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Association of Mexican Cave Studies newsletter

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Title:
Association of Mexican Cave Studies newsletter
Series Title:
Association of Mexican Cave Studies Newsletter (1965-1977)
Creator:
Association for Mexican Cave Studies
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Association for Mexican Cave Studies
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Language:
English

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Subjects / Keywords:
Regional Speleology ( local )
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serial ( sobekcm )
Location:
Mexico

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General Note:
Contents: Part 1. Trip Reports -- Gruto del Palmito, Nueva Leon -- Cave maps -- Caves of Guerrero and Morelos -- Part 2. Biology Section -- The Millipedes in the Caves of Mexico and Guatemala -- Mexican Cave Biology: Annotated Bibliography.
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Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Version:
Vol. 2, no. 5 (1966)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

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THEASSOCIATIONFORMEXICANCAVESTUDIESNEWSLETTERTRIPREPORTSGruto delPalmito,NueYaLeonCAVE MAPS CAVESOFGUERREROANDMORELOSBIOLOGYSECTIONTheMillipedesin the CayesofMexicoandGuatemala Mexican CayeBiology:AnnotatedBibliographyVolumeIINumber5SeptemberOctober1966

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THEASSOCIATIONFORMEXICANCAVESTUDIESNEWSLETTERVolumeIINumber5September-October1966Publicationdate:January,1968 TheAMCSNEWSLETTERispublishedsixtimesayearbytheAssociationforMexican CaveStudies,P.O.Box 7672,UniversityStation,Austin,Texas,78712,USA.TheAssociationforMexican CaveStudiesisanonprofitorganizationwhosegoalsarethecollectionanddisseminationofinformationconcerningMexicancaves.Membershipisopentoallinterestedpersonsatarateof$5.00UScurrencyforthecalendaryear,withmembershipsstartingatthefirstofeachyear.Personsjoiningafterthefirstoftheyearwillreceiveallpublicationsforthatyear.Publicationsfortheyearof1965arestillavailablefor$6.00USbywritingtotheAMCS.Membersareurgedtosubmitarticlesforpublication.ThearticlemaycoveranyphaseofMexicanspeleology.Tripreportsarerequestedfromalltrips.EditorTerryW.RainesAssistantEditorJohnFishTreasurerPhilipWinsboroughNEWSNOTESIfyou were a 1965 memberoftheAMCSormadeaspecialorderyoushouldnowhaveinyourposessionAMCSBULLETINNO.1,ltCavesoftheInte!'-AmericanHighway".Afterreadingoverthepagesofdescriptions,maps, andphotosyoumaybeinclinedtobelievethattheBULLETINisacompleteguidetothecavesalongMexico85,butthisisnotatalltrue.Infact,evenasyourBULLETINwastravelingthroughthemailsnewcaveswerebeingexplored.Our knowledgeofthecavingregionsiscontinuallyenlarging.Alsochangingaretheimportantlandmarkssuchaskilometerposts,whicharemovednorthwardasanewhighwaytakesashortcut.Tokeepinformedonallthesenewdiscoveriesandchangesweneedyourhelp.TakeyourBULLETINtoMexico andnotethenewcavesyouexplore.Itisimportantthatyou makeanaccuratedescriptionandlocationofeachcavesothatcorrectrecordsmaybemaintained.AtthesametimeyoucancheckonthekilometerpostsandrecordanyotherthatshouldbeincludedintheBULLETIN.Ifthedemandwarrantsit,asecondandrevisededitionwillbepublished.

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107TABLEOFCONTENTSNEWSNOTESTRIPREPORTSGrutadelPalmitoCAVEMAPS...................... 106 108 .. 109 ... 111CAVESOFGUERREROANDMORELOS. by JohnFishBIOLOOYSECTIONTheMillipedesintheCavesofMexico and Guatemala 124 byNellB.Causey Mexican CaveBiology:AnnotatedBibliography 125 by JamesReddellILLUSTRATIONSCretaceousFormationsofGuerreroandMorelos,Mexico ... 114Grutasde CacahuamilpaGrutasdelaEstrella. .. 116 120

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108TRIPREPORTSPersons:TerryPlemons,TerryRaines,JudySustare,CindyTracy,JeannieWigginsDate:30September-2October1966Destination:GrutadelPalmito,Nuevo LeonReportedby:TerryRainesAustin,TexasWeleftAustin,drovethroughthenight,and campedbesidetheroadjustwestofSabinasHidalgo.Fourhourslaterwewere awakened bytheearlymorningsunand fromthecampsitewecontinuedonthroughthetownofBustamantetothebaseofthemountainstothewest,theSierrade Gomas.Weparkedattheupperendofalargeareawhich hadbeenclearedtoprOVideingspaceforoneofthefieldtripsduringthe1964NationalSpeleologicalSocietyConventionatNewBraunfels,Texas.ThedestinationofourtripwasGrutadelPalmito,whereweplannedtosketchalongitudinalprofileofthecave,makeadditionalsketchesfortheexistingmap, andcheckoutsomesmallpassagesattheverybottomofthecave.Fromtheparkinglotahikeup atrailhavingapproximately50switch-backsisnecessary.Althoughthetraillengthisveryclosetoonemile,thechangeinelevationisabout1100feet.Attheentrancewecheckedoverthegear,whichincluded,besidestheregularsurveyingequipment,abottleofcompressedheliumwithwhichweplannedtoinflateballoons.Onceinsidethecavewecouldraisetheballoonsuntiltheyreachedtheceiling,measurethelengthofthestring,andthushaveanaccuratemeasurementoftheceilingheight.Theonlyprobleminoursystem,whichwequicklydiscovered,wasthattheheliumbottlewasempty.Undaunted,weheadedintothecave.Sketchingwas slowasthecaveisverylarge(averaging75feethigh,200feetwide,andover2000feetlong)butweeventuallyreachedthelastlargeroom. HerethegirlswaitedwhileTerryand Idescended(climbed)intosomeofthesmall,lowerpassages.Wecheckedthemtotheverybottomandmadearoughsketchbeforereturning.Onthewayoutadditionalcross-sectionsweresketched.BythemiddleoftheafternoonweweredrivingbacktoBustamantewherewestoppedlongenoughtoberefreshedbeforecontinuingalonganotherdirtroadtothenorthwest.ThisroadledustoCanon deBustamante,abouttenmilesfromthetown, wherewecampedthatnightby astream.Sunday morningwedroveonwestthroughthecanyon,whichcutscompletelythroughtheSierrade Gomas.Becauseofthemanytreesandthestream,thegovernmenthasdeclareditaFederalPark.Therearenoformalaccomodations,butcampingisexcellentalongthestreamforthosevisitingtheBustamantearea.Aswedrovewesttheroadbecameveryrough,withwaterfromthestreamrunningdownthemiddleinseveralplaces.Afteranestimatedfivemilesweemerged onthewestsideoftherangeandstoppedattheentrancetoaranchcalled"LasVacas".From wherewestoodwecouldseemanymilestothewest,whereseveralmorerangesofmountainsroseoutofthedesert.LackoftimedidnotpermitustocontinueandwereturnedtoAustin.

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109CAVEMAPSDuringthepastsixyearstheAMCShasbeencontinuallyenlargingitsfileofcavemaps andnowwishestomakethemeasilyavailableatcosttoitsmembership.Copiesofthemapsmaybedividedintotwocategoriesaccordingtothemethodofreproduction.Ozalidcopiesarethesamesizeastheoriginalinktracing.InTable1isfound alistingofcavemapsavailableinthisformalongwiththesizeofthemapandthenumberofsquarefeeteachmapcontains.Whencalculatingthecostofthemaps you haveordered,findthetotalnumberofsquarefeetthenconsultTable2.Offsetprintedcopiesofcavemapsarealsoavailable,manyofwhicharereductionsofthelargermapsinTable1.Thesesmallersheetsarealltobe foundinAMCSBULLETINNO.1,"CavesoftheInter-AmericanHighway".Costoftheblack-and-whitemapsis$0.10eachwhilethemulticoloredmaps(includingareamaps)aresoldfor$0.25.Postageis10%ofthetotalorderwitha minimumof$0.05and amaximumof$0.50.Table1.SurveyedcaveswithavailablemapsasofJanuary,1968.CAVENAMESIZEAREA(inches)(sq.ft.)Cueva deElAbra 24 x 36 6SotanodelArroyo 24 x 36 6 CuevadeLaBoca18x 24 3GrutadeCarrizal30 x 367.5Cueva deCuestaBlanca24 x244 Pozo deGavllan24x 30 5SotanodeHuitzmolotitla36 x 120 30SotanodeLaJoyadeSalas24 x 36 6SotanodeMontecillos18x243 CuevadelPachon18x 30 4GrutadelPalmito(plan)36x 48 12(profile)36 x 60 15SotanodelPozo 18 x243GrutasdeQuintero24 x244 Cueva delosRiscos12 x 181.5CuevadelSalitre18 x243SotanodeSanAntonio12 x 181.5Cueva delaSelva18 x243 Cueva de Taninu1n.4 12 x242SotanodelaTinaJa36 x 48 12 Cueva de T1amaya18x 24 3Sotanode T1amaya(profileto-1000feet)36 x 48 12VentanaJabal:!18x243

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Table2.PricesofOzalidcopies.sq.ft.costsq.ft.costsq.ft.cost2 $ .87$3.8068$6.50 3 .98 3.88696.58 41.083.97706.651.154.06716.73 1.21394.15726.81 7 1028404.24736.89 81.36414.32746.96 9 1.45424.41757.03101.54434.50767.11111.63444.59777.18121.72454.68787.26131.80464.77 79 7.34141.89474.86807.41151.98484.95817.49162.07495.04827.57172.16505.13837.65182.24515.21847.72192.33525.29857.79202.42535.37867.87212.51545.45877.94222.60555.51888.02232.68565.59898.10242.785.67908.17252.88 5.74918.25262.98595.82928.33273.07605.90938.40283.16615.97948.48293.26626.05958.55303.34636.13968.62313.44646.208.70323.53656.278.78333.62666.35998.86343.71676.421008.93101to300.07301to500.06110

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111CAVESOFGUERREROANDMORELOSJOHNFISHAssistantEditorINTRODUCTIONAtthepresenttimelittleisknownaboutthecavesinthestatesofGuerreroand Morelos,otherthanthespectacularlegendarycavessuchasGrutasde Cacahuamilpa,DosBocas,and Pozo(BocadelDiablo).Eventhesefamouscavesarepoorlyknown,withrumorsofmilesofpassagesandtalesofpeoplebeinglostinthemfordays.Thisreportwaswrittentopresentthelimitedinformationwehave,listasleadstheknowncavesnotyetvisitedbyAMCSmembers,andhopefUllytoenticememberstocave-huntandmapinthismajorcavingregion.AmapshOWingtheoutcropareasofthelowerCretaceousrocks(mostlygoodcave-forminglimestones)andupperCretaceousrocksand cavelocationsisincludedasanaidforcavehuntingandlocation.GEOGRAPHYAtlasPorruashowstheclimateofGuerreroand MorelostobemostlyatropIcalsavannawithseasonalheavyrainsinthesummerandVirtuallynoraintheremainderoftheyear.Caminos de Mexico(probablythebestlow-pricedsetofmapsoftheareaintothreeprovinces:1)SierraMadredelSur;2)BalsasDepression;and3)TransverseVolcanicBelt.TheSierraMadredelSurisacoastalrangeextending800kilometersfromnorthofColima, ColimatoTehuantepec,Oaxaca.NortheastofthiscoastalrangeliestheBalsasDepression,dominated bytheRioBalsas,whichcollectstherunoffofnearlyalloftheriverseastofthecoastalrangethencutsthroughthemountainstothePacificOceanalongthenorthernboundaryofGuerrero.TheTransverseVolcanicBeltboundsourareaofinterestonthenorthandextendsapprOXimately 900kilometersalongthe19thParallelfromTepic,NayarittoCordoba,Veracruz.ManyofthegreatvolcanoesofMexicoliewithinthisactivebelt.ThreemajorhighwaysservethestatesofGuerrero,Morelos, and Mexico. Highway95isa modern paved highway,partiallyaturnpike,extendingfrom MexicoCitytoAcapulco.Theoldhighwayrequiresmoretravelingtime,butiskeptingoodconditiontoserveTaxco,Iguala,and Cacahuamilpa. Athirdhighwaypassesfrom CacahuamilpatoToluca.Muchoftheareahasnoroadsshownonanyavailablemaps. Aseasonalcoastalroadextendsinbothdirectionsfrom AcapUlco and anetworkofsecondaryroadsexistswestofCuernavacaandIguala.ThelargercitiesinGuerreroareChilpancingo(thecapital),AcapUlCO,Taxco(oftendescribedasthemostpicturesquecityinMexico), andIguala;Cuautlaand Cuernavaca(thecapital)areinMorelos.

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112GEOLOGYPaleozoicnoncaverniferousmetamorphicrockscropoutthroughoutthesouthwesternhalfofGuerreroandcovernearly50%ofthestatesofMore1os andGuerrero.Farthernorththesemetamorphicsarethebasementrocksforlaterdeposits.CenozoicextrusivesandTertiarypyroclasticsand nonmarineconglomerate,limestone,and gypsumcover35%moreofthearea.Thethick,cave-formingCretaceouslimestonescropoutinarectangularareafromChi1pancingotosouthofCuernavaca,totalingabout15%oftheareaofthetwostates(seemapon page114).TheseCretaceouslimestoneshavebeendividedintoseveralformations;onlythetwocavernousunitswillbedescribedoBotharelowerCretaceous.The More1osFormationcomprisesthemajorpartofthelimestoneanddolomitestrataofthewesternpartofMore1os andthenorthernandcentralpartsofGuerrero.Itisprobablythebestcave-forminglimestoneintheareaofinterest,butnotenoughfieldworkhasbeendonetoverifythis.Thestrataaregenerallyuniformlybeddedwithmediumtothickbeds.Thelimestonetextureisvariable,butcontainsnointercalatedclaybeds.White,cream,andgrayarethemostcommoncolorsofthelimestone,andthedolomitesarebufftobrownorblack.ThethicknessoftheMore1osFormationishighlyrangingfrom alittlelessthan900metersincentralMore1os andmetersnorthofAcuit1apan,to400-500metersaroundIgua1a.SeveralhundredmetersoftheMore1osFormationarealsopresentaroundChi1pancingo.The Cuaut1aFormation,whichisseparatedfromtheunderlyingMore1osFormation,iscommonly exposedbetweenCuernavacaandCuaut1awhereitreachesathicknessof750meters.ThelithologyisvariableandisfrequentlydifficulttodistinguishfromtheMore1osFormation.Itappearstorepresentalargemarinebankorientedprincipallyeast-west.UpperCretaceousrocksarenotknowntobecavernous.ManyperiodsoftectonicactivityarerecordedintherocksofGuerrero.ThefirstmovementslefttheirimprintonthePaleozoicmetamorphics.FollowingthedepositionoftheCretaceoussedimentswas aperiodofbroadupliftandblock-faulting.Next came aperiodofimportantfoldingandfaUltingattributedtotheLaramideRevolution.North-southanticlinalmountainrangesandsynclinalvalleysdominatethetectonictopographyofnortheasternGuerrero.MostoftheanticlinesareofCretaceousrocks,andthevalleysarefilledwithpost-LaramideTertiaryvolcanicsandnonmarinesediments.Fewdatahavebeengatheredonspe1eogenesisinGuerreroand More1os.Bretz(1955,p.372,373)describeshisideaofcavernmakingintheimmediateareaofCacahuami1pa andlistsaphysiographichistoryoftheregionwhichincludes:1)Atectonictopographyproducedby Laramidefolding.2)Anerosionaltopographydevelopedonmountainstructures.Therangeoflimestonehillsisnotched,perforated,andetchedfromthetectonictopography.Theearly,largephreaticcavesweredevelopedatthistime.3)Introductionofvolcanicfillsinthevalleys.4)Cessationofvolcanismandinaugurationofthepresentcycleoferosion,withstreamvalleysandbarrancaseroded

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paintingsoftheNewWorld.Natural(1967)[TripAMCSNewsletter113inthevolcanicdetritaldeposit.Thesubterraneanstreampiraciesoccuredlateinthepresenterosioncycle.ManycavesareknowntoexistinotherpartsofGuerreroand Moreloslbutnotheoryofspeleogenesisisyetavailable.BIBLIOGRAPHYANDSELECTEDREFERENCESBretzlJ.Harlen(1955)inapartoftheMexicanplateau.JournalofGeology63(4):364-375.companiaHuleraEuzkadilS.A. (1966) Caminos de Mexico12nded.Mexico.55p.FishlJohn andReddelllJames (1965)AMCSNewsletter1(8):73-77.2(4):82=87.GaYICarloE.T.(1967)OldestHistory76(4):InternationalGeologicalCongressl20th(1962)Excursion0-9.VolcaneslrocasvolcanicaslsedimentoslacustresyaluvialesdelPleistocenoyPliocenojrocasclasticasyvolcanicasterciariasjyesoycalizanomarinosdelTerciarioinferiorjcalizasylatitasdelCretacicoSuperiorycalizas1.dolomitasdelCretacicoinferiorlenelsurdelaCuenca de Mexico yenelEdo. deMorelos.Mexico. 153p.and 6geol.maps.MillareslJorgeHernandez andEscribanolAlejandroCarrillo(1966)AtlasPorruadelaRepublicaMexicana.EditorialPorrualS.A.:Mexico. 128p.Sanchez MejoradalSantiagoHernandez(1956)CartageOlOgicadelaRepublicaMexicana.InternationalGeologicalCongressl20th.

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EXPLANATIONlowerCretaceous"\I I'-'-.CretaceousUpper0'i.__'m0'i.__"'==='2iO..miCOLORADATolucoRio

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115CAVEDESCRIPTIONSGRUTADEACUITLAPANGuerreroLocation:NearAcuitlapanwhichisbetweenkmposts144 and 145 ontheoldhighwayeastofTaxco.Inquirelocally.Description:ReportedtobethelargestcaveknowninMexico.Localpeoplesaythattheentranceis5metershigh"10meterswide" andleadstoalargecave.Ariverflowsfromthecaveindicatingexplorationmayonlybepossibleduringthedryseason.IthasnotbeenexploredbyAMCSmembers.References:PemexTravelClub.Mexico'sCaves andCaverns.1964.p.27.OtisMcAllisterand Club deExploracionesde Mexico"bothinMexicoCity.1966.BOCADELBOCACITOGuerreroLocation:NearIguala"about1/2milefrom Pozo Melendez (BocadelDiablo).Well-known bylocalchildren.SeelocationofPozo Melendez.Description:Averticalshaftabout150feetdeep.Reportedby:CarrollSlemaker"1956.GRUTASDECACAHUAMILPALocation:Takeoldroadfrom CuernavacatowardsTaxco.Atkm.138.turnright(north)togettothecave whichis8km.farther.Description:Thisfamousgrutaisalarge"electrically-lightedcommercial cave whichterminatesina room1/2milelong" 400feetwide (maximum)" and 275feethigh(maximum).Sixmilesofpassagehavereportedlybeenexplored;however"thisfigureisverydoubtful0Most mapsshowaboutonemileofpassage" and noadditionalpassagehasbeenfound byAMCSmembers. Commercialtourslastuptofourhours.Thediscoveryofthecavernsiscreditedtoan Englishmanwhoenteredthecavewithhisdogthispastcenturyandfailedtocomeout.Ing.Benftez"apriestatSan MateoIxtlafrom1789 1793mentionsamagnificientcavernina manuscripthewroteduringthatperiodoThe cave"beingaslargeandspectacularasitis"naturallyhasmanylegendsassociatedwithit"andliterallythousandsofadventuroussoulshavevisitedthecavesinceitsdiscovery.Onesourcegivestheearliestknownvisittothecaveas1776.

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GRUTASDECACAHUAMILPA.Passageatendofcommercialtrail,about300feetwide.Photo byTerryRaines

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117CUEVADECARLOSPACHECOGuerreroLocation:ThecaveislocatedlessthanakilometerfromCacahuami1paataboutthesameelevationand onthesouthslopeofthecanyonoftheRioAmacuzac.Description:The cavehasa breakdownslopeentranceinalargecollapsedsink.Elongationofthecaveissemiparalleltothehillside.NoeVidence can be foundtoprovethatagravity-directed,freesurfacestreameverusedthecave(Bretz,1959).Thesolutionalfeaturesindicateaphreaticoriginofthecave.BretzsuggeststhatthecavemayhavebeenapartofCacahuamilpaatsometimeinthepast.The caveiswelldecoratedandhasroughly800feetofpassage.IthasnotbeenvisitedbyAMCSmembers.References:Mohr,CharlesE.SpecialSupplement CavesofMexico.NSSNews,April1950.Bretz,J.Harlen(1955) Cavern-makinginapartoftheMexicanplateau.JournalofGeology63(4):364-375.caveGuerreroLocation:Acahuizotla,GuerreroDescription:Thecaveis40yardslongandcontainsbats.Reportedby:Dr.Di1fordCarter,TexasA&M,Dept.ofWildlifeManagement.Hevisitedthecave 5 Nov. 1959. caveGuerreroLocation:Onemilesouthand1/2mileeastofAlmolonga.Description:Thiscavehasseveralcrevicesinanoverhangingwallwhichcontainbats.Nopassagesexitatthebottom.Reportedby:Dr.Di1fordCarter,TexasA&M,Dept.ofWildlifeManagement. caveGuerreroLocation:Near Mexcala whichis1.5mileswestfrom where Highway95crossestheRioBalsas.Thecaveis6to8km.downstream ontheRioBalsas.Itis15km.byroad.Description:Noinformationisavailableonthiscaveotherthanitissupposedtocontainbats.Reportedby:Dr.DilfordCarter,TexasA&M,Dept.ofWildlifeManagement.

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118caveMorelosLocation:ThreemileseastofTepoztlan,Morelos.Description:Theentranceisobscuredbyvegetation.The cavecontainsa room30-40yardslong,10yardswide, and3-4yardshigh.Reportedby:Dr.DilfordCarter,TexasA&M,Dept.ofWildlifeManagement.caveMorelosLocation:One-halfmilenorthwestofHuajint1an,More1osDescription:Reportedby:Theentranceisnearthetopofthenortheastfacingwallofa"canyon",northwestofthevillage.The caveconsistsofoneroomabout30feetindiameterandcontainsnumer ousbats,chieflyMormoopsandLeptonycteris.W.B.Davis,TexasA&M,Dept.ofWildlifeManagement.GRUTADECUALACorCOTOTOLAPANGuerreroLocation:NearthevillageofCualac,innorthernGuerrero,nearthePueblaborder.ItisnearthetownsofHuaxuxtitlanandChiepetlan.Description:Chieflyofarchaeologicalinterest.AhistoricalcodexdatingfromtheXVIcentury,butpostconquest,andexecutedon Europeanpaperwas foundhere.References:PemexTravelClub.Mexico'sCaves andCaverns.1964.p.17.Muller,F1orencia."ElCodice deCualac".GRUTASDECUETZALAGuerreroLocation:NearCuetza1awhichis50km.southwestofIgua1aandcanbereachedby aroadleadingwestofIgua1a.Inquirelocally.Description:Anotherofthe"largest-cave-in-Mexicolfcaves.Reportedby:CarrollSlemaker,1956.JohnFish,personalcommunicationwithOtisMcAllister,1966.

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119CUEVADELDIABLOGuerreroLocation:Near Mogote whichisontheroadbetween andToluca.The caveisinalargesinkofthesinkcontainingGrutasde Mogote.sinksareaboutonekm.eastotMogote. CacahuamilpajustnorthTheseDescription:References:DOSBOCASNotenteredbyAMCSmembers. Approachingthecaveatdusk,JamesReddellwastoldthatthecaveisverydangerouswithmanysnakesandtigers,etc.Fish,John andReddell{James (1965) /.Tripreport]AMCSNewsletter1(8):73-77.GuerreroLocation:NeartheGrutasde Cacahuamilpa;about1/4milebytrailbelow.Description:Two,largeseparatecaveswithlowerentrancesabout300feetapartareattheheadofthecanyon below Cacahuamilpa. Bothcavesarequitelarge,insomeplaceswellover100feetindiameter,andbothhavethrough-flowingriversinthem.Sincetheyareactuallytwoseparatecaves,theymoreproperlywould becalledtheSumiderodelR!oChontalcoatlan(lowerboca)and SumiderodelR!o San Jer6nimo(upperboca).Bretzsuggeststhatbothcavesrepresentseparatephreaticsystemswhich havepiratedriversand hence undergoneextensivevadoseenlargement.Bouldersaslargeas5feetindiameteraresometimescarriedbythefloodingrivers.Togetherthetworiversdrainabout2000squarekilometersofland.Topographicmapsshowthattheoverlanddistancefromsinktobocaforeachriveris4to5km.Downstreamtromthecaves,thetworiversjointoformtheRio Amacusac.Collapsesinks(ponors)arereportedtoexistaboveeachcaveriversystem.Explorationispossibleonlyduringthedrymonths fromJanuarythroughMay.A Mexicanexploringclubhastakenmanytripsthroughthecaves,butnoAMCSmembers haveyetfUllyexploredtheDosBocas.ThebesttimetoexplorethecavesisinAprilorearlyMaywhentheleastrainoccursinthearea.GRUTASDELAESTRELLAMexicoLocation:AbouttenmileswestofMogote onthehighway from CacahuamilpatoToluca.Signspointtheway.Description:GrutasdelaEstrellabearsacloserelationshiptoCacahuamilpa andDosBocas.The cavehaspiratedastream,atributarytotheRioChontalcoatlanandcontainsextensiveupperandlower

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GRUTASDELAESTRELLA.Bridgeleadstoupper-levelloop;pitbelowleadstomainsectionofcave.photobyTerryRaines

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121levels.Theentrancepassageisabout30feetwide and 15feethighandleads150feettoawaterfallthatgoestothelowerlevel;aboveitabridgeleadstotheupperlevel.Theupperlevelconsistsofaseriesoflargerooms and pa&sageswithsomeformations,totalingabout1500feet.Theupperlevelisactuallyaclosedloopand showsnosignsofeverhavinghad astream.The 40footwaterfallleadstoa 60foot-in-diameterlowerlevelwhichhasbeenexploredforabout500feet.Itcontinuesonasalargestreampassagewithseverallargecolumns andflowstonemounds.References:Bretz,J.Harlen(1955) Cavern-rnakinginapartoftheMexicanplateau.JournalofGeology63(4):364-375.ColliertsMagazine.OctoberI,1954.GRUTASDEJUXTLAHUACAGuerreroLocation:Takethemain roadgoingeastinPetaquillas,whichis3milessouthofChi1pancingo onthehighway from MexicoCitytoAcapUlco. ThegravelroadpassesthroughthesmalltownsofMochitlanandQuechultenango onthewaytoColotlipa,25milesfromPetaquilIas.InColotlipa,AndresOrtegaisthegovernmentofficialinchageofthecave andwillserveasagUide.The caveisanhourtswalk(atafastpace)northeastofColotlipa.Description:ThenameJuxtlahuaca,which means"beautiful,blue-greenvalley",isderivedfrom alocalhamlet.The mainentranceisa few hundredfeetabovethevalleyfloorandisabout15feetwide and 15feethigh.Batsinhabitthefirst1000feetofthecave whichconsistsmostlyofwalkingpassage,averaging20feetindiameter,and afewsmallplacescreatedbyformationblocks.Alsothereisanupperlevelroom wherethebatsstay.Beyondthebatcavesection,thecharacterofthecavechangestothemostbeautifulandatedcaveknowninMexico. Therearenumerouslargeroomscontainingflowstonedraperiesand mounds,withrunningwaterandmanytypesofspeleothems.The cavealsocontainsnumeroushumanskeletalremainsandpictographs(about4000feetfromtheentrance),attributedtotheOlmectradition.Thepictographsarebelievedtohave beenpaintedbetween 800 and 400BC.Theskeletalremainscouldbe morerecent.About 4500feetfromtheentranceisalargelakewhichhasnotbeencrossedbyAMCSmembers.Itisnotknownifmorepassageexistsontheothersideofthelake,butamapwhichappearedinNATURALHISTORYindicatesmorepassage.About 2500feetfromtheentrance

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122thereisasmallsidepassage,mostlywalking,whichleadstoa 12footdeepsink100yardsfromthemainentrance.References:PemexTravelClub.Mexico'sCaves andCaverns.1964.Gay,CarloE.T.(1967)OldestpaintingsoftheNewWorld.NaturalHistory76(4):28-35.POZOMELENDEZGuerreroLocation:Betweenkm.posts180 and 181 onthehighwaybetweenIgualaandTaxco.Near aschoolwestofthehighwaytakeadirtroadsouthfora few hundredyardsandturnrightacrossacobblestonebridge.Thepitisatthefarcornerofthesmallfieldahead.Description:Thisisthelegendary"Devil'sThroat"intowhichmanypoliticalprisonerswere supposedtohavebeenthrown.Theentrancesinkisabout30feetindiameter.Near onesideanopening8feetby 15feetdropsintoafissure15feetwide and 40feetlongwithanunbrokendropof220feet.Thefissureopensintothetopofalargeroom 125feethigh,60feetwide,and 80feetlong.Shortdropsof65feetand 30feetarenecessarytode& cendtoreachthemainfloor.A5footwidewellinthefloordrops10feettowaterinasmallfissurepassage30feetlong.CUEVACITADEMOOOTEGuerreroDescription:Location:SeelocationinstructionsfortheGrutade Mogote. TheCuevacitaisinthesamesink.Aslopingroom 60feetby 40feetby 20feet.Reference:Fish,John andReddell{James (1965)[TripAMCSNewsletter1(8):76.GRUTASDEMOOOTEGuerreroLocation:Onekm.eastofMogote ontheroadfrom CacahuamilpatoToluca.Asink400feetindiameterand 100feetdeepwith50footcliffsinmanyplacesislocatedattheveryedgeoftheroad.Thecaveisinthebottomofthesink.Description:Atthebottomofthesinkaholedrops20feettoagravelfloor.Theholeisconnectedviaanaturalbridgetoa secondentrance.The secondentranceis50feetaway and 30feethigher.A crawlwayleadstotheSalondelasArenaswherethereisasignindicatingthenameofthecave.Ashortcrawlwayleadsintoalarge,formation-

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123decoratedpassagewhichextendsperhaps1/2milebeforeturningintoawatercrawl.Noequipmentisnecessary,althoughadepthofsome200feetisreachedviashort,climbabledrops.Thecavehasapparentlybeenfilledwithgravelwhichwascemented and whichisnowintheprocessofbeingremoved.References:Fish,John andReddell{James(1965)[TripAMCSNewsletter1(8):76.CUEVADELAPENITAGuerreroLocation:OnemilesouthofPaloBlanco,Guerrero.Description:Smallsinkholewitha 12footentrancedrop.Ropeisneeded.Ithasone main chamber andseveralsmallerones,andthecavecontainsbats.Reportedby:Dr.DilfordCarter,TexasA&M,Dept.ofWildlifeManagement.

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124BIOLOGYSECTIONTHEMILLIPEDESINTHECAVESOFMEXICOANDGUATEMALAbyNELLB.CAUSEYDepartmentofZoology,LouisianaStateUniversityTheentranceofanycaveislikelytohaveepigeanmillipedesthathaveeitherfalleninorwanderedininsearchofamoistsubstratum.Thecavemodifiedspecies,ortroglobites,occurbeyondthecaveentrance,usuallybeyondthetWilightzone andonlyinthezoneoftotaldarknessofdampcaves,eithersmalleronesthatareconnectedby passagewaysorlargecaves.Theytendtocongregateondampsoilandstones(includingtheceiling)and onorganicmattersuchasleaves,twigsbroughtinbyrats,guano,paper,roots,and deadanimalbodies.Troglobitesaredistinguishedfromepigeanspeciesbythereducedpigmentationorcompleteabsenceofpigmentation,thereducednumberofocelliorcompleteabsenceofocelli(someepigeanmillipedeshave noocelli),andtheslightelongationofthelegsandantennae.Inlength,Mexicantroglobitesrangefromabout90mmdownto5mm.Astoshape,a fewrollupintoaminutepillthatresemblesaterrestrialisopod("rolly-polly"),butthemajorityarethecommonmillipedeshapes,eithercylindricalorwithlateralkeelson most bodysegments.Some19species,one from Guatemala andtheremainderfrom Mexico,representingfiveordersaresuspectedofbeingtroglobites.Inaddition,I have specimensofatleast10undescribedspeciesandsubspeciesfrom Mexicancaves.Theordersthatarerepresentedare:Glomerida,2species;Polydesmida,theordermostabundantlyrepresented,withthefamiliesRhachodesmidae andStylodesmidaepredominating;Chordeumida,representedbythefamiliesCleidogonidaeandTrichopetalidae;Cambalida,representedbythegeneraCambala and Mexicambala; andSpirostreptida,representedbythegenusOrthoporusinYucatan.Allofthetroglobiticspecies,withtheexceptionofthetrichopetalidMexiterpessabinus,havecloseepigeanrelativesinMexico. Themajorcollectionshavebeenmadebythefollowingpeople:1)Dr.A.S.Pearse,whocollectedfromthecenotesofYucatan;hisspecimens weredescribedby R. V. Chamberlin(1938),whofoundlittleevidenceofcavemodificationinthesome20representativesoffourorders;Isuspectthatatleastsixspeciesaretroglobites.2)Drs.F.Bonet,CoBol!var,andtheirMexicanassociates,whocollectedfromcavesinVeracruz,SanLuisPotos!,Nuevo Le6n, andGuerrero;theirspecimens,which weredescribedby R. V. Chamberlin(1942),containsevenpossibletroglobitesintwoorders.3)MembersoftheTexasSpeleologicalSurvey andAssociationforMexican CaveStudies,representedchieflyby JamesReddell,TerryRaines,BillRussell,and JohnFish,whoinvestigatedmanynewcavesand wentbacktotypelocalitiesforinvaluabletopotypes;I havebeenfortunateinhavingtheirspecimenstostudy(Causey, 1963, 1964a,1964b).Inaddition,therehavebeenlessextensive

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Guatemalacaves,(Stylodesmidae:73:275-280,figs.TwounusualCentralAmericanspirostreptidProc.BioI.Soc.Washington75:47-52,figs.125collectionsbyStanleyKiem (Loomis,1958),WilliamW.Varnadoe,Jr.(Causey,1960),andRaymonddeSaussure.ReferencesCitedCausey,NellB.1960.MillipedscollectedinincludingCalymmodesmusinquinatus,n.sp.Polydesmida).Proc.Zool.Soc.Washington1,2.1963.Mexiter2essabinus,newgenusandnewMexicantroglobite(Diplopoda:Trichopetalidae).Psyche70:235-239,3figs.1964a.Newcavernicolousmillipedsofthefamily(Cambalidea:Spirostreptida)fromTexasand Mexico.Inter.Jour.Speol.1:237-246,pIs.58,59.1964b.Twonewtroglobiticmillipedsofthefrom Mexico(Glomeridae:Glomerida).Proc.LouisianaAcad.Sci.27:63-66,figs.1-8.Chamberlin,R. V.1938.FaunaoftheCavesofYucatan.XIV.DiplopodafromYucatan.CarnegieInst.ofWashington,Pub.No.491,pp.165-182,figs.1-55.1942.OncentipedsandmillipedsfromMexicanUniv.Utah,bioI.ser.,vol.7,no.2,pp.1-19,figs.1-22.Loomis,H.F.1962.millipedspecies.1-8.MEXICANCAVEBIOLOGY:ANNOTATEDBIBLIOGRAPHYbyJAMESREDDELL1.A'lvarezTicul.1963."TherecentmammalsofTamaulipas,Univ.Kansas Mus.Nat.Hist.Publ.,14(15):363-473.InadditiontogeneralobservationsonbioticprOVinces,dispersalroutes,etc.,thisreportincludesanannotatedlistofthemammalsofTamaulipas.Thefollowingspeciesofbatsarerecordedfromcaves:Pteronotusmexicanus(Miller),ChoeronycterismexicanaTschui,Mormoopsm.megalophylla(Peters),GIOSsothagasoricinaleachii(TIray),Leptonycterisn.nivallsSaussure),Artlbeus1.jamalcenslsLeach,-ArtlbeuslituratuspalmarumJ.A.Allenand Chapman,ArtlbeusaztecusAnderson,DesmodusrotundusmurlnusWagner,ecaudataSplx,NatalusstramlneussaturatusDalqueBtandHall,MyotisnlgricansdalquestiHallandAlvarez,TadarldabrasilIensismexIcana(Saussure),Tadaridaaurispinosa(Peale),andTadaridalaticaudataferruginea(Goodwin).Briefde&crIptlonsofseveralofthecavesarealsoincluded.

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2.4.6.8.126 Alvarez"Ticul"and ClemenciaE.AVilia. 1964. "NuevosregistrosenMexico delafamiliaMolossidae."Rev.Soc.Nex.Hist.Nat."25:243-254.IncludedwiththiscollectionofnewrecordsformolossidbatsinMexicoisanaccountofthreeadditionalspecimensofTadaridaaurispinosaPealefrom CuevadelAbra" Tamps.Axtell"RalphW.1962."Aneasternmostrecordforthebatmexicana from Coahuila" Mexico."SouthwesternNat."7(1):76..Thisrecordsthepresenceofthehog-nosedbat"Choeron!cterismexicana"ina cavenortheastofHermanas" Coahula.(note:thIscaveisprobablyCueva delaHerradura).Baker"RollinH.1951."Mammalsfrom Tamaulipas" Mexico." Univ. Kansas Mus.Nat.Hist.Publ."5(12):207-218.Desmodusrotundusmurinus"thevampirebat"isrecordedfrom twocavesInTamaulIpas: Cueva de Los Troncones" 12km.westand 8km.northofVictoriajand a cavesouthofVictoria.Baker"RollinH.1956."MammalsofCoahuila" Mexico." Univ. KansasMus.Nat.Hist.Publ."9(7):125-335.ThisvolumeincludesanannotatedlistofallmamalsrecordedfromthestateofCoahuila.Alsoincludedaredi&cussionsoftherelationshipsofmammalstodifferentplantsandlifezones.Thefollowingbatsarereportedfromcaves:Aello(Mormoops)mealohIlasenicula(Rehn)"mexicana Tschudi"0sveliferIncautus(J.A.Alen)"EpteslcusfuscuspausYoung"CorynorhInustownsendiiaustralisHandley" andTadaridabrasiliensismexicana(Saussure).Severalcavesarebrieflyde&cribed.Baker"RollinH.1960."MammalsoftheGuadiana LavaField"Durango" Mexico."Mus.MichiganstateUniv.Biol.SeriesPubl."1(9): 305-327 Thebats,MyotisthysanodesthysanodesMiller"choeronicterismexicana Tschudi" and MYotisvelifervelifer(JAllen),weretakenfromsmallopeningsandfissuresinlavahillocksatandnearLaPila,Durango.Baker,RollinH.,andJ.KeeverGreer.1960."Noteson Oaxacan mammalS."J.Mammal."4l(3):4l}-4l5.Thebats"BalantiopteryxioThomas and DesmodusrotundusmurinusWagner,arereportedfrom a cave11/2milesouthofTo1losa,Oaxaca. B.iohadnotpreviouslybeenreportedfrom Oaxaca. --Baker,RollinH.,andJ.KeeverGreer.1962."MammalsoftheMexicanstateofDurango."MichiganStateUniv.Biol.SeriesPubl.,2(2):29-154.Thisannotatedcheck-listofthemammalsofDurangoincludesrecordsofthefollOWingspeciesofbatsfrom

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1279.10.11. 12. 13. 14.cavesorcave-likesituations:Myotist.thysanodesfrom"cavelikefissuresina lowhillofvOlcanIcrock"nearLaPila;Myotisv.veliferfrom a"large,butshallowcave" on TIle Rancho LasMargaritas,southandwestofVicente,Guerrero;Plecotustownsendiiaustralisfrom alimestonecavenorthofCampana,knownlocallyasCueva delosIndios;andAntrozuspalliduspallidusfrom Cueva delosIndiosandothercaves.Carter,DilfordC.,RonaldH.Pine,andWilliamB.Davis.1966."Noteson Middle Americanbats."SouthwesternNat.,11(4):488-499.ThisreportincludesarecordofMyotisthysanodesaztecusMillerandAllenfromtheentranceofalimestonecave 7misoutheastofSanCristobaldelasCasas,Chiapas.ItisafirstrecordforthisspeciesinChiapas.Cockrum,E.Lendell.1960."Distribution,habitatandhabitsofthemastiffbat,Eumotsperotis,inNorthAmerica.1IJ.ArizonaAcad.Sci.,13):79=84.ThisstudyofthemastiffbatincludesarecordofaoflerotisinIIIndianCavell,nearCuatroCienegas,oauia,Mexico. Cockrum,E.Lendell,and Gordon van R. Bradshaw.1963."NotesonmammalsfromSonora,Mexico." Amer. Mus. Nov., 2138.9pp.ThisaccountofmammalsinthestateofSonoraincludesrecordsofthefollowingbatsinCuevadelTigre,14.9mi.SSECarbo:Chilonycterisparnellimexicana,pteronotusdavyifUlvus,Mormoopsm.megalophylla,nivalissanborni,Natalusstramineusmexicanus,anTadaridabrasiliensIsmexicana.Constantine,DennyG.1958."Anautomaticbat-collectingdevice.1IJ.WildlifeManagement,22(1):17-22.Thisaccountofanewbat-collectingdeviceincludesreferencetothecaptureofeightspeciesofbatinacavenearValles,SanLuisPotosi.Davis,WayneH.1959."Taxonomyoftheeasternpipistrel.1IJ.Mammal.,40(4):521-531.Thistaxonomicrevisionofthebatspecies,subflavus,includesP.subflavusveraecrucis(ard)from aIIcave'ClosebytEehamletofLasVigas,'CantonofJalapa,Veracruz,Mexico.1IdelaTorre,Luis.1955.IlBats fromGuerrero,Jaliscoand Oaxaca, Mexico.1IFieldiana:Zool.,37:695-701,pl.30-31.Thisreporton MexicanbatsincludesrecordsofBalantiopteryx!licataPeters,ChilonycterisrubiginosamexicanaMi1er,Chilonycter1sps110t1sDobson,pteronotusdavyifulvusTKomas,Mormoopsm.megalophyllaPeters,GlossophagasoricinaleachiGary, and DesmodusrotundusmurinusWagner from a cave 5milesnorthwestofAcapulco,

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128GuerrerojofBalantiopteryx.p1icataPetersfrom a caveatTehuantepec,Oaxacaj andofBalantiopteryx.plicataPetersandLeptontcterisniva1isnivallsSaussurefrom acave12milessouhofMexcala,Guerrero.15.Ingles,LloydG.1958."Notasacercadelosmamiferos Mexicanos.1IAnal.Inst.BioI.,29(1-2):379-408.Thisreporton MexicanmammalsincludesrecordsofBalantiopteryxplicataincavesatManzanil10, Colima, andnearNayaritjofGlossophagasoricinaina cavenearSanBIas,NayaritjofArtibeusjarnaicensisina cavenearChochola, Yucatanj andofDesmodusrotundusinacenoteatYucatan, andina cave7.5krn.SEMitla,Oaxaca.Otherbatrecordsincludespecimenstakeninabandonedmines.16.Long,CharlesA.,andCarolynJ.Jones.1966.IIVariationandfrequencyofoccurrenceofthebaculuminapopUlationofMexicanfree-tailedbats.1ISouthwesternNat.,11(2):290-295.The baculumisstudiedinbats,Tadaridabrasiliensismexicana,takenfrom a caveatCofre dePerote,9200feetelevation,Veracruz.17.Ward, Henry L.1891."DescriptionsofthreenewspeciesofMexicanbats.1IAmer.Nat.,25:743-753.Anewspeciesofbat,Vesperugoveraecrucis(=Pipistrellussubflavusveraecrucis),isdescribedfrom a cavenearLas Vegas,Jalapa,Veracruz.Inadditionves)ertilioveliferandPlecotusmacrotisarerepored fromthiscave,whichisbrielfydescribed.


Description
Contents: Part 1. Trip
Reports --
Gruto del Palmito, Nueva Leon --
Cave maps --
Caves of Guerrero and Morelos --
Part 2. Biology Section --
The Millipedes in the Caves of Mexico and Guatemala --
Mexican Cave Biology: Annotated Bibliography.