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Association of Mexican Cave Studies newsletter

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Title:
Association of Mexican Cave Studies newsletter
Series Title:
Association of Mexican Cave Studies Newsletter (1965-1977)
Creator:
Association for Mexican Cave Studies
Publisher:
Association for Mexican Cave Studies
Publication Date:
Language:
English

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Subjects / Keywords:
Regional Speleology ( local )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
Location:
Mexico

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General Note:
Contents: News and Notes -- Part 1. Trip Reports -- Cueva de Constantin -- Pichijumo-Montecillos Cave System -- Ahuacatlan area, Oro. -- Sierra de El Abra, S. L. P. -- Mexico -- Sotano de los Monos -- Grutas de San Sebastian, Oaxaca -- Ahuacatlan, Oro. -- Part 2. Articles -- Vertical Techniques; Hair Removal -- La Gruta de Carrizal Accident Report.
Restriction:
Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Version:
Vol. 3, no. 4 (1972)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
K26-00468 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.468 ( USFLDC Handle )
4664 ( karstportal - original NodeID )

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Karst Information Portal

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ASSOCIATIONFORMEXICANCAVESTUDIESNEWSLETTERNEWSANDNOTEST RIP REPORTSCuevadeConstantinPichijumo-Montecillo8CaveSystemA huacatlanarea,O ro.S ierrad e E l Abra,S.L.P .M exicoSotanod elos Mo nosGrutaedeSanS ebastian,O axaca Ahuacatlan.Oro.ARTICLESVerticalTechniques;HairRemovalLaG ratadeC arrizalAccidentReportVolume1lINumber4ASSOCIATIONFORMEXICANCAVESTUDIESNEWSLETTERNEWSANDNOTESTRIPREPORTSCuevadeConstantinPichijumo-MontecillosCaveSystemAhuacatlanarea,Oro.SierradeElAbra,S.L.P.MexicoSotanodelosMonosGrutasdeSanSebastian,OaxacaAhuacatlan,Oro.ARTICLESVertica1Techniques;HairRemovalLaGrutadeCarrizalAccidentReportVolume III Number 4

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ASSOCIATIONFORMEXICANCAVESTUDIESNEWSLETTERVolumeIIINumber4PublicationDate:February1972TheAssociationforMexicanCaveStudiesisanon-profitorganizationwhosegoalsarethecollectionanddisseminationofinformationconcerningMexicancaves.TheAMCSpublishesaNewsletter,Bulletin,andCaveReportSerieswhichareavailabletoanysincerelyinterested,conservation-mindedperson.TheAMCSNewsletterispublishedsixissuespervolumeasfrequentlyasnecessaryatacostof$3.00USpervolume,whichincludesboththepublicationandmembership.PricesofotherpublicationsareavailablebywritingtotheAssociationforMexicanCaveStudies,P.O.Box7672,Austin,Texas78712,USA.Potentialcontributorsareurgedtosubmitarticlesforpublication.ThearticlemaycoveranyphaseofMexicanspeleology.Tripreportsarerequestedfromalltrips.PublicationsEditor...CorrespondingSecretaryCaveFiles.CoordinationBiologistPhotoEditor...PublicationStaffPublishedbyNEWSANDNOTESTerryW.RainesLoganMcNattWilliamH.RussellJamesR.ReddellCarlE.KunathDavidHoneaJanLewisCarolRussellPeterStricklandTHESPELEOPRESSAMCSBulletin4isnowavailable.Entitled"StudiesontheCavernicoleFaunaofMexico,"itiseditedbyJamesR.ReddellandRobertW.Mitchell.Priceis$8.00.LatestonLaGrutadelPalmito:Thecavehasbeencommercialized.LightshavebeenstrungtotheCathedralRoom.OnestillhastohikeuptothecaveafterbuyingticketsatPalacioMunicipal,whichare5pesoseachforgroupsunder10and3pesoseachforlargergroups.Also,10pesosforlights.AMCSmembershavejustlocated,explored,andsurveyedanewcavenamed,"ElSotario".LocatedinQueretaro,theentrancetothepitmeasures700Itby1400ftandtaperstowardthebottom,whichmeasures350ftby700ft.Thedropfromthenorthedge,theonlysuitableASSOCIATIONFORMEXICANCAVESTUDIESNEWSLETTERVoluITleIIINUITlber4PublicationDate:February1972TheAssociationforMexicanCaveStudiesisanon-profitorganizationwhosegoalsarethecollectionanddisseITlinationofinforITlationconcerningMexicancaves.TheAMCSpublishesaNewsletter,Bulletin,andCaveReportSerieswhichareavailabletoanysincerelyinterested,conservation-ITlindedperson.TheAMCSNewsletterispublishedsixissuespervoluITleasfrequentlyasnecessaryatacostof$3.00USpervoluITle,whichincludesboththepublicationandITleITlbership.PricesofotherpublicationsareavailablebywritingtotheAssociationforMexicanCaveStudies,P.O.Box7672,Austin,Texas78712,USA.PotentialcontributorsareurgedtosubITlitarticlesforpublication.ThearticleITlaycoveranyphaseofMexicanspeleology.TripreportsarerequestedfroITlalltrips.PublicationsEditor...CorrespondingSecretaryCaveFiles.CoordinationBiologistPhotoEditor...PublicationStaffPublishedbyNEWSANDNOTESTerryW.RainesLoganMcNattWilliaITlH.RussellJaITlesR.ReddellCarlE.KunathDavidHoneaJanLewisCarolRussellPeterStricklandTHESPELEOPRESSAMCSBulletin4isnowavailable.Entitled"StudiesontheCavernicoleFaunaofMexico,"itiseditedbyJaITlesR.ReddellandRobertW.Mitchell.Priceis$8.00.LatestonLaGrutadelPalITlito:ThecavehasbeencOITlITlercialized.LightshavebeenstrungtotheCathedralROOITl.OnestillhastohikeuptothecaveafterbuyingticketsatPalacioMunicipal,whichare5pesoseachforgroupsunder10and3pesoseachforlargergroups.Also,10pesosforlights.AMCSITleITlber shavejustlocated,explored,andsurveyedanewcavenaITled,"ElSatano".LocatedinQueretaro,theentrancetothepitITleasures700ftby1400ftandtaperstowardthebottoITl,whichITleasures350ftby700ft.ThedropfroITlthenorthedge,theonlysuitable

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54AMCSNewsareaforrigging,wasaccuratelymeasuredtobe1345ft(410m).Noothercavedropintheworldispresentlyknowntobegreater.CompletedetailswillbeforthcominginanAMCSCaveReportSeries.ThefirstissueoftheCaveReportSeries,SotanitodeAhuacatIan,wasdelayedinorderthatBulletin4couldberushedthrough.Nowthatthishasbeenaccomplished,wecanconcentrateontheSotanitoreportwhichwillbeoutthisspring.SotariodelArroyohastemporarilyreachedthepositionoflongestsurveyedcaveinMexico.Ofitsmorethan20,000ftofpassageways(thesurveynotesarenotcalculated),95%iswalking.ThebigpushwasmadethispastChristmasby25-30cavers,WiththeconnectionofSotanodePichijumowithSotanitodeMontecillos,ThissystemnowexceedslO,000ftandisthethirdlongestsurveyedcaveintheSierradeElAbra.Duringtheyearof1971theAMCSpublished429pagesofspeleologicalinformation.Comparethiswiththerecordofanyotherpublishingorganizationfortheyear.54AMCSNewsareaforrigging,wasaccuratelymeasuredtobe1345ft(410m).Noothercavedropintheworldispresentlyknowntobegreater.CompletedetailswillbeforthcominginanAMCSCaveReportSeries.ThefirstissueoftheCaveReportSeries,SotanitodeAhuacatlan,wasdelayedinorderthatBulletin4couldberushedthrough.Nowthatthishasbeenaccomplished,wecanconcentrateontheSotanitoreportwhichwillbeoutthisspring.SotanodelArroyohastemporarilyreachedthepositionoflongestsurveyedcaveinMexico.Ofitsmorethan20,000ftofpassageways(thesurveynotesarenotcalculated),95%iswalking.ThebigpushwasmadethispastChristmasby25-30cavers.WiththeconnectionofSotanodePichijumowithSotanitodeMontecillos,Thissystemnowexceedsla,000ftandisthethirdlongestsurveyedcaveintheSierradeElAbra.Duringtheyearof1971theAMCSpublished429pagesofspeleologicalinformation.Comparethiswiththerecordofanyotherpublishingorganizationfortheyear.

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56Date:Spring1971Destination:CuevadeConstantinLocation:NBRPersons:TexasA&IGrottoReportedby:CraigBittingerAMCSNewsThespringof1971sawseveralweekendtripsintotheMonterreyareabytheTexasA&IGrottoinsearchofnewcaves.DrivingthroughthedesertfinallypayedoffwhentheyreachedthesmalltownofEspinazo.ThepeopletheredirectedthemtoCuevadeConstantininthenearbySierradeGaria.Constantinwasalocalfolksaintwhowasbroughttothisvenerablepositionbyhiswidelyreputedhealingpowers.HeisburiedonasmallhillatthebaseofthemountainswhichcontainCuevadeConstantin.ThegraveoverlooksthetownofEspinazoandthefolksaintisbelievedtoextendeternalvigilanceoverthecity.Afterhikingthemostpartoffivedesertmilesfromtown,hisgraveisawelcomelandmarktocavers.FromConstantin'sgraveanothercrossmarkingthecaveentrancecanbeseenhighonthemountainside.Ascantytrailconnectsthegravesiteandthecave.Aftercrossingasmallarroyo,thistrailsteeplyclimbstothesmallduckunderwhichformsthecaveentrance.Thescenicviewfromthetrail'sendmakesthearduoustrekmorethanworthwhile.Immediatelyafterslidingthroughthesmallentrance,thecavercanfollowtheleftwallalongtheupperlevelorwalkdownashorttalusslopeintothelowerlevel.Thecaveisdevelopedalongthebeddingplaneofsteeplydippingstrata.Essentiallyitisonelong,largeroom,butbecauseofthenear450slopeofthepassage,itcanbetraversedalongtheupperwallorthroughwell-decoratedgalleriesalongthelowerwall.Thetwolevelsareconnectedbysteepflowstonecascades.Itispossibletotraversetheupperlevel,slidedowntheflowstoneatthebackofthecave,andcomeoutalongthelowerlevel.Thecaveisonly1000feetlongbutitslargeroomsarefairlycomplicatedandfortunatelytherehasbeenverylittlevandalismbythelocalpeople.Itiswellworthaweekendtrip. Date:20-29May1971Destination:Pichijumo-MontecillosCaveSystem,SotanodeVenadito,PuentedeDiosLocation:SMO,SierradeElAbra.SMO,Jalpan.Persons:CraigBittinger,BlakeHarrison,RoyJameson,JanLewis,NealMorrisReportedby:NealMorrisCraigandIleftforMexicowithBradHubbardwhowasgoinginto56Date:Spring1971Destination:CuevadeConstantinLocation:NBRPersons:TexasA&IGrottoReportedby:CraigBittingerAMCSNewsThespringof1971sawseveralweekendtripsintotheMonterreyareabytheTexasA&IGrottoinsearchofnewcaves.DrivingthroughthedesertfinallypayedoffwhentheyreachedthesmalltownofEspinazo.ThepeopletheredirectedthemtoCuevadeConstantininthenearbySierradeGaria.Constantinwasalocalfolksaintwhowasbroughttothisvenerablepositionbyhiswidelyreputedhealingpowers.HeisburiedonasmallhillatthebaseofthemountainswhichcontainCuevadeConstantin.ThegraveoverlooksthetownofEspinazoandthefolksaintisbelievedtoextendeternalvigilanceoverthecity.Afterhikingthemostpartoffivedesertmilesfromtown,hisgraveisawelcomelandmarktocavers.FromConstantin'sgraveanothercrossmarkingthecaveentrancecanbeseenhighonthemountainside.Ascantytrailconnectsthegravesiteandthecave.Aftercrossingasmallarroyo,thistrailsteeplyclimbstothesmallduckunderwhichformsthecaveentrance.Thescenicviewfromthetrail'sendmakesthearduoustrekmorethanworthwhile.Immediatelyafterslidingthroughthesmallentrance,thecavercanfollowthE:leftwallalongtheupperlevelorwalkdownashorttalusslopeintothelowerlevel.Thecaveisdevelopedalongthebeddingplaneofsteeplydippingstrata.Essentiallyitisonelong,largeroom,butbecauseofthenear450slopeofthepassage,itcanbetraversedalongtheupperwallorthroughwell-decoratedgalleriesalongthelowerwall.Thetwolevelsareconnectedbysteepflowstonecascades.Itispossibletotraversetheupperlevel,slidedowntheflowstoneatthebackofthecave,andcomeoutalongthelowerlevel.Thecaveisonly1000feetlongbutitslargeroomsarefairlycomplicatedandfortunatelytherehasbeenverylittlevandalismbythelocalpeople.Itiswellworthaweekendtrip. Date:20-29May1971Destination:Pichijumo-MontecillosCaveSystem,SotanodeVenadito,PuentedeDiosLocation:SMO,SierradeElAbra.SMO,Jalpan.Persons:CraigBittinger,BlakeHarrison,RoyJameson,JanLewis,NealMorrisReportedby:NealMorrisCraigandIleftforMexicowithBradHubbardwhowasgoinginto

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original was foldout JULY1971ASSOCIATIONFORMEXICANCAVESTUDIESDRAFTED BYN.MORRISCUEVADECONSTANTINMUNICIPIODEMINA, NUEVO LEON SUUNTOaTAPESURVEYBYC.BITTINGERR.McCREARY,P.DUNCAN,N.MORRIS,aR.ROBERTS150 100FEET.....-------J. __o2550Moriginal was foldout

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v,IIIno.459theinteriorinsearchofadventureafterhedroppedusatLosSabinos.BlakeHarrisonandhisVWBuswereonlyanhouraheadofusalthoughtheyhadleftKingsville3daysearlier.Helostacoupleofdayswhenhehadtorepairablownpiston--comfortablyathisgirlfriend'shouseintheValley.AtLosSabinostherewereagroadylotofcavers:ourtruck,Blake'sVW,severalcarsfromPASS,andDr.Mitchell,Elliott,Russell,Wiley,andothers.Thefirstdayofcaving,CraigandIjoinedBlake,Roy,andJanincheckingleadsinSotanitodeMontecillos,Firstweconnectedtwocrawlwaysintheentrancepassage.ThenCraigandRoytriedtogodownavampirebatcrawlway.Theydidn'tgetveryfar.ThenextcomedyactwasBlakeashetriedtolassoaformationandcheckahighleadthatdidn'tgo.AtthispointweleftJansittingaloneforfourhourswhilewesurveyedanewroutetothelowerlevelandcheckedsomemoreleads.Shewasgladtoseeuswhenwereturnedandsurpriseduswithamudsculpture.Backatcamp,wefoundElliottandRusselldrinkingbeerandwaitingfornewsofourdiscoveries.ThenextmorningwewentdownathousandroadstryingtofindaneasywaytoSotanodeVenadito.Blakelosthismuffler.It'salonghiketothatcavebutit'safantasticsystem.Royguideduswiththeintentionofmappingsomevirginlakepassageinthelowerlevelofthecave.Wefirstdecidedtoseewhatwewereupagainstandexplore,"We'llsurveyout",that'swhatwesaid.Manyhours,muchswimming,andaboutamileofvirginpassagelater,wedetermineditwouldtakeanothertriptofinishthecave.Ithinkwelefttwogoodleadsunchecked(goodlead,iethekindyourundownfor500feetandthenrememberthateveryoneelseis1000feetawaywithnoideawhereyouwent.).Comingoutwasapain,butitwasnothingcomparedtothehikebacktotheVWintheearlymorninghours.Threetimeswecollapsedonthetrailandnearlywenttosleep.AgainJanwasverygladtoseeus,butweshowedherthesnakewecaughtinthecaveandshecooledoff.TocelebratewewenttotheCondesaandatealatedinner.Torestourbodiesthenextmorning,wewentto'I'arnuin,rodetheferryandlookedattheruins.Then,sinceitwasSunday,wewenttoVentanaJaballandgavetheSanMarcospeoplealightlesstour.OnthewaybacktoValles,wewereunabletoresiststoppingatCuevadeTaninuln,4.EventuallyweendedupbackattheMontecillos-PichijumoSystem.CraigandRoydroppedintoSotanitodeMontecilloswhileBlake,Jan,andIwenttotheendoftheArroyoandrappelledintoSotanodePichijumo.Ouraimwastoconnectthreesiphons.BlakeandIleftJansittingatonesiphonandwewentseveralhundredfeetandloopedaroundtotheothersiphonwhichwethoughtconnectedtohersiphonandalsoasiphonintheothercave.Meanwhile,Roy,Craig,andtwoinnertubeshadgonedown2400feetoflakepassagetotheirsiphonintheothercaveandstartedpoundingonthewall.WhenwegottooursidewefoundthatwecouldtalktoJanandseelightsthroughwhatwaspreviouslyasiphon.v.IIIno.459theinteriorinsearchofadventureafterhedroppedusatLosSabinos.BlakeHarrisonandhis VWBuswereonlyanhouraheadofusalthoughtheyhadleftKingsville3daysearlier.Helostacoupleofdayswhenhehadtorepairablownpiston--coITlfortablyathisgirlfriend'shouseintheValley.AtLosSabinostherewereagroadylotofcavers:ourtruck,Blake'sVW,severalcarsfroITlPASS,andDr.Mitchell,Elliott,Russell,Wiley,andothers.Thefirstdayofcaving,CraigandIjoinedBlake,Roy,andJanincheckingleadsinSotanitodeMontecillos,Firstweconnectedtwocrawlwaysintheentrancepassage.ThenCraigandRoytriedtogodownavaITlpirebatcrawlway.Theydidn'tgetveryfar.ThenextcOITledyactwasBlakeashetriedtolassoaforITlationandcheckahighleadthatdidn'tgo.AtthispointweleftJansittingaloneforfourhourswhilewesurveyedanewroutetothelowerlevelandcheckedSOITleITloreleads.Shewasgladtoseeuswhenwereturnedandsurpriseduswitha ITludsculpture.BackatcaITlp,wefoundElliottandRusselldrinkingbeerandwaitingfornewsofourdiscoveries.ThenextITlorningwewentdownathousandroadstryingtofindaneasywaytoSotanodeVenadito.BlakelosthisITluffler.It'salonghiketothatcavebutit'safantasticsysteITl.RoyguideduswiththeintentionofITlappingSOITlevirginlakepassageinthelowerlevelofthecave.Wefirstdecidedtoseewhatwewereupagainstandexplore,"We'llsurveyout",that'swhatwesaid.Manyhours,ITluch swiITlITling,andabouta ITlileofvirginpassagelater,wedeterITlineditwouldtakeanothertriptofinishthecave.Ithinkwelefttwogoodleadsunchecked(goodlead,iethekindyourundownfor500feetandthenreITleITlberthateveryoneelseis1000feetawaywithnoideawhereyouwent.).COITlingoutwasapain,butitwasnothingcOITlparedtothehikebacktotheVWintheearlyITlorninghours.ThreetiITleswecollapsedonthetrailandnearlywenttosleep.AgainJanwasverygladtoseeus,butweshowedherthesnakewecaughtinthecaveandshecooledoff.TocelebratewewenttotheCondesaandatealatedinner.TorestourbodiesthenextITlorning,wewenttoTaITluln,rodetheferryandlookedattheruins.Then,sinceitwasSunday,wewenttoVentanaJaballandgavetheSanMarcospeoplealightlesstour.OnthewaybacktoValles,wewereunabletoresiststoppingatCuevadeTaninuln.4.EventuallyweendedupbackattheMontecillos-PichijuITloSysteITl.CraigandRoydroppedintoSotanitodeMontecilloswhileBlake,Jan,andIwenttotheendoftheArroyoandrappelledintoSotanodePichijuITlo.OuraiITlwastoconnectthreesiphons.BlakeandIleftJansittingatonesiphonandwewentseveralhundredfeetandloopedaroundtotheothersiphonwhichwethoughtconnectedtohersiphonandalsoasiphonintheothercave.Meanwhile,Roy,Craig,andtwoinnertubeshadgonedown2400feetoflakepassagetotheirsiphonintheothercaveandstartedpoundingonthewall.WhenwegottooursidewefoundthatwecouldtalktoJanandseelightsthroughwhatwaspreviouslyasiphon.

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60AMCSNewsAlong,dryperiodhadloweredthewaterlevelsothattherewasalmostaninchofairspace.JansaidthatshecouldhearRoyandCraigfiveminutesbeforewegotthere.Sowepoundedonthewallwithawhaletail.AfewsecondslaterwewereelatedtohearsharppoundingfromCraigandRoy'srockhammer.Wehammeredandyelledbackandforthforabout30minutesaswedeterminedexactlywherethesiphonwas.Voicesweretoogarbledanddistantforcommunication.Blakedoveunderthewallonce,butitwentdownsteeplyandwedecideditwastoohazardoustoswimwithnogear.Thesiphonprobablyisn'tlongerthan30feetandisawaitingthefirstteamtomakeanentranceto-entrancetraverse.ThenBlakeandIswamthroughthenearsiphontoJanandcheckedaleadinthe140footpitbeforeleavingthecave.WhenwegottotheotherentranceCraigandRoywerejustgettingoffropeandderigging.TheyhadpushedtheVampirebatcrawlfornearly100feetasthebatswereoutfeeding.TheysaidthatcrawlingthroughpoolsofliquidVampirebatshitisextremelygross.Theywereforcedbackbybadair,butsaiditgoesandtakeswater.Someoneneedstopushit.BackinValleswewenttoMitchell'srentedhouseandbathed.Thenextdaywemovedcamp.FirstwebouncedovertoNacimientodelRIOHuichihuayanandwentswimming.ThenontoXilitlawhereweinspectedawierdhouseunderconstruction.WefinallyarrivedatAhuacatlananddebatedwhetherornottogoontoMerida.ItrainedonussoweallcrowdedinsidetheVWandatebreadtogether.Itwasdelicious.ThesunroseandwebloomeddownthetrailforPuentedeDios,afantasticvoidwheretheRIOJalpangoesunderground.Wemapped(ha)it.ThereisnobetterplaceIcanthinkoftogobouldering,tremendousbouldering,boulders38feethighthatwesurveyedOver.Blakewentinsanetryingtosketch.Janspentahotdayinthecarandwashappytoseeusreturn.Thenextdayourwholegroupstartedoffonatwodaybackpackingtrip.Wehadthefoolishideaofanoverlandsurveyfromtheupperentrancetothelowerentrancewheretheriveremerges,mappingthelowercaveandthusdeterminingthedistancebetweentheupperandlowersiphons.Tooambitious,butwedidsurveythelowercave.ThefirstdaywewenttotheuppercavesiphoninPuentedeDioswherewebolted40feettoaleadthatdidnItgo.Comingdownfromthelead,aboltpulledoutandIfell20feetbeforethebelaycaughtmeseveralinchesofftheground.Thereisnowacarabinerhanging24feetuponthebackwallofPuentedeDios,Becauseitwasclosetodarkwhenweemerged,wesurveyeduptothemaintrailfromtheentranceandstartedhikingforthelowerentranceintherain.Itwasabeautifulhikethroughadreamlikevalley,butBlakehadnottoldustheentrancewassodistantandwesoondecidedthatanoverlandsurveywasoutforthistrip.Wegottothelowerentranceafterdarkandcampedinthecave.Thelowercaveisrailroadtunnelsizeandsandfloored.Wegot60AMCSNewsAlong,dryperiodhadloweredthewaterlevelsothattherewasalmostaninchofairspace.JansaidthatshecouldhearRoyandCraigfiveminutesbeforewegotthere.Sowepoundedonthewallwithawhaletail.AfewsecondslaterwewereelatedtohearsharppoundingfromCraigandRoy'srockhammer.Wehammeredandyelledbackandforthforabout30minutesaswedeterminedexactlywherethesiphonwas.Voicesweretoogarbledanddistantforcommunication.Blakedoveunderthewallonce,butitwentdownsteeplyandwedecideditwastoohazardoustoswimwithnogear.Thesiphonprobablyisn'tlongerthan30feetandisawaitingthefirstteamtomakeanentranceto-entrancetraverse.ThenBlakeandIswamthroughthenearsiphontoJanandcheckedaleadinthe140footpitbeforeleavingthecave.WhenwegottotheotherentranceCraigandRoywerejustgettingoffropeandderigging.TheyhadpushedtheVampirebatcrawlfornearly100feetasthebatswereoutfeeding.TheysaidthatcrawlingthroughpoolsofliquidVampirebatshitisextremelygross.Theywereforcedbackbybadair,butsaiditgoesandtakeswater.Someoneneedstopushit.BackinValleswewenttoMitchell'srentedhouseandbathed.Thenextdaywemovedcamp.FirstwebouncedovertoNacimientodelRIOHuichihuayanandwentswimming.ThenontoXilitlawhereweinspectedawierdhouseunderconstruction.WefinallyarrivedatAhuacatlananddebatedwhetherornottogoontoMerida.ItrainedonussoweallcrowdedinsidetheVWandatebreadtogether.Itwasdelicious.ThesunroseandwebloomeddownthetrailforPuentedeDios,afantasticvoidwheretheRIOJalpangoesunderground.Wemapped(ha)it.ThereisnobetterplaceIcanthinkoftogobouldering,tremendousbouldering,boulders38feethighthatwesurveyedOver.Blakewentinsanetryingtosketch.Janspentahotdayinthecarandwashappytoseeusreturn.Thenextdayourwholegroupstartedoffonatwodaybackpackingtrip.Wehadthefoolishideaofanoverlandsurveyfromtheupperentrancetothelowerentrancewheretheriveremerges,mappingthelowercaveandthusdeterminingthedistancebetweentheupperandlowersiphons.Tooambitious,butwedidsurveythelowercave.ThefirstdaywewenttotheuppercavesiphoninPuentedeDioswherewebolted40feettoaleadthatdidnItgo.Comingdownfromthelead,aboltpulledoutandIfell20feetbeforethebelaycaughtmeseveralinchesofftheground.Thereisnowacarabinerhanging24feetuponthebackwallofPuentedeDios.Becauseitwasclosetodarkwhenweemerged,wesurveyeduptothemaintrailfromtheentranceandstartedhikingforthelowerentranceintherain.Itwasabeautifulhikethroughadreamlikevalley,butBlakehadnottoldustheentrancewassodistantandwesoondecidedthatanoverlandsurveywasoutforthistrip.Wegottothelowerentranceafterdarkandcampedinthecave.Thelowercaveisrailroadtunnelsizeandsandfloored.Wegot

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v,IIIno.4upthenextmorningandsurveyed8200feetin10hours.hikedbackthroughthevalleyandupthemountaintothedark.Soendedourcaveexplorationsforthistrip.61Exhausted,wecarasitgotDate:May1971Destination:SMO;Jalpan;Ahuacat.lanareaPersons:KeithHeuss,StanleyMoerbe,DalePate,MikeWalsh,CharlieYatesReportedby:MikeWalshOnceagainwecrossedtheborderwithlittledifficulty.ThistimethecrossingwasmadeatMatamoros.Thetriptothecavewasratheruneventful.OurtargetareawasthepassacrossfromSotanitodeAhuacatIan.WhilewaitingforTerryRainesandhisgrouptoarrivewewenttovisitandphotographCuevadelosRiscosandCuevadelPuentedeDios.TheentiregroupexceptCharliewentonthisexcursion.StanleycheckedthesmallcrawlwayinRiscos.Needlesstosay,itwentnowhere.KeithtookaseriesofphotographsinPuentedeDios,Whilethere,DaleandKeithcheckedthelargeflowstonewallontheleftsideofthebigroom.Passagesledinseveraldirectionsbutnonewentveryfar.Westoppedatthepooljustabovethefirstlargedrop.UponreturningtoAhuacatlanwefoundthatTerryandhisgrouphadstillnotarrived.Dale,Stanley,andIstarteduptheriverbedtowardthestorethatnight.Wecampedintheruinsnearby.ThenextmorningwehikeduptoRamirez'shousetotrytogetaguidetothedeepsotanothatwehadheardabout.Wetriedseveralhousesbutwereunabletofindaguide.Wethenreturnedtothestore.About1/2hourlaterCharlieandKeitharrived.Wealltookthetrailthatgoesupjustbehindthestore.Itwasourintentiontofollowtheridgeupthehillandthroughthepass.CharlieandItookaleftturn.Theothersdidnotseeusandwentstraightupthehill.OnceCharlieandIreachedthecrestwewaitedfortheothers.Asitlaterturnedout,theywentdownthehilltotheriverandthenbackupthehilltowardthegreentrees.FromtheretheywentoverthehillandthenthroughthevillagethatCharlieandIspentthenightin.Feelingthattheyweregoneforever,wewentthroughthepass.Thatnightweweretakentotwosmallpitentrances.EarlythenextmorningalocaltookustowhathecalledSotanodelCoyote.Afterthatwevisitedanothersmallpitandthenwewenttoalargerone.OurguidethentookustoCuevadelaMesa.HesaidthatCuevadeAguawasonlyabout30minutesawaybutweelectedtoreturntothevillage.SinceStanleyhadalloftheropewewerenotabletoenteranyofthepitshere.Whilewewereinthehillslookingforthepits,theothergrouppassedthroughtown.Theytookthevalleythatwenttotheleftfromv.IIIno.4upthenextmorningandsurveyed8200feetin10hours.hikedbackthroughthevalleyandupthemountaintothedark.Soendedourcaveexplorationsforthistrip.61Exhausted,wecarasitgotDate:May1971Destination:SMO;Jalpan;AhuacatlanareaPersons:KeithHeuss,StanleyMoerbe,DalePate,MikeWalsh,CharlieYatesReportedby:MikeWalshOnceagainwecrossedtheborderwithlittledifficulty.ThistimethecrossingwasmadeatMatamoros.Thetriptothecavewasratheruneventful.OurtargetareawasthepassacrossfromSotanitodeAhuacatlan.WhilewaitingforTerryRainesandhisgrouptoarrivewewenttovisitandphotographCuevadelosRiscosandCuevadelPuentedeDios.TheentiregroupexceptCharliewentonthisexcursion.StanleycheckedthesmallcrawlwayinRiscos.Needlesstosay,itwentnowhere.KeithtookaseriesofphotographsinPuentedeDios.Whilethere,DaleandKeithcheckedthelargeflowstonewallontheleftsideofthebigroom.Passagesledinseveraldirectionsbutnonewentveryfar.Westoppedatthepooljustabovethefirstlargedrop.UponreturningtoAhuacatlanwefoundthatTerryandhisgrouphadstillnotarrived.Dale,Stanley,andIstarteduptheriverbedtowardthestorethatnight.Wecampedintheruinsnearby.ThenextmorningwehikeduptoRamirez'shousetotrytogetaguidetothedeepsatanothatwehadheardabout.Wetriedseveralhousesbutwereunabletofindaguide.Wethenreturnedtothestore.About1/2hourlaterCharlieandKeitharrived.Wealltookthetrailthatgoesupjustbehindthestore.Itwasourintentiontofollowtheridgeupthehillandthroughthepass.CharlieandItookaleftturn.Theothersdidnotseeusandwentstraightupthehill.OnceCharlieandIreachedthecrestwewaitedfortheothers.Asitlaterturnedout,theywentdownthehilltotheriverandthenbackupthehilltowardthegreentrees.FromtheretheywentoverthehillandthenthroughthevillagethatCharlieandIspentthenightin.Feelingthattheyweregoneforever,wewentthroughthepass.Thatnightweweretakentotwosmallpitentrances.EarlythenextmorningalocaltookustowhathecalledSatanodelCoyote.Afterthatwevisitedanothersmallpitandthenwewenttoalargerone.OurguidethentookustoCuevadelaMesa.HesaidthatCuevadeAguawasonlyabout30minutesawaybutweelectedtoreturntothevillage.SinceStanleyhadalloftheropewewerenotabletoenteranyofthepitshere.Whilewewereinthehillslookingforthepits,theothergrouppassedthroughtown.Theytookthevalleythatwenttotheleftfrom

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62AMCSNewsthevillage.CharlieandIdecidedtotakethesametrail.WemusthavejustmissedthembyaboutanhourOrso.Weweretakentotwosmallpitsontherighthandsideofthehill.Wethenfollowedthevalleytowhereitdroppeddownwardtowardtheriver.Atthesmallvillagetherewedecidedtotakethetrailtotheleftandnottogototheriverathousandfeetbelow.Dale,StanleyandKeithhadtakenthetrailtotheriver.CharlieandIwerefirsttakentoSotanodeCanoas.Iwentintothecaveandwasfollowedbyalocal.Itwasbasicallyonelargeroombuthadapassageleadingdownward.Ifollowedittillitclosedoff.TheMexicancameintotheroomandIcircledaroundbehindhim.WhenIyelled,hejumped.Wewerethentakentoanotherpitnearby.Itsoundedfairlydeepwhenwedroppedrocksintoit.OnourwaybacktothevillageweweretakentoSotanodeRincon.Thiswasthebestonethatwehadvisited.Its10footby8footentrancedroppedfreeforanestimated130feet.Youcouldseealargeroomabout150feetlongand50feetwideatthebottom.AfterwereturnedtothevillagewedecidedtogobacktoAhuacatIan.Oncewereachedtheriverthehikingwaseasy.Weranintotheothergroupabouthalfwaytothehighway.Ourentiregroupcameoutatasmalltownabout3milesupthehighwayfromAhuacatl.an,ThegroupretreatedtoTampicotorecoverfromourmis-adventure.Wehadnotfoundthenew300meterpitthatwassaidtobenearthevillage,butwedidfindenoughpitstocheckintoonthenexttrip. Date:15-20May1971Destination:Ahuacatlan,Qto.Location:SMa,Jalpan,Ahuacatlan.Persons:ArthurCleaves,TerryRaines,CraigSainsott,JoeSimo,RichardM.SmithReportedby:TerryRaines15-16MayIfyoudesirethedetailsofourdrivefromAustintoCd,Valles,readthelast50tripreports...it'sallthere.Onthe16thwedrovefromCd,VallestoAhuacatlan,Withanaltimeterwehadborrowed,readingsweretakenatseveralprominentpointsbetweentheHuichihuayanbridgeandtheAhuacatlanbridge.Beginningat363.160m(markedbridgeabutment)wedrovetoover1900m,thendescendedto1323m(AhuacatIan}.WecampedinthedrybedoftheR(oJalpanneartown.17MayTheobjectivesofourtripweretomakeafieldreconnais-sanceinpreparationforapreliminarygeologicreportontheareaandtophotographtheentranceroomofSotanitodeAhuacatl.an.OnthisdaywebeganourinvestigationsbydrivingwestofAhuacatlanapproximate-62AMCSNewsthevillage.CharlieandIdecidedtotakethesametrail.WemusthavejustmissedthembyaboutanhourOrso.Weweretakentotwosmallpitsontherighthandsideofthehill.Wethenfollowedthevalleytowhereitdroppeddownwardtowardtheriver.Atthesmallvillagetherewedecidedtotakethetrailtotheleftandnottogototheriverathousandfeetbelow.Dale,StanleyandKeithhadtakenthetrailtotheriver.CharlieandIwerefirsttakentoSatanodeCanoas.Iwentintothecaveandwasfollowedbyalocal.Itwasbasicallyonelargeroombuthadapassageleadingdownward.Ifollowedittillitclosedoff.TheMexicancarneintotheroomandIcircledaroundbehindhim.WhenIyelled,hejumped.Wewerethentakentoanotherpitnearby.Itsoundedfairlydeepwhenwedroppedrocksintoit.OnourwaybacktothevillageweweretakentoSatanodeRincon.Thiswasthebestonethatwehadvisited.Its10footby8footentrancedroppedfreeforanestimated130feet.Youcouldseealargeroomabout150feetlongand50feetwideatthebottom.AfterwereturnedtothevillagewedecidedtogobacktoAhuacatlan.Oncewereachedtheriverthehikingwaseasy.Weranintotheothergroupabouthalfwaytothehighway.Ourentiregroupcarneoutatasmalltownabout3milesupthehighwayfromAhuacatlan.ThegroupretreatedtoTampicotorecoverfromourmis-adventure.Wehadnotfoundthenew300meterpitthatwassaidtobenearthevillage,butwedidfindenoughpitstocheckintoonthenexttrip. Date:15-20May1971Destination:Ahuacatlan,Qto.Location:SMa,Jalpan,Ahuacatlan.Persons:ArthurCleaves,TerryRaines,CraigSainsott,JoeSimo,RichardM.SmithReportedby:TerryRaines15-16MayIfyoudesirethedetailsofourdrivefromAustintoCd.Valles,readthelast50tripreports...it'sallthere.Onthe16thwedrovefromCd.VallestoAhuacatlan.Withanaltimeterwehadborrowed,readingsweretakenatseveralprominentpointsbetweentheHuichihuayanbridgeandtheAhuacatlanbridge.Beginningat363.160m(markedbridgeabutment)wedrovetoover1900m,thendescendedto1323m(Ahuacatlan).WecampedinthedrybedoftheR(oJalpanneartown.17MayTheobjectivesofourtripweretomakeafieldreconnais-sanceinpreparationforapreliminarygeologicreportontheareaandtophotographtheentranceroomofSotanitodeAhuacatlan.OnthisdaywebeganourinvestigationsbydrivingwestofAhuacatlanapproximate-

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v.IIIno.463ly12kmtoAguadelCuervo.Atthispointwebeganworkingslowlybacktowardstown,attainingabasicunderstandingoftheareageologyfromourownpersonalobservationsandthoseofKennethSegerstrom,whicharepublishedinUSGSBulletin1104.18MayWecompletedthehiketotheSotanitoentrance.Theentranceroomphotographingrequiredthefirsthalfoftheafternoon.Therestofthedaywehikedtrailsinthearea.Anareamapwasbegunbyclimbingthroughdenseundergrowthtoanearbyhilltopandtakingazimuthsightingsonsurroundinglandmarks.19MayTherearemanycavesandkarstfeaturesinthearea,andwewishedtorecordtheseonourmap.Therefore,wedevotedthe19thtoenlargingourareasurveytoincludeSotanodelMachoRey,andseveralhillsontothenorthwest.Thelocalreliefinplacesisupto250300meters,makingtraversingfromhilltohilltime-consuming.Duringthedaywefamiliarizedourselveswithperhapsonesquarekilometer.Thatafternoonwehikedbackdowntothehighwayandcamped.20MaySomeofthebestexposuresnearAhuacatIanarealongthehighway.Wehadpreviouslywalkedthecutstothewest,sothisdayweconcentratedoureffortstotheeast.BeginningatPuertodelasAnimas,wewalkedthe5kmbacktoAhuacatlan,completingthesectionbeforedark.Afteraswim(bath)intheR(oJalpanwedrovebacktoAustin. Date:June-August1971Location:SMa,SierradeElAbraPersons:seebelowReportedby:DonBroussardThesearesomeofthepertinentthingswhichweredonewhilehelpingJohnFishintheSierradeElAbrarangenearCd.Valles,JunethroughAugust,1971.AstagerecordertomeasurelakelevelchangesinSotanodeSoyatewasinstalled30ftabovethewaterlevelinthe300ftlong,60ftwidelake,inan80fthighroomwhichisnormally781ftbelowtheentrance.(Thefirstdropis646ft,seconddropabout60ft,andthethirdisusually30fttothewater).Theendofthelakebelowtherecorderis135ftdeep.Thecenterofthelakeis175ftdeep.OnatripinSeptembertorewindtherecorderandreplacethegraphpaper,SteveBittingerfoundtherecorderfullofwater.Thewaterlevelseemstorisequiteabitduringtimesofheavyrain.Threegreensnakes(4fteach)andafer-de-lance(3ft)werefoundswimminginthelakeinSotanodeJoswhereasecondwaterlevelv.IIIno.463ly12kmtoAguadelCuervo.Atthispointwebeganworkingslowlybacktowardstown,attainingabasicunderstandingoftheareageologyfromourownpersonalobservationsandthoseofKennethSegerstrom,whicharepublishedinUSGSBulletin1104.18MayWecompletedthehiketotheSotanitoentrance.Theentranceroomphotographingrequiredthefirsthalfoftheafternoon.Therestofthedaywehikedtrailsinthearea.Anareamapwasbegunbyclimbingthroughdenseundergrowthtoanearbyhilltopandtakingazimuthsightingsonsurroundinglandmarks.19MayTherearemanycavesandkarstfeaturesinthearea,andwewishedtorecordtheseonourmap.Therefore,wedevotedthe19thtoenlargingourareasurveytoincludeSatanodelMachoRey,andseveralhillsontothenorthwest.Thelocalreliefinplacesisupto250300meters,makingtraversingfromhilltohilltime-consuming.Duringthedaywefamiliarizedourselveswithperhapsonesquarekilometer.Thatafternoonwehikedbackdowntothehighwayandcamped.20MaySomeofthebestexposuresnearAhuacatlanarealongthehighway.Wehadpreviouslywalkedthecutstothewest,sothisdayweconcentratedoureffortstotheeast.BeginningatPuertodelasAnimas,wewalkedthe5kmbacktoAhuacatlan,completingthesectionbeforedark.Afteraswim(bath)intheR(oJalpanwedrovebacktoAustin. Date:June-August1971Location:SMa,SierradeElAbraPersons:seebelowReportedby:DonBroussardThesearesomeofthepertinentthingswhichweredonewhilehelpingJohnFishintheSierradeElAbrarangenearCd.Valles,JunethroughAugust,1971.AstagerecordertomeasurelakelevelchangesinSatanodeSoyatewasinstalled30ftabovethewaterlevelinthe300ftlong,60ftwidelake,inan80fthighroomwhichisnormally781ftbelowtheentrance.(Thefirstdropis646ft,seconddropabout60ft,andthethirdisusually30fttothewater).Theendofthelakebelowtherecorderis135ftdeep.Thecenterofthelakeis175ftdeep.OnatripinSeptembertorewindtherecorderandreplacethegraphpaper,SteveBittingerfoundtherecorderfullofwater.Thewaterlevelseemstorisequiteabitduringtimesofheavyrain.Threegreensnakes(4fteach)andafer-de-lance(3ft)werefoundswimminginthelakeinSatanodeJoswhereasecondwaterlevel

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64AMCSNewsrecorderhadbeeninstalled.Thislakeis200verticalftand1300horizontalftfromtheentrance,whichisinthebottomofanarroyo.Thesnakesmusthavebeenwashedinwhenthearroyoran,butwerealiveandquitehealthywhenfound.Aftermappingabout1500moreftinSotanodeTinaja(totheright,pastthecableladderdrop)wefoundonlyonesmallleadremainingtobecheckedandmapped.Aclaycrawlwaywasfollowedforabout200fttoasmallroom,10x20x8fthigh,withthecrawlwaycontinuingouttheotherside.NearthesmallvillageofAlcomunga,wayupinthemountainstotheeastoftheroadbetweenTehuacanandT'eotit.Ian,inthestateofOaxaca,Johnhadheardofacavewhichhadariverflowingintoit.Fromaerialphotosheestimated25sqmilesofdrainagefeedingtheriver,whichsinksatacontactbetweentwolimestoneformations.Wedrovefourhourstowardthefirsttown,rodeaCartaBlancatrucktheremaining6hours,thenthenextdaywalked6hourstothesecondsmallvillageofAlcomunga.About300ftalongthehorizontalentrancepassage,amudandtree-filledsumpwasencountered.Thestreamflowedbeneaththemud.Thesumpcompletelyblockedfurtherprogressonourpart.Therearemanysinksintheimmediatearea,andaerialphotosindicateotherleadsinthegeneralarea.Butgoodcaver-localsrelationsneedtobemaintained.Thepeopleofthefirsttowntoldusthatthoseofthesecondwerebadpeople.("Sonmalagente.Nohablanespaiiol,Mata.ron!II)andwealmostcouldnotgetguidestoshowustoAlcornunga,Butoncetherewefoundthepeoplecuriousratherthanhostile,andhadnoproblemsobtainingpermissionfromthepresidente. Date:6-20August1971Destination:MexicoPersons:PamAlton,SandraBills,CraigandStevenBittinger,DonBroussard,JimClements,PaulDuncan,T.C.Ferret,JohnFish,BlakeHarrison,DavidHonea,DavidandDanJohnson,ClarkLillie,JohnMikels,DottieMorris,NealMorris,CraigSainsott,andMikeWalshReportedby:T.C.FerretTwovehiclesleftKingsvilletheFridayofthe6th.ClarkLillie,SandraBills,CraigBittinger,PamAlton,andNealMorrisintheBatmobileandBlakeHarrison,DottieMorris,CraigSainsott,andPaulDuncanintheHarrisonbus.Somewhereneartheborder,welosteachother.TheHarrisonbusdroppedDottieatherhouseintheValleyandafterwaitingfortheBatmobiletoshowupatJohnMikelsIhouseinMission,theydrovetoLaredoandcrossedintoMexico,wherethey64AMCSNewsrecorderhadbeeninstalled.Thislakeis200verticalftand1300horizontalftfromtheentrance,whichisinthebottomofanarroyo.Thesnakesmusthavebeenwashedinwhenthearroyoran,butwerealiveandquitehealthywhenfound.Aftermappingabout1500moreftinSatanodeTinaja(totheright,pastthecableladderdrop)wefoundonlyonesmallleadremainingtobecheckedandmapped.Aclaycrawlwaywasfollowedforabout200fttoasmallroom,10 x20x8fthigh,withthecrawlwaycontinuingouttheotherside.NearthesmallvillageofAlcomunga,wayupinthemountainstotheeastoftheroadbetweenTehuacanandTeotitlan,inthestateofOaxaca,Johnhadheardofacavewhichhadariverflowingintoit.Fromaerialphotosheestimated25sqmilesofdrainagefeedingtheriver,whichsinksatacontactbetweentwolimestoneformations.Wedrovefourhourstowardthefirsttown,rodeaCartaBlancatrucktheremaining6hours,thenthenextdaywalked6hourstothesecondsmallvillageofAlcomunga.About300ftalongthehorizontalentrancepassage,amudandtree-filledsumpwasencountered.Thestreamflowedbeneaththemud.Thesumpcompletelyblockedfurtherprogressonourpart.Therearemanysinksintheimmediatearea,andaerialphotosindicateotherleadsinthegeneralarea.Butgoodcaver-localsrelationsneedtobemaintained.Thepeopleofthefirsttowntoldusthatthoseofthesecondwerebadpeople.("Sonmalagente.Nohablanespanol.Mataron!II)andwealmostcouldnotgetguidestoshowustoAlcomunga.Butoncetherewefoundthepeoplecuriousratherthanhostile,andhadnoproblemsobtainingpermissionfromthepresidente. Date:6-20August1971Destination:MexicoPersons:PamAlton,SandraBills,CraigandStevenBittinger,DonBroussard,JimClements,PaulDuncan,T.C.Ferret,JohnFish,BlakeHarrison,DavidHonea,DavidandDanJohnson,ClarkLillie,JohnMikels,DottieMorris,NealMorris,CraigSainsott,andMikeWalshReportedby:T.C.FerretTwovehiclesleftKingsvilletheFridayofthe6th.ClarkLillie,SandraBills,CraigBittinger,PamAlton,andNealMorrisintheBatmobileandBlakeHarrison,DottieMorris,CraigSainsott,andPaulDuncanintheHarrisonbus.Somewhereneartheborder,welosteachother.TheHarrisonbusdroppedDottieatherhouseintheValleyandafterwaitingfortheBatmobiletoshowupatJohnMikelsIhouseinMission,theydrovetoLaredoandcrossedintoMexico,wherethey

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v,IIIno.465campedatOjodeAgua.MeanwhiletheBatmobilehadmeanderedtoReynosalookingfortheHarrisonbus.LeavingReynosa,wetookthewrongroadandendedupinMonterrey.LeavingMonterrey,wetookthewrongroadandwentthroughCerralvo,headedforMierontheborder.OnthemapwenoticedashortcutfromGeneralTrevinotoSabinasHidalgo(Maplegendcalledit"otherroads").Forgettingthatithadbeenrainingfortwoweeks,wetookit.Itwasagoodpavedroaduntilwecametoabridgewithafloodingriverwashingoverit.Afterdeterminingthatonly3ftofwaterwouldn'twashusaway,weslowlymadeourwayacross,withwaterrushingunderthedoors,andwhileMexicansonbothsidesoftherivercheeredandplacedbetsonoursurvival.OnceacrossintothetownofParas,wewokeupthegirlsandtoldthemtheycouldstopworrying.Theywereunimpressed.AtParasthepavementended.Itwasdawnandwehadbeendrivingfor12hours.Aftergoingdowneverygullyintown,anoldladydirectedustotheotherroadwhichheadedintothedesert.Itwashalfwaterholesandmudandhalfwashedaway.Itwasn'tlongbeforewefoundourselvesslidingsidewaysintotreesandgettingstuckinlonglakeswhichcoveredtheroad,butnothingcouldstopus.Meanwhile,theHarrisonbushadgivenuphopeofourarrivalinSabinas,sotheydrovetoBustamanteCanyonandinvestigatedseveralspringsinthecanyonwallandwentswimmingintheriver.Backontheotherroad,theBatmobilewasstrugglingfortraction.Soonwemetapickuptruck.WeaskedtheMexicandriverifwewereontherightroadtoSabinasHidalgo.Heneverwouldanswerus.Hejustkeptlaughing,pointingatourtires,andrepeatingthecrypticwords,"unpocito,unpocito".Thenhedroveawayandwesawthechainsonhistires.Soonwecametoasmallvillage;uponaskingifthiswastherightroadtoSabinaseveryoneranawaylaughingandhid.Stillwedroveon,pushingthetruckthroughnumerousmudholes.ThenwecametoanintersectionandaskedalittleoldmandirectionstoSa-binas,Allhecoulddowaspointandmumble"Badroad,badroad".Allwecouldseeaheadwasamileofruttedthree-footdeepmudwith10ftbanksoneithersidereadytoplungeanunfortunatetruckintoseveralfeetofwater.Clarkracedtheengine,spunthetires,andweplungedintoanoceanofmudfromaseaofmud.50feetlaterwewerestuck.Theoldmanwasstillstandinginthesameplacestaringindisbelief.Witheveryonepushing,anhourlaterwehadgonealmostamilewhenwesankintoanincrediblemire.Wesatdowninthemuckexhausted,whenwesawtwooxencomingdowntheroad.SincealocalMexicanhadtoldusitwasonlytwomilestopavement,itwasn'tlongbeforewehadtwooxenandanoxcartchainedtothefrontbumper.Twostraightenedcarabinersandtwostrainedoxenlater,wereachedthepavement.SoonweweretoOjodeAgua,hadaflattire,cleanedv.IIIno.465campedatOjodeAgua.MeanwhiletheBatmobilehadmeanderedtoReynosalookingfortheHarrisonbus.LeavingReynosa,wetookthewrongroadandendedupinMonterrey.LeavingMonterrey,wetookthewrongroadandwentthroughCerralvo,headedforMierontheborder.OnthemapwenoticedashortcutfromGeneralTrevinotoSabinasHidalgo(Maplegendcalledit"otherroads").Forgettingthatithadbeenrainingfortwoweeks,wetookit.Itwasagoodpavedroaduntilwecarnetoabridgewithafloodingriverwashingoverit.Afterdeterminingthatonly3ftofwaterwouldn'twashusaway,weslowlymadeourwayacross,withwaterrushingunderthedoors,andwhileMexicansonbothsidesoftherivercheeredandplacedbetsonoursurvival.OnceacrossintothetownofParas,wewokeupthegirlsandtoldthemtheycouldstopworrying.Theywereunimpressed.AtParasthepavementended.Itwasdawnandwehadbeendrivingfor12hours.Aftergoingdowneverygullyintown,anoldladydirectedustotheotherroadwhichheadedintothedesert.Itwashalfwaterholesandmudandhalfwashedaway.Itwasn'tlongbeforewefoundourselvesslidingsidewaysintotreesandgettingstuckinlonglakeswhichcoveredtheroad,butnothingcouldstopus.Meanwhile,theHarrisonbushadgivenuphopeofourarrivalinSabinas,sotheydrovetoBustamanteCanyonandinvestigatedseveralspringsinthecanyonwallandwentswimmingintheriver.Backontheotherroad,theBatmobilewasstrugglingfortraction.Soonwemetapickuptruck.WeaskedtheMexicandriverifwewereontherightroadtoSabinasHidalgo.Heneverwouldanswerus.Hejustkeptlaughing,pointingatourtires,andrepeatingthecrypticwords,"unpocito,unpocito".Thenhedroveawayandwesawthechainsonhistires.Soonwecarnetoasmallvillage;uponaskingifthiswastherightroadtoSabinaseveryoneranawaylaughingandhid.Stillwedroveon,pushingthetruckthroughnumerousmudholes.ThenwecarnetoanintersectionandaskedalittleoldmandirectionstoSabinas.Allhecoulddowaspointandmumble!IBadroad,badroad".Allwecouldseeaheadwasamileofruttedthree-footdeepmudwith10ftbanksoneithersidereadytoplungeanunfortunatetruckintoseveralfeetofwater.Clarkracedtheengine,spunthetires,andweplungedintoanoceanofmudfromaseaofmud.50feetlaterwewerestuck.Theoldmanwasstillstandinginthesameplacestaringindisbelief.Witheveryonepushing,anhourlaterwehadgonealmostamilewhenwesankintoanincrediblemire.Wesatdowninthemuckexhausted,whenwesawtwooxencorningdowntheroad.SincealocalMexicanhadtoldusitwasonlytwomilestopavement,itwasn'tlongbeforewehadtwooxenandanoxcartchainedtothefrontbumper.Twostraightenedcarabinersandtwostrainedoxenlater,wereachedthepavement.SoonweweretoOjodeAgua,hadaflattire,cleaned

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66AMCSNewsthemudoffeverything,putoncleanclothes,andstartedoffinsearchoftheHarrisonbusagain.AtVillaldamathebridgewasout.Wesoonwerestuckonadetour.Ittook24Mexicans(twofamilies)andatrucktopullusoutofaditch.FinallyinBustamantewecaughtupwiththeothergroup.Theydidn'tbelieveawordofourstory.Togetheronceagain,ourtwovehicleswentintoBustamantecanyon,lookedatsomesprings,andcampedforthenight.UnfortunatelywehadtocancelplanstoclimbLaCandela.EarlySundaymorningBlakeandCraigSainsottstartedupthecanyonwallinanattempttotraversethecanyonrim.Wehadtoreturnhome,butfirstwedroveouttheotherendofthecanyonsightseeing,wherewenoticedatiregoingflat.Withoutaspare,weturnedaroundandstartedracingbackthroughthecanyonfortown,butwebottomedoutinadipandrippedthegastankoff,Wejumpedoffthetruck,andranbacktothegastankintimetosaveseveralgallonsofgas.Theresthadleakedoutnumerousholesandfilledthedipwithseveralinchesofgasoline.Aftertossingamatchandwatching30ftflames,weriggedasiphonfromthegaspumptoagallonjuganddrovebacktoVillaldamaandfixedourtwoflats,thentoSabinasHidalgo,wherewegota5galloncanforoursiphonhookup.ThenweputCraigandPaulonthebusforValles.Beforegoinghome,wewenttothepark,wentswimming,rodehorses,andPamsprainedheranklewhenshefelloutofatree.Meanwhile,CraigSainsottandBlakehaddiscoveredthatthecanyonrimwasaknifeedgewitha200ftdropononesideanda600slopeontheotherandahomeforrattlesnakes.Afterstraddlingtherimforawhiletheyturnedback.Thentheystartedforhome.About30milesoutofSabinas,Blake'sbusstartedmakingfunnynoisesandthegreenoillightcameon.ImmediatelyBlakestopped(finally).Sinceitwasafterdark,theylinedoilcansalongthehighwayanddecidedtheywouldhavetohitchhikehome.MeanwhiletheBatmobilelefttheparkandheadedforLaredo.Ateverygasstationwewouldstopandfillupourfive-gallongastank.Wecouldn'tbelieveitwhenwepassedBlake'sbusbrokendownbytheroad.BlakeandCraigcouldn'tbelieveiteither.TogetbothvehiclesbacktoLaredo,wesiphonedBlake'sgasinto5galloncansandtowedthebusbehindtheBatmobile.Atcustoms,wecarriedPamieandsetheronthetablewithasprainedankle,andthenwecarriedourgastankandsetitonthetable.Theytoldustogoonthrough.AtHebronvillewehassledsomebordercopsfordirectionsandgasoline.Finallyat5a.rn,MondaymorningwearrivedinKingsvilleandCraigandBlakehitchedontoSanMarcos.Meanwhile,CraigandPaularrivedinVallesat6a.rn,andfoundninecaverssprawledoverthefloorofJohnFish'shotelroom.ItwasadayofrestinVallesandtheFishexpedition,whichhadbeenstudying66AMCSNewsthemudoffeverything,putoncleanclothes,andstartedoffinsearchoftheHarrisonbusagain.AtVillaldamathebridgewasout.Wesoonwerestuckonadetour.Ittook24Mexicans(twofamilies)andatrucktopullusoutofaditch.FinallyinBustamantewecaughtupwiththeothergroup.Theydidn'tbelieveawordofourstory.Togetheronceagain,ourtwovehicleswentintoBustamantecanyon,lookedatsomesprings,andcampedforthenight.UnfortunatelywehadtocancelplanstoclimbLaCandela.EarlySundaymorningBlakeandCraigSainsottstartedupthecanyonwallinanattempttotraversethecanyonrim.Wehadtoreturnhome,butfirstwedroveouttheotherendofthecanyonsightseeing,wherewenoticedatiregoingflat.Withoutaspare,weturnedaroundandstartedracingbackthroughthecanyonfortown,butwebottomedoutinadipandrippedthegastankof.Wejumpedoffthetruck,andranbacktothegastankintimetosaveseveralgallonsofgas.Theresthadleakedoutnumerousholesandfilledthedipwithseveralinchesofgasoline.Aftertossingamatchandwatching30ftflames,weriggedasiphonfromthegaspumptoagallonjuganddrovebacktoVillaldamaandfixedourtwoflats,thentoSabinasHidalgo,wherewegota5galloncanforoursiphonhookup.ThenweputCraigandPaulonthebusforValles.Beforegoinghome,wewenttothepark,wentswimming,rodehorses,andPamsprainedheranklewhenshefelloutofatree.Meanwhile,CraigSainsottandBlakehaddiscoveredthatthecanyonrimwasaknifeedgewitha200ftdropononesideanda600slopeontheotherandahomeforrattlesnakes.Afterstraddlingtherimforawhiletheyturnedback.Thentheystartedforhome.About30milesoutofSabinas,Blake'sbusstartedmakingfunnynoisesandthegreenoillightcameon.ImmediatelyBlakestopped(finally).Sinceitwasafterdark,theylinedoilcansalongthehighwayanddecidedtheywouldhavetohitchhikehome.MeanwhiletheBatmobilelefttheparkandheadedforLaredo.Ateverygasstationwewouldstopandfillupourfive-gallongastank.Wecouldn'tbelieveitwhenwepassedBlake'sbusbrokendownbytheroad.BlakeandCraigcouldn'tbelieveiteither.TogetbothvehiclesbacktoLaredo,wesiphonedBlake'sgasinto5galloncansandtowedthebusbehindtheBatmobile.Atcustoms,wecarriedPamieandsetheronthetablewithasprainedankle,andthenwecarriedourgastankandsetitonthetable.Theytoldustogoonthrough.AtHebronvillewehassledsomebordercopsfordirectionsandgasoline.Finallyat5a.m.MondaymorningwearrivedinKingsvilleandCraigandBlakehitchedontoSanMarcos.Meanwhile,CraigandPaularrivedinVallesat6a.m.andfoundninecaverssprawledoverthefloorofJohnFish'shotelroom.ItwasadayofrestinVallesandtheFishexpedition,whichhadbeenstudying

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v,IIIno.467thegeologyoftheElAbraallsummer,wenttothemovies.TuesdaytheypushedSotanodelosMonoswithdropsof464,180,15,15, 15,15,and77ft.Totalverticalextentofthecaveisapproximately950ft,butitisstillgoing.JohnFish,DonBroussard,andDaveHoneamadeuponemappingteam,whileCraigandStevenBittingerandPaulDuncanmadeupanotherteam.WednesdaywasadayofrestandThursdaytheyrewoundthestagerecorderinSotanodeJos.FridayCraig,Steven,Paul,DonandJohndidSoyateandwounditsstagerecorder.ThentheywenttothewaterfallsatMicostowashrope.Saturdaywasanotherdayofrest,withthegroupgoingswimmingatNacimientodelRloChoy,wheretheytookwatersamples.MeanwhileBlakeHarrisonwastowinghisbusbacktoSanMarcos.MeanwhileJimClements,NealMorris,andPamAltonleftKingsvilleSaturdayeveningandcampedatOjodeAguaontheirwaytocheckaleadinBustamantecanyon.ThatsameeveningatremendousstormhitBustamantecanyon,andSundaymorningtheClementsvancamealongtofindtheroaddestroyedbynumerouslandslidesandgreatwashouts.Thepartsoftheroadleftnowhadstreamsflowingdownthem.Wewerethefirstpeopleintotheareaaswehikedthroughthedestructionandmarveledatthethousandsofwaterfallswhichnowtumbleddownthecanyonwalls;theriverwasfloodingaboveitsbanks.Wealmostbackpackedintotheareatocheckourlead,butdecidedwehadbestbegettingdowntoValles.AftersomeminorcartroubleandatowintoVillaldama,wedroveallday.MeanwhilethegroupinValleswentuptotheXilitlaareaanddidSotanodelaJoya.JohnFishandPaulDuncanwenttoMexicoCitytoreturnavanloanedtotheexpeditionbyMexico.LateSundaynightourgrouparrivedinVallesandcrashedintheovercrowdedhotelroomwithpeoplefromPASSandUT.MondaymorningJohnMikels,DavidandDanJohnson,CraigBittinger,PamAlton,JimClements,andNealMorriswenttotheMontecillossystem.Anoverlandsurveyfailedtoproduceanyevidenceofanotherentrance.DavidandDan,JimandNealdidPichijumoonahandline,tookphotographsofthecave,andcheckedthesiphon.Theeveningwasspentstudyingaerialphotographs.TuesdaymorningJohnFishandStevenBittingerleftfortheU.S.andtherestofourgroupwentonalonghikeintothechapelareaoftheElAbrawithaMexicanguide.Inthe50'stherewasanaircrashwhichkilledseveralpeopleandinjuredfiftyintheElAbra.Toevacuatetheinjured,theMexicansbuiltaroadtothecrash.Laterachapelwasbuilttomarkthesiteofthecrash.InthissameareatherearenumerouslargedepressionsthatJohnFishplanstoexplorethisChristmas.Thetrailhasn'tbeenusedinovertenyearsandourguidebecamelostaftermanyhoursofchopping,andweturnedback.v.IIIno.467thegeologyoftheElAbraallSUITlITler,wenttotheITlovies.TuesdaytheypushedSotanodelosMonoswithdropsof464,180,15,15, 15,15,and77ft.TotalverticalextentofthecaveisapproxiITlately950ft,butitisstillgoing.JohnFish,DonBroussard,andDaveHoneaITladeuponeITlappingteaITl,whileCraigandStevenBittingerandPaulDuncanITladeupanotherteaITl.WednesdaywasadayofrestandThursdaytheyrewoundthestagerecorderinSotanodeJos.FridayCraig,Steven,Paul,DonandJohndidSoyateandwounditsstagerecorder.ThentheywenttothewaterfallsatMicostowashrope.Saturdaywasanotherdayofrest,withthegroupgoingswimmingatNaciITlientodelRloChoy,wheretheytookwatersaITlples.MeanwhileBlakeHarrisonwastowinghisbusbacktoSanMarcos.MeanwhileJiITlCleITlents,NealMorris,andPaITlAltonleftKingsvilleSaturdayeveningandcaITlpedatOjodeAguaontheirwaytocheckaleadinBustaITlantecanyon.ThatsaITleeveningatreITlendousstorITlhitBustaITlantecanyon,andSundayITlorningtheCleITlentsvancamealongtofindtheroaddestroyedbynUITlerouslandslidesandgreatwashouts.ThepartsoftheroadleftnowhadstreamsflowingdowntheITl.WewerethefirstpeopleintotheareaaswehikedthroughthedestructionandITlarveledatthethousandsofwaterfallswhichnowtUITlbleddownthecanyonwalls;theriverwasfloodingaboveitsbanks.WealITlostbackpackedintotheareatocheckourlead,butdecidedwehadbestbegettingdowntoValles.AfterSOITleITlinorcartroubleandatowintoVillaldaITla,wedroveallday.MeanwhilethegroupinValleswentuptotheXilitlaareaanddidSotanodelaJoya.JohnFishandPaulDuncanwenttoMexicoCitytoreturnavanloanedtotheexpeditionbyMexico.LateSundaynightourgrouparrivedinVallesandcrashedintheovercrowdedhotelroomwithpeoplefroITlPASSandUT.MondayITlorningJohnMikels,DavidandDanJohnson,CraigBittinger,PaITlAlton,JimClements,andNealMorriswenttotheMontecillossysteITl.Anoverlandsurveyfailedtoproduceanyevidenceofanotherentrance.DavidandDan,JiITlandNealdidPichijuITloonahandline,tookphotographsofthecave,andcheckedthesiphon.Theeveningwasspentstudyingaerialphotographs.TuesdayITlorningJohnFishandStevenBittingerleftfortheU.S.andtherestofourgroupwentonalonghikeintothechapelareaoftheElAbrawithaMexicanguide.Inthe50'stherewasanaircrashwhichkilledseveralpeopleandinjuredfiftyintheElAbra.Toevacuatetheinjured,theMexicansbuiltaroadtothecrash.LaterachapelwasbuilttolTIarkthesiteofthecrash.InthissaITleareatherearenumerouslargedepressionsthatJohnFishplanstoexplorethisChristITlas.Thetrailhasn'tbeenusedinovertenyearsandourguidebecaITlelostaftermanyhoursofchopping,andweturnedback.

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68AMCSNewsMeanwhilethatsameday,MikeWalshandBlakeHarrisoncamethroughVallesheadedfortheJalpanareatochecktheirroadlogsfortheupcomingSWTGMexicancavingpublication.WednesdaywedrovetoManteandwentswimmingatthenacimiento.ThenwewentovertotheEastfaceoftheElAbraoversomeverybadroadstotheNacimientodeSantaClaraandwentswimmingagain.Anincrediblybadnightwasspentcampedatthebaseoftherange.Thursdaywespent12hourschoppingatrailupthemountaininpreparationforanassaultontheCalderathisThanksgiving.Wechoppedallday,camedownatnight,andtriedtodriveoutthebadroadsinthedark,whereuponwehita500lbrockandbroketherighttierod.Weweresoexhaustedthatwespentthenightsleepingintherutsofthemuddyroad.FridaymorningCraig,Paul,andJimstartedwalkingtoMante.TheywerefortunateenoughtohitcharidewithawealthylocalMexicanwhotookthemtoMance,helpedthembuythepartsweneeded,pickedupamechanicanddrovethemallouttoourimmobilevan.ThemechanicreplacedthetierodandthentheMexicanescortedusbacktoManteandgotusadiscountonthecarparts.Thenherefusedtoacceptpaymentforhisservicesanddroveaway.Fromthereweheadedhome,arrivinginKingsvilleearlySaturdaymorning. Date:7-10August1971Destination:SotariodelosMonosLocation;SierradeElAbra,S.L.P.Persons:DonBroussard,StevenBittinger,CraigBittinger,PaulDuncan,JohnFish,DavidHonea,AnnHonea,BillRussell,CarolRussellReportedby:DaveHoneaSotariodelosMonosisalargepitlocatedabout5mileseastofHighway85onthecrestoftheSierradeElAbraRange.Aone-hourhikeupthewesternfaceonalargewoodcutters'trailbringsonetothepit.ImmediatelyadjoiningthepitandwithawindowintothemainshaftisasmallcavecontainingvariouspetroglyphsofprobableHuastecanIndianorigin.Themainpitisalargeshaftabout75ftindiameterwithanentrancedropof464ftattheriggingpoint.Onthefirsttriptothepitinthesummerof1970,DonBroussardwenttothebottom.oftheentrancedrop,madeasketchmapandnotedapossibleleadinaroomtothesideoftheshaft.InApril,1971,DonBroussard,RobertHandford,DaveHonea,RoyJameson,FrankBinneyandErnieGarzavisitedthepittomapthecaveandtodetermineiftheleadwaspassable.OnlyRobertandRoy68AMCSNewsMeanwhilethatsameday,MikeWalshandBlakeHarrisoncamethroughVallesheadedfortheJalpanareatochecktheirroadlogsfortheupcomingSWTGMexicancavingpublication.WednesdaywedrovetoManteandwentswimmingatthenacimiento.ThenwewentovertotheEastfaceoftheElAbraoversomeverybadroadstotheNacimientodeSantaClaraandwentswimmingagain.Anincrediblybadnightwasspentcampedatthebaseoftherange.Thursdaywespent12hourschoppingatrailupthemountaininpreparationforanassaultontheCalderathisThanksgiving.Wechoppedallday,camedownatnight,andtriedtodriveoutthebadroadsinthedark,whereuponwehita500lbrockandbroketherighttierod.Weweresoexhaustedthatwespentthenightsleepingintherutsofthemuddyroad.FridaymorningCraig,Paul,andJimstartedwalkingtoMante.TheywerefortunateenoughtohitcharidewithawealthylocalMexicanwhotookthemtoMance,helpedthembuythepartsweneeded,pickedupamechanicanddrovethemallouttoourimmobilevan.ThemechanicreplacedthetierodandthentheMexicanescortedusbacktoManteandgotusadiscountonthecarparts.Thenherefusedtoacceptpaymentforhisservicesanddroveaway.Fromthereweheadedhome,arrivinginKingsvilleearlySaturdaymorning. Date:7-10August1971Destination:SotanodelosMonosLocation;SierradeElAbra,S.L.P.Persons:DonBroussard,StevenBittinger,CraigBittinger,PaulDuncan,JohnFish,DavidHonea,AnnHonea,BillRussell,CarolRussellReportedby:DaveHoneaSotanodelosMonosisalargepitlocatedabout5mileseastofHighway85onthecrestoftheSierradeElAbraRange.Aone-hourhikeupthewesternfaceonalargewoodcutters'trailbringsonetothepit.ImmediatelyadjoiningthepitandwithawindowintothemainshaftisasmallcavecontainingvariouspetroglyphsofprobableHuastecanIndianorigin.Themainpitisalargeshaftabout75ftindiameterwithanentrancedropof464ftattheriggingpoint.Onthefirsttriptothepitinthesummerof1970,DonBroussardwenttothebottom.oftheentrancedrop,madeasketchmapandnotedapossibleleadinaroomtothesideoftheshaft.InApril,1971,DonBroussard,RobertHandford,DaveHonea,RoyJameson,FrankBinneyandErnieGarzavisitedthepittomapthecaveandtodetermineiftheleadwaspassable.OnlyRobertandRoy

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v,IIIno.469wereabletoenter,duetoexcessivefrayingoftheSamsonropeused.Withtheaidoftheentranceropetheywereabletoclimbup15ftOnawallintheadjoiningroom,thendescenda15ftdroptoasmallpassage.Afterabout25ft,itwasfoundthatthenarrowpassagewaseffectivelyblockedbyaformation.Justpastthecolumnwasapit,inwhichrocksbouncedforabout5seconds.Carryingarockhammerandextrarope,DonBroussard,StevenBittinger,JohnFishandDaveHoneareturnedAugust8, 1971tofollowthelead.Whileworkwasinprogressinthepit,AnnHoneaandCarolRussellweretakingnotesandsketchesofthepetroglyphs(Ed.note:Verygoodsketchesofthepetroglyphs,andphotographs,weremadebyDavidMcKenzieonthesummer1970trip.)andWilliamRussellwassearchingformoreleadsinthearea.Afterabout11/2hoursofchipping,thecolumnwasremovedsufficientlytoallowpassageandaboltwassetatthetopofthefirst15ftdropforrigging.Thepitimmediatelypasttheformationprovedtobe180ftwithaledge48ftoffthefloor.Awindowinthe15ftdiameterroomatthebottomleadsdirectlytoa30ftdrop,followedimmediatelybyseveralsmallclimbsandfinallytotwo12ftpitchesrequiringhandlines.Thisbringsonetoapproximately-700ft.Onefindsoneselfinanarrow,dirt-flooredroomwithtwopassagestakingoff.Onesoonendsandtheothercontinuesasadirtflooredcrawlwhichopensuptoapproximately500-1000ftofchimney,climbing,andpassagewhichdropsabout100to125ft.Thispassageleadstoawettersectionofthecavewhereadownstreampassagebranchesoffandtheupstreampassageendsafteracoupleofhundredft.Thedownstreampassagegoesdirectlytoanunclimbable15ftdropintoanotherpassage.Havingnomorerope,explorationwashalted,andthepitleftriggedforourreturn.ThatnightwewerejoinedinVallesbyCraigBittingerandPaulDuncanandplanswerelaidforpushingthepit.Afteraday'srestandleavingthegirlsinValles,wereturnedAugust10topushthepitandmapasmuchaspossible,whileBillRusselltookthetraintoMicostocheckfishcaveleads.Asitrequiresabout2hourstoreachthepitfromValles,wegotupabout5a.rn,Aug10,muchtothedispleasureofsome.Afteraheartybreakfastandafasttrip,wereachedthecaveabout9a.rn,Theroadwasquiteslipperyduetothesummerrains.Descendingasrapidlyaspossible,thegroupsplituptocoverbothpassages.Steven,CraigandPaultooktheupstreampassageandbeganmappingout.Don,DavidandJohnriggedthedownstreampit.Anupstreampassagesoonpinchesdowntoanunexploredcrawlandthedownstreampassagecontinuesasascouredfloortoasumppool.However,aleadabovethepoolcontinuesasanarrowfissureintoasmallroom.Fromthisroomv.IIIno.469wereabletoenter,duetoexcessivefrayingoftheSamsonropeused.Withtheaidoftheentranceropetheywereabletoclimbup15ftOn awallintheadjoiningroom,thendescenda 15ftdroptoasmallpassage.Afterabout25ft,itwasfoundthatthenarrowpassagewaseffectivelyblockedbyaformation.Justpastthecolumnwasapit,inwhichrocksbouncedforabout5seconds.Carryingarockhammerandextrarope,DonBroussard,StevenBittinger,JohnFishandDaveHoneareturnedAugust8,1971tofollowthelead.Whileworkwasinprogressinthepit,AnnHoneaandCarolRussellweretakingnotesandsketchesofthepetroglyphs(Ed.note:Verygoodsketchesofthepetroglyphs,andphotographs,weremadebyDavidMcKenzieonthesummer1970trip.)andWilliamRussellwassearchingformoreleadsinthearea.Afterabout11/2hoursofchipping,thecolumnwasremovedsufficientlytoallowpassageandaboltwassetatthetopofthefirst15ftdropforrigging.Thepitimmediatelypasttheformationprovedtobe180ftwithaledge48ftoffthefloor.Awindowinthe15ftdiameterroomatthebottomleadsdirectlytoa30ftdrop,followedimmediatelybyseveralsmallclimbsandfinallytotwo12ftpitchesrequiringhandlines.Thisbringsonetoapproximately-700ft.Onefindsoneselfinanarrow,dirt-flooredroomwithtwopassagestakingoff.Onesoonendsandtheothercontinuesasadirtflooredcrawlwhichopensuptoapproximately500-1000ftofchimney,climbing,andpassagewhichdropsabout100to125ft.Thispassageleadstoawettersectionofthecavewhereadownstreampassagebranchesoffandtheupstreampassageendsafteracoupleofhundredft.Thedownstreampassagegoesdirectlytoanunclimbable15ftdropintoanotherpassage.Havingnomorerope,explorationwashalted,andthepitleftriggedforourreturn.ThatnightwewerejoinedinVallesbyCraigBittingerandPaulDuncanandplanswerelaidforpushingthepit.Afteraday'srestandleavingthegirlsinValles,wereturnedAugust10topushthepitandmapasmuchaspossible,whileBillRusselltookthetraintoMicostocheckfishcaveleads.Asitrequiresabout2hourstoreachthepitfromValles,wegotupabout5a.m.Aug10,muchtothedispleasureofsome.Afteraheartybreakfastandafasttrip,wereachedthecaveabout9a.m.Theroadwasquiteslipperyduetothesummerrains.Descendingasrapidlyaspossible,thegroupsplituptocoverbothpassages.Steven,CraigandPaultooktheupstreampassageandbeganmappingout.Don,DavidandJohnriggedthedownstreampit.Anupstreampassagesoonpinchesdowntoanunexploredcrawlandthedownstreampassagecontinuesasascouredfloortoasumppool.However,aleadabovethepoolcontinuesasanarrowfissureintoasmallroom.Fromthisroom

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70AMCSNewsaverynarrowfissureleadstoa77ftdrop.Dondescendedthedropwiththeonesetofverticalgearpresentatthispoint.Anotherpassageleadsawayatthebottomtoapointsome200ftfromthedropwhereitpinchesdowntoawindowabout10inchesx16inches,halfcoveredbywaterbutcontinuingbeyond.Havingnoextracarbideandasputteringlamp,Donhaltedatthispointandwestartedmappingout.Thislevelisatabout-900ft.Aftermappingtotheintersectionofthefirst15ftdropandthe800itlevel,wethenpassedtheothermappingcrewworkinginthatpassageandwenttothe-700footleveltobeginmappingthedropstotheentrance,andcarryoutextrarope.WorkprogressedsmoothlyandthesecondteamreachedtheentrancedroplevelasDonandDavidwerejustoutoftheentrancetothesurface.WhileJohncameout,are-surveyofthebottomoftheentrancewasmadeandalltheropetiedtotheentrancerope.AfterCraig,Paul,andSteveprusikedout,theropewashauledupandcoiledwithgreatrapidityinspiredbylargeraincloudsandlightning.Ahurriedhikedownthemountainandaquickpackingofthecarensuedasthefirstdropsfell.Abouthalfwayouttherainbecameveryheavy,makingtheroadquiteslippery.WefinallyreachedVallesabout1:30a.m,andsackedout. Date:15August1971Destination:GrutasdeSanSebastian(delosFustes),MunicipiodeSoladeVega,OaxacaLocation:SierraMadredelSurPersons:AnnandDavidHonea,BillandCarolRussellReportedby:BillRussellGrutasdeSanSebastian(delosFustes)islocatedsouthofthecityofOaxacatothewestofthePuertoEscondidohighway,attheedgeofanapparentlylargelimestoneoutcrop.Toreachthecave,drivesouthfromOaxacafor83kmtothesmallvillageofElVado,wheretheroadcrossestheRIOSanSebastian.Hereturnrightonthegravelroadthatfollowstheriverupstream.AtKm10fromthehighwaythereisaforestrydepartmentcheckpoint,andatKm11aturnoffleadsashortdistancetothevillageofSanSebastian(delosFustes).JustbeforeKm12theroadcrossestheriveronasmallbridgeandjustpastthebridgearoadthroughthefieldsleadsrighttothesourceoftheriver,alargespringsurroundedbycypresstrees.Fromthespring(Nacimiento)thelowerentrancetothecavecanbereachedbyashorttrailleadingwestandupthemountainforabout300rn,Theupperentrancetothecaveisalargesinkholeeasilyvisibleabout300mtotherightoftheroadpastKm13,astheroadclimbsintothepinecoveredlimestoneuplands.70AMCSNewsaverynarrowfissureleadstoa77ftdrop.Dondescendedthedropwiththeonesetofverticalgearpresentatthispoint.Anotherpassageleadsawayatthebottomtoapointsome200ftfromthedropwhereitpinchesdowntoawindowabout10inchesx 16inches,halfcoveredbywaterbutcontinuingbeyond.Havingnoextracarbideandasputteringlamp,Donhaltedatthispointandwestartedmappingout.Thislevelisatabout-900ft.Aftermappingtotheintersectionofthefirst15ftdropandthe800itlevel,wethenpassedtheothermappingcrewworkinginthatpassageandwenttothe-700footleveltobeginmappingthedropstotheentrance,andcarryoutextrarope.WorkprogressedsmoothlyandthesecondteamreachedtheentrancedroplevelasDonandDavidwerejustoutoftheentrancetothesurface.WhileJohncameout,are-surveyofthebottomoftheentrancewasmadeandalltheropetiedtotheentrancerope.AfterCraig,Paul,andSteveprusikedout,theropewashauledupandcoiledwithgreatrapidityinspiredbylargeraincloudsandlightning.Ahurriedhikedownthemountainandaquickpackingofthecarensuedasthefirstdropsfell.Abouthalfwayouttherainbecameveryheavy,makingtheroadquiteslippery.WefinallyreachedVallesabout1:30a.m.andsackedout. Date:15August1971Destination:GrutasdeSanSebastian(delosFustes),MunicipiodeSoladeVega,OaxacaLocation:SierraMadredelSurPersons:AnnandDavidHonea,BillandCarolRussellReportedby:BillRussellGrutasdeSanSebastian(delosFustes)islocatedsouthofthecityofOaxacatothewestofthePuertoEscondidohighway,attheedgeofanapparentlylargelimestoneoutcrop.Toreachthecave,drivesouthfromOaxacafor83kmtothesmallvillageofElVado,wheretheroadcrossestheRIOSanSebastian.Hereturnrightonthegravelroadthatfollowstheriverupstream.AtKm10fromthehighwaythereisaforestrydepartmentcheckpoint,andatKm11aturnoffleadsashortdistancetothevillageofSanSebastian(delosFustes).JustbeforeKm12theroadcrossestheriveronasmallbridgeandjustpastthebridgearoadthroughthefieldsleadsrighttothesourceoftheriver,alargespringsurroundedbycypresstrees.Fromthespring(Nacimiento)thelowerentrancetothecavecanbereachedbyashorttrailleadingwestandupthemountainforabout300m.Theupperentrancetothecaveisalargesinkholeeasilyvisibleabout300mtotherightoftheroadpastKm13,astheroadclimbsintothepinecoveredlimestoneuplands.

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v.IIIno.4 71Thelowerentrancetothecavewasoriginallyasmalldomethatintersectedthesurfaceattheapparentendofalargepassage,butashorttunnelhasbeendugtoprovideaccesstothecave.Fromthetunnelthepassageslopesgentlydownwardforahorizontaldistanceofabout200mtoa"pit"leadingdowntotheriverlevel.ThesectionofcavebeforetheITpit TTisawelldecoratedpassagefrom25to40fthighand15to30ftwide.Thereappearstobeapassageatthelevelofthestreamabout30feetbelowthemainpassage,butthepassagewasnotenteredduetolackofequipment.Beyondthe"pit"isalarge,dryroomabout200ftlongand150ftwideand50fthigh.A25-30fthighpassagecontinuesfromthisroomoverlargepilesofbreakdownforabout200mtowhereitisnecessarytoclimbuptoaslightlyhigherlevel,wherethepassageappearedtocontinue.Timeforcedexplorationtoendhere.Theupperentranceofthecaveisreachedfromthelarge,dryroomviaapassagealongtheleftside(afterpassingthe"pit"]ofthisroomandthentoalowpassagewithatrenchduginthefloortoprovideclearance.Thislowpassageopensintothesideofthelargeroomatthebaseoftheupperentrancesink.Thisroomisabout200ftacrossand300tlong,and100fthigh,andslopessteeplyupwardtotheleftoverbreakdowntothebaseofthesurfacesink.Nearthebottomoftheroomisalargeformationtoppedwithaprecariouslyplacedcross.Thiswouldbeagoodareaforresearch,astheroadtothecaveiseasilypassablebypickupandcouldprobablybenegotiatedwithcarebyanoldercar.Theapparenthorizontalcontrolofcavedevelopmentwouldseemtoindicateextensiveshallowphreaticdevelopmentattwodifferent,well-definedbaselevels.Thisconditioncouldresultinalargehorizontalsystem. Date:16-21August1971Destination:Ahuacatlan,Qto.Location:SMO,Jalpan,AhuacatLanPersons:BlakeHarrison,KeithHeuss,DalePate,MikeWalsh,CharlesYeatesReportedby:DalePateWithafewhasslesattheborderwearrivedatCd,Vallesaboutnoonandatelunch.FromthereweheadedtoAhuacatl.an,ourdestination,andbythenextmorningwewerebackpackingintothemountains.Blake,Keith,andMikeheadedupthemountaintocheckoutasmallcavelocatedintheMachoReydolina,CharlieandIheadedwestoverthetwomainpassestoRanchodeDerramadero.ThenextmorningweallmetattheRancho.BlakeIsgrouphadfoundtwosot.anosthatlookedpromising,whileCharlieandIhikedallday.AftermeetingwesplitupandMikeandIcheckedthreepits(thedeepestbeingabout120ft),whileBlake,Keith,andCharliecheckedv.IIIno.471Thelowerentrancetothecavewasoriginallyasmalldomethatintersectedthesurfaceattheapparentendofalargepassage,butashorttunnelhasbeendugtoprovideaccesstothecave.Fromthetunnelthepassageslopesgentlydownwardforahorizontaldistanceofabout200mtoa"p it'Tleadingdowntotheriverlevel.Thesectionofcavebeforethe'TpitTTisawelldecoratedpassagefrom25to40fthighand15to30ftwide.Thereappearstobeapassageatthelevelofthestreamabout30feetbelowthemainpassage,butthepassagewasnotenteredduetolackofequipment.Beyondthe'Tpit'Tisalarge,dryroomabout200ftlongand150ftwideand50fthigh.A25-30fthighpassagecontinuesfromthisroomoverlargepilesofbreakdownforabout200mtowhereitisnecessarytoclimbuptoaslightlyhigherlevel,wherethepassageappearedtocontinue.Timeforcedexplorationtoendhere.Theupperentranceofthecaveisreachedfromthelarge,dryroomviaapassagealongtheleftside(afterpassingtheTlpit")ofthisroomandthentoalowpassagewithatrenchduginthefloortoprovideclearance.Thislowpassageopensintothesideofthelargeroomatthebaseoftheupperentrancesink.Thisroomisabout200ftacrossand300tlong,and100fthigh,andslopessteeplyupwardtotheleftoverbreakdowntothebaseofthesurfacesink.Nearthebottomoftheroomisalargeformationtoppedwithaprecariouslyplacedcross.Thiswouldbeagoodareaforresearch,astheroadtothecaveiseasilypassablebypickupandcouldprobablybenegotiatedwithcarebyanoldercar.Theapparenthorizontalcontrolofcavedevelopmentwouldseemtoindicateextensiveshallowphreaticdevelopmentattwodifferent,well-definedbaselevels.Thisconditioncouldresultinalargehorizontalsystem. Date:16-21August1971Destination:Ahuacatlan,Qto.Location:SMO,Jalpan,AhuacatlanPersons:BlakeHarrison,KeithHeuss,DalePate,MikeWalsh,CharlesYeatesReportedby:DalePateWithafewhasslesattheborderwearrivedatCd.Vallesaboutnoonandatelunch.FromthereweheadedtoAhuacatlan,ourdestination,andbythenextmorningwewerebackpackingintothemountains.Blake,Keith,andMikeheadedupthemountaintocheckoutasmallcavelocatedintheMachoReydolina.CharlieandIheadedwestoverthetwomainpassestoRanchodeDerramadero.ThenextmorningweallmetattheRancho.BlakeIsgrouphadfoundtwosotanosthatlookedpromising,whileCharlieandIhikedallday.AftermeetingwesplitupandMikeandIcheckedthreepits(thedeepestbeingabout120ft),whileBlake,Keith,andCharliechecked

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72AMCSNewsseveralsmallsotanosalso.Wecomparednotesandnoneofthecaveswereverygood,sowedecidedtoheadbacktothehighway.ThenextdayfoundusinAhuacatlanandheadedbacktothestatesviaValledelosFantasmos,S.L.P.,andtheminingdistrictofRealdeCatorce.72AMCSNewsseveralsmallsotanosalso.Wecomparednotesandnoneofthecaveswereverygood,sowedecidedtoheadbacktothehighway.ThenextdayfoundusinAhuacatlanandheadedbacktothestatesviaValledelosFantasmos,S.L.P.,andtheminingdistrictofRealdeCatorce.

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74VERTICALTECHNIQUES:HairAMCSNewsRemovalCraigBittingerInthecourseofverticalcavingonewilleventuallyencounterasituationwheresomeonegetstheirhaircaughtinarackorbreakbars.Thesimplestsolutiontothisproblemistoeliminateitbeforeitoccursbyadvisingeveryonetotucktheirhairundertheirhardhat.However,whensomeone'shairdoesgetcaughtintheirrackaproblemimmediatelyarises:Howisthehairtoberemoved?Abottombelayshouldbeappliedtopreventtherackfromgettinganyclosertotheperson'shead.Atthispointadecisionshouldbemadeastotheimportanceoftheinvolvedhair.Ifitisofminimalimportancethenthepersonshouldpulloutapocketknifeandcuthishairfreefromtherackthenrappelondown.However,ifthehairisofmajorimportanceandworthalotoftrouble,thentherappellercansavehishair.Ifthepersonisstrongenoughhecandoaone-handedpullup,thusgettingthetensionofftherackandallowinganopprotunitytoextricatethehairwiththeotherhand.Unfortunately,thissolutionisimpracticalformostcaversandthereforeamoreinvolvedtechniquemustbeused.Anexperiencedcavercouldfollowthestepslistedbelow.1.Bottombelay2.AttachfootJumartoropebelowrack3.AttachanotherJumartoseatslingwithstrapallowingittobeattachedovertherack4.StandinfootJumarandslideuptopJumarthustransferingtheperson'sweightfromtheracktotheJumar5.Freeentangledhair6.Standup,uncliptopJumar,putweightbackonrack,unclipbottomJumar7.RappelOndownThismethodhasbeenusedpreviouslyandworksbecausetheplayintherack'scarabinerfromverticaltohorizontalallowsthetensiontobetransferedfromtheracktothetopJumar.Anysimilarsystemwhichallowstheremovaloftheperson'sweightfromtherackwouldprobablyworkequallywell.Unfortunately,thismethodisgenerallynotapplicabletobeginnerswhomightpanicorotherwiseneedassistance.Inacasesuchasthisanotherropeshouldberiggedadjacentandanexperiencedcavershoulddescendandhelpthepersontofreehishair.Ifanotherropeisnotavailableacaveronthebottomcouldclimbupbelowthepersonwhosehairiscaughtandrigthemuptoextricatethemselves.Thissolution,however,involvesanotherproblembecausethereshouldn'tbeanytensionbelowtherackoncetheperson'sweightisonthetopJumar.Thismeansthatthesecondcavershouldclimbaroundthefirstandhavehisweightabovethestrandedpersonduringthisphase.Removinghairfromarackisdifficultbutcanbedoneifapersontrulyvalueshishair.Toreinterate,thewholeproblemcanbeavoidedifacaverrShairisoutofthewayduringtheentirerappel.DonItgetcaught.74VERTICALTECHNIQUES:HairAMCSNewsRemovalCraigBittingerInthecourseofverticalcavingonewilleventuallyencounterasituationwheresomeonegetstheirhaircaughtinarackorbreakbars.Thesimplestsolutiontothisproblemistoeliminateitbeforeitoccursbyadvisingeveryonetotucktheirhairundertheirhardhat.However,whensomeone'shairdoesgetcaughtintheirrackaproblemimmediatelyarises:Howisthehairtoberemoved?Abottombelayshouldbeappliedtopreventtherackfromgettinganyclosertotheperson'shead.Atthispointadecisionshouldbemadeastotheimportanceoftheinvolvedhair.Ifitisofminimalimportancethenthepersonshouldpulloutapocketknifeandcuthishairfreefromtherackthenrappelondown.However,ifthehairisofmajorimportanceandworthalotoftrouble,thentherappellercansavehishair.Ifthepersonisstrongenoughhecandoaone-handedpullup,thusgettingthetensionofftherackandallowinganopprotunitytoextricatethehairwiththeotherhand.Unfortunately,thissolutionisimpracticalformostcaversandthereforeamoreinvolvedtechniquemustbeused.Anexperiencedcavercouldfollowthestepslistedbelow.1.Bottombelay2.AttachfootJumartoropebelowrack3.AttachanotherJumartoseatslingwithstrapallowingittobeattachedovertherack4.StandinfootJumarandslideuptopJumarthustransferingtheperson'sweightfromtheracktotheJumar5.Freeentangledhair6.Standup,uncliptopJumar,putweightbackonrack,unclipbottomJumar7.RappelOndownThismethodhasbeenusedpreviouslyandworksbecausetheplayintherack'scarabinerfromverticaltohorizontalallowsthetensiontobetransferedfromtheracktothetopJUITlar.AnysiITlilarsysteITlwhichallowsthereITlovaloftheperson'sweightfroITltherackwouldprobablyworkequallywell.Unfortunately,thisITlethodisgenerallynotapplicabletobeginnerswhoITlightpanicorotherwiseneedassistance.Inacasesuchasthisanotherropeshouldberiggedadjacentandanexperiencedcavershoulddescendandhelpthepersontofreehishair.IfanotherropeisnotavailableacaveronthebottoITlcouldcliITlbupbelowthepersonwhosehairiscaughtandrigthemuptoextricatetheITlselves.Thissolution,however,involvesanotherproblembecausethereshouldn'tbeanytensionbelowtherackoncetheperson'sweightisonthetopJUITlar.Thismeansthatthesecondcavershouldclimbaroundthefirstandhavehisweightabovethestrandedpersonduringthisphase.ReITlovinghairfromarackisdifficultbutcanbedoneifapersontrulyvalueshishair.Toreinterate,thewholeproblemcanbeavoidedifacaverrShairisoutofthewayduringtheentirerappel.DonItgetcaught.

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LAGRUTADECARRIZALACCIDENTREPORTThursdaymorning,25November-Fridaymorning,26November1971:groupsfromDallas,Houston,SanAngelo,andLubbock,TexasarriveintheBustamante,NuevoLeonareaofMexicoandmakecampinBustamanteCanyon.MuchofThursdayisspentinridingmotorcyclesthroughtheareaanditisdecidedtovisitnearbyGrutadeCarrizalonFriday.Friday,26November19711:30pm2:30pm3:00pm3:05pm3:10pm3:15pm3:20pm3:45pm4:30pm9:00pmThevariousgroupsarriveatthecave.SomeenterandgototheBafioCaliente(warmwater)siphon(seemaps)JonEverage(Houston---leaderoftheHoustongroup)makesseveralunsuccessfulattemptstoswimthroughthesiphon.Onthethirdorfourthtry,hefailstoreappearimmediately.RonnieFieseler,BillElliott,etal,watchingtheaction,becomeconcernedandsendforarope.Everagereturnsafterabout15minutes.Itisnotedatthistimethatthewaterisupslightly,andthusthesiphonisconsiderablylongerthanusual.Everagereportedthatonhisfinalattempt,hehadfirstcomeupinanairpocketbeforefinallyreachingtheairfilledroomontheothersideofthesiphon.ChrisClevelandentersthewateranddisappearsintothesiphon.Hisintenttoenterthesiphonwasapparentlynotcleartothosewatchingfromthebank.Theropearrives.BruceStonetiesintotheropewithabowline.Phil,aHoustonboyistobelayBruce.Signalsarearranged---ltugontheropewillindicatetrouble,andtwotugswillmeanthatalliswell.Apparently,noonecommentsthatthesignalsarereversedaccordingtocommonpractice.Brucethenentersthesiphon.Severaltugsarereportedfeltontheropeasthelastofapproximatelya50footlengthispaidout,Shortly,theropegoesslackandispulledback.Thoughtsatthistimearethatalliswell.ElliottandFieselerleavethecave,RemainderoftheHoustongroupkeepswatchatthesiphon.Everage,concernedatthelongabsence(notimehadbeenestablishedforthelengthofanyofthestaysbeyondthesiphon)entersthesiphonagain.EveragereturnsandreportsthatthereisnoevidencethateitherChrisorBruceevermadeitthroughthesiphon(notracksonmudfloor,etc.),Meanwhile,theremainderofthegroupnotsuspectingthatanythingisamissleavestheareaandreturnstocampinBustamanteCanyon.ThegroupcampedinBustamanteCanyonbecomesconcernedandstartstoreturntothecaveonlytoimmediatelymeetagroupoftheHoustonpeoplecomingtogetthem.TheHoustonpeoplehadbeenlost2-3hoursenroute.Everageandothershadstayedatthesiphonwithlightshopingtoguidetheboysback,Thegroupdivides,someremainingatcampandothersreturningtothecave,LAGRUTADECARRIZALACCIDENTREPORTThursdaymorning,25November-Fridaymorning,26November1971:groupsfromDallas,Houston,SanAngelo,andLubbock,TexasarriveintheBustamante,NuevoLeonareaofMexicoandmakecampinBustamanteCanyon.MuchofThursdayisspentinridingmotorcyclesthroughtheareaanditisdecidedtovisitnearbyGrutadeCarrizalonFriday.Friday,26November19711:30pm2:30pm3:00pm3:05pm3:10pm3:15pm3:20pm3:45pm4:30pm9:00pmThevariousgroupsarriveatthecave.SomeenterandgototheBanoCaliente(warmwater)siphon(seemaps)JonEverage(Houston---leaderoftheHoustongroup)makesseveralunsuccessfulattemptstoswimthroughthesiphon.Onthethirdorfourthtry,hefailstoreappearimmediately.RonnieFieseler,BillElliott,etaI,watchingtheaction,becomeconcernedandsendforarope.Everagereturnsafterabout15minutes.Itisnotedatthistimethatthewaterisupslightly,andthusthesiphonisconsiderablylongerthanusual.Everagereportedthatonhisfinalattempt,hehadfirstcomeupinanairpocketbeforefinallyreachingtheairfilledroomontheothersideofthesiphon.ChrisClevelandenterRthewateranddisappearsintothesiphon.Hisintenttoenterthesiphonwasapparentlynotcleartothosewatchingfromthebank.Theropearrives.BruceStonetiesintotheropewithabowline.Phil,aHoustonboyistobelayBruce.Signalsarearranged---ltugontheropewillindicatetrouble,andtwotugswillmeanthatalliswell.Apparently,noonecommentsthatthesignalsarereversedaccordingtocommonpractice.Brucethenentersthesiphon.Severaltugsarereportedfeltontheropeasthelastofapproximatelya50footlengthispaidout,Shortly,theropegoesslackandispulledback.Thoughtsatthistimearethatalliswell.ElliottandFieselerleavethecave,RemainderoftheHoustongroupkeepswatchatthesiphon.Everage,concernedatthelongabsence(notimehadbeenestablishedforthelengthofanyofthestaysbeyondthesiphon)entersthesiphonagain.EveragereturnsandreportsthatthereisnoevidencethateitherChrisorBruceevermadeitthroughthesiphon(notracksonmudfloor,etc.),Meanwhile,theremainderofthegroupnotsuspectingthatanythingisamissleavestheareaandreturnstocampinBustamanteCanyon.ThegroupcampedinBustamanteCanyonbecomesconcernedandstartstoreturntothecaveonlytoimmediatelymeetagroupoftheHoustonpeoplecomingtogetthem.TheHoustonpeoplehadbeenlost2-3hoursenroute.Everageandothershadstayedatthesiphonwithlightshopingtoguidetheboysback,Thegroupdivides,someremainingatcampandothersreturningtothecave,

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7610:30prnAMCSNewsThegrouparrivesatthecaveandenters.Therehasstillbeennosignoftheboys.Ashortconferenceisheldinthecaveandcontinuedoutside.Thedecisionismadetocallforhelp.Atthispoint,approximately8hourshavepassedsinceChrisenteredthesiphon.Twopeoplearelefttokeepwatchatthesiphon.Saturday,27November197112:05am12:15am12:45am2:30am2:45am3:00am3:15am3:25am3:40am3:45am4:00am4:15am4:20am4:30am4:35amArriveBustamante.Nopeopleareabout.Nophoneava.Ii.abLe,ArriveVillaldama.Nopeopleareabout.Nophoneava.Hable,ArriveSabinasHidalgo.FindtelephoneatBusStation.Calls:Americanconsul,NuevoLareddnoanswer),Americanconsul,Monterrey(noanswer),AmericanEmbassy,MexicoCity(noanswer---theoperatorexplainsthatalthoughtheyhaveaspecialnightphone,"Theyneveranswerthenightphone."),LutherBundrant(TexasSpeleologicalAssociationRescueCoordinator),SanAntonio,Texas(noanswer).ContactCarlKunathinSanAngelo,Texasandpartiallyexplainproblem.RequestthatKunathlocatecavediversandtrytogetthemthereassoonaspossible.Planisforsometoreturntothecave,sometobepostedatBustamante-Candelaturnoff,andsometoremainbythephoneinSabinasHidalgo.KunathcallsBundrant,Noanswer.KunathcallsRaneCurl,AnnArborMichigan.CurliscurrentNSSpresidentandpastNSSSafetyChairman.Obtainnamesandaddressesofseveralpeopleandorganizationsthatmighthelp.KunathCallsKennethLaidlaw,Berkeley,California.LaidlawiscurrentNSSSafetyChairman.Noanswer.KunathcallsSouthernArizonaRescueAssociation,Tucson,Arizona.Mostoftheirdiversareelsewhere,buttheywilltrytolocateandwillcallback.KunathcallsBundrant,Noanswer.KunathcallsJohnMcLean,Albuquerque,NewMexico.Johnisnotadiverbutwillcallaroundandreturnthecall.McLeancallsKunath.Hadlocatedonlyonediverandhedidnotfeelqualifiedtoleadsucharescue.KunathcallsJamesStorey,Atlanta,Georgia.Noanswer.Storeyisactiveincavediving.KunathcallsNormanRobinson,Austin,Texas.Noanswer.Robinsonhasdonesomecavediving.KunathcallsGeorgeYeary,Dallas,Texas.Yearyhaddonesomecavediving,butsaidthathisgearwasnotincondition.Hecouldnothelpanddidn'tknowanyonethatcould.Meanwhile,allbuttwoofthegrouphavereturnedtoBustamanteCanyonfromSabinasHidalgo.Thegroupdivides,someremainingatcamp,otherscampingatthehighwayintersectionleadingtothecave,andstillothersreturningtothecave.KunathcallsTommyPhillips,Austin,Texas.ReacheswrongTommyPhillipsandcangetnoothernumber.Tommyisanexperiencedcavediver.7610:30pmAMCSNewsThegrouparrivesatthecaveandenters.Therehasstillbeennosignoftheboys.Ashortconferenceisheldinthecaveandcontinuedoutside.Thedecisionismadetocallforhelp.Atthispoint,approximately8hourshavepassedsinceChrisenteredthesiphon.Twopeoplearelefttokeepwatchatthesiphon.Saturday,27November197112:05am12:15am12:45am2:30am2:45am3:00am3:15am3:25am3:40am3:45am4:00am4:15am4:20am4:30am4:35amArriveBustamante.Nopeopleareabout.Nophoneavaliable.ArriveVillaldama.Nopeopleareabout.Nophoneavaliable.ArriveSabinasHidalgo.FindtelephoneatBusStation.Calls:Americanconsul,NuevoLaredc(noanswer),Americanconsul,Monterrey(noanswer),AmericanEmbassy,MexicoCity(noanswer---theoperatorexplainsthatalthoughtheyhaveaspecialnightphone,"Theyneveranswerthenightphone.II)'LutherBundrant(TexasSpeleologicalAssociationRescueCoordinator),SanAntonio,Texas(noanswer).ContactCarlKunathinSanAngelo,Texasandpartiallyexplainproblem.RequestthatKunathlocatecavediversandtrytogetthemthereassoonaspossible.Planisforsometoreturntothecave,sometobepostedatBustamante-Candelaturnoff,andsometoremainbythephoneinSabinasHidalgo.KunathcallsBundrant.Noanswer.KunathcallsRaneCurl,AnnArborMichigan.CurliscurrentNSSpresidentandpastNSSSafetyChairman.Obtainnamesandaddressesofseveralpeopleandorganizationsthatmighthelp.KunathCallsKennethLaidlaw,Berkeley,California.LaidlawiscurrentNSSSafetyChairman.Noanswer.KunathcallsSouthernArizonaRescueAssociation,Tucson,Arizona.Mostoftheirdiversareelsewhere,buttheywilltrytolocateandwillcallback.KunathcallsBundrant.Noanswer.KunathcallsJohnMcLean,Albuquerque,NewMexico.Johnisnotadiverbutwillcallaroundandreturnthecall.McLeancallsKunath.Hadlocatedonlyonediverandhedidnotfeelqualifiedtoleadsucharescue.KunathcallsJamesStorey,Atlanta,Georgia.Noanswer.Storeyisactiveincavediving.KunathcallsNormanRobinson,Austin,Texas.Noanswer.Robinsonhasdonesomecavediving.KunathcallsGeorgeYeary,Dallas,Texas.Yearyhaddonesomecavediving,butsaidthathisgearwasnotincondition.Hecouldnothelpanddidn'tknowanyonethatcould.Meanwhile,allbuttwoofthegrouphavereturnedtoBustamanteCanyonfromSabinasHidalgo.Thegroupdivides,someremainingatcamp,otherscampingatthehighwayintersectionleadingtothecave,andstillothersreturningtothecave.KunathcallsTommyPhillips,Austin,Texas.ReacheswrongTommyPhillipsandcangetnoothernumber.Tommyisanexperiencedcavediver.

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v.IIIno.44:40am4:45am5:00am5:10am5:15am5:18am5:35am6:00am6:10am6:20am6:30am8:00am8:05am8:10am77KunathcallsNationalCaveDivingAssociation,Miami,Florida.Noanswer.KunathcallsDonnaMroczkowski,St.Louis,Missouri.Reacheswrongparty,getscorrectnumberandtalkstoMroczkowskiwhosayssheknowsseveralcavedivers.Shewillcheckaroundandreturncall.ArizonaRescueAssociationcallsKunath.SaysonediverhasgonecavinginGrandCanyon,anotherdiverisdivingnearGuaymas,Mexico.Theywillkeeptryingandwillreturncall.ConwayChristensen,Kirkwood,MissouricallsKunathafterhavingbeencontactedbyMroczkowski.Christensensayshecangetagroupofdiverstogetherquickly.Kunathtellshimhewilltrytoarrangetransportforhimandwillcallback.KunathcallsGoodfellowAirForceBase,SanAngelo,Texas.Talkstodutyofficer.KunathisswitchedtoRandolphAirForceBase,SanAntonio,Texas.Explainssituationagain.KunathispatchedthroughtoScottAirForceBase,St.Louis.Explainssituationagain,emphasisesneedforquickaction,andlistensasthebuckispassedallthewaytoWashington,D.C.Manypeoplecomeonthelinetoaskquestions.Mostwanttoknowifhelpisneededformilitarypersonnel.OnlythepartyatRandolphexpressesanyconcernoverthesituation.KunathistoldbyofficialinWashingtonthatAirForcewillnotprovidetransportsolongastherearecommercialflightsavailable.KunathobtainsphonenumbersofU.S.SenatorsfromTexas.ConwayChristensencallsKunath.SayshethinkshecangetaNationalGuardplanetoflythemastheNationalGuardhadpreviouslyassuredhimthattheywouldprovidethisserviceincaseofemergency.ChristensensaysthattheywillneedofficialconfirmationoftheemergencyandisgivenBillElliott'snameandhislocationandphonenumberinSabinasHidalgo.MroczkowskicallsKunathwantingtoknowsituation.Istold.ChristensencallsKunath.SaysNationalGuardwillnotprovideaflight,butthatEasternAirlineswill.SaysthattheSheriffofWebbCounty,TexaswillsendsomeonetotalktoElloittinordertoconfirmtheemergencyandthattheywillbeintheairsoonaftertheconfirmationisreceivedbyEasternAirlines.KunathcallsElliott.TellshimthattheChristensengroupwillbeonthewaysoonandthatElliottshouldstandbyinordertoprovideinformationtothelocalJefe,AtthistimeKunathlearnsthatEveragehadbeenthroughthesiphonthesecondtimeandhadseennotracesoftheboys.ElliottandKunathagreethatthereislittlechancefortheboystobefoundalive.Atthistime,over16hourshavepassedsincethefirstboyenteredthesiphon.ChiefofRuralPoliceinSabinasHidalgotalkstoElliottwhoexplainsandasksforassistancewithU.S.CustomsfortheSt.Louisgroup.v.IIIno.44:40alTI4:45alTI5:00alTI 5:10alTI 5:15alTI 5:18alTI5:35alTI6:00alTI6:10alTI6:20alTI6:30alTI8:00alTI8:05alTI8:10alTI77KunathcallsNationalCaveDivingAssociation,Miami,Florida.Noanswer.KunathcallsDonnaMroczkowski,St.Louis,Missouri.Reacheswrongparty,getscorrectnumberandtalkstoMroczkowskiwhosayssheknowsseveralcavedivers.Shewillcheckaroundandreturncall.ArizonaRescueAssociationcallsKunath.SaysonediverhasgonecavinginGrandCanyon,anotherdiverisdivingnearGuaymas,Mexico.Theywillkeeptryingandwillreturncall.ConwayChristensen,Kirkwood,MissouricallsKunathafterhavingbeencontactedbyMroczkowski.Christensensayshecangetagroupofdiverstogetherquickly.Kunathtellshimhewilltrytoarrangetransportforhimandwillcallback.KunathcallsGoodfellowAirForceBase,SanAngelo,Texas.Talkstodutyofficer.KunathisswitchedtoRandolphAirForceBase,SanAntonio,Texas.Explainssituationagain.KunathispatchedthroughtoScottAirForceBase,St.Louis.Explainssituationagain,elTIphasisesneedforquickaction,andlistensasthebuckispassedallthewaytoWashington,D.C.Manypeoplecomeonthelinetoaskquestions.Mostwanttoknowifhelpisneededformilitarypersonnel.OnlythepartyatRandolphexpressesanyconcernoverthesituation.KunathistoldbyofficialinWashingtonthatAirForcewillnotprovidetransportsolongastherearecommercialflightsavailable.KunathobtainsphonenumbersofU.S.SenatorsfromTexas.ConwayChristensencallsKunath.SayshethinkshecangetaNationalGuardplanetoflythemastheNationalGuardhadpreviouslyassuredhilTIthattheywouldprovidethisserviceincaseofemergency.ChristensensaysthattheywillneedofficialconfirmationoftheeITlergencyandisgivenBillElliott'snaITleandhislocationandphonenumberinSabinasHidalgo.MroczkowskicallsKunathwantingtoknowsituation.Istold.ChristensencallsKunath.SaysNationalGuardwillnotprovideaflight,butthatEasternAirlineswill.SaysthattheSheriffofWebbCounty,TexaswillsendsomeonetotalktoElloittinordertoconfirmtheemergencyandthattheywillbeintheairsoonaftertheconfirlTIationisreceivedbyEasternAirlines.KunathcallsElliott.TellshimthattheChristensengroupwillbeonthewaysoonandthatElliottshouldstandbyinordertoprovideinforITlationtothelocalJefe,AtthistimeKunathlearnsthatEveragehadbeenthroughthesiphonthesecondtimeandhadseennotracesoftheboys.ElliottandKunathagreethatthereislittlechancefortheboystobefoundalive.Atthistime,over16hourshavepassedsincethefirstboyenteredthesiphon.ChiefofRuralPoliceinSabinasHidalgotalkstoElliottwhoexplainsandasksforassistancewithU.S.CustomsfortheSt.Louisgroup.

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788:25am9:00am9:30am9:45am9:50am10:30am10:55am11:00am1l:25am1l:30am12:05pm1:00pm1:10pm1:30pm2:00pmAMCSNewsBillElliottandRonnieFieselergototheSabinasHidalgoPolicestationandcalltheAmericanconsulwhotellsthemtocalltheAmericanconselinNuevoLaredo.TheAmericanconsulinNuevoLaredo,LeeCotterman,sayshewilltrytoassistattheborder.ElliottandFieselerreturntotheBusStation.ChiefDeputySheriffofWebbCounty,Texas(Laredo,Texas)callsElliottandsaysthathehasalocalrescueteamlinedup.Hesays"Theybeeninallthemcaves."Elliottquestionstheprudenceofthissincehehasneverheardofthegroup,butcandonothingtostoptheircoming.ElliottcallsKunathandpassesonthenewsoftheLaredogroup.KunathhasnoknowledgeofthegroupandsharesElliott'sfeelingsaboutthem.BothagreethattheSt.Louisgroupisstillneeded.KunathcallsChristensenandtellshimoftheLaredogroup.KunathsaysthattheSt.LouisgroupisstillneededandsaysthatnoonehasyetbeenbytogetconfirmationfromElliott.(ItisuncertainifeithertheWebbCountyDeputySheriffortheSabinasHidalgoPolicemanwasdoingthis.)JerryLindsey,leaderoftheLaredogroupcallsElliott.Elliottissomewhatreassuredafterthisconversation.Lindseysaysthattheywillbeonthewayin20minutes.(TheLaredogrouphadsometroubleobtainingair,eventuallyputtingoutacallonthelocalradiostationandleavingwithonlythreebottles.)ElliottreturnstothePoliceStationtoarrangefortransportofthebodiesintheeventthisisnecessary.FieselertakesthebustoLaredo,hopingtomeettheSt.Louisgroupattheborderandguidethemtothecave.ElliottreturnstotheBusStation.ArizonaRescuecallsKunath.Theyhavelocatedonemanandarecontinuingthesearchforothers.Willcontinuecheckingin.Fieseler'sbusbreaksdownnearthe20Kcheckpoint(Aduana).Fieselerwalkstocheckpoint.HispapersshowthathehastakenavehicleintoMexicoandtheOfficialswillnotlethimthroughthecheckpointwithoutit.FieselerfinallytalksthemintocallingCotterman.Noanswer.Next,theycalltheassistantconsulinNuevoLaredo,aMr.Gardner.Gardnerhadnotevenheardoftheaccidentandsaidhewouldcallback.DavidKeeper,fatherofoneoftheHoustonboys,callsElliottrequestingdetailsofthesituation.Elliotttellshimmostofthestory.(ItisnotknownatthistimehowMr.KeeperwasabletoobtainElliott'slocation,orevenhowheheardoftheaccidentv]Elliottleavesforthecave.StopsinBustamanteandsendsotherstostandbythephoneinSabinasHidalgo.FieselerispermittedtopassthroughthecheckpointafterGardnercallsandtalkstotheofficials.FieselerhitchesridetoLaredo.ChristensencallsKunath.SaysthatEasternAirlinesflighthasbeenconfirmed.St.Louisgroupwillleaveat4:30pmandflytoCorpusChristi,Texas.Ahelicopterwilltakethemdirectlytothecavethefollowingmorning.788:25am9:00am9:30am9:45am9:50am10:30am10:55am11:00am1l:25am1l:30am12:05pm1:00pm1:10pm1:30pm2:00pmAMCSNewsBillElliottandRonnieFieselergototheSabinasHidalgoPolicestationandcalltheAmericanconsulwhotellsthemtocalltheAmericanconselinNuevoLaredo.TheAmericanconsulinNuevoLaredo,LeeCotterman,sayshewilltrytoassistattheborder.ElliottandFieselerreturntotheBusStation.ChiefDeputySheriffofWebbCounty,Texas(Laredo,Texas)callsElliottandsaysthathehasalocalrescueteamlinedup.Hesays"Theybeeninallthemcaves."Elliottquestionstheprudenceofthissincehehasneverheardofthegroup,butcandonothingtostoptheircorning.ElliottcallsKunathandpassesonthenewsoftheLaredogroup.KunathhasnoknowledgeofthegroupandsharesElliott'sfeelingsaboutthem.BothagreethattheSt.Louisgroupisstillneeded.KunathcallsChristensenandtellshimoftheLaredogroup.KunathsaysthattheSt.LouisgroupisstillneededandsaysthatnoonehasyetbeenbytogetconfirmationfromElliott.(ItisuncertainifeithertheWCountyDeputySheriffortheSabinasHidalgoPolicemanwasdoingthis.)JerryLindsey,leaderoftheLaredogroupcallsElliott.Elliottissomewhatreassuredafterthisconversation.Lindseysaysthattheywillbeonthewayin20minutes.(TheLaredogrouphadsometroubleobtainingair,eventuallyputtingoutacallonthelocalradiostationandleavingwithonlythreebottles.)ElliottreturnstothePoliceStationtoarrangefortransportofthebodiesintheeventthisisnecessary.FieselertakesthebustoLaredo,hopingtomeettheSt.Louisgroupattheborderandguidethemtothecave.ElliottreturnstotheBusStation.ArizonaRescuecallsKunath.Theyhavelocatedonemanandarecontinuingthesearchforothers.Willcontinuecheckingin.Fieseler'sbusbreaksdownnearthe20Kcheckpoint(Aduana).Fieselerwalkstocheckpoint.HispapersshowthathehastakenavehicleintoMexicoandtheOfficialswillnotlethimthroughthecheckpointwithoutit.FieselerfinallytalksthemintocallingCotterman.Noanswer.Next,theycalltheassistantconsulinNuevoLaredo,aMr.Gardner.Gardnerhadnotevenheardoftheaccidentandsaidhewouldcallback.DavidKeeper,fatherofoneoftheHoustonboys,callsElliottrequestingdetailsofthesituation.Elliotttellshimmostofthestory.(ItisnotknownatthistimehowMr.KeeperwasabletoobtainElliott'slocation,orevenhowheheardoftheaccident.)Elliottleavesforthecave.StopsinBustamanteandsendsotherstostandbythephoneinSabinasHidalgo.FieselerispermittedtopassthroughthecheckpointafterGardnercallsandtalkstotheofficials.FieselerhitchesridetoLaredo.ChristensencallsKunath.SaysthatEasternAirlinesflighthasbeenconfirmed.St.Louisgroupwillleaveat4:30pmandflytoCorpusChristi,Texas.Ahelicopterwilltakethemdirectlytothecavethefollowingmorning.

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v,IIIno.42:10pm3:00pm3:10pm3:15pm4:10pm5:00pm5:15pm5:50pm6:25pm6:45pm7:00pm8:40pm8:45pm9:00pm10:15pm79KunathcallsBusStationinSabinasHidalgo,butElliotthasleft.Meanwhile,FieselerhasreachedtheLaredo/NuevoLaredoborderandmettheLaredogroup.Fieselergivesthemthecompletestoryandtheyleave.FieselercallsCottermanandtellshimthelatest.CottermansayswemaynotneedtheSt.LouisgroupnowandrequeststhatFieselercallthemanddiscussthesituation.FieselercallsChristensenbutthelineisbusy.FieselercallsKunathandexplainsthesituation.BothFieselerandKunathagreethattheSt.LouisgroupshouldstillcomeastheLaredogroupisnotknowntobecompetentandevenso,theymayneedassistance.FieselercallsCottermanagainandlearnsthatCottermanhasjustbeentalkingtoSt.Louisgroup(thusthebusyphonewhenFieselercalled),andhascancelledthem(cancelledtheirflightthroughEasternAirlines).CottermanmaintainsthattheLaredopeoplecanhandleitandstilldoesn'tseemtounderstandexactlywhatisinvolvedinasituationsuchasthis.MeanwhileLouisePower(Houston)hasjustheardasmallnewsspotaboutacavingaccidentinMexicoinvolvingHoustonboysandcallsKunathtoseewhatheknows.Sheistoldthefullstory.Elliottarrivesatthecavewiththenewsthattworescueteamsareontheway.ChristensencallsKunathwiththenewsthatCottermanhasjustcancelledtheirflight.BotharethoroughlydisgustedwithCotterman'sactions,andfearthataworseemergencymaybeinthemaking.PowercallsKunathrequestingnews.Nothingnew.Laredoteamarrivesatthecave.Laredoteamentersthecaveandestablishesalinethroughthesiphon.Nosignofthemissingboys.Atthistime,26hourshavepassedsincethefirstboyenteredthesiphon.BlairPittman(HoustonChroniclephotographerandcaver)callsrequestingnews.Istoldbarefacts.Namesofmissingboysarewithheld.FieselerleavesontrainforCandela,Coahuila(afewmilesfromthecave).PowercallsKunathrequestingnews.Nothingnew.Laredoteamendsdivingfortheday,havingmadeaseconddivesearchingdeepandtotheleft.Oneoftheboys'flashlightswasfoundbutthewaterbecametoomurky(visibilitylessthan1foot)tocontinuediving.Atthispoint,thediverswereshortofairandexpresseddoubtsastotheirabilitytocarryonwiththerescue.HoustonChroniclecallsKunathfornews.Isgivennothing.LaredodiversgotoBustamantetoeat.Theyarelookingforwardtothearrivalofasecondteam.FieselerarrivesCandelawiththenewsthattheSt.Louisgroupisnotcoming.Moralereachesalltimelowatthispoint.HoustonPostcallsKunath(Itisnotknownhowtheyobtainedhisnumberandthecallerrefusedtogiveanyinformationastohissources).Posthadcorrectnamesoftheboysandwantedconfirmationwhichwasnotgiven.v.IIIno.42:10pm3:00pm3:10pm3:15pm4:10pm5:00pm5:15pm5:50pm6:25pm6:45pm7:00pm8:40pm8:45pm9:00pm10:15pm79KunathcallsBusStationinSabinasHidalgo,butElliotthasleft.Meanwhile,FieselerhasreachedtheLaredo/NuevoLaredoborderandmettheLaredogroup.Fieselergivesthemthecompletestoryandtheyleave.FieselercallsCottermanandtellshimthelatest.CottermansayswemaynotneedtheSt.LouisgroupnowandrequeststhatFieselercallthemanddiscussthesituation.FieselercallsChristensenbutthelineisbusy.FieselercallsKunathandexplainsthesituation.BothFieselerandKunathagreethattheSt.LouisgroupshouldstillcomeastheLaredogroupisnotknowntobecompetentandevenso,theymayneedassistance.FieselercallsCottermanagainandlearnsthatCottermanhasjustbeentalkingtoSt.Louisgroup(thusthebusyphonewhenFieselercalled),andhascancelledthem(cancelledtheirflightthroughEasternAirlines).CottermanmaintainsthattheLaredopeoplecanhandleitandstilldoesn'tseemtounderstandexactlywhatisinvolvedinasituationsuchasthis.MeanwhileLouisePower(Houston)hasjustheardasmallnewsspotaboutacavingaccidentinMexicoinvolvingHoustonboysandcallsKunathtoseewhatheknows.Sheistoldthefullstory.Elliottarrivesatthecavewiththenewsthattworescueteamsareontheway.ChristensencallsKunathwiththenewsthatCottermanhasjustcancelledtheirflight.BotharethoroughlydisgustedwithCotterman'sactions,andfearthataworseemergencymaybeinthemaking.PowercallsKunathrequestingnews.Nothingnew.Laredoteamarrivesatthecave.Laredoteamentersthecaveandestablishesalinethroughthesiphon.Nosignofthemissingboys.Atthistime,26hourshavepassedsincethefirstboyenteredthesiphon.BlairPittman(HoustonChroniclephotographerandcaver)callsrequestingnews.Istoldbarefacts.Namesofmissingboysarewithheld.FieselerleavesontrainforCandela,Coahuila(afewmilesfromthecave).PowercallsKunathrequestingnews.Nothingnew.Laredoteamendsdivingfortheday,havingmadeaseconddivesearchingdeepandtotheleft.Oneoftheboys'flashlightswasfoundbutthewaterbecametoomurky(visibilitylessthan1foot)tocontinuediving.Atthispoint,thediverswereshortofairandexpresseddoubtsastotheirabilitytocarryonwiththerescue.HoustonChroniclecallsKunathfornews.Isgivennothing.LaredodiversgotoBustamantetoeat.Theyarelookingforwardtothearrivalofasecondteam.FieselerarrivesCandelawiththenewsthattheSt.Louisgroupisnotcoming.Moralereachesalltimelowatthispoint.HoustonPostcallsKunath(Itisnotknownhowtheyobtainedhisnumberandthecallerrefusedtogiveanyinformationastohissources).Posthadcorrectnamesoftheboysandwantedconfirmationwhichwasnotgiven.

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8011:15pm1l:20pm11:30pmAMCSNewsHoustonChroniclecallsKunathfornews.Isgivennothingnew.PowerCallsKunathrequestingnews.Nothingisnew.Diversreturntocampatthecaveandallretireforthenight.Sunday,28November19712:30am7:30am8:30am9:00am10:00am11:00am12:30pm12:40pm12:55pm1:00pm2:00pm2:10pm2:15pm2:25pm2:30pm4:30pm5:00pm5:30pm7:10pmMembersofgroupstationedinSabinasHidalgoreturntothecave.Laredodiversre-enterthecaveandenterthesiphonagain.Bodiesofthetwoboysarelocatedneartheceilingabout40-50feetfromtheentrancetothesiphon.(41hourshavepassed,]Wordispassedtothosewaitingoutsidethecaveandtheyentertoassistinremovingthebodies.Allbodiesandequipmentoutofthecave.SometakebodiestoCandelatocompletenecessarypaperworkwhileothersreturntoBustamanteCanyontoorganizeremainderofHoustongroupandpreparetoleave.GrouparrivinginBustamanteCanyonfindsgroupthereinmassconfusionandseeminglyunconcernedaboutrecentevents.Theirvehiclehasabrokenaxleandmustbeabandoned.PowercallsKunathwiththenewsthatbothHoustonpapershaveprintedthenamesoftheboysinsomeratherinaccuratestories.Shehasbeenincontactwiththeparentsofbothboys.PowercallsKunathwiththenewsthatbothboysaredead.Shewasinformedbytheparentsofoneoftheboyswhohadjustbeennotified.EntiregroupleavesBustamantearea.KunathcallsChristensenandcancelswiththanks.KunathcallsArizonaRescue.NoAnswer.GroupstopsinSabinasHidalgotopackthebodiesinice.KunathcallsArizonaRescue.Noanswer.ElliottcallsCotterman.Noanswer.CallsGardner(Assistantconsul,NuevoLaredo)andrequestspoliceescorttoborderandassistanceinclearingUSCustoms.Gardnerisstilluninformedandisnoncommitalandunconcernedaboutthewholeaffair.AfterseverallengthypausesonGardner'spart,Elliotthangsupindisgust.GroupleavesforLaredo.HoustonPostcallsKunathfordetails.Aretoldtheycanhavethecompleteandaccuratestoryassoonasheknowsit.Groupreachestheborder.NoescorthasbeenprovidedandGardnerhasnotsomuchascalledtotellU.S.Customsthegroupwasontheway.GroupclearsCustoms.Ambulancearrivestotakebodiestolocalfuneralhome.KunathcallsArizonaRescueandcancelswiththanks.TotalelapsedtimebetweengroupenteringthecaveandclearingU.S.Customs:52hours.8011:15pm1l:20pm11:30pmAMCSNewsHoustonChroniclecallsKunathfornews.Isgivennothingnew.PowerCallsKunathrequestingnews.Nothingisnew.Diversreturntocampatthecaveandallretireforthenight.Sunday,28November19712:30am7:30am8:30am9:00am10:00am11:00am12:30pm12:40pm12:55pm1:00pm2:00pm2:10pm2:15pm2:25pm2:30pm4:30pm5:00pm5:30pm7:10pmMembersofgroupstationedinSabinasHidalgoreturntothecave.Laredodiversre-enterthecaveandenterthesiphonagain.Bodiesofthetwoboysarelocatedneartheceilingabout40-50feetfromtheentrancetothesiphon.(41hourshavepassed.)Wordispassedtothosewaitingoutsidethecaveandtheyentertoassistinremovingthebodies.Allbodiesandequipmentoutofthecave.SometakebodiestoCandelatocompletenecessarypaperworkwhileothersreturntoBustamanteCanyontoorganizeremainderofHoustongroupandpreparetoleave.GrouparrivinginBustamanteCanyonfindsgroupthereinmassconfusionandseeminglyunconcernedaboutrecentevents.Theirvehiclehasabrokenaxleandmustbeabandoned.PowercallsKunathwiththenewsthatbothHoustonpapershaveprintedthenamesoftheboysinsomeratherinaccuratestories.Shehasbeenincontactwiththeparentsofbothboys.PowercallsKunathwiththenewsthatbothboysaredead.Shewasinformedbytheparentsofoneoftheboyswhohadjustbeennotified.EntiregroupleavesBustamantearea.KunathcallsChristensenandcancelswiththanks.KunathcallsArizonaRescue.NoAnswer.GroupstopsinSabinasHidalgotopackthebodiesinice.KunathcallsArizonaRescue.Noanswer.ElliottcallsCotterman.Noanswer.CallsGardner(Assistantconsul,NuevoLaredo)andrequestspoliceescorttoborderandassistanceinclearingUSCustoms.Gardnerisstilluninformedandisnoncommitalandunconcernedaboutthewholeaffair.AfterseverallengthypausesonGardner'spart,Elliotthangsupindisgust.GroupleavesforLaredo.HoustonPostcallsKunathfordetails.Aretoldtheycanhavethecompleteandaccuratestoryassoonasheknowsit.Groupreachestheborder.NoescorthasbeenprovidedandGardnerhasnotsomuchascalledtotellU.S.Customsthegroupwasontheway.GroupclearsCustoms.Ambulancearrivestotakebodiestolocalfuneralhome.KunathcallsArizonaRescueandcancelswiththanks.TotalelapsedtimebetweengroupenteringthecaveandclearingU.S.Customs:52hours.

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v.IIIno.4COMMENTSiphondivinginitselfisdangerous.TheCarrizalsiphonisespeciallytreacherousinthatitisnotasimpletubethatonecanfollowblindly.Toreachtheair-filledroomonemuststaytotheright.Atlowwaterstages,itisabout10-15feethorizontaldistancetotheotherside.Whenthewaterisonlyalittlehigher,thelengthofthesiphonisgreatlyincreased.Atthetimeofthisincident,thewaterwasupperhapsafoot,butthesiphonwasabout25feetlong.Toreachtheotherside,onemustdiveatleast10feetdeepandfollowtheceiling.Thewaterontherightsideisabout15feetdeep.Totheleft,thefloordropsofftoatleast40feetdeepandthereareseveralsmallairpocketsintheceiling.Thebodieswerefoundtotheleft,40-50feetfromtheentrancetothesiphon.Stone'sbodywasfloatingagainsttheceiling.Cleveland'sbodywaswithin15feetofStone'sandwasneutralinthewater.Seemapsbelow......SKETCHMAPS-BANOCALIENTEGRUTADECARRIZAL81PLANB-B-ELLIOTTaKUNATH12-71o1020AIR-FILLEDROO"'"A-10FEET20v.IIIno.4COMMENTSiphondivinginitselfisdangerous.TheCarrizalsiphonisespeciallytreacherousinthatitisnotasimpletubethatonecanfollowblindly.Toreachtheair-filledroomonemuststaytotheright.Atlowwaterstages,itisabout10-15feethorizontaldistancetotheotherside.Whenthewaterisonlyalittlehigher,thelengthofthesiphonisgreatlyincreased.Atthetimeofthisincident,thewaterwasupperhapsafoot,butthesiphonwasabout25feetlong.Toreachtheotherside,onemustdiveatleast10feetdeepandfollowtheceiling.Thewaterontherightsideisabout15feetdeep.Totheleft,thefloordropsofftoatleast40feetdeepandthereareseveralsmallairpocketsintheceiling.Thebodieswerefoundtotheleft,40-50feetfromtheentrancetothesiphon.Stone'sbodywasfloatingagainsttheceiling.Cleveland'sbodywaswithin15feetofStone'sandwasneutralinthewater.Seemapsbelow......SKETCHMAPS-BANOCALIENTEGRUTADECARRIZAL81PLANB-B-ELLIOTTaKUNATH12-71o1020AIR-FILLEDROO"'"A-10FEET20

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82ERRORSDIRECTLYCONTRffiUTINGTOTHEACCIDENTAMCSNews1)ThegroupfromHoustonwe-.slargeandinadequatelysupervised.Everagewasresponsiblefor14people.Theywerealsoill-equippedandinexperiencedandwereentirelytoocasualaboutgoingtoMexico,moresoaboutcavinginMexico.2)Everage,groupleaderoftheHoustongroup,setapoorexampleindivingthesiphonwithouttakingtheslightestsafetyprecautions.3)Cleveland,anearnovicecaver,attemptedthesamefeatasEverage.EveragesaidthathedidnotknowClevelandwasinthewaterorofhisintentionsandthatatthetimehewasdressingonthebankwithhisbackturned.4)Stone,acompletenoviceonhisfirstcavingtrip,wasallowedtoenterthesiphon,hisintentionsperfectlyclear.Aropewasused,butwasentrustedtoacompletelyinexperiencedbelayman,andthesignalswhichwerearrangedwerebackward.Again,notimelimitwasdiscussedfortheirproposedventure.5)Sofarascanbedetermined,atnotimewaseitheroftheboysinstructedasthethephysicalnatureofthesiphon,nordidtheyinquire.PROBLEMSCOMPLICATINGTHERESCUEEFFORT1)FewcaversgotoMexicowithadequatecontingencyplansincaseofanemergency.Aftertheincident,theHoustongroupwashelplessandcouldhavedonelittletoorganizearescue.Luckily,someofthenon-HoustongroupspokeSpanishandknewwhattodo.2)Communicationproblems.a)TheaccidentwasinMexico,butAmericanswereneededtohelp.b)ThiswasamajorholidayweekendforAmericans.Manyofthepeoplewhomighthavebeenabletohelpwereunavaliable,beinginvolvedinvariousholidaytripsthemselves(thiswasonlythesecondtimein8yearsthatKunathhadbeenhomeduringThanksgiving).c)Alackofinformationaboutwhomightbequalifiedtohelp,andtheabsenceofanyback-upnumbersforsomekeypeople(Laidlaw,FloridaRescue,Bundrant,etc)whomighthavebeenabletohelp.3)ThehelpreceivedfromtheAmericanGovernmentwasworsethanuseless.TheAmericanEmbassyinMexicoCityhasanemergencyphone,butnoonewouldanswerit.AfterwastinganhourofKunath'stime,theAirForcerefusedtoflytheSt.Louisdivers,eventoLaredo,solongasanycommercialtransportwasava.l.iable,TheAmericanconsulinNuevoLaredo(LeeCotterman)cancelledtheSt.Louisdiver'sflightwhentheLaredodiverswerecontacted---thiscouldhavebeenaseriousmistakeshouldhelphavebeenneeded.Oncethebodieswererecovered,theassistantconsulinNuevoLaredo(Gardner)wascontactedandaskedtoprovideapoliceescorttoNuevoLaredoandthroughtheheavyholidaytraffic.HewasalsorequestedtoassistthegroupinclearingU.S.Customs.Hedid82ERRORSDIRECTLYCONTRffiUTINGTOTHEACCIDENTAMCSNews1)ThegroupfromHoustonwe-.slargeandinadequatelysupervised.Everagewasresponsiblefor14people.Theywerealsoill-equippedandinexperiencedandwereentirelytoocasualaboutgoingtoMexico,moresoaboutcavinginMexico.2)Everage,groupleaderoftheHoustongroup,setapoorexampleindivingthesiphonwithouttakingtheslightestsafetyprecautions.3)Cleveland,anearnovicecaver,attemptedthesamefeatasEverage.EveragesaidthathedidnotknowClevelandwasinthewaterorofhisintentionsandthatatthetimehewasdressingonthebankwithhisbackturned.4)Stone,acompletenoviceonhisfirstcavingtrip,wasallowedtoenterthesiphon,hisintentionsperfectlyclear.Aropewasused,butwasentrustedtoacompletelyinexperiencedbelayman,andthesignalswhichwerearrangedwerebackward.Again,notimelimitwasdiscussedfortheirproposedventure.5)Sofarascanbedetermined,atnotimewaseitheroftheboysinstructedasthethephysicalnatureofthesiphon,nordidtheyinquire.PROBLEMSCOMPLICATINGTHERESCUEEFFORT1)FewcaversgotoMexicowithadequatecontingencyplansincaseofanemergency.Aftertheincident,theHoustongroupwashelplessandcouldhavedonelittletoorganizearescue.Luckily,someofthenon-HoustongroupspokeSpanishandknewwhattodo.2)Communicationproblems.a)TheaccidentwasinMexico,butAmericanswereneededtohelp.b)ThiswasamajorholidayweekendforAmericans.Manyofthepeoplewhomighthavebeenabletohelpwereunavaliable,beinginvolvedinvariousholidaytripsthemselves(thiswasonlythesecondtimein8yearsthatKunathhadbeenhorneduringThanksgiving).c)Alackofinformationaboutwhomightbequalifiedtohelp,andtheabsenceofanyback-upnumbersforsomekeypeople(Laidlaw,FloridaRescue,Bundrant,etc)whomighthavebeenabletohelp.3)ThehelpreceivedfromtheAmericanGovernmentwasworsethanuseless.TheAmericanEmbassyinMexicoCityhasanemergencyphone,butnoonewouldanswerit.AfterwastinganhourofKunath'stime,theAirForcerefusedtoflytheSt.Louisdivers,eventoLaredo,solongasanycommercialtransportwasavaliable.TheAmericanconsulinNuevoLaredo(LeeCotterman)cancelledtheSt.Louisdiver'sflightwhentheLaredodiverswerecontacted---thiscouldhavebeenaseriousmistakeshouldhelphavebeenneeded.Oncethebodieswererecovered,theassistantconsulinNuevoLaredo(Gardner)wascontactedandaskedtoprovideapoliceescorttoNuevoLaredoandthroughtheheavyholidaytraffic.HewasalsorequestedtoassistthegroupinclearingU.S.Customs.Hedid

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v.IIIno.4nothing.Themanappearstohavebeeneitherstupidordrunk---heaskedrediculousquestions,repeatedhimselfmanytimes,andlapsedintolengthysilences.Inshort,theAirForceisunsympatheticandtheAmericanofficialsinMexicoareineptpoliticalfixtures.Itisobviousthatweneedtofindsomeoneinthegovernmentwithresponsibilityandtheinitiativetohelpinsituationslikethisone.834)Thesimplefactthatcavediverswereneeded.Itishardenoughtofindpeoplewhoarequalifiedtomakethe"standard"caverescue[ie,searchahorizontalcaveforalostorinjuredpersonandevacuateifnecessary),letalonetrytofindpeoplequalifiedtoperforma"pit"rescue,butwhenyouneedcavequalifieddivers,younarrowthelisttoapreciousfew.LocalSheriffs,Jefes,etc.areapttothinkthatanyonewithanaqualungcandothejob,whilethisisveryseldomtrue.ItwasextremelyfortunatethattheLaredogroupwasavaliableandabletohelp---nooneknewtheyexisted.Whenweweretoldthat'ITheybeeninallthemcaves",wecringed.Whatiftheyhadbeenincompetent?Thetragedycouldeasilyhavegrownlarger.Asitwasthesituationwasnonetoosecure.However,theLaredodiverswereverycompetent,cautious,andtheydidagoodjob.Theywere:JerryLindsey,DennisDeKneff,ManueldelaFuente,DarioGutierrez,BillAshe,andDaveWorthington(thelasttwodidtheactualdiving).SomemayaskwhyFieselerandElliott,supposedlycompetentcavers,satonthebankofthesiphonandwatchedthewholethingwithoutstoppingthem.Elliottsays:Ihaveonlyaweakexcusetomake.FromalmosttheverymomentwearrivedinBustamanteCanyononThursday,wenoticedhowirresponsiblemanyoftheHoustongroupwere.SomeofthemtookashovelfromVinson'struckandafterusingit,leftitlyingsomedistanceaway.Igavetheoneswhodidthisaverballashing,butitseemedtojustbounceoff.OnthewaytoCarrizalthefollowingday,mostofusrodeourmotorcyclesandputouricechestsinFieseler'struck,whichheallowedtheHoustonkidstodrivetothecave.Theypassedusontheroadathighspeed,tossingoutemptybeercans,someofthemhangingontoporouttheback.Whenwearrivedatthecave,wediscoveredthatnearlyalloftwosix-packshadbeenconsumedbymembersofthegroup.Again,Igavethematonguelashing,withtheresultthatafewofthemshruggedtheirshouldersandoneofthemreturnedtwobeers.Iwasalreadyconvincedthatanywarningtomostofthisgroupwasfutile.WhenIgottothesiphon,Everagewasalreadytryingtodivethesiphon.Whatcouldbesaidtohimthesupposedleaderofthegroup?Ihavelearnedmylesson.Speakingformyself,ifIeverbecomeentangledwithagrouplikethisagain,Iwilltrytoleavebeforesomethinghappens.Fromnowon,whensomeoneIamwithdoessomethingstupidinacave,Iwillphysicallyrestrainthemifnecessary,nomatterwhotheyareorwhatIthinkaboutthem.Iwentthroughhellfortwodaysbecauseofsomeoneelse'sstupidity,andIgotwhatIdeservedforremainingsilent.v.IIIno.4nothing.Themanappearstohavebeeneitherstupidordrunk---heaskedrediculousquestions,repeatedhimselfmanytimes,andlapsedintolengthysilences.Inshort,theAirForceisunsympatheticandtheAmericanofficialsinMexicoareineptpoliticalfixtures.Itisobviousthatweneedtofindsomeoneinthegovernmentwithresponsibilityandtheinitiativetohelpinsituationslikethisone.834)Thesimplefactthatcavediverswereneeded.Itishardenoughtofindpeoplewhoarequalifiedtomakethe"standard"caverescue(ie.searchahorizontalcaveforalostorinjuredpersonandevacuateifnecessary),letalonetrytofindpeoplequalifiedtoperforma"pit"rescue,butwhenyouneedcavequalifieddivers,younarrowthelisttoapreciousfew.LocalSheriffs,Jefes,etc.areapttothinkthatanyonewithanaqualungcandothejob,whilethisisveryseldomtrue.ItwasextremelyfortunatethattheLaredogroupwasavaliableandabletohelp---nooneknewtheyexisted.Whenweweretoldthat'ITheybeeninallthemcaves",wecringed.Whatiftheyhadbeenincompetent?Thetragedycouldeasilyhavegrownlarger.Asitwasthesituationwasnonetoosecure.However,theLaredodiverswereverycompetent,cautious,andtheydidagoodjob.Theywere:JerryLindsey,DennisDeKneff,ManueldelaFuente,DarioGutierrez,BillAshe,andDaveWorthington(thelasttwodidtheactualdiving).SomemayaskwhyFieselerandElliott,supposedlycompetentcavers,satonthebankofthesiphonandwatchedthewholethingwithoutstoppingthem.Elliottsays:Ihaveonlyaweakexcusetomake.FromalmosttheverymomentwearrivedinBustamanteCanyononThursday,wenoticedhowirresponsiblemanyoftheHoustongroupwere.SomeofthemtookashovelfromVinson'struckandafterusingit,leftitlyingsomedistanceaway.Igavetheoneswhodidthisaverballashing,butitseemedtojustbounceoff.OnthewaytoCarrizalthefollowingday,mostofusrodeourmotorcyclesandputouricechestsinFieseler'struck,whichheallowedtheHoustonkidstodrivetothecave.Theypassedusontheroadathighspeed,tossingoutemptybeercans,someofthemhangingontoporouttheback.Whenwearrivedatthecave,wediscoveredthatnearlyalloftwosix-packshadbeenconsumedbymembersofthegroup.Again,Igavethematonguelashing,withtheresultthatafewofthemshruggedtheirshouldersandoneofthemreturnedtwobeers.Iwasalreadyconvincedthatanywarningtomostofthisgroupwasfutile.WhenIgottothesiphon,Everagewasalreadytryingtodivethesiphon.Whatcouldbesaidtohimthesupposedleaderofthegroup?Ihavelearnedmylesson.Speakingformyself,ifIeverbecomeentangledwithagrouplikethisagain,Iwilltrytoleavebeforesomethinghappens.Fromnowon,whensomeoneIamwithdoessomethingstupidinacave,Iwillphysicallyrestrainthemifnecessary,nomatterwhotheyareorwhatIthinkaboutthem.Iwentthroughhellfortwodaysbecauseofsomeoneelse'sstupidity,andIgotwhatIdeservedforremainingsilent.

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84RECOMMENDATIONSAMCSNews1)CaversshouldstayoutoftheBustamante-Carrizalareaforsometimetocome.Somewilldisagree,butwefeelitisbesttoavoidanypossiblefrictionwiththelocalpeopleintheimmediatefuture.2)AnygroupthatgoescavinginMexicoshouldhavesomememberswhoarefluentinSpanishandwhohavesomeideaofMexicanpoliticsandcustoms.3)Ifyouareeverinasituationsuchasthis,trytohandlethingsasmuchthroughprivatechannelsaspossible.YouwillofcoursehavetonotifylocalMexicanofficials.Youwillriskbeingthrowninjailifyoudoorifyoudon't.Don'texpecttheMexicanstobetoomuchhelp,buttheycanhelpbycutting"redtape."WewereluckythatthishappenedinCoahuilaandNuevoLeon.ThePoliceChiefinSabinasHidalgoandthePresidenteinCandelawereverycooperative---itwouldprobablyhavebeenadifferentstoryinastatesuchasOaxacawheretherehasbeenconsiderablefrictionwiththelocalpeople.4)TheAMCSshouldnowbegincollectingtelephonenumbersofallit'smembersandofallthecompetentcavediversandrescueteamswhocouldhelpwithfutureaccidents.Wehadbestassumethattherewillbefutureaccidents.Formanyyears,AMCScavershavebeensayingthataseriouscavingaccidentinMexicowasinevitable,butmostthoughtitwouldbeapitaccident.Apitaccidentwouldhaveprobablybeenaneasiersituationthanthisone.Everyoneisurgedtosendthenamesandphonenumbersofcompetentrescuerssothatalistmaybecompiledanddistributedtoallconcernedpersons.Thislistshouldbeup-datedasoftenaspossibleandshouldbecarriedonallcavingtrips,whethertoMexicoornot.CONCLUSIONBothboyswereprobablydeadwithinminutesofenteringthesiphonthoughotherunlikelypossibilitiesexist.Havingnoknowledgeofthephysicalcharacteristicsofthesiphon,theycontinuedstraightortotheleftratherthankeepingtotherightalongtheceiling.Thus,theyfoundnoair-filledroom---onlywater.Promptaction,eventotheextentofhavingdivingequipmentimmediatelyathand,wouldhavebeentonoavail.Nevertheless,itischillingtorealizethatinasituationwherepromptactionmightsavealife,thatlifewouldbejeopardizedbyapathy,ineptness,andbureaucratic"redtape"onthepartoftheAmericanGovernmentandcertainofit'srepresentativesinMexico.7December1971ck:CarlKunath,BillElliott,RonnieFieseler,JonVinson84RECOMMENDATIONSAMCSNews1)CaversshouldstayoutoftheBusta:mante-Carrizalareaforso:meti:metoco:me.So:mewilldisagree,butwefeelitisbesttoavoidanypossiblefrictionwiththelocalpeopleinthei:m:mediatefuture.2)AnygroupthatgoescavinginMexicoshouldhaveso:me:me:mberswhoarefluentinSpanishandwhohaveso:meideaofMexicanpoliticsandcusto:ms.3)Ifyouareeverinasituationsuchasthis,trytohandlethingsas:muchthroughprivatechannelsaspossible.YouwillofcoursehavetonotifylocalMexicanofficials.Youwillriskbeingthrowninjailifyoudoorifyoudon't.Don'texpecttheMexicanstobetoo:muchhelp,buttheycanhelpbycutting"redtape."WewereluckythatthishappenedinCoahuilaandNuevoLeon.ThePoliceChiefinSabinasHidalgoandthePresidenteinCandelawereverycooperative---itwouldprobablyhavebeenadifferentstoryinastatesuchasOaxacawheretherehasbeenconsiderablefrictionwiththelocalpeople.4)TheAMCSshouldnowbegincollectingtelephonenu:mbersofallit's:me:mbersandofalltheco:mpetentcavediversandrescuetea:mswhocouldhelpwithfutureaccidents.Wehadbestassu:methattherewillbefutureaccidents.For:manyyears,AMCScavershavebeensayingthataseriouscavingaccidentinMexicowasinevitable,but:mostthoughtitwouldbeapitaccident.Apitaccidentwouldhaveprobablybeenaneasiersituationthanthisone.Everyoneisurgedtosendthena:mesandphonenu:mbersofco:mpetentrescuerssothatalist:maybeco:mpiledanddistributedtoallconcernedpersons.Thislistshouldbeup-datedasoftenaspossibleandshouldbecarriedonallcavingtrips,whethertoMexicoornot.CONCLUSIONBothboyswereprobablydeadwithin:minutesofenteringthesiphonthoughotherunlikelypossibilitiesexist.Havingnoknowledgeofthephysicalcharacteristicsofthesiphon,theycontinuedstraightortotheleftratherthankeepingtotherightalongtheceiling.Thus,theyfoundnoair-filledroo:m---onlywater.Pro:mptaction,eventotheextentofhavingdivingequip:menti:m:mediatelyathand,wouldhavebeentonoavail.Nevertheless,itischillingtorealizethatinasituationwherepro:mptaction:mightsavealife,thatlifewouldbejeopardizedbyapathy,ineptness,andbureaucratic"redtape"onthepartoftheA:mericanGovern:mentandcertainofit'srepresentativesinMexico.7Dece:mber1971ck:CarlKunath,BillElliott,RonnieFieseler,JonVinson

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v,IIIno.4ThefollowingstoriesappearedontheUPIteletypeSaturday:SABINASHIDALGO,MEXICO--ASEARCHISUNDERWAYINMEXICOABOUT70MILESSOUTHOFTHETEXASBORDERFORTWOHOUSTONYOUTHSWHOENTEREDACAVEYESTERDAYANDFAILEDTOREAPPEAR.THEUNIDENTIFIEDYOUTHSDISAPPEAREDINACAVENEARSABINASHIDALGO,MEXICO--WHICHIS70MILESSOUTHOFLAREDO,TEXAS.THEYOUTHSAREBELIEVEDTOBEAN18YEAROLDHIGHSCHOOLBOYANDA20YEAROLDRICEUNIVERSITYSTUDENT.TWOHOUSTONAREAYOUTHSMISSING(FEAREDDEAD)INSABINASHIDALGOMEXICOAUTHORITIESNEARTHEBORDERREPORTTHEPAIRENTEREDACAVEANDFAILEDTOREAPPEARTHECAVEABOUT70MILESSOUTHOFLAREDO,TEXAS.THEUNIDENTIFIEDYOUTHSDESCRIBEDBYAUTHORITIESONLYASAN18YEAROLDHIGHSCHOOLYOUTHANDA20YEAROLDRICEUNIVERSITYSTUDENT.ThesourceforbothofthesestoriesappearstohavebeentheAmericanconsulinNuevoLaredoand/ortheSheriff'sofficeofWebbCounty,Texas.852HoustonYouthsDisappearIntoCaveinMexicoBlairPittmaneditedthearticleattheright.ThisisthebestofanythateitheroftheHoustonpapersprinted.**.*HOUSTONCHRONICLE1cmdIIJ.N
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86I'aqe2/1**THEHOUSTONPOSTSUNOAY.NOVEMBER21.1171Houston teens lostincaveAMesNewsBynn.r.FTRWWPIIlItcontinuer! Silturday nightfortwoHous tonboysFriday"hill'ex ploringacaveinMexiro.Thebovswere identifiedhvtheAmericanConsulNuevo Laredoi1SBruce SloneandChris Cleveland. bothintheirlateteens.Theywere withagroupofyoung-spelun-fromHoustonwhowerespending-the Thanksgiving holidays roamingcavesnearSabinasHidalgo about80miles southof Larsdo, Amemberofthepartytold relativesthisstory:Whileexploring-acavethathas differentlevels.oneof theboysdivedintosomewa ter. hopingtosurfaceinanotherroomofthecave. Whentheboydidnotre turn. the second boytieda ropearoundhis waist and divedInalso.Thegroup thought the second diversignaledtothemwithhisropethathehadreachedtheotherside.Heapparentlyuntiedthe rope.anditwaspulledbark.Another manthenswamthrough tothenextroomhut foundnotraceofthehovs.Therewa.rpnortprllvalargpnumberof Americans pxplol'ingcavesinthl'area.andtheyjomedinthesearchforthe missingboys,whoseitddrpssps wprenot imrnediately available.AWebbCounty shl'riff'sdeputyinLaredosaidarescuetoarnfromSt.Louisand'1'1'('1',,1skindiversandspsIunkr-rsfromLaredowereeldledintohelpwiththeTHEHOUSTONPOSTMONOAY.NOVEMBER2'.1971Bodiesof2Houston boysof Laredo inthestateof NuevoLeon. BruceStone,17,a Bellaire HighSchool student, sonof Mr.andMrs.HerbertStone of2811Conway,and Chris O. Cleveland, sonofMr.andMrs. Robert M. Cleveland ofMexico caveBySUSANKENTCAUDILLPostRfoporlerThebodiesoftwoHouston boys, victims ofaMexicancaveexploring mishap, were foundbysearchersabout9a.m.Sunday inacavesouthfoundIn5839Ettrick,apparentlydrowned ina water-filled tun nel inside the cave.Apartyofabout20Houston spelunkersstartedoutfortherangeof MexicancavesnearCandela and Sabinas HidalgolateWednesday. The expedition andtheres cueteamcrossed thebordl!!"IntoLaredo late Sunday bringing thetwobodies. The rescuers, largely membersofthe LaredoSpeleologicalSociety,piecedthe story oftheotherHoustoncaverstog-etherthisway. Oneoftheboys,Cleveland,divedintoa water-filled tun nelorsiphon without arope ora light shortlyafteran adultleaderhad successfully donethesamething, also without arope01'scubagearlateFridaynIght. When Cleveland didnot returnStonewentinafterhim witharopetiedaround his waist. Theropeweat.lackandwaspulledbackempty.Thefirstboy plunged in fully clothed in Vietnam combatboots,a relCllerIBid.Theboysapparentlymi8lledtheturnofthetunnel ending Inanalr-fUled chamber,rescuen1IIl1d.Both bodieswerefoundon the tunnelfloorabout50feet fromtheentrancetothesip)). on.JerryLindsey,amemberofth.rescue team,saidnoexperienced IIptlunker would1'0IntothesiphonwithoutaPI_!leeCrews/pageIA86I'aqe2/1**THEHOUSTONPOSTSUNOAY. NOVEMBER 21.1171Houston teens lostincaveAMesNewsBy Bn.r.FTRWWPIIlItcontinuer! Silturday night for two Hous ton boys"hill'ex ploringilcilveinMexiro. Thewere identifiedhvtheConsulNupvo L;;rpdoi1SBruceSlone ,.nd Chris Cleveland. bothintheirlilte teens. They were with a group ofyoung-from Houston who were spendingthe Thanksgiving holidays roaming cavesSabinas Hidalgo about80miles southofLarPdo. Amemberof thepartytoldthis story: While exploringa ('avethathas differentone of the boys dived intowa ter. hoping to surface in an other roomofthe cave. When the boy did not re turn. the second boy tied a rope a round his waist and divedInalso. The group thought the second diver sig nalPd to thpm with his ropethathe had rpached the other side. HeuntiPd the rope. and it was pulled baf'k. Anothermanthen swam through to the npxt room hut foundnotraceof thpTherewa.rpnortprllv a largp numhf'r of Americans pxplol'inginthl'area.and they joinpdinthpfor the missing hoys, who.e itddrpssps wpre not imme diittely availahle.AWphbCounty shl'riff's deplltvin[,an'doa resCllf'1""m from St. Louis anr!'1'1'('1',,1skin"nd spp Illnkors from Larpdo were eldledintohplp with theTHEHOUSTONPOSTMONOAY.NOVEMBER2'.1971Bodiesof2Houston boysof Laredointhestateof Nuevo Leon. Bruce Stone,17,a Bellaire High School student, son of Mr. and Mrs.HerbertStone of2811Conway, and ChrisO.Cleveland, son of Mr.andMrs. RobertM.Cleveland ofMexico caveBySUSANKENTCAUDILLPostRfoporlerThe bodies of two Houston boys, victims of a Mexican cave exploring mishap, were found bysearchersabout9a.m. Sunday in a cave southfoundIn5839Ettrick, apparently drowned in a water-filled tun nel inside the cave.Apartyofabout20Houston spelunkersstartedout for the range of MexicancavesnearCandela and Sabinas HidalgolateWednesday. The expedition and the res cueteamcrossed thebordl!!"IntoLaredoIsteSunday bringing the two bodies. The rescuers, largely membersof the Laredo Speleol() gical Society, pieced the story of theotherHoustoncaverstog-ether this way. One oftheboys,Cleveland,dived into a water-filled tun nelorsiphon without a ropeora light shortlyafteranadultleaderhad sucCE68fully done thesamething, also without a rope01'scubagearlateFridaynIght. When Cleveland did notreturn Stone went inafterhim with aropetiedaround his waist. The ropeweat.lackandwaspullPd back empty. Thefirstboy plunged in fully clothed in Vietnam combatboots, a relCllerIBid.The boys apparentlymi8lledtheturn of the tunnel endingInanalr-fUled chamber,re&cuen1IIl1d.Bothbodies were found onthetunnelfloorabout50feet from the entrance to the sip)). on.JerryLindtiey, amemberofth.rescue team, said noexperienced IIptlunker would1'0Intothesiphon without aPI_!leeCrews/pageIA

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BodiesofTwoCaveVictimsAreReturnedv,IIIno,4Crewsfindbodiesof2drownedhoysinMexican caveMonday,November19i187nousroxCHRONICLESection4,Page!lContinuedfrompage1rope,lightand preferably scubagear. Cleveland.a member 01 the RiceUniversitySpeleological Society.had several months cavingexperience,Miss LouisePower.asocietyoffi cer.said."Hehadacool headandwaslearningvery rapidly." shesaid. Stone,anExplorI'rBoy Scout.hadnocavingex perience.hisfathersaidin HoustonSunday. Theexpedition apparently hadnosponsoralthoughseveral members oftheRice clubwentonthetrip. Stonesaidhissonwenton theexpeditionaspartofa spelunking program associ atedwithExplorerPost43 andtheCentral Presbyterian Church. "Thiswas Bruce's first trip.He'salwaysbeeninter estedinthingslikethis.We didn'trealizeitwasquite suchanexpedition,..Stone said. Stonesaidhissonwasan EagleScoutandinexcellent physicalcondition. About9 members ofthe ExplorerTroopandits leader wentontheMexicoex pedition,Stonesaid. DennisDeKneel,amem beroftheLaredoSpeleologic alSocietywhohelpedcoordinatetherescue attempt. said thebodieswerefoundina caVI'called..ElCarrizaI...Lindsey,whowaswiththe rescueteamatthecave.said AiI'man1stClassDave WorthingtonandSgt.Bill Ashe.bothfromtheLaredo AirForceBase, recovered thebodieswithscubagear. Themenwerealso members oftheLaredocavingsociety. Lindseysaidthesiphoncan be treacherousifthe caver doesnotkeeptotherightfol lowingthewallintotheopen cavity. Awronzturnmeansanal mostendlesswater-filledtun nel.hesaid,whichhasneverbf'{'ncharted."Ifyouarel(oingtogoin, youshouldhaVI'somebodyon alifelineoutsidethe water," Lindseysaid. VeteranspelunkerDeKneef saidthecavewheretheboys drowned"isafairly easy cavetogoin. "Buttherearewater traps allovertheplace.Still.it'snotespeciallydangerous.No onehaseverbeenkilledinthatcavethatIknowof."Ifyoudon'tknowwhere thesiphongoes.youwander aroundunderwateruntilyou can't breathe anymore."De Kneefexplained. Thebodiesweretakento theJackson Funeral Homein Laredo. Aplanetoday returned from Laredo thebodiesofspeleolog istsChrisCleveland,18,and BruceStone.17,whodrowned ina northern Mexicocave whileexploring. Cleveland,sonofMr.and Mrs.RobertM.Cleveland,5839Ettrick, disappeared Fri daywhenhedivedinto water encountered inEl Carrizal cavenearSabinasHidalgoin Nuevo Laredo state. YoungStoneplungedinto trytofindClevelandandfailedtocomeup. Eight cave explorers recov eredthebodiesSunday. Clevelandwasafreshmanat Bellaire HighSchoolandan Explorer Scout. Theywerewitha party of 15cave explorers wholeft HoustonlastWednesdaytoex plore thecave,locatedbe tweenLaredoandMonterrey, Mexico. Thecave.atthebaseofa mountain, hadbeenexplored before. The explorers foundanew springinthecavewherethe ceilingdipsbelowthewater.Itwasto investigate thisfind thatClevelandplungedinto the water, friendssaid.BodiesofTwoCaveVictimsAreReturnedv.IIInO.4Crewsfindbodiesof2drownedhoysinMexican caveMonday, November19i187Hous'm:-,; CHRONICLESectien4,Page!lContinued from page1rope, light and preferably scuba gear. Cleveland. a member01the Rice University Speleological Society. had several months caving experience, Miss Louise Power. a societyofficer. said. "He had a cool head andlearning very rapidly." she said. Stone, anExplorI'r Boy Scout. hadnocaving ex perience. his father said in Houston Sunday. The expedition apparently hadnosponsor althoughseveral membersofthe Rice club wentonthe trip. Stone said his son wentonthe expeditionaspartofa spelunking program associ ated with Explorer Post43and the Central Presbyterian Church. "This was Bruce's first trip. He's always been inter estedinthings like this.Wedidn't realizeitwas quite such an expedition, .. Stone said. Stone said his son was an Eagle Scout and in excellent physical condition.About9 members of the Explorer Troop and its leader wentonthe Mexico ex pedition, Stone said. DennisDeKneel, a memberofthe Laredo Speleologic al Societywhohelped coordi-nate the rescue attempt. said the bodies werefoundin a caVI'called..El CarrizaI...Lindsey,whowas with the rescue teamatthe cave. said AiI'man1st Class Dave Worthington and Sl(t. Bill Ashe. both from the Laredo Air Force Base, recovered the bodies with scuba gear. The men were also membersofthe Laredo caving society. Lindsey said the siphon can be treacherousifthe c.av"r doesnotkeeptothe rightfollowing the wall into the open cavity. Awronl(turn m!'ansanal most endless water-filled tun nel. hes!lid.which has neverbf'{'ncharted."Ifyouarel(oingtogoin,ytJushouldhaVI'somebodyona lifeline outside the water," Lindsey said. Veteran spelunkerDeKneef said the cave where the boys drowned"isa fairly easy cavetogoin. "But there are water traps!Illover the place. Still.it'snotespecially dangerous.Noonehas ever been killedinthat cave that Iknowof."Ifyoudon'tknowwhere the siphon goes.youwander around under water until you can't breathe anymore...DeKneef explained. The bodies wer!' tak!'nto the Jackson Funeral Home in Laredo. A plane today returned from Laredo the bodiesofspeleolog ists Chris Cleveland,18,and Bruce Stone.17,whodrowned in a northern Mexico cave while exploring. Cleveland, sonofMr. and Mrs. RobertM.Cleveland,5839Ettrick, disappeared Fri day when he dived into water encountered inElCarrizal cavenearSabinas Hidalgo in Nuevo Laredo state. Young Stone plungedintotrytofind Cleveland and failedtocome up. Eight cave explorers recov ered the bodies Sunday. Cleveland was a freshmanatBellaire High School and an Explorer Scout. They were with a partyof15cave explorerswholeft Houston last Wednesdaytoexplore the cave, located be tween Laredo and l\1onterrey, Mexico. The cave.atthe base of a mountain, had been explored before. The explorers found anewspring in the cave where the ceiling dips below the water.Itwas to investigate this find that Cleveland plunged into the water, friends said.

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88AMCSNewsThefollowingstorywasrealeasedtotheSanAngeloStandardTimesMondayafternoon29November1971byKunath,Elliott,andVinson,butwasneverprinted.Friday26November1971,about4:00pm,ChrisCleveland18,andBruceStone17,bothofHouston,Texasandbothinexperiencedcaversdrownedwhileattemptingtoswimthroughanunderwaterpassageabout25feetlonginordertoreachanotherroominacaveabout80milesSouthofLaredo,Texas.Arescueattemptwasbegunwithinanhourwhenbothboysfailedtoreturnanditwasdecidedthatexperiencedcavediverswouldberequiredtoreachthem.ThepartyreachedaphoneaboutmidnightFriday,andafterseveralattemptstoreachtheAmericanconselsinNuevoLaredo,MonterreyandMexicoCitymetwithnosuccess,they(Elliott,etalltelephonedacaverinTexas(Kunath)andaskedhimtocontactsomecavedivers.Finally,ateamofdiversfromLaredo,Texas,ledbyJerryLindsey,waslocatedandarrivedatthescenebycarabout5:00pmSaturday.Twoinitialdiveswereunsuccessfulduetomurkywater.TherescueattemptsresumedSundaymorningandthebodieswererecoveredabout9:00amSunday.BothboysweremembersofalargergroupofcaversfromHouston,Dallas,SanAngelo,andLubbockwhowereintheareafortheThanksgivingholidays.88AMCSNewsThefollowingstorywasrealeasedtotheSanAngeloStandardTimesMondayafternoon29November1971byKunath,Elliott,andVinson,butwasneverprinted.Friday26November1971,about4:00pm,ChrisCleveland18,andBruceStone17,bothofHouston,Texasandbothinexperiencedcaversdrownedwhileattemptingtoswimthroughanunderwaterpassageabout25feetlonginordertoreachanotherroominacaveabout80milesSouthofLaredo,Texas.Arescueattemptwasbegunwithinanhourwhenbothboysfailedtoreturnanditwasdecidedthatexperiencedcavediverswouldberequiredtoreachthem.ThepartyreachedaphoneaboutmidnightFriday,andafterseveralattemptstoreachtheAmericanconselsinNuevoLaredo,MonterreyandMexicoCitymetwithnosuccess,they(Elliott,etalltelephonedacaverinTexas(Kunath)andaskedhimtocontactsomecavedivers.Finally,ateamofdiversfromLaredo,Texas,ledbyJerryLindsey,waslocatedandarrivedatthescenebycarabout5:00pmSaturday.Twoinitialdiveswereunsuccessfulduetomurkywater.TherescueattemptsresumedSundaymorningandthebodieswererecoveredabout9:00amSunday.BothboysweremembersofalargergroupofcaversfromHouston,Dallas,SanAngelo,andLubbockwhowereintheareafortheThanksgivingholidays.


Description
Contents: News and
Notes --
Part 1. Trip Reports --
Cueva de Constantin --
Pichijumo-Montecillos Cave System --
Ahuacatlan area, Oro. --
Sierra de El Abra, S. L. P. --
Mexico --
Sotano de los Monos --
Grutas de San Sebastian, Oaxaca --
Ahuacatlan, Oro. --
Part 2. Articles --
Vertical Techniques; Hair Removal --
La Gruta de Carrizal Accident Report.