Association of Mexican Cave Studies newsletter

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Association of Mexican Cave Studies newsletter
Series Title:
Association of Mexican Cave Studies Newsletter (1965-1977)
Association for Mexican Cave Studies
Association for Mexican Cave Studies
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Subjects / Keywords:
Regional Speleology ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )


General Note:
Contents: News and Notes -- Accident Report -- Part 1. Trip Reports -- Cueva de Canstanlm and Gruta de Garcia, N.L. -- Micos, S.L.P., and Cartabranchal, Tamps. -- Valles. S.L.P. -- Puerto de la Zorra, Hgo, and Cueva de Rancho Nuevo, Chiapas -- Sierra de EI Abra, S.L.P. and Jalpan, Qro. -- Part 2. Articles -- Corrections and Additions to the Map of "La Region de la Sierra de El Abra" -- Alphabetical Listing of Caves of the Sierra de EI Abra -- Geographical Checklist of the Caves of the Sierra de EI Abra -- Project at La Cienega, Municipio de Pinal de Amoles, Qro. -- "Leave Only Footprints."
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Original Version:
Vol. 3, no. 6 (1972)
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See Extended description for more information.

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ASSOCIATIONFORMEXICANCAVESTUDIESNEWSLETTERNEWSANDNOTESACCIDENTREPORTTRIPREPORTSCuevade Constantm andGrutadeGarc18, N.L. Micas.S.L.P ., and Cartabranchal, Tamps Valles.S .L .P.Puerto delaZom, Hgo andCuevadeRanchoNuevo ChiapasSierradeEIAbra, S .L.P andJafpan,Oro.ARTICLESCorrections and AdditionstotheMapof"LaRegi6ndeIsSierradeEl Abra" AlphabeticalListingofCavesoftheSierradeEIAbra Geotlraphical ChecklistoftheCavesoftheSierradeEIAbraProject atLaCienega MunicipiodePinaldeAmole s, Qro ."LeaveOnlyFootprint s"Volume III Number 6ASSOCIATIONFORMEXICANCAVESTUDIESNEWSLETTERNEWSAND NOTES ACCIDENT REPORTTRIPREPORTSCueva de Canstanlm andGrutade Garcla, N.L. Micos, S.L.P., and Cartabranchal, Tamps.Valles. S.L.P.Puerto delaZom,Hgo., and Cueva de Rancho Nuevo, ChiapasSierra deEIAbra, S.L.P.and Jalpan, Qro. ARTICLESCorrections and Additions to theMapof"La Regi6ndelaSierra deElAbra"Alphabetical ListingofCavesofthe Sierra deEIAbra Geographical ChecklistoftheCavesofthe Sierra deEIAbra Project atLaCienega, Municipio de Pinal de AmoJes, Qro. "Leave OnlyFootprints"Volume III Number 6


ASSOCIATIONFORMEXICANCAVE STUDIES NEWSLETTERVolumeIII Number 6 Publication Date:August1972 TheAssociationforMexicanCaveStudiesisa non-profit organization whosegoalsare the collection and disseminationofinformation concerning Mexicancaves.TheAMCSpub lishesa Newsletter, Bulletin,andCave Report Serieswhichareavailabletoanysincerelyin terested, conservation-minded person.TheAMCSNewsletter ispublishedsixissuespervol umeas frequently asnecessaryatacostof$4.00 USpervolume,whichincludesboththe publication and membership. Potential contributors areurgedto submit articlesforpubli cation.ThearticlemaycoveranyphaseofMexicanspeleology.Trip reports are requested fromalltrips.Sendallmaterialto:AssociationforMexicanCaveStudies,P.O.Box7672, Austin,Texas 78712, USA. Publications Editor CaveFiles Secretary-Treasurer. Coordinating Biologist. Photo Editor ... Production Manager. TerryW.Raines William H.Russell JanE.Lewis JamesR.Reddell CarlE.Kunath RonaldG.Fieseler PublishedbyTHESPELEOPRESSNEWSANDNOTES In addition tothepersonslistedabove,several others veryactively support theAMCS.HelpingwiththisissuewereChuckBryan,dedeEsparza,RoyJameson, PamLynn, John Mikels,NickMorales,OlgaReyes,CarolRussell,andJackWhite.ASSOCIATIONFORMEXICAN CAVE STUDIES NEWSLETTERVolume III Number 6 Publication Date: August 1972 The Association for Mexican Cave Studiesisa non-profit organization whose goals are the collection and disseminationofinformation concerning Mexican caves. TheAMCSpub lishes a Newsletter, Bulletin, and Cave Report Series which are available to any sincerely in terested, conservation-minded person. TheAMCSNewsletterispublished six issues per vol umeasfrequentlyasnecessary at a costof$4.00USper volume, which includesboththe publication and membership. Potential contributors are urged to submit articles for publi cation. The article may cover any phaseofMexican speleology. Trip reports are requested from all trips. Send all material to: Association for MexicanCaveStudies,P.O.Box 7672, Austin, Texas 78712, USA. Publications EditorCaveFiles Secretary-Treasurer. Coordinating Biologist. Photo Editor ... Production Manager. TerryW.Raines WilliamH.Russell JanE.Lewis JamesR.Reddell CarlE.Kunath RonaldG.Fieseler Published by THE SPELEO PRESSNEWSAND NOTES In addition to the persons listed above, several others very actively support theAMCS.Helping with this issue were Chuck Bryan, dede Esparza, Roy Jameson, Pam Lynn, John Mikels, Nick Morales,OlgaReyes, Carol Russell, and Jack White.


118AMCSNews Twolifelessbodiesdriftinginthe opaque watersoftheCarrizalsiphonshouldhave beenenoughtoconvincepeople that ill-equippedsiphondiving just isn't profitable. But notDonBroussardand John Fish.Bothwere supposedly sanecavers,butafterthe recent incident inTinajaonebeginstowonder.Asevidencedbythe report below,onenever knowswhattoexpect.Forthisreason,caversshouldrefrainfromplunging into anywater filledpassageunlessthemost sophisticated diving equipment isinuseand,most important, thepersonsinvolvedareexperienced.ACCIDENTREPORT NEARDROWNINGINSOTANODELATINAJA astoldtoRonnieFieselerbyDonBroussardand John Fish About 1July1972agroupofcavers entered S6tano delaTinajaforthepurposeofpushingasiphoninan attempt to connect thecavewith Sotano delArroyo.Atthesiphon, DonBroussard prepared to enter thewater.Hewaswearingadivingmaskandhadaflash lighttiedtohiswaist.Asafetylinewasalsotiedtohiswaistandhewastobebelayedby JohnFish. Don entered thesiphonand after swimminga short distancecametoanair pocket wherehe took 3to4deepbreaths.Evidently,the pocket contained verylittleoxygenand ahigh concentration ofcarbondioxideandDonpassed out. John Fishand others sawthe lightfromtheflashlightsinkingtothe bottom andrapidlypulledDon outofthewater. AttheedgeofthesiphonDonshowednosignsofbreathing.Actingrapidly, the cavers present lifted Donupsidedownand poured wateroutofhim.Pounding produced alarge amount. Hewasthengivenartificial respiration until hebegantocough. After coughing upmorewaterDonslowlybegantoregainnormal breathing andthegroup exited thecave afterDonhadrecovered sufficiently. Afteraday'srestDonwashisnormalself except forvery bloodshot eyes,whichhave sincethenimproved.Thisisessentiallythe story toldtomewhileIwasinCd.Valles, shortly after theaccident.118AMCSNews Two lifeless bodies drifting in the opaque watersofthe Carrizal siphon should have been enough to convince people that ill-equipped siphon diving just isn't profitable. But not Don Broussard and John Fish. Both were supposedly sane cavers, but after the recent incident in Tinaja one begins to wonder.Asevidenced by the report below, one never knows what to expect.Forthis reason, cavers should refrain from plunging into any water filled passage unless the most sophisticated diving equipmentisin use and, most important, the persons involved areexperienced.ACCIDENT REPORT NEAR DROWNING IN SOTANO DE LA TINAJAastold to Ronnie Fieseler by Don Broussard and John Fish About 1 July 1972 a groupofcavers entered S6tano delaTinaja for the purposeofpushing a siphon in an attempttoconnect the cave with S6tano del Arroyo. At the siphon, Don Broussard prepared to enter the water.Hewaswearing a diving mask and had a flash light tiedtohis waist. A safety linewasalso tied to his waist and hewasto be belayed by John Fish. Don entered the siphon and after swimming a short distance came to an air pocket where he took 3 to 4 deep breaths. Evidently, the pocket contained very little oxygen and a high concentrationofcarbon dioxide and Don passed out. John Fish and otherssawthe light from the flashlight sinking to the bottom and rapidly pulled Don outofthe water. At the edgeofthe siphon Don showed no signsofbreathing. Acting rapidly, the cavers present lifted Don upside down and poured wateroutofhim. Pounding produced a large amount.Hewasthen given artificial respiration until he began to cough. After coughing up more water Don slowly began to regain normal breathing and the group exited the cave after Don had recovered sufficiently. After a day's rest Donwashis normal self except for very bloodshot eyes, which have since then improved. Thisisessentially the story told tomewhile Iwasin Cd. Valles, shortly after the accident.




120AMCSNews Date:22-24 October 1971 Destination: Cuevade Constantfn andGrutade Garda Location: NBR Persons:RRRussell,JohnMikels,NickMorales,AubreyWashington,TomSolis,Carlos Barrera,JodineGalion,JoeKostyo,andCarolynSmith Reported by: John Mikels RR,Nick,Aubrey,andIsplitforMonterreyinRR'sScouttodrive through to Espinazoandredotheroad-log.SinceIwasonlyonewhohadbeentherebeforethetrip wasalsoa tour and photoing excursion.The other groupwenttoMonterreytocatcha trainforEspinazotoseeifsuchawaywasworthwhile.Meanwhilewedrove through to EspinazoandcarefullyloggedtheroadallthewayfromMonterreyby Saturday morning.Wewaitedaroundtownawhileforthetraingroup, but they didn't showup,sothefour ofuswenttothecavetotakepicturesandcheckalead.Notmanypicturesbecauseofcameraproblems.Wemanagedtodrive approximately 3/4ofthewayfrom town tothe mountain.Wespentabout4hoursinthecave.Whenwegotoutwefoundthe other groupwaitingforusatthebaseofthe mountain. Theyhadbeenunableto catch atrain until Saturday morning.TheyreachedEspinazoalittlebeforenoon.Sotakingthetrain thereisriskybecauseofuncertain schedules.Wellthey didn't reallywanttodo the cave,so weallpiledintheScoutand returned totown.MessedaroundawhileandsplitforMonterrey. Alocaltoldusofanother caveonthe opposite sideofthe mountain fromConstantfn.Gotto check that oneofthesedays.WegottoMonterrey Saturday nightandcrashedinsomelittle parkoutsidetown.Nextdaywearoseandwentto Gruta deGarda.Paidourwayin,butsplit fromthecommercialtourquicklyandspent about 2hoursprowlinginthecave.Reallynice. ThenoutandtoaColonelSanders Kentucky FriedChickeninMonterrey.Aftereatingwe headedhomeandgotinlateSundaynight. Date:November1971 Destination: Caves south ofMicos(MunicipiodeValles)andcavesinthevicinityofCarta brancha1(MunicipiodeJaumave) Location: SMa, TamasopoRegion-Micos,Morita,OtatesandMinasViejasareas,Sierrade GuatemalaRegion,Cartabrancha1Area. Persons:DavidMcKenzieandBillRussell Reported by:BillRussell Thegroup returning fromTres Manantia1es metDavidMcKenzieattheHotelMante. ThatnightDavidandBillRusselldrove south towardthevillageofMicos, about 20kNWofCd.Valles,tovisitablindfishcavepreviouslyinvestigatedbytheGermanbiologistHorst Wilkins. Thiscavehadoriginallybeenlocatedbybiologistsfromthe joint Mexican-American Vampire Control program.TheowneroftheDonTomasranchatMicoshadtoldusonan earliervisit that thefishcavewaslocatedattheendofa mountain tenmiles southwest of Micos,sowedrovetoasmallranchneartheendofthe mountain andasked about thecave. Thecaveprovedtobewell-knownandaguidewassoon obtained wholedustotheHorst Wilkins fishcave,aswellastwo other smallercavesnearby.Thenexttwodayswerespent mappingthecave(namedbytheGermansCuevadelRio Subterraneo) andinvestigatingthe other nearbycaves.CuevadelRio Subterraneo provedtobe1230feetlonganddivided into twosections,oneofwhichmay continue. Thecaveislocatedattheendofalongarroyo that drainsabouttenkm2oftheswampyvalleytotheeastofthecave.Themainsectionofthe caveis entered byclimbingdownover breakdown attheendofthearroyo.The upper section120AMCSNewsDate: 22-24 October 1971 Destination: CuevadeConstantln and Gruta de Garda Location:NBRPersons: RR Russell, John Mikels, Nick Morales, Aubrey Washington, Tom Solis, Carlos Barrera, Jodine Galion, Joe Kostyo, and Carolyn Smith Reported by: John Mikels RR,Nick, Aubrey, and I split for Monterrey inRR'sScouttodrive through to Espinazo and redo the road-log. Since Iwasonly one who had been there before the tripwasalso a tour and photoing excursion. The other group went to Monterreytocatch a train for Espinazotoseeifsuch a waywasworthwhile. Meanwhilewedrove through to Espinazo and carefully logged the roadallthe way from Monterrey by Saturday morning.Wewaited around town awhile for the train group, but they didn't show up,sothe fourofuswenttothe cave to take pictures and check a lead. Not many pictures becauseofcamera problems.Wemanaged to drive approximately 3/4ofthe way from town to the mountain.Wespent about 4 hours in thecave.Whenwegotoutwefound the other group waiting forusat the baseofthe mountain. They had been unable to catch a train until Saturday morning. They reached Espinazo a little before noon. So taking the train thereisrisky becauseofuncertain schedules.Wellthey didn't really want to do the cave,soweallpiled in the Scout and returned to town.Messedaround awhile and split for Monterrey. A local toldusofanother cave on the opposite sideofthe mountain from Constantln. Got to check that oneofthese days.WegottoMonterrey Saturday night and crashed in some little park outside town. Next daywearose and went to GrutadeGarda. Paid our way in, but split from the commercialtourquickly and spent about 2 hours prowling in thecave.Really nice. Thenoutand to a Colonel Sanders Kentucky Fried Chicken in Monterrey. After eatingweheaded home and got in late Sunday night. Date: November 1971 Destination:CavessouthofMicos(MunicipiodeValles) and cavesinthe vicinityofCarta brancha1 (Municipio de Jaumave) Location: SMa, Tamasopo Region-Micos, Morita, Otates andMinasViejas areas, Sierra de Guatemala Region, Cartabrancha1 Area. Persons:DavidMcKenzie andBillRussell Reported by:BillRussell The group returning from Tres Manantia1es metDavidMcKenzie at the Hotel Mante. That night David andBillRussell drove south toward the villageofMicos, about 20 kNWofCd.Valles, to visit a blind fish cave previously investigated by the German biologist Horst Wilkins. This cave had originally been located by biologists from the joint Mexican-American Vampire Control program. The ownerofthe Don Tomas ranch atMicoshad tolduson an earlier visit that the fish cavewaslocated at the endofa mountain ten miles southwestofMicos,sowedrove to a small ranch near the endofthe mountain and asked about thecave.The cave proved to be well-known and a guidewassoon obtained who ledusto the Horst Wilkins fish cave,aswellastwo other smallercavesnearby. The next two days were spent mapping thecave(named by the Germans Cueva del Rio Subterraneo) and investigating the other nearbycaves.Cueva del Rio Subtemineo proved to be 1230 feet long and divided into two sections, oneofwhich may continue. Thecaveislocated at the endofa long arroyo that drains about ten km2ofthe swampy valley to the eastofthecave.The main sectionofthecaveisentered by climbing down over breakdown at the endofthe arroyo. The upper section


v.IIIno.6 121ofthecaveisreached through a tunnel that opensatthebaseofacliffabovethe arroyo ent rance.This tunnel is20fthighand15ftwideandendsina 30-foot pit.Wecrossedthepitby lassoinga formation onthefarsideofthepit, but 50ftfurther onwas another 30-foot pit that wecouldnotcross.Wecouldseeapassage continuing onthe other side.Thepassagelead ingtothemaincavegoes steeply downoverlarge breakdown toa depthof70ft,wherethere isa temporary siphon that blocksaccesstothecaveduringwetweather.Beyondthissmallsec tionofcave,asteepslopeofwashedand rounded cobblesleadsuptoalarger horizontal pass age.Thispassageendsina10footclimbabledropintotheriverpassage.Hereastreamflowing about 20gpmwas encountered, probably derived mostly fromthesurface arroyo that sinksbe forethecave entrance. Thestreampassagecanbefollowed through waist-deeppoolstoalarge room100ftlong,40ftwideand30fthigh.Thestreamcrossesthisroomand siphons just be yond,95ftbelowthe entrance. From this room, 30ftabovethesiphonlevel,apassagescoured byfloodwatersleadstoasecond room 240ftlong,40ftwide,and30fthigh.A short passage leadsfromthisroomandendsinasecondsiphon.Bothsiphonpools contain numerous blind fish,andsomeblindfishaswellaseyedfishare present inthe stream. After returning toAustin itwasdiscovered that thecavehadbeenvisitedthreedays before by another Austincavinggroup. (Seetrip report byGB Enquist, Gregg Thompson, etc.) Another cave about onekmtothewestofCuevadelRioSubterraneo provedtobeasmall shelterwithapassageatthebackleading steeply downtowater.Thiscave,namedbyus,Cueva delLienzo,also containedbotheyedandeyelessfish.Wewerealsoshownacaveonemiletothe eastofCuevadelRioSubterraneo attheendofasmall arroyo. Byclimbingover breakdown and then descendinga IS-foot verticaldrop,wereachedoneendofalongstreampassagefrom4to10fthigh,withseveralrooms.Thispassagewasfollowedfor about 1000fttowheretheairbe cameso poor (probably CO2 ),that exploration was abandoned. Thecave,namedbyusCuevade Otates, containednotonlyblindandeyedfish,butnumerous crossbreedswith partially developed eyes. FromtheMicosareawedrove north onthe dry-weather-only roadleadingwestand then north fromMicosalongtheRioNaranjo, toward the townofEINaranjoonhighway80westofAntiguoMorelos.Just southofEIEstriboArch,aroadleadsacrosstheRioNaranjoand south to Quinientos andfrom there backtoMicos.Sixanda half milesfromthearchasideroadleads westintothefoothillstothevillageofMinasViejas.Hereweasked about cavesandwereledto severalcavesnear town andweretold,asusual,oflargecaveshighinthe mountains. Onepitwe didvisitwasneara beautiful 100ftwaterfall, about ten minutes walkfromtheroad.TheMinas Viejasareaispromising, but apparently itwouldtakeseveraldaysonfoottoreachlargecaves and return toMinasViejas. From MinasViejasDaveandIdrove north through Manteandthento Encino, theGateway totheSierradeGuatemala.Wehadheardofalargedeeppitinthe northern SierradeGuatemala, andplannedtowalkto Cartabranchal, theonly inhabited placeinthe northern half oftherange. OnaprevioustripIhadwalkednorthalongtheroad that followedtheRioSabinasvalley.This roadleads north fromthewestendofthelowwaterbridgewestofEncino,goesbytheNacimi ento delRioFrio,300m northeastofthevillageofLa Puerta, through EjidoEl Encinito (called LaFlor),andendsatSanPedroLaColina. From hereatrailleadsuptotheVillageofMonte Cristo,andfromMonteCristoan abandoned trail zig-zags upthefaceoftherangefor about 2000 ftverticallytothe abandoned lumbercampofMonteCarlo,nowonlyanovergrownclear ing.MonteCarlowasthe furthest point north cavershadpreviouslyreachedintheSierrade Guatemala andwithDavid'sBlazerweplannedtodriveasfaraspossiblealongtheoldroad that leadstoMonteCarlo.Thisroadleads north fromJulillo,sowedrovewestfromEncinoacross theRioSabinasandupthesteepeastslopeoftheSierratoJulillo.Herewe turned north andv.IIIno. 6121ofthe caveisreached through a tunnel that opens at the baseofa cliff above the arroyo ent rance. This tunnelis20fthigh and15ftwide and ends in a 30-foot pit.Wecrossed the pit by lassoing a formation on the far sideofthe pit, but 50ftfurther onwasanother 30-foot pit thatwecould not cross.Wecould see a passage continuing on the other side. The passage lead ingtothe main cave goes steeply down over large breakdown to a depthof70ft,where thereisa temporary siphon that blocks access to the cave during wet weather. Beyond this smallsectionofcave, a steep slopeofwashed and rounded cobbles leads up to a larger horizontal passage.This passage ends in a 10 foot climbable drop into the river passage. Here a stream flowing about 20 gpmwasencountered, probably derived mostly from the surface arroyo that sinksbefore the cave entrance. The stream passage can be followed through waist-deep pools to a large room 100ftlong, 40ftwide and 30 ft high. The stream crosses this room and siphons just be yond, 95ftbelow the entrance. From this room, 30 ft above the siphon level, a passage scoured by flood waters leads to a second room 240 ft long, 40ftwide, and 30 ft high. A short passage leads from this room and ends in a second siphon. Both siphon pools contain numerous blind fish, and some blind fishaswellaseyed fish are present in the stream. After returning to Austin itwasdiscovered that the cave had been visited three days before by another Austin caving group. (See trip report byGBEnquist, Gregg Thompson, etc.) Another cave about one km to the westofCueva delRioSubtemineo proved to be a small shelter with a passage at the back leading steeply down to water. This cave, named by us, Cueva del Lienzo, also containedbotheyed and eyeless fish.Wewere also shown acaveone mile to the eastofCueva delRioSubterraneo at the endofa small arroyo. By climbing over breakdown and then descending a IS-foot vertical drop,wereached one endofa long stream passage from 4 to10fthigh, with several rooms. This passagewasfollowed for about 1000ftto where the airbecame so poor (probablyCO2),that explorationwasabandoned. The cave, namedbyusCueva de Otates, containednotonly blind and eyed fish,butnumerous crossbreeds with partially developed eyes. From the Micos areawedrove north on the dry-weather-only road leading west and then north from Micos along theRioNaranjo, toward the townofEINaranjoonhighway 80 westofAntiguo Morelos. Just southofEIEstribo Arch, a road leads across theRioNaranjo and south to Quinientos and from there back to Micos. Six and a half miles from the arch a side road leads west into the foothills to the villageofMinas Viejas. Hereweasked about caves and were led to several caves near town and were told,asusual,oflarge caves high in the mountains. One pitwedid visitwasnear a beautiful 100 ft waterfall, about ten minutes walk from the road. The Minas Viejas areaispromising, but apparently it would take several days on foot to reach large caves and returntoMinas Viejas. From Minas Viejas Dave and I drove north through Mante and then to Encino, the Gateway to the Sierra de Guatemala.Wehad heardofa large deep pit in the northern Sierra de Guatemala, and planned to walk to Cartabranchal, the only inhabited place in the northern halfofthe range. On a previous trip I had walkednorthalong the road that followed theRioSabinas valley. This road leads north from the west endofthe low water bridge westofEncino, goesbythe Nacimi ento delRioFrio, 300 m northeastofthe villageofLaPuerta, through Ejido El Encinito (calledLaFlor), and ends at San PedroLaColina. From here a trail leads up to the VillageofMonte Cristo, and from Monte Cristo an abandoned trail zig-zags up the faceofthe range for about 2000 ft vertically to the abandoned lumber campofMonte Carlo, now only an overgrown clearing.Monte Carlowasthe furthest point north cavers had previously reached in the Sierra de Guatemala and with David's Blazerweplanned to driveasfar as possible along the old road that leads to Monte Carlo. This road leads north from Julillo,sowedrove west from Encino across theRioSabinas and up the steep east slopeofthe Sierra to Julillo. Hereweturned north and


122AMCSNews keptrightattheforktoLasCanoasandJoyadeSalas,andfinallyreachedtheclearing with the cement water tank whichisall that remainsofthelarge lumber camp,LaCueva, 6.3mi north oftheJoyadeSalasRoad.BeyondLaCuevawehadtocleartheroadaswe wentbytyingacablefromtheBlazertothelogsanddraggingthembackalongtheroad untiltheywereparallelwiththeroadandwecoulddrivepast.Finallywecametoalarge tree that couldn't bemoved,andsinceitwasan otherwise pleasantspot,wecampedfor thenight.Ateightthe next morningwelefton foot for Cartabranchal, travelingfastand light.Wewalked through MonteCarlo (10:00) andfollowingthe long-abandoned road,we madegoodtime,asmuchofthetimewewerewalkingrelatively horizontally alongthetop oftherange.Theoldroadfinallyended(11:50),andatrail continued. AtI:00wecame toa junction, wherethetrailto Cartabranchal turned left,andtotherightwasthetrail toCanonDiablo,thenarrowgorgecutbytheheadwatersoftheRioSabinas.Wearrived at Cartabranchal about 2:00, andfound that theranchconsistedofone extended family, withseveral generations occupyingtwohouses.Wepassedtimewaitingforthemanofthe housetoarrivebyasking about pitsinthearea, then oneofthewomenwould point and wewouldwalkin that direction untilwefoundapit.Wefound fourpitsinthevicinityoftheranchhouse:twoclose together tothewestofthehouse,one150ftdeep (S6tano Rojo after theredsoil),andthe other (Sotano Contigo)dropping about 30fttoaslope. ThemostpromisingwasS6tanodelTanqueacrossthe stock pondfromtheranchhouse, whichisapitdropping80fttoaslopingfloor.Westofthispitisasmallpit, S6tano del Caracol,inthebedofasmalldraw.Thereisalsoa 30-foot deepmud-chokedsink into whichmostof the waterinthemain arroyo sinks after rains.WhenSr.AlvinoRfosre turned weaskedhim about thebigpit.Hisanswerwas that itwasa disappointing 20ft deepandhecouldseenoleads, though theremightbesomeinthe breakdown onthe bottom. Hurriedly returning toourcar,wecampedandthen returned toAustinthenext day. Date:Thanksgivingholidays,1971 Destination: Cd.Valles,SanLuisPotosiLocation: SMO Persons:BlakeHarrison,MikeWalsh,KeithHeuss, Robert Hemperley,SandiLuker,Stanly Moerbe,DalePate,JeriJones Reported by:BlakeHarrisonWeleftSanMarcosintwoVWbusses,andarrivedinCiudadVallesin record timefora VW.Ittook us about 7hrsfromtheborder.WemetattheHotelCovadonga, southofthe city.Wewerehopingtoacquiretheuseofaprivateplanethere,butwere out ofluckat that time.Therewereseveralinthegroup that had not seenCuevadeTaninuln.4,sowe spentthe afternoon visitingitandtakingpictures.WethendrovetoXilitla after regrouping atValles.WevisitedCuevadelSalitre,thelarge-mouthedcaveseen just belowtown.Itis quiteanimpressive,easilyaccessibleMexicancave. After thiswedrovetotheEnglishman's housewestofthetownand spent thenightthere.The next morningwewere fortunate enoughtomeetandtalktotheownerofthehouse,averyfineperson.Thatdaywasspent withonegroup attempting toget another airplanetoflyovertheAyutla, Queretaro area, and another groupvisiting Huitzmolotitla and entering S6tano deSan Antonio, a 386-foot dropnearXilitla.Athirdgroup looked forCuevadeChristian, located in Arroyo Seco. Thenextday after failingtogetanairplaneatthehotelagain,ourgroupsheadedtoS6tano de Venadito, north ofValles.Wewantedtogetinsomeverticalworkand attempt to122AMCSNews kept right at the forktoLasCanoas and JoyadeSalas, and finally reached the clearing with the cement water tank whichisallthat remainsofthe large lumber camp,LaCueva, 6.3 mi northofthe Joya de Salas Road. BeyondLaCuevawehad to clear the roadaswewent by tying a cable from the Blazer to thelogsand dragging them back along the road until they were parallel with the road andwecould drive past. Finallywecame to a large tree that couldn't be moved, and since itwasan otherwise pleasant spot,wecamped for the night. At eight the next morningweleft on foot for Cartabranchal, traveling fast and light.Wewalked through Monte Carlo (10:00) and following the long-abandoned road,wemade good time,asmuchofthe timewewere walking relatively horizontally along the topofthe range. The old road finally ended(11:50), and a trail continued. At I :00wecame to a junction, where the trail to Cartabranchal turned left, and to the rightwasthe trail to Canon Diablo, the narrow gorge cut by the headwatersoftheRfoSabinas.Wearrived at Cartabranchal about 2:00, and found that the ranch consistedofone extended family, with several generations occupying two houses.Wepassed time waiting for the manofthe house to arrive by asking about pits in the area, then oneofthe women would point andwewould walk in that direction untilwefound a pit.Wefound four pits in the vicinityofthe ranch house: two close togethertothe westofthe house, one 150 ft deep (S6tano Rojo after the redsoi}),andthe other (S6tano Contigo) dropping about 30 fttoa slope. The most promisingwasS6tano del Tanque across the stock pond from the ranch house, whichisa pit dropping 80 ft to a sloping floor.Westofthis pitisa small pit, S6tano del Caracol, in the bedofa small draw. Thereisalso a 30-foot deep mud-choked sink into which mostofthe water in the main arroyo sinks after rains.WhenSr.AlvinoR{osre turnedweasked him about the big pit. His answerwasthat itwasa disappointing 20 ft deep andhecouldseeno leads, though there might be some in the breakdown on the bottom. Hurriedly returning toourcar,wecamped and then returned to Austin the next day. Date: Thanksgiving holidays,1971Destination: Cd. Valles, San Luis Potosf Location:SMOPersons: Blake Harrison,MikeWalsh,Keith Heuss, Robert Hemperley, Sandi Luker, Stanly Moerbe,DalePate, Jeri Jones Reported by: Blake HarrisonWeleft San Marcos in twoVWbusses, and arrived in Ciudad Vallesinrecord time for aVW.Ittook us about 7 hrs from the border.Wemet at the Hotel Covadonga, southofthe city.Wewere hoping to acquire the useofa private plane there,butwere outofluck at that time. There were several in the group that had not seen Cueva de Taninuln.4, sowespent the afternoon visiting it and taking pictures.Wethen drove to Xilitla after regrouping at Valles.Wevisited Cueva del Salitre, the large-mouthed cave seen just below town.Itisquite an impressive, easily accessible Mexican cave. After thiswedrove to the Englishman's house westofthe town and spent the night there. The next morningwewere fortunate enough to meet and talk to the ownerofthe house, a very fine person. That daywasspent with one group attempting to get another airplane to fly over the Ayutla, Queretaro area, and another group visiting Huitzmolotitla and entering S6tanodeSan Antonio, a 386-foot drop near Xilitla. A third group looked for CuevadeChristian, located in Arroyo Seco. The next day after failingtoget an airplane at the hotel again, our groups headed to S6tanodeVenadito, northofValles.Wewanted to get in some vertical work and attempt to


v.IIIn.6 123 locateandpossiblymapanew section located earlierbyTerryRaines. After a45 minute hikewewereatthecaveandsoonhadeveryoneinthecave. Robert andBlake started lookingfortheroominthegivenarea. After someclimbingandchecking, Robert soon found exactly whatwewerelookingfor.Itwasquiteanimpressiveroomandhadseveral leadsinit. After checkingtheleads,wefound that theroomloopedbackoverthemain passage.Wetook some pictures andbegantheclimb out. Ourtiredgroupheadedbackto theLosSabinos campgrounds.Weweresotired that bothofusmissedtheturnoffthe firsttime.Wecrashed about 3 o'clock that morning.The next daywedroveuptheMicos roadfollowingBillRussellandDavidMcKenzie.Westopped andhadaniceswiminthe ElSaltoriver. After this our groupssplitup.OnewentbackviaValles,etc.,andthe other wentbackviaSanLuis Potosi andLaredo. Date:JulyandDecember1971 Location:SMaandChiapasPlateau Reported by:SkipandKathyRoy Herearesometrip reports culledfrom our Mexicotrip.I'veleftoutthingslike Taninuln.4, Bustamante, andthe summer cavingwithFishinValles.AlsotheChristmas Arroyostuff-figure that Broussard's journal hasallthatnitty-gritty. July1971:StevenBittinger,KathyRoy,SkipRoy Puerto delaZorra, Interamerican Highway about 10mi northofJacala. Two short sessionsofwalking produced about adozensmall diameter pits,none veryfantastic.Maximum depthof140ft.Thisareais partofagroupoflargedolinas, andhasafair amountofpromisefordeepstuff.Theareacheckedistotherightoftheroadheading south andis about 350mby800m.Area outsideofrectangleis unchecked.Puerto dela Zorra sign+@I'k"1rrnsInPItsodolinacenter-plugged Jacalav.IIIn.6 123 locate and possibly map a new section located earlier by Terry Raines. After a 45 minute hikewewere at the cave and soon had every one in the cave. Robert and Blake started looking for the room in the given area. After some climbing and checking, Robert soon found exactly whatwewere looking for.Itwasquite an impressive room and had several leads in it. After checking the leads,wefound that the room looped back over the main passage.Wetook some pictures and began the climb out. Our tired group headed back to the Los Sabinos campgrounds.Weweresotired that bothofus missed theturnoffthe first time.Wecrashed about 3 o'clock that morning. The next daywedrove up theMicosroad followingBillRussell and David McKenzie.Westopped and had a nice swimintheElSalto river. After this our groups split up. One went back via Valles, etc., and the other went back via San Luis Potosi and Laredo. Date: July and December 1971 Location:SMaand Chiapas Plateau Reported by: Skip and Kathy Roy Here are some trip reports culled from our Mexico trip. I've leftoutthings like Taninuln.4, Bustamante, and the summer caving with Fish in Valles. Also the Christmas Arroyostufffigure that Broussard's journal hasallthatnitty-gritty. July1971:Steven Bittinger, Kathy Roy, Skip Roy Puerto de la Zorra, Interamerican Highway about 10 mi northofJacala. Two short sessionsofwalking produced about a dozen small diameter pits, none very fantastic. Maximum depthof140 ft. This areaispartofa groupoflarge dolinas, and has a fair amountofpromise for deep stuff. The area checkedisto the rightofthe road heading south andisabout 350 m by 800m.Area outsideofrectangleisunchecked.Puerto delaZorra sign@I'k"1ImeInPItsodolinacenter-plugged Jacala


124 AMCSNews December 1971: BillSteele,SkipRoy Cuevade Rancho Nuevo,San Cristobal delasCasas,Chiapas Thiscaveis300m southofthedump3mi southofSanCristobal, about 200m westofthemainhighway. Unfortunately, we couldn't figureoutwhichholethe watersinksinnearthe entrance; it's afairpiecetobaselevel-atleast 2000 ft.Wedidwalk through about 3000ftofbig(20ftx50ft)canyons with gloomy black walls.TworeliableAmericanssaythey found another passagewithan additional 1500ft.Neartheendofthe part wesawthepassagechangesto450bedding plane passages.Thiscaveiswell worth both asurveyandagoodhard check-out -we just sortofwandered around. Date:30March-3April1972 Destination: VariouscavesintheSierradeElAbra Location: SMa; ElAbra,Xilitla,andJalpan Persons:Randy Fugate, BobHenry, Stewart Martin, John Graves, Scott Harden Reported by: Scott Harden Thefirstnightwe camped intheAMCScampground atLosSabinos.The next morn ingwedrovetoXilitlaand looked around. John andIdidthefirstdropin S6tano de Huitzmolotitla (350ft)nearTlamaya.Thegroupgotlittlesleep that nightas Bob's tarp isnotwaterproof. Onthe morningofthe1stwedrove toward Jalpan.Itwasagreatrelieftogetoutofthewet,chilly mountains. WedidCuevade Puente deDiosandwere greatlyimpressed.Itwasdarkwhenwe exited andwalkedbacktothetruck.Anicefiesta wasgoingoninJalpan.Ourtiredgroupcollapsedatagoodcampsitenear Ayutla. On Easterdaywehad our first drinkofpulque,drovetoRIOVerdeand then backtoValles wherewe participated in another greatfiesta.OnceagainwecampedintheAMCScamp ground.Onthelastdayofthetrip,IwentinCuevadeElAbrawhilethe others waited atthe truck.Weencountered RogerMcMillanandcrewinCd.Victoria.Hehadbeennear Ocampoandfounda400ftpit.Wepickedupsome hitchhikers whohadbeenfromAlaska to Yucatan andtookthemallthewaytoSan Antonio, arriving about midnight.124AMCSNews December 1971:BillSteele, Skip Roy Cueva de Rancho Nuevo, San Cristobal delasCasas, Chiapas This caveis300 m southofthe dump 3 mi southofSan Cristobal, about 200 m westofthe main highway. Unfortunately,wecouldn't figureoutwhich hole the water sinks in near the entrance; it's a fair piece to base level at least 2000 ft.Wedid walk through about 3000ftofbig (20ftx 50ft)canyons with gloomy black walls. Two reliable Americans say they found another passage with an additional 1500 ft. Near the endofthe partwesaw the passage changes to 450bedding plane passages. This caveiswell worth both a survey and a good hard check-out -wejust sortofwandered around. Date: 30 March -3 April 1972 Destination: Various caves in the SierradeEl Abra Location: SMa;ElAbra, Xilitla, and Jalpan Persons: Randy Fugate, Bob Henry, Stewart Martin, John Graves, Scott Harden Reported by: Scott Harden The first nightwecamped in theAMCScampground at Los Sabinos. The next morn ingwedrove to Xilitla and looked around. John and I did the first drop in S6tano de Huitzmolotitla (350ft)near Tlamaya. The group got little sleep that nightasBob's tarpisnotwaterproof. On the morningofthe 1stwedrove toward Jalpan.Itwasa greatre-lief to getoutofthe wet, chilly mountains.Wedid Cueva de PuentedeDios and were greatly impressed.Itwasdark whenweexited and walked back to the truck. A nice fiestawasgoing on in Jalpan. Our tired group collapsed at a good campsite near Ayutla. On Easter daywehad our first drinkofpulque, drove toRIOVerde and then back to Valles whereweparticipated in another great fiesta. Once againwecamped in theAMCScamp ground. On the last dayofthe trip, I went in Cueva de El Abra while the others waited at the truck.Weencountered Roger McMillan and crew in Cd. Victoria.Hehad been near Ocampo and found a 400ftpit.Wepicked up some hitchhikers who had been from Alaska to Yucatan andtookthem all the way to San Antonio, arriving about midnight.


126 CORRECTIONSANDADDITIONSTOTHEMAPOF"LAREGIONDELA SIERRA DEELABRA" byWilliamH.RussellAMCSNews Thismapwascompiledin1969andsince that time muchhasbeen accomplished inthe ElAbraRegion.Manynewcaveshavebeen located and explored, including someverysig nificant onesinthehigherpartsoftherange,andmappingand exploration inthemore accessiblecaveshas continued. However,therearestilllargeareasintheSierradeElAbra andtheSierrade Guatemala that haveyettobeinvestigated,andmanyofthemorepro misingcaves located fromtheairhaveyettobevisited. Although anewmapisnowbeing preparedthatwill contain numerous corrections ingeologyand culture, the1969mapis stilluseful.Someofthemore important corrections are included inthefollowinglist, but allthe additions and corrections aretoo numerous tolist,andvisitorstotheareashould contact theAMCSfor completeinformation. Thehighway kilometer markers throughout theareahavebeenchanged; northofCd. VallesalongHighway85 subtract 465from kilometer numbers shownonthemaptochange tothenewsystem.AlongtheeastfaceoftheSierradeElAbra,the important townofLas Flores just southofCementos AnahuacNWofTamuinhasbeen omitted. About tenkmto the north, thetwopitsandthecaveabovethespringareshown about 3km southoftheir actual location. Thewesternofthetwo"pits"isHoyadeZimapan,CuevadelaCeibaisthe cavetothe northofthepits,andthecavemarkedCuevadeCeibaonthemapisCuevade lasCuates. About 10km northofEstaci6nTarnufnthemainroad actually leavestherail roadand continues north almosttothe state line.The NacimientooftheRfo Tantoan has been omitted; itis located wheretheSanLuis Potosi -Tamaulipas state linecrossesthe eastedgeoftheSierradeElAbra,andtheRio Tantoan formsthe state boundary tothe east.The unnamed village just southoftheRio Santa ClaraisEjidoFelipeAngeles;the unnamed villageontherailroad southofCd.ManteisLaGavia,andtheroadfromthis towntoElAbraisnowpaved.Grutasde Quintero was omitted andislocated13kmSWofCd.Mante,1km southofthe townofQuintero. Northofthe NacimientooftheRfoFriothegeologyisin error andshouldbedis regarded.Thereareseveral nacimientos that formthesourceoftheRfoFrfo.Thetwomain nacimientos arethePozaAzul,orthe Nacimiento delRioFno,andthe Nacimiento del Rfo Nacimiento, about 1.5kmtotheNNE.G6mezFariasisbuiltalongalavacappedridge andigneousrockdoesnotoutcrop totheNEas indicated. The Nacimiento delRioSabinas isnotlocated directly atthebaseoftheSierrade Guatemala,butrather 1kmtotheeast, atthenorthendofa canyon whichtheRioSabinashascut through aloweast-westlime stone ridge connecting theSierrade Guatemala with other limestoneridgestotheeast.The RtoSabinaschannel continues northofthe Nacimiento tothelowerendofCanondel Diablo,adeep,verynarrow canyon cut into theeastslopeoftheSierrade Guatemala. Further tothe south the lumber camp10kmNEofG6mezFarias,shownonthemap asLaPerra,hasbeenchangedtoElPorvenirandthecave,LaCuevadelaPerra,isnow knownasLaCuevadelaCapilla,andis actually located 1.5kmwestofElPorvenir.The pit southofElRefugiois S6tano deGuacamaya(alsocalled S6tano deElRefugio).The townofChamalisnowofficiallyL6pezMateos, but thisnameisnotinuselocally.The pit8kmNNWofChama1is S6tano deCaballoMoro.ThecanyonNWofVallesisnot Tamasopo Canyon, but CanondeMicos;Canonde Tamasopo is further west.Anewroad is under construction leadingeastfromLleratothe northoftheRioGuayalejo.Thereare numerous localroadstothewestand northwestofCd.Vallesnotshownonthemap. Additional copiesofthis1969mapmaybe obtained through theAMCSfor $1.50 each.126 CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS TO THE MAP OF"LAREGION DELASIERRA DE EL ABRA" by WilliamH.RussellAMCSNews This mapwascompiled in 1969 and since that time muchhasbeen accomplished in theElAbra Region. Many new caves have been located and explored, including some verysignificant ones in the higher partsofthe range, and mapping and exploration in the more accessible caves has continued. However, there are still large areas in the Sierra de El Abra and the Sierra de Guatemala that have yet to be investigated, and manyofthe more pro mising caves located from the air have yet to be visited. Although a new mapisnow being preparedthatwill contain numerous corrections in geology and culture, the 1969 mapisstill useful. Someofthe more important corrections are included in the following list, butallthe additions and corrections are too numerous to list, and visitors to the area should contact theAMCSfor completeinformation. The highway kilometer markers throughout the area have been changed; northofCd.Valles along Highway 85 subtract 465 from kilometer numbers shown on the map to change to the new system. Along the east faceofthe Sierra deElAbra, the important townofLasFlores just southofCementos AnahuacNWofTamuin has been omitted. About ten km to the north, the two pits and the cave above the spring are shown about 3 km southoftheir actual location. The westernofthe two"pits"isHoya de Zimapan, Cueva delaCeibaisthe cave to the northofthe pits, and the cave marked Cueva de Ceiba on the mapisCueva de las Cuates. About 10 km northofEstaci6n Tamu{n the main roadactually leaves the rail road and continues north almost to the state line. The NacimientooftheR{oTantO



v.IIIno.6 129 ALPHABETICAL LISTING OFCAVESOFTHESIERRA DEEL ABRA EL ABRA LISTNUMBER ONE, JULY 1,1972byWilliamH.Russell Alphabetized according to shortened formofname with articles and adjectives omitted. S6tano, sotanito, cueva, cuevita, gruta,no,arroyo, mina, nacimiento, grande, chica,joya(hoya), puente,puerto,boca, and rancho areomittedwhen there are following words.San, Santa, Don, and Dona are consideredpartoftheshortened name.Aplus beforethedepthindicates elevation abovethelowermost entrance, aplusafterthelength ordepthindicates thecaveis only partly explored. AnE meansthedepthis estimated fromtheair. Parentheses indicate anunnamed cave listed below a geographically adjacent cave. Unnumbered names are alternate names. Name Area Length Depth Prefixes 1. Abra Quintero 1460389CuevadeEl 2. (pit above) Quintero 1091 Agua Taninul SeeCurvaCUevadel 3. Aguacate n.1La Noria 100 12CuevadeJoyade 4. Aguacate n.2La Noria 30 6 CuevadeJoyade 5. Arroyo1LosSabinos 21000+400S6tano del 6. Caldera LaGavia400240La7.(pit on trail) LaGavia 8 25 8. (pit tonorth)LaGavia 80200ECampana Quintero See Pach6n Cuevadela Capilla Tanchipa See Tanchipa Cuevadela 9. Ceiba LaCeiba 737647Cuevade1a 10.ChicaE1Pujal 1000+ 35Cueva 11. (caveSE)E1Pujal 300+ 20 12. Choy Taninu1400+200 Cuevadel Nacimiento delRfo 13. (fissure cave) Taninul 150 100 Cieba LaCeibaSeeCeiba Cuevade1a 14. Cincuenta ySeis Taninul 40 511 S6tano 15. Collins Los Sabinos 10130 S6tano de 16. Colmena Taninul300150 Cuevade1a 17. (pit by Soyate) Taninul 50100 18. (pit near road) Taninul 1040 19. (pit with vine) Taninu1 40 50 20. (walk-in cave)Taninu1150 20 21. (short cave) Taninul 20 1022.Colmenas Quintero800250+ Cuevadelas 23. (pit NE) Quintero 12 25 24. (pit SW) Quintero 50+50E25.Coy Salsipuedes270100Cuevadel Nacimiento delRio 26. Cuatas (Este) ElPujaJ 1590Las 27. Cuatas (Oeste) ElPujal30090 Las 28. Cuates LaCeiba300+200 Cuevadelas 29. Culebra LosMonos20420S6tano dela 30. Curva Taninul 700 124 Cuevadela 31. Doble Norte LosMonos 40 74 S6tano 32.DobleSurLosMonos25 30 S6tano 33. Don Pedro La Noria 10 120 S6tano dev.III no. 6 129 ALPHABETICAL LISTINGOFCAVESOFTHE SIERRA DE EL ABRA EL ABRA LIST NUMBER ONE, JULY 1, 1972 by WilliamH.Russell Alphabetized accordingtoshortened formofname with articles and adjectives omitted. S6tano, sotanito, cueva, cuevita, gruta,rfo,arroyo, mina, nacimiento, grande, chica,joya(hoya), puente, puerto, boca, and rancho are omitted when there are following words. San, Santa, Don, and Dona are considered partoftheshortened name. A plus before the depth indicates elevation above the lowermost entrance, a plus after the length or depth indicates the caveisonly partly explored. An E means thedepthisestimated from the air. Parentheses indicate an unnamed cave listed below a geographically adjacent cave. Unnumbered names are alternate names. Name Area Length Depth Preftxes1.Abra Quintero 1460 389 Cueva deEl2.(pit above) Quintero 1091Agua Taninul See CurvaCUevadel 3. Aguacate n. 1 La Noria 100 12 Cueva de Joya de 4. Aguacaten.2 La Noria306 Cueva de J oya de5.Arroyo1Los Sabin os 21000+400S6tano del 6. CalderaLaGavia400240La7.(pitontrail) La Gavia 8 25 8. (pittonorth) La Gavia 80 200E Campana Quintero See Pach6n Cueva de la Capilla Tanchipa See Tanchipa Cueva de la 9. Ceiba La Ceiba 737 647 Cueva de1a10. ChicaE1Pujal 1000+ 35 Cueva 11. (cave SE)E1Pujal 300+ 20 12. Choy Taninu1400+200 Cueva del Nacimiento del R(o 13. (fissure cave) Taninul 150 100 Cieba La Ceiba See Ceiba Cueva de1a14. Cincuenta y Seis Taninul40511 S6tano 15. Collins Los Sabinos 10 130 S6tano de 16. Colmena Taninul300150 Cueva de1a17. (pitbySoyate) Taninul 50 100 18. (pit near road) Taninul 10 40 19. (pit with vine) Taninu14050 20. (walk-in cave) Taninu1 150 20 21. (short cave) Taninul201022. Colmenas Quintero 800 250+ Cueva de las 23. (pit NE) Quintero 12 25 24. (pitSW)Quintero 50+ 50E 25. Coy Salsipuedes 270 100 Cueva del Nacimiento del Rio 26. Cuatas (Este)ElPujaJ1590Las 27. Cuatas (Oeste)ElPujal30090 Las 28. Cuates La Ceiba300+200 Cueva de las 29. Culebra Los Monos 20420S6tano de la 30. Curva Taninul 700 124 Cueva de la 31. Doble Norte Los Monos4074 S6tano 32. Doble Sur Los Monos 25 30 S6tano 33. Don Pedro La Noria 10 120 S6tano de


130AMCSNewsNameAreaLengthDepthPrefixes 34. Escalera Taninul20096S6tanodela 35.(horizontalcave) Taninul40040 36.(pitnearhut)Taninul 1040 37.(pitbytrail) Taninul 1070 38. Escondido Los Sabinos40050S6tano39.(northofroad) Los Sabinos3025 40.(southofroad)Los Sabinos4050 41. Este LosMonos40156S6tanodel 42. Fer-de-Lance El Pujal ??S6tanodel F errocarril Taninul See CurvaS6tanodel 43.FloridaQuintero530090Cuevadela 44. F6silesQuintero150250Cueva delos 45. Gadsden Taninul 15443S6tanode 46.(powerlinepit)Taninul 10 100 47. (fieldpitn.54)Taninul 1520 48. (fieldpitn.55)Taninul 8 40 49.(pittoSn.58)Taninul 2530+50. Grande ElPujal152090CuevaGuanoLa Ceiba SeeVentanaJ abalf Cuevadel 51. Higuer6n Los Monos550208Hoya de Jabalf La Ceiba SeeVentanaJabalfCuevadel 52. Japones Yerbaniz10200+300S6tanodel 53. Jos Los Sabinos1108277S6tanode 54. Lagarto Los Sabinos 40180S6tanodel 55. Lajita Los Sabinos 3520S6tanodel 56. Le6n Los Sabinos11030 Cueva de 57. Loro Los Monos700195S6tanode 58. Mante ElPujal15050 Cueva/S6tano de 59. ManteQuintero110+60Cuevadel Nacimiento delRIo 60. (smallroomcave)Quintero20 10 61. (siphon caveSW)Quintero10060 62. Manuel ElPujal100035S6tanode 63. Mariposa Taninul 75 10Cuevade 64. Matapalma Yerbaniz5649+283S6tanode Matepalma Yerbaniz See MatapalmaS6tanode 65. Monos Los Monos 2771 951S6tano&Cuevadelos 66. (pitbytrail) Los Monos 15 2567.(pitbytrail) Los Monos 1030 68. Montecillosf Los Sabinos 10073374Sistema de Montecillosf Los Sabinos See MontecillosSotanito69.NiloTantobal50? 3Cuevadel 70. NopalGrandeLosMonos 45289S6tanodel 71. Noria La Noria 120100S6tanodela72.Noria La Noria 50 30PuenteNatural dela 73.(pitbyroad) La Noria 10 20 74. Ojites Los Monos350200Cueva delos 75. Orquidea Los Monos 225 135S6tanode 76. Pach6nQuintero89312 CuevadeEIPach6nQuinteroSeeSan Lazaro Cuevacita deEl 77. PajarosQuintero33053 Cueva/Tunel delos130AMCSNews Name Area Length Depth PrefIXes 34. Escalera Taninul 200 96 S6tano de la 35. (horizontal cave) Taninul40040 36. (pit nearhut)Taninul 10 40 37. (pitbytrail) Taninul 10 70 38. Escondido Los Sabinos40050 S6tano 39. (northofroad) Los Sabinos3025 40. (southofroad) Los Sabinos4050 41. Este Los Monos40156 S6tano del 42. Fer-de-Lance El Pujal ?? S6tano del F errocarril Taninul See Curva S6tano del 43. Florida Quintero 530090Cueva de la 44. F6siles Quintero 150 250 Cueva de los 45. Gadsden Taninul15443 S6tano de 46. (power line pit) Taninul 10 100 47. (field pit n. 54) Taninul1520 48. (field pit n. 55) Taninul 8 40 49. (pittoSn.58) Taninul 25 30+ 50. GrandeElPujal 1520 90 Cueva Guano La Ceiba See Ventana J abal( Cueva del 51. Higuer6n Los Monos 550 208 Hoya de Jabal{ La Ceiba See Ventana Jabal{ Cueva del 52. Japones Yerbaniz 10200+ 300 S6tano del 53. Jos Los Sabinos 1108 277 S6tano de 54. Lagarto Los Sabinos 40 180 S6tano del 55. Lajita Los Sabinos 35 20 S6tano del 56. Le6n Los Sabinos 110 30 Cueva de 57. Loro Los Monos 700 195 S6tano de 58. Mante El Pujal 150 50 Cueva/S6tano de 59. Mante Quintero 110 +60 Cueva del Nacimiento del RIo 60. (small room cave) Quintero 20 10 61. (siphon caveSW)Quintero 100 60 62. ManuelElPujal 1000 35 S6tano de 63. Mariposa Taninul7510 Cueva de 64. Matapalma Yerbaniz 5649+ 283 S6tano de Matepalma Yerbaniz See Matapalma S6tano de 65. Monos Los Monos 2771 951 S6tano&Cueva de los 66. (pitbytrail) Los Monos1525 67. (pitbytrail) Los Monos 10 30 68. Montecillos2Los Sabinos 10073 374 SistemadeMontecillos2Los Sabinos See Montecillos Sotanito 69. Nilo Tantobal 50? 3 Cueva del 70. Nopal Grande Los Monos 45 289 S6tano del 71. Noria La Noria 120 100 S6tano dela72.Noria La Noria 50 30 Puente Natural dela73. (pitbyroad) La Noria 10 20 74. Ojites Los Monos 350 200 Cueva de los 75. Orquidea Los Monos 225 135 S6tano de 76. Pach6n Quintero 893 12 Cueva deEIPach6n Quintero See San Lazaro Cuevacita de El 77. Pajaros Quintero 33053Cueva/Tunel de los


v.IIIno.6 131NameAreaLengthDepthPrefixes 78. Palma SecaLos Sabinos490172S6tanode 79. Palm as Taninul 10025CuevadelasPechojumofLos Sabinos See MontecillosS6tanodePichijumofLos Sabinos See MontecillosS6tanode 80. Piedras Los Sabinos1500160S6tanodelas 81. Pinta Los Monos 725 84Cueva Preisser La Ceiba See CeibaS6tanode 82.Pujal EIPujal 75 20 Pozo deEI 83. Quilas San Ricardo ISO200S6tanodelas 84.Quintero Quintero440060+ Grutas de 85.Raiz San Ricardo 135 91S6tanodel 86. (adjacentpit)San Ricardo 253687.RaizTantobalISO 25Cuevadel 88. Ranas EI Pujal 20+4 Cueva delas 89. Ratas Los Sabinos ISO 40Cuevadelas 90. Riachuelo Riachuelo20020Cuevade91.Roca Los Sabinos 30+ 130S6tanodeIa 92.RodeoYerbaniz 50 50S6tanodel 93. Sabinos! Los Sabinos5000390CuevadeLos 94.San LazaroQuintero30020 Cueva/Mina de SanLuis La Ceiba SeeVentanaJabalfMinade 95.San NicolasQuintero80025 Cueva de 96.(cave east)Quintero301597.San Rafael San Rafael 205Cuevadel Nacimiento de 98.San Rafael San Rafael 150 150S6tanode99.SantaElena La Noria600200Cuevade 100.SecoTantoan60+(? ) 15 CuevadelArroyo101.SecoTantoan10020Cueva Chica delArroyo102.SecoTantoan37560CuevaGrandedel Arroyo 103.70FootPitLos Sabinos 1070SotanitoLos Sabinos See Ratas Cuevita de 104.SoyateLos Sabinos675781S6tanode 105. Tanchipa Tanchipa400400Cuevade 106.(pitnorth)Tanchipa 60200E107.Taninu1n.1 Taninul 55341Cuevade 108. Taninul n.2 Taninul1008160Cuevade 109. Taninul n.3 Taninul ISO5Cuevade 110. Taninul n.4 Taninul66040CuevadeIII.TantoanTantoan10 40Sotanitode 112.Tantobal Tantobal40060Cuevade llS. TarantulaLaNoria20110S6tanodela 114.Tigre Los Sabinos10000530S6tanodelns.Tinaja1Los Sabinos14300275S6tano(Cueva) dela 116. (waterfall cave)Los Sabinos 5030 117.(pitinarroyo)Los Sabinos IS30 118.(pitabove) Los Sabinos10ISO 119. (Ediger'spit)Los Sabinos 20+ 30 120.ToroEIPujal 205 25S6tanodel 121. Valdosa Taninul40040Cuevade 122. (pit acrosshwy)Taninul 10 30v.IIIno. 6131Name AreaLengthDepthPrefIxes 78. Palma Seca Los Sabinos 490 172 S6tano de 79. PalmasTaninul 10025Cueva de las Pechojumo2Los Sabinos See Montecillos S6tano de Pichijumo2Los Sabinos See Montecillos S6tano de 80. Piedras Los Sabinos 1500 160 S6tano de las 81. Pinta Los Monos 725 84 Cueva PreisserLaCeiba See Ceiba S6tano de 82. PujalEIPujal7520 Pozo deEI83. Quilas San RicardoISO200 S6tano de las 84. QuinteroQuintero 4400 60+ Grutas de 85. Raiz San Ricardo 13591S6tano del 86. (adjacent pit) San Ricardo 25 3687.RaizTantobalISO25 Cueva del 88. RanasEIPujal 20+ 4 Cueva delas89. Ratas Los SabinosISO40 Cueva de las 90. Riachuelo Riachuelo 200 20 Cueva de 91. Roca Los Sabinos 30+ 130 S6tano dela92. Rodeo Yerbaniz 50 50 S6tano del 93. Sabinos1Los Sabinos 5000 390 Cueva de Los 94. San Lazaro Quintero 300 20 Cueva/Mina de San Luis La Ceiba See Ventana Jabal( Mina de 95. San Nicolas Quintero 80025Cueva de 96. (cave east) Quintero 301597. San Rafael San Rafael 20 5 Cueva del Nacimiento de 98. San Rafael San Rafael 150 150 S6tano de 99. Santa ElenaLaNoria 600 200 Cueva de 100. Seco Tantoan 60+(? )15Cueva del Arroyo 101. Seco Tantoan 100 20 Cueva Chica del Arroyo 102. Seco Tantoan 375 60 Cueva Grande del Arroyo 103. 70FootPit Los Sabinos 10 70 Sotanito Los Sabinos See Ratas Cuevita de 104. Soyate Los Sabinos 675 781 S6tano de 105. Tanchipa Tanchipa 400 400 Cueva de 106. (pit north) Tanchipa 60 200E 107. Taninu1n.1 Taninul 55341Cueva de 108. Taninuln.2 Taninul 1008 160 Cueva de 109. Taninuln.3 TaninulISO5 Cueva de 110. Taninuln.4 Taninul 660 40 Cueva deIII.Tantoan Tantoan 10 40 Sotanito de 112. TantobalTantobal 400 60 Cueva delB.Tarantula La-Noria 20 110 S6tano dela114. Tigre Los Sabinos 10000 530 S6tano delliS.Tinaja1Los Sabinos 14300 275 S6tano (Cueva) de la 116. (waterfall cave) Los Sabinos 50 30 117. (pit in arroyo) Los Sabinos IS 30 118. (pit above) Los Sabinos10ISO119. (Ediger's pit) Los Sabinos 20+ 30 120. ToroEIPujal 20525S6tano del 121. Valdosa Taninul 400 40 Cueva de 122. (pit across hwy) Taninul 10 30


132 AMCSNews Name Area Length Depth Prefixes 123. Venadito LaNoria 5000+ 500 S6tano deEl 124. Ventana Jabal{ LaCeiba 1275550 125.Verde San Ricardo 30 10 Cueva Virgen TaninulpartofChoyCuevadeLa 126. Verba Taninul 15040 Cuevadela 127. Yerbaniz Yerbaniz 5300 312 S6tano de 128. Zimapan LosMonos 1690 1050 HoyadelCuevadeLos Sabinos, S6tano del Arroyo, and S6tano delaTinajacanbe considered asone systemofover40,000ft,since Arroyo andLos Sabinos are separated bya short sectionofwater-filled passage,and ArroyoandTinaja are separated byaneven shorter siphon. Strong airflow neartheArroyo -Los Sabinos connection indicates the possibilityofa traversable connection. 2S6tano de Pechojumo (Pichijumo) and theSotanito de Montecillos form the Sistema de Montecillos. Voiceandlight communication weremadeacrossasmall siphon. Sotanito de Montecillos has 5708ftofpassageand Pechojumo has 4365. COMMENTS Thenumberofcavesis somewhat arbitrary, astobe included onthelistacavehadto meet oneofthe following requirements: (1)havea name,2)have actually been entered, or 3)have been seen from the airtobea major cave. Only onecave, S6tano de Fer-de-Lance (for obvious reasons) has been named andnotentered. Three major pits located fromtheairbutnotyetvisited are included.Notincluded are4pits(3justeastofCueva Chica) accurately locatedbutnotentered plus four definate cave entrances located fromtheairbutnotentered, aswellas about 15 probable cave entrances, someofwhich willbe only overhanging cliffs. Theseleadsare rapidly being checked and mostofthese uncertainties willsoonbe eliminated. Uncertainties astothenumberofcavesalsoarisedueto questionable connections such as siphons, smallholes,and breakdownorflowstone blocksthatmayormaynotbe considered todivideacaveintotwoor more caves. S6tano de Pechojumo (Pichijumo) and Sotanito de Montecillos have been connected byvoice communication abovea short siphon. S6tano del Arroyo andCuevadeLos Sabinos are probably connected byabout200ftofwater-filled passage,and Arroyo also approaches S6tano dela Tinaja closely,andairflow indicates a connection. Mostcavesintheregionaresowidely scatteredthatthere is little likelihoodthatmany onthepresent listwillbe found to connect. There areatleast20 major karst features (sinks,fissures, dolinas, solution troughs) seenfromtheairandasyetunvisited. Mostofthese features appear tobe partoflocally intense areasofsolution promising many newcaves.The next listofE1Abra caveswill certainly be considerably longer.132AMCSNews Name Area Length Depth PrefIxes 123. Venadito La Noria 5000+ 500 S6tano deEl124. Ventana Jabal{ La Ceiba 1275 550 125. Verde San Ricardo 3010Cueva Virgen Taninul partofChoyCueva de La 126. Verba Taninul 150 40 Cueva de la 127. YerbanizYerbaniz 5300 312 S6tano de 128. Zimapan Los Monos 1690 1050 Hoya de lCueva de Los Sabinos, S6tano del Arroyo, and S6tano delaTinaja can be consideredasone systemofover 40,000ft,since Arroyo and Los Sabinos are separated by a short sectionofwater-filled passage, and Arroyo and Tinaja are separated by an even shorter siphon. Strong airflow near the Arroyo Los Sabinos connection indicates the possibilityofa traversable connection. 2S6tano de Pechojumo (Pichijumo) and the Sotanito de Montecillos form the Sistema de Montecillos. Voice and light communication were made across a small siphon. Sotanito de Montecillos has 5708ftofpassage and Pechojumo has 4365. COMMENTS The numberofcavesissomewhat arbitrary,asto be included on the list a cave hadtomeet oneofthe following requirements: (1) have a name,2)have actually been entered, or 3) have been seen from the air to be a major cave. Only one cave, S6tano de Fer-de-Lance (for obvious reasons) has been named andnotentered. Three major pits located from the airbutnot yet visited are included. Not included are 4 pits (3 just eastofCueva Chica) accurately locatedbutnotentered plus four definate cave entrances located from the airbutnotentered,aswellasabout15probable cave entrances, someofwhich will be only overhanging cliffs. These leads are rapidly being checked and mostofthese uncertainties will soon be eliminated. Uncertaintiesasto the numberofcaves also arise due to questionable connections suchassiphons, small holes, and breakdownorflowstone blocks thatmayormaynotbe consideredtodivide a cave into two or more caves. S6tano de Pechojumo (Pichijumo) and Sotanito de Montecillos have been connected by voice communication above a short siphon. S6tano del Arroyo and Cueva de Los Sabinos are probably connected by about 200ftofwater-filled passage, and Arroyo also approaches S6tano de la Tinaja closely, and air flow indicates a connection. Most caves in the region are so widely scattered that thereislittle likelihood that manyonthe present list will be found to connect. There are at least 20 major karst features (sinks, fissures, dolinas, solution troughs) seen from the air andasyet unvisited. Mostofthese features appear to be partoflocally intense areasofsolution promising many new caves. The next listofE1Abra caves will certainly be considerably longer.


v.IIIno.6 GEOGRAPHICAL CHECKLISTOFTHE CAYESOFTHE SIERRA DEELABRA byWilliamH. Russell 133 In order to facilitatethestudyofthe cavesofthe SierradeElAbra the rangehas been dividedintosix teen localareasofsimilar geology, topography, climate, and geomorphic his tory. Thus the cavesofoneareacanbe compared with thoseofanother, and the factorsthatinfluence cavern development conveniently examined. Alistofcaves arranged bythesesmall geographic regionsmakes finding information onacavewhen only its location is known much less difficult, as only a short listneedbe searched. Asis obvious froma brief reviewofthe following list, many areasofthe Sierra deEl Abra have yet tobe thoroughly investigated. The greatest lackofknowledge isinoneofthe most promising areasofthe entire range, the high centralpartofthe rangeintheTanchipa andLaGaviaareas. Thislist tends to emphasize the smaller caves,asa detailed descriptionofthelarger caves would require severalpageseach. Individual largecavesandareaswillbe described in future articles.So little is yet knownaboutthe El Abrathatitislikelythatthe second hun dredcavestobe discovered willbeaslargeatthefirst hundred. The namesofthe localareas fromnorthtosouthin theorderlisted, together with thenumberofcaves known fromeach areaasofJuly 1, 1972 are: Riachuelo 1,San Rafael 2, Quintero 16, Tantoan 4,LaGavia3, LaNoria9,LaCeiba3, Tanchipa 2,San Ricardo 4,LosMonos14, Yerbaniz 4,Los Sabinos 23, Taninul 28.ElPujalll,Tantobal 3, Salsipuedes 1. Numbers following the nameofa cave refer to the alphabetical listing preceding thislist. Riachuelo Area:Fromthe northernmost partofthe Sierra, where it joinstheSierrade Guatemala, totwo kilometerssouthofthe Servilleta Canyon. Cuevade Riachuelo (90) is located on thenorthsideofthe Servilleta canyonabout200 ydsfromtheeastendofthecanyon. Themainpassageisabout150ftlong,15ftwide,and 10to20fthigh.Near the entrance asidepassageleads sharply upward to another entrance, andnear the backofthecaveasidepassageleadsto the rightfor75ft.Thecaveisdryand has been mined for phosphates. The Nacimiento de Riachuelo flows from a pool(nocave) about 0.5kmtothenorthofthe cave. San Rafael Area: The segmentoftherangenearthevillageofSan Rafael delos Castros, fromthe Riachuelo areato5kmsouthofSanRafael. Cuevadel Nacimiento deSanRafaeldelos Castros(97)isasmallcaveat the nacimiento onthesouthedgeofthevillageofSanRafael.Thecave consistsofa downward-slopingtubeabout 4ftin diameterthatsiphons after10ft.An underwater passagecanbeseentocon tinue. S6tano deSanRafael (98) is located afew hundred feetabovethe nacimiento. The entrance isafissure60ftlongand20ftwidethatdrops 60ftto breakdown. Crawlways lead tolowerlevel rooms. Quintero Area:Theareafromabout3kmnorthofthe Nacimiento delRro Mante south past the townsofQuintero and Pach6n, toabout4kmsouthofthe El Abra pass where high way85crosses the range southwestofCiudad Mante. Cuevadel Nacimiento delRioMante (59). At presentthelevelofwater has been slightly raisedbya diversion dam downstream fromthenacimiento and onlytwosmallcavesareacces sible.Thelargestisafissure trendingsouthfrom the cliff atthewestendofthe nacimiento. Thisfissureis about 150ftlongand there aretwoskylight entrances. The floorofthecave iscovered with breakdown blocks anddeep poolsofwater. Acave (60) consistingofonesmall room is located at thenorthedgeofthe nacimiento.Itis possiblethatbefore the diversion damv.III no. 6 GEOGRAPHICAL CHECKLISTOFTHE CA YESOFTHE SIERRA DEELABRAbyWilliamH.Russell 133 In ordertofacilitatethestudyofthe cavesofthe Sierra de El Abra the range has been dividedintosix teen local areasofsimilar geology, topography, climate, and geomorphic his tory. Thus the cavesofone area can be compared with thoseofanother, and the factorsthatinfluence cavern development conveniently examined. A listofcaves arrangedbythese small geographic regions makes finding information on a cave when only its locationisknown much less difficult,asonly a short list need be searched.Asisobvious from a brief reviewofthe following list, many areasofthe Sierra de El Abra have yet to be thoroughly investigated. The greatest lackofknowledgeisin oneofthe most promising areasofthe entire range, the high centralpartofthe range intheTanchipa and La Gavia areas. This list tendstoemphasize the smaller caves,asa detailed descriptionofthelarger caves would require several pages each. Individual large caves and areas will be described in future articles. So littleisyet knownaboutthe El Abrathatitislikelythatthe second hun dred cavestobe discovered will be as largeatthe first hundred. The namesofthe local areas fromnorthtosouthin theorderlisted, together with thenumberofcaves known from each areaasofJuly 1, 1972 are: Riachuelo 1, San Rafael 2, Quintero 16, Tantoan 4, La Gavia 3,LaNoria 9, La Ceiba 3, Tanchipa 2, San Ricardo 4, Los Monos 14, Yerbaniz4, Los Sabinos 23, Taninul 28. ElPujalll,Tantobal 3, Salsipuedes1.Numbers following the nameofa cave refertothe alphabetical listing preceding this list. Riachuelo Area:Fromthe northernmost partofthe Sierra, where it joinstheSierra de Guatemala, to two kilometerssouthofthe Servilleta Canyon. Cueva de Riachuelo (90)islocatedonthenorthsideofthe Servilleta canyonabout200 yds fromtheeast endofthecanyon. The main passage isabout150ftlong,15ftwide, and10to20fthigh. Near the entrance a side passage leads sharply upwardtoanother entrance, and near the backofthe cave a side passage leadstothe right for 75 ft. The caveisdry and has been mined for phosphates. The Nacimiento de Riachuelo flows from a pool(nocave) about 0.5kmtothenorthofthe cave. San Rafael Area: The segmentofthe range near the villageofSan Rafael de los Castros, from the Riachuelo areato5 kmsouthofSan Rafael. Cueva del Nacimiento de San Rafael de los Castros(97)isa small caveatthe nacimiento on thesouthedgeofthe villageofSan Rafael. The cave consistsofa downward-slopingtubeabout 4 ft in diameterthatsiphons after10ft.Anunderwater passage can be seentocon tinue. S6tano de San Rafael (98)islocated a few hundred feet above the nacimiento. The entranceisa fissure 60 ft long and 20ftwidethatdrops 60 ft to breakdown. Crawlways leadtolower level rooms. Quintero Area: The area fromabout3 kmnorthofthe Nacimiento del R(o Mante south past the townsofQuintero and Pach6n, toabout4 kmsouthofthe El Abra pass where high way 85 crosses the range southwestofCiudad Mante. Cueva del Nacimiento del Rio Mante (59).Atpresentthelevelofwater has been slightly raisedbya diversion dam downstream fromthenacimiento and onlytwosmall caves are acces sible.Thelargestisa fissure trendingsouthfrom the cliff atthewest endofthe nacimiento. This fissureisabout 150 ft long and there aretwoskylight entrances. The floorofthecaveiscovered with breakdown blocks and deep poolsofwater. A cave (60) consistingofone small roomislocated at thenorthedgeofthe nacimiento.Itispossiblethatbefore the diversion dam


134AMCSNews wasbuiltalargercavewasaccessible. Alejandro Prietoinhis book,HistoriayEstadtstica del EstadodelTamaulipas,describeshis exploration ofacaveatthe nacimiento in1860as"going through twoor three feetofwater for20meterstowhereitwastoodarkto proceed farther." Thiswas apparently upstream inthemain nacimiento. CuevadelosF6siles(44)is primarily alargeroomfromwhichmuchfillhasbeenremoved foritsmineral content. From this entrance roomasidepassageleadstoaskylight.Thiscaveis reported tobe about 1miSWofthe nacimiento. Atthesame approximate location acaveope ningwasseenfromtheairatthebaseofacliffontheeastfaceoftherange.Alsoasmallcave (61) about one-half mileSWofthe nacimiento was reported tolead downward toasiphon after about 100ft. CuevadelasColmenas(22) extends westfromanimpressivesink about 400ydsSWof Quintero ontheflattopoftherange.The entrance sinkis about 200ftlong,100ftwide,and 60ftdeep, but canbe entered downa breakdown slope.Fromthesinkasteepslopeleads downward toa horizontal passage extending for about 300ft through severalcrawlways.Near theendofthispassageasmallsqueezetotherightleadstoapitover200ftdeep,asyetun descended. Another sink (24), somewhat smallerthantheColmenassinkwasseenfromthe air about 200mtotheSW.Asmallclimbablesink(23)100mNEoftheColmenassinkwas explored downward for about 25fttowherearockblockedthetopofa 25-foot pit.The rangeabove Quintero is spotted withsinksandpits.AlejandroPrieto,wholaidoutthevillageofQuintero in1860, reported findingapitabovethevillageofQuintero inwhichrocksfell for12sec (probably notfree) until they produced asharpcrack "like a body openingaway intothe water." Grutasde Quintero (84)is located about 2kmbyroad south ofthe town of Quintero, wherea stone stairwayleadstothe entrance. The frequently visitedmainpartofthecave consistsofaspaciouspassage30ftwideand20to40fthigh. Immediately insidetheent rancethepassagedividesandrejoins after 300 ft just beforeaskylight.Beyondtheskylight thepassage continues for1450fttoa 30-foot pit.This sectionofthecave contains numerous travertine damsandseveral short sidepassagesleadingtopools. Throughout thisareaphos phate minershavedugpitsandbuilttrails,andthe operations havedamagedmanyofthe travertine dams.Beyondthepitisa short wetpassage,whichenlargesto10ftwideand8ft highand continues pastarightforkfor 2000 fttoaflowstonemass that almostblocksthe passage.Aholetoosmalltotraverse continues. Therightforkleadstoanalmost unclimbable 8-foot walland extends for650fttoasmallpitasyet unexplored. CuevadeSanLazaro(94)isawalkingsize tunnel inthe north sideofan arroyo about 1kmNofCuevadelaFlorida.The tunnel jogsright after about 200ftandendsinaflow stoneblock.The entranceofthecaveis about 20ftaboveanarroyoandthecavefollows thestrikeofthe steeply dippingbedsalongthewestflankoftheElAbra anticline. Cueva dela Florida (43)is located 1miNofthevillageofElPach6n,onthewestslopeoftheEl AbraRange.Justinsidethe entrance thecavedividesintoalmost separate systems.The right-hand tunnel isasinuouspassageaveraginglGftwideand15fthigh.Thereisone majorsidepassageandseveral interconnections, andacrawlway that leadstoablind60 foot pit.Themain right-hand passageendsinasteep upward slopeofflowstone, andabove thisasmallwater-crawl extends forseveral hundred feet.Thelargerleft-hand tunnel leads through severalrooms,the innermost containing numerous bats,andfinallycomestoaslope leadingdowntoapoolofliquidguano.Beyondthepoolisasteepclimbover flowstone and thepassageendsinan unclimbed dome.Afew hundred feetdowntheleft-hand tunnel from the entrance a tortuous passage, mostlyofcrawlwaysize,leadstoasmall entrance onthe sideofan arroyo. Themain entrance totheCuevadela Florida isinthe north endofa134AMCSNewswasbuilt a larger cavewasaccessible. Alejandro Prieto in his book,HistoriayEstadz'sticadel Estado delTamaulipas,describes his explorationofa cave at the nacimiento in 1860as"going through two or three feetofwater for 20 meters to where itwastoo dark to proceed farther." Thiswasapparently upstream in the main nacimiento. Cueva de los F6siles (44)isprimarily a large room from which much fill has been removed for its mineral content. From this entrance room a side passage leads to a skylight. This caveisreportedtobe about 1 miSWofthe nacimiento. At the same approximate location a cave ope ningwasseen from the air at the baseofa cliff on the east faceofthe range. Also a small cave (61) about one-half mileSWofthe nacimientowasreportedtolead downward to a siphon after about 100 ft. Cueva delasColmenas (22) extends west from an impressive sink about 400 ydsSWofQuinteroonthe flat topofthe range. The entrance sinkisabout 200 ft long, 100 ft wide, and 60 ft deep, but can be entered down a breakdown slope. From the sink a steep slope leads downward to a horizontal passage extending for about 300 ft through several crawlways. Near the endofthis passage a small squeeze to the right leads to a pit over 200 ft deep,asyet un descended. Another sink (24), somewhat smaller than the Colmenas sink was seen from the air about 200 m to theSW.A small climbable sink (23) 100 m NEofthe Colmenas sinkwasexplored downward for about25ftto where a rock blocked the topofa 25-foot pit. The range above Quinteroisspotted with sinks and pits. Alejandro Prieto, who laidoutthe villageofQuintero in 1860, reported finding a pit above the villageofQuintero in which rocks fell for12sec (probably not free) until they produced a sharp crack "like a body opening a way into the water." Grutas de Quintero (84)islocated about 2 km by road southofthe townofQuintero, where a stone stairway leads to the entrance. The frequently visited main partofthe cave consistsofa spacious passage 30 ft wide and 20 to 40 ft high. Immediately inside the ent rance the passage divides and rejoins after 300 ft just before a skylight. Beyond the skylight the passage continues for 1450 ft to a 30-foot pit. This sectionofthe cave contains numerous travertine dams and several short side passages leading to pools. Throughout this area phos phate miners have dug pits and built trails, and the operations have damaged manyofthe travertine dams. Beyond the pitisa short wet passage, which enlarges to10ftwide and 8 ft high and continues past a right fork for 2000 ft to a flowstone mass that almost blocks the passage. A hole too small to traverse continues. The right fork leads to an almost unclimbable 8-foot wall and extends for 650 ft to a small pitasyet unexplored. Cueva de San Lazaro (94)isa walking size tunnel in the north sideofan arroyo about 1 km NofCueva delaFlorida. The tunnel jogs right after about 200 ft and ends in a flow stone block. The entranceofthe caveisabout 20 ft above an arroyo and the cave follows the strikeofthe steeply dipping beds along the west flankofthe El Abra anticline. Cueva delaFlorida (43)islocated 1 mi Nofthe villageofEl Pach6n, on the west slopeofthe El Abra Range. Just inside the entrance the cave divides into almost separate systems. The right-hand tunnelisa sinuous passage averaging10ftwide and15ft high. Thereisone major side passage and several interconnections, and a crawlway that leads to a blind 60 foot pit. The main right-hand passage ends in a steep upward slopeofflowstone, and above this a small water-crawl extends for several hundred feet. The larger left-hand tunnel leads through several rooms, the innermost containing numerous bats, and finally comes to a slope leading downtoa poolofliquid guano. Beyond the poolisa steep climb over flowstone and the passage ends in an unclimbed dome. A few hundred feet down the left-hand tunnel from the entrance a tortuous passage, mostlyofcrawlway size, leads to a small entrance on the sideofan arroyo. The main entrance to the Cueva delaFloridaisin the north endofa


v.IIIno.6 135 shallowsink. From the south endofthissinkasmall entrance leadstothe "Parrot Tunnel" or CuevadelosPajaros(77) that opensonacliffoverlookingan arroyo 200fttothe south. CuevadeEIPach6n (76) isan 800-foot longcaveabovethevillagewellatthe south edge ofthevillageofE1Pach6n.ThecavehasalsobeencalledCuevadelaCampana after aforma tionattheendofthecave that ringslikeabell. From just insidethe entrance a mud-floored passage20ftwideandfrom8to16fthigh extends for600fttoalake100ftlong.Thecave ends beyond thelakeinamudslope.Water apparently flowsfromthecave after heavyrains. CuevadeElAbra(l)isalarge frequently-visited caveandisvisiblefromHighway85intheEl AbrapassSWofCd.Mante.The 70-foot wide, 60-foot high entrance opens into alargepassage leading600fttoan 89-foot droptothelowerlevelwithaskylighthighabove.Thispitdrops intothe centerofthe 650-foot longlowerlevelwhichslopes steeply upward tothe north and downward tothe south. Abovethecavenearthepowerlineisa9 I-foot pit(2).CuevadeSan Nicolas (95) is located just abovethe north rimoftheElAbrapass about halfway through the pass.Thecaveis about 800ftlongandconsistsmostlyofwide dirt-floored passagefrom6to10fthigh.Atestpitduginthe floor passed through an estimated 40ftoffill. Just tothe eastofCuevadeSanNicolasonthe north sideofasmallsinkisa short cave(96),reallymore ofashelter. Tantoan Area:ThesteepeastslopeoftheSierradeElAbrafromwestofLaGaviato 5km southoftheSanLuisPotosiTamaulipas state line. CuevaChicadeArroyoSeco(l01)is located westoftheEjidoFelipeAngelesatthebase oftherange just abovea permanent poolattheheadofthe normally dry Arroyo Seco.The cave entrance is about 20ftabovenormalpoolleveland floodwater attimes apparently flows from both thepoolandthecave.Thecaveis15fthigh,20ftwide,and about 200ftlong. Towardthebackthecavenarrowsandtwofissuresleaddowntowaterat about pool level. CuevaGrandede Arroyo Seco(l02)islocated about 100ftaboveandslightlynorthofCueva Chicade Arroyo Seco.Its inconspicuous entrance leadstoa room 20fthighand40ftin diameter. Twofissuresleadfromthis room: onegoesovera handline droptoadeeppool,and the other extends 250fttoapoolformedalongaseriesofparallelfissures,some partially dissolved partitions risinglikeknifeedgedicebergsfromthelake.Asmall 40-foot pit(111) to water existsnearthe NacimientooftheRio Tantoan, and about 3km south oftheRio Tantoan, Cuevadel Arroyo Secois located attheheadofanother normally dry arroyo. Thiscaveislocally reported tobelong but, ithasbeenvisitedonlywhenthe arroyo was flowingandanypossiblepassageswereblockedbyhighwater. LaGaviaArea:Thehigh,relativelyflatcrestoftherangefrom5km southoftheEI AbrapasstoneartheSanLuisPotosiTamaulipas stateline. Thislargeareais poorly known,withonlythelargesink,LaCaldera(6)havingbeen visited.LaCalderais1200ftlong,300ftwide,and200ftdeepwithnearlyverticalwalls except toward the south whereitisdeeply undercut. Crawlwaysleadto about 300ftofsmallcave. About 2km northoftheCalderaisapitseenonlyfromtheair.Thispit(80) appearstodrop about 200fttoavine-coveredfloor. LaNoriaArea:ThewesternslopeoftherangefromeastofAntigua Morelostothe SanLuis Potosi Tamaulipas state line. CuevadeSantaElena(99)is located atthewestedgeoftheElAbra Limestone out cropandhasalarge,shelter-like entrance, oneendofaoncelargerroom.Acrawlway spirals downward fromthis room toa 20-foot drop into adomeroom.Beyondthedome roomaretwo 30-foot drops,thelast dropping intoalargeroomover200ftlongandper haps100fthigh.Mudbanks indicate thisroomfloods,butitispossibletosqueezedownv.IIIno. 6 135 shallow sink. From the south endofthis sink a small entrance leads to the "Parrot Tunnel" or Cueva de los Pajaros (77) that opens on a cliff overlooking an arroyo 200 ft to the south. Cueva deEIPach6n (76)isan 800-foot long cave above the village well at the south edgeofthe villageofE1Pach6n. The cave has also been called Cueva delaCampana after a forma tion at the endofthe cave that rings like a bell. From just inside the entrance a mud-floored passage 20 ft wide and from 8to16ft high extends for 600 ft to a lake 100 ft long. The cave ends beyond the lake in a mud slope. Water apparently flows from the cave after heavy rains. Cueva de El Abra(l)isa large frequently-visited cave andisvisible from Highway 85 in theElAbra passSWofCd. Mante. The 70-foot wide, 60-foot high entrance opens into a large passage leading 600ftto an 89-foot drop to the lower level with a skylight high above. This pit drops into the centerofthe 650-foot long lower level which slopes steeply upward to the north and downward to the south. Above the cave near the power lineisa9 I-foot pit (2). Cueva de San Nicolas (95)islocated just above the north rimofthe El Abra pass about halfway through the pass. The caveisabout 800 ft long and consists mostlyofwide dirt-floored passage from 6 to10fthigh. A test pit dug in the floor passed through an estimated 40 ftoffill. Just to the eastofCueva de San Nicolas on the north sideofa small sinkisa short cave (96), really moreofa shelter. Tantoan Area: The steep east slopeofthe Sierra de El Abra from westofLaGavia to 5 km southofthe San Luis Potosi Tamaulipas state line. Cueva Chica de Arroyo Seco(l01)islocated westofthe Ejido Felipe Angeles at the baseofthe range just above a permanent pool at the headofthe normally dry Arroyo Seco. The cave entranceisabout 20 ft above normal pool level and floodwater at times apparently flows from both the pool and the cave. The caveis15fthigh, 20 ft wide, and about 200ftlong. Toward the back the cave narrows and two fissures lead down to water at about pool level. Cueva Grande de Arroyo Seco(l02)islocated about 100ftabove and slightlynorthofCueva Chica de Arroyo Seco. Its inconspicuous entrance leads to a room 20 ft high and 40 ft in diameter. Two fissures lead from this room: one goes over a handline drop to a deep pool, and the other extends 250 ft to a pool formed along a seriesofparallel fissures, some partially dissolved partitions rising like knife edged icebergs from the lake. A small 40-foot pit (111 ) to water exists near the Nacimientoofthe Rio Tantoan, and about 3 km southofthe Rio Tantoan, Cueva del Arroyo Secoislocated at the headofanother normally dry arroyo. This caveislocally reported to be long but, it has been visited only when the arroyowasflowing andany possible passages were blocked by high water. La Gavia Area: The high, relatively flat crestofthe range from 5 km southoftheEIAbra pass to near the San Luis Potosi Tamaulipas state line. This large areaispoorly known, with only the large sink,LaCaldera (6) having been visited. La Calderais1200 ft long, 300 ft wide, and 200 ft deep with nearly vertical walls except toward the south where itisdeeply undercut. Crawlways lead to about 300 ftofsmall cave. About 2 km northofthe Calderaisa pit seen only from the air. This pit (80) appears to drop about 200 fttoa vine-covered floor. La Noria Area: The western slopeofthe range from eastofAntigua Morelos to the San Luis Potosi Tamaulipas state line. Cueva de Santa Elena (99)islocated at the west edgeofthe El Abra Limestone out crop and has a large, shelter-like entrance, one endofa once larger room. A crawlway spirals downward from this room to a 20-foot drop into a dome room. Beyond the dome room are two 30-foot drops, the last dropping into a large room over 200 ft long and per haps 100 ft high. Mudbanks indicate this room floods,butitispossible to squeeze down


136AMCSNews through breakdown foratleast50ft. S6tano delaNoria(72)receivesdrainagefromseveral largefields.The inconspicuous entrance (located attheedgeofafield1km northoftheLa Noria ranch 'house') drops20fttoanoffset,where another dropleadsdownpastanatural bridge into a prominent fissure. Another pitdrops30ft,but beyond thisdropthemainfis surewas blocked withdebris.Itwouldbe worthwhile toclearthisfissureasitshouldleadto muchmorecave. S6tano de Tarantula (113)isacrossafieldand just into thewoodsSEof theLaNoria ranch 'house'. Thispitdrops60fttoa breakdown plug, then offsetsintoaparal lelpitandgoesdown50fttoadead-end. Puente delaNoria(72)isa natural bridge30ftlongspanningasmallsink.Thereisalsoasmall 20-foot pit(73) northoftheroad just before theranch.Onekm south ofthe ranch 'house' and just SEofthebendintheroadisaNE trending lineofsinksasyetunvisited. San Ricardo Area:Thewesternslopeoftherangefromthe state line south tonearK19 northofValles,essentiallythe Ponciano ArriagaRanch. S6tano delasQuilas (83), located eastofBuenaVista,isapit dropping 180ft into an irregular room about 100ftlong. S6tano delaRafz(87),locatedNEofthe Ponciano Arriaga ranch headquarters, hasdevelopedwhereasmallgullydrops86ft into a narrow fissure, then flows about 100ftunder twoskylightsandsinks into mud. Another pit(86),20ftawayand 36ftdeep,ispossibly connected through smallcracks.CuevaVerde (125) isalO-foothigh horizontal passage about 50ftlong. Tanchipa Area:Thehigh,relativelyflatcrestoftherangefromnearthe state line south to directly eastofK25onthehighway northofValles. Cuevade Tanchipa (105) is located 300m southofthechapelbuiltatthesiteofanair planecrash.A breakdown slope extends fromthe entrance downtothecave's upper level,a room30to75fthighand about 300ftlong.Fromthisroomafissurecanbefolloweddown aseriesofpitstoa depthofabout 400ftwhereanarrow constriction hasblockedexplora tion.Belowthis constriction isadropofover50ft.Airflowandgeologyindicatethecave will continue. About 1mi northofthechapelisadeeppitseenfromtheair (106); nearthis pitareseveralpromisingsinksandlargedolinas. LaCeibaArea:Thesteepeastslopeoftherangefrom5km southofthe state lineto nearthe Cementos AnahuacPlant. CuevadelasCuatas(28)opensontheeastfacenearthe north boundaryofRancho Zimapanandisafissure about 300ftlongand30ftwidewithahighskylightandarelatively flatfloor.ThemainpassageofCuevadelaCeiba(9)isanearly horizontal passage50ftwide and730ftlongendinginahighdomeandaskylight.Two hundred feetfromtheendapit inthe centerofthepassagegoesdown300feetoveraseriesofdropstoa terminal room370ftbelowthe entrance. This room contains bonesinaclayfill. Ventana JabaH(124) offers oneofthemostsatisfyingsightsinMexicowhen,duringthesummer months, beamsofsun lightfromthe 503-foot skylightshinepastahigh natural bridge onto thefloorofthecave. Thecaveisessentiallya l200-foot long solution tunnel 40to90ftwideandveryhigh.The floorofthecaverises toward thebackandattheendasmallhole connects withahighdome room.The 60-foot high entrance to Ventana Jabalfisvisiblefromtheroad northofEstaci6n Tamuin. YerbanizArea:TheareawestofHighway85drainedbyarroyosYerbanizandJapones. S6tano deYerbaniz (127) is located about 1kmwestofhighway85atK22.8 north of Cd.Vallesattheendofthe Arroyo Yerbaniz.Allthewaterflowingdownthe arroyo enters thepit except duringthelargestfloods,whenitispossible that somewaterisabletobypass136AMCSNews through breakdown for at least 50 ft. S6tano delaNoria (72) receives drainage from several large fields. The inconspicuous entrance (located at the edgeofa field 1 km northoftheLaNoria ranch 'house') drops 20ftto an offset, where another drop leads down past a natural bridge into a prominent fissure. Another pit drops 30ft,but beyond this drop the mainfissurewasblocked with debris.Itwould be worthwhile to clear this fissureasit should lead to much more cave. S6tano de Tarantula (113)isacross a field and just into the woods SEoftheLaNoria ranch 'house'. This pit drops 60ftto a breakdown plug, then offsets into a parallelpit and goes down 50fttoa dead-end. Puente delaNoria (72)isa natural bridge 30ftlong spanning a small sink. Thereisalso a small 20-foot pit (73) northofthe road just before the ranch. One km southofthe ranch 'house' and just SEofthe bend in the roadisaNEtrending lineofsinksasyet unvisited. San Ricardo Area: The western slopeofthe range from the state line southtonear K19northofValles, essentially the Ponciano Arriaga Ranch. S6tanodelasQuilas (83), located eastofBuena Vista,isa pit dropping 180 ft into an irregular room about 100ftlong. S6tanodelaRa{z(87), locatedNEofthe Ponciano Arriaga ranch headquarters, has developed where a small gully drops 86 ft into a narrow fissure, then flows about 100ftunder two skylights and sinks into mud. Another pit (86), 20ftaway and 36ftdeep,ispossibly connected through small cracks. Cueva Verde (125)isa lO-foot high horizontal passage about 50ftlong. Tanchipa Area: The high, relatively flat crestofthe range from near the state line south to directly eastofK25on the highway northofValles. Cueva de Tanchipa (105)islocated 300 m southofthe chapel built at the siteofan air plane crash. A breakdown slope extends from the entrance down to the cave's upper level, a room 30 to75ft high and about 300ftlong. From this room a fissure can be followed down a seriesofpits to a depthofabout 400 ft where a narrow constriction has blocked explora tion. Below this constrictionisa dropofover 50ft.Airflow and geology indicate the cave will continue. About 1 mi northofthe chapelisa deep pit seen from the air (106); near this pit are several promising sinks and large dolinas. La Ceiba Area: The steep east slopeofthe range from 5 km southofthe state line to near the Cementos Anahuac Plant. Cueva delasCuatas (28) opens on the east face near the north boundaryofRancho Zimapan andisa fissure about 300ftlong and 30 ft wide with a high skylight and a relatively flat floor. The main passageofCueva delaCeiba (9)isa nearly horizontal passage 50ftwide and 730ftlong ending in a high dome and a skylight. Two hundred feet from the end a pit in the centerofthe passage goes down 300 feet over a seriesofdrops to a terminal room 370ftbelow the entrance. This room contains bones in a clay fill. Ventana JabaH(124) offers oneofthe most satisfying sights in Mexico when, during the summer months, beamsofsun light from the 503-foot skylight shine past a high natural bridge onto the floorofthe cave. The caveisessentially a l200-foot long solution tunnel 40 to 90ftwide and very high. The floorofthe cave rises toward the back and at the end a small hole connects with a high dome room. The 60-foot high entrance to Ventana JabaHisvisible from the road northofEstaci6n Tamuin. Yerbaniz Area: The area westofHighway 85 drained by arroyos Yerbaniz and Japones. S6tano de Yerbaniz (127)islocated about 1 km westofhighway 85 at K 22.8 northofCd.Valles at the endofthe Arroyo Yerbaniz. All the water flowing down the arroyo enters the pit except during the largest floods, when itispossible that some waterisable to bypass


v.IIIn.6137 S6tano de Yerbaniz andflow down thevalleyand enter S6tano de Matapalma (64) 2kmtotheSW.The Arroyo Yerbaniz has only recently beguntoflow into S6tano de Yerbaniz andtheold arroyo leadingto S6tano de Matapalma is only afewfeetabovethenew arroyo leading into S6tano de Yerbaniz. TheYerbaniz entrance isaslot40ftlongand10ftwidethatdrops200fttothefirstlevel,alow room withmanypillarsandalcoves.Severalpits connect thefirstlevel with thesecondlevel,alsoalowirregular room. Onthesecondlevel,passages extend totheedge ofa mud-floored room 360ftlongand100ftwide,whose floor is about 60ft below thesecond level.Alakeatoneendofthis room isthelowest point inthecave,312ftbelowthe entrance. Apassagealsoleadsfromthesecondleveltoadrop into alargepassagethatsoonsiphons,and fromthelargemud room apassageleadstoalakeatthe3l2-footlevel. Flood debris is present throughout thecave. S6tano de Matapalma (64) is entered byal80-footdrop attheendofa short arroyo. Belowthe entrance pitisa breakdown-floored room 350ftlongand90ftwide. Apassage20ftwideandfrom10to30fthighgoes south 1200fttoa junction. Tothelefta large, unexplored water passage offers achallengetosurveyors.Themainpassage continuesnorthand then turns SW,finally ending ina siphon 4300 ft beyond the water passage. S6tano de Japones (52) isthesouthmostofthelargeYerbanizareacavesandtheeasiesttoreach. Follow Arroyo Japones fromwhereitcrossesthehighwayatK19.4 about 1mitothewest whereit drops into the s6tano. Onemainpassageismosteasily reached byclimbingdowna smallholeontheleftsideofthe arroyo just before themainpit.Thishole eventually drops into afissurepassage that isseveral thousand feetlong.Atsome points itispossibleto chimney downtodeepwater. From thebottomofthemain entrance pitpassagesleadtoamazelevel withseveral thousand feetoflow rooms and interconnecting crawlways.Several pits dropfrom themazelevel into unsurveyed lowerlevelswherelong stream passagesare reported. More than 10,000 ftofpassagehavebeen surveyed, andnosurveyshaveyetreachedthe loweststream level. Los Sabinos Area:ThewestslopeoftherangefromeastofK19 northofCiudad Valles, tonearthe power lineNEofCd.Valles. S6tano delTigre (114) isnow approachable byaroughroadthatpasses within a hundred metersofthe entrance. The 265-foot entrance dropis located attheendofan arroyoabout2km longthathascutdowntotheElAbra Limestone through theoverlying non-cavernous rock. The entrance dropis broken byaledgewithapoolabout190ftbelowthelip.Fromthe bot tom alargepassageleads200fttoa junction. Hereapassage turns right200fttoa 30-foot drop into the Ricinuleid Passage,an upstream silt-floored passage about 1000ftlong inhabited byalarge colony of ricinuleids, raretick-like arachnids relatively common intheSierradeE1Abra.A complexofpassages interconnect the entrance pitandthe ricinuleid junction. From thisareathemain downstream passage extends firstasahighfissure,thencontinues through shallow watertoalake 800ftlongwithceilingheightsofonly afewfeet.Thispassagefinally endsinalarge mud-banked terminal siphon room. S6tano delaRoca (91) is located justabove the arroyo bed, downstream fromalarge boulder inthemain arroyo eastofthevillageofLosSabinos.Thepitreceives water only duringmajorfloods.A 10-foot dropleads into a small dirt-floored room, whereasmallholeopens into a 120-foot pit.Atthebottoma muddy fissuredrops8ft into asmall but promising crawlwaywithairflow. S6tano del Arroyo (5)is located attheendofalarge arroyo that drainsthevalleynorthand northeastofLosSabinos.ThiseasilyaccessiblecavewasoneofthefirstlargeElAbracaves tobe explored,butuntil recently only asmall partofthecavehadbeenvisited.Over 21,000 ft ofpassagehavebeen mapped, makingit presently thelongest surveyed caveinMexico.The caveis partofa systemofover 40,000 ftofpassage,being separated only bya sectionofwater filledpassagefromCuevadeLosSabinos.Thecavealso probably connects with S6tano delav.IIIn.6137 S6tano de Yerbaniz and flow down the valley and enter S6tano de Matapalma (64) 2 km to theSW.The Arroyo Yerbaniz has only recently begun to flow into S6tano de Yerbaniz andtheold arroyo leadingtoS6tano de Matapalmaisonly a few feet above the new arroyo leading into S6tano de Yerbaniz. The Yerbaniz entranceisa slot40ft long and10ftwidethatdrops 200fttothe first level, a low room with many pillars and alcoves. Several pits connect the first level with the second level, also a low irregular room. On the second level, passages extendtothe edgeofa mud-floored room 360 ft long and 100 ft wide, whose floorisabout 60 ft below the second level. A lake at one endofthis roomisthe lowest point in the cave, 312 ft below the entrance. A passage also leads from the second leveltoa drop into a large passagethatsoon siphons, and fromthelarge mud room a passage leadstoa lake at the3l2-footlevel. Flood debrisispresent throughout the cave. S6tano de Matapalma (64)isentered by al80-footdropattheendofa short arroyo. Below the entrance pitisa breakdown-floored room 350ftlong and 90ftwide. A passage20ft wide and from10to30 ft high goes south 1200 fttoa junction.Tothe left a large, unexplored water passage offers a challenge to surveyors. The main passage continuesnorthand then turnsSW,finally ending in a siphon 4300 ft beyond the water passage. S6tano de Japones (52)isthesouthmostofthe large Yerbaniz area caves and the easiesttoreach. Follow Arroyo Japones from where it crosses the highwayatK 19.4 about 1 mitothe west where it drops into the s6tano. One main passageismost easily reached by climbing down a small hole on the left sideofthe arroyo just before the main pit. This hole eventually drops into a fissure passage thatisseveral thousand feet long. At some points itispossible to chimney downtodeep water. From thebottomofthe main entrance pit passages lead to a maze level with several thousand feetoflow rooms and interconnecting crawlways. Several pits drop from the maze level into unsurveyed lower levels where long stream passages are reported. More than 10,000 ftofpassage have been surveyed, and no surveys have yet reached the loweststream level. Los Sabinos Area: The west slopeofthe range from eastofK 19 northofCiudad Valles,tonear the power line NEofCd. Valles. S6tano del Tigre (114)isnow approachable by a rough roadthatpasses within a hundred metersofthe entrance. The 265-foot entrance dropislocated at the endofan arroyoabout2 km longthathas cut down to theElAbra Limestone through the overlying non-cavernous rock. The entrance dropisbroken by a ledge with a poolabout190ftbelow the lip.Fromthe bot tom a large passage leads 200 ft to a junction. Here a passage turns right200fttoa 30-foot drop into the Ricinuleid Passage, an upstream silt-floored passage about 1000 ft long inhabited by a large colonyofricinuleids, rare tick-like arachnids relatively common in the Sierra deE1Abra. A complexofpassages interconnect the entrance pit and the ricinuleid junction. From this area the main downstream passage extends firstasa high fissure,thencontinues through shallow watertoa lake 800ftlong with ceiling heightsofonly a few feet. This passage finally ends in a large mud-banked terminal siphon room. S6tano delaRoca (91)islocated just above the arroyo bed, downstream from a large boulder inthemain arroyo eastofthe villageofLos Sabinos. The pit receives water only during major floods. A 10-foot drop leads into a small dirt-floored room, where a small hole opens into a 120-foot pit.Atthebottoma muddy fissure drops 8 ft into a small but promising crawlway with air flow. S6tano del Arroyo (5)islocated at the endofa large arroyo that drains the valleynorthand northeastofLos Sabinos. This easily accessible cave was oneofthe first largeElAbra caves to be explored,butuntil recently only a small partofthe cave had been visited. Over 21,000 ftofpassage have been mapped, making it presently the longest surveyed cave in Mexico. The caveispartofa systemofover 40,000 ftofpassage, being separated only by a sectionofwater filled passage from Cueva de Los Sabinos. The cave also probably connects with S6tano dela


138AMCSNews Tinaja1.6kmtothe south. Theendsofmajorpassagesin Arroyo lineupwith major passages inTinaja,andastrongairflowtowardTinajaindicatesaphysical connection. The 50-foot entrance drop into S6tano delArroyoisreachedbyashorthandlinedropinthe arroyo bed. The entrance isessentiallyalargeslot about 150ftdeep except wherethe arroyo enters.The mainpassagefromthe entrance slotgoesseveral hundred feettoa junction. Herealongwater passagecirclestotherightand eventually connects withthe entrance, 30ftbelowthearroyo. Themainpassage continues overtwo 40-foot drops,thelastintoa triangular roomwithalake atthefarcorner.Fromthebottomofthedrop into thetriangleroomafissureleadsupintoa passage that extends almosttoCuevadeLosSabinos,butendsinapool before connecting. Acrossthelakeatthelowendofthetriangleroomapassageleadstoa 30-foot dropintoa pool.Beyondthispoolseveral thousand feetofpassagetrend south andalmost intersect pass agesin S6tano delaTinaja.Severalpassagesendinsiphonsor breakdown and flowstone blocks, but somedropintoalargelowerlevelpassage that hasnotbeen explored duetohigh levelsofCO2causedbydecayingdebris brought inbyfloods.Above S6tano del Arroyo an unnamed 70-foot pit (103) hasbeen located nearthe entrance. CuevadelosSabinos (93) is entered through a 100-foot high, 50-foot wide entrance in thesideofalargesink700meastofthe S6tano delArroyo.Nowaterflowsintothisopening. From the entrance asteep breakdown slopeleadstoa junction. Fromthe junction areaseveral smallerpassages continue alongparallelfissures, but themainpassagegoes400fttowardthe north andalsobacktotheleft under the entrance, wherethereisaladderleadingtothelower level.Belowtheladderthepassageenlargesto40ftwide,20fthigh,and extends toward S6 tanadel Arroyo, endinginasiphon.Two hundred feetfrom S6tano delArroyoextensive waterpassagesatthislevelalsosiphon. S6tano delaTinaja (115) canbe entered without equipment, byclimbingoverrocksand ledgesinthe arroyo. ThemainpassagesinTinajaformaroughsquare.The entrance passage trends eastfor about 1500fttoa 30-foot dropintothe Sandy-Floored Passage,whichaverages 30ftwideandIOta15fthigh.Thispassage trends generally north for 2000 fttotheLake Passage,which continues westfor1000ftmore.Fromthe entrance awatercrawlleads north almosttothelakepassage.A downstream passagecarries floodwater fromthe south endofthe Sandy-Floored Passageoveraseriesofdropsand obstructions toalarge,deepsiphon. Passages from S6tano delArroyo extend intothearea between thelakepassageandthewater crawlandstrongair currents indicate the likelihood ofa connection. Upthe arroyo afew hundred feetfromthe entrance to S6tano delaTinajaisawaterfall, partofwhosewater by-passesthefallsbymeansofa short cave (116), and further upstream isapitinthe arroyo (117)nowpluggedat30ft.Apit (119) witha probable passagewasdiscoveredaboveTinaja, andin returning toitablind1 50-foot pit (118) waslocated. Farther awayis another blind pit(15). S6tano deSoyate(104)is located 500m southoftheroadtoCuevaPinta.The entrance is50by20ftandthepitdropsvertically646ft,slightlyinclinedtothevertical,so that de scentisagainstthewall.Afissureleadsfromthe bottomofthepittoa 35-foot drop toa ledgeoverlookingalargelake.Thelakeis400ftlongand100ftwide,andis173ftdeepat normalwaterlevel.Fromtheledgeitis normally a 35-foot dropintothewater (only 135ftdeepatthis point),butafter heavyrainsthewaterlevelrisesabovetheledge. South along thetrailpastSoyateis S6tano delLargarto (54), a 180-foot fissurelocated just westofthe trail.CuevaEscondida(38)isreachedbya short roadleading north fromtheCuevaPinta road.Thecavehasseveral hundred feetofrooms andsmallpassages that havebeenmined for nitrates. EastoftheCuevaEscondida turnoff aretwosmallpitswithin10ftofthe road, onetothe south (40)andonetothe north (39).Bothmightbepushedwith effort.138AMCSNews Tinaja 1.6 km to the south. The endsofmajor passages in Arroyo line up with major passages in Tinaja, and a strong air flow toward Tinaja indicates a physical connection. The 50-foot entrance drop into S6tano del Arroyoisreached by a short handline drop in the arroyo bed. The entranceisessentially a large slot about 150 ft deep except where the arroyo enters. The main passage from the entrance slot goes several hundred feet to a junction. Here a long water passage circlestothe right and eventually connects with the entrance, 30ftbelow the arroyo. The main passage continues over two 40-foot drops, the last into a triangular room with a lake at the far corner. From thebottomofthe drop into the triangle room a fissure leads up into a passage that extends almosttoCueva de Los Sabinos,butends in a pool before connecting. Across the lake at the low endofthe triangle room a passage leads to a 30-foot drop into a pool. Beyond this pool several thousand feetofpassage trend south and almost intersect passagesin S6tano delaTinaja. Several passages end in siphons or breakdown and flowstone blocks, but some drop into a large lower level passage that has not been explored due to high levelsofCO2caused by decaying debris brought in by floods. Above S6tano del Arroyo an unnamed 70-foot pit (103) has been located near the entrance. Cueva de los Sabinos (93)isentered through a 100-foot high, 50-foot wide entrance in the sideofa large sink 700 m eastofthe S6tano del Arroyo. No water flows into this opening. From the entrance a steep breakdown slope leads to a junction. From the junction area several smaller passages continue along parallel fissures, but the main passage goes 400 ft toward the north and also back to the left under the entrance, where thereisa ladder leading to the lower level. Below the ladderthepassage enlarges to 40 ft wide,20 ft high, and extends toward S6 tan a del Arroyo, ending in a siphon. Two hundred feet from S6tano del Arroyo extensive water passages at this level also siphon. S6tanodela Tinaja (115) can be entered without equipment, by climbing over rocks and ledges in the arroyo. The main passages in Tinaja form a rough square. The entrance passage trends east for about 1500 ft to a 30-foot drop into the Sandy-Floored Passage, which averages 30 ft wide andIOta15ft high. This passage trends generally north for 2000 ft to the Lake Passage, which continues west for 1000 ft more. From the entrance a water crawl leads north almost to the lake passage. A downstream passage carries floodwater from the south endofthe Sandy-Floored Passage over a seriesofdrops and obstructions to a large, deep siphon. Passages from S6tano del Arroyo extend into the area between the lake passage and the water crawl and strong air currents indicate the likelihoodofa connection. Up the arroyo a few hundred feet from the entrancetoS6tano delaTinajaisa waterfall, partofwhose water by-passes the falls by meansofa short cave (116), and further upstreamisa pit in the arroyo (117) now plugged at 30 ft. A pit (119) with a probable passagewasdiscovered above Tinaja, and in returning to it a blind 1 50-foot pit (118)waslocated. Farther awayisanother blind pit (15). S6tanodeSoyate (104)islocated 500 m southofthe road to Cueva Pinta. The entranceis50 by 20 ft and the pit drops vertically 646 ft, slightly inclined to the vertical,sothatdescentisagainst the wall. A fissure leads from the bottomofthe pit to a 35-foot drop to a ledge overlooking a large lake. The lakeis400 ft long and 100 ft wide, andis173 ft deep at normal water level. From the ledge itisnormally a 35-foot drop into the water (only 135ftdeep at this point),butafter heavy rains the water level rises above the ledge. South along the trail past SoyateisS6tano del Largarto (54), a 180-foot fissure located just westofthe trail. Cueva Escondida (38)isreached by a short road leading north from the Cueva Pinta road. The cave has several hundred feetofrooms and small passages that have been mined for nitrates. Eastofthe Cueva Escondida turnoff are two small pits within10ftofthe road, one to the south (40) and one to the north (39). Both might be pushed with effort.


v.IIIno.6 139 TheSistemadeMontecillos(68)isformedbythe S6tano de Pechojumo (Pichijumo) and the Sotanito deMontecillos,whichare separated onlybya short siphon.The Sotanito forms thelargest partofthesystemandis entered through a11O-footpithalf-hidden under alarge rockinthebedofthe arroyo upstream fromthe Pechojumo entrance. From thebottomof the Sotanito apassage10ftwideand20fthighgoes400fttoacomplex T-intersection. To therightisahalf-mileofsinuouslakepassagesome40ftwideand5to20fthigh,whichis dryatfirst, but graduallythe water deepensandthepassagefinallyendsinasiphon.This siphonisonlyafewftlongandduringlowwater,voiceandlight communication arepossible fromthis point to Pechojumo passage.Leftfromthe T-intersection upa flowstone bank,a passage20ftlongand30fthighleadstoa chimney anda 100-foot dropintoasmallerpass age,whichenlargesandfinallydropsintoa canyon 50ftwide,150fthigh,and200ftlong. Asmallsqueezecrawlleadstoa 60-foot dropintowaterfromaslotintheceilingofa room 100by160ft.Aflowingstreamcanbefollowed upstream fromthis room through largerooms toasiphon.The Pechojumo entrance is60by40ft,and45ftdeeponthe arroyo side,butmuchhigherelsewhere.Back under the arroyo onthe upper levelarightforkleadstoamud siphon,andthetwoleftforksformaloop that almost connects withthe downstream passage inthe Sotanito. From the downstream sideofthe Pechojumo entrance alargepassageslopes downward toa 140-foot pit. From the bottom theLakePassage,40ftwideand10to20ft high,goes1100fttoadivision.Bothpassages eventually drop into ahigh canyon 200ftlong endinginadeepsiphon.Besidethetrailleading north bythe Sotanito inaflat sheetoflime stone isthesmallpit, S6tano deLaLajita (55), a 20-foot drop into asmallroom.Inthesideofthe arroyo between the Sotanito andthe Pechojumo entrance isthe11O-footlongCueva deLe6n(56),agooddrycampingplace,andnearthe Sotanito isCuevadelas Ratas (89). S6tano deJos(53)is another openinginthe bottomofan arroyo, thepit apparently taking allthe water evenduringlargefloods.Thecaveisessentiallyonelargefissure.A 100-foot entrance dropisfollowedbyan offset through ahole into thetopofa 120-foot fissure.This fissureaverages about 50fthighand10ftwide,beingatone point partially blocked byflow stone.Attheendthefissurewidensanda short dropleadstoasiphonpool.Thecaveis photogenic, withshallowpoolsandcleanwalls. S6tano delasPiedras(80)is located atthe endofthenow abandoned sectionofthe arroyo downstream from S6tano deJos.A 60-foot dropleadstoalargepassage,whichendsina 90-foot drop into asmallerpassageleadingto alake. Extending fromthelake,apassage30fthighby30ftwideendsinasiphon.The southmost oftheLosSabinoscaves, S6tano dePalmaSeca (78), isattheendofanowaban doned arroyothatnolongercarrieswater,sincetherainfallsinksintocracks.A 100-foot entrance pit enters oneendofa mud-banked room 150ftlongand30fthigh.Thereisone sidepassage300ftlong. LosMonosArea:Therelativelyflat, central portionoftherangefromeastofK25to nearthe powerline whichrunsNEfromVallesto Cementos Anahuac. S6tano delLoro(57)is located onthetopoftherangewestofthe southern boundary. The entrance tothiscaveis40by100ftanddrops195fttoasmalltalusslope,whichleads toa room 80ftwideand60fthigh.Fromthis room apassage extends NWfor700ft,gently risingandendingina flowstone plug.Thecaveiswell-decorated.Hoyade Zimapan (128) is just westofS6tano deLoro.The entrance, locatedattheendofalargesink,is30fthighand 100ftwide,witha 60-foot cliffabovethe entrance. A breakdown slopeleads into theent rance room, 100fthigh,100ftwide,and250ftlong.Alargecolumn partly blocksthe passage, after whichitopensupto100by100ft.Thenext column completely blocksthe passage except forasmall water-scoured holeleadingtoa1 54-foot drop, after whichasteep breakdown slopeleadstoa flowstone cascadesloping steeply toa 270-foot drop.Atthev.IIIno. 6 139 The Sistema de Montecillos (68)isformed by the S6tano de Pechojumo (Pichijumo) and the Sotanito de Montecillos, which are separated only by a short siphon. The Sotanito forms the largest partofthe system andisentered through a11O-foot pit half-hidden under a large rock in the bedofthe arroyo upstream from the Pechojumo entrance. From thebottomofthe Sotanito a passage 10 ft wide and 20 ft high goes 400 ft to a complex T-intersection. To the rightisa half-mileofsinuous lake passage some 40 ft wide and 5 to 20 ft high, whichisdry at first, but gradually the water deepens and the passage finally ends in a siphon. This siphonisonly a few ft long and during low water, voice and light communication are possible from this pointtoPechojumo passage. Left from the T-intersection up a flowstone bank, a passage 20 ft long and 30 ft high leads to a chimney and a 100-foot drop into a smaller passage,which enlarges and finally drops into a canyon 50 ft wide, 150 ft high, and 200 ft long. A small squeeze crawl leadstoa 60-foot drop into water from a slot in the ceilingofa room 100 by 160 ft. A flowing stream can be followed upstream from this room through large rooms to a siphon. The Pechojumo entranceis60 by 40 ft, and 45 ft deeponthe arroyo side,butmuch higher elsewhere. Back under the arroyo on the upper level a right fork leads to a mud siphon, and the two left forks form a loop that almost connects with the downstream passage in the Sotanito. From the downstream sideofthe Pechojumo entrance a large passage slopes downward to a 140-foot pit. From the bottom the Lake Passage, 40 ft wide and 10 to 20 ft high, goes 1100 ft to a division. Both passages eventually drop into a high canyon 200 ft long ending in a deep siphon. Beside the trail leading north by the Sotanito in a flat sheetoflime stoneisthe small pit, S6tano deLaLajita (55), a 20-foot drop into a small room. In the sideofthe arroyo between the Sotanito and the Pechojumo entranceisthe11O-foot long Cueva de Le6n (56), a good dry camping place, and near the SotanitoisCueva delasRatas (89). S6tano de Jos (53)isanother opening in the bottomofan arroyo, the pit apparently taking all the water even during large floods. The caveisessentially one large fissure. A 100-foot entrance dropisfollowed by an offset through a hole into the topofa 120-foot fissure. This fissure averages about 50 ft high and10ftwide, being at one point partially blocked by flow stone. At the end the fissure widens and a short drop leads to a siphon pool. The caveisphotogenic, with shallow pools and clean walls. S6tano delasPiedras (80)islocated at the endofthe now abandoned sectionofthe arroyo downstream from S6tano de Jos.A 60-foot drop leadstoa large passage, which ends in a 90-foot drop into a smaller passage leading to a lake. Extending from the lake, a passage 30 ft high by 30 ft wide ends in a siphon. The southmostoftheLos Sabinos caves, S6tano de Palma Seca (78),isat the endofa now aban doned arroyothatno longer carries water, since the rainfall sinks into cracks. A 100-foot entrance pit enters one endofa mud-banked room 150ftlong and 30 ft high. Thereisone side passage 300ftlong. Los Monos Area: The relatively flat, central portionofthe range from eastofK 25 to near the powerline which runs NE from Valles to Cementos Anahuac. S6tano del Loro (57)islocated on the topofthe range westofthe southern boundary. The entrance to this caveis40 by 100ftand drops 195ftto a small talus slope, which leads to a room 80ftwide and60 ft high. From this room a passage extendsNWfor 700ft,gently rising and ending in a flowstone plug. The caveiswell-decorated. Hoya deZimap{m(128)isjust westofS6tano de Loro. The entrance, located at the endofa large sink,is30fthigh and 100ftwide, with a 60-foot cliff above the entrance. A breakdown slope leads into the ent rance room, 100fthigh, 100ftwide, and 250 ft long. A large column partly blocks the passage, after which it opens up to 100 by 100 ft. The next column completely blocks the passage except for a small water-scoured hole leading to a1 54-foot drop, after which a steep breakdown slope leads to a flowstone cascade sloping steeply to a 270-foot drop. At the


140 AMCSNews bottom alarge tubular passagegoestoa 226-foot drop into theendofaroom700by300ft and150fthigh.Thefloorofthisroomiscoveredwithsmall travertine dams.Therearealso someblade-like projectionsofrock,all that isleftofwalls that oncedividedtheroom. CuevadelosMonosand S6tano delosMonos(65)are connected andsoareconsidered asonecave.CuevadelosMonosisa horizontal cave about 200ftlong,with monkey-like petroglyphs that givethecave(andarea)itsname.The horizontal caveisperchedoverand opens into the s6tano, a minimum 464-foot drop.The S6tano canalsobe entered through holesinthefloorofthecave.The S6tano isashaft approximately 100by50ft,andfromthe bottom a 20-foot climb-upandasqueezeleadtoa 180-foot pitandthree IS-foot dropstoa generallywalking-sizepassage1200ftlong.Towardtheendthecavebecomessmalleranda 73-footdropleadstoalowerlevel.Bothlevelsend shortly, thelowerinasmallflowstone blockedpit. Total depth, includingthe upper horizontal cave,is951ft. S6tano deOrqufdea (75),100ft northofthepit,dropsintoacomplexoffissuresandsmallrooms.NearMonos areseveralsmallpits:thedeepest,400ydsNE,is S6tano deIaCulebra(29), actually two parallelshafts.Totheeastalongthetrailare S6tano DobledelNorte(31),whichdrops40fttoaholetoosmallto enter; 20fttothe south isDobledelSur(32).Eastofthedouble pitsatrailleadspast2smallpits(66)(67).TotheENEacrossashallowsinkis S6tano Este (41).Two hundred mNEofMonosisHoyadeHigueron(51), entered byacircular, vertically-walledsink150ftin diameter that canbeclimbed, thanks to convenient vines. Fromthissinkaslopeleadsdown100ftintothecave,whichisessentiallyonelargesilt floored room, 120ftwideand500ftlong.Just southoftheMonosdolinais S6tano del NopalGrande,a 289-foot blindpitdevelopedalongafissure that has produced alineofsmall sinks.TaninulArea:Thearea southofthepowerlinewhichgoesNEofCd.VallestoeastofHotelCovadonga. S6tano Cincuenta ySeis(14)isan inconspicuous pitatthe south edgeofafieldnear thepowerlineabovethevillageofLasPalmas.The entrance issmallanddrops31fttoan offset, then toa 295-foot drop. Total depth is511ft.One hundred meterstothe south is S6tano deGadsden(45),a somewhat largerpit10ftby15ft dropping overaseriesofledgestoa natural bridgeat about 300ftandfinallyendinginasmallroomat443ft. SouthofS6tano deGadsdenisa 30-foot incompletely checkedpit(49),andtothe north under thepowerlineisa 100-foot pit(46). South ofthepowerlinearetwopits(47) (48) inthe samefieldwith S6tano Cincuenta ySeis.Therearesix recorded cavesattheLaColmena minesNWofSanFelipe.ThelargestisCuevadelaColmena(16),theSE-most known cave atthemines.The entrance isasink20ftwideand40ftlong,barelyclimbableatonecor ner.Asteepslopeleadsdowntoaholeintherightwall,takingasharplefttumandcon tinuing downtoa 20-foot dropintoaseriesoffissures that formthemaincave.Nearthe roadisa 40-foot pit(18),behind that isa short cave(21),and under a nearby ledgeisa walk-incave(20)100ftlongwith50ftofsidepassage.Abovetheledge,100ftwest,is VinePit (19), leadingtoa short horizontal passage. Farther west,150ftfromtheroad,is apit(17)byasoyate.Thereareseveraldeeppitsdugby phosphate prospectors alongthe roadtothewest.Cuevadel Nacimiento del Rio Choy(12)is composedofpits intercon nectingtwo horizontal sections, an upper drylevel(locallyCuevadelVirgenfromafor mation thought toresembletheVirginofGuadalupe), andthelowerriverlevelwherethe Rio Choyflowsfromadeeplakeoverseveral travertine dams before itleavesthe entrance. Bothlevelsare about 200ftlong;the upper levelis about 100ftabovethelower.Thearea surrounding the entrance hasbeenlandscapedasaprivatepark.Justtothe northofthe caveisafissurecave(13) about 150ftlong.CuevadeValdosa (121) isa 400-foot long,140AMCSNews bottom a large tubular passage goes to a 226-foot drop into the endofa room 700 by 300 ft and 150fthigh. The floorofthis roomiscovered with small travertine dams. There are also some blade-like projectionsofrock, all thatisleftofwalls that once divided the room. Cueva de los Monos and S6tano de los Monos (65) are connected andsoare consideredasone cave. Cueva de los Monosisa horizontal cave about 200ftlong, with monkey-like petroglyphs thatgivethe cave (and area) its name. The horizontal caveisperched over and opens into the s6tano, a minimum 464-foot drop. The S6tano can also be entered through holes in the floorofthe cave. The S6tanoisa shaft approximately 100 by 50ft,and from the bottom a 20-foot climb-up and a squeeze lead to a 180-foot pit and three IS-foot drops to a generally walking-size passage 1200 ft long. Toward the end the cave becomes smaller and a 73-foot drop leads to a lower level. Both levels end shortly, the lower in a small flowstone blocked pit. Total depth, including the upper horizontal cave,is951 ft. S6tano de Orqu{dea (75), 100 ft northofthe pit, drops into a complexoffissuressmall rooms. Near Monos are several small pits: the deepest, 400 yds NE,isS6tano delaCulebra (29), actually two parallel shafts. To the east along the trail are S6tano Doble del Norte (31), which drops 40ftto a hole too small to enter; 20ftto the southisDoble del Sur (32). Eastofthe double pits a trail leads past 2 small pits (66) (67). To the ENE across a shallow sinkisS6tano Este (41). Two hundred mNEofMonosisHoya de Higuer6n (51), entered by a circular, vertically-walled sink 150ftin diameter that can be climbed, thanks to convenient vines. From this sink a slope leads down 100 ft into the cave, whichisessentially one large silt floored room, 120 ft wide and 500 ft long. Just southofthe Monos dolinaisS6tano del Nopal Grande, a 289-foot blind pit developed along a fissure that has produced a lineofsmall sinks.TaninulArea: The area southofthe powerline which goes NEofCd. Valles to eastofHotel Covadonga. S6tano Cincuenta y Seis (14)isan inconspicuous pit at the south edgeofa field near the power line above the villageofLas Palmas. The entranceissmall and drops31ft to an offset, then to a 295-foot drop. Total depthis511ft. One hundred meters to the southisS6tano de Gadsden (45), a somewhat larger pit10ftby15ft dropping over a seriesofledges to a natural bridge at about 300 ft and finally endingina small room at 443 ft. SouthofS6tanodeGadsdenisa 30-foot incompletely checked pit (49), and to the north under the power lineisa 100-foot pit (46). Southofthe power line are two pits (47) (48) in the same field with S6tano Cincuenta y Seis. There aresixrecorded caves at theLaColmena minesNWofSan Felipe. The largestisCueva de la Colmena (16), the SE-most known cave at the mines. The entranceisa sink 20 ft wide and 40 ft long, barely climbable at one cor ner. A steep slope leads downtoa hole in the right wall, taking a sharp lefttumand con tinuing down to a 20-foot drop into a seriesoffissures that form the main cave. Near the roadisa 40-foot pit (18), behind thatisa short cave (21), and under a nearby ledgeisa walk-in cave (20) 100 ft long with 50 ftofside passage. Above the ledge, 100 ft west,isVine Pit (19), leading to a short horizontal passage. Farther west, 150 ft from the road,isa pit (17) by a soyate. There are several deep pits dug by phosphate prospectors along the road to the west. Cueva del Nacimiento del Rio Choy (12)iscomposedofpits intercon necting two horizontal sections, an upper dry level (locally Cueva del Virgen from a for mation thought to resemble the VirginofGuadalupe), and the lower river level where the Rio Choy flows from a deep lake over several travertine dams before it leaves the entrance. Both levels are about 200ftlong; the upper levelisabout 100 ft above the lower. The area surrounding the entrance has been landscapedasa private park. Just to the northofthe caveisa fissure cave (13) about 150 ft long. Cueva de Valdosa (121)isa 400-foot long,


v.IIIno.6 141 generally walking-size tunnel with some smallside domes. Thecaveis located inthecenterofthe El Abra Passandtheentranceisvisiblenorthofthe highway. Acrossthehighway from Valdosa isasmall30-footpit(122). Cuevade Taninul n.4(110)is oneofthespeleologic sightsoftheEl Abra, asitiseasily accessiblebyapathfromthehighwayjustwestoftherailroad tunnel. No lightsare needed to traversethecave's600ftofpassage,sincenumerousskylights lighttheway. Cuevade Mariposa (63) isasmallcave across the highway. Cuevade Taninul n.3(109)hasnotbeen visitedbyAMCS members,butBonet'smap shows ittobe composedoftwopassages:one 30mlong with a skylightandtheother15mlongwitha smaller skylight. Thiscaveisabout1kmsouthofTaninul n.4. Taninul n.2(108)isabout300ftnorthofTaninul n.1and250ftabovethefootofthehill behind Hotel Taninul. Neartheentrance asidepassage trendsnorth,butthe maincavegoeswestand crosses afissure200ft insidethecave. Taninul n.1(107)is directly be hind the Hotel Taninul, only afew feet from the swimmingpoolandfedbya nearby sulphur spring.Theentrancehas been converted toa dance pavilionwithtables andabar.The unalteredportionisabout300ftofsmallpassage eventually becomingtoosmallto traverse. EIPujal Area: The extremesouthernportionoftherangesouthofHotel Covadonga to the endoftherangeatEIPujal. S6tano delToro(120)isasmallcave located eastofLa Caldera, consistingofafissureat thebottomofa shallow sinkthatdrops10ftto where water fillsthefissure.Blindfishcanbe seen swimming by daylight. Twolow crawlwaysextendsouthfromthesink.Cueva Grande (50) is located 5kmnorthofEIPujalona brush-covered slope.Thecaveis dividedintotwo parts: a crawlwayabout500ftlong,andalarger400-footpassage with two skylights.S6tanode Manuel (62) isabout2kmnorthfrom CuevaChicaina shallow arroyo:twopassagesleadfrom the baseofa climbableIS-footsinkandtotalabout1000 ft. S6tano de Fer-de-Lance(42)is located in brushaboutIkmnorthofCuevaChicaandhasnotbeenenteredduetothesnake which givesitits name. CuevaChica(10)is located attheendofa shallow arroyo 2kmNofEIPujal.In this cave the blind cavefishoftheEIAbrawerefirst discovered.Fromtheentrance an almost horizontal passage20ftwideand10fthighleadssouthfor350fttoaseriesofrooms with deep pools whichextend400fttoa terminal siphon, lyingatabouttheleveloftheriver atEIPujal. There arealsoseveral incompletely explored crawlways alongthewest sideofthe mainpassage.Asmall sinkabout300mSEofCuevaChica provides theentrancetoatortuouscrawlway(11)atleast300ftlong.Thecrawlway is difficult to traverse,butgetting through the breakdown attheentrance iseven more difficult. Afewhundredmeters farthersouthareLas Cuatas,thetwin pitsthatbothdrop 90ftto water. The entrances areabout20ftapartinthebottomofa sink,butthenortheasternmost(27) dropsintoone endofa breakdown-floored passage,whiletheother(26)isa blind pit.TwometerssouthofLas Cuatas isCuevaor S6tano (itis locally calledboth)del Mante (58),about100mNofwhere therange disappearsunderthe alluviumoftheRio Tampa6n. Cuevadel Mante consistsofa short passage sloping steeply downward toaroom30ftwide,40ftlong,and20fthigh, borderedwithmudbanks. Asmall crawlway,probablynormally flooded, leadstoanotherroomofaboutthesamesize.Asmall water-filled passage continues. Pozo deEIPujal(82)isacaveat thebottomofa shallow well (really an artificially covered sink) inan isolated hilloflimestone ontheeastedgeofElPujal, Thecaveis essentially alowroom;thewellwaterisnotrecommendedfordrinking.TantobalArea: The isolatedoutcropoflimestone along highway 85southoftheRfoTampa6nbetween Santiaguillo and Tantobal. CuevadelNilo(69)is eastofthehighwayjustnorthofSantiaguillo; andwaterfrom thisshortstream passageisusedforwashing.On the hilljustsouthofSantiaguillo isCuevadeTantobal(112). Heretwo sink entrances connect with afissure.A 20-foot vampirebatguano covered drop leadsintothefissure,and smallerupperlevelpassagesalso connectwiththetopofthe fissure;otherpassages acrossthefissureare unreachablewithoutclimbing equipment.v.IIIno. 6141generally walking-size tunnel with some small side domes. The caveislocated inthecenterofthe El Abra Pass and the entranceisvisible northofthe highway. Across the highway from Valdosaisa small 30-foot pit (122). Cueva de Taninuln.4 (110)isoneofthe speleologic sightsoftheElAbra,asitiseasily accessible by a path from the highway just westofthe railroad tunnel.Nolights are needed to traverse the cave's 600 ftofpassage, since numerous skylights lighttheway. Cueva de Mariposa (63)isa small cave across the highway. Cueva de Taninuln.3 (109) has not been visited byAMCSmembers,butBonet's map shows it to be composedoftwo passages: one 30 m long with a skylight and the other15m long with a smallerskylight. This caveisabout 1 km southofTaninuln.4.Taninuln.2 (108)isabout 300 ft northofTaninuln.1 and 250 ft above the footofthe hill behind Hotel Taninul. Near the entrance a side passage trends north, but the main cave goes west and crosses a fissure 200 ft inside the cave. Taninuln.1 (107)isdirectly be hind the Hotel Taninul, only a few feet from the swimming pool and fed by a nearby sulphur spring. The entrance has been converted to a dance pavilion with tables and a bar. The unaltered portionisabout 300ftofsmall passage eventually becomingtoosmall to traverse.EIPujal Area: The extreme southern portionofthe range southofHotel Covadonga to the endofthe range atEIPujal. S6tano del Toro (120)isa small cave located eastofLaCaldera, consistingofa fissure at thebottomofa shallow sink that drops10ftto where water fills the fissure. Blind fish can be seen swimming by daylight. Two low crawlways extend south from the sink. Cueva Grande (50)islocated 5 km northofEIPujal on a brush-covered slope. The caveisdivided into two parts: a crawlway about 500 ft long, and a larger 400-foot passage with two skylights. S6tano de Manuel (62)isabout 2 km north from Cueva Chica in a shallow arroyo: two passages lead from the baseofa climbable IS-foot sink and total about 1000 ft. S6tano de Fer-de-Lance (42)islocated in brush about I km northofCueva Chica and has not been entered due to the snake whichgivesit its name. Cueva Chica (10)islocated at the endofa shallow arroyo 2 km NofEIPujal. In this cave the blind cave fishoftheEIAbra were first discovered. From the entrance an almost horizontal passage 20 ft wide and 10fthigh leads south for 350 ft to a seriesofrooms with deep pools which extend 400 ft to a terminal siphon, lying at about the levelofthe river atEIPujal. There are also several incompletely explored crawlways along the west sideofthe main passage. A small sink about 300 mSEofCueva Chica provides the entrancetoa tortuous crawlway (11) at least 300ftlong. The crawlwayisdifficult to traverse,butgetting through the breakdown at the entranceiseven more difficult. A few hundred meters farther south are Las Cuatas, the twin pits that both drop 90 ft to water. The entrances are about 20 ft apart in the bottomofa sink,butthe northeasternmost (27) drops into one endofa breakdown-floored passage, while the other (26)isa blind pit. Two meters southofLas CuatasisCueva or S6tano (itislocally called both) del Mante (58), about 100 mNofwhere the range disappears under the alluviumofthe Rio Tampa6n. Cueva del Mante consistsofa short passage sloping steeply downward to a room 30ftwide, 40ftlong, and 20 ft high, borderedwith mud banks. A small crawlway, probably normallyflooded, leads to another roomofabout the same size. A small water-filled passage continues. Pozo deEIPujal (82)isa cave at the bottomofa shallow well (really an artificially covered sink) in an isolated hilloflimestone on the east edgeofEl Pujal. The caveisessentially a low room; the well waterisnotrecommended for drinking. Tantobal Area: The isolated outcropoflimestone along highway 85 southofthe R(o Tampa6n between Santiaguillo and Tantobal. Cueva del Nilo (69)iseastofthe highway just northofSantiaguillo; and water from this short stream passageisused for washing. On the hill just southofSantiaguilloisCueva de Tantobal (112). Here two sink entrances connect with a fissure. A 20-foot vampire bat guano covered drop leads into the fissure, and smaller upper level passages also connect with the topofthe fissure; other passages across the fissure are unreachable without climbing equipment.


142 AMCSNewsJustsouthofCuevadeTantobalatthebottomofasink,asmallgully sinks in breakdown anda little work wouldopenupacave. Across the highway from this sinkisCuevadelRafz (87), a sloping sinktoa horizontal passage with alargerootfollowing it. Salsipuedes Area: The isolated limestone hillwestofRancho Nacimiento. Cuevadel Nacimiento delRIo Coy(25)is locatedabout50ftabovethenacimiento. An entrance 5by4ftquickly enlargestoalargepassageleadingdowntoaroomwitha skylight.Fromthisroomapassage climbs overapileofbreakdown toalakeofswiftly flowing water.************PROJECT ATLA CIENEGA, MUNICIPIO DE PINAL DE AMOLES, QUERETARObyJohnW. Greer In April 1972 Craig Bittinger, Clark Lillie,andIconductedan initial reconnaissance intheLa Cienega areasouthofElS6tano(AMCSNews,v.III,no.5,p. 100). The area isduewestofAyutla,northofAhuacatlan,southoftheriver,and bordered onthesouthwest bythehighsierras.Theinitial survey located averyhigh densityofpits,manyofwhich werequitedeep, andwhatappeared tobea coupleofpossibly longcave systems. Planswere made forareturntothe areatheendofMay when school letout,aspartoftheAMCS summer activitiesfromtheirfield headquarters inCd.Valles. As timefortheproject neared, preliminary arrangements were made byFrankBinney, Barbara Vinson,andWalt Rosenthal. This consistedofacquiringthenecessary lettersofintroductionandpermission fromthegovernmental officers inPinalde AmolesandAhua catlan,andmaking arrangementswiththelocaljuezinLa Cienega. They alsodidfurtherlimited reconnaissance in what here iscalledAreaB, the high Cerro Mularidge westofLa Cienega. OnMay28alarge groupofAMCScavers invaded LaCienegabymule train from Ahuacatlan and made headquarters attheschool. Field work was carriedoutforthenext2 weeks,withwhatseemed aconstantinflux and exodusofcavers.The following local groups were represented: University Speleological SocietyofAustin, Texas; Southwest TexasGrottoofSanMarcos;Dallas-Ft.WorthGrotto,Texas; Texas A&IGrottoofKings ville, Texas; Pan American Speleological SocietyofEdinburg, Texas;SouthernCaliforniaGrottoofPasadena; Dogwood CityGrotto,Georgia; HuntsvilleGrotto,Alabama;andMcMaster University CavingandClimbing ClubofHamilton, Ontario.FromLa Cienega, one-day reconnaissance teamscontinuedto locate speleo features, primarily vertical pits. A numbering system was begunwithanAMCSseriesofcave numbers forMexico. Numbers onsmall aluminum discswere nailed to rocks or trees at mostofthepits which were entered. Inmostcases, sketch maps (including plans andor profiles) were made when apitwas entered and notes were takenofobserved features. In addition tothespeleo survey, individuals alsoconductedresearch on geographical, geological, and archeo logical projects.Forconvenience,theLa Cienega region isdivided hereintothree areas:AreaA.La Cienegaproperandthe areasupthevalley above town;AreaB,the highhillsideareaofCerro Mula acrossthecanyonwestofLa Cienega; andAreaC.thedrainageofCafiadede las Tinajitas, alarge,deepcanyoncontaining S6tano de Buque southwestofLaCienega.142AMCSNews Just southofCueva de Tantobal at the bottomofa sink, a small gully sinks in breakdown and a little work would open up a cave. Across the highway from this sinkisCueva del RaIz (87), a sloping sinktoa horizontal passage with a large root following it. Salsipuedes Area: The isolated limestone hill westofRancho Nacimiento. Cueva del Nacimiento del RIo Coy (25)islocated about 50ftabove the nacimiento. An entrance 5 by 4ftquickly enlargestoa large passage leading down to a room with a skylight. From this room a passage climbs over a pileofbreakdown to a lakeofswiftly flowing water.************PROJECT ATLACIENEGA, MUNICIPIO DE PINAL DE AMOLES, QUERETARO by JohnW.Greer In April 1972 Craig Bittinger, Clark Lillie, and I conducted an initial reconnaissance in the La Cienega area southofEl S6tano(AMCSNews,v.III, no. 5,p.100). The areaisdue westofAyutla, northofAhuacatllin, southofthe river, and bordered on the southwest by the high sierras. The initial survey located a very high densityofpits, manyofwhich were quite deep, and what appeared to be a coupleofpossibly long cave systems. Plans were made for a returntothe area the endofMaywhen school let out,aspartoftheAMCSsummer activities from their field headquarters inCd.Valles.Astime for the project neared, preliminary arrangements were made by Frank Binney, Barbara Vinson, andWaltRosenthal. This consistedofacquiring the necessary lettersofintroduction and permission from the governmental officers in Pinal de Amoles and Ahua catllin, and making arrangements with the local juez inLaCienega. They also did further limited reconnaissance in what hereiscalled AreaB,the high CerroMularidge westofLaCienega. On May 28 a large groupofAMCScavers invadedLaCienega by mule train from Ahuacatllin andmade headquarters at the school. Field workwascarriedoutfor the next 2 weeks, with what seemed a constant influx and exodusofcavers. The following local groups were represented: University Speleological SocietyofAustin, Texas; Southwest Texas GrottoofSan Marcos; Dallas -Ft.Worth Grotto, Texas; Texas A&I GrottoofKingsville, Texas; Pan American Speleological SocietyofEdinburg, Texas; Southern California GrottoofPasadena; Dogwood City Grotto, Georgia; Huntsville Grotto, Alabama; and McMaster University Caving and Climbing ClubofHamilton, Ontario. From La Cienega, one-day reconnaissance teams continued to locate speleo features, primarily vertical pits. A numbering systemwasbegun with anAMCSseriesofcave numbers for Mexico. Numbers on small aluminum discs were nailed to rocks or trees at mostofthe pits which were entered. In most cases, sketch maps (including plans andorprofiles) were made when a pit was entered and notes were takenofobserved features. In addition to the speleo survey, individuals also conducted research on geographical, geological, and archeo logical projects. For convenience, the La Cienega regionisdivided here into three areas:AreaA.LaCienega proper and the areas up the valley above town;AreaB,the high hillside areaofCerro Mula across the canyon westofLaCienega; andAreaC.the drainageofCafiade de las Tinajitas, a large, deep canyon containing S6tano de Buque southwestofLaCienega.


v.IIIno.6 143 Following isageneral summaryofthefindingsineacharea.Futurereports willdetail such subjects aspit exploration bythe project, S6tano deBuque,geological notes, andarcheo logical reconnaissance. AreaA (*entered) AMCSNo. Length Depth Description and Remarks *1?155 Pit (S6tano Tapado) *2 15 98 Pit *3 120 485 Pit (S6tano dePaila); entrance drop 470ft.*19?60 Pit *20?50 Pit *21?223 Pit *22?90 Pit *23 225 0 Horizontal cave(Las Tranto) 50?50 Pit?100 Pit?70+Pit (S6tano de Lagunita)?200+ Pit (S6tano delRaizal), tapado?125 Pit (S6tano de Ladera deJoseEspinosa) AreaB (*entered) AMCSNo. Length Depth Description and Remarks *4 12200Pit (S6tano de Puerto Coyote) *5 20 120 Pit (S6tano de Pino) *6?339 Pit (S6tano deElPino) *7 50 35 Pit *8 20 120 Pit *9175 116+Cavewith vertical drops(Joyadel Ranchito delaMesa) *10?80 Pit *11 15 120 Pit *12 40 50 Pit *13 10 132 Pit *14 50 55 Pit *15 55 490 Pit (S6tano de Callejon), entrance drop435ft)*16?240 Pit (S6tano deBernal)??175+Pit Note: Manyotherpits are located alloverthishill.Manywerevisitedontheinitial andsecond reconnaissance trips,butthey werenotadequately recorded tobe included here.v.III no. 6 143 Followingisa general summaryofthe findings in each area.Futurereports will detail such subjectsaspit explorationbythe project, S6tano de Buque, geological notes, and archeo logical reconnaissance. Area A (*entered)AMCSNo. Length Depth Description and Remarks*1?155 Pit (S6tano Tapado) *21598Pit *3 120 485 Pit (S6tano de Paila); entrance drop 470ft.*19?60 Pit *20?50 Pit*21?223 Pit *22?90 Pit *23 225 0 Horizontal cave (Las Tranto) 50?50 Pit?100 Pit?70+ Pit (S6tano de Lagunita)?200+ Pit (S6tano del Raiza}), tapado?125 Pit (S6tano de Ladera de Jose Espinosa) Area B (*entered) AMCSNo. Length Depth Description and Remarks *4 12200Pit (S6tano de Puerto Coyote)*520 120 Pit (S6tano de Pino) *6?339 Pit (S6tano de El Pino) *7 50 35 Pit *8 20 120 Pit *9 175 116+ Cave with vertical drops(Joyadel Ranchito delaMesa) *10?80 Pit*1115120 Pit *124050 Pit *1310132 Pit *14 5055Pit *1555490 Pit (S6tano de Callejon), entrance drop 435ft)*16?240 Pit (S6tano de Bernal)??175+ Pit Note: Manyotherpits are located all over this hill. Many were visitedonthe initial and second reconnaissance trips,butthey werenotadequately recorded to be included here.


144AreaC.Speleo Summary (*entered)AMCSNo.LengthDepth*17115 123 *18 1549 *29312+ 20 *30 3234 31 20+20+ 32?30 *33250177 34?175+ *3518 12 *3615074 *3740131*38160 336*5154 42 52?2pO+53?15+?30+?60 *--40? ?80+?150+?175+?100?60AMCSNews Description andRemarks Cavewithpit(Cueva Encantada) Longvertically oriented floodwater cave (S6tano deBuque).Believedtobe the fourth deepestcaveinMexico. Cave Pit Pit Pit Horizontal cave,dipping. Pit Pit Pitwithsomepassage Pit (S6tano deTinajaVerde) Largepit (S6tano deMexo), entrance drop275ft.Pit Pit Pit Pit Pit Horizontal cave,dipping Pit (S6tano deRoble) Pit (S6tano Carbonera) Pit(Chiniyaln.1) Pit(Chiniyaln.2) Pit AreaC.Archeological Summary 1.Sevenstoneruins, either individualhousesormorecomplexgroups. 2.One probable stone tomb orwalled entrance toasmall horizontal cave. 3.Several portions ofoldstonewalls. 4. Four nonvertical caveswith pottery (two others were reported, onealsowith humanskeletons).Most apparently wereusedaswatersources. 5.Several rockshelters with pottery. 6.Onecavewithadeep internal pitwith pottery inthepit. 7.Apitwithlowerpassage containing severalwholeceramicvessels-sixjarsand onebowl. 8.Deepfreefallpitwithcharcoalandpossibleold torches inthe bottom. Anoldstone houseis adjacent tothispit. 9.Bedrocktinajasandoldfieldswith surrounding pottery shardsandobsidianflakes.10.Mercuryminewithoresuitableforredpaint.144AreaC.Speleo Summary (*entered)AMCSNo. Length Depth*17115 123*181549*29312+20*3032343120+20+32?30*3325017734?175+*351812*3615074*3740131*38160336*51544252?2pO+53?15+?30+?60*--40? ?80+?150+?175+?100?60AMCSNews Description and RemarksCavewith pit (Cueva Encantada) Long vertically oriented floodwatercave(S6tano de Buque). Believed to be the fourth deepest cave in Mexico.CavePit Pit Pit Horizontal cave, dipping. Pit Pit Pit with some passage Pit (S6tano de Tinaja Verde) Large pit (S6tano de Mexo), entrance drop275ft.Pit Pit Pit Pit Pit Horizontal cave, dipping Pit (S6tano de Roble) Pit (S6tano Carbonera) Pit (Chiniyaln.1)Pit (Chiniyaln.2) Pit AreaC.Archeological Summary1.Seven stone ruins, either individual houses or more complex groups.2.One probable stone tomb or walled entrancetoa small horizontal cave.3.Several portionsofold stone walls.4.Four nonvertical caves with pottery (two others were reported, one also with human skeletons). Most apparently were usedaswater sources.5.Several rockshelters with pottery.6.One cave with a deep internal pit with pottery in the pit.7.A pit with lower passage containing several whole ceramic vessels six jars and one bowl.8.Deep free fall pit with charcoal and possible old torches in the bottom. An old stone houseisadjacenttothis pit.9.Bedrock tinajas and old fields with surrounding pottery shards and obsidian flakes.10.Mercury mine with ore suitable for red paint.


v.IIIno.6"LEAVEONLY FOOTPRINTS"byUlisesE. Victoria 145"Takeonly pictures," this isoneoftwosentencesthatform acommandmentrecited by certain young people onleavingaplacetheyhave just visited.Intruthitisa"commandment"aswe know itinthereligioussenseofthe word, anditisaboveallanideafullofa philosophy whichwedo teach,butwhich wehave forgotten or perhaps never practiced. The authorsofthissayingareagroupofyoung people, studentsoftheUniversityofTexas, with whom Iwasin contact ononeofmy last trips to the capitalofTexas, the cityofAustin. They are dedicated to the explorationofcaves, grottos, caverns,fissures,andcracks in the earth's surface. This enthusiasm isderivedfromtwo sources: interest in adventure and interest ingeology. They enjoy studying how theearthwas formed andat the sametime,living in contact with nature initsimpressiveworksofarchitecture, artwork, decoration and constructionovermillionsofyears, left there inacavesothatoneday humans would come to rejoice their sightand spirit with the contemplationofsuchmarvels.These young menaretruenatu ralists. They arealsohippies. When they finishthe explorationofa grotto orcave,on reaching the exit, ready toclimb once more into their vehicleandenterintoordinary dailylife, they pause.Asiftheyweretaking inventory. They all check among themselves forthe following:Ifthey left any forgotten object, IFTHEY LEFT GARBAGE ORRUBBISH,orcans,or anything elsenotpartofthenatural settingoftheplace.On ascertainingthatallisin order,thenthey say,"Weleaveonlyfootprints." Then comes theotherpartofthesaying,likewiseofgreat importance. Weallaregivento taking with ussome mementoofwhatever placewevisitandifwe enter acave,well then, we seeanopportunityoftaking with usa stalactite (those which growfrom theroofdownward) or stalagmite (those whichgrow from the floor up).Thefactisthatthese young people see inacaveaspeciesoftemple fullofnatural relics which deserveallourrespect. Wemaytouchthem, caress them, look at them, photograph them, BUTNOT DESTROY THEM. Theretheywere placed by Nature, and there they should stay.Thisistheotherthoughttheyhaveattheexit, anditis thenthey say,"WETAKEONLY PHOTOGRAPHS." How much learning inthesetwophrases!Allofus, the cleanones,wewhobathedaily, wegotoa forest andweleaveit inundated with paper, trash, etc.Thesame thing happens at the beach, in the country, at the riverside, andin whatever placewevisiton excursions. Ah, I forgot: wegotothe cinema andfill the floor with bitsofpaper, boxes, package wrappings, cigarettes, etc.Whenwegotoacave,weleaveall thejunkwehave extraorthatgetsinourway,whileTHEHIPPIESLEAVEONLY FOOTPRINTS. And there is more against us:this stupid customofputtingournames onthewallsofsuchplaces,leavingproofthatwewere there. Inourmajestic Sierrade Chipinque, there are many true naturalmonumentsorworksofart.Butonthemare the names and datesofMissandMr.So-and-sothathappened tobe there oneday.These people bathe daily,butleave their names there, whilethe hippies have leftonly their footprints. Frequently Icross Loma Largaby the highwaythatgoestoChi pinque. There onefindsan excellent naturalbookabouthowthehillsand mountains were formed.Itisan excellent viewfor the geologistand the tourist. But the factisthatpolitical parties alwayshave painted alloverit with their useless propaganda. Thislessonofthe hippies goesfor them, too. In the "residential" sectionofColiniadelValle,onealwaysfinds broken glass thrown in the streets. One night, Iwaswalkinginoneofthese streets BECAUSE THERE ARE PRACTICALLY NOSIDEWALKS(norlighting).(Forthis reason thequotationmarks and the interrogative sensetotheword "residential.") Iwaswalking,I repeat, and there passedv.III no. 6"LEAVE ONLY FOOTPRINTS"byUlises E. Victoria 145"Takeonly pictures," thisisoneoftwosentencesthatform acommandmentrecitedbycertain young peopleonleaving a placetheyhave just visited.Intruthitisa"commandment"aswe know it inthereligious senseofthe word, anditisabove all an idea fullofa philosophy whichwedo teach,butwhichwehave forgottenorperhaps never practiced. The authorsofthis saying are a groupofyoung people, studentsoftheUniversityofTexas, with whom I was in contactononeofmy last tripstothe capitalofTexas, the cityofAustin. They are dedicatedtothe explorationofcaves, grottos, caverns, fissures, and cracks in the earth's surface. This enthusiasmisderived from two sources: interest in adventure and interest in geology. They enjoy studying how theearthwas formed andatthe same time, living in contact with nature in its impressive worksofarchitecture, artwork, decoration and constructionover millionsofyears, left there in a cave sothatone day humans would cometorejoice their sight and spirit with the contemplationofsuch marvels. These young men aretruenatu ralists. They are also hippies. When they finish the explorationofa grottoorcave,onreaching the exit, readytoclimb once more into their vehicle andenterintoordinary daily life, they pause.Asiftheywere taking inventory. They all check among themselves for the following:Ifthey left any forgotten object,IFTHEY LEFT GARBAGE OR RUBBISH,orcans,oranything elsenotpartofthenatural settingofthe place. On ascertainingthatallisin order,thenthey say, "We leaveonlyfootprints." Then comes theotherpartofthesaying, likewiseofgreat importance.Weall are given to taking with us some mementoofwhatever placewevisit andifwe enter a cave, well then, we see anopportunityoftaking with us a stalactite (those which grow from theroofdownward)orstalagmite (those which grow from the floor up). The factisthatthese young people see in a cave a speciesoftemple fullofnatural relics which deserve allourrespect.Wemaytouchthem, caress them, look at them, photograph them, BUT NOT DESTROY THEM. Theretheywere placedbyNature, and there they should stay. Thisistheotherthoughttheyhave attheexit, and itisthenthey say, "WE TAKE ONLY PHOTOGRAPHS." How much learning in these two phrases! Allofus, the clean ones, we whobathedaily, we gotoa forest andweleave it inundated with paper, trash, etc. The same thing happensatthe beach, in the country, at the riverside, and in whatever place we visitonexcursions. Ah, I forgot: we gotothe cinema and fill the floor with bitsofpaper, boxes, package wrappings, cigarettes, etc. When we gotoa cave, we leave all thejunkwe have extraorthatgets inourway, while THE HIPPIES LEAVE ONLY FOOTPRINTS. And thereismore against us: this stupid customofputtingournamesonthe wallsofsuch places, leavingproofthatwe were there. Inourmajestic Sierra de Chipinque, there are many true naturalmonumentsorworksofart. Butonthemare the names and datesofMissandMr.So-and-sothathappenedtobe there one day. These people bathe daily,butleave their names there, while the hippies have left only their footprints. Frequently I cross Loma Largabythe highwaythatgoestoChi pinque. There one finds an excellent naturalbookabouthow the hills and mountains were formed.Itisan excellent view for the geologist and the tourist. But the factisthatpolitical parties always have painted all over it with their useless propaganda. This lessonofthe hippies goes for them, too. In the "residential" sectionofColinia del Valle, one always finds broken glass thrown in the streets. One night, I was walking in oneofthese streets BECAUSE THERE ARE PRACTICALLY NO SIDEWALKS(norlighting).(Forthis reason thequotationmarks and the interrogative sensetotheword "residential.") I was walking, I repeat, and there passed


146AMesNews closetomea truck fullofyoungmenandwomen (presumablyofthosewhichwecallGOOD) andtheiramusementwastogoalongthrowingoutempty softdrink bottles towatchthem explode.Hereisthe explanationofthat ever-presentglass.I stood watchingthese "good" kidswhohad bathed thismorningandwoulddosothe next morningandmentallyIalso sawa truck fullofhippiekidswhopassed through thesame street andTHEY LEFT ONLY FOOTPRINTS. PersonallyI don't agreewithhippies.Butweoughtto remember that itwastheywho litthefuseonthe questionofatmospheric pollution andawoketheworldtothedangerous problemofenvironmental pollution ingeneral.Oritmaybe that thesecitizens,intheirrole oftrue naturalists, wishtodefendallnature.Butthefactis that now they havegivenus another lessonandaverygoodone:weshouldavoidlitteringandconservethe beautiesofnature. Ibelieve that somenewspaper,some institution orthegovernment itself shouldini tiate acampaignwhichwouldbeofgreatestbenefitforallofusbasedonthese two phrases: "WELEAVEONLYFOOTPRINTS;WETAKEONLYPHOTOGRAPHS."146AMesNews close tomea truck fullofyoung men and women (presumablyofthose whichwecall GOOD) and their amusementwastogoalong throwingoutempty soft drink bottlestowatch them explode. Hereisthe explanationofthat ever-present glass. I stood watching these "good" kids who had bathed this morning and would dosothe next morning and mentally I also saw a truck fullofhippie kids who passed through the same street and THEY LEFT ONLY FOOTPRINTS. Personally I don't agree with hippies. Butweought to remember that itwasthey who lit the fuse on the questionofatmospheric pollution and awoke the world to the dangerous problemofenvironmental pollutioningeneral. Or it may be that these citizens, in their roleoftrue naturalists, wishtodefend all nature. But the factisthat now they have given us another lesson and a very good one:weshould avoid littering and conserve the beautiesofnature. I believe that some newspaper, some institution or the government itself should ini tiate a campaign which would beofgreatest benefit for allofus based on these two phrases: "WE LEAVE ONLY FOOTPRINTS;WETAKE ONLY PHOTOGRAPHS."


v.IIIno.6Viernes 18deJuniode1971.-2-BDejcmos5610las HuellasUlisesE.Victoria"Sacamoss610fotografias". Estas dosfrasesforman unaoracionquedicenunosmuchachosalabandonarun Ingarque acaban de visitar.Realmente esuna "oracion" como10conocemosdesdee1puntadevistareligiosoyes,sobretodo,unpensamientollenode filosofia quenos enseiiaa1goquetenemosolvidado0quequizasnunca hemospracticado. Los autores deesaoracion,sonungrupodemuchachos estudiantes delaUniversidaddeTexas,conquienes estuveencontactoenalgunodemisultimosviajesala CapitaldeTexas,laCiudaddeAustin.-Ellossonunos entusiastas delaexploracionde grutas, cuevas,ca bernas, grietas yfallasdelacorteza terrestre.Estaafici6nlesvienepordoslados:porla ventura yporel interesencuestionesgeoI6gicas.-Lesgusta estudiar comofuequeseforme nuestra Tierra yalavezviviren contactocon1a naturaleza ensusformidables trabajos de arquitectura, orfebreria, decoracionyconstrucciona10largodemillonesdeanos,dejadosamenalgunacueva para queundiavinieramosloshumanosaregocijar nuestra vista ynuestro espiritu conlacontemplaci6nde esas maravillas.Esosmuchachossonunos naturalistas consumados.-Ademas,sonhippies. Cuando terminaron 1aexploraciondeunacueva,0 gruta, alllegaralasalida para tomar denuevosuve hiculoeincorporarsealavidadiaria,hacenunapausa. Comosihicieranunbalance.Checantodos entre silos aspectossiguientes:Sidejaron0noalgunobjeto01vidado.SIDEJARONBASURA0DESPERDICIOS,0envases0cualquiera otra cosaqueno estaba enforma natural en aquellugar.AIcomprobarquetodo esta en orden,escuandodicen:"Dejemossololashuellas",Vienedespues1asegunda parte ydesuma importanciatambien,Todossomosmuydadosallevarnosalgode recuerdodecua1quierlugarquevisitemosysi entramos a una gruta, puesveremosla manera de sacar connosotros alguna estalactita (lasquecrecendeltechohaciaabajo) ouna estalagmita, (lasquecrecendelsuelohaciaarri ba).-Ese1casoqueestosmuchachosyenenuna gruta unaespeciedetemplellenodereliquias naturales que merecentodonuestrorespeto.Podemostocarlas, acariciarlas, verlas, fotografiarlas, PERONODESTRUIRLAS.-Ahifueronhechasporla naturalezayahidebenquedarse.Esta eslaotrareflexionquehacenala salidayescuandodicen:147"SACAMOSSOLOFOTOGRAFIAS". iCuantaenseftanzaenesasdosfrases!Todosnosotros, loslimpios,losquenosbanamosadiario,vamosaun bosquey10dejamosinundadodepapeles,desperdicios, etc.-Igualsucedeenlaplaya,ene1campo,ene1rioyen cuantolugaraquevayamosde excurslonjAh!.Seme olvidaba:vamosa1cineyllenamose1pisode pape1es, cajas,envolturas,etc.Cuandovamosauna cueva,dejamostodo10quenossobre0nosestorbe,MIENTRASLOSHIPPIESDEJARONSOLOLASHUELLAS.-Yhaymasencontra nuestra: esaestupida costumbredeponernuestrosnombresenlasparedesde esoslugares.ELDEJARahiconstanciadequees tuvimos.-En nuestra majestuosa Sierrade Chipinque, haymasdeunverdaderomonumentouobradeartenatural. Puesamestanlosnombresfie.fieAaBdelfulanito y1a fulanita quetaldiaestuvieronam.Estos "fulanitos" sebananadiario,perodejaronahisusnombres, mientras loshippieshubierandejadosolosushuellas.Con frecuenciacruzolaLornaLargaporla carretera hacia Chipinque. Amse encuentra unexcelentelibro natural de comofuequeseformaronlaslomasyloscerros.Esuna excelentevista para elgeologoy para el turista. Peroes elcasoquelospartidospoliticossiempre10hanpin tarrajeado consuINUTILpropaganda.Para ellosva tambisn esaenseftanzadelosHippies. Enla "Residencial"ColoniadelValle,siempreen cuentra unovidriostiradosenlascalles.Unanoche, caminaba yoporunadelascallesPORQUECASINOHAYBANQUETAS(Tampocohayalumbrado.Poreso las camillas ylainterrogaci6na10"residencial"). Ca minaba,repito,ypas6juntoamiunacamionetallenade uchachosymuchachas (supuestamente delosquellama mosBIEN)ysudiversi6nerairtirandobotellasdereo frescosvacios para queexplotaran.Ahi esta laex plicaciondelossiempre presentes vidrios.Mequede viendoaesos"muchachosbien"quesehabianbaftado esa manana y10harlanalamananasiguienteymen talmente vi tambien aunacamionetallenademuchachos ymuchachashippiesquepasabanporlamismacalleyDEJABANSOLOSUSHUELLAS.Personalmente yonoestoydeacuerdoconloshippies. Perodebemos recordar quefuerone110squienespren dieronlamechaenlacuestiondela contamination atrnosfericaehicieron despertar atodomundosobreel peligrosoproblemadelacontaminacionambientalen general.0seaqueestosciudadanos,ensu caracter de naturalistas consumados,quierendefendertodo10na tural.-Pueseselcasoqueahoranoshandadootraleccion ymuybuena:Debemos evitar elproblemadelabasuray debemos conservar lasbellezas naturales. Creoquealgunperiodico,algunaInstitucion0elpropio Gobiernodeberiainiciaruna campana queseriadesumo beneficio para lacolectividad,basadaenesasdossell tencias:"DEJAMOSSOLOLASHUELLAS.SACAMOSSOLOFOTOGRAFIAS.v.IIIno.6Viernes18deJuniode 1971.-2-BDeiamos5610las HuellasUlisesE.Victoria"Sacamoss610fotografias". Estasdosfrases forman una ora cion que dicenunosmuchachos al abandonarunIugar que acaban de visitar.Realmente es una "oracion" como10conocemos desdee1punta de vista religiosoyes,sobre todo,unpensamiento lleno de filosofia quenosenseiiaa1goque tenemos olvidado 0 quequizas nunca hemos practicado.Losautores de esa oracion, sonungrupodemuchachos estudiantes de la Universidad de Texas,conquienes estuveencontacto en algunodemis liltimos viajes a la CapitaldeTexas, la CiudaddeAustin.Ellos sonunosentusiastas de la exp10racion de grutas, cuevas, ca bernas, grietas y fallas de la corteza terrestre.Estaafici6n les viene pordoslados: por la ventura y por el interesencuestiones geoI6gicas.Les gusta estudiarcomofueque se formo nuestra Tierra ya la vez vivirencontactocon1anaturaleza en sus formidables trabajosdearquitectura, orfebreria, decoracion y construccion a10largo de millonesdeanos, dejados amenalguna cueva para que undiavinieramosloshumanos a regocijar nuestra vista y nuestro espirituconla contemplaci6n de esas maravillas.Esos muchachos son unos naturalistas consumados.Ademas, son hippies. Cuando terminaron1aexploracion de una cueva, 0 gruta, al llegar a la salida para tomar de nuevosuvehiculo e incorporarse a la vida diaria, hacen una pausa.Comosi hicieranunbalance. Checan todos entre silosaspectos siguientes:Sidejaron 0noalgful objeto01vidado.SIDEJARONBASURA0DESPERDICIOS, 0 envases 0 cualquiera otra cosa quenoestaba en forma natural en aquellugar.-AIcomprobar que todo estaenorden, es cuando dicen: "Dejemossololas huellas". Viene despues1asegunda parte y de suma importancia tambien.Todossomos muy dados a llevarnos algoderecuerdo de cua1quier lugar que visitemos y si entramos a una gruta, pues veremos la manera de sacarconnosotros alguna estalactita (las que crecen del techo hacia abajo) o una estalagmita, (las que crecen del suelo hacia arri ba).-Ese1caso que estos muchachos yen en una gruta una especie detemp10llenodereliquias naturales que merecen todo nuestro respeto. Podemos tocarlas, acariciarlas, verlas, fotografiarlas, PERONODESTRUIRLAS.-Ahifueron hechas por la naturalezayahideben quedarse.Esta es la otra reflexion que hacena la salida y es cuando dicen:147"SACAMOSSOLOFOTOGRAFIAS". iCuanta enseftanza en esasdosfrases!Todosnosotros,loslimpios,losquenosbanamos a diario, vamos aunbosque y10dejamos inundado de papeles, desperdicios, etc.Igual sucede en la playa, ene1campo, ene1rio yencuanto 1ugar a que vayamos de excursion.jAh!.Seme olvidaba: vamosa1cine y llenamose1piso de pape1es, cajas, envolturas,etc. CuandoVllmosa una cueva, dejamos tooo10quenossobre 0nosestorbe,MIENTRASLOSHIPPIES DEJARONSOLOLASHUELLAS.-Y hay mas en contra nuestra: esa estupida costumbre de poner nuestros nombres en las paredesdeesos 1ugares. EL DEJAR ahi constancia de queestuvimos.En nuestra majestuosa SierradeChipinque, hay masdeunverdadero monumento u obra deartenatural. Pues am estan los nombresfie.fieAaBdel fulanito y1afulanita que taldiaestuvieron am. Estos "fulanitos" se bafian a diario, pero dejaron ahi sus nombres, mientrasloshippies hubieran dejado solo sus huellas.Confrecuencia cruzo la Lorna Larga por la carreterahadaChipinque.Amse encuentra un excelente libro naturaldecomofueque se formaron las lomas y los cerros. Es una excelente vista para el geologo y para el turista. Pero es el caso que los partidos politicos siempre10han pin tarrajeadoconsu INUTIL propaganda.Para ellosvatambien esa enseftanza delosHippies.Enla "Residencial"Coloniadel Valle, stempreencuentraunovidrios tirados en las calles. Una noche, caminabayopor una de las callesPORQUECASINOHAYBANQUETAS(Tampoco hay alumbrado. Por eso las camillas y la interrogaci6n a10"residencial").Caminaba, repito, y pas6 junto ami una camioneta llenadeuchachos y muchachas (supuestamente delosque llama mos BIEN) y su diversi6nerairtirando botellas de re frescos vacios para que explotaran.Ahiesta la ex plkaci6n de los siempre presentes vidrios.Mequede viendo a esos "muchachos bien" que se habian baftado esa manana y10harian a la maftana siguiente y men talmente vi tambien a una camioneta llenademuchachos y muchachas hippies que pasaban por la misma calle yDEJABANSOLOSUSHUELLAS.Personalmenteyonoestoy de acuerdoconloshippies. Pero debemos recordar que fuerone110squienes pren dieron la mechaenla cuestiondela contamination atmosterica e hicieron despertar a todo mundo sobreelpeligroso problema de la contaminacion ambientalengeneral.0sea que estos ciudadanos, ensucaracterdenaturalistas consumados, quieren defender todo10natural.Pues es el caso que ahoranoshan dado otra leccion y muy buena: Debemos evitar el problemadela basura y debemos conservar las bellezas naturales.Creoque algful periodico, alguna Institucion 0elpropio Gobierno deberia iniciar una campana que seria de sumo beneficio para la colectividad, basadaenesasdossell tencias: "DEJAMOSSOLOLASHUELLAS.SACAMOSSOLOFOTOGRAFIAS.

Contents: News and
Notes --
Accident Report --
Part 1. Trip Reports --
Cueva de Canstanlm and Gruta de Garcia, N.L. --
Micos, S.L.P., and Cartabranchal, Tamps. --
Valles. S.L.P. --
Puerto de la Zorra, Hgo, and Cueva de Rancho Nuevo,
Chiapas --
Sierra de EI Abra, S.L.P. and Jalpan, Qro. --
Part 2. Articles --
Corrections and Additions to the Map of "La Region de la
Sierra de El Abra" --
Alphabetical Listing of Caves of the Sierra de EI Abra --
Geographical Checklist of the Caves of the Sierra de EI
Abra --
Project at La Cienega, Municipio de Pinal de Amoles, Qro.
"Leave Only Footprints."