivenchargeofoperationoftheBruntonandthe800feetofropewasdividedamoungus.WequicklycametoashortslopeleadingtoalOa'drop.RainesrappelledholdingthetapeforaverticalIfollowedwiththeBrunton.Wecametoasmallroomwithapoolofcrystalclearwater,theothersdescended.Weclimbeddowna15footdropwhichtookustoafairlylargeroomflooredwithbreakdown.Asmallpassageleadsdowntoa50footdropwhichweriggedanddescended.Ashortwhilelaterwecametoa167footdrop,thebottomofwhichoverlookedan88footdrop(fissure-like).Wethenenteredadomeshapedroom whereweatesomegrubandtookacoupleofpictures.Anobstacle-filledstreampassageledtoa54footdropintotheJunctionPit,thedestinationofourendeavors.TheLowerEntrancetothecavehasa277footand150footandacoupleof100footdropsleadingtothispoint.Alargepoolofwateranda50foothighcascadeofflowstonegreetedourarrival.Fromthisintersectionisaseriesofdropswhichleadtoasurveyeddepthof1281 fromtheLowerEntranceand-1354feetfromtheUpperEntrance.Weturnedbackattheintersectionhowever.Wehad mappedand werereadytoreturntothesurface.TerryandItookmanypicturesonthewayout.Wehadenteredthecaveabout10AMandleftunderthestarsat8PM.29Dec.Withbreakfastover,wepackedenoughessentialsforanovernighthikeintothemountains.Ourplanwastogoinanortheasterlydirectionacrossthemountainsinhopesoffindingsomelarges6tanos.From Tlamayawetookawellmarkedtrailandwoundsteeplyupwarduntilwereachedasmallgroupofhuts.Continuingonpastforanothermile,wecametomorehutsandinquiredaboutpossibles6tanos.Thevillagersknewofoneonlya100yardsfromthetrailbutwerereluctantaboutgivinguspermissiontoevenseetheentrance.Wediscoveredthatmuchtroublecouldhavebeenavoidedbyobtaining13IdecidedtohikeeastofGomez'intoaterrainlittletraveledbygringos.Wehikeduptoahighhillandpickedatrailwhidhledtoanareafilledwithkarstandtropicalvegetation.Wefound oneinterestingspotwhichwasliterallyriddledwithjaggedrocksandholesresemblingcaves.Wetookpicturesandproceededtowardalimestonefaceinthedistance.Wegotsidetracked,however,andwoundupgoingincircles.Thevegetationwasverydenseandjungly.Wemanagedtofindawaterholewhichthepeasantshad dug andfilledourcanteens.Wecontinuedonwarduntilwelocatedonecavewhichhad averyimpressiveentrancebuthadonlyaninsignificantdrop.Bananavines,anddensejungleslowedourprogresstoanothercavewhichwesightedonthesideofamountain.Wehikeduptotheentrancewherewefoundsomeveryoldlookingpottery.The cave wasnothing.Rainesand IhikedfurthereastencounteringsomeofthemostbeautifulsceneryIhaveeverseen.Butrealizingthatitwasgettinglate,wecontinuedonly1/4milefurther.28Dec.WeawoketothemountainsceneryandpreparedtoenterSotanodeTlamaya.Wegotequipmentready,atebreakfast,andproceededtothecave.Theentrance(UpperEntrance)wassurroundedwithvinesandjunglevegetation.Weriggedacableladderfora15footdropattheentrance.I wasgivenchargeofoperationoftheBruntonandthe800feetofropewasdividedamoungus.WequicklycametoashortslopeleadingtoalOa'drop.RainesrappelledholdingthetapeforaverticalIfollowedwiththeBrunton.Wecametoasmallroomwithapoolofcrystalclearwater,theothersdescended.Weclimbeddowna 15footdropwhichtookustoafairlylargeroomflooredwithbreakdown.Asmallpassageleadsdowntoa 50footdropwhichweriggedanddescended.Ashortwhilelaterwecametoa167footdrop,thebottomofwhichoverlookedan88footdrop(fissure-like).Wethenenteredadomeshapedroom whereweatesomegrubandtookacoupleofpictures.Anobstacle-filledstreampassageledtoa 54footdropintotheJunctionPit,thedestinationofourendeavors.The LowerEntrancetothecavehasa277footand 150footand acoupleof100footdropsleadingtothispoint.Alargepoolofwaterand a 50foothighcascadeofflowstonegreetedourarrival.Fromthisintersectionisaseriesofdropswhichleadtoasurveyeddepthof1281 fromtheLowerEntranceand-1354feetfromtheUpperEntrance.Weturnedbackattheintersectionhowever.Wehad mapped and werereadytoreturntothesurface.Terryand Itookmanypicturesonthewayout.Wehadenteredthecaveabout10AMandleftunderthestarsat8PM.29Dec.Withbreakfastover,wepackedenoughessentialsforanovernighthikeintothemountains.Ourplanwastogoinanortheasterlydirectionacrossthemountainsinhopesoffindingsomelarges6tanos.From Tlamayawetookawellmarkedtrailandwoundsteeplyupwarduntilwereachedasmallgroupofhuts.Continuingonpastforanothermile,wecametomorehutsandinquiredaboutpossibles6tanos.Thevillagersknewofoneonlya 100yardsfromthetrailbutwerereluctantaboutgivinguspermissiontoevenseetheentrance.Wediscoveredthatmuchtroublecouldhavebeenavoidedbyobtaining

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14aletterofintroductionfromthePresidentofXilitla.Aftermuchtalking,though,wewereledtotheentranceand foundittbeonly30feetdeeporWecontinuedondowntheShortly,wenoticedatremendoussinkwhichdraineda wholevalley.Alllandintheareaslopedtoward acrater-likesurroundedbythickvegetation.Ourheartsthumpedaswerushedtothebottom.WeanticipatedtheMotherofcaves,buttoourdissapointment,however,thebottomyieldedonlytwopoolsofwater.Weatelunchandreplenishedourwaterandhikeonward.Afteramilewecametotheedgeofthemountainswhichstoodhighoverthevalleybelow.WecouldmakeoutthetownofHuichihuayanandtheInter-AmericanHighwayseveralthousandfeebelow.Hikingdowntothetownbelbw,wepassedneartwooftheresurgencesatthebaseofthemountainsandcrossedariverthatledfromthem.FromHuichihuayanwerodebrucksand walkedalongtheroad,arrivingbackatcampat1030Muchoftheday wasspenttalkingtothehospitablepeopleofTlamayathenthatafternoontheroadbetweenHuitzmolotitlaand Tlamaya wassurveyed.ThepurposewastoprOVide arelationshipoftheroadtothecavesandthecavestoeachother.Alsoitwashopedthatsomerelationshipbetweenthecavesandtheoverlyingsurfacefeaturescouldbediscovered.31Wegotupand packedourcavinggearinhopesofexploringSotanodelosPlatanosinthetownofWedrovethepickupascloseaspol1iblethenwalkedtotheentrancThedropwasriggedandIrappeledinfirst.The caveended,however,withthe87footentranceAfterTedandJimmywentdownandcamebackup wehiked aroundintheareatakingpictures.Returningtowepackedalltheequipment,gaveGomezaveryheartythankyouandfarewell,thenheadedforAustin.CavesoftheSierradeElAbraPartI Tamau1ipas TheSierradeElAbraisalongnarrowlimestonerangeextendingalongthefrontoftheSierraMadreOrientalforaboutone hundredmiles.TherangeislocatedattheedgeofthecoastalplaindirectlywestofTampico.inthestatesofTamaulipasandSanLuisPotosi.ItisseparatedfromthehigherrangestothewestbyanarrowsynclinalTheElAbra Rangerisesabruptlyfromthecoastalplaintotheeast,forminganescarpmentthatisinplacesoverathousandfeetinheight.Themaximumelevationsintherangeareonlyslightlyover1300feet,butastheelevationsatthebaseoftherangearelowthereisalargeamountoflocalrelief.Thewestsideofthemountainsismuchlesssteep,andthefloorofthevalleytothewestisonlythreetofourhundredfeetbelowthecrestoftherange.TherangeiscutbytwoprincipalTheonesouthofCiudadManteisusedbytheMante-VallesHighway,and.14aletterofintroductionfromthePresidentofXilitla.Aftermuchtalking,though,wewereledtotheentranceand foundittbeonly30feetdeeporWecontinuedondowntheShortly,wenoticedatremendoussinkwhichdraineda wholevalley.Alllandintheareaslopedtoward acrater-likesurroundedbythickvegetation.Ourheartsthumpedaswerushedtothebottom.WeanticipatedtheMotherofcaves,buttoourdissapointment,however,thebottomyieldedonlytwopoolsofwater.Weatelunchandreplenishedourwaterandhikeonward.Afteramilewecametotheedgeofthemountainswhichstoodhighoverthevalleybelow.WecouldmakeoutthetownofHuichihuayanandtheInter-AmericanHighwayseveralthousandfeebelow.Hikingdowntothetownbelbw,wepassedneartwooftheresurgencesatthebaseofthemountainsandcrossedariverthatledfromthem.FromHuichihuayanwerodebrucksand walkedalongtheroad,arrivingbackatcampat1030Muchoftheday wasspenttalkingtothehospitablepeopleofTlamayathenthatafternoontheroadbetweenHuitzmolotitlaand Tlamaya wassurveyed.ThepurposewastoprOVide arelationshipoftheroadtothecavesandthecavestoeachother.Alsoitwas hopedthatsomerelationshipbetweenthecavesandtheoverlyingsurfacefeaturescouldbediscovered.31Wegotup and packedourcavinggearinhopesofexploringSotanodelosPlatanosinthetownofWedrovethepickupascloseaspol1iblethenwalkedtotheentrancThedropwasriggedand Irappeledinfirst.The caveended,however,withthe87footentranceAfterTed andJimmywentdownandcamebackup wehiked aroundintheareatakingpictures.Returningtowepackedalltheequipment,gaveGomezaveryheartythankyouandfarewell,thenheadedforAustin.CavesoftheSierradeElAbraPartI Tamau1ipas TheSierradeElAbraisalongnarrowlimestonerangeextendingalongthefrontoftheSierraMadreOrientalforaboutone hundredmiles.TherangeislocatedattheedgeofthecoastalplaindirectlywestofTampico.inthestatesofTamaulipasand SanLuisPotosi.Itisseparatedfromthehigherrangestothewestby anarrowsynclinalTheElAbra Rangerisesabruptlyfromthecoastalplaintotheeast,forminganescarpmentthatisinplacesoverathousandfeetinheight.Themaximumelevationsintherangeareonlyslightlyover1300feet,butastheelevationsatthebaseoftherangearelowthereisalargeamountoflocalrelief.Thewestsideofthemountainsismuchlesssteep,andthefloorofthevalleytothewestisonlythreetofourhundredfeetbelowthecrestoftherange.TherangeiscutbytwoprincipalThe onesouthofCiudadManteisusedbytheMante-VallesHighway,and.

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15theoneeastofVallesisusedbytheValles-TampicoRailroadand Highway.BothofthesepassesareknownasElAbra(ThePass).TofurtherconfusethenomenclaturetherangehasseverlocalnameswhichhavebeenusedonsomeThecityofVallesrecievesaboutthirtyinchesofrainfaJayear,mostofitduringthesummermonths.Thehigherpartstherangeprobablyrecieveslightlymorerainfall.Theaveragetemperatureisabout76degrees.Onlyduringinfrequentnorthcdoesthetemperaturedropbelowfreezing.Thisrainfallisenoughtosupportadensegrowthofbrushatthelowerlevelsandanalmostimpenetrablejungleatthehigherelevations.Thdensevegetationandtheeffectsofsolutionhavealmosteleminatedsurfacerun-offfrommostoftherange.Itisestimatedthatabout1155millioncubicmetersofwaterflowyearlyfromspringsatthebaseoftherange.ThoughthisisoneofthemoststudiedoftheMexicancaveareas,noneofthelargercaveshavebeencompletelyexplored;Sofarthelargestcavesystemsare.locatedafewmilesnorthof(ThesewillbedescribedinthenextissueoftheNewsletter.)ButitislikelythattheSotanodeVenaditoorotherasyetunenteredsotanostotheeastwillalsocompriselargeThecqvesintheElAbraareaappeartohaveformedintwoFirsttherewasastageofphreaticsolutionduringwhichlargevoidsandpassageswereThiswasfollowbyamuchlaterperiodofintegrationinwhichtheseJargeandpoorlyconnectedvoidsandpassageswereinvadedbysurfacestreamsandcombined.intolargeThosecavesthatarenotnowreceivingstreamssuchasCuevadeElAbra,GrutasdeQUintero,andVentanaJabaliarerelativelyundisturbedphreaticvoids,andhaveonlymoderatelength.WhereascavessuchasSotanodelArroyo andSotano(Cueva) delaTinajarepresentseveralphreaticvoidsthathavebeenintegratedbysurfaceThereareprobablymanycavesintheElAbraareathathavebeeninvadedbyasurfacestreamandcouldnotbeintegratbutthesewillhavebeenfilledwithsediment.TheElAbrarangeisoneofthemoreaccessableandinterestingMexicancaveareas,andthoughagreatamountofworkhasbeendoneinthisregionevenmoreremainstobeaccomplishMuchoftheearlyworkint.hf.sregionhasbeendescribedbyBonetinhisarticle"DatosSobrelasCavernasyOtrosFenomenosErosivosdelasCalizasdelaSierradeEIAbral1 Tl1956andthe1963CorpusChristiGeologicalSocietyguidecontainroadlogsandadiscussionofthegeologyoftheSotanodeLaNoriaThisisa complexpitlocatedaboutonemilenorthofthehouseattheRanchodeLaThecaverecievesconsiderablerunefromthefieldjusttothesouthoftheentrance.Theentranceitselfisanirregularholeaboutfivefeetindiameter.Thisdropsabout20feettoanotherdropof20feetatthebottomof whichisanaturalbridge.Justabovethebridgethecaveoper. upintoanorth-southContinuingondownpasttheashortdropandthenaclimbleadstotheedgeofa30footpit.AtthebottomofthispitareseveralsmallpassagesandThe mainpassageisblockedbylogsandotherwashee15theoneeastofVallesisusedbytheValles-TampicoRailroadand Highway.BothofthesepassesareknownasElAbra (ThePass).TofurtherconfusethenomenclaturetherangehasseverlocalnameswhichhavebeenusedonsomeThecityofVallesrecievesaboutthirtyinchesofrainfaJayear,mostofitduringthesummermonths.Thehigherpartstherangeprobablyrecieveslightlymorerainfall.Theaveragetemperatureisabout76degrees.Onlyduringinfrequentnorthcdoesthetemperaturedropbelowfreezing.Thisrainfallisenoughtosupportadensegrowthofbrushatthelowerlevelsandanalmostimpenetrablejungleatthehigherelevations.Thdensevegetationandtheeffectsofsolutionhavealmosteleminatedsurfacerun-offfrommostoftherange.Itisestimatedthatabout1155millioncubicmetersofwaterflowyearlyfromspringsatthebaseoftherange.ThoughthisisoneofthemoststudiedoftheMexicancaveareas,noneofthelargercaveshavebeencompletelyexplored;Sofarthelargestcavesystemsare.locateda fewmilesnorthof(ThesewillbedescribedinthenextissueoftheNewsletter.)ButitislikelythattheSotanodeVenaditoorotherasyetunenteredsotanostotheeastwillalsocompriselargeThecqvesintheElAbraareaappeartohaveformedintwoFirsttherewas astageofphreaticsolutionduringwhichlargevoidsandpassageswereThiswasfollowbya muchlaterperiodofintegrationinwhichtheseJargeandpoorlyconnectedvoidsandpassageswereinvadedbysurfacestreamsandcombined.intolargeThosecavesthatarenotnowreceivingstreamssuchasCueva deElAbra,GrutasdeQUintero,andVentanaJabaliarerelativelyundisturbedphreaticvoids,andhaveonlymoderatelength.WhereascavessuchasSotanodelArroyo andSotano(Cueva) delaTinajarepresentseveralphreaticvoidsthathavebeenintegratedbysurfaceThereareprobablymanycavesintheElAbraareathathavebeeninvadedby asurfacestreamandcouldnotbeintegratbutthesewillhavebeenfilledwithsediment.TheElAbrarangeisoneofthemoreaccessableandinterestingMexicancaveareas,andthoughagreatamountofworkhasbeendoneinthisregionevenmoreremainstobeaccomplishMuchoftheearlyworkintilisregionhasbeendescribedbyBonetinhisarticle"DatosSobrelasCavernasyOtrosFenomenosErosivosdelasCalizasdelaSierradeEIAbral1Tl1956andthe1963CorpusChristiGeologicalSocietyguidecontainroadlogsand adiscussionofthegeologyoftheSotanodeLaNoriaThisisa complexpitlocatedaboutonemilenorthofthehouseattheRancho de LaThecaverecievesconsiderablerunefromthefieldjusttothesouthoftheentrance.Theentranceitselfisanirregularholeaboutfivefeetindiameter.Thisdropsabout20feettoanotherdropof20feetatthebottomofwhichisanaturalbridge.Justabovethebridgethecaveopex.upintoanorth-southContinuingondownpasttheashortdropandthenaclimbleadstotheedgeofa 30footpit.AtthebottomofthispitareseveralsmallpassagesandThe mainpassageisblockedbylogsandotherwashee

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16indebris,andconsiderabletimewouldberequiredtoclearit.Totaldepthisabout120SotanodelaTarantulaLocatedtotheeastoftheranchhouseabout100feeteastofthelargefield.Thispitisa60footdroptoa breakdownpluFromtheeastsideofthispluganotherpitdropsforabout50feettothebottom.SeveraltarantulaswereabservedatthebottomofthePuentedeLaNoriaThisisanaturalbridgeabout50feetlongand wideconnectingtwosinks.Norealcaveexistsatthisplace.Locatedabout100yardssouthoftheSEendofthefieldSEoftheranchhou2SotanodelDescansoThisisanellipticalpitabout6feetby8feetdroppingfreefor105feet.ItislocatedonthetopoftheridgeeastofRanchodeLaNoria,aboutfivefeetfromtheleftforkofthemaintrailleadingeastfromtheCuevadelNacimientodelRioMante TheRioManteflowsfrombeneathacliffatthefootoftheElAbra RangeaboutfourrnileswestofThespotisapopularpicnicandswimmingareaandcanbereachedbythesignsfromthehighwaysouthofThelargesmountofwateremergingheremustflowfrom alargecavernsystem.UnfortunatelytheentrancetothissystemiscompletelyfilledwiHowever,thewaterlevelhasbeenraisedbyadamusedtodiverttheRioManteintoirregationLocalinquirieshoUldbemadetofindoutifthecavecouldbeenteredbeforethedamwasconstructed.Severalpeoplethatweaskeddidnotremenmer anysuchcave,andasthewaterattheentrancetothecaveappearstobeonlytenfeetdeepitcouldnothavebeenmLlowerbeforethedamwasbUilt.AsmallcaveonthesouthsideoftheNacimientoisdevelcalongaprominentjoint.Thecaveisahigh,partiallybreakd(filledfissureaboutthreehundredfeetlong.AboutfiftyfeetfromtheentranceaskylightopenstotheSeveralsmepitsinbreakdownleadtodeepwaterandthecaveappearstobeinhabitedattimesbybats.CuevadelPachon TheentranceislocatedonthewesternsideoftheEIABra RangeneartheVillageofPachon.Itiseasilyaccessableby meansofajeeproadand8shortclimbupthesideofthehill.Measuring20feetwide and8feethighattheentrance,thec[quicklyenlargestoanaverageof15feethighand30feetwide andcontinuesonfor600feetwithonlyafewminorsidepassathatendshortly.Thefloorofthissectionofthecaveiscomposedofblacksoil.Afterwalkingthisdistanceone encour16indebris,andconsiderabletimewouldberequiredtoclearit.Totaldepthisabout120SotanodelaTarantulaLocatedtotheeastoftheranchhouseabout100feeteastofthelargefield.Thispitisa 60footdroptoa breakdownpluFromtheeastsideofthispluganotherpitdropsforabout50feettothebottom.SeveraltarantulaswereabservedatthebottomofthePuentedeLaNoriaThisisanaturalbridgeabout50feetlongand wideconnectingtwosinks.Norealcaveexistsatthisplace.Locatedabout100yardssouthoftheSEendofthefieldSEoftheranchhou2SotanodelDescansoThisisanellipticalpitabout6feetby8feetdroppingfreefor105feet.ItislocatedonthetopoftheridgeeastofRancho deLaNoria,aboutfivefeetfromtheleftforkofthemaintrailleadingeastfromtheCuevadelNacimientodelRio Mante TheRioManteflowsfrombeneathacliffatthefootoftheElAbra RangeaboutfourrnileswestofThespotisapopularpicnicand swimmingareaandcanbereachedbythesignsfromthehighwaysouthofThelargesmountofwateremergingheremustflowfrom alargecavernsystem.UnfortunatelytheentrancetothissystemiscompletelyfilledwiHowever,thewaterlevelhasbeenraisedby adamusedtodiverttheRio ManteintoirregationLocalinquirieshoUldbemadetofindoutifthecavecouldbeenteredbeforethedamwasconstructed.Severalpeoplethatweaskeddidnotremenmer anysuchcave,andasthewaterattheentrancetothecaveappearstobeonlytenfeetdeepitcouldnothavebeenmLlowerbeforethedamwasbUilt.AsmallcaveonthesouthsideoftheNacimientoisdevelcalongaprominentjoint.Thecaveisahigh,partiallybreakd(filledfissureaboutthreehundredfeetlong.AboutfiftyfeetfromtheentranceaskylightopenstotheSeveralsmepitsinbreakdownleadtodeepwaterandthecaveappearstobeinhabitedattimesbybats.CuevadelPachon TheentranceislocatedonthewesternsideoftheEIABra RangeneartheVillageofPachon.Itiseasilyaccessableby meansofajeeproadand8shortclimbupthesideofthehill.Measuring20feetwide and8feethighattheentrance,thec[quicklyenlargestoanaverageof15feethighand 30feetwide andcontinuesonfor600feetwithonlya fewminorsidepassathatendshortly.Thefloorofthissectionofthecaveiscomposedofblacksoil.Afterwalkingthisdistanceone encour

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17apoolcontainingblindfishandaquatic1sopods.Totherightasmallpassagehalffilledwithwatersiphonsafteronly66f(whilestraightaheadthewaterextendsfromwalltowallandi,qUiteThissmalllakeis15feetwide and140feetlongafterswimningtothefarsideonecanclimbUpasteepmudbajtoasmallroomattheendofthecave.MembersoftheofTexasSpeleologicalSocietyvisitedthiscaveon26January1965.Cueva deElAbraThisfrequentlyvisitedcaveislocatedjustabovetheInterAmerican HighwayatKm.Post542andtothenorthboundtrafficthe70foothighby60footwideentranceprovidesanimpressivsight.Fromtheopeningonthesideofthecliffthenext600ofpassagegraduallyenlargesuntilitattainsaheightofanestimated140feetandawidthof35feet.Atthispointapitfromthesurfaceintersectsthecaveandhasadepthtriangulattobe245feet.Afterrappellingdownan89footdropfromtheentrancepassage,onefindshimselfwithadecisiontomake. }climbingupaverysteepflowstoneslopeontheoppositeside:canexploreseveralhundredfeetofpassagebeforecomingtoasuddenenc.Althoughthefirstportionofthispassageisnic,decoratedwithstalagmitesandflowstonethelasthundredfeetflooredwithdry,dustyguano andcontainsnoformations.Theotheralternativetheexplorerhasistoturnsharplytother:toamuchlargerandimpressivepassage.Theceilingismoret150feetaboveandthewallsaverage45feetapart.Thefloorslopesdownata30degreeangleand,beingcompletelycoveredbasketball-sizebreakdown,descendingisratherhazardous.'I'lslopecontinuesdownfor300feetuntilreachingtheterminaticroom,whichis40feetindiameter.Throughoutthefirstsectiofthecavethousandsofdeadbatswereseenonthefloordurirthemostrecentvisit(27Jan1965)thatwereevidentlythevictimsofsomeepidemic.AlthoughahighlycontagiousdiseaseccnearlyWipeoutapopUlation,afewbatsalwaysremaintopropc_gatethespecies.Totallengthofthecaveis1460feet.CuevadeJoyadeAguacaten.1andn.2LocatedatthetopofaridgeoftheElAbra RangenearalowPass,thesetwocaveshavetheirentrancesateitherendofalarge,shallowsink.Thenorthernmostentrancemeasures12fe(highand40feetwide andcontinuesbackforabout100feetintaslightlylargerroombeforeending.The wholecaveisdrymoflittleinterestexceptforafewoldnamesscribbledontheThecaveatotherendofthesink(n.2)isevensmall6feethighand15feetwide,and30feetlong.Muchliketheothercave,thisonewasalsodryandcontainednofauna.GrutasdeQUinteroGrutasdeQUinteroislocatedafewkilometerssouthwestofthesmallvillageofQuintero.Signspointthewaytothecaveancstonestepshavebeenbuiltfromtheroaduptothemouthofttcave.Thecaveisenteredbyapassageabout5feethighand(feetWide.Thissoonopensintoalargerisingtunnel30feetand20feethigh.About50feetfromtheentrancetwosmallpassagestotherightleadintoahighfissure-likepassagewhi17apoolcontainingblindfishandaquatic1sopods.Totherightasmallpassagehalffilledwithwatersiphonsafteronly66f(whilestraightaheadthewaterextendsfromwalltowallandi.qUiteThissmalllakeis15feetwide and140feetlongafterswimningtothefarsideonecanclimbUpasteepmudbajtoasmallroomattheendofthecave.MembersoftheofTexasSpeleologicalSocietyvisitedthiscaveon26January1965.Cueva deElAbraThisfrequentlyvisitedcaveislocatedjustabovetheInterAmerican HighwayatKm.Post542andtothenorthboundtrafficthe70foothighby60footwideentranceprovidesanimpressivsight.Fromtheopeningonthesideofthecliffthenext600ofpassagegraduallyenlargesuntilitattainsaheightofanestimated140feetand awidthof35feet.Atthispointapitfromthesurfaceintersectsthecaveandhasadepthtriangulattobe245feet.Afterrappellingdownan89footdropfromtheentrancepassage,onefindshimselfwithadecisiontomake. }climbingup averysteepflowstoneslopeontheoppositeside:canexploreseveralhundredfeetofpassagebeforecomingtoasuddenenc.Althoughthefirstportionofthispassageisnic,decoratedwithstalagmitesandflowstonethelasthundredfeetflooredwithdry,dustyguano andcontainsnoformations.Theotheralternativetheexplorerhasistoturnsharplytother:toa muchlargerandimpressivepassage.Theceilingismoret150feetaboveandthewallsaverage45feetapart.Thefloorslopesdownata30degreeangleand,beingcompletelycoveredbasketball-sizebreakdown,descendingisratherhazardous.Tlslopecontinuesdownfor300feetuntilreachingtheterminaticroom,whichis40feetindiameter.Throughoutthefirstsectiofthecavethousandsofdeadbatswereseenonthefloordurirthemostrecentvisit(27Jan1965)thatwereevidentlythevictimsofsomeepidemic.AlthoughahighlycontagiousdiseaseccnearlywipeoutapopUlation,a fewbatsalwaysremaintopropc_gatethespecies.Totallengthofthecaveis1460feet.Cueva deJoyadeAguacaten.1andn.2LocatedatthetopofaridgeoftheElAbra Rangeneara lowPass,thesetwocaveshavetheirentrancesateitherendofalarge,shallowsink.Thenorthernmostentrancemeasures12fe(highand40feetwide andcontinuesbackforabout100feetintaslightlylargerroombeforeending.The wholecaveisdrymoflittleinterestexceptfora fewoldnamesscribbledontheThecaveatotherendofthesink(n.2)isevensmall6feethighand15feetwide,and30feetlong.Muchliketheothercave,thisone wasalsodryandcontainednofauna.GrutasdeQUinteroGrutasdeQUinteroislocateda fewkilometerssouthwestofthesmallvillageofQuintero.Signspointthewaytothecaveancstonestepshavebeenbuiltfromtheroaduptothemouthofttcave.Thecaveisenteredby apassageabout5feethighand (feetWide.Thissoonopensintoalargerisingtunnel30feetand20feethigh.About50feetfromtheentrancetwosmallpassagestotherightleadintoahighfissure-likepassagewhi

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o306090150IIiiMWl2ENTRANCEsMFEET25METROS50CUEVADELPACHONMUNICIPALITY OF ANTIGUO MORELOS) TAMAULIPASBRUNTONANDTAPESURVEYBYJ.FISH)T. RAINES) J.CALVERT,D. EVANS, E.ALEXANDER)J. DUNLAP26JANUARY 1965 DRAFTED BYT.RAINES AMCSo306090150IIiiMWl2ENTRANCEM<@l.>.FEET25METROS50CUEVADELPACHONMUNICIPALITY OF ANTIGUO MORELOS) TAMAULIPASBRUNTON AND TAPE SURVEYBYJ.FISH)T.RAINES)J.CALVERT,D.EVANS, E.ALEXANDER)J.DUNLAP26JANUARY 1965 DRAFTED BYT.RAINES AMCS

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18 forms aloopandconnectsagainwiththernainpassageofthec&afterabout250Thispassagecontainsmuchf1owstoneanc fewsmallformations.About150feetfromtheentrancetherejasucessionoflargetravertinedamsandflowstonedepositsrisingabout10feetabovetheleveloftheAfteraradditional100feetaskylightrisestothesurface.Ashortdistancebeyondthispointthecaveturnssharplywestandexteabout300feetbeforeturningabruptlYsouth.Straightahead athisturnaslopingpassageleadsdownintoanalcove,attheendofwhichitispossibletoclimbover10foothightravertidamsfilledwithwater.Thepassagecontinuesbeyondthispoinbuthasnotbeenexplored.Afterturningsouththemainpassagextendsabout200feettowhere asecondalcoveleadsofftoth,right.Thisalsoleadsdowntoanareaoflakeswhichhavenotbeenexplored.FromthesecondalcovethepassageleadsupLrrtalargeroomabout150feetlong,50feetwide,and40feethig: Aslopingpassageontherightleadsdowntoalargelake,whil,aslopingpassageontheleftleadsupintoashortdead-endtunnel.Theonlynotableformationinthecave,awhitestalag:about15feethighand10feetindiameter,istobe foundint room. The mainpassagefromthisroomextendsforabout800fetoasomewhatsmaller,mud-flooredpassagewhichendsina40footdeeppit.Thispor-tionofthecavehasbeenfrequentlyvisitedasisevidencedbymuchvandalismandbythepresence0:manycamp-firesthroughoutthecave.Pastthepitthepassagesnarrowtoanaverageof15feetwide and10feethighandcontilforabout2000feet.Thislengthisonlyaquessasseveralpassagesremainunchecked andthiswholelattersectionisunsurveyed.AlsomuchmudandwaterisencounteredtowardtheencSotanodeVenaditoLikeseveraloftheothercavesfurthersouthintheElAbra Range,theentrancetothiscaveislocatedattheendofanarlandrecievesmuchwaterduringheavyrains.Thepitentrancemeasures20feetby40feetanddrops152feetwithoneledgeatthe49footlevel.Arrivingatthebottom,onefinds-himselfclingingtothewallaboveseverallarge,deepplunge-pools.Butbyclimbing30feetalongthehorizontalpassagethatthebottomitispossibletoreachsolidfooting.Atthispointthecavedividesjasevenfootindiametertubepassagecuttingbacksharplytotheleftwhilethelargerpassage,15feetwide by20feethigh,continuesstraightahead.FollowingthislargeLinemapofSotanodeVenadito:18 forms aloopandconnectsagainwiththernainpassageofthec&afterabout250Thispassagecontainsmuchf1owstoneanc fewsmallformations.About150feetfromtheentrancetherejasucessionoflargetravertinedams andflowstonedepositsrisingabout10feetabovetheleveloftheAfteraradditional100feetaskylightrisestothesurface.Ashortdistancebeyondthispointthecaveturnssharplywestandexteabout300feetbeforeturningabruptlYsouth.Straightahead athisturnaslopingpassageleadsdownintoanalcove,attheendofwhichitispossibletoclimbover10foothightravertidamsfilledwithwater.Thepassagecontinuesbeyondthispoinbuthasnotbeenexplored.Afterturningsouththemainpassagextendsabout200feettowhere asecondalcoveleadsofftoth,right.Thisalsoleadsdowntoanareaoflakeswhichhavenotbeenexplored.Fromthesecondalcovethepassageleadsupint,alargeroomabout150feetlong,50feetwide,and40feethig: Aslopingpassageontherightleadsdowntoalargelake,whil,aslopingpassageontheleftleadsupintoashortdead-endtunnel.Theonlynotableformationinthecave,awhitestalag:about15feethighand 10feetindiameter,istobefoundint room. The mainpassagefromthisroomextendsforabout800 fetoa somewhatsmaller,mud-flooredpassagewhichendsina 40footdeeppit.Thispor-tionofthecavehasbeenfrequentlyvisitedasisevidencedby muchvandalismand bythepresence0:manycamp-firesthroughoutthecave.Pastthepitthepassagesnarrowtoanaverageof15feetwide and10feethighandcontilforabout2000feet.Thislengthisonlyaquessasseveralpassagesremainunchecked andthiswholelattersectionisunsurveyed.AlsomuchmudandwaterisencounteredtowardtheencSotanodeVenaditoLikeseveraloftheothercavesfurthersouthintheElAbra Range,theentrancetothiscaveislocatedattheendofanarlandrecievesmuchwaterduringheavyrains.Thepitentrancemeasures20feetby 40feetanddrops152feetwithoneledgeatthe49footlevel.Arrivingatthebottom,onefinds-himselfclingingtothewallaboveseverallarge,deepplunge-pools.Butbyclimbing30feetalongthehorizontalpassagethatthebottomitispossibletoreachsolidfooting.Atthispointthecavedividesjasevenfootindiametertubepassagecuttingbacksharplytotheleftwhilethelargerpassage,15feetwide by 20feethigh,continuesstraightahead.FollowingthislargeLinemapofSotanodeVenadito:

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\\,j-114 10I-'-ABRAELx10DESIERRA:6.x',-,x7:8x 'x9'.,.",+76".-, t._I",I->iF""X/-::..+90}ijt1i10I"Kms,LEGENDEastfaceofElAbra RangeElevationinMetersCave(seeKey)WestedgeofElAbra Limestone.r>.......Antiguo'':!')i:Horalos \\,\),iT+-2.50 +100\.-..ElVenadito:\'-,I \'--I,\ \v.-;--i-......-pas'<,\))SanLUisPt:-'-/-,(o'\-.r\ \II-'-10\\,j-114ABRAELx 10DESIERRA:6...x'.x7:8x 'x9'.+76,},_ I", IiF"X /-::..+90".-}ijt1i"10.----1\Kms.LEGENDEastfaceofElAbra RangeElevationinMetersCave(seeKey)West edgeofElAbra Limestone,,/",.._/--..'J'Antiguo'':!')i:Horalos \\,\).i++-2.50 +100\.-..ElVenadito:\'-.I \'-I ,\\\'-;--i-.........pas'-"-\))SanLUisPt:-.-/-,(o.\-.r\ \I

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19passageforabout200feet,aflowstonelinedpit30feetindiameterisencountered.EXlporationofthispitprovedittoblindwithaverticaldropofabout100feet.Thisisindeedstrangebecauseduringfloodtimethelargeamountofwaterentingthecavemusteitherfindanoutletatthebottomoftheoffillitandfollowoneoftheotherpassages.Returningtotheentranceandfollowingthetubepassage,onequicklydiscoversthatthisisthepassagethatleadstotrlargestextentoftheAfter150feetitdivides,totherightwhereitdivides:-1gain.Thistime,bycontinuingstraigbaheadfromthetottomofthedrop,oneloopsarounduntilheencounterstheflowstonelinedpitagain.Theotherpassagefromthe60footdrop13foundtocarryfloodwaterandaverage25feethighand8feetwide.AtthetimeofexplorationthispassagewaGexploredforanestimated2000feettothetopofc40to50footpit.Thetopofthisdropisbetween300and35Cfeetbelowtheentrance.Inordertoreachthispointandcontinueononewillneedropesfor:thislastdrop,anotherjustpreceeding(40feet),the60footdrop,andtheentrancedrop.AlsoofgreatimportanceisasumpjustafterthethirddropwlislikelytobeasiphonexceptduringthedrymonthsbetweenlateDecember andthelatterpartofApril.Exploredon241965bymembersoftheUTSS.BiologyoftheCavesoftheNorthernElAbra RangebyJamesReddellVeryttlestudyhasbeenmadeofthecavesoftheElAb:RangeinthestateofTamaulipas.WiththeexceptionofCuevaElAbra, CuevaElPachon,GrutasdeQuintero,andSotanodeIVenaditonocavesinthisareahavebeenbiologicallyinvestigEted.Thepresenceofunusualformsinthesecavesisagoodindicationoftherichcollectinginstoreforthefuture.PerhapsthemostunusualoftheanimalsrecordedfromthicareaisTyphlolepidomysisquinterensisVillalobos,knownonlyfGrutasdePUintero.ThIsisamemberoftheusuallymarinecrustaceanorder,Mysidacea;InMexicothisorderisknown on;fromcavesinYucatanand fromthiscave;OtherCrustacearec
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20byspecies{beingotherwisemarine;Twospecies,Speocircbolivar1(Rioja)andSpeocirolanapelaezi(Bolivar),areknownfromGrutasdeonlythelatterisreportedfrorCuevadeElPachon.Athirdisopodrecordedfromtheareaisaterrestrialspecies,ProtrichoniscusbridgesiVanThisblindisopodiscommononorganicdebrisinGrutasdeQuinteroCuevadeElTheonlymillipedknown fromcavesintheareaisatroglphilicmemberofthefamilyItappearstobela.toanundescribedgenusandspeciesandisfoundonlyinGruta, deAnotherunusualanimaloccurringinthecavesoftheareaaprobablyundescribedspeciesoftherarearachnidorder,Thistick-likeanimalisrepresentedbyonlyafewspeciesintheNewWorldandtheappearanceofanundescribedisItisknownonlyfromSotanodeElOtherarachnidsrepresentedinthecavesoftheareainclpseudoscorp*ons,spiders,andmembersofthesmallorder,Phrynichida.Atroglobiticpseudoscorpion,ParavachoniumbolivBeier,hasbeendescribedfromGrutasdeQuintero.SpidersfrthiscaveincludealargespeciesofthegenusCtenus,commomlfound onthewallsoftheItisapparentlyundescribedisaspeciesofthegenusTwospeciesofspider}beer/collectedinCuevadeElAbrc')indidentifiedasStrotarchucandLoxos,elesOnlythelatterspeciesappearstobeapermanentcaveAlsopresentinGrutasdeQuintercaspeciesoftheorder,Phrynichida,Tarantula.Threeinsectsordershavebeencollectedfromthearea.BeetlesofthefamilesHydrobiidaeandTenebrionidaehave beencollectedinCuevadeEIThefirstfamilyisrepresentcbyanasyetundeterminedgenusandspecies,whilethesecondrepresentedbythespecies,LiodemanearkirschilatterspeciesisapparentlyacommontroglophileorbatTroglobiticthysanuransofthefamilyNicoletiidaccommoninGrutasdeQuinteroandmayberepresentativeofanundescribedAlsopresentinthiscavearecricketsoffamilyTheseareasyetunidentified,butmaybeOfallthefaunaoftheareanoneisbetterknownthanthblindfish,AnoptichthysantrobiusThisspecieswasdescribedin1946from CuevadeEI Pachon andisknownonlyf1thatNinespeciesofbatarerecordedfromthecavesoftheUlNatalusmexicanus,Artibeusjamaicensisjamaicensis,Glossoph:soricinaleachii,Desmodusrotundusmurinus,Diphyllaecaudat:andPteronotusrubiginosusmexicanusareallrecordedfromCU(deEI Pachon; Desmodusrotundusmurinus,Tadaridabrasiliensi:mexicana,andTadaridaaurispinosaareknown from CuevadeElDiphyllaecaudataandMormoopsmegalophyllamegalophyllaare1fromGrutasdeQuintero.Unfortunatelyithasbeenpossibleonlytolistthefoundinthesecaves;itishoped,however;thatthiswillderstrateboththeuniquenatureofthefaunaoftheareaandthelackofknowledgeofthisNorealideaoftheextent[diversityofthefaunacanbeobtaineduntilmuchmorecollec-'ismadeandmoreof.thecollectedmaterialhasbeenisnotatallunlikelythatadditionalremarkableanimalsrem,undiscoveredinthese20byspecies{beingotherwisemarine;Twospecies,Speocircbolivar1(Rioja)andSpeocirolanapelaezi(Bolivar),areknownfromGrutasdeonlythelatterisreportedfrorCueva deElPachon.Athirdisopodrecordedfromtheareaisaterrestrialspecies,ProtrichoniscusbridgesiVanThisblindisopodiscommononorganicdebrisinGrutasdeQuinteroCueva deElTheonlymillipedknown fromcavesintheareaisatroglphilicmemberofthefamilyItappearstobela.toanundescribedgenusandspeciesandisfoundonlyinGruta, deAnotherunusualanimaloccurringinthecavesoftheareaaprobablyundescribedspeciesoftherarearachnidorder,Thistick-likeanimalisrepresentedbyonlya fewspeciesintheNewWorld andtheappearanceofanundescribedisItisknownonlyfromSotanodeElOtherarachnidsrepresentedinthecavesoftheareainclpseudoscorp*ons,spiders,and membersofthesmallorder,Phrynichida.Atroglobiticpseudoscorpion,ParavachoniumbolivBeier,hasbeendescribedfromGrutasdeQuintero.SpidersfrthiscaveincludealargespeciesofthegenusCtenus,commomlfound onthewallsoftheItisapparentlyundescribedisaspeciesofthegenusTwospeciesofspider}beer/collectedinCueva deElAbrc')indidentifiedasStrotarchucand Loxos,elesOnlythelatterspeciesappearstobeapermanentcaveAlsopresentinGrutasdeQuintercaspeciesoftheorder,Phrynichida,Tarantula.Threeinsectsordershavebeencollectedfromthearea.BeetlesofthefamilesHydrobiidaeandTenebrionidaehave beencollectedinCueva de EIThefirstfamilyisrepresentcbyanasyetundeterminedgenusandspecies,whilethesecondrepresentedbythespecies,LiodemanearkirschilatterspeciesisapparentlyacommontroglophileorbatTroglobiticthysanuransofthefamilyNicoletiidaccommoninGrutasdeQuinteroandmayberepresentativeofanundescribedAlsopresentinthiscavearecricketsoffamilyTheseareasyetunidentified,butmaybeOfallthefaunaoftheareanoneisbetterknownthanthblindfish,AnoptichthysantrobiusThisspecieswasdescribedin1946from Cueva deEIPachon andisknownonlyf1thatNinespeciesofbatarerecordedfromthecavesoftheUlNatalusmexicanus,Artibeusjamaicensisjamaicensis,Glossoph:soricinaleachii,Desmodusrotundusmurinus,Diphyllaecaudat:andPteronotusrubiginosusmexicanusareallrecordedfromCU(deEIPachon; Desmodusrotundusmurinus,Tadaridabrasiliensi:mexicana,andTadaridaaurispinosaareknown from Cueva deElDiphyllaecaudataand Mormoopsmegalophyllamegalophyllaare1fromGrutasdeQuintero.Unfortunatelyithasbeenpossibleonlytolistthefoundinthesecaves;itishoped,however,thatthiswillderstrateboththeuniquenatureofthefaunaoftheareaand thelackofknowledgeofthisNorealideaoftheextent[diversityofthefaunacanbeobtaineduntilmuch morecollec-'ismadeand moreof.thecollectedmaterialhasbeenisnotatallunlikelythatadditionalremarkableanimalsrem,undiscoveredinthese

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21 Acknowledgements Iwishtothankthefollowingspecialistsfortheiridentficationsofmaterialincludedinthisreport:Millipeds-Dr Ne,ll B; Causey,LouisianaStateUniversity;arachnids-WiJ.Gertsch,AmericanMuseumofNaturalHistory;thysanura-Dr Peqro.Wy.godzinsly, AmericanMuseumofNaturalHistory;beetlesDr.T.J.Spilman,UnitedStatesNationalMuseum;BibliographyAlvarez,J:"Revisiondelgenerocondescrudeuneeopecienueva (Pisc-; Cha,.racidae).EscuelaCienciasBiologicas,4:263-282.Alvarez,Ticui.1963."TheRecentManunalsofTamaulipas,MexiclUniv.Kans;Publ;,Martin,Marian andPaulS.Martin;1954."Notes ontheCaptureTropicalBatsatCuevatdPachon ,Tamaulipas,Mexico:" Journ;ofMammalogy,35(4):584-585;NiC'Fiolas,Bro.G;1962"ChecklistofTroglobiticOrganismsofMlddl.e.Ancn,"Amer-,MidI.Nat;,68(1): 1.65-188.Rioja,Enrique;1'95l5':XXII. LosTrichoniscldosCavernicloasdeMexicodelGeneroProtrichoniyDescr-'1p.ciondeUnaNuevaEspeciedelMismo."An;Inst;BicMex;,21(1):127-146.---Rioja,Enrique;1953;"EstudiosCarcinologicos;XXX.ObservaclsobrelosClrolanidosCavernicolasde Mexice(Crustaceos,Isopodos);"An;BioI.Mex;,22(1):191-218;Villalobos,Alejandro."nn-NuevoMisidaceodelasGrutasde QUintero--enelEstadodeTamau1ipas;"An;Inst;BioI;Mex;,22(1):191-218;---TheAMCSNewsletterispublishedmonthly bytheAssociatirforMexican CaveStudies,P.O.Bos7972UTStation,Austin,Te: 78712; MembershipintheAMCSis$5.00forthecale,ndaryear,withmembershipsstartingatthefirstofeachyear.Personsjoiningafterthefirstoftheyearwillreceiveallbackpublicationsf'orthatyear:Membersareurgedtosubmitarticlesforpublication;Ma:submittedforpublicationshouldbeofatypesuitableforcop;ontoastandardorlegalsizememeographmaster;LongerartiewithmoredetailedmapsareinvitedforpublicationasabulleTripreportsarerequestedfromalltripsEditorTerryRainesStaffBi11RussellJamesReddellDavidMcKenzieRichardSmithEdAlexander21Acknowledgements Iwishtothankthefollowingspecialistsfortheiridentficationsofmaterialincludedinthisreport:Millipeds-DrNe,ll B; Causey,LouisianaStateUniversity;arachnids-WiJ.Gertsch,AmericanMuseumofNaturalHistory;thysanura-DrPeqro.Wy.godzinsly, AmericanMuseumofNaturalHistory;beetlesDr.T.J.Spilman,UnitedStatesNationalMuseum;BibliographyAlvarez,J:"Revisiondelgenerocondescri:de uneeopecienueva (Pisc-; Cha,.racidae).EscuelaCienciasBiologicas,4:263-282.Alvarez,Ticui.1963."TheRecentManunalsofTamaulipas,MexiclUniv.Kans;Publ;,Martin,Marian andPaulS.Martin;1954."Notes ontheCaptureTropicalBatsatCuevatdPachon,Tamaulipas,Mexico:" Journ;ofMammalogy,35(4):584-585;NiC'Fiolas,Bro.G;1962"ChecklistofTroglobiticOrganismsofMlddl.e.Ar1cr.;"Amer;MidI.Nat;,68 (1) : 1.65-188.Rioja,Enrique;1'95l5':XXII. LosTrichoniscldosCavernicloasde MexicodelGeneroProtrichoniy Descr-'1p.cion deUnaNuevaEspeciedelMismo."An;Inst;BicMex;,21(1):127-146.---Rioja,Enrique;1953;"EstudiosCarcinologicos;XXX.ObservaclsobrelosClrolanidosCavernicolasde Mexice(Crustaceos,Isopodos);"An;BioI.Mex;,22(1):191-218;Villalobos,Alejandro."nn-NuevoMisidaceodelasGrutasde QUintero--enelEstadodeTamau1ipas;"An;Inst;BioI;Mex;,22(1):191-218;----TheAMCSNewsletterispublishedmonthly bytheAssociatirforMexican CaveStudies,P.O.Bos 7972UTStation,Austin,Te: 78712; MembershipintheAMCSis$5.00forthecale,ndaryear,withmembershipsstartingatthefirstofeachyear.Personsjoiningafterthefirstoftheyearwillreceiveallbackpublicationsf'orthatyear:Membersareurgedtosubmitarticlesforpublication;Ma:submittedforpublicationshouldbeofatypesuitableforcop;ontoastandardorlegalsizememeographmaster;LongerartiewithmoredetailedmapsareinvitedforpublicationasabulleTripreportsarerequestedfromalltripsEditorTerryRainesStaffBi11RussellJamesReddellDavid McKenzieRichardSmithEdAlexander


Description
Contents: Trip Reports
- December 1964 --
Caves of the Sierra de El Abra, Part I Tamaulipas --
The Biology of the Caves of the Northern El Abra
Range.