Association of Mexican Cave Studies newsletter

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Association of Mexican Cave Studies newsletter

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Title:
Association of Mexican Cave Studies newsletter
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Association of Mexican Cave Studies Newsletter (1965-1977)
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Association for Mexican Cave Studies
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Association for Mexican Cave Studies
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Regional Speleology ( local )
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serial ( sobekcm )
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Mexico

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Contents: Caves of the Sierra de El Abra, Part II Los Sabinos, S.L.P.
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Vol. 1, no. 3 (1965)
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THEASSOCIATIONFORMEXICANCAVESTUDIESNEt'lSLETTERContentsTripReportsCavesoftheSierradeElAbraPartIILosSabinos,S.L.P.Volume1Number3ReprintMarch1965THEASSOCIATIONFORMEXICANCAVESTUDIESNEt'lSLETTERContentsTripReportsCavesoftheSierradeElAbraPartIILosSabinos,S.L.P.Volume 1Number3ReprintMarch1965

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22TripReportsPersons:EdAlexander,JohnFish,JanieCalvert,Jim Dunlap, -DannyEvans,andTerryRainesDate:20-29January1965Destination:ManteAreaReportedby:EdAlexanderThesemesterbreaktriptotheManteareainTamau1ipassetoutwiththeprimarypurposeoflocatingSotanodeVenaditowhich wasknowntobesomewhereeastofHighwas85andRancho deLeavingAustinon Wednesday, 20IheadedforMantealonetodosomepreliminarysearchinguntiltherestofthegroupcouldjoinIneonFromLaredoIcaughtthetraintoMonterrywhere,afterashortdelay,IfoundthebusstationhaVing abusgoingtoArrivinginManteataboutdawn on.,ThursdayIboardedthe6:45secondclass,localtowardValleseSixteenstopslaterIgotoffattheVenaditosignseveralmilessouthofAntiguoMorelos andbegantheninekilometerhikealongtheroadtotheeasttoRanchodelaNoria.TheranchinasmallvalleyatthewesternbaseofSierradeElAbra, andwasinthegeneralareawherewebelievedSotancdeVenaditotobelocated;However, uponarrivingatNoriano oneknewofthelargesotanoandfurthermoreIwould havetoreturntoManteforpermissionfromSenorEdgarVibinatoenterseveralsmallersotanosontheAftermoretalkingtheyfinallyagreedtoshowmetheentrancestosomeofthecloserpits,andinamatterofminuteshadledmetothetopsoffoursotanosand weretalkingofThinkingitmaybeworththetroubletocheckthesepitsIhikedbacktoHighway85andcaughtthenextbustoManteandtherequiredpermissionfromtheThenextday,Friday,IwasagaingettingoffthebusatVenaditoandhikingalongtheroadtoNoria,withawrittenpermitinmypacktoenterthesotanos;AbouthalfwaybacktotheranchImetamulewitharidernamedAntoniowhowastobecomeourquideforthefourdays;HesaidheknewofalargesotanoaboutthreekilometersawayandproceededtoleadmedownanarroyoseveralkilometerssouthofRanchodelaNorieAfterfollowingthearroyoforaboutonekilometerwewereina canyonaboutthirtyfeetTheneverythingcametoaneL andIfoundmyselflookingdowntheentranceofSotanodeVeradiSinceIwastobejoinedthenextday bymorecaverSfromAustinwereturnedtoAntonio'shouse whereIspenttheAfterwaitingforabouthalfofSaturdaymorningfortherestofthegroup,ItoldAntoniothatIwasgoingbacktoRanch delaNoriatocheckthesotanosIhadseenthereonHeimmediatejydroppedhiscornhasking,gotouthismuleand camewithAtNoriaIenteredoneofthesotanosandashortsheltercave;Onthewaytoanothersotano,thetruckarrivedfrom TexaswithTerry,Jim,John,andWedecidedtocampandrestupforthetripintoSotanodeVenaditothenextcSunday morningAntonioandhisfriendPancho metusandthenowenlargedgroupofsevenheadedfortheTerry,John,Janie,andIrappeledintheentrancedropof150feetandthen22TripReportsPersons:EdAlexander,JohnFish,JanieCalvert,Jim Dunlap, -DannyEvans,andTerryRainesDate:20-29January1965Destination:Mante AreaReportedby:EdAlexanderThesemesterbreaktriptotheManteareainTamau1ipassetoutwiththeprimarypurposeoflocatingSotanodeVenaditowhich was knowntobesomewhereeastofHighwas 85 and Rancho deLeavingAustinon Wednesday, 20IheadedforMantealonetodosomepreliminarysearchinguntiltherestofthegroupcouldjoinIneonFromLaredoIcaughtthetraintoMonterrywhere,afterashortdelay,IfoundthebusstationhaVing abusgoingtoArrivinginManteataboutdawnon.,ThursdayIboardedthe6:45secondclass,localtowardValleseSixteenstopslaterIgotoffattheVenaditosignseveralmilessouthofAntiguoMorelos andbegantheninekilometerhikealongtheroadtotheeasttoRancho delaNoria.TheranchinasmallvalleyatthewesternbaseofSierradeElAbra, and wasinthegeneralareawherewebelievedSotancdeVenaditotobelocated;However, uponarrivingatNoriano oneknewofthelargesotanoandfurthermoreIwould havetoreturntoManteforpermissionfromSenorEdgarVibinatoenterseveralsmallersotanosontheAftermoretalkingtheyfinallyagreedtoshowmetheentrancestosomeofthecloserpits,andinamatterofminuteshadledmetothetopsoffoursotanosand weretalkingofThinkingitmaybeworththetroubletocheckthesepitsIhikedbacktoHighway 85 andcaughtthenextbustoMante andtherequiredpermissionfromtheThenextday,Friday,IwasagaingettingoffthebusatVenaditoandhikingalongtheroadtoNoria,withawrittenpermitinmypacktoenterthesotanos;AbouthalfwaybacktotheranchImet a mulewitharidernamedAntoniowhowastobecomeourquideforthefourdays;Hesaidhe knewofalargesotanoaboutthreekilometersaway andproceededtoleadmedownanarroyoseveralkilometerssouthofRancho delaNorieAfterfollowingthearroyoforaboutonekilometerwewereina canyonaboutthirtyfeetTheneverythingcametoaneLandIfoundmyselflookingdowntheentranceofSotanodeVeradiSinceIwastobejoinedthenextday by morecaverSfromAustinwereturnedtoAntonio'shouse whereIspenttheAfterwaitingforabouthalfofSaturdaymorningfortherestofthegroup,ItoldAntoniothatIwasgoingbacktoRanch delaNoriatocheckthesotanosIhadseenthereonHeimmediatejydroppedhiscornhasking,gotouthismule andcamewithAtNoriaIenteredoneofthesotanosand ashortsheltercave;Onthewaytoanothersotano,thetruckarrivedfrom TexaswithTerry,Jim,John,andWedecidedtocampandrestupforthetripintoSotanodeVenaditothenextcSunday morningAntonioandhisfriendPancho metusandthenowenlargedgroupofsevenheadedfortheTerry,John,Janie,andIrappeledintheentrancedropof150feetandthen

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23downa seconddropof60Fromtherewechimneyeddownadescendingcanyonforover100feetmoreuntilwewerestoppedbya50footdrop;The caveapparentlycontinuedonanddownwithnodecreaseinsize.AftercheckingaconnectingpitneartheentrancedropweprusikedoutandreturnedtoMondaymorningearlyAntonioand Panchoagaindropped byourcampandtoguideustoseveralcavesknewofinthesierras.Thinkingthatperhapstheywouldleadustosomegreatnewcaverns,weacceptedtheofferandfollowedthem upajunglecovered,thorninfestedmountaintofinally;findtwoamallsheltercaves,CuevadeJoyade Aguacatenos.1and2 Backdownthetwoorthreekilometersofmountaintothetruck,wewerethenledseveralmilessouthalongthesierrastoSotanldeDonPedro,asmall120footpitinhabitedbyasinglerat;BythistimeAntonio,whohad watchedusenterseveralpits,decideditwastimeforhimtoWeclippedhimintoaseatslingand watched himdisappearovertheedge,andthenlaterreappearonTerry'sLeavingtheVenaditoareaandthenewlyconvertedcaverwedrovetoAntiguoMorelos wherewecampexpectingtomeet DannythenextThatmorning,Tuesday,wedidn'tseeDannyinthesowedroveonnorthtotheturnofftothetownofEIPachon.WhilewewerestoppedthereaskingdirectionstoCuevadelPachthesecondclass,localtoVallescamebyanddischargedDanny andhispackbesideus;Ourfullgroupofsixthenlocatedthecavejustupthehillfromthetownwellandspentseveralhourmapping,collectingblindfish,andphotographingbats;Leavfn,thecavewedrovebacktoManteandmadecampatElNacimientodelRioManto wherewespenttherestofthedayreorganizingthetruck,eatchinguponournotes,andswimmingintheclear,blue-greenwater;ElNaCimientoisoneofthelargeresurgencesalongtheeasternbaseofthemountains,indicativeoflargecavesystemssomewherehigherupinthesierras;OnWednesdaywedrovetoCuevadeQuinterowherewedidsomemappil andexploring;Attheendofthecaveweenteredseveralhundrcyardsofpassage,partofwhich wasvirginandtheremainderofwhich hadonlybeenenteredafewtimesinthepast;ThatnightweagaincampedatElNacimiento;ThursdaywastobeourlastdayinMexico,sowerepackedthetruckanddrovesouthtothepassthroughthesierrasforashortvisittoCuevadeElAbra;Muchimpressedbythelargeentranceand enormousskylightweclimbedbackintothetruckandbeganthelongtrekbacktoTexas;WepassedthroughLared( customsataboutmidnightandarrivedbackinAustinat4:00Persons:-BudFrank,OrionKnox, David McKenzie, andJohnPortelDate:19-25January1965Destination:LaJoyadeSalasReportedby:David McKenzie (Ed;note:TheunusuallydetaileddescriptionsinthistripreportaregiveninordertofamiliarizethereaderwiththeGomezFariasarea;ItisbelievedthatwithfurtherexplaratiolthisareawillbecomeasimportantassomeoftheotherpitareassuchasTequilla,andXilitla,S.L.P.)23downa seconddropof60Fromtherewechimneyeddownadescendingcanyonforover100feetmoreuntilwewerestoppedby a 50footdrop;The caveapparentlycontinuedon anddownwithnodecreaseinsize.AftercheckingaconnectingpitneartheentrancedropweprusikedoutandreturnedtoMondaymorningearlyAntonioand Panchoagaindropped byourcampandtoguideustoseveralcavesknewofinthesierras.Thinkingthatperhapstheywouldleadustosomegreatnewcaverns,weacceptedtheofferandfollowedthem up ajunglecovered,thorninfestedmountaintofinally;findtwoamallsheltercaves,Cueva deJoyade Aguacatenos.1 and 2 Backdownthetwoorthreekilometersofmountaintothetruck,wewerethenledseveralmilessouthalongthesierrastoSotanldeDonPedro,asmall120footpitinhabitedby asinglerat;BythistimeAntonio,whohad watchedusenterseveralpits,decideditwastimeforhimtoWeclippedhimintoaseatslingand watched himdisappearovertheedge,andthenlaterreappearonTerry'sLeavingtheVenaditoareaandthenewlyconvertedcaverwedrovetoAntiguoMorelos wherewecampexpectingtomeet DannythenextThatmorning,Tuesday,wedidn'tseeDannyinthesowedroveonnorthtotheturnofftothetownofEIPachon.WhilewewerestoppedthereaskingdirectionstoCuevadelPachthesecondclass,localtoVallescameby anddischargedDanny andhispackbesideus;Ourfullgroupofsixthenlocatedthecavejustupthehillfromthetownwellandspentseveralhourmapping,collectingblindfish,andphotographingbats;Leavin(thecavewedrovebacktoMante and madecampatElNacimientodelRio Manto wherewespenttherestofthedayreorganizingthetruck,eatchingup onournotes, and swimmingintheclear,blue-greenwater;ElNaCimientoisoneofthelargeresurgencesalongtheeasternbaseofthemountains,indicativeoflargecavesystemssomewherehigherupinthesierras;OnWednesdaywedrovetoCueva deQuinterowherewedidsomemappil andexploring;Attheendofthecaveweenteredseveralhundrcyardsofpassage,partofwhich wasvirginandtheremainderofwhich hadonlybeenentereda fewtimesinthepast;ThatnightweagaincampedatElNacimiento;ThursdaywastobeourlastdayinMexico,sowerepackedthetruckanddrovesouthtothepassthroughthesierrasforashortvisittoCueva deElAbra;Muchimpressedbythelargeentranceand enormousskylightweclimbedbackintothetruckandbeganthelongtrekbacktoTexas;WepassedthroughLared( customsataboutmidnightandarrivedbackinAustinat4:00Persons:-BudFrank,OrionKnox, David McKenzie, andJohnPortelDate:19-25January1965Destination:LaJoyadeSalasReportedby:David McKenzie (Ed;note:TheunusuallydetaileddescriptionsinthistripreportaregiveninordertofamiliarizethereaderwiththeGomezFariasarea;ItisbelievedthatwithfurtherexplaratiolthisareawillbecomeasimportantassomeoftheotherpitareassuchasTequilla,andXilitla,S.L.P.)

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24 19At6:30weleftAustininJohn'spickup;WearrivedinReynosaat2:40andspentonehourcrossingtheborder;At8:00,aftera194miledrive,wereachedVictoriaand,withsomedifficulty,foundtheJuamaveWecampedbesideitinthefoothillswestof20WeleftearlyandbeganclimbingthescenicrangethatseparatesVictoriaandtheJuamaveItisthenorthernextensionoftheSierrade Guatemalawhieh,intheGomezFariasarea,containedcaveswehopedtovisit-mainlyalargerumoresotanoatLaJoyadeItwasourfainthopetofindarouteonthelessprecipitoussideoftherange,-asseveralrecentattemptsatEncinofailedduetodeep,non-traversablerutsintheroad;TheelevationofJuamaveis750metersascomparedtothe120ofEncino,where asteepandnarrowlumberroadclimbsto2000andthendownto1550atLaThe38km.roadtoJuamaveisveryimpressive;butasitisonlypartiallyfinished,itwouldpunishacarwithlowTwoofusrodethepickup'stailgatetoseemoreoftheAtthehalfwaypoint,where-theroadreachesitshighestelevation,westoppedatastore-dwellingforWeweretoldofasotanoandseveralcavesinthearroyojustsouthofthere,probablyeasilyapproachedbythe"Oldroad"whichgoestoanearbyWecontinuedwest,droppingtothevalleyfloor,andthenmovedsouthoverextremelydtistyroadstothesmalldeserttownofThevastcactus-treedlandscapeisremarkableinitscontrasttothetropicalsceneryoneencountersnearEncinoTotheeastwecouldseethetremendousandremotecanyonoftheGuayalejoRiverwhichcutsitswaythroughtheanticlinalrange.AtageneralstoreintownweaskediftherewasaroadfromtheretoLaJoya,about35km;Gway.Butfarfromit,the.wasonlyarough,seldom-usedtrail,where onecould"getlostanddieofthirstwithoutaWeweren'tinclinedtodoubtbisand,aswewereanticipatinga deepcave,weintendedeverypossibliityofgettingourheavygeartotheentrance.Moreanxiousthanevertoreachthecoolmountaincloudforest,wedrovebacktoVictoria,boughtafewforgottennecessities,and went48milessouthtoWethendrovewest,crossedthescenicRioSabinas,andcontinuedthroughspectaculartropicalforesttoadifficultstretchofroadrequiringalaboriousbreakingdownofitshighcenter.AnoisyflockofparrotsandagreatvarietyofbutterfliescontributedtothenewAt4;8milesfromEncinowebeattheJuamavedustoutofoursleepinggearandcampec.forthe21strugglingwiththeroad,welettwolumbertruepasscarryingwatertothefirstlumbercamp,Julilo,atabout1300 m.Thepassageofthesecondtruckalongthisstretchwas slow andprecarious,andafterhelpingitacrosswewereofferedaridetoReluctantlyweaccepted,haVinghardlystartedourclimboftheAnemergency-brakefailure,whichnearlywrenchedofftherightdoorofthepickuphadfurtherdiscouragedWehurriedlycondensedourequipmenttofourheavypacksanda 1309ofropewhichincludedtheveteran"600ft."2419At6:30weleftAustininJohn'spickup;WearrivedinReynosaat2:40andspentonehourcrossingtheborder;At8:00,aftera194miledrive,wereachedVictoriaand,withsomedifficulty,foundtheJuamaveWecampedbesideitinthefoothillswestof20WeleftearlyandbeganclimbingthescenicrangethatseparatesVictoriaandtheJuamaveItisthenorthernextensionoftheSierrade Guatemalawhieh,intheGomezFariasarea,containedcaveswehopedtovisit-mainlyalargerumoresotanoatLaJoyadeItwasourfainthopetofindarouteonthelessprecipitoussideoftherange,-asseveralrecentattemptsatEncinofailedduetodeep,non-traversablerutsintheroad;TheelevationofJuamaveis750metersascomparedtothe120ofEncino,where asteepandnarrowlumberroadclimbsto2000andthendownto1550atLaThe38km.roadtoJuamaveisveryimpressive;butasitisonlypartiallyfinished,itwouldpunishacarwithlowTwoofusrodethepickup'stailgatetoseemoreoftheAtthehalfwaypoint,where-theroadreachesitshighestelevation,westoppedatastore-dwellingforWeweretoldofasotanoandseveralcavesinthearroyojustsouthofthere,probablyeasilyapproachedbythe"Oldroad"whichgoestoanearbyWecontinuedwest,droppingtothevalleyfloor,andthenmovedsouthoverextremelydtistyroadstothesmalldeserttownofThevastcactus-treedlandscapeisremarkableinitscontrasttothetropicalsceneryoneencountersnearEncinoTotheeastwecouldseethetremendousandremotecanyonoftheGuayalejoRiverwhichcutsitswaythroughtheanticlinalrange.Atageneralstoreintownweaskediftherewas aroadfromtheretoLaJoya,about35km;Gway.Butfarfromit,the.wasonlyarough,seldom-usedtrail,where onecould"getlostanddieofthirstwithoutaWeweren'tinclinedtodoubtbisand,aswewereanticipatinga deepcave,weintendedeverypossibliityofgettingourheavygeartotheentrance.Moreanxiousthanevertoreachthecoolmountaincloudforest,wedrovebacktoVictoria,boughta fewforgottennecessities,and went48milessouthtoWethendrovewest,crossedthescenicRioSabinas,andcontinuedthroughspectaculartropicalforesttoadifficultstretchofroadrequiringalaboriousbreakingdownofitshighcenter.Anoisyflockofparrotsand agreatvarietyofbutterfliescontributedtothenewAt4;8milesfromEncinowebeattheJuamavedustoutofoursleepinggearandcampec.forthe21strugglingwiththeroad,welettwolumbertruepasscarryingwatertothefirstlumbercamp,Julilo,atabout1300m.Thepassageofthesecondtruckalongthisstretchwas slow andprecarious,andafterhelpingitacrosswewereofferedaridetoReluctantlyweaccepted,haVinghardlystartedourclimboftheAnemergency-brakefailure,whichnearlywrenchedofftherightdoorofthepickuphadfurtherdiscouragedWehurriedlycondensedourequipmenttofourheavypacksand a 1309ofropewhichincludedtheveteran"600ft."

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The4000'climbtoJulilowastrulyexciting.Thickjunglusuallylimitedvisiontowithinafewfeetoftheroad,buthigherupthereappearedimpressiveviewsoftheWhenaconspicuouspitentrance15'fromtheroadcameintoview,westoppedand droppedinafewSotanodeMaria,asitiS,called,isanunenteredshaftdroppinggo'toaslopeorOtherattractionsalongtheroadwere arecentlykillecerC-de-lance hungondisplayanda"murderous"tropicalstingi'nettlecalled"malamujer"Abrushwiththisplant,whose...stalkis?ftenovertenfeettall,islikeawaspAftertheiwmedlatepain,itchingsorewilldevelopandmaylastformorethana week.Juliloconsistsofaboutsixfamilydwellingsanda sawmil whose mainproductisslatsforfruitItissurroundedbyacoolpineand hardwoodcloudforest,whichforeightmonthoftheyear,experiencesdailyrainfall.Whenwearrivedwewere showntoatin-roofedshackwherewe"'couldstayandstoreourgear;Aftereating,welearnedthattrucksrarelygotoLaJoya,an"agriculturalcommunity nolongeroperatingasa.lumbercamp.Sadly,wewould havetohikethe10km.toLaJoya,leavingmostofourheavyropebehind.Thatafternoon,cravingexcercise,t9,wardPer!alumbercamp7fromJuliloand1900 m.high.Werodeatruckforhalfthedistance.TallkarstpinnaclesprOVide aweirdsettingforthislargercamp;ThewatersourceisAguaLinda,where astreamissuesfrom asmallcaveand"'sinkswithinafewhundredyards.Hikingsouthabout2KID.wecame vpon aspectacularpanoramaatthemountain'seasterndrop-off.Theedgeofthelargesinkor"dolina"wherewestoodwasinlateafternoonshadow,butthepla,inssteeplybelowuswerecoveredwithbrightlylitclouds.,WewalkedbacktoJulilo,reachingourhouseatnightf.all;WeplannedtohiketoLaJoyathenextmorning,carryingourpacksand400'of22Jan:WemadeanenthusiasticearlyWhenwehadclimabout10001 ,ourmorningburstofenergynearlygone,wemet twomenwhoconvinceduswehadtakenthewrongroadfromJulilWhilethisloggingroadendedwithin200meters,thecorrectrouteloopedfartothenorth;Theysaid,however,thatLaJoywasamostlydownhillwalkfrom,LaPerra,forwhichthelogstheywereloadingweredestined.WerodethetoLaPerra,balancedcarefullyonthehuge,shiftinglogs.OnweboughtsomePepsis,andcrackersatastorecounter.Wethenstartednorthwestthroughthickpineforest,threadingourwaytalllimestonespiresornamentedWithlargeagaves.Occasionallywecheckedlargesinksforcavesbutfoundnone,asthe,thickhumusandtopsoilallowedlittlechanceforanentrance.Finallywemadethetopoftherange,andthemanwehadmetjustpreviouslysaidwewerestillsixkm. fromLaJoya.Weencounteredasotanoabout30ft.fromtheandhopingtoatleastcollectsomecaveinvertebrates,Iquicklycheckedit.The70'pitentranceleadstoasteeppassagedroppinganadditional8o'toahigh,circulardome-room40'indiameter.Wenamedit2000Metereave.Thefaunawasinteresting,butscareduetothedryness.The4000'climbtoJulilowastrulyexciting.Thickjunglusuallylimitedvisiontowithina fewfeetoftheroad,buthigherupthereappearedimpressiveviewsoftheWhenaconspicuouspitentrance15'fromtheroadcameintoview,westoppedand droppedina fewSotanodeMaria,asitiS,called,isanunenteredshaftdroppinggo'toaslopeorOtherattractionsalongtheroadwere arecentlykillecerC-de-lance hung ondisplayand a"murderous"tropicalstingi'nettlecalled"malamujer"Abrushwiththisplant,1.vhose...stalkis?ftenovertenfeettall,islikea waspAftertheiwmedlatepain,itchingsorewilldevelopandmaylastformorethana week.Juliloconsistsofaboutsixfamilydwellingsand a sawmil whose mainproductisslatsforfruitItissurroundedby acoolpineand hardwoodcloudforest,whichforeightmonthoftheyear,experiencesdailyrainfall.Whenwearrivedwewere showntoatin-roofedshackwherewe"'couldstayandstoreourgear;Aftereating,welearnedthattrucksrarelygotoLaJoya,an"agriculturalcommunity nolongeroperatingasa.lumbercamp.Sadly,wewould havetohikethe10km.toLaJoya,leavingmostofourheavyropebehind.Thatafternoon,cravingexcercise,t9,wardPer!alumbercamp7fromJuliloand1900m.high.Werodeatruckforhalfthedistance.TallkarstpinnaclesprOVide aweirdsettingforthislargercamp; ThewatersourceisAguaLinda,where astreamissuesfrom asmallcaveand"'sinkswithina fewhundredyards.Hikingsouthabout2KID.wecamevpon aspectacularpanoramaatthemountain'seasterndrop-off.Theedgeofthelargesinkor"dolina"wherewestoodwasinlateafternoonshadow,butthepla,inssteeplybelowuswerecoveredwithbrightlylitclouds.,WewalkedbacktoJulilo,reachingourhouseatnightf.all;WeplannedtohiketoLaJoyathenextmorning,carryingourpacksand400'of22Jan:WemadeanenthusiasticearlyWhenwehadclimabout10001 ,ourmorningburstofenergynearlygone,wemet twomenwhoconvinceduswehadtakenthewrongroadfromJulilWhilethisloggingroadendedwithin200meters,thecorrectrouteloopedfartothenorth;Theysaid,however,thatLaJoywas amostlydownhillwalkfrom,LaPerra,forwhichthelogstheywereloadingweredestined.WerodethetoLaPerra,balancedcarefullyonthehuge,shiftinglogs.OnweboughtsomePepsis,andcrackersatastorecounter.Wethenstartednorthwestthroughthickpineforest,threadingourwaytalllimestonespiresornamentedWithlargeagaves.Occasionallywecheckedlargesinksforcavesbutfoundnone,asthe,thickhumus andtopsoilallowedlittlechanceforanentrance.Finallywemadethetopoftherange,andthemanwehad metjustpreviouslysaidwewerestillsixkm.fromLaJoya.Weencounteredasotanoabout30ft.fromtheandhopingtoatleastcollectsomecaveinvertebrates,Iquicklycheckedit.The70'pitentranceleadstoasteeppassagedroppinganadditional8o'toahigh,circulardome-room40'indiameter.Wenamedit2000Metereave.Thefaunawasinteresting,butscareduetothedryness.

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26Astheroadgraduallydescended,wenoticedthechangetoavegetationsupportedbylessrainfall:stoutoaksandfarlessundergrowthamongthepines.Therewaslittleofthejaggedkarrenwhichcharacterizestheeasternslopesoftherangeatnearlyallelevations.Afterpassingthesiteofanoldsawmill,wecametowhatwethoughtwasa hugesink;butOrionchecked and found anarrowcanyoncontinuingdown.Healsodiscoveredbeartracksnearasmallpool.SoonwewerestandingatthebrinkofthebroadvalleyofLaJoyadeSalas.The view wasmagnificent;wecouldseethebluegleamofalakeperchedbehindaremoteridge,butnowhere wastheresignofinhabitance.Whilesearchingforgood cameraviewpoints,Johncame upon anevengreaterspectacle.:Orion'scanyon wasnowanawesomeslot,ourrocksfloatingfreeforsevensecondsbeforecrashingonthedistantWewerelatertoldthatthecanyonrunssouthtoeventuallyentertheRioBoquillanearOcampo,about25milesdistant.Theroadended andwebegandescendingtheswitchbacksofacrudetrail.Itwaslateafternoonand,suspectingwehadmissedtherightroute,westartedhikingcross-countrytothelake.Thekarstofthevalleyfloorwasstrangelyfromanythingwehadseen.Thelevelground wascoveredby a smoothcarpetofgrass,nowyellowedanddry.Andbeneaththecanopyofpineswerescatteredinnumerablesinks,eachdenotedbyajumbleofexposedrocks.Wewanderedwestforatleastamile,thencrossedtheridgeseparatingthenorthernextensionofthevalley,whichcontainedthelakeandsurroundivillage.vfuenwetoldavillagerofourplans,he eyedourropandsaidthesotanowas"muyprofundo"-muchtoodeep.Hekneofnoothercavesintheareaandwassympatheticthatwemadesuchalongfutilehike.Wedecidedtocampinthelong,treelesspasturejustbeyojthelake,where agroupofbouldersblockedthewind.Thesotano,just300yardsfarther,wewouldfaceinthemorning.23Jan.Whenwesorelycrawledoutofourfrost-eoveredsleepi'bags,werealizedhoweffectivelythecloudblanketatJuliloataboutthesameelevation-protectsitfromsuchasharpdropintemperatureatnightfall.Whileeatingbreakfast,wewatchedthenumerous andactivetealonthelake.WetrulyadmiredtheidyllicsettingofLaJoya;thesmallthatchedhousesdidlittletoalterthearea'snaturalappearance.Theonlywatersourceforsome300inhabitantsandtheirlivestockistheshallowlake,whichdrainsthelongvalleymeanderingnorth.itoccasionallydries,wateristrucked25km.fromtheRioSabinas,whichresurgesatthebaseoftherangenorthwestofEncino.OurinquiryaupportedwhatFrankHarrisonhadtoldJamesReddellandmyselfduringasumme:visittothecloudforestatRanchodelCielo.HesaidtheJaklwasartificiallycreatedwhena"resumidero",orsinkhole,wassomehowplugged.Harrisonalsoremembers whenanunusallylongheavyrainrosethelakeandcausedaviolentandspectacularwhirl-poolattheentranceofthelargerWefounditsituatedonlytwo hundredfeetinfrontofthevillageschoolhouse.Itisindeedanimposingshaft;themaXiwtopdimentionsare40'by115'withitssmoothwallsdroppingsheerfornearlythreehundredfeet.Atthenarrowwestend,26Astheroadgraduallydescended,wenoticedthechangetoavegetationsupportedbylessrainfall:stoutoaksandfarlessundergrowthamongthepines.Therewaslittleofthejaggedkarrenwhichcharacterizestheeasternslopesoftherangeatnearlyallelevations.Afterpassingthesiteofanoldsawmill,wecametowhatwethoughtwas a hugesink;butOrionchecked and found anarrowcanyoncontinuingdown.Healsodiscoveredbeartracksnearasmallpool.SoonwewerestandingatthebrinkofthebroadvalleyofLaJoyadeSalas.The view wasmagnificent;wecouldseethebluegleamofalakeperchedbehindaremoteridge,butnowhere wastheresignofinhabitance.Whilesearchingforgood cameraviewpoints,Johncameupon anevengreaterspectacle.:Orion'scanyon wasnowanawesomeslot,ourrocksfloatingfreeforsevensecondsbeforecrashingonthedistantWewerelatertoldthatthecanyonrunssouthtoeventuallyentertheRioBoquillanearOcampo,about25milesdistant.Theroadended andwebegandescendingtheswitchbacksofacrudetrail.Itwaslateafternoonand,suspectingwehadmissedtherightroute,westartedhikingcross-countrytothelake.Thekarstofthevalleyfloorwasstrangelyfromanythingwehadseen.Thelevelground wascoveredby a smoothcarpetofgrass,nowyellowedanddry.Andbeneaththecanopyofpineswerescatteredinnumerablesinks,eachdenotedby ajumbleofexposedrocks.Wewanderedwestforatleastamile,thencrossedtheridgeseparatingthenorthernextensionofthevalley,whichcontainedthelakeandsurroundivillage.vfuenwetoldavillagerofourplans,he eyedourropandsaidthesotanowas"muyprofundo"muchtoodeep.Hekneofnoothercavesintheareaand wassympatheticthatwemadesuchalongfutilehike.Wedecidedtocampinthelong,treelesspasturejustbeyojthelake,where agroupofbouldersblockedthewind.Thesotano,just300yardsfarther,wewouldfaceinthemorning.23Jan.Whenwesorelycrawledoutofourfrost-eoveredsleepi'bags,werealizedhoweffectivelythecloudblanketatJuliloataboutthesameelevation-protectsitfromsuchasharpdropintemperatureatnightfall.Whileeatingbreakfast,wewatchedthenumerous andactivetealonthelake.WetrulyadmiredtheidyllicsettingofLaJoya;thesmallthatchedhousesdidlittletoalterthearea'snaturalappearance.Theonlywatersourceforsome300inhabitantsandtheirlivestockistheshallowlake,whichdrainsthelongvalleymeanderingnorth.itoccasionallydries,wateristrucked25km.fromtheRioSabinas,whichresurgesatthebaseoftherangenorthwestofEncino.OurinquiryaupportedwhatFrankHarrisonhadtoldJamesReddellandmyselfduringasumme:visittothecloudforestatRanchodelCielo.HesaidtheJaklwasartificiallycreatedwhen a"resumidero",orsinkhole,wassomehowplugged.Harrisonalsoremembers whenanunusallylongheavyrainrosethelakeandcausedaviolentandspectacularwhirl-poolattheentranceofthelargerWefounditsituatedonlytwo hundredfeetinfrontofthevillageschoolhouse.Itisindeedanimposingshaft;themaXiwtopdimentionsare40'by115'withitssmoothwallsdroppingsheerfornearlythreehundredfeet.Atthenarrowwestend,

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(continued)27however,wecouldseealedgeabout85feetsown, and fromthe:wecouldtieourlongestrope.Therewasvirtuallynothingbutsmoothrockledgesaroundtheentrancesoweusedanexpansionboltforatie-off.Whileaboutfortyamazedspectatorswutche(weallrappelledtotheledge,whereanotherboltwasnecessar;Ithenbeganabrake-barrappeltothebottom,somewhattheadequacyofthe200'rope.Ireachedtherockcoveredflolwithsixfeettospare.Therewereseveralwaystogo;themostobviouswasabonEdrypassageleading,aswewould havehoped,toanotherlongdrop-probablyexceedingahundredandfiftyfeet.Thepassag(wassothoroughlyscouredthatarockforgaugingthedropcou:be foundonlyatthebottomofadeeppothole.ThecauseoftheextremedrynesswasfullyrealizedwhentheacetyleneflameflutteredstronglyasI walkedbacktowardtheentrance.Thecoolairpouringinthecavewas,ofcourse,afascinatingsign.Theotherpassageswereminor.Thelongestcontainedasmallpoolattheend,whereaijuaticisopodswerecollected.Onealcoveneartheentrancecontainedscoresofleopardfrogs.The mostexcitingfindwasa numberoftotallyblind,whitecrickets.UsingJumars,Iascendedtotheledge.Wethenprusikedtthetopanddiscussedourdiscoverieswiththespectators.They wereinterestedinthewater.Tosaya Mexicancaveis"promising"certainlyneedstobE.clarified.AswehadjokinglypredictedwhenweleftmostofourequipmentatJulilo,our400feetofropewas "wipedoutllbeforewecouldevenescapethetWilightzone.Furthermore,themassivelowercretaciouslimestoneintheGomezFariasregionsupposedlyisofunlimitingthickness.ButwhereisthedrainageofthissystematLaJoyadestined?Mostlikelyforoneoftwolargeresurgences:theRioFrioandtheRioSabinasthelatterbeingtheleastdistantandagood4500feetWespenttheafternoonseeingmoreofthesurroundingareaCricketswerecollectedinadryninetyfootcrawlway named CuevadelaEscuela.The"maestro",withwhomwediscussedourplantoreturntoLaJoya,offeredusthefenced-inschoolyardforourcampsite.24Jan.Earlymorning NasdevotedtophotographyandpreparincforourhiketoJull1o.JohnandIwouldtrythe10km.road;whileOrionandBudwouldgothroughLaPerra,hopingtofindamisplacedhardhatandlogbook.Ourroutetookusthroughstillanothertypeofterrain,Wefollowedanarrow,windingvalleycontaininglargeoaksdrapedwithSpanishmoss.Fortunatelywemetnoproblemintersections,anditwasaboutnoon whenwecouldrelaxanthecabinfloor.Soonafter,BudandOrionstaggeredin,haVing walkedabout15km. Atnearlynightfallwecaughtatruckloadedwithfresh-cu'railroadtiesdestinedforEncino.Thewildridetoourpickuptookabout2hours.WereachedEncinowithlittledelay,ourluckwiththeweatherhaVingbeenremarkable.WedrovetoVictoria,boughtsome"pandulce",and went 30milesnorthtocamp.(continued)27however,wecouldseealedgeabout85feetsown, and fromthe:wecouldtieourlongestrope.Therewasvirtuallynothingbutsmoothrockledgesaroundtheentrancesoweusedanexpansionboltforatie-off.Whileaboutfortyamazedspectatorswutche(weallrappelledtotheledge,whereanotherboltwasnecessar;Ithenbeganabrake-barrappeltothebottom,somewhattheadequacyofthe200'rope.Ireachedtherockcoveredflolwithsixfeettospare.Therewereseveralwaystogo;themostobviouswas abonEdrypassageleading,aswewould havehoped,toanotherlongdrop-probablyexceedingahundredandfiftyfeet.Thepassag(wassothoroughlyscouredthatarockforgaugingthedropcou:be foundonlyatthebottomofadeeppothole.ThecauseoftheextremedrynesswasfullyrealizedwhentheacetyleneflameflutteredstronglyasI walkedbacktowardtheentrance.Thecoolairpouringinthecavewas,ofcourse,afascinatingsign.Theotherpassageswereminor.Thelongestcontainedasmallpoolattheend,whereaijuaticisopodswerecollected.Onealcoveneartheentrancecontainedscoresofleopardfrogs.The mostexcitingfindwas a numberoftotallyblind,whitecrickets.UsingJumars,Iascendedtotheledge.Wethenprusikedtthetopanddiscussedourdiscoverieswiththespectators.They wereinterestedinthewater.Tosaya Mexicancaveis"promising"certainlyneedstobE.clarified.AswehadjokinglypredictedwhenweleftmostofourequipmentatJulilo,our400feetofropewas "wipedoutllbeforewecouldevenescapethetWilightzone.Furthermore,themassivelowercretaciouslimestoneintheGomezFariasregionsupposedlyisofunlimitingthickness.ButwhereisthedrainageofthissystematLaJoyadestined?Mostlikelyforoneoftwolargeresurgences:theRioFrioandtheRioSabinasthelatterbeingtheleastdistantand a good4500feetWespenttheafternoonseeingmoreofthesurroundingareaCricketswerecollectedinadryninetyfootcrawlway named Cueva delaEscuela.The"maestro",withwhomwediscussedourplantoreturntoLaJoya,offeredusthefenced-inschoolyardforourcampsite.24Jan.Earlymorning NasdevotedtophotographyandpreparincforourhiketoJull1o.Johnand I wouldtrythe10km.road;whileOrionandBudwould gothroughLaPerra,hopingtofindamisplacedhardhatandlogbook.Ourroutetookusthroughstillanothertypeofterrain,Wefollowedanarrow,windingvalleycontaininglargeoaksdrapedwithSpanishmoss.Fortunatelywemet noproblemintersections,anditwasaboutnoon whenwecouldrelaxanthecabinfloor.Soonafter,BudandOrionstaggeredin,haVing walkedabout15km. Atnearlynightfallwecaughtatruckloadedwithfresh-cu'railroadtiesdestinedforEncino.Thewildridetoourpickuptookabout2hours.WereachedEncinowithlittledelay,ourluckwiththeweatherhaVingbeenremarkable.WedrovetoVictoria,boughtsome"pandulce",and went 30milesnorthtocamp.

PAGE 8

KEYTOsy,,>\eOLSTHOP,NFOriTTAOPICALorc/!)I..iOUSFOIUSrTROeICAi...51"1-EVEt;coAEE'"FORfS-rCLOVI)FOHESTHvl'1IPPiN.-F'oFZi"STORYOAK-PINE:fcnEsT-I'Y-,-v..,..Sl',,(I'i'<{'t".I),,,7"9(")/?Y?fy'!\I'.i'.(,j.r:(-','t'"-\1;'.,-'1'.Ill,"'II,...)!y' ",::./IIIfecoo..jHKoElEWHICNFELTMETERS8000'12.4(.';07'12.100__.r-<---.---,Y(?'7';;',,-y;<.)r"r-v'\./r,/I"r{1lIIII''!IL,}H!CINOCHAPARR,AlLTHORNf)E:3E!;TIIISUi3TEP'LORAI"-JA'G:'VeNRE:;UR(;(NeERIOSAB:NASiLAJoY",../OEIIACROSS..5\ERRA',.DE_il__L.L!_11f->..A,ATEr\lC INC!. __-,-__I""I'""',",;"r-"IAbee;)oColSOCSuO,>If.....'-':j.-+000?-ooo -\2tio!')-jtr,.j()(::ItJ_.1KEYTOsy,,>\eOLSTHOP,NFOriTTAOPICALorc/!)I..iOUSFOIUSrTROeICAi...51"1-EVEt;coAEE'"FORfS-rCLOVI)FOHESTHvl'1IPPiN.-F'oFZi"STORYOAK -PINE:fcnEsT-I'Y-,-v..,..Sl',,(I'i'<{'t".I)',,7"9(")/?Y?fy'!\I'.i'.(,j,r",(-','t'"-\1;'.,-'1'.Ill,"'II, ...)!y'",::./IIIfecoo..jHKoElEVl4TtCNFELTMETERS8000'12.4(.';07'12.100__.r-<---.---,Y(?'7';;',,-y;<.)v\'("r-v'\./r,/I"r{1lIIII''!IL,}H!CINOCHAPARR,AlLTHORNf)E:3E!;TIIISUi3TEP'LORAI"-JA'G:'VflNRE:;UR(;(NeERIOSAB:NASiLAJoY",.. /OEIIACROSS..5\ERRA',.DE_il__L.L!_11f->..A,ATEr\l C INC!.__-,-__I""I'""',",;"":"',."'.',,1,"IA)oCobee;lSOCIf.....'-':j.-SuO,>+000?-ooo-\2tio!')-jtr.j()(::ItJ_.1

PAGE 9

28 25Jan.WeenjoyedthemorningdrivetoMonterrey.Encountermgrewproblems,wecrossedatLaredoandfinallyarrivedinAustinat11:00p.m.Wehadusedsurprisinglylittlecarbideduringthetrip,butwewere nowassuredthatthesotanoatLaJoyadeSalasiswellworththeconcentratedeffortneededtoreachit.CavesoftheSierradeElAbraPartIILosSabinos,ThevillageofLosSabinos,locatedabout8milesnorthofValles,isthecenterofasmallareacontainingmorecavepassagethanalltherestoftheElAbrarange.Within5km.ofthisvillagearelocatedsixofthelargestcavesintherange.Atpresentexplorationofthisareahasbarelybegun.Ofthesixlargecaves,mappingofalllargepassagesisalmostcompleteintwo,twoothershavehadincompletebutextensiveploration,andtwohavehadonlytheirentrancesectionsvisited.Topographicallytheareaconsistsofrolling,brushandjunglecoveredhills.Theareaisdrainedbynormallydryarroyosthatleadintocaves.Elevationsinthearearangefromabout200to250meters;ThenearestresurgenceistheNacimientoneartheHotelTaninul10km.tothesoutheastatanelevationofabout90Itislikelythatseveralofthesecaveswilleventuallybeconnected.Atpresentnotenoughmappinghasbeendoneintheareatomakeitpossibletospeculateonthedetailedspeleogenesis.Thelimitsofthisareaarenotknown anditisentirelypossiblethatmorelargecavesmaybediscoverSotanodelArroyoB.RussellTheentrancetothislargecaveislocatedaboutthreemileseastoftheCd.Valles-Cd.Mantehighway,andaboutthreemilesSEofthevillageofLosSabinos.ThecavecanbereachedbytravelingeastfromLosSabinosforaboutonemileandfollOWingthenormallydryarroyotothecave.NearLosSabinosthearroyohaslowdirtbanks,butnearthecaveitgoesoverseveralclimabablefallsbeforedroppingfiftyfeetintothecave.Thisentranceisarecaangularslot,almost200feetexceptonthenorthend wherethearroyoenters.Severalpassagesleadfromthisentrrance.Thirtyfeetabovethefloorar.dbelowthearroyoapassageaveragingabouteightfeetindiametergoesforabout800feettowhereitisalmostblockedbyflowstone.Eventhoughthispassageisthirtyfeetabovethefloorofthesink,waterappearstoenteritduringfloods.SeveralotherpassagesleaVingtheentrancesinkatthesamelevelhavenotbeenexplored.Themainpassageofthecaveleavesthesouthendofthesinkandcontinuesforabout1000feettoa50footdrop.Thissectionofthecaveaveragesabouttwentyfeetwide andthirtyfeethigh,and showssignsofviolentflooding.Thereareseveralpoolsfromthreetofivefeetindepththatmust becrossedinthispassage,thoughafterthelongerdryperiodssomeofthemaredry.About 500feetfromtheentrancearightbranch28 25Jan.WeenjoyedthemorningdrivetoMonterrey.Encountermgfewproblems,wecrossedatLaredoandfinallyarrivedinAustinat11:00p.m.Wehadusedsurprisinglylittlecarbideduringthetrip,butwewerenowassuredthatthesotanoatLaJoyadeSalasiswellworththeconcentratedeffortneededtoreachit.CavesoftheSierradeElAbraPartIILosSabinos,ThevillageofLosSabinos,locatedabout8milesnorthofValles,isthecenterofasmallareacontainingmorecavepassagethanalltherestoftheElAbrarange.Within5km.ofthisvillagearelocatedsixofthelargestcavesintherange.Atpresentexplorationofthisareahasbarelybegun.Ofthesixlargecaves,mappingofalllargepassagesisalmostcompleteintwo,twoothershavehadincompletebutextensiveploration,and twohavehadonlytheirentrancesectionsvisited.Topographicallytheareaconsistsofrolling,brushandjunglecoveredhills.Theareaisdrainedbynormallydryarroyosthatleadintocaves.Elevationsinthearearangefromabout200to250meters;ThenearestresurgenceistheNacimientoneartheHotelTaninul10km.tothesoutheastatanelevationofabout90Itislikelythatseveralofthesecaveswilleventuallybeconnected.Atpresentnotenoughmappinghasbeendoneintheareatomakeitpossibletospeculateonthedetailedspeleogenesis.Thelimitsofthisareaarenotknown anditisentirelypossiblethatmorelargecavesmaybediscoverSotanodelArroyoB.RussellTheentrancetothislargecaveislocatedaboutthreemileseastoftheCd.Valles-Cd.Mantehighway,andaboutthreemilesSEofthevillageofLosSabinos.ThecavecanbereachedbytravelingeastfromLosSabinosforaboutonemileandfollOWingthenormallydryarroyotothecave.NearLosSabinosthearroyohaslowdirtbanks,butnearthecaveitgoesoverseveralclimabablefallsbeforedroppingfiftyfeetintothecave.Thisentranceisarecaangularslot,almost200feetexceptonthenorthend wherethearroyoenters.Severalpassagesleadfromthisentrrance.Thirtyfeetabovethefloorar.dbelowthearroyoapassageaveragingabouteightfeetindiametergoesforabout800feettowhereitisalmostblockedbyflowstone.Eventhoughthispassageisthirtyfeetabovethefloorofthesink,waterappearstoenteritduringfloods.SeveralotherpassagesleaVingtheentrancesinkatthesamelevelhavenotbeenexplored.Themainpassageofthecaveleavesthesouthendofthesinkandcontinuesforabout1000feettoa 50footdrop.Thissectionofthecaveaveragesabouttwentyfeetwide andthirtyfeethigh,and showssignsofviolentflooding.Thereareseveralpoolsfromthreetofivefeetindepththatmustbecrossedinthispassage,thoughafterthelongerdryperiodssomeofthemaredry.About 500feetfromtheentrancearightbranch

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29 The WaterPassage,leadsfromthebaseofasmalldropbehindcurtainofformations.Thispassageextendsforabout200feetparightturnthroughasmallholeintoadeepThis1isabout200feetlongwithaboutthreetofourfeetofcleara:Attheendofthedeepwaterthepassagegoesoveraseriesoftravertinedamsanddropsintoalargerpassageextendsfabout1500feettowhereitreducestoacrawlway.Thefirstdropinthemainpassage,about45feet,overpolishedlimestoneintoalargersectionofthecave.Fro:thebaseofthisdropapassageaboutthirtyfeetwide andfeethighextendstoa room.Thisroomistriangularinplanandabout200feetonaside.From wherethemainpassageent(theroomslopessteeplyupwardtotheright,anddownwardoversteepbreakdowntoalake.AcrossthislakeisalowsectionlpassagewithonlyafewfeetofThispassagethenenlargesandleadstoadropofabout30feettoItisknownifatraversablepassageextendsfromthebaseofthisAnotherpassageheadseastfromthebaseofthedroptothetriangularroom.Thispassagefirstleadsupasteepslopetotheleveloftheentrancepassage.Itthenmakesarightturnandcontinuesforabout200feetaveraging15feetwideand10feethigh.By making arightturnandclimbingthroughformationsitispossibletoreacharoomabout10feeJhighand?Ofeetleadsforabout300feettoalakethatformstheend01thispassage.ThisisthebestknownofthelargecavesoftheEIAbrarange,withoveramileofmappedpassage.Iftherearenofurtherdiscoveries,themapmaybecompletedinafewTheentirecaveappearstofloodabouteveryotheryearafterheavyrains.SotanodelaTinajaD.McKenzie Though noneofthelarge"resumideros"intheElAbrarangearefullyexplored,SotanodelaTinajapromisestoexceedallinsizeandcomplexity.Atpresent,about9000feetofvoluminouspassagehasbeentraversedand,asidefrom manyleads,themajordrainagechannelsappeartocantinueundiminishedonThecaveisapproachedbyfollowingacanyon-likearroyotoitsend,wherethesurroundingwallsarenearly200feethigh.ThedropsinthearroyoprevioustothecaveentranceareAdescendingpassageextendseastfromtheentranceandaverages30feetby15feetBeyond500feetitabrubtlyenlargesandattainswidthsandheightsexceeding75Thefloorconsistsoflarge,smoothbouldersoftencoveredWithslipperyvampirebatguano.Soonafteronetraversesadeeplake,anuncllmable25footdropisencountered.ThecavehasbeenmappedtothispointbyzoologistsfromtheAmericanMuseumofNaturalHistor:Who,in1947,madeastudyoftheblindfishoftheBeyondthedrop,whichisapproximately1200feetfromthentrance,a25by50foothighpassageleadsacutelytothenorthwestjwhiletheeast-trendingpassage,becominghighandnarrow,appearstobeblockedbyformationsabout350feetRecently,however,anarrowsidepassagewasdiscovcabove ashortclimbonThisquicklyleadstoadroofabout60feetintoalargeroomorpassage--asyetThenorthwestpassagecontinuesa..fewhundred.f'eettothe29 The WaterPassage,leadsfromthebaseofasmalldropbehindcurtainofformations.Thispassageextendsforabout200feetparightturnthroughasmallholeintoadeepThis1isabout200feetlongwithaboutthreetofourfeetofcleara:Attheendofthedeepwaterthepassagegoesoveraseriesoftravertinedams anddropsintoalargerpassageextendsfabout1500feettowhereitreducestoacrawlway.Thefirstdropinthemainpassage,about45feet,overpolishedlimestoneintoalargersectionofthecave.Fro:thebaseofthisdropapassageaboutthirtyfeetwide andfeethighextendstoa room.Thisroomistriangularinplanandabout200feeton aside.From wherethemainpassageent(theroomslopessteeplyupwardtotheright,and downwardoversteepbreakdowntoalake.Acrossthislakeisa lowsectionlpassagewithonlya fewfeetofThispassagethenenlargesandleadstoadropofabout30feettoItisknownifatraversablepassageextendsfromthebaseofthisAnotherpassageheadseastfromthebaseofthedroptothetriangularroom.Thispassagefirstleadsup asteepslopetotheleveloftheentrancepassage.Itthenmakes arightturnandcontinuesforabout200feetaveraging15feetwideand10feethigh.Bymaking arightturnandclimbingthroughformationsitispossibletoreacha roomabout10feeJhighand?Ofeetleadsforabout300feettoalakethatformstheend01thispassage.ThisisthebestknownofthelargecavesoftheEIAbrarange,withoveramileofmappedpassage.Iftherearenofurtherdiscoveries,themapmaybecompletedina fewTheentirecaveappearstofloodabouteveryotheryearafterheavyrains.SotanodelaTinajaD.McKenzie Though noneofthelarge"resumideros"intheElAbrarangearefullyexplored,SotanodelaTinajapromisestoexceedallinsizeandcomplexity.Atpresent,about9000feetofvoluminouspassagehasbeentraversedand,asidefrommanyleads,themajordrainagechannelsappeartocantinueundiminishedonThecaveisapproachedbyfollowingacanyon-likearroyotoitsend,wherethesurroundingwallsarenearly200feethigh.ThedropsinthearroyoprevioustothecaveentranceareAdescendingpassageextendseastfromtheentranceandaverages30feetby15feetBeyond 500feetitabrubtlyenlargesandattainswidthsandheightsexceeding75Thefloorconsistsoflarge,smoothbouldersoftencoveredWithslipperyvampirebatguano.Soonafteronetraversesadeeplake,anuncllmable25footdropisencountered.ThecavehasbeenmappedtothispointbyzoologistsfromtheAmericanMuseumofNaturalHistor:Who,in1947,made astudyoftheblindfishoftheBeyondthedrop,whichisapproximately1200feetfromthentrance,a 25by50foothighpassageleadsacutelytothenorthwestjwhiletheeast-trendingpassage,becominghighandnarrow,appearstobeblockedbyformationsabout350feetRecently,however,anarrowsidepassagewasdiscovcabove ashortclimbonThisquicklyleadstoadroofabout60feetintoalargeroomorpassage--asyetThenorthwestpassagecontinuesa..fewhundred.feettothe

PAGE 11

30"mainPrevioustothisisthestoopwayentrancltoa500footlonglinkagepassage,somepartsofwhichareattractivelyAttheintersection,alargepassagedirectedNWSEisencountered;Totherightitisnarrow,passingthroughformations,and soonreachesaroomtowhichthelinkageThe mainpassagecontinueseastseveralhundredfeettoa30footThemuddy,debris-coveredfloorindicatesitisamajorcourseforthearroyo'sToavoidthelakebelowthedrop,aledgecanbetraversedforabout70feettoabettertie-offpoint;ThepassagedescendsrapidlyItisveryhighandusuallylessthantenfeetwideatthelowestlevel;Explorationistediousbecausehandlinesarefrequentlynecessaryandpoolsmust beFinallyonereachesa60footdropintoalargeroomapparentlydenotinga"T"ItsapprOXimatedimensionsare150feetlong,100feetwide,andover100feethigh.Adeeplakerequiringfloatationgearhaslimitedfurtherexploration;ThepassageextendingNWof.themainintersectionis,sofar,themostimpressivepartoftheThebroadmeanderinggallery,commonly50feetwide and25feethighhasbeenfollowedforabout5000feet.Thefloorisastreambed,usuallydry,withmanysandandgravelbarsformingundulations.Organicdebrisisalmostentirelylacking.Largecol-umns,stalagmites,andflowstonedepositsarenumerou andoftenverycolorful.About 3000feetfromtheintersectioisanarrowsectionofpassagewithdeeptravertinepoolswhichcontainthebestwateryetfoundinthecave;Atthispointasidepassagehasbeenexploredwhich,bywayofaseriesofrooms andcraWls,intersectsalargesolutionroomperhaps600feetlong.Withrespecttodrainage,itseemsunrelatedtotherestofthecave;Atabout1500feetbeyondthepoolsalargelakeisshallowonejustpreViousiseasilypassed;)Itisabout200feetlongandaveraging40feetwide,withtheceilingvaryingfrom6feetto40feetabovethewater.Mostlywaistdeep,thelakecanbecrossedbyholdingtoformations;Justbeyond,aclay-flooredsidepassagetotheleftleadstoaformationblockand crawlwaynotfullyexploreThe mainpassagecontinuestoanotherlakewhereprogressishaltedbyabroadnaturalbridge;Becauseitsiphonsbeneath,onemustpassthroughthewide crawlway abovewhichleadstoa20footsheerdropintodeepThepassageapparentlycontinueswithlargedimensions,butfloatationgenwilllikelybenecessaryforfurtherexploration.AconnectionwithS;delArroyomaywellbesuspectedsincethisisan"upstream"passageanditappearstotrendnorthwest;geveralsidepassagesalongitssinuouslengthremainunchecked.Anotherleadworthmentioningisanobscurepassageextendingnorthwestatapointjust150feetfromthecaveentrance.Itsapproachisthrougha100footlong"slotlJwitha drop-downthroughlargebouldersatitsend;A40footwidepassageextendsfromhere,itslowceilingnecessitatingacrawloversmoothrocks;ItcontainsanaircurrentandobViouslytakesmuchofthearroyo'swater;Thefaunaofthecave,whichisquiteextenSive,willbecoveredinafuturereportdealingwiththeLosSabinosarea.OfprimaryinterestistheblindfishAnoptichthys,commonin30"mainPrevioustothisisthestoopwayentrancltoa 500footlonglinkagepassage,somepartsofwhichareattractivelyAttheintersection,alargepassagedirectedNWSEisencountered;Totherightitisnarrow,passingthroughformations,and soonreachesa roomtowhichthelinkageThe mainpassagecontinueseastseveralhundredfeettoa30footThe muddy,debris-coveredfloorindicatesitisamajorcourseforthearroyo'sToavoidthelakebelowthedrop,aledgecanbetraversedforabout70feettoabettertie-offpoint;ThepassagedescendsrapidlyItisveryhighandusuallylessthantenfeetwideatthelowestlevel;ExplorationistediousbecausehandlinesarefrequentlynecessaryandpoolsmustbeFinallyonereachesa 60footdropintoalargeroomapparentlydenotinga "T"ItsapprOXimatedimensionsare150feetlong,100feetwide,andover100feethigh.Adeeplakerequiringfloatationgearhaslimitedfurtherexploration;ThepassageextendingNWof.themainintersectionis,sofar,themostimpressivepartoftheThebroadmeanderinggallery,commonly50feetwide and 25feethighhasbeenfollowedforabout5000feet.Thefloorisastreambed,usuallydry,withmanysandandgravelbarsformingundulations.Organicdebrisisalmostentirelylacking.Largecol-umns,stalagmites,andflowstonedepositsarenumerou andoftenverycolorful.About 3000feetfromtheintersectioisanarrowsectionofpassagewithdeeptravertinepoolswhichcontainthebestwateryetfoundinthecave;Atthispointasidepassagehasbeenexploredwhich,bywayofaseriesofrooms andcraWls,intersectsalargesolutionroomperhaps600feetlong.Withrespecttodrainage,itseemsunrelatedtotherestofthecave;Atabout1500feetbeyondthepoolsalargelakeisshallowonejustpreviousiseasilypassed;)Itisabout200feetlongandaveraging40feetwide,withtheceilingvaryingfrom6feetto40feetabovethewater.Mostlywaistdeep,thelakecanbecrossedbyholdingtoformations;Justbeyond,aclay-flooredsidepassagetotheleftleadstoaformationblockand crawlwaynotfullyexploreThe mainpassagecontinuestoanotherlakewhereprogressishaltedby abroadnaturalbridge;Becauseitsiphonsbeneath,onemustpassthroughthewide crawlway abovewhichleadstoa 20footsheerdropintodeepThepassageapparentlycontinueswithlargedimensions,butfloatationgenwilllikelybenecessaryforfurtherexploration.AconnectionwithS;delArroyomaywellbesuspectedsincethisisan"upstream"passageanditappearstotrendnorthwest;geveralsidepassagesalongitssinuouslengthremainunchecked.Anotherleadworthmentioningisanobscurepassageextendingnorthwestatapointjust150feetfromthecaveentrance.Itsapproachisthrougha 100footlong"slotlJwitha drop-downthroughlargebouldersatitsend;A 40footwidepassageextendsfromhere,itslowceilingnecessitatingacrawloversmoothrocks;ItcontainsanaircurrentandobViouslytakesmuchofthearroyo'swater;Thefaunaofthecave,whichisquiteextensive,willbecoveredinafuturereportdealingwiththeLosSabinosarea.OfprimaryinterestistheblindfishAnoptichthys,commonin

PAGE 12

everypoolofanysize.Peculiarobjectsdepositedthroughoutthecavearethelargetwo-prongedthornsoftheBull-hornAcacia,abushintheVallesCueva delosSabinosB.RussellTheentrancetoCueva delosSabinosislocatedabout4eastofthevillageofLosSabinos,atanelevationof56Qfeet.ThecavehasnotbeenvisitedbyAMCSmembers,theinformationinthisreportcoming from aexcellentmapand.reportpublishedbJTtheAmericanMuseumofNaturalHistory.Theentrancetothiscaveisabout100feethighand50feetwide.andleadsintoaroom200feetlong,andupto100feetwide.Fromthisroomalargepassageextendsnorthandeastforabout200Southwestfromtheentrancerooma20by20footpassageleadsfor200feettoa 110footdropatthebottomofwhichisapassageofthesamesizeanddirectio:After100feetthispassageenlargestoform aseriesofroomsthatextendfor500feettowherethepassageappearstoendinaTwohundredfeetfromthedropthereisanotherlargepassageleadingtotheSE,thatsoonturnsandleadsbackalmostundertheentrance.Thispassageisabout20feetwide andhigh,withmuchofthefloorbeingcoveredbydeeppc Fromneartheentrancethispassageturnssouthandafter500feet50feetintoa room. Thepassageleadingfromthisroom'isatanelevationof235feet,whichis325feetbelowtentranceandveryneartheleveloftheresurgenceatTaninul.ThepassageatthislevelisverynearlyfilledwithwaterandthetotallengthofthepassagesmappedbytheMuseumwas abou 3000feet.ThepurposeoftheMuseumlsvisittothecavewastoinvestigatethebiology,especiallytheblindSotanodeMontecillosD.McKenzieTypicaloftheotherlargecavesinthearea,theimpress:entranceissituatedattheendofalarge,deeparroyo.A50footdropmustbeequippedtoenterthecave;a20footdropi:thearroyojustpreviousmustbeThecaveconsists0;twoparts;Thewaterofthearroyoentersa20by50foothig;passageleadingeasttowhatisknownlocallyaslIelsotano".Directlyoppositethisis"LaCueva",a30by30footpassageextendingunderneaththearroyo.Thesotanoisencounteredabout150feetwithintheeastAflowstoneslopepreventsgettingclosetothepitwhichisapparentlyover100feetdeepandbeneathaveryhighdome;ThereiswateratthebottommostlikelyaplungepocLocalpeopleaaythatthepresidentofVallesonceencouragedanexplorationofthepitwiththeintentionofinstallingawaterpumpifAplatformhasbeenbUiltatopthe15:footcliffattheentrance.Thewestpassageenlargesbeyondtheentranceandcontainseveralmassiveformations.Itcontinueslargeforabout200feetwhereitlowerstoaclayflooredstoopwayandgoesseverhundredfeettobecomeawaterpassage;Fromthelargesectiotwomajorsidetunnelsleadsouth;waterisencounteredineacafterafewhundredFlotationgearwillprobablybeThefaunaincludedanimalscommontoothercavesintheaSpiders,phalangids,silverfish,aquaticandterrestrialisopoeverypoolofanysize.Peculiarobjectsdepositedthroughoutthecavearethelargetwo-prongedthornsoftheBull-hornAcacia,abushintheVallesCueva delosSabinosB.RussellTheentrancetoCueva delosSabinosislocatedabout4eastofthevillageofLosSabinos,atanelevationof56Qfeet.ThecavehasnotbeenvisitedbyAMCSmembers,theinformationinthisreportcoming from aexcellentmapand.reportpublishedbJTtheAmericanMuseumofNaturalHistory.Theentrancetothiscaveisabout100feethighand 50feetwide.andleadsintoa room 200feetlong,and upto100feetwide.Fromthisroom alargepassageextendsnorthandeastforabout200Southwestfromtheentranceroom a20by20footpassageleadsfor200feettoa 110footdropatthebottomofwhichisapassageofthesamesizeanddirectio:After100feetthispassageenlargestoform aseriesofroomsthatextendfor500feettowherethepassageappearstoendinaTwohundredfeetfromthedropthereisanotherlargepassageleadingtotheSE,thatsoonturnsandleadsbackalmostundertheentrance.Thispassageisabout20feetwide andhigh,withmuchofthefloorbeingcoveredbydeeppc Fromneartheentrancethispassageturnssouthandafter500feet50feetintoa room. Thepassageleadingfromthisroom'isatanelevationof235feet,whichis325feetbelowtentranceandveryneartheleveloftheresurgenceatTaninul.Thepassageatthislevelisverynearlyfilledwithwaterandthetotallengthofthepassagesmapped bytheMuseumwas abou 3000feet.ThepurposeoftheMuseumlsvisittothecavewastoinvestigatethebiology,especiallytheblindSotanodeMontecillosD. McKenzieTypicaloftheotherlargecavesinthearea,theimpress:entranceissituatedattheendofalarge,deeparroyo.A 50footdropmustbeequippedtoenterthecave;a 20footdropi:thearroyojustpreviousmustbeThecaveconsists0;twoparts;Thewaterofthearroyoentersa 20 by 50foothig;passageleadingeasttowhatisknownlocallyaslIelsotano".DirectlyoppositethisisCueva",a 30 by30footpassageextendingunderneaththearroyo.Thesotanoisencounteredabout150feetwithintheeastAflowstoneslopepreventsgettingclosetothepitwhichisapparentlyover100feetdeepandbeneathaveryhighdome;ThereiswateratthebottommostlikelyaplungepocLocalpeopleaaythatthepresidentofVallesonceencouragedanexplorationofthepitwiththeintentionofinstallingawaterpumpifAplatformhasbeenbUiltatopthe15:footcliffattheentrance.Thewestpassageenlargesbeyondtheentranceandcontainseveralmassiveformations.Itcontinueslargeforabout200feetwhereitlowerstoaclayflooredstoopwayandgoesseverhundredfeettobecome awaterpassage;Fromthelargesectiotwomajorsidetunnelsleadsouth;waterisencounteredineacaftera fewhundredFlotationgearwillprobablybeThefaunaincludedanimalscommontoothercavesintheaSpiders,phalangids,silverfish,aquaticandterrestrialisopo

PAGE 13

32 andcrickets.Blindfishwere numerousinallthreepassages(thewestBatswereheardinthedomeabovethepit.SotanitodeMontecillosD.McKenzie Theentrance,situatedinthefloorofthearroyoleadingtothepreviouscave,isaverticalwell110feetdeep,The8by5footopeningispartiallycoveredbyathicklimestoneFromthebottomofthebell-shapedshaftahigh,irregularpassageaveraging15feetwide anddroppingoccasion,leadssouth.Afterabout300feetacross-passageisTotheright,itextendstoanunexploredSouthearpastalargePlowstonccurtain,isthepassagethroughwhichtlfloodwaterisItisalargemeanderingstreamchanIaveraging20feetby20feetwithseveralhighThecrOfsectionsareofteninterestingjoneissometimeswindinghisWEthrougha deep"narrowslotcutinthe-Thepassagemeancsogreatlythat,atonepoint,a"cut-off"hasOneCalbypassaloopbyclimbingthroughanopeninginthethinpassa[Itwasexploredforabout2000feettoalakewheretiongearisnecessary.ThepasEageisstilllargeatthisPOil Backneartheintersectionasteepclimbonflowstonelea,toasmallsidepassagedirectedThisshortlyopensalargeirregulargallerycontainingnumerousItdescendslairlyrapidlyreachingadepthwellbelowthelevel(thewaterAfter500feeta30footdrophasstoppedexploration.An18footdropjustprevioustothismustalsobe f:'quipped.Furtherexplorationofthiscavewillalmostsurelyproveaconnectionwiththeothersotano,A..surveyofthetwoshouldbean.enjoyableandinterestingproject.Numerouspoolsinfuewaterchannelcontainblindfish.ScdormantbatswereseenontheceilingofonesmallsidepassageCuevadeLeonMcKenzie Theentranceofthissmallcaveisinthenorthwallofthearroyo,about100yardsdown fromSatanitodeMontecillosandabout300yardsdownfromthelargesotano.Thoughonlyabout75feetlong"tbecaveisattractiveandcontainsseveraldomes, onealmost30feethigh.ItservedasanexcellentcampsitewhenthenearbysotanoswereSotanodelTigreMcKenzieThissotanoisthenorthernmostofthechainof"resumideros"andcanbereachedbya4roadandtrailfrom LosIthasbeenenteredonlyonce byAMCSImembers; TheonlypreViousinvestigationwasbythepresidentofValleswhoreportedlyfounditunSUitableasasourceofTheverticalentranceisattheendofa canyonnotaslargeasthosecharacterizingtheothersotanos.ButtheivycoveredfloorandwallsprOVideforaimpressiveapproach;Thedropissheer,withdimensionsaveraging50by25feet"anddrops190feettoaplungepool.Ashortoffsetleadstoa 110footdropintoahighgallerytrendingperpendiculartothearroyo;Justoppositethedrop,ascoured"tube-likepassageaveragingonly5feethighextendsabout200feetto32 andcrickets.Blindfishwere numerousinallthreepassages(thewestBatswereheardinthedomeabovethepit.SotanitodeMontecillosD.McKenzie Theentrance,situatedinthefloorofthearroyoleadingtothepreviouscave,isaverticalwell110feetdeep,The8by5footopeningispartiallycoveredby athicklimestoneFromthebottomofthebell-shapedshaftahigh,irregularpassageaveraging15feetwide anddroppingoccasion,leadssouth.Afterabout300feetacross-passageisTotheright,itextendstoanunexploredSouthearpastalargePlowstonccurtain,isthepassagethroughwhichtlfloodwaterisItisalargemeanderingstreamchanIaveraging20feetby 20feetwithseveralhighThe crOfsectionsareofteninterestingjoneissometimeswindinghisWEthrougha deep"narrowslotcutinthe-Thepassagemean(sogreatlythat,atonepoint,a cut-off"hasOneCalbypassaloopbyclimbingthroughanopeninginthethinpassa[Itwasexploredforabout2000feettoalakewheretiongearisnecessary.ThepasEageisstilllargeatthisPOil Backneartheintersectionasteepclimbonflowstonelea,toasmallsidepassagedirectedThisshortlyopensalargeirregulargallerycontainingnumerousItdescendslairlyrapidlyreachingadepthwellbelowthelevel(thewaterAfter500feeta 30footdrophasstoppedexploration.An18footdropjustprevioustothismustalsobe f:'quipped.Furtherexplorationofthiscavewillalmostsurelyproveaconnectionwiththeothersotano.A.,surveyofthetwoshouldbean.enjoyableandinterestingproject.Numerouspoolsinfuewaterchannelcontainblindfish.ScdormantbatswereseenontheceilingofonesmallsidepassageCueva de LeonMcKenzie Theentranceofthissmallcaveisinthenorthwallofthearroyo,about100yardsdownfromSatanitodeMontecillosandabout300yardsdownfromthelargesotano.Thoughonlyabout75feetlong"tbecaveisattractiveandcontainsseveraldomes, onealmost30feethigh.ItservedasanexcellentcampsitewhenthenearbysotanoswereSotanodelTigreMcKenzieThissotanoisthenorthernmostofthechainof"resumideros"andcanbereachedby a4roadandtrailfrom LosIthasbeenenteredonlyonce byAMCSImembers; TheonlypreviousinvestigationwasbythepresidentofValleswhoreportedlyfounditunsuitableasasourceofTheverticalentranceisattheendofa canyonnotaslargeasthosecharacterizingtheothersotanos.ButtheivycoveredfloorandwallsprOVideforaimpressiveapproach;Thedropissheer,withdimensionsaveraging50by 25feet"anddrops190feettoaplungepool.Ashortoffsetleadstoa 110footdropintoahighgallerytrendingperpendiculartothearroyo;Justoppositethedrop,ascoured"tube-likepassageaveragingonly5feethighextendsabout200feetto

PAGE 14

ILosI!I/f1\\\oArroyo x400+/JxTigreXLos Sabinos/450+<,<,.;....-:)'"'./--:.....--<-:<,:'\-.....--z,-\Kms.+ElevationinMetersXCavexTinaja+0200xSotanitoxs .deHont.eca.Ll.os-: -:....<,J"-/.....+90/-<,/-"-:"-..-"'-:-:'\./",/-" ";-\-=-::....'"J"-/....+90/---./-".;"-..-"-:'"./",/-"..-;/45+""-..-....)'"'./-:......--""'"./'\-......--:...X LosSabinosxTinaja/J400+xTigre+0200xSotanitoxs .del'lontecillosArroyoxoI!I/f1\\\LosISabinopIi9\l-_.l-_.l-_-l-_-L_..JlKms. 't(fIX Cave+ElevationinMeters

PAGE 15

anunentereddomepitperhaps60feetdeep.The maingalleryleadsnorthfrom belowtheAtabout300feetan80footdropintoalargedome-roonisAbout 30isProgresswasstoppedforlackofAsidepassage,partiallylog-jammed wasalsofoundtocontinu'dr-opSOTANODELATINAJA----r?Soveral-\-ishorttdrops'\\ j'))to',)/I//\)/I'/\\f;EntrancePassage??110'TheAMCSNewsletterispublishedmonthlybytheAssociatiforMexican CaveStudies,P.O. Box7672UTStation,Austin,Te.78712.MembershipintheAMCSisfortheyear,withstartingatthefirstofeachyear.Personsjoiningafterthefirstoftheyearwillreceiveallbackpublicationsforthatyear.. Membersareurgedtosubmitarticlesforpublication.MalsubmittedforpublicationshouldbeofatypesuitableforontoastandardorlegalsizeMemeographLongerartie:withmoredetailedmapsareinvitedforpublicationasabulle"TripreportsarerequestedfromallRainesMcKenzieBillRussellEdAlexanderJohnFishanunentereddomepitperhaps60feetdeep.The maingalleryleadsnorthfrom belowtheAtabout300feetan 80footdropintoalargedome-roonisAbout 30isProgresswasstoppedforlackofAsidepassage,partiallylog-jammed wasalsofoundtocontinu,droFSOTANODELATINAJA----r?Soveral-\-ishorttdrops'\\ j'))to',)/I/'/\)/I'/\\f;EntrancePassage??110'TheAMCSNewsletterispublishedmonthlybytheAssociatiforMexican CaveStudies,P.O.Box7672UTStation,Austin,Te.78712.MembershipintheAMCSisfortheyear,withstartingatthefirstofeachyear.Personsjoiningafterthefirstoftheyearwillreceiveallbackpublicationsforthatyear.. Membersareurgedtosubmitarticlesforpublication.MalsubmittedforpublicationshouldbeofatypesuitableforontoastandardorlegalsizeMemeographLongerartie:withmoredetailedmapsareinvitedforpublicationasabulle"TripreportsarerequestedfromallRainesMcKenzieBillRussellEdAlexanderJohnFish


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Contents: Caves of the
Sierra de El Abra, Part II Los Sabinos, S.L.P.


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