Accepted by J. Svavarsson: 2 Jul. 2012; published: 4 Sept. 2012ZOOTAXA ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition) ISSN 1175-5334 (online edition) Copyright 2012 Magnolia Press Zootaxa 3452: 47Â–65 (2012) www.mapress.com/zootaxa/Article 47 urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:5B6D3F92-0FAE-488E-A5BF-8BE0F1632973 Brasileirinidae, a new isopod family (Crustacea: Isopoda) from the cave in Bahia (Brazil) with a discussion on its taxonomic position SIMONA PREVORNIK 1 RODRIGO LOPES FERREIRA 2 & BORIS SKET 1 1 Univerza v Ljubljani, BiotehniÂška fakulteta, Oddelek za biologijo, P.P. 2995, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 2 Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Biologia, Setor de Zoologia, C.P. 3037, 37200-000 Lavras, Brasil Abstract The aquatic troglobiont Brasileirinho cavaticus (Crustacea: Isopoda: Calabozoidea), new genus and species is described from the karst cave of the State of Bahia, Brazil. Based on its unique pleonal features i.e. the total absence of female pleopods IÂ–II, uniramous male pleopods IÂ–II, minute, uniramous respiratory pleopods IIIÂ–V in both sexes and pleotelson not exceeding 45% of the pleon length, a new family, Bras ileirinidae, is created. Some biological, ecological and behavioral data for the species are provided together with th e nature conservation issues. Additionally, an assignment of the new species to the suborder Calabozoidea is discusse d through comparison with the other two calabozoid species, Calabozoa pellucida and Pongycarcinia xiphidiourus For the latter species, some previously missing morphological details, as well as a new locality record, are provided. Accord ing to the updated morphologi cal evidence, the previously assumed relationships of Calabozoidea are discussed and, co nsequently, the diagnostic characters of some taxa emended. Key words: Brasileirinho cavaticus sp. nov., gen. nov. fam. nov. morphology, biology, Calabozoidea, nature conservation, troglobiont Introduction Recently, the first aquatic troglobiotic isopod was found within a ca. 191.300 km 2 large Brazilian karst region. The new isopod from the State of Bahia (Messana et al 2002) supplemented the species list of aquatic troglobiotic crustaceans comprising only seven amphipods, two spelaeogriphaceans and three decapods ( Aegla spp.; Trajano & Bichuete 2009). Together with the erection of the new genus Pongycarcinia for the Bahian isopod, Messana et al (2002) suggested a slight modification of Van Lieshout (1983) diagnosis of the suborder Calabozoidea. They used Pongycarcinia xiphidiourus Messana, Baratti & Benvenuti, 2002 to discuss two main hypotheses about the suborderÂ’s position, as the phylogenetic position of Calabozoidea had been controversial, based exclusively on the morphological traits of the Venezuelan Calabozoa pellucida Van Lieshaut, 1983. Since both genera are presently monotypic, we are using the genera names further in the text. Van Lieshaut (1983) suggested possible affinities of Calabozoa to both the Asellota and Oniscidea, but she laid greater stress upon the reduction of the first two pleonites and the presumed origin of the respective male pleopods, acknowledging a closer relationship between Calabozoidea and Asellota. Wgele (1989; p. 58, fig. 30) treated latter suborders as sister-groups on the basis of: 1) the reduced telsonic part, terminal anus and subterminally inserted uropods, 2) very small endopodite of male first pleopod, 3) male pleopod II without appendix masculina, with endopodite formed as small gonopodium without swimming setae, 4) female pleopod I smaller than pleopod III and 5) female pleopod II with endopodite smaller than exopodite. He also stated that Â“Â…the Oniscidea have a large number of autapomorphies that are absent in C pellucida Â”. Brusca and Wilson (1991) on the other hand, argued that Calabozoa appears to possess no asellotan synapomorphies either; antennal peduncle is not 6-articulate and has no scale, pleonites IIIÂ–V are free, not fused with the pleotelson, male pleopod II doesnÂ’t have endopod transformed into an elongate geniculate gonopod and exopod modified to work with the latter in sperm transfer as
PREVORNIK ET AL.48 Zootaxa 3452 2012 Magnolia Press possibly the unique asellotan spermathecal duct. They reexamined specimens of Calabozoa and found Van LieshoutÂ’s illustrations and description misleading, emphasizing the taxonomical importance of the pleon and pleopod morphology. The latter was also emphasized by Tabacaru and Danielopol (1999), as well as by Messana et al (2002). They used the synapomorphies manifested in Pongycarcinia (especially the free, well developed pleonites IIIÂ–V) to support the theory of a phylogenetic closeness between Calabozoidea and Oniscidea. Finally, despite his initial disagreement with the proposed calabozoid-oniscidean relationship (Wgele 1989, 1991), in the latest reconstruction of the isopod phylogeny also Wgele (Dreyer & Wgele 2002) placed Calabozoa conditionally to the newly introduced taxon Scutocoxifera, i.e. together with all isopod suborders with lateral coxal plates in contrast to Asellota and Phreatoicidea with the ring-shaped coxae. Discovery of a further troglobiotic species in Bahia fulfilled predictions of Messana et al (2002) that a more detailed search may bring about a finding of further interesting isopods in the region. Here we describe an aberrant, tiny troglobiotic isopod whose taxonomic relations hips are not yet clear. We compare it with Calabozoa and Pongycarcinia For the latter, we provide some morphological details that are missing in the original description, as well as a new locality record, extending its distribution range. We also discuss previously assumed relationships of Calabozoidea considering new morphological evidence. Material and methods Specimens used for the description of the new taxon were mounted either in HoyerÂ’s medium or in glycerolgelatine on slides and photographed with a Sony DXC-390P digital camera mounted on a stereomicroscope (Olympus ZZX 9). Body and appendage proportions were then measured on photographs with the Cell^B 2.8 Imaging program. For drawing of selected morphological details, 3 females and 2 males were dissected, mouth appendages were mounted in glycerol-gelatine on slides while pereopods and bodies were first kept in heated KOH solution at ~70C for 2 hours and stained with Trypan blue afterwards (e.g. Prevornik et al 2004). Due to the rigid crustacean exoskeleton, the procedure had no observable influence on th e reliability of measurements. Meristic characters were counted directly under the microscope (Opton). The male holotype was temporarily mounted in glycerol without a prior dissection, photographed and meas ured as described above, but handled with utmost care to avoid damaging. One male specimen was glued on an aluminum foil using a double-sided adhesive carbon tape and then secured to an aluminum support stub. The specimen was sputter-coated with gold (Baltec SCD 050), and examined in a LEO EVO 40 XVP scanning electron micros cope (Leo Electron Microscopy). The SEM preparation technique caused deformation in pleopod IIIÂ–V but no artifacts seem to be present on pleopod IÂ–II. The type material is deposited in the Carcinology collection of the Museu Nacional, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil (MNRJ), in the collection of subterranean invertebrates of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (ISLA/UFLA) and in the Zoological collection of the Slovenian Univerza v Ljubljani, BiotehniÂška fakulteta, Oddelek za biologijo (OBBFUL). One male and one female of Pongycarcinia xiphidiourus from the type locality were partly dissected and mounted in glycerol-gelatine on slides for measuring and drawing, as described above. Other specimens were temporarily mounted in glycerol without prior dissection, photographed and measured as described above. The material is deposited in the collection of subterranean invertebrates of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (ISLA/UFLA) and in the Zoological collection of the Slovenian Univerza v Ljubljani, BiotehniÂška fakulteta, Oddelek za biologijo (OBBFUL). Taxonomy Brasileirinidae fam. nov. Diagnosis. Body dorsoventrally depressed, pleon slightly concave. Pleonites I and II small, but not reduced to sternal parts. Pleotelson of pleonite VI and telson, reaching only about 1/5 of body and less than 45% of pleon length. Pleopods I and II absent in females, uniramous and apparently modified for copulatory purpose in males. Respiratory pleopods IIIÂ–V present in both sexes, mutually si milar, ramus small, tumescent, with transverse suture in the middle; other ramus absent or highly reduced (pleopods apparently uniramous).
Zootaxa 3452 2012 Magnolia Press 49BRASILEIRINIDAE, NEW TROGLOBIOTIC ISOPODA Brasileirinho gen. nov. Diagnosis. With characters of Brasileirinidae fam. nov. Antenna II flagellum of less than 10 articles. Long styliform uropods, inserted laterally, their tips slightly surpassing pleotelson apex. Type species. Brasileirinho cavaticus sp. nov. Brasileirinho cavaticus sp. nov. (Figs 1Â–5, 6AÂ–D) Material examined. Holotype Male, 1.7 mm, MNRJ 22765, phreatic pond in Baixa Funda cave, Paripiranga, Bahia State, Brazil, lat: 1042' 24.8"S, long: 3755' 54.4"W, 400 m a.s.l., water depth 0.2 m, water temperature 26.5 C, pH 7.4, conductivity 0.21 S/m, dissolved oxygen 3.3 mg/l, leg. R.L. Ferreira, 10.01.2009. Preserved in 70% ethanol. Paratypes Male, 1.8 mm, prepared for SEM inspection, ISLA 1452; 6 specimens (2Â–2.7 mm, presumably females) mounted with HoyerÂ’s medium on 3 slides, ISLA 1453Â–1455; 15 specimens (no male or ovigerous female) preserved in 70% ethanol, ISLA 1456; 3 specimens (2.3Â–2.5 mm, presumably females) dissected and mounted in glycerol-gelatine on slides, OBBFUL I0001Â–I0003; 10 specimens (no male or ovigerous female) preserved in 70% ethanol, OBBFUL I0004Â–I0013, all specimens same collection data as holotype. Other material. Two males, 1.9 mm and 1.6 mm, dissected and mounted in glycerol-gelatine on two slides OBBFUL I0014Â–I0015, locality as holotype, leg. R. L. Ferreira, May 2010; 16 males, preserved in 96% ethanol, ISLA 1507; 131 presumable females (no ovigerous), preserved in 96% ethanol, ISLA 1508Â–1520, locality as holotype, leg. R. L. Ferreira, May 2010. Diagnosis. Brasileirinho species with oblong-oval body, dorsoventrally depressed, transparent-whitish (Fig. 6BÂ–D). Head shield semicircular, approximately as long as pleotelson, eyes absent. Body length about 3 times body width; pleonites IÂ–II much smaller than pereonites in length and width, visible dorsally, pleonites IIIÂ–V as long as pereonites, pleotelson length not exceeding 1/ 5 of body length. Male pleopods IÂ–II uniramous and biarticulate, distal articles almost twice as long as proximal. In pleopod I, distal article, flat and bicuspidate distally; in pleopod II, distal article elongated conical. Female pleopods IÂ–II absent. Pleopods IIIÂ–V half of length of pleonites, uniramous, circular, with longitudinal suture. Styliform uniramous uropods nearly reaching telsonÂ’s tip. Description. Holotype and male paratype (values given in parentheses) description. Body 1.7 mm (1.6Â–1.9 mm) long, 2.8 (3.0Â–3.2) times as long as wide (Fig. 1Bm); dorsoventrally depressed, with almost flat dorsum, pleon even slightly concave (Fig. 6BÂ–D), transparent-whitish, surface seemingly smooth, but cephalon and pereonites IÂ–VI dorsally with 4 short setae and pereonite VII and pleonites IÂ–II with two short setae each. Head shield subtriangular, 1.7 (1.8Â–2.2) times as wide as long; with a short but distinct clypeus. No eye structures visible, neither on the surface, nor within tissue. Pereonites subtrapezoidal, with rounded epimeral angles, pereonite V widest. Lateral and posterolateral margins of pereonites with 4 delicate setae each. Pleon lenght only 38% (39%) of body length; pleonites IÂ–II visible dorsally, length of each about 50% of pereonite VII length and with one seta posterolate rally; pleonite IIIÂ–V length each of about pereonite VII length and with two setae posterolaterally; pleotelson length 17% (up to 20%) of body length, with one shorter and one longer seta submarginally on anterolateral ventral surface and 3 setae at posterolateral telsonic angle, longest seta length 140% (100Â–140%) of pleotelson length. Male genital papilla (Fig. 4Plm, Fig. 4Pe-Plm, Fig. 5) placed medially on the articulating membrane between pereonite VII and pleonite I, protected ventrally by sclerotized shield. Antenna I (antennula)(Fig. 1AI) length about 23% of body length, length relations of peduncular articles 1Â–3 (from first to third) 1: 1.8 (1.7Â–1.8): 1.8 (1.7Â–1.8); flagel lum of single article, 1.4 (from 1.2) times as long as first peduncle article, with one aesthetasc apically, aesthetasc length 90% (85Â–90%) of flagellum length. Antenna II (antenna; Fig. 1AII) length about 47% of body le ngth, relations of peduncular articles 1Â–5 (from first to fifth) 1: 1 (0.9): 1.7 (2): 5.2 (5.4): 6.4 (6); flagellum of 6 articles, its length about 134% (130Â–134%) of peduncular length. Mandibles without palp and molar process (pars molaris). Right mandible (Fig. 2Mdm(R)) incisor (pars incisiva) with 4 sclerotized cusps, lacinoid spine sclerotized and bifurcate, spine row reduced to a single pappose (with dense setules loosely arranged about the shaft in a seemingly random manner) robust seta. Left mandible (Fig. 2Mdm(L)) similar, lacinia mobilis 4-cuspidate.
PREVORNIK ET AL.50 Zootaxa 3452 2012 Magnolia Press FIGURE 1. Brasileirinho cavaticus n. sp. n. gen. n. fam. Baixa Funda cave, Paripiranga, Bahia, Brazil, holotype, 1.7 mm: Bm, body, dorsal view; U (v), uropod, distal part, ventral view; female, 2.4 mm: A I, II, antennae IÂ–II; Bf, body, dorsal view. Maxilla I (maxillula; Fig. 2MxI) lateral lobe from lateral to medial with 4 (4Â–5) simple robust setae, 4 (4Â–5) dentate robust setae and 1 simple robust seta with one median denticule on outer side, at the inner basis of the setal row also 2 stocky simple setae, inner margin with 2 simple setae; mesial lobe distally with 1 short and 1 longer pappose robust seta and 1 sclerotized biserrate seta. Maxilla II (maxilla; Fig. 2MxII) lateral and middle lobe with 6 curved pectinate robust setae each, mesial lobe from lateral to medial with 2 long sclerotized plumose setae and 6 shorter biserrate setae with 2 simple setae at the base of the row, outer margin distally with pseudochaetae. Maxilliped (Fig. 2Mxlp) with complex endite of two lobes, smaller inner lobe apically with 6 (6Â–8) simple setae, inner margin and submarginal surface with numerous pseudochaetae, larger outer lobe on inner margin with
Zootaxa 3452 2012 Magnolia Press 51BRASILEIRINIDAE, NEW TROGLOBIOTIC ISOPODA 3 sclerotised biserrate setae and numerous short simple setae, two pappose robust setae on apex and 5 long plumose setae on outer margin; palp of 5 articles, first article fused with maxilliped body, articles 2Â–3 with long simple setae at distal medial angles, article 5 smallest, with tuft of setae distally. FIGURE 2. Brasileirinho cavaticus paratype male, 1.9 mm: Mdm (L), left mandible with lacinoid spine, dorsal view; Mdm (R), right mandible with lacinia mobilis dorsal view; female, 2.4 mm: L, lower lip; Md(L) and Md(R), mandibles s in males; Mx I, II, left maxillae IÂ–II, ventral view; Mxlp, left maxilliped, ventral view. Pereopods do not display serial gradation of orientation: pereopods IÂ–IV oriented forward, pereopods VÂ–VII oriented backward. Pereopod I (Fig. 3PeI) ambulatory, but reminiscent of subchelae due to extremely short carpus (article 5) and somewhat widened propodus (article 6); lateral coxal plate large, completely fused with pereonite I; pereopod length 31% (28Â–31%) of body length, length relations of articles from basis (article 2) to dactylus (article 7) 1: 0.22 (0.22Â–0.24): 0.39 (0.38): 0.22 (0.21Â–0.22): 0.67 (0.65Â–0.67): 0.33 (0.32Â–0.36), unguis length 50% (50Â–57%) of dactylus length; superior distal angle of merus (article 4) with 2 long setae with hairy apical transverse
PREVORNIK ET AL.52 Zootaxa 3452 2012 Magnolia Press FIGURE 3. Brasileirinho cavaticus female, 2.4 mm: C, pereonites (prn) IIIÂ–IV with coxae, ventral view; C-Pe, pereopod III insertion on the pereonite III (prn III); Pe I, II, VII, pereopods I, II and VII. cutting ( sensu Messana et al 2002), inferior margins of basis, ischium (article 3) and merus with one finely serrate seta each, inferodistal angle of carpus with one apically plumose seta with whip-shaped median hair, inferior margin of propodus with 3 biserrate setae, secondary unguis finely serrate. Pereopods IIÂ–VII (Fig. 3PeII, Fig. 3PeVII) ambulatory, mutually similar in shape and setation, increasing in length; coxae (Fig. 3C, Fig. 3CÂ–Pe) expanded laterally into flattened lateral coxal plates (com pletely fused dorsally with their respective pereonites) and inwardly over sternum, as sternal coxal plates; inferior margins of articles from basis to propodus with one finely serrate seta, on carpus additionally one longer apically plumose seta with whip-shaped median hair, superior distal angles of merus and carpus with two long setae with hairy apical transverse cutting and with one long seta with hairy apical transverse cutting and one long penicillate seta, respectively, superior margin of propodus with
Zootaxa 3452 2012 Magnolia Press 53BRASILEIRINIDAE, NEW TROGLOBIOTIC ISOPODA longer finely serrate seta and shorter simple seta, superior margin of dactylus with short simple seta; unguis and secondary unguis with acute apices, latter finely serrate. Pereopod II length 41% (38Â–41%) of body length, length relations of articles from basis (article 2) to dactylus (article 7) 1 : 0.14 : 0.48 : 0.67 : 0.62 : 0.29 and 1 : 0.14Â–0.15 : 0.46Â–0.49 : 0.65Â–0.70 : 0.61Â–0.65 : 0.27Â–0.29 in holotype and other males, respectively, unguis length 67% (66Â–68%) of dactylus length. Pereopod VII length 50% (48Â–52%) of body length, length relations of articles from basis (article 2) to dactylus (article 7) 1 : 0.23 : 0.50 : 0.86 : 0.82 : 0.36 and 1 : 0.22Â– 0.26 : 0.51Â–0.52 : 0.83Â–0.86 : 0.81Â–0.84 : 0.34Â–0.37 in holotype and male paratypes, respectively, unguis length 63% (60Â–64%) of dactylus length. Pleopods IÂ–II uniramous, unipartite, modified for copulatory purposes, with identical ventral and dorsal (Fig. 4PlpI(d), Fig. 4PlpII(d)) sides. Pleopod I (Fig. 4Plm, Fig. 5B) protopodite subrectangular, its width about 78% of its length, subrectangular ramus (supossedly exopodite) length about 130% of protopodite length, thick lamellar, vaulted, with acute lateroapical and obtuse medioapical angles. Pleopod II (Fig. 4Plm, Fig. 5B) protopodite obtusely subtrapezoidal, ramus (suposedly endopodite) about twice as long as protopodite, elongated conical and slightly spindle shaped. Pleopods IIIÂ–V (Fig. 4Plm, Fig. 4Plf, Fig. 4PlpIII, Fig. 5A) not sexually dimorphic, mutually similar, presumably without or with extremely reduced exopodites, endopodites ellipsoid, tumescent, about 1.25 times as long as wide, with a longitudinal suture. The origin of the subtriangular structures (Â“scalesÂ”) at the basis of each pleopod remains unclear due to the indistinguishable protopodite, hidden in the vault formed underneath the distal border of the pleonite. As articulations between structures are vague it is only presumed that structures in question could be exceptionally reduced exopodites. Uropods (Fig. 1Bm, Fig. 1U(v)) inserted laterally, slightly surpassing pleotelson apex, uniramous, with no visible suture lines, styliform, with acute apex, their length about 50% of pleotelson length; lateral margin with 2 setae, their length about 80% of uropod length, ventral and dorsal surfaces distally with 3 and 5 (4 and 5) shorter setae, respectively. Description of female. Almost identical to males, except mainly larger, up to 2.7 mm long. Body 3Â–3.5 times as long as wide (Fig. 1Bf), pleotelson (Fig. 4Pltf) with almost straigth posterolateral and posterior margins, its length 16Â–19% of body length, longer submarginal seta length 60Â–150% of pleotelson length. Antenna I length 19Â–21% of body length, length relations of peduncular articles 1Â–3 (from first to third) 1: 1.7Â–2: 1.8Â–2; flagellum 1.2Â–1.4 times as long as first pe duncle article, aesthetasc length only 64Â–76% of flagellum length. Antenna II length 39Â–42% of body length, relations of peduncular articles 1Â–5 (from first to fifth) 1: 1Â–1.1: 1.7Â–2: 5.7Â–6: 6Â–6.2; flagellum of 5Â–6 articles, its length 130Â–140% of antenna length. Mouthparts (mandibles: Fig. 2Md(L), Fig. 2Md(R)) as in males. Pereopods somewhat shorter than in males, pereopod I, II and VII lengths 24Â–29%, 32Â–36% and 42Â–46% of body length, respectively; length relations of articles from basis to dactylus, as in males. Pleopods I and II absent (Fig. 4Plf), pleopods IIIÂ–V as in males. Uropods (Fig. 1Bf, Fig. 4Pltf) as in males. Etymology Brasileirinho is a small Brazilian in Portuguese. The animal is less than 3 mm long. Latin word cavaticus meaning living in a cave, refers to its troglobiotic status. Habitat, ecology and behavior. The Baixa Funda cave is located in the municipal district of Paripiranga, NE of Bahia. A single, 50 m long rectilinear conduit descends gently from the entrance towards a small pond at the caveÂ’s far end. In January 2010, the length and the width of the pond were about 5 and 1.5 m, respectively. However, water level variation of more than a meter could be inferred from the Â“tide marksÂ” on the conduit walls. In May 2010, the level of the pond was about 30 cm lower, and water parameters were: temperature, 26.5 C; pH, 7.4; conductivity, 0.21 S/m; dissolved oxygen, 3.3 mg/l. While some specimens were assembled on a submerged guano patch (Fig. 6A), countless specimens were walking around in the observable area of the pond. On both occasions, the popula tion consisted of few thousands of individuals. During the first collection the majority of specimens were observed assembling on the bottom of the pond. Nevertheless, due to the extremely fine sediments which would be easily disturbed the sampling and observing were confined to the pond margin. The deepest part of the pond remained uninspected. The individuals were roaming the bottom, stopping randomly. At times they entered small cracks present in the substrate, but they were not observed to bury themselves into the fine sediment. No specimen was caught swimming. Moreover, individuals that accidentally fell of f the brush during collection were passively sinking down to the bottom, demonstrating clearly their swimming inability.
PREVORNIK ET AL.54 Zootaxa 3452 2012 Magnolia Press FIGURE 4. Brasileirinho cavaticus holotype: Plm, pleon with pleopods, ventral view; Plp I (d), II (d), pleopods IÂ–II, dorsal view; Pe-Plm, last two pereonites (prn) and first two pleonites (pln) with pleopods, lateral view; female, 2.4 mm: Plf, pleon with pleopods, ventral view; Plp III, pleopod III, Pltf, distal part of pleotelson, ventral view. No agonistic behavior was observed. As the population density was high, specimens were found to bump into each other frequently, changing their direction consequently. Some smaller individuals (maybe immature) were observed to walk over larger individuals. Specimens were exhibiting no phototactic behavior, neither positive, nor the negative. The observed sex ratio was highly biased in Brasileirinho ; in the January sample weÂ’ve only got 2 males (4%) for 49 females while in the May sample, 16 males (12%) for 131 females have been found. There were no signs of gravidity in the females: neither visible eggs within the body nor developed oostegites in any of 180 sampled female specimens.
Zootaxa 3452 2012 Magnolia Press 55BRASILEIRINIDAE, NEW TROGLOBIOTIC ISOPODA FIGURE 5. Brasileirinho cavaticus paratype male, 1.8 mm: SEM photo of A, pleon (ventral view) with pleopods IÂ–V; B, pleopods IÂ–II. FIGURE 6. A, Brasileirinho cavaticus assembled on the bottom of the pond in the Baixa Funda cave, arrows denote guano particles; BÂ–D, specimens (magnified) at the same locality; E, the Baixa Funda cave surroundings with denoted cave entrance; F, cave entrance filled with the household waste.
PREVORNIK ET AL.56 Zootaxa 3452 2012 Magnolia Press There were no apparent predators in the pond, which could explain high population density, as well as the absence of agonistic or cryptobiotic behavior in Brasileirinho The only cohabitants in the pond seem to be oligochaetes, copepods and bathynellaceans. The only visible food resource present at the bottom of the lake was guano and brasileirinhos apparently fed on it. Almost all specimens had their intestine filled with a dark-colored content. Calabozoidae Van Lieshout, 1983 Type species. Pongycarcinia xiphidiourus Messana, Baratti & Benvenuti, 2002 Material examined. Juvenile male, 2.8 mm, OBBFUL I0016 and mature female, 3 mm, OBBFUL I0017, both Toca do Gonalo, Campo Formoso, Bahia State, Brazil, lat: 10 30'41"S, long: 4053'39.8"W, 546 m a.s.l., leg. R. L. Ferreira, 28.12.2010, partially dissected and mounted on gl ycerol-gelatine on two slides; 2 juvenile males, ISLA 1505 and 1 mature female, ISLA 1506 all in 96% ethanol; 6 mature females, OBBFUL I0016, Toca da Jurema, Vrzea Nova, Bahia State, Brazil, lat: 11,0563567S long: 41,092988W leg. R. L. Ferreira, 20.07.2008. Male and female supplementary description (Figs 7 and 8) Mandibles without palp and molar process (pars molaris). Right mandible with bipartite incisor (pars incisiva), each part with 4 sclerotized cusps, lacinia mobilis short, with 3 indistinct cusps and spine row reduced to a single pappose robust seta. Left mandible similar but with one-part incisor and sclerotized lacinoid spine with densely serrated bifid apex. Pleopods in males and females biramous, only pleopods II show strong sexual dimorphism. Juvenile male pleopod I as female pleopod I, protopodite obtusely subtrapezoidal, endopodite narrow ellipsoidal, elongate, about 1.7 times as long as protopodite, with apical plumos e seta about 1.7 times as long as endopodite, exopodite lamellar, subtriangular, about 2.6 times as long as endopodite, with 4 plumose setae along distal margin. Juvenile male pleopod II exopodite lamellar, ellipsoid, about half as long as wide, with 7Â–8 plumose setae on internal and distal margins, both endopodites elongated, blade-like, but left endopodite with obtuse instead of pointed apex, its length about 85% of right endopodite length. Female pleopod II endopodite elongated oval, with apical plumose seta, lamellar exopodite ellipsoid, about 2 times as wide as long and about 2 times as long as endopodite, with 3 long plumose setae on internal and 5 shorter plumose setae on apical margin. Uropods long styliform, greatly surpassing the pleotelson apex. Habitat The Toca do Gonalo cave is one of the most affected caves in the Brazilian Caatinga formation, due to the impact of human utilization. It is located in a small village, representing its only water source. For decades, people are extracting water from the cave using a diesel-water pump which releases smoke into the cave atmosphere and oil into phreatic waters. But the pump is used only once a week, for a short period that allows refilling of the external water reservoirs. That was a co mpromise between cave conservation principles and socioeconomic issues accepted due to the extreme poverty of villagers. However, in 2010 an additional electric water pump was installed inside the cave, by a farmer from another village. He had turned the pump on early each morning and kept pumping water throughout the day for the purpose of irrigation. This pump caused a severe decrease in the phreatic level of more than 1 m. After our visit to the cave in December 2010, weÂ’ve informed the Brazilian Agency of the Environment about the situation. The Agency negotiated with the Municipal Council to promote the installation of an artesian well outside the cave and enable the removal of both water pumps.
Zootaxa 3452 2012 Magnolia Press 57BRASILEIRINIDAE, NEW TROGLOBIOTIC ISOPODA FIGURE 7. Pongycarcinia xiphidiourus Toca do Gonalo, Campo Formoso, Bahia State, Brazil, supposedly juvenile male, 2.8 mm: Plp I (v), pleopod I, ventral view; Plp II (Lv), left pleopod II, ventral view; Plp II (Rd), endopodite of pleopod II, dorsal view; female, 3 mm: Plp II f, pleopod II. FIGURE 8. Pongycarcinia xiphidiourus Toca da Jurema, Vrzea Nova, Bahia State, Brazil. More than a decade ago, the pH of water was 6.99, temperature 26.38 C, dissolved oxygen 1.06Â–2.49 mgl -1 and conductivity 1.47 Scm -1 (Messana et al 2002) In mid-June 2012 the water parameters were: pH 7.63, temperature 26.5 C, dissolved oxygen 2.04 mgl -1 and conductivity 1.63 Scm -1 Despite the fact that the first measurements were taken with the water pump still operating and the latter were taken after its removal, the values of measured parameters did not change significantly. This could eventually indicate that a Â“buffer effectÂ” of the phreatic water circulation had protected the aquatic cave fauna from the long lasting human effects.
PREVORNIK ET AL.58 Zootaxa 3452 2012 Magnolia Press Discussion Comparative morphology of the new species. The overall habitus of the newly discovered species generally corresponds to the habitus of the other two calabozoids (Table 1), differing mainly by its small pleotelson, well developed pleonites IIIÂ–V and laterally inserted long uropods that only slightly surpass the apex of pleotelson. The similarities and differences among the three species, as well as a comparison with other isopod orders (see Table 2: for comparison with Oniscidea and Asellota) are provided below. All three species have similar architecture of the mouth appendages and both pairs of antennae. Though we are aware that no thorough understanding of pattern and homology among mandibular structures (molar process, spine row, lacinia mobilis) has been achieved, we believe that treating the molar as absent (like in Messana et al 2002) is adequate. Namely, no mesially directed mandibular process was detected in our specimens. Furthermore, considering also Van Lieshaut's (1983) figures of Calabozoa (p. 168, fig. 2E) and mandibular descriptions given in several isopod references (Wgele 1989, Schmalfuss 1974, Serov & Wilson 1999), the homology between the calabozoid pappose seta and the spine row of other isopods, seems more plausible than the presence of highly derived pointed (i.e. pappose) and articulated molar w ithout grinding surface. Although there are several taxa without the molar process within Isopoda (listed in Brusca & Wilson 1991) and losses are considered to be Â“weakÂ” (i.e. less reliable) characters while they occur more easily than gains, negative characters might Â“contain phylogenetically useful information on restricted parts of the phylogenetic treeÂ” (Strauch 1984). So together with the unique pappose seta and a bifurcate sclerotized lacinoid spine ( sensu Bruce 1994; in Limnoriidae) on the left mandible, the loss of the molar represents a shared derived character of all three calabozoids. In contrast, the lack of a mandibular palp in calabozoids and oniscids might be treated as a character of the groundpattern of both taxa. We agree with Wgele (1994) that as it is not possible to distinguish between homologies and convergencies without further knowledge about their genetic background, this loss should not be used as a synapomorphy (as proposed by Brusca & Wilson 1991) of both subordines. Also individual species or genera within other crustacean families display this particular reductive trait. A shared derived character of all three calabozoids is also the 1-articulate flagellum of antenna I with one apical aesthetasc. Except for the fact that such extreme flagellar reduction is neither due to the exploitation of parasitic nor interstitial habitats, two of the most common conditions in which the reductions occur in isopods, we can provide no adequate explanation for it. Various and presumably non-homologous reductions of the antennae I are present in at least some species of each isopod suborder, omitting the reliability of the character at the suborder level. The position of the antennae I, on the other hand, reveals that calabozoids lack one of the unique oniscidean apomorphies, i.e. antennae I inserting between antennae II. Brusca and Wilson (1991) scored this character (char. 22) as undecided (?) instead of plesiomorphic (0)Â—i.e. antennae I inserting dorso-medially to (above) antennae II, in calabozoids. On the other hand both, calabozoids and oniscideans share a derived antenna II peduncle (5articulate and without an antennal scale) in contrast to th e asellotan 6-articulate peduncle with an antennal scale. Pereopods of Brasileirinho superficially resemble those in the other two calabozoid species i.e. all 7 pairs are ambulatory, but they are not monomorphous. Based on the shape of pereopod I, particulary in Pongycarcinia (Messana et al 2002, p. 248, fig. 4a) with its greatly shortened carpus and widened propodus (articles 5Â–6), we believe that pereopod I of calabozoids represents a subchela in regression. Although in most asellotes a prehensile subchela of pereopod I is strongly developed a similarly shaped (i.e. Â“regressedÂ”) subchela may be found in some of the smallest members of the asellote genus Proasellus, in taxa of the aggregate Proasellus deminutus (Sket 1959). Although Brasileirinho and P. deminutus are both of the same size, the described character is apparently not strongly linked to their smallness as the equally sized P. parvulus (Sket 1960) has well developed subchelae (Sket 1965). On the contrary, one of the unique apomorphies of oniscids should be non-subchelate pereopod I (Wgele 1989, p. 232). However, in a rhithral oniscidean genus Macedonethes Buturovi, 1955, even 4 anterior pereopod pairs are subchelate (Karaman 2003, p. 10, fig. 4aÂ–d). Pereopodal coxal lateral and sternal plates developed in Brasileirinho Pongycarcinia (both pers. obs.) and Calabozoa (Van Lieshaut 1983), classify calabozoids within Scutocoxifera (Wgele 2002) contrary to asellotes with the ring-like coxae. In contrast to other Scutocoxifera, however, not only the first but all lateral coxal plates are completely fused to their respective pereonites (Van Lieshaut 1983, Brusca & Wilson 1991, pers. obs.) in calabozoids. Coalescent plates were considered as apomorphies by Racovitza (1912). So the total coalescence of all lateral and sternal coxal plates can be regarded as convincing autapomorphy of the Calabozoidea.
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Zootaxa 3452 2012 Magnolia Press 63BRASILEIRINIDAE, NEW TROGLOBIOTIC ISOPODA The pleonites IÂ–II of Brasileirinho resemble the ones in Pongycarcinia i.e. they are small but not reduced to their sternal parts as in Calabozoa Both, the partial reduction as well as the diminished size of the first two pleonites represent apomorphic traits, together with an enlarged pleotelson. While the latter comprises about 1/3 of the body in Calabozoa and Pongycarcinia it is less prominent in Brasileirinho comprising only about 1/5 of the body. This can be attributed to different life style (swimming incapability) in connection with a radical reduction of the pleopods in Brasileirinho (see below). In the former two taxa swimming, as well as running, were observed by Van Lieshaut (1983) and Trajano and Bockmann (2000). The unique pleopods are definitely the most contrasting feature of the new species. Absence of female pleopods IÂ–II corresponds to the pattern seen in Microcerberidae and Atlantasellidae. Females of other two calabozoid species have mutually similar, biramous, small and modified first two pleopod pairs, treated as apomorphies by Van Lieshaut (1983). In spite of being a re ductive trait we suggest the loss of female pleopods in Brasileirinho deserves to be treated as a unique apomorphy of the new family, as e.g. in Lynseiidae (Poore 1987). First two pleopod pairs are developed in Brasileirinho males, but they differ considerably from pleopods of other two calabozoids: they are uniramous and less elaborate, at least in comparison with the adult Calabozoa males. Still, they are derived in comparison with the broad lamellar rami representing the groundpattern of isopods (according to Van Lieshaut 1983, p. 174, Wgele 1994, p. 100). Van Lieshaut (1983) stated that: Â”The only significance of these structures [i.e. first two pleopod pairs] in revealing a possible relationship on this level [i.e. among the suborders], is their origin. She presumed (op. cit., p. 176) the origin of the Calabozoa male pleopod I to be exopodal, while simultaneously establishing that: Â“...the shape Â… and probably also its function, has more similarities with 1 st male pleopod of the Armadillidiidae (Oniscidea)Â”, in which the endopodite has evolved. Her presumption is based on a tiny outgrowth, Â“implanted halfway in the first partÂ” of Â“pediform exopodite consisting of two partsÂ” (op.cit., p. 169). Also in the emended figure of the first pleopod in Brusca & Wilson (1991, p. 176, fig. 10B) a tiny medial outgrowth can be seen Â“that due to its position must be the endopodÂ” (Wgele 1992, p. 100). Together with the highly complex shape of the Â“exopoditeÂ”, also the insertion point of the Â“tiny endopoditeÂ” is somewhat surprising. Namely, the outgrowth arises from the boundary between both parts of the bipartite Â“exopoditeÂ” instead from the protopodite. Unfortunately, we werenÂ’t able to obtain specimens of Calabozoa from the Zoologisch Museum of Amsterdam, to verify the position of the tiny structure ourselves. Also our attempt to clarify the situation through analyzing Pongycarcinia males instead, failed; pleopods I (missing in the holotype) in males from both locations were identical to female pleopods I. This suggests (Van Lieshaut 1983, Messana et al 2002) that none of our males are sexually mature, in spite of their strongly developed genital papilla and complex pleopod II endopodite (i.e. not just elongated as reported for juvenile Calabozoa males) and strongly supports the findings of Van Lieshaut (1983), that Â“the mature male pleopods are developed only at the last moultÂ”. Considering pleopod features discussed above, three scenarios are possi ble for explanation of the characters in the examined Brasileirinho specimens: All our specimens are juvenile. As we examined no less than 198 specimens: 180 without first two pleopod pairs being of a comparable size or even larger than 18 specimens with the developed first two pleopod pairs, and specimens were sampled in two seasons (summer, autumn), the lack of the first two pleopod pairs as an indicator of immaturity in females seems highly improbable. But as we found no ovigerous female in the whole sample, this supposition canÂ’t be ruled out completely either, Only our males are immature. As their pleopod I superficially resembles a lamellar exopodite in juvenile Calabozoa and Pongycarcinia (except for being setae-less, vaulted and with prominent latero-apical angles) and their pleopod II superficially resembles a conical endopodite (except for being less elongated and elaborate) in the same juveniles, this would be a legitimate supposition. Our males are mature. In this case, their pleopod I seems to be of exopodal and their pleopod II of endopodal origins. Even though the former trait coincides in Calabozoida and Asellota, representing a synapomorphy of both suborders (according to Van Lieshaut 1983), being in conflict with several other asellotan autapomorphies, it suggests a convergent evolution of the male pleopod I. As both pleopods in Brasileirinho males are much less elaborate than in Calabozoa and a highly female-biased sex ratio is recorded in a population, even a possibility exists that the population is parthenogenetic, while the rare males are in fact dysfunctional. Uniramous small, mutually similar Brasileirinho pleopods IIIÂ–V resemble pleopod endopodites in other two calabozoids, considering their tumescence and possession of a longitudinal suture. Large and well-developed natatory exopodites, however, are either absent in Brasileirinho or perhaps the stiff flat scale at the pleopod base
PREVORNIK ET AL.64 Zootaxa 3452 2012 Magnolia Press represents their rudiment. The absence or strong reduction of exopodites corresponds to the observed swimming inability of the new species and supports the general rule manifested in the higher crustaceans (Lang 1960), that the exopodite reduces before the endopodite. The shape and size of the uniramous styliform uropods are most similar to those in Pongycarcinia but the insertion point is shifted anteriorly in the former, so the tip of the uropod only slightly surpasses the pleotelson apex. The position of greatly reduced uropods in Calabozoa is similar as in Pongycarcinia As the evolution of the tail fan is correlated with the evolution of swimming behaviour and pleopod structure (Wgele 1994), differences among calabozoids are not surprising. We agree with Wgele that the isopod tail fan is homologous with that of the Eumalacostraca and that from that common groundpattern, styliform uropods evolved independently in phreatoicids and oniscids (1989, p. 162), most probably also in calabozoids. Taxonomic implications. The above observations suggest that the diagnosis of the suborder, as well as the family, should be modified as suggested bellow. Such emendations are to be expected in any group consisting of only few known species, when the new species are found. We expect that the molecular analyses planned in the near future will support our suppositions. Calabozoidea Van Lieshaut 1983 Emended diagnosis. Isopods with ambulatory pereopods IIÂ–VII, mutually similar in shape and setation. Pereopod I also ambulatory but with moderately or weakly developed subchelae, i. e. with very short carpus (article 5) and somewhat widened propodus (article 6). The pereopodal coxal lateral and sternal plates present, completely fused (with no visible suture lines) to their respective pereonites. Mandibles without palp and pars molaris the spine row replaced by 1 pappose seta. Antennae I inserting dorso-medially to (above) antennae II, antenna I flagellum 1articulate with one apical aesthetasc. Pleonites IÂ–II minute or reduced to sternal parts. Pleonites IIIÂ–V free, pleonite VI fused with telson, composing large pleotelson. Male pleopods IÂ–II present, modified for copulatory purpose. Pleopods IIIÂ–V branchial. Uropods uniramous, without visibl e suture lines, styliform or shortened (tuberculate), inserted laterally. Calabozoidae Van Lieshaut 1983 Emended diagnosis. Body dorsoventrally depressed. Antenna II flagellum of more than 10 articles. Pleonites IÂ–II small or reduced to sternal parts. Pleotelson of pleonite VI and telson, reaching about 1/3 of body length. Pleopods IÂ–II in females present, endopodite narrow, elongate, exopodite lamellar. Pleopods IÂ–II in mature males biramous, but no ramus large lamellar. Biramous, sexually monomorphic pleopods IIIÂ–V mutually similar, each with large lamellar exopodite and small tumescent endopodite. Nature conservation aspect The cave is the only known habitat of the Brasileirinho so far. Furthermore, of 20 known caves in the municipal district, that is the only one with perennial water. The Baixa Funda cave, as well as its surroundings, was severely altered in the last ten years. The autochthonous surface vegetation was substituted by monocultures; at present with a corn monoculture (Fig. 5C). Local residents reported that the previous land owner started to fill the cave up by dumping huge amounts of different materials (especially stones) in order to drive away curious visitors. Fortunately, he did not succeed but even today local residents use the cave to discard their household waste (Fig. 5D). Due to the difficult access through the partially obstructed entrance, the end section of the cave remains relatively well protected from visitors. Nevertheless, there is still a major human threat to the type locality and its inhabitants; a lot of agricultural products were seen at the entrance, representing a potential source of chemical groundwater contamination. At the moment, there are no administrative acts available to protect this type locality. Until 2008, all Brazilian caves were protected by law. With the legislation changes the caves lost their intangibility and are now exposed to different human activities, especially mining. In an attempt to define which caves can be destroyed and which should be preserved some categories defining the status of each cave were created, based on biological and geological parameters So, to achieve an indubitable preservation of cave according to biological parameters, the presence of an endemic troglobiotic or rare species within the cave is
Zootaxa 3452 2012 Magnolia Press 65BRASILEIRINIDAE, NEW TROGLOBIOTIC ISOPODA required. The description of Brasileirinho cavaticus therefore represents not only a contribution to the knowledge of isopod diversity, but is also a permanent assurance of the preservation of a cave and its surroundings. Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge the assistance of the team of the GMSE ( Grupo Mundo Subterrneo de Espeleologia) especially Fernando Andrade Silva and Joo Andrade Silva for their invaluable assistance during the field work in the caves of Paripiranga (Bahia, Brazil). We would also like to thank the entire staff of the Laboratory of Underground Ecology of the Section of Zoologia of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA) for their efforts in the collections. We are grateful to Rok KostanjÂšek from the Department of Biology, Ljubljana (Slovenia), for taking some useful photos (not published) of the holotype pleopods with the Axioimager Z1 microscope and to Eduardo Alves (Laboratrio de MicroscopiaÂ—Departamento de FitopatologiaÂ—UFLA) for enabling us to use the scanning microscope. R. Ferreira is grateful to the National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) (processes No. 477712/2006-1 and 301061/2011-4) for the financial support. Slovenian authors were supported by the Slovenian Research Agency (program No. P1-0184, Zoology and speleobiology). References Bruce, N.L. (1994) The Cassidininae Hansen, 1905 (Crustacea: Isopoda: Sphaeromatidae) of Australia. Journal of Natural History 28, 1077Â–1173. Brusca, R.C. & Wilson, G.D.F. (1991) A phylogenetic analysis of the Isopoda with some classificatory recommendations. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 31, 143Â–204. Dreyer, H. & Wgele, J.W. (2002) The Scutocoxifera tax. nov. and the information content of nuclear ssu rDNA sequences for reconstruction of isopod phylogeny (Peracarida: Isopoda). Journal of Crustacean Biology 22(2), 217Â–234. Lang, k. (1960) Contributions to the knowledge of the genus Microcerberus Karaman (Crustacea Isopoda) with a description of a new species from the centarl California coast. Arkiv fr Zoologi 13(22), 493Â–510. Lowry, J.K. (1999 onwards). Crustacea, the higher taxa: Descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. Version 1: 2 October 1999. Available from: http://www.crustacea.net. Karaman, I.M. (2003) Macedonethes stankoi n. sp., a rhithral oniscidean isopod (Isopoda: Oniscidea: Trichoniscidae) from Macedonia. Organisms Diversity & Evolution 3, Electronic Supplement 8, 1Â–8. Messana, G., Baratti, M. & Benvenuti, D. (2002) Pongycarcinia xiphidiourus n. gen. n. sp., a new Brazilian Calabozoidae (Crustacea Isopoda). Tropical Zoology 15, 243Â–252. Prevor nik, S., Blejec, A. & Sket, B. (2004) Racial differentiation in Asellus aquaticus (L.) (Crustacea: Isopoda: Asellidae). Hydrobiologia 160, 193Â–214. Racovitza, E.G. (1912) Cirolanides (premire srie). Archives de zoologie exprimentale et gnrale 10 (5), 202Â–329. Schmalfuss, H. (1974) Skelett and Extremittenmuskulatur des Isopoden-Cephalothorax. Ein Beitrag zur Klrung von Phylogenie und Systematik der incertae-sedis-FamilieTylidae (Crustacea). Zeitschrift fr Morphologie der Tiere 78, 1Â–91. Schmidt, C. (2008) Phylogeny of the terrestrial Isopoda (Oniscidea): a Review. Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny 66(2), 191Â–226. Serov, P. & Wilson, G.D.F. (1999) A revision of the family Pseudojaniridae Wilson, 1986 and the superfamily Stenetrioidea Hanse n, 1914. Invertebrate Taxonomy 13, 67Â–113. Sket, B. (1965) Subterrane Asellus -Arten Jugoslaviens (Crustacea, Isopoda). Acta Musei Macedonici Scientiarum Naturalium 10(1), 1Â–25, tab. 1Â–11. Strauch, J.G. (1984) Use of homoplasti c characters in compatibility analysis. Systematic Zoology 33, 167Â–177. Tabacaru, I. & Danielopol, D.L. (1999) Contribution a la connaissance de la phylognie des Isopoda (Crustacea). Vie et Milieu 49(2/ 3), 163Â–176. Trajano, E. & Bichuete, M.E. (2009) Diversity of Brazilian subterranean invertebrates, with a list of troglomorphic taxa. Subterranean Biology 7, 1Â–16. Trajano, E. & Bockmann, F.A. (2000) Ecology and behaviour of a new catfish of the genus Taunaya from northeastern Brazil (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae). Ichtyological Exploration of Freshwaters 11(3), 207Â–216. Van Lieshout, S.E.N. (1983) Calabozoidea, a new suborder of stygobiont Isopoda, discovered in Venezuela. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde 53(1), 165Â–177. Wgele, J.W. (1989) Evolution und phylogenetisches System der Isopoda. Stand der Forschung und neue Erkenntnisse. Zoologica 140, 1Â–262. Wgele, J.W. (1994) Review of methodological problems of Â“Computer cladisticsÂ” exemplified with a case study on isopod phylogen y (Crustacea: Isopoda). Zeitschrift fr Zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 32, 81Â–107. Wilson, G.D.F. (2009) The Phylogenetic position of the Isopoda in the Peracarida (Crustacea: Malacostraca). Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny 67(2), 159Â–198.
"The aquatic troglobiont Brasileirinho cavaticus
(Crustacea: Isopoda: Calabozoidea), new genus and species is
described from the karst cave of the State of Bahia, Brazil.
Based on its unique pleonal features i.e. the total absence
of female pleopods I-II, uniramous male pleopods I-II,
minute, uniramous respiratory pleopods III-V in both sexes
and pleotelson not exceeding 45% of the pleon length, a new
family, Brasileirinidae, is created. Some biological,
ecological and behavioral data for the species are provided
together with the nature conservation issues. Additionally,
an assignment of the new species to the suborder Calabozoidea
is discussed through comparison with the other two calabozoid
species, Calabozoa pellucida and Pongycarcinia xiphidiourus.
For the latter species, some previously missing morphological
details, as well as a new locality record, are provided.
According to the updated morphological evidence, the
previously assumed relationships of Calabozoidea are
discussed and, consequently, the diagnostic characters of
some taxa emended." --