Association of Mexican Cave Studies newsletter

Citation
Association of Mexican Cave Studies newsletter

Material Information

Title:
Association of Mexican Cave Studies newsletter
Series Title:
Association of Mexican Cave Studies Newsletter (1965-1977)
Creator:
Association for Mexican Cave Studies
Publisher:
Association for Mexican Cave Studies
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Regional Speleology ( local )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
Location:
Mexico

Notes

General Note:
Contents: Part 1. Trip Reports -- Gruto del Palmito, Nueva Leon -- Cave maps -- Caves of Guerrero and Morelos -- Part 2. Biology Section -- The Millipedes in the Caves of Mexico and Guatemala -- Mexican Cave Biology: Annotated Bibliography.
Restriction:
Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Version:
Vol. 2, no. 5 (1966)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
K26-00463 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.463 ( USFLDC Handle )
4659 ( karstportal - original NodeID )

USFLDC Membership

Aggregations:
Added automatically
Karst Information Portal

Postcard Information

Format:
serial

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

THEASSOCIATIONFORMEXICANCAVESTUDIESNEWSLETTERTRIPREPORTSGruto delPalmito,NueYaLeonCAVE MAPS CAVESOFGUERREROANDMORELOSBIOLOGYSECTIONTheMillipedesin the CayesofMexicoandGuatemala Mexican CayeBiology:AnnotatedBibliographyVolumeIINumber5SeptemberOctober1966

PAGE 2

THEASSOCIATIONFORMEXICANCAVESTUDIESNEWSLETTERVolumeIINumber5September-October1966Publicationdate:January,1968 TheAMCSNEWSLETTERispublishedsixtimesayearbytheAssociationforMexican CaveStudies,P.O.Box 7672,UniversityStation,Austin,Texas,78712,USA.TheAssociationforMexican CaveStudiesisanonprofitorganizationwhosegoalsarethecollectionanddisseminationofinformationconcerningMexicancaves.Membershipisopentoallinterestedpersonsatarateof$5.00UScurrencyforthecalendaryear,withmembershipsstartingatthefirstofeachyear.Personsjoiningafterthefirstoftheyearwillreceiveallpublicationsforthatyear.Publicationsfortheyearof1965arestillavailablefor$6.00USbywritingtotheAMCS.Membersareurgedtosubmitarticlesforpublication.ThearticlemaycoveranyphaseofMexicanspeleology.Tripreportsarerequestedfromalltrips.EditorTerryW.RainesAssistantEditorJohnFishTreasurerPhilipWinsboroughNEWSNOTESIfyou were a 1965 memberoftheAMCSormadeaspecialorderyoushouldnowhaveinyourposessionAMCSBULLETINNO.1,ltCavesoftheInte!'-AmericanHighway".Afterreadingoverthepagesofdescriptions,maps, andphotosyoumaybeinclinedtobelievethattheBULLETINisacompleteguidetothecavesalongMexico85,butthisisnotatalltrue.Infact,evenasyourBULLETINwastravelingthroughthemailsnewcaveswerebeingexplored.Our knowledgeofthecavingregionsiscontinuallyenlarging.Alsochangingaretheimportantlandmarkssuchaskilometerposts,whicharemovednorthwardasanewhighwaytakesashortcut.Tokeepinformedonallthesenewdiscoveriesandchangesweneedyourhelp.TakeyourBULLETINtoMexico andnotethenewcavesyouexplore.Itisimportantthatyou makeanaccuratedescriptionandlocationofeachcavesothatcorrectrecordsmaybemaintained.AtthesametimeyoucancheckonthekilometerpostsandrecordanyotherthatshouldbeincludedintheBULLETIN.Ifthedemandwarrantsit,asecondandrevisededitionwillbepublished.

PAGE 3

107TABLEOFCONTENTSNEWSNOTESTRIPREPORTSGrutadelPalmitoCAVEMAPS...................... 106 108 .. 109 ... 111CAVESOFGUERREROANDMORELOS. by JohnFishBIOLOOYSECTIONTheMillipedesintheCavesofMexico and Guatemala 124 byNellB.Causey Mexican CaveBiology:AnnotatedBibliography 125 by JamesReddellILLUSTRATIONSCretaceousFormationsofGuerreroandMorelos,Mexico ... 114Grutasde CacahuamilpaGrutasdelaEstrella. .. 116 120

PAGE 4

108TRIPREPORTSPersons:TerryPlemons,TerryRaines,JudySustare,CindyTracy,JeannieWigginsDate:30September-2October1966Destination:GrutadelPalmito,Nuevo LeonReportedby:TerryRainesAustin,TexasWeleftAustin,drovethroughthenight,and campedbesidetheroadjustwestofSabinasHidalgo.Fourhourslaterwewere awakened bytheearlymorningsunand fromthecampsitewecontinuedonthroughthetownofBustamantetothebaseofthemountainstothewest,theSierrade Gomas.Weparkedattheupperendofalargeareawhich hadbeenclearedtoprOVideingspaceforoneofthefieldtripsduringthe1964NationalSpeleologicalSocietyConventionatNewBraunfels,Texas.ThedestinationofourtripwasGrutadelPalmito,whereweplannedtosketchalongitudinalprofileofthecave,makeadditionalsketchesfortheexistingmap, andcheckoutsomesmallpassagesattheverybottomofthecave.Fromtheparkinglotahikeup atrailhavingapproximately50switch-backsisnecessary.Althoughthetraillengthisveryclosetoonemile,thechangeinelevationisabout1100feet.Attheentrancewecheckedoverthegear,whichincluded,besidestheregularsurveyingequipment,abottleofcompressedheliumwithwhichweplannedtoinflateballoons.Onceinsidethecavewecouldraisetheballoonsuntiltheyreachedtheceiling,measurethelengthofthestring,andthushaveanaccuratemeasurementoftheceilingheight.Theonlyprobleminoursystem,whichwequicklydiscovered,wasthattheheliumbottlewasempty.Undaunted,weheadedintothecave.Sketchingwas slowasthecaveisverylarge(averaging75feethigh,200feetwide,andover2000feetlong)butweeventuallyreachedthelastlargeroom. HerethegirlswaitedwhileTerryand Idescended(climbed)intosomeofthesmall,lowerpassages.Wecheckedthemtotheverybottomandmadearoughsketchbeforereturning.Onthewayoutadditionalcross-sectionsweresketched.BythemiddleoftheafternoonweweredrivingbacktoBustamantewherewestoppedlongenoughtoberefreshedbeforecontinuingalonganotherdirtroadtothenorthwest.ThisroadledustoCanon deBustamante,abouttenmilesfromthetown, wherewecampedthatnightby astream.Sunday morningwedroveonwestthroughthecanyon,whichcutscompletelythroughtheSierrade Gomas.Becauseofthemanytreesandthestream,thegovernmenthasdeclareditaFederalPark.Therearenoformalaccomodations,butcampingisexcellentalongthestreamforthosevisitingtheBustamantearea.Aswedrovewesttheroadbecameveryrough,withwaterfromthestreamrunningdownthemiddleinseveralplaces.Afteranestimatedfivemilesweemerged onthewestsideoftherangeandstoppedattheentrancetoaranchcalled"LasVacas".From wherewestoodwecouldseemanymilestothewest,whereseveralmorerangesofmountainsroseoutofthedesert.LackoftimedidnotpermitustocontinueandwereturnedtoAustin.

PAGE 5

109CAVEMAPSDuringthepastsixyearstheAMCShasbeencontinuallyenlargingitsfileofcavemaps andnowwishestomakethemeasilyavailableatcosttoitsmembership.Copiesofthemapsmaybedividedintotwocategoriesaccordingtothemethodofreproduction.Ozalidcopiesarethesamesizeastheoriginalinktracing.InTable1isfound alistingofcavemapsavailableinthisformalongwiththesizeofthemapandthenumberofsquarefeeteachmapcontains.Whencalculatingthecostofthemaps you haveordered,findthetotalnumberofsquarefeetthenconsultTable2.Offsetprintedcopiesofcavemapsarealsoavailable,manyofwhicharereductionsofthelargermapsinTable1.Thesesmallersheetsarealltobe foundinAMCSBULLETINNO.1,"CavesoftheInter-AmericanHighway".Costoftheblack-and-whitemapsis$0.10eachwhilethemulticoloredmaps(includingareamaps)aresoldfor$0.25.Postageis10%ofthetotalorderwitha minimumof$0.05and amaximumof$0.50.Table1.SurveyedcaveswithavailablemapsasofJanuary,1968.CAVENAMESIZEAREA(inches)(sq.ft.)Cueva deElAbra 24 x 36 6SotanodelArroyo 24 x 36 6 CuevadeLaBoca18x 24 3GrutadeCarrizal30 x 367.5Cueva deCuestaBlanca24 x244 Pozo deGavllan24x 30 5SotanodeHuitzmolotitla36 x 120 30SotanodeLaJoyadeSalas24 x 36 6SotanodeMontecillos18x243 CuevadelPachon18x 30 4GrutadelPalmito(plan)36x 48 12(profile)36 x 60 15SotanodelPozo 18 x243GrutasdeQuintero24 x244 Cueva delosRiscos12 x 181.5CuevadelSalitre18 x243SotanodeSanAntonio12 x 181.5Cueva delaSelva18 x243 Cueva de Taninu1n.4 12 x242SotanodelaTinaJa36 x 48 12 Cueva de T1amaya18x 24 3Sotanode T1amaya(profileto-1000feet)36 x 48 12VentanaJabal:!18x243

PAGE 6

Table2.PricesofOzalidcopies.sq.ft.costsq.ft.costsq.ft.cost2 $ .87$3.8068$6.50 3 .98 3.88696.58 41.083.97706.651.154.06716.73 1.21394.15726.81 7 1028404.24736.89 81.36414.32746.96 9 1.45424.41757.03101.54434.50767.11111.63444.59777.18121.72454.68787.26131.80464.77 79 7.34141.89474.86807.41151.98484.95817.49162.07495.04827.57172.16505.13837.65182.24515.21847.72192.33525.29857.79202.42535.37867.87212.51545.45877.94222.60555.51888.02232.68565.59898.10242.785.67908.17252.88 5.74918.25262.98595.82928.33273.07605.90938.40283.16615.97948.48293.26626.05958.55303.34636.13968.62313.44646.208.70323.53656.278.78333.62666.35998.86343.71676.421008.93101to300.07301to500.06110

PAGE 7

111CAVESOFGUERREROANDMORELOSJOHNFISHAssistantEditorINTRODUCTIONAtthepresenttimelittleisknownaboutthecavesinthestatesofGuerreroand Morelos,otherthanthespectacularlegendarycavessuchasGrutasde Cacahuamilpa,DosBocas,and Pozo(BocadelDiablo).Eventhesefamouscavesarepoorlyknown,withrumorsofmilesofpassagesandtalesofpeoplebeinglostinthemfordays.Thisreportwaswrittentopresentthelimitedinformationwehave,listasleadstheknowncavesnotyetvisitedbyAMCSmembers,andhopefUllytoenticememberstocave-huntandmapinthismajorcavingregion.AmapshOWingtheoutcropareasofthelowerCretaceousrocks(mostlygoodcave-forminglimestones)andupperCretaceousrocksand cavelocationsisincludedasanaidforcavehuntingandlocation.GEOGRAPHYAtlasPorruashowstheclimateofGuerreroand MorelostobemostlyatropIcalsavannawithseasonalheavyrainsinthesummerandVirtuallynoraintheremainderoftheyear.Caminos de Mexico(probablythebestlow-pricedsetofmapsoftheareaintothreeprovinces:1)SierraMadredelSur;2)BalsasDepression;and3)TransverseVolcanicBelt.TheSierraMadredelSurisacoastalrangeextending800kilometersfromnorthofColima, ColimatoTehuantepec,Oaxaca.NortheastofthiscoastalrangeliestheBalsasDepression,dominated bytheRioBalsas,whichcollectstherunoffofnearlyalloftheriverseastofthecoastalrangethencutsthroughthemountainstothePacificOceanalongthenorthernboundaryofGuerrero.TheTransverseVolcanicBeltboundsourareaofinterestonthenorthandextendsapprOXimately 900kilometersalongthe19thParallelfromTepic,NayarittoCordoba,Veracruz.ManyofthegreatvolcanoesofMexicoliewithinthisactivebelt.ThreemajorhighwaysservethestatesofGuerrero,Morelos, and Mexico. Highway95isa modern paved highway,partiallyaturnpike,extendingfrom MexicoCitytoAcapulco.Theoldhighwayrequiresmoretravelingtime,butiskeptingoodconditiontoserveTaxco,Iguala,and Cacahuamilpa. Athirdhighwaypassesfrom CacahuamilpatoToluca.Muchoftheareahasnoroadsshownonanyavailablemaps. Aseasonalcoastalroadextendsinbothdirectionsfrom AcapUlco and anetworkofsecondaryroadsexistswestofCuernavacaandIguala.ThelargercitiesinGuerreroareChilpancingo(thecapital),AcapUlCO,Taxco(oftendescribedasthemostpicturesquecityinMexico), andIguala;Cuautlaand Cuernavaca(thecapital)areinMorelos.

PAGE 8

112GEOLOGYPaleozoicnoncaverniferousmetamorphicrockscropoutthroughoutthesouthwesternhalfofGuerreroandcovernearly50%ofthestatesofMore1os andGuerrero.Farthernorththesemetamorphicsarethebasementrocksforlaterdeposits.CenozoicextrusivesandTertiarypyroclasticsand nonmarineconglomerate,limestone,and gypsumcover35%moreofthearea.Thethick,cave-formingCretaceouslimestonescropoutinarectangularareafromChi1pancingotosouthofCuernavaca,totalingabout15%oftheareaofthetwostates(seemapon page114).TheseCretaceouslimestoneshavebeendividedintoseveralformations;onlythetwocavernousunitswillbedescribedoBotharelowerCretaceous.The More1osFormationcomprisesthemajorpartofthelimestoneanddolomitestrataofthewesternpartofMore1os andthenorthernandcentralpartsofGuerrero.Itisprobablythebestcave-forminglimestoneintheareaofinterest,butnotenoughfieldworkhasbeendonetoverifythis.Thestrataaregenerallyuniformlybeddedwithmediumtothickbeds.Thelimestonetextureisvariable,butcontainsnointercalatedclaybeds.White,cream,andgrayarethemostcommoncolorsofthelimestone,andthedolomitesarebufftobrownorblack.ThethicknessoftheMore1osFormationishighlyrangingfrom alittlelessthan900metersincentralMore1os andmetersnorthofAcuit1apan,to400-500metersaroundIgua1a.SeveralhundredmetersoftheMore1osFormationarealsopresentaroundChi1pancingo.The Cuaut1aFormation,whichisseparatedfromtheunderlyingMore1osFormation,iscommonly exposedbetweenCuernavacaandCuaut1awhereitreachesathicknessof750meters.ThelithologyisvariableandisfrequentlydifficulttodistinguishfromtheMore1osFormation.Itappearstorepresentalargemarinebankorientedprincipallyeast-west.UpperCretaceousrocksarenotknowntobecavernous.ManyperiodsoftectonicactivityarerecordedintherocksofGuerrero.ThefirstmovementslefttheirimprintonthePaleozoicmetamorphics.FollowingthedepositionoftheCretaceoussedimentswas aperiodofbroadupliftandblock-faulting.Next came aperiodofimportantfoldingandfaUltingattributedtotheLaramideRevolution.North-southanticlinalmountainrangesandsynclinalvalleysdominatethetectonictopographyofnortheasternGuerrero.MostoftheanticlinesareofCretaceousrocks,andthevalleysarefilledwithpost-LaramideTertiaryvolcanicsandnonmarinesediments.Fewdatahavebeengatheredonspe1eogenesisinGuerreroand More1os.Bretz(1955,p.372,373)describeshisideaofcavernmakingintheimmediateareaofCacahuami1pa andlistsaphysiographichistoryoftheregionwhichincludes:1)Atectonictopographyproducedby Laramidefolding.2)Anerosionaltopographydevelopedonmountainstructures.Therangeoflimestonehillsisnotched,perforated,andetchedfromthetectonictopography.Theearly,largephreaticcavesweredevelopedatthistime.3)Introductionofvolcanicfillsinthevalleys.4)Cessationofvolcanismandinaugurationofthepresentcycleoferosion,withstreamvalleysandbarrancaseroded

PAGE 9

paintingsoftheNewWorld.Natural(1967)[TripAMCSNewsletter113inthevolcanicdetritaldeposit.Thesubterraneanstreampiraciesoccuredlateinthepresenterosioncycle.ManycavesareknowntoexistinotherpartsofGuerreroand Moreloslbutnotheoryofspeleogenesisisyetavailable.BIBLIOGRAPHYANDSELECTEDREFERENCESBretzlJ.Harlen(1955)inapartoftheMexicanplateau.JournalofGeology63(4):364-375.companiaHuleraEuzkadilS.A. (1966) Caminos de Mexico12nded.Mexico.55p.FishlJohn andReddelllJames (1965)AMCSNewsletter1(8):73-77.2(4):82=87.GaYICarloE.T.(1967)OldestHistory76(4):InternationalGeologicalCongressl20th(1962)Excursion0-9.VolcaneslrocasvolcanicaslsedimentoslacustresyaluvialesdelPleistocenoyPliocenojrocasclasticasyvolcanicasterciariasjyesoycalizanomarinosdelTerciarioinferiorjcalizasylatitasdelCretacicoSuperiorycalizas1.dolomitasdelCretacicoinferiorlenelsurdelaCuenca de Mexico yenelEdo. deMorelos.Mexico. 153p.and 6geol.maps.MillareslJorgeHernandez andEscribanolAlejandroCarrillo(1966)AtlasPorruadelaRepublicaMexicana.EditorialPorrualS.A.:Mexico. 128p.Sanchez MejoradalSantiagoHernandez(1956)CartageOlOgicadelaRepublicaMexicana.InternationalGeologicalCongressl20th.

PAGE 10

EXPLANATIONlowerCretaceous"\I I'-'-.CretaceousUpper0'i.__'m0'i.__"'==='2iO..miCOLORADATolucoRio

PAGE 11

115CAVEDESCRIPTIONSGRUTADEACUITLAPANGuerreroLocation:NearAcuitlapanwhichisbetweenkmposts144 and 145 ontheoldhighwayeastofTaxco.Inquirelocally.Description:ReportedtobethelargestcaveknowninMexico.Localpeoplesaythattheentranceis5metershigh"10meterswide" andleadstoalargecave.Ariverflowsfromthecaveindicatingexplorationmayonlybepossibleduringthedryseason.IthasnotbeenexploredbyAMCSmembers.References:PemexTravelClub.Mexico'sCaves andCaverns.1964.p.27.OtisMcAllisterand Club deExploracionesde Mexico"bothinMexicoCity.1966.BOCADELBOCACITOGuerreroLocation:NearIguala"about1/2milefrom Pozo Melendez (BocadelDiablo).Well-known bylocalchildren.SeelocationofPozo Melendez.Description:Averticalshaftabout150feetdeep.Reportedby:CarrollSlemaker"1956.GRUTASDECACAHUAMILPALocation:Takeoldroadfrom CuernavacatowardsTaxco.Atkm.138.turnright(north)togettothecave whichis8km.farther.Description:Thisfamousgrutaisalarge"electrically-lightedcommercial cave whichterminatesina room1/2milelong" 400feetwide (maximum)" and 275feethigh(maximum).Sixmilesofpassagehavereportedlybeenexplored;however"thisfigureisverydoubtful0Most mapsshowaboutonemileofpassage" and noadditionalpassagehasbeenfound byAMCSmembers. Commercialtourslastuptofourhours.Thediscoveryofthecavernsiscreditedtoan Englishmanwhoenteredthecavewithhisdogthispastcenturyandfailedtocomeout.Ing.Benftez"apriestatSan MateoIxtlafrom1789 1793mentionsamagnificientcavernina manuscripthewroteduringthatperiodoThe cave"beingaslargeandspectacularasitis"naturallyhasmanylegendsassociatedwithit"andliterallythousandsofadventuroussoulshavevisitedthecavesinceitsdiscovery.Onesourcegivestheearliestknownvisittothecaveas1776.

PAGE 12

GRUTASDECACAHUAMILPA.Passageatendofcommercialtrail,about300feetwide.Photo byTerryRaines

PAGE 13

117CUEVADECARLOSPACHECOGuerreroLocation:ThecaveislocatedlessthanakilometerfromCacahuami1paataboutthesameelevationand onthesouthslopeofthecanyonoftheRioAmacuzac.Description:The cavehasa breakdownslopeentranceinalargecollapsedsink.Elongationofthecaveissemiparalleltothehillside.NoeVidence can be foundtoprovethatagravity-directed,freesurfacestreameverusedthecave(Bretz,1959).Thesolutionalfeaturesindicateaphreaticoriginofthecave.BretzsuggeststhatthecavemayhavebeenapartofCacahuamilpaatsometimeinthepast.The caveiswelldecoratedandhasroughly800feetofpassage.IthasnotbeenvisitedbyAMCSmembers.References:Mohr,CharlesE.SpecialSupplement CavesofMexico.NSSNews,April1950.Bretz,J.Harlen(1955) Cavern-makinginapartoftheMexicanplateau.JournalofGeology63(4):364-375.caveGuerreroLocation:Acahuizotla,GuerreroDescription:Thecaveis40yardslongandcontainsbats.Reportedby:Dr.Di1fordCarter,TexasA&M,Dept.ofWildlifeManagement.Hevisitedthecave 5 Nov. 1959. caveGuerreroLocation:Onemilesouthand1/2mileeastofAlmolonga.Description:Thiscavehasseveralcrevicesinanoverhangingwallwhichcontainbats.Nopassagesexitatthebottom.Reportedby:Dr.Di1fordCarter,TexasA&M,Dept.ofWildlifeManagement. caveGuerreroLocation:Near Mexcala whichis1.5mileswestfrom where Highway95crossestheRioBalsas.Thecaveis6to8km.downstream ontheRioBalsas.Itis15km.byroad.Description:Noinformationisavailableonthiscaveotherthanitissupposedtocontainbats.Reportedby:Dr.DilfordCarter,TexasA&M,Dept.ofWildlifeManagement.

PAGE 14

118caveMorelosLocation:ThreemileseastofTepoztlan,Morelos.Description:Theentranceisobscuredbyvegetation.The cavecontainsa room30-40yardslong,10yardswide, and3-4yardshigh.Reportedby:Dr.DilfordCarter,TexasA&M,Dept.ofWildlifeManagement.caveMorelosLocation:One-halfmilenorthwestofHuajint1an,More1osDescription:Reportedby:Theentranceisnearthetopofthenortheastfacingwallofa"canyon",northwestofthevillage.The caveconsistsofoneroomabout30feetindiameterandcontainsnumer ousbats,chieflyMormoopsandLeptonycteris.W.B.Davis,TexasA&M,Dept.ofWildlifeManagement.GRUTADECUALACorCOTOTOLAPANGuerreroLocation:NearthevillageofCualac,innorthernGuerrero,nearthePueblaborder.ItisnearthetownsofHuaxuxtitlanandChiepetlan.Description:Chieflyofarchaeologicalinterest.AhistoricalcodexdatingfromtheXVIcentury,butpostconquest,andexecutedon Europeanpaperwas foundhere.References:PemexTravelClub.Mexico'sCaves andCaverns.1964.p.17.Muller,F1orencia."ElCodice deCualac".GRUTASDECUETZALAGuerreroLocation:NearCuetza1awhichis50km.southwestofIgua1aandcanbereachedby aroadleadingwestofIgua1a.Inquirelocally.Description:Anotherofthe"largest-cave-in-Mexicolfcaves.Reportedby:CarrollSlemaker,1956.JohnFish,personalcommunicationwithOtisMcAllister,1966.

PAGE 15

119CUEVADELDIABLOGuerreroLocation:Near Mogote whichisontheroadbetween andToluca.The caveisinalargesinkofthesinkcontainingGrutasde Mogote.sinksareaboutonekm.eastotMogote. CacahuamilpajustnorthTheseDescription:References:DOSBOCASNotenteredbyAMCSmembers. Approachingthecaveatdusk,JamesReddellwastoldthatthecaveisverydangerouswithmanysnakesandtigers,etc.Fish,John andReddell{James (1965) /.Tripreport]AMCSNewsletter1(8):73-77.GuerreroLocation:NeartheGrutasde Cacahuamilpa;about1/4milebytrailbelow.Description:Two,largeseparatecaveswithlowerentrancesabout300feetapartareattheheadofthecanyon below Cacahuamilpa. Bothcavesarequitelarge,insomeplaceswellover100feetindiameter,andbothhavethrough-flowingriversinthem.Sincetheyareactuallytwoseparatecaves,theymoreproperlywould becalledtheSumiderodelR!oChontalcoatlan(lowerboca)and SumiderodelR!o San Jer6nimo(upperboca).Bretzsuggeststhatbothcavesrepresentseparatephreaticsystemswhich havepiratedriversand hence undergoneextensivevadoseenlargement.Bouldersaslargeas5feetindiameteraresometimescarriedbythefloodingrivers.Togetherthetworiversdrainabout2000squarekilometersofland.Topographicmapsshowthattheoverlanddistancefromsinktobocaforeachriveris4to5km.Downstreamtromthecaves,thetworiversjointoformtheRio Amacusac.Collapsesinks(ponors)arereportedtoexistaboveeachcaveriversystem.Explorationispossibleonlyduringthedrymonths fromJanuarythroughMay.A Mexicanexploringclubhastakenmanytripsthroughthecaves,butnoAMCSmembers haveyetfUllyexploredtheDosBocas.ThebesttimetoexplorethecavesisinAprilorearlyMaywhentheleastrainoccursinthearea.GRUTASDELAESTRELLAMexicoLocation:AbouttenmileswestofMogote onthehighway from CacahuamilpatoToluca.Signspointtheway.Description:GrutasdelaEstrellabearsacloserelationshiptoCacahuamilpa andDosBocas.The cavehaspiratedastream,atributarytotheRioChontalcoatlanandcontainsextensiveupperandlower

PAGE 16

GRUTASDELAESTRELLA.Bridgeleadstoupper-levelloop;pitbelowleadstomainsectionofcave.photobyTerryRaines

PAGE 17

121levels.Theentrancepassageisabout30feetwide and 15feethighandleads150feettoawaterfallthatgoestothelowerlevel;aboveitabridgeleadstotheupperlevel.Theupperlevelconsistsofaseriesoflargerooms and pa&sageswithsomeformations,totalingabout1500feet.Theupperlevelisactuallyaclosedloopand showsnosignsofeverhavinghad astream.The 40footwaterfallleadstoa 60foot-in-diameterlowerlevelwhichhasbeenexploredforabout500feet.Itcontinuesonasalargestreampassagewithseverallargecolumns andflowstonemounds.References:Bretz,J.Harlen(1955) Cavern-rnakinginapartoftheMexicanplateau.JournalofGeology63(4):364-375.ColliertsMagazine.OctoberI,1954.GRUTASDEJUXTLAHUACAGuerreroLocation:Takethemain roadgoingeastinPetaquillas,whichis3milessouthofChi1pancingo onthehighway from MexicoCitytoAcapUlco. ThegravelroadpassesthroughthesmalltownsofMochitlanandQuechultenango onthewaytoColotlipa,25milesfromPetaquilIas.InColotlipa,AndresOrtegaisthegovernmentofficialinchageofthecave andwillserveasagUide.The caveisanhourtswalk(atafastpace)northeastofColotlipa.Description:ThenameJuxtlahuaca,which means"beautiful,blue-greenvalley",isderivedfrom alocalhamlet.The mainentranceisa few hundredfeetabovethevalleyfloorandisabout15feetwide and 15feethigh.Batsinhabitthefirst1000feetofthecave whichconsistsmostlyofwalkingpassage,averaging20feetindiameter,and afewsmallplacescreatedbyformationblocks.Alsothereisanupperlevelroom wherethebatsstay.Beyondthebatcavesection,thecharacterofthecavechangestothemostbeautifulandatedcaveknowninMexico. Therearenumerouslargeroomscontainingflowstonedraperiesand mounds,withrunningwaterandmanytypesofspeleothems.The cavealsocontainsnumeroushumanskeletalremainsandpictographs(about4000feetfromtheentrance),attributedtotheOlmectradition.Thepictographsarebelievedtohave beenpaintedbetween 800 and 400BC.Theskeletalremainscouldbe morerecent.About 4500feetfromtheentranceisalargelakewhichhasnotbeencrossedbyAMCSmembers.Itisnotknownifmorepassageexistsontheothersideofthelake,butamapwhichappearedinNATURALHISTORYindicatesmorepassage.About 2500feetfromtheentrance

PAGE 18

122thereisasmallsidepassage,mostlywalking,whichleadstoa 12footdeepsink100yardsfromthemainentrance.References:PemexTravelClub.Mexico'sCaves andCaverns.1964.Gay,CarloE.T.(1967)OldestpaintingsoftheNewWorld.NaturalHistory76(4):28-35.POZOMELENDEZGuerreroLocation:Betweenkm.posts180 and 181 onthehighwaybetweenIgualaandTaxco.Near aschoolwestofthehighwaytakeadirtroadsouthfora few hundredyardsandturnrightacrossacobblestonebridge.Thepitisatthefarcornerofthesmallfieldahead.Description:Thisisthelegendary"Devil'sThroat"intowhichmanypoliticalprisonerswere supposedtohavebeenthrown.Theentrancesinkisabout30feetindiameter.Near onesideanopening8feetby 15feetdropsintoafissure15feetwide and 40feetlongwithanunbrokendropof220feet.Thefissureopensintothetopofalargeroom 125feethigh,60feetwide,and 80feetlong.Shortdropsof65feetand 30feetarenecessarytode& cendtoreachthemainfloor.A5footwidewellinthefloordrops10feettowaterinasmallfissurepassage30feetlong.CUEVACITADEMOOOTEGuerreroDescription:Location:SeelocationinstructionsfortheGrutade Mogote. TheCuevacitaisinthesamesink.Aslopingroom 60feetby 40feetby 20feet.Reference:Fish,John andReddell{James (1965)[TripAMCSNewsletter1(8):76.GRUTASDEMOOOTEGuerreroLocation:Onekm.eastofMogote ontheroadfrom CacahuamilpatoToluca.Asink400feetindiameterand 100feetdeepwith50footcliffsinmanyplacesislocatedattheveryedgeoftheroad.Thecaveisinthebottomofthesink.Description:Atthebottomofthesinkaholedrops20feettoagravelfloor.Theholeisconnectedviaanaturalbridgetoa secondentrance.The secondentranceis50feetaway and 30feethigher.A crawlwayleadstotheSalondelasArenaswherethereisasignindicatingthenameofthecave.Ashortcrawlwayleadsintoalarge,formation-

PAGE 19

123decoratedpassagewhichextendsperhaps1/2milebeforeturningintoawatercrawl.Noequipmentisnecessary,althoughadepthofsome200feetisreachedviashort,climbabledrops.Thecavehasapparentlybeenfilledwithgravelwhichwascemented and whichisnowintheprocessofbeingremoved.References:Fish,John andReddell{James(1965)[TripAMCSNewsletter1(8):76.CUEVADELAPENITAGuerreroLocation:OnemilesouthofPaloBlanco,Guerrero.Description:Smallsinkholewitha 12footentrancedrop.Ropeisneeded.Ithasone main chamber andseveralsmallerones,andthecavecontainsbats.Reportedby:Dr.DilfordCarter,TexasA&M,Dept.ofWildlifeManagement.

PAGE 20

124BIOLOGYSECTIONTHEMILLIPEDESINTHECAVESOFMEXICOANDGUATEMALAbyNELLB.CAUSEYDepartmentofZoology,LouisianaStateUniversityTheentranceofanycaveislikelytohaveepigeanmillipedesthathaveeitherfalleninorwanderedininsearchofamoistsubstratum.Thecavemodifiedspecies,ortroglobites,occurbeyondthecaveentrance,usuallybeyondthetWilightzone andonlyinthezoneoftotaldarknessofdampcaves,eithersmalleronesthatareconnectedby passagewaysorlargecaves.Theytendtocongregateondampsoilandstones(includingtheceiling)and onorganicmattersuchasleaves,twigsbroughtinbyrats,guano,paper,roots,and deadanimalbodies.Troglobitesaredistinguishedfromepigeanspeciesbythereducedpigmentationorcompleteabsenceofpigmentation,thereducednumberofocelliorcompleteabsenceofocelli(someepigeanmillipedeshave noocelli),andtheslightelongationofthelegsandantennae.Inlength,Mexicantroglobitesrangefromabout90mmdownto5mm.Astoshape,a fewrollupintoaminutepillthatresemblesaterrestrialisopod("rolly-polly"),butthemajorityarethecommonmillipedeshapes,eithercylindricalorwithlateralkeelson most bodysegments.Some19species,one from Guatemala andtheremainderfrom Mexico,representingfiveordersaresuspectedofbeingtroglobites.Inaddition,I have specimensofatleast10undescribedspeciesandsubspeciesfrom Mexicancaves.Theordersthatarerepresentedare:Glomerida,2species;Polydesmida,theordermostabundantlyrepresented,withthefamiliesRhachodesmidae andStylodesmidaepredominating;Chordeumida,representedbythefamiliesCleidogonidaeandTrichopetalidae;Cambalida,representedbythegeneraCambala and Mexicambala; andSpirostreptida,representedbythegenusOrthoporusinYucatan.Allofthetroglobiticspecies,withtheexceptionofthetrichopetalidMexiterpessabinus,havecloseepigeanrelativesinMexico. Themajorcollectionshavebeenmadebythefollowingpeople:1)Dr.A.S.Pearse,whocollectedfromthecenotesofYucatan;hisspecimens weredescribedby R. V. Chamberlin(1938),whofoundlittleevidenceofcavemodificationinthesome20representativesoffourorders;Isuspectthatatleastsixspeciesaretroglobites.2)Drs.F.Bonet,CoBol!var,andtheirMexicanassociates,whocollectedfromcavesinVeracruz,SanLuisPotos!,Nuevo Le6n, andGuerrero;theirspecimens,which weredescribedby R. V. Chamberlin(1942),containsevenpossibletroglobitesintwoorders.3)MembersoftheTexasSpeleologicalSurvey andAssociationforMexican CaveStudies,representedchieflyby JamesReddell,TerryRaines,BillRussell,and JohnFish,whoinvestigatedmanynewcavesand wentbacktotypelocalitiesforinvaluabletopotypes;I havebeenfortunateinhavingtheirspecimenstostudy(Causey, 1963, 1964a,1964b).Inaddition,therehavebeenlessextensive

PAGE 21

Guatemalacaves,(Stylodesmidae:73:275-280,figs.TwounusualCentralAmericanspirostreptidProc.BioI.Soc.Washington75:47-52,figs.125collectionsbyStanleyKiem (Loomis,1958),WilliamW.Varnadoe,Jr.(Causey,1960),andRaymonddeSaussure.ReferencesCitedCausey,NellB.1960.MillipedscollectedinincludingCalymmodesmusinquinatus,n.sp.Polydesmida).Proc.Zool.Soc.Washington1,2.1963.Mexiter2essabinus,newgenusandnewMexicantroglobite(Diplopoda:Trichopetalidae).Psyche70:235-239,3figs.1964a.Newcavernicolousmillipedsofthefamily(Cambalidea:Spirostreptida)fromTexasand Mexico.Inter.Jour.Speol.1:237-246,pIs.58,59.1964b.Twonewtroglobiticmillipedsofthefrom Mexico(Glomeridae:Glomerida).Proc.LouisianaAcad.Sci.27:63-66,figs.1-8.Chamberlin,R. V.1938.FaunaoftheCavesofYucatan.XIV.DiplopodafromYucatan.CarnegieInst.ofWashington,Pub.No.491,pp.165-182,figs.1-55.1942.OncentipedsandmillipedsfromMexicanUniv.Utah,bioI.ser.,vol.7,no.2,pp.1-19,figs.1-22.Loomis,H.F.1962.millipedspecies.1-8.MEXICANCAVEBIOLOGY:ANNOTATEDBIBLIOGRAPHYbyJAMESREDDELL1.A'lvarezTicul.1963."TherecentmammalsofTamaulipas,Univ.Kansas Mus.Nat.Hist.Publ.,14(15):363-473.InadditiontogeneralobservationsonbioticprOVinces,dispersalroutes,etc.,thisreportincludesanannotatedlistofthemammalsofTamaulipas.Thefollowingspeciesofbatsarerecordedfromcaves:Pteronotusmexicanus(Miller),ChoeronycterismexicanaTschui,Mormoopsm.megalophylla(Peters),GIOSsothagasoricinaleachii(TIray),Leptonycterisn.nivallsSaussure),Artlbeus1.jamalcenslsLeach,-ArtlbeuslituratuspalmarumJ.A.Allenand Chapman,ArtlbeusaztecusAnderson,DesmodusrotundusmurlnusWagner,ecaudataSplx,NatalusstramlneussaturatusDalqueBtandHall,MyotisnlgricansdalquestiHallandAlvarez,TadarldabrasilIensismexIcana(Saussure),Tadaridaaurispinosa(Peale),andTadaridalaticaudataferruginea(Goodwin).Briefde&crIptlonsofseveralofthecavesarealsoincluded.

PAGE 22

2.4.6.8.126 Alvarez"Ticul"and ClemenciaE.AVilia. 1964. "NuevosregistrosenMexico delafamiliaMolossidae."Rev.Soc.Nex.Hist.Nat."25:243-254.IncludedwiththiscollectionofnewrecordsformolossidbatsinMexicoisanaccountofthreeadditionalspecimensofTadaridaaurispinosaPealefrom CuevadelAbra" Tamps.Axtell"RalphW.1962."Aneasternmostrecordforthebatmexicana from Coahuila" Mexico."SouthwesternNat."7(1):76..Thisrecordsthepresenceofthehog-nosedbat"Choeron!cterismexicana"ina cavenortheastofHermanas" Coahula.(note:thIscaveisprobablyCueva delaHerradura).Baker"RollinH.1951."Mammalsfrom Tamaulipas" Mexico." Univ. Kansas Mus.Nat.Hist.Publ."5(12):207-218.Desmodusrotundusmurinus"thevampirebat"isrecordedfrom twocavesInTamaulIpas: Cueva de Los Troncones" 12km.westand 8km.northofVictoriajand a cavesouthofVictoria.Baker"RollinH.1956."MammalsofCoahuila" Mexico." Univ. KansasMus.Nat.Hist.Publ."9(7):125-335.ThisvolumeincludesanannotatedlistofallmamalsrecordedfromthestateofCoahuila.Alsoincludedaredi&cussionsoftherelationshipsofmammalstodifferentplantsandlifezones.Thefollowingbatsarereportedfromcaves:Aello(Mormoops)mealohIlasenicula(Rehn)"mexicana Tschudi"0sveliferIncautus(J.A.Alen)"EpteslcusfuscuspausYoung"CorynorhInustownsendiiaustralisHandley" andTadaridabrasiliensismexicana(Saussure).Severalcavesarebrieflyde&cribed.Baker"RollinH.1960."MammalsoftheGuadiana LavaField"Durango" Mexico."Mus.MichiganstateUniv.Biol.SeriesPubl."1(9): 305-327 Thebats,MyotisthysanodesthysanodesMiller"choeronicterismexicana Tschudi" and MYotisvelifervelifer(JAllen),weretakenfromsmallopeningsandfissuresinlavahillocksatandnearLaPila,Durango.Baker,RollinH.,andJ.KeeverGreer.1960."Noteson Oaxacan mammalS."J.Mammal."4l(3):4l}-4l5.Thebats"BalantiopteryxioThomas and DesmodusrotundusmurinusWagner,arereportedfrom a cave11/2milesouthofTo1losa,Oaxaca. B.iohadnotpreviouslybeenreportedfrom Oaxaca. --Baker,RollinH.,andJ.KeeverGreer.1962."MammalsoftheMexicanstateofDurango."MichiganStateUniv.Biol.SeriesPubl.,2(2):29-154.Thisannotatedcheck-listofthemammalsofDurangoincludesrecordsofthefollOWingspeciesofbatsfrom

PAGE 23

1279.10.11. 12. 13. 14.cavesorcave-likesituations:Myotist.thysanodesfrom"cavelikefissuresina lowhillofvOlcanIcrock"nearLaPila;Myotisv.veliferfrom a"large,butshallowcave" on TIle Rancho LasMargaritas,southandwestofVicente,Guerrero;Plecotustownsendiiaustralisfrom alimestonecavenorthofCampana,knownlocallyasCueva delosIndios;andAntrozuspalliduspallidusfrom Cueva delosIndiosandothercaves.Carter,DilfordC.,RonaldH.Pine,andWilliamB.Davis.1966."Noteson Middle Americanbats."SouthwesternNat.,11(4):488-499.ThisreportincludesarecordofMyotisthysanodesaztecusMillerandAllenfromtheentranceofalimestonecave 7misoutheastofSanCristobaldelasCasas,Chiapas.ItisafirstrecordforthisspeciesinChiapas.Cockrum,E.Lendell.1960."Distribution,habitatandhabitsofthemastiffbat,Eumotsperotis,inNorthAmerica.1IJ.ArizonaAcad.Sci.,13):79=84.ThisstudyofthemastiffbatincludesarecordofaoflerotisinIIIndianCavell,nearCuatroCienegas,oauia,Mexico. Cockrum,E.Lendell,and Gordon van R. Bradshaw.1963."NotesonmammalsfromSonora,Mexico." Amer. Mus. Nov., 2138.9pp.ThisaccountofmammalsinthestateofSonoraincludesrecordsofthefollowingbatsinCuevadelTigre,14.9mi.SSECarbo:Chilonycterisparnellimexicana,pteronotusdavyifUlvus,Mormoopsm.megalophylla,nivalissanborni,Natalusstramineusmexicanus,anTadaridabrasiliensIsmexicana.Constantine,DennyG.1958."Anautomaticbat-collectingdevice.1IJ.WildlifeManagement,22(1):17-22.Thisaccountofanewbat-collectingdeviceincludesreferencetothecaptureofeightspeciesofbatinacavenearValles,SanLuisPotosi.Davis,WayneH.1959."Taxonomyoftheeasternpipistrel.1IJ.Mammal.,40(4):521-531.Thistaxonomicrevisionofthebatspecies,subflavus,includesP.subflavusveraecrucis(ard)from aIIcave'ClosebytEehamletofLasVigas,'CantonofJalapa,Veracruz,Mexico.1IdelaTorre,Luis.1955.IlBats fromGuerrero,Jaliscoand Oaxaca, Mexico.1IFieldiana:Zool.,37:695-701,pl.30-31.Thisreporton MexicanbatsincludesrecordsofBalantiopteryx!licataPeters,ChilonycterisrubiginosamexicanaMi1er,Chilonycter1sps110t1sDobson,pteronotusdavyifulvusTKomas,Mormoopsm.megalophyllaPeters,GlossophagasoricinaleachiGary, and DesmodusrotundusmurinusWagner from a cave 5milesnorthwestofAcapulco,

PAGE 24

128GuerrerojofBalantiopteryx.p1icataPetersfrom a caveatTehuantepec,Oaxacaj andofBalantiopteryx.plicataPetersandLeptontcterisniva1isnivallsSaussurefrom acave12milessouhofMexcala,Guerrero.15.Ingles,LloydG.1958."Notasacercadelosmamiferos Mexicanos.1IAnal.Inst.BioI.,29(1-2):379-408.Thisreporton MexicanmammalsincludesrecordsofBalantiopteryxplicataincavesatManzanil10, Colima, andnearNayaritjofGlossophagasoricinaina cavenearSanBIas,NayaritjofArtibeusjarnaicensisina cavenearChochola, Yucatanj andofDesmodusrotundusinacenoteatYucatan, andina cave7.5krn.SEMitla,Oaxaca.Otherbatrecordsincludespecimenstakeninabandonedmines.16.Long,CharlesA.,andCarolynJ.Jones.1966.IIVariationandfrequencyofoccurrenceofthebaculuminapopUlationofMexicanfree-tailedbats.1ISouthwesternNat.,11(2):290-295.The baculumisstudiedinbats,Tadaridabrasiliensismexicana,takenfrom a caveatCofre dePerote,9200feetelevation,Veracruz.17.Ward, Henry L.1891."DescriptionsofthreenewspeciesofMexicanbats.1IAmer.Nat.,25:743-753.Anewspeciesofbat,Vesperugoveraecrucis(=Pipistrellussubflavusveraecrucis),isdescribedfrom a cavenearLas Vegas,Jalapa,Veracruz.Inadditionves)ertilioveliferandPlecotusmacrotisarerepored fromthiscave,whichisbrielfydescribed.


Description
Contents: Part 1. Trip
Reports --
Gruto del Palmito, Nueva Leon --
Cave maps --
Caves of Guerrero and Morelos --
Part 2. Biology Section --
The Millipedes in the Caves of Mexico and Guatemala --
Mexican Cave Biology: Annotated Bibliography.


printinsert_linkshareget_appmore_horiz

Download Options

close
Choose Size
Choose file type
Cite this item close

APA

Cras ut cursus ante, a fringilla nunc. Mauris lorem nunc, cursus sit amet enim ac, vehicula vestibulum mi. Mauris viverra nisl vel enim faucibus porta. Praesent sit amet ornare diam, non finibus nulla.

MLA

Cras efficitur magna et sapien varius, luctus ullamcorper dolor convallis. Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Fusce sit amet justo ut erat laoreet congue sed a ante.

CHICAGO

Phasellus ornare in augue eu imperdiet. Donec malesuada sapien ante, at vehicula orci tempor molestie. Proin vitae urna elit. Pellentesque vitae nisi et diam euismod malesuada aliquet non erat.

WIKIPEDIA

Nunc fringilla dolor ut dictum placerat. Proin ac neque rutrum, consectetur ligula id, laoreet ligula. Nulla lorem massa, consectetur vitae consequat in, lobortis at dolor. Nunc sed leo odio.