Citation
Bulletin of the National Speleological Society

Material Information

Title:
Bulletin of the National Speleological Society
Series Title:
Bulletin of the National Speleological Society
Creator:
National Speleological Society
Publisher:
National Speleological Society
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Regional Speleology ( local )
Technical Speleology ( local )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
Location:
United States

Notes

General Note:
Contents: Preface -- Frontispiece -- Ozark Cave Life / by Charles E. Mohr -- Cavern Dwelling Salamanders of the Ozark Plateau / by M. B. Mittleman -- The Invertebrate Fauna of Ozark Caves / by Leslie Hubricht -- Bones in the Brewery / by George Gaylord Simpson -- Sex Ratios in Hibernating Bats / by Harold B. Hitchcock -- Spelunking in a Pyramid / by Alexander D. Therrien -- Cavern Hymn of the Earth Planet / by Jay Esspee -- Ice Caves / by Patricia Merriam -- List of Grottoes -- Calcite Bubbles - A New Cave Formation? / by Gorden T. Warwick -- Gordon L. Curry -- The Survey of Schoolhouse Cave / by H. F. Stimson -- Cave Mapping / by A. C. Swinnerton -- The Formation and Mineralogy of Stalactites and Stalagmites / by Forrest L. Hicks -- Clyde A. Malott -- Explorations in Ball's Cavern, Schoharie County, N. Y. 1831-1949 / by Charles J. Hanor -- Exploring an Underground River / by John Dyas Parker -- Who's Who in Bulletin Twelve.
Restriction:
Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Version:
Vol. 12, no. 1 (1950)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
K26-00545 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.545 ( USFLDC Handle )
7455 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0027-7010 ( ISSN )

USFLDC Membership

Aggregations:
Karst Information Portal

Postcard Information

Format:
Serial

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

BULLETIN TWELVE Affiliated with the American Association for the Advancement of Science IN TI-4IS ISSUE ... Accurate and informative articles on caves including CAVE LIFE OF THE OZARK PLATEAU THE SURVEY OF SCHOOLHOUSE CAVE FORMATION AND MINERALOGY OF STALACTITES AND STALAGMITES SEX RATIOS IN HIBERNATING BATS SPELUNKING IN A PYRAMID CALCITE BUBBLES CAVE MAPPING ICE CAVES AND OTHERS NOVEMBER I 9 5 0

PAGE 2

BULLETIN TWELVE Published by THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY To stimulate intere s t in caves and to record the findings of explorers and scientists within and outside the Society IN THIS ISSUE-November 1950 PREFACE ........................................................................................ I FRONTISPIECE ........................... ............................................. ........ 2 O ZARK CAVE LIFE . ....................................... Charles E. Mohr 3 CAVERN DWELLIN G SALAMANDERS O F THE O ZARK PLATEAU ..................................... M. B. Mittleman 1 2 THE INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF O ZARK C AVES Leslie Hubricht 1 6 BONES IN THE BREWERY ....... ......... George Gaylord Simpson 18 SEX RATIOS IN HIBERNATING BATS ..... .. Harold B. Hitchcock 26 SPELUNKING IN A PYRAMID ................ Alexander D. Therrien 29 CAVERN HYMN O F THE EARTH PLANET ................. .Jay Esspee 31 ICE CAVES ............................... ........................ Patricia Merriam 32 LIST OF GROTTOES . ................ .. . ........... . . .. ...... .............. .......... 37 CALCITE BUBBLES-A NEW CAVE FORMATION? Gorden T Warwick 38 GORDON L CURRy...... ............. .................................................... 42 THE SURVEY OF SCHOOLHOUSE C AVE ................ H. F. Stimson 43 CAVE MAPPING .............................................. A. C. Swinnerton 55 THE FORMATION AND MINERALOGY OF STALACTITES AND STALAGMITES .............. Forrest L. Hicks 63 CLYDE A MALOTT ....................... ...... .......................................... 72 EXPLORATIONS IN BALL'S CAVERN, SCHOHARIE COUNTY, N Y. 1831-1949 .................... Charles J. Hanor 73 EXPLORING AN UNDERGROUND RrVER ........ John Dyas Parker 80 WHO'S WHO IN BULLETIN TWELVE .......................................... 85 EDITOR: Jerome M. Ludlow; EDITORIAL CO;\IMITTEE: W ill iam E. Davi es, James A. Fowler, William S. Hill, Philip A. Livingston, John D. Parker. PUBLISHED intermittently, at lea st once a year, by Lhe National Spe l eo logical Soc i ety, 1770 Columbia Road, N.W., Washington 9 D C. COPYRIGHT, 1950 by The National Spe l eologica l Society. THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY was organized in 1940. It now has mem bers scattered throughout the United States, and also has many members in foreign countries. THE SOCIETY is a nonprofit organiza t.ion of men and women interested in the study and exploration of caves and allied phenomena. It is chartered under the l aw of the District of Columbia. Its energies are devoted to the unlocking of tbe secrets of the netherworld. SOCIETY serves as a central agency for the collection, preservation and publi cation of scientific, historica l and legend ary information r elating to Spe l eo lo gy. It arouses interest in the discovery of new caves and encourages the preservation of the natural beauty of all caverns. TH E AFFArRS of the Society are admin i stered b y a Board of Governors e l ected annually. The Board appoints the nation a l officers The Board also appoints com mittee chairmen-who are chosen not only for th eir proved ability in a particular field, but a l so for their ac tivit y in the work of the Society. OFFICERS FOR 1950-1951: Charles E. Mohr, Pr esident; Burton S. Faust, Vice P resident; John S. Petrie, Membership VicePr esident; Ellen Moffet, Secretary; LeRoy W Foote, Treasu1 er; Betty A. Yoe, Financial Secreta1),; Chrissy Mansfield, Secreta1), to the BOa1'd of Govern01s. BOARD OF GOVERNORS (i n addi tion to most of the above -named officers): Ernest Ackerly, Robert P. Carroll, William E. Davies, Duane FeaLherstonhaug h James A. Fowler, Emmons Graham, William R Halliday, George F Jackson J e rome M. Ludlow, A. Y. Owen, G. A lexander Rob ertso n, Nancy G. Roge rs, William J Stephenson, Ralph W. Stone. LOCAL SECTIONS of the Society are called Grottoes. They serve to stimulate and co ordinate activity and increase the interest, enjoyment and productiveness of caving. LIBRARY: An exce llent speleological library is owned by th e Society and is being constantly e nlarged. Items on hand may be borrowed by NSS members. Ex tensive co llections of cave maps, photo graphs and s l ides are being gathered and are avai labl e on a lo a n ba s is. Membership helps to support the pub li cations, spec ial investigations, and the operation of the Society. Associate .... ....... $ 3 Commercia l or R eg ular .............. $ 5 Institutional ...... $10 Susta ining ........ .. $10 Life .................... $ 7 5 PUIlLlCATIONS includ e the liULLETIN pub li shed at l east once a year, and the NEWS monthly. All members receive the BULLETIN and the NEWS.

PAGE 3

P relace to Bulletin Twelve Sin ce th e publica ti o n o f Bulletin E l e v e n, in November 1 949, the sci e ntific s t ature of s p e leol ogy and o f th e National Spel e o logi ca l Soc i e t y h as m easureabl y in c r e a se d. The g r adual c h a n ge [ro m a l oose l y o r ga niz e d g r oup of s in ce r e individua l s inte r es t e d in th e pro m otio n of s p e l eo logi ca l effort t o a m o r e m ature sci e n tifi c o r gan iza tio n h as b ee n t aking pl ace for so m e yea rs. 1\f u c h credit i s due th e o ri g in a l p e r sonne l w h o co n ce ived th e o rgani zatio n of the Soc i e t y o n a n a tio n a l basis and wh o h ave s t aye d with it during it s growth As a result of a ll this d evo ti o n to a n ideal th e profess i o n a l sc i entis t i s n ow being attrac t e d to u s b oth b eca use of our accomplishments and, m o r e p artiCll l a rly, b eca u se o f our o bj ec ti ves. T o t th e l eas t important factor, by fa r, which r eflec t s th e hi g h e r r egard with which w e a r e h eld b y the sci e n t i s t was our r ece n t accepta n ce a s a n affilia t e of th e A m e ri ca n Assoc iati o n for th e A d va n ce m ent of Science. The prog r a m a t the annua l meetin g of that o rganizati o n a t C l eve land Ohio, thi s yea r will include sess i o n s o n s p e l eo l ogy for th e fir st time A l so, a n inte n sifie d effort in th e fie ld of public r e l a ti o n s h as added t o our prestig e The est a bli shment o f educational di splays a t both th e J ew York and Philade lphia s p orts m e n 's s h ows, th e m a n y columns of n ews paper space, and the 1I0 t infrequent m agazine articles h ave a ll pl aye d their part in our public recog nitio n as a r elia bl e source of informatio n o n th e n atio n 's n etherworld. Other f ac t o r s contributing t o our sci e ntifi c s t anding h ave be e n our promo t.io n o f th e Interna ti onal Speleological Con g r ess a t Monterrey, Mexi co; the publicatio n by th e West Virginia Geological Survey and the l\Iary l and Depart nl ent o f Geol ogy, jvlines and vVat e r R esources o f their volumes o n caves in thos e sta tes in w hi c h s p ecific c r edit was g i ve n th e NSS [ o r va lu a bl e ass i s t a n ce ; the vis it to A m erica o [ Dr. Robert d e .To ly, Pres id ent of th e Soc i e t e Spe J eo logique d e Fra n ce ( h e also r epresente d S wiss, Belgian, Ita li a n Gree k and P ortugese soc ie ties) and our o wn n a ti o n a l co nventio n h e r e paper s 'e r e presente d o n subjects r a n ging [rom se x rati os in hibernating b a t s t o a talk o n G erma n unde rgTolll1d i n sta ll atio n s S p ec ifi c pro j ec t s o f our o wn still in prog r ess, s h ould add addit io n a l kn o w l e d ge to our sci e ntifi c cave informatio n A m o n g these a r e a proj ec t b y a grou p in Trenton, N .J. t o mil k e a co m pl e t e sc i eI1li fic study of Sc h ofe r 's Ca\ 'e n ear Kutztow n P ennsylvania, so m e geophysi ca l pros p ec tin g underta k e n l as t yea r b R e n sse laer Grotto, a pro p ose d a r c haeologi c al survey of caves in t h e \ a ll ey Forge, P ennsyl va ni a, area b y th e Phila d elphia G r otto, and o ther p r o j ects undertaken b y othe r g r ottoes A ll in a ll th ese efforts p oint th e wa y t o s till g r ea t e r prest i ge in t h e future, and they impose upo n eac h m embe r n o t o nl y a duty, but also a respon ibility. t o conduc t th e affairs o [ the Soc i e t y and it s r elate d programs with incerity. enthus ia s m and dignity Trenton, N .J. Octob e r 22, 1 950 -.J. M L.

PAGE 4

A Pe r ret. Pt-SfE sprtt L e POlrune d e Pin, a IIniqu e stalagornite in I'Aven D 'urgna, c', Anlech e, F l 'ance, T h e s iz e of t h e formation i s s h own in compat' i soll with t h e flgul'e of M R o b e l't de Joly, IIot e d F I 'c n('h spel eo lo g i s t in the f o regr o und, 'I' hi s CILVe was discover e d and explore d by M, d e Joly ill 1935 and acquire d b y t h e French govel'J1ment in 1938,

PAGE 5

Ozark Cave Life By CHARLES E. MOHR All p h o fogr ap h s by 'he autho r Au,elvbon Nature Gen tel, Greenwich Gon n. Little known to t oelay's s p e l eo logi s ts, two women made spe l eo l ogical histoly i n t h e O zark !V[ou,ntains o f M i ssour lnore than 50 yeaTS ago. I n th e gay nineties (l [em. a l e caver was an eyebTow -m sing event. The auth m t e ll s som e most inteTest i n g f ac t s about tll e se 1 J i o neeTs, a s well as some d mTna t ic ex1JC1"iences of his own in his mor e lece n t O zmk ex1 J l ora t ions. j\1 [ore th a n 5 0 yca r s ago t wo wo m e n m a d c s p e l eo l og ical history in t h e O zark Mounta in s o f M i sso u r i T h e wri t ings of o n e and th e sc i e n tific co ll ect i o n s of the othcr f oc u sc d a tt entio n o n a n arca r ip c f o r e x pl o rati o n Best k n ow n o f t h c two [ o r h e r "Cave R eg i o n s o f thc O zar k s and Bl ac k H ill s", was Lue ll a Agnes Owc n,' a m c m be r o f thc M i ssouri G eo l og i ca l Survcy Eve n b efore t h e appe a r a nce of h e r b oo k in 1 898 M iss O we n had be e n n a m e d a n H o n or a r y Mcmber of the Spe l eo l og i ca l Soc i e t y of F r a n ce, and a F e ll ow o f t h e A m e ri ca n G e o g r a ph i ca l Soc i ety. T h e seco n d wo m a n cave e xplo rer we know o nl y as M iss Ruth H oppin. In th e l a t e e i ghties s h e s ent hund r e d s of specime n s o f cave fauna t o C urator Samue l Garm a n at H a rvard's J\lIuseum of Comparative Zoo l ogy. M iss H oppin li ve d n ea r Sar cox ie, J as p e r Co u n ty, i\li ssouri, and ex plo r e d caves and wc ll s in t hat a r ea, m aking co ll ec ti o n s a n d at Ga rm a n 's r equest d e t a il e d o bservati ons o n cav e lifc. H e r l e ngth y l ette r s prov id c thc fir st comprc h c n s ivc n o tes o n Ozark c avc lifc. Scvc r a l o f the subtcrra n ea n c r eaturcs wh i c h s h e d iscove r c d werc n e w t o sc i e n ce. '''' hil c Ruth H o p pin would b e co n side r e d a sc ri o u s s p c l unker to d ay, L u clla Owe n might well bc c1assc d a s p e l eo logi st. For a l t h o u g h s h e w r o t e tha t s h c v i site d the caves "for the g r a tifi ca ti o n o f privat e inte r est," s h e hast e n e d t o add that t h e cx pl o rati o n w as "in t h e course of r eg ul a r offic i a l duty o n the : M i ssouri Geol og i ca l Survey During th e summer of 1 896, b e tw ee n mid May and l a t e S e p te mber, L u ella Owen m a d e sev e r a l ex p editio n s into S t o n e and O regon C ount ies in so u t h ern M i sso u ri. R oa d s were p oor, direc t i o n s vag u e, and co n veya nces unde p endable. \ V h c n thc m a il coac h in whic h s h e was trave lin g BULLETI N NUMBER NOVEMB E R 195 0 1 0 Ge n try Cave, n ea r Gal e n a, broke dow n Miss O we n co n tinue d o n foot. N umerous r eports of r a ttlesn a kes, copperheads and wa termoccasins seemed t o a l a r m th e geo l og i s t a bit, b u t fortu n a t e l y n o ve nomou s r e p t il e was e n counte r e d Eve n in the gay nineties caving was a surpris in g purs uit for a woma n Proper atti re for fema l e s p elunke r s h a d r ece i v e d littl e atten t i o n u p t o thi s t ime. F o r exploring t h e m o r e diffi cult caves, ove r a ll s h a d b ee n s u ggest e d. Miss O we n r ef used LO wea r s u c h a n "obj ect i o nabl e costume", se l ec t i n g in s t ea d a short dress of specia l desi g n. "Th e unavoida bl e climbin g ," explaine d M iss O we n "will soo n prove the s u pe rior cl aims of a di v id e d skirt. If i t is p r o p e rl y made, o nl y the w ca r e r n ee d b e co nsci o u s of t h e divide." Rubbe r boot s and wa t e r p r oof cap e and h a t complete d t h e cost u me. In s u c h a n o u tfit o u r h e roi n e penetrated the we t and muddy p assages l e ading off f rom Mar b l e Cavc s huge Auditorium. In S u ga r Tree H o ll ow Cave s h e c r aw l e d fect for cmos t thro u g h the t wo f oo t hig h o p ening a n d w ri gg led d ow nward for 1 5 f ec t ovc r l oose r oc ks. T h e rubbe r b oo t s gave so m e p rotecti o n aga in st t h e r oc k s but t h eir limita ti o n s w e r e bro u ght h o m e wi t h chilling suddenness in Gree r Cave V hil e wa clin g a l o n g t h e s h a ll o w e d ge o f a subterra n ea n l a k e s h e s tepp e d into d ee p water. Altho u g h s h e esca p e d co m p l e t e imme r s i o n sh e h a d th e disco mfortingrca lizati o n tha t "23 miles and a chilly night l ay bc t wee n u s and dry clothing M iss H oppin, o n the contrary, spa r e d o nl y a n occas i o n a l word t o d esc ri be t h e difficul t ies e n counte r e d in her searc h fo r cave a n i m a ls. In addi tio n t o th e s p cc im e n s of blind fis h a n d J1 Llll1e r O U S s m a ll e r forms o f life whic h s h e 3

PAGE 6

shippe d to Curator Garman, s h e sen t specimens of th e r e d mud or gumbo w hich covered th e floor s of some of the caves. "Experime nts prove d its e xc ess ive fin e n ess and st i ckiness," r eported th e sci entist. It made so m e of t h e caves virtually inaccess ibl e, wrote I vliss Hoppin. No one h a d eve r ente red D ay's Cav e before Ruth Hoppin and a young boy found a h o l e at the bas e of a cliff and enlarged it until th e yo ung s t e r could slip through. The blind fish th ey co llect e d th e r e prove d to b e a spec i es n e w t o sc i e n ce. \ 'Vhe n fir st examine d by Garman in 1 889. it was believe d to b e identi ca l with T yjJh li c h t hys subte rnmeus of the Mammoth Cave r egion of K entuc k y That blind cave fishes from areas separated by lh e Mississippi Rive r m ight be identica l cause d excite d speculation. But the r esembla n ce b e twe e n th e two fish e s was quickly proved a supe rfi c i a l one b y i chthyologis t Carl Eigen m ann." "Judging fr o III th e d eg r ee of d ege neration of t h e eye," h e wrote, th e Missouri fish "ha s li ve d in c aves and done without the u se of its eyes l o n ge r than any known vertebrate." H e d e scribed it more fully in 1899 as T1"Oglichtht hys 1osae. T vfiss Hoppin found numerous oth e r speci Ille n s of blind fish in n earby c av es and w e lls. One seri e s of t e n w e lls, from II to 3 0 f ee t d ee p we r e situa t e d from 5 to 80 rods a part. T h ey h a d a commo n wate r lev e l and similar cave fauna A large part o f the co lle ction callle from these w ells. Exalllination of the eye l ess fish gave sOlll e in di c a tio n o f th e ir food h a bi t s The ir stomach s conta in e d young c rayfi s h and blind fis h c ri c k ets, and nume r o u s isopods, the l ast ev id ently b e in g the Illa in food supply Like m os t spec i es of blind fis h th ese wer e s m all, n o n e ove r tw o and a quarte r in c hes l o n g. Today blind fis h a r c rare in th e J oplin area, a lld v e r y f ew have b ee n found e lsewhe r e in the Ozarks. Byron C. Mar s h all of Imbode n Arkan sas, told Ille tha t during hi s explora ti o n of I S O Ozark c aves h e had see n blind fis h o nly o n ce. T h e occas i o nal reports of blind fish in th e e a s t ern Oz arks gener ally h ave b ee n tra ce d to a sculpin, COtlllS ba irdii c awl/Iae. It has both pi g m entati o n and eyes but is a cave-dwe ller to 4 th e extent o f b e in g "wholly capablc of continue d existence far within cave st reams. On five caving visits to th e Ozarks, I have spent m a n y h ours inquiring about and sea r ching for blind fish. In June 1 938, K enneth N. Dearolf and I got our best lead. \ Vhit e fish had be e n seen r ecently at Moore's Cave, ncar Springfield, it wa s reliabl y r eporte d \ V e found t h e cave, situate d in a pasture, it s ma nhole -lik e e n tra n ce bloc k e d wi th branc hes. Quickly clearing it w e chimneye d downward t o a l edge, th ell 1 5 f ee t farthe r Here w e encounte r e d a s m a ll st r eam whic h immediate l y plunged into a fair-sized room, spla shing o n a rockpile 2 5 feet b e l ow. T h e o nl y place a rope could b e f as t e n e d was clos e besid e th e waterfall. In this pre-NSS p e riod o u r us e of ropes was infrequent and amateuris h. \tVe had not expec t e d to attempt a n y diffi cult d escents. so carri e d a s in g l e 5 0-foot l e ngth of three-e i ghths inc h rope. Odd as it seems today, th e thought of using a safety rope n eve r occurre d to \.IS Doubling the rope and fastening it in place, I starte d down hand over h and. T h e walls curved away and I b ega n to spin on the rope. I had gon e down half-way, whe n sudde nly I swung beneath th e fall s Chille d and blinded, I hung d es p erate l y to the rope But in anothe r instant the w a t e r fill e d my boots and knoc k e d m e onto t h e roc k s Dre n c h e d and haJ(c hoked, I crawled away from t h e pounding wate r Fortunately, m y glass es w e r e intac t and my flas hli ght work e d. R e assure d to see m e moving about, D earolf lowered my collec tin g kit. Behind the falls was a l ow room, the water in it bare l y kn ee-clee p. H e r e w e r e c ra yfis h Illilk y white and streamline d I caught olle and th e n anothe r. T h e second wa s a l a r ge f ellla l e with white eggs at t ac h e d t o h e r abdome n Carefully I transferre d t hi s priz e 1.0 a jar, then look e d (or m o r e. I wa s in th e middle o [ the Illudd y pool wh e n for a n instant I saw a white fish appear and sink ri ght out of s ight again. S q u inti n g throug h wa ter-fogg e d glasses, I scoop e d awkwardly f o r it but mis se d For min utes I s tood motionl ess, hopin g va inl y [or ano th e r view o f it. Sudde nl y I b ecame co nsci o u s of th e r oa r o f th e fall s It see m e d muc h l oude r n ow-ancl th e ceil i ng o f the Sill:! II roo 11 1 see m e d a lillie low<.:r The wolr'r was risin g T h e n 1 h e ard D ea r olL NATIO NAl. SI'ELEOLOGICAL SOC IETY

PAGE 7

shouting but couldn't makc out w hat h c was say1l1g Unknown LO m c, it had begun t o r a in quitc hcavily, A Jot of w a t C r wa s coming into the cavc, D ca r olf was p o in t in g upward, T im c to gc t out, h c sec m e d LO b c say in g, I h ea d c d [or thc rope, But th c rope didn't quite reach t h e floor, T h e lowest loop ca m c just t o Illy s h o uldcr, and w e i ghte d down with wate r fill e d b oots, I couldn't pull myself up, I LOok thcm off and sent t h c m up, a l o n g with Illy cquipmc nt. THIS OZARH CAVE CRAYFI S H cUlTies its f'g ,U:S un, t il t h e aI'e w e ll d e v e lolJ e d. 'fhis ell v e S I Jec ies attaillS a lellgth of in c hes. But e vc n without t h e boots, I couldn' t m a k e i t. Tr)'in g to ovcrpower the water), b e d l a m I s h o u t e d t o K c n to go LO the n earby [arm ( o r a heavi e r, longer rope. As h e disappcarcd (ro m V i ew, I duc k e d illlo the s m a ll room again It was n t so co ld h e r e [or the r e "vas l ess circ ulati o n o [ a ir I turne d out m y li ght to save t h e ballc ri cs and swung Illy arm s to k ee p warm. T h e wate r k c p t in ching upward, Finall)" a[tcr w hat sec m c d an h our, I left the roo m JUSt as a sturdy manil a rope d roppcd in to v i cw. But the possibility of u s in g th c sccond ropc as a sa f e t y s ti II had n t occ u rre d to u s I took a d ec p brcath and starte d to climb, ,,\r c t as I was the sudde n d e luge was a s hock. T h e f o r cc o[ thc wate r jamm e d Illy h cadlight dml'll over m)' ca rs. T hat wa s all that k e p t m y g la ses o n. Halfway u p Ih e pounding b ega n LO s low 111)' climb. A f e w Illo r e feet and I stoppe d I clung L a thc r o p c, e x pccti n g Lha tin anothe r IllOlllel1l 1 would b c c1as hcd down again But sw in g in g back and (orth I ki c k c d aga inst a l e d ge, Ki c k in'" hard e r I swung in a wid e r arc until l was B ULLETI N NUi\JilER 12, NOVEM I3ERI 950 able L a get a footin g OLlt of the \\'at e r 's rcach, just b c neath thc brink, R esting, I calle d LO Dearolf to let him kno\\' what h a d b eco m e o( m e Then taking a \ ise-like grip o n th c ropc, I swuncr out into the cascade again Cl imbing d es p e ratel)" I quickly pulled up OnlO thc overhanging ledge at the e dgc o[ th e falls, \ Vith D earo l ('S hel P I \I'as soon on the urfacC', H e wa s as \I'et a 1. The LOnn had b ecn a \'Cr itable cloudburs t. The trickle \I'C had steppe d across in th e m eado\\' had become a raglllg LOr rcnt and dozcns of drowne d c hickcn were float i n g p ast. Thr ec w ec k s later \I'C returne d to Cal C This time \I' e hung o llr ropes [rom a a n c h o r c d se l 'eral fcet farther frolll the fall, But w e w c r e drenche d anyway, Eagerl y but Imd)', I wade d il1l o th e pool. T h e r e \I'as th e fish, in e x, actl y thc sallle pl ace as before, This time it d idn't g-et away, It wa s a tiny, white, eyelcss c r eaLUre, scarccl), tw o in c h es l o ng-, 'iV e s ent it to Carl L. Hubbs and impatiently awaite d hi s d iagnosis, Had we discove r e d a new s p ec i es) Evelllually word ca m e frOIll Dr, Hubbs, It wa s T roglichthys '1'Osae, th c fish Ruth Hoppin h a d (ound nearl y 50 years ca rl icr, Lik e Miss Hoppin ;,'e noticed that the fi h was se n s i t i ve to v i bra tions in the wa ter, or eve n tappingon the rocky lI'all or the pool. So und, howcver did not affcct it. S h e wrote: " I t cs tcd th eir h earino b y hallooi ng, clapping m y hands, a n d striking m y tin b ucket whe n the y wcre i n easy reach a n d n ea r the surface, In n o casc did th ey c h a nge their coursc or notice the so u nd," T h c abili ty o( thc fish to detect cvcn lirrht dis ll1rbanccs o[ th c wate r e \ identl y lie in the sc n siti\' e papill a e arrangcd in nume rou ro\, o \ e r thc top and s idcs of the h ea d a n d ja\\' The fish h as a broad h ca d lI'ith prominent eye-li k e S lrll CtllreS, \ c l.lIall y these are round mass c o [ f alty tissu e in w hi c h Ih e minute [ ull y atrophied cycs arc blll i e d T h e case \I'ith \I' hi c h th c fish locate and ca t h (ood i s n o t b elie ved LO indicate a h c ighten d se n siti\'ity 1 0 t aste, Rathe r sin ce t h ey fee d on l i\ in g anim a ls, it i th e vibration ca us c d by the m ove lll ent or th e ir prey that e nables thc fi h t fine! th e lll

PAGE 8

Eigenmann v isited the J as per County caves in 1897 and again in 1 898 in search of furthe r materi a l f o r his studies o n the eyes of blind cave animals. H e d oes n o t m entio n whethe r h e met Miss Hoppin. In 19 30 Dr. Hubbs r ece ived a n ew spec ies of Ozark blind fis h. It was co ll ec t e d by Edwin P Creaser in Rive r Cave, Hahatonka, C amde n County, M issouri. It h as b ee n t entati ve l y n a m e d Typhliclithy s eigenTlumni 4 in honor of the great student of blind cave vertebrates. Publica tion o [ the d e s criptio n h as bee n d e layed [or many years however, in the hope that additiona l spec im e n s would b e found but the s earch so far has b ee n fruitless. Jus t as a sca r city of s p ecime n s hinde r s the study of Ozark fis h es, so do the ve r y limite d coll ectio n s of white c r ayfis h d e l ay invest igati o n s on these inte resting crus t acea n s T h e egg-carrying s p ec im e n we r ound in Moore' s Cave proved to b e Cambarus a),enii, the same spec i es I h ave see n o n seve r a l occas i o n s in Smallin's Cave. It was first found in 1897, in Fishe r 's Cave, and d escribe d b y Mary Stee le," o [ the U ni versity of Cincinnati. A ll lhree caves arc in the Springfield area. The earliest Missouri white c r ayfis h, how eve r, was the o n e discove red b y Miss Hoppin. ] t w as n a m e d Ca.,.nbanls setosus b y Garma n 's col leagu e at Harvard, vValte r Faxon.G I t was found in Wilson's Cave, Jas p e r County and h as b ee n see n o nl y in that immediate l ocality A third, undescribe d va ri ety, h as b ee n r ecently r e cogniz e d b y HOrLon H. Hobbs, Jr. The spec im e n was co l l ec t e d in L e wis Cave, 1 5 mil es n orthwest o[ Doniphan, Ripley County, b y L eslie Hubric ht:. A of the c av e c r ay fish of North Ameri c a b y Dr. H obbs i s now unde rwa y and additional s p ec im e m and d a ta from th e Ozarks a r e particul arly d esire d. If bli nd fis hes f ee d o n i sopods-those fla l white, many-l egge d inhabitanls of cave streamswhat do the i so p o d s and othe r liny d e niz e n s o [ underground w a t e r s ea l ? My first clue ca m e in i\lfarve l Cave a s th e Marbl e Cave o f Lue ll a Owen's d ay is now ca ll e d In a s m all, c ryst a l clea r pool within the ''''hi te Thro n e I [ ound seve r a l bats' skulls On the m p erhaps r eeding o n a f ew r e m aining shre d s of fles h were seve r a I isopods. Ba t s wh e n t h ey die, are Cjuic kl y d evoure d by scave n g e r s of all 6 s izes. But the droppings of bats, the g u a n o, i s of far g r ea t e r value in the rood economy o f the cave world tha n a n occas i o n a l bat ca r c ass. Never h ave I see n more c r eatures n ouris h e d o n guano lha n in a smaJJ Ozark cave 5 mile s south of the town of Kansas, in northeastern Oklahoma. It is known 1 0caJJy as Bat Cave. T h e name is an appropria l e one, as w e dis co v e r e d. For although the cave's mouth w a s sc r ee n e d by bushes, the unmistakable o dor of bats l e d u s unerri n g l y to it. vVe ente r e d t h e cave b y th e lower of tw o e ntrances, coming, within 5 0 feet, to the beginning of a "gu a n o bog", a d ee p guano deposit over whic h w a t e r was flowi n g. \ V e m a naged to k ee p on fairly so li d g round at the e d ge and to c ross the m o r e treach e r o u s areas on boa rds An i sopod cling-s to a bat slmll in a Marvel-cave pool. It was a verila bl e quagmire Seve r a l times we tentative l y steppe d in with o n e root. Each time we went knee -d ee p without touching a n ything so lid. T h e Slrea m was tour to six fee t wide, and o u t o [ ita t t h e (ar sid e r ose a g uano slope 20 o r more t ee t hig h. H e r e was th e bal roost. Hunclre ds of bats were f l ying about as we approach e d disappearing into distant pans of the cave. Gua n o fill e d the st r ea m [ o r a noth e r 3 0 to 4 0 f ee t b eyond the bat room. It wa s ("he content o f the sha ll o w st r ea m lhat f"asc inatedu s Els e wh e r e in our cave v i sits we h a d occas i o n a ll y s ee n a cave pl a narian a white flatworm. Never h ad we f ound more than a doz e n individua l s in o n e cave H e r e at our first g l a n ce we sa w II und'r e ds of H a t worms. Severa I fa irs ize d concenlr;lti o n s w e r e n ca r e nough s hore to photoNATIONAL S P ELEOLOGICAL SOC IETY

PAGE 9

graph. As we looked e l sewhere in the soupy liquid and in the clea r water, too w e s a w the m by th e thousands. I beli eve th a t t h e total co lony numbe r e d in the t e n s of thousands-a n a lm ost incredible abundance. A long w i th th e m w e re hundre ds possib l y thousands, of isopods. A numb e r of isopods were clu s t e r e d on a d ea d bat, evid e ntl y f eeding. The planaria ns chose sma ll e r obj ects 011 which to concentrate: d ea d inse cts and disinte grating wood. Either directly or indirect ly, h ow ever, th ey must h ave take n nourishment from the guano. They r anged in size from minute, threa d-lik e creatures a f ew millime t e rs l ong to specimens n ea rly haH a n in c h in l ength. They flowed along as th e y alternate l y l engthe n e d and wide ned out. R e lated to th e harmful li ve r /-lukes, interna l parasites of l a r ge r anim a ls, these ca v e forms are fre e -living and harml ess. The planarian in Bat Cave was discov e r e d in 193G b y A H Blair. Whe n studie d b y zoo l ogist Libbie H. H yman, it proved t o b e th e fir s t s p ec i es of an Asiatic genus of flatworms to b e [ound in the New "Vorld. It has b ee n name d Somce/sis amelicana.' Ve collec t e d it a l so in \ V atso n Cave, near Prairie Grove, in northwestern Arkansas, and in a spring n ea r th e cave Another n ew cave Hatworm co llected in eastern Missouri b y Lesli e Hubricht, has b ee n named SfJeopliila huiniclili 8 b y Dr. H yman. The ba ts, the direc t b e nef ac tors of th e fantas tic fla tw orm population, were id e ntifi e d as Gray B a t s Myolis g ri sesce n s This was th e spec ies I had found in great numbe r s in Marvel Ca\"C on m y first trip to the Ozarks in 1935. Ev e r since high school days w h e n I began to co ll ec t sa lamanders, I had wanted t o go to th e Ozarks to see the strange blind salamand er, T yjJhlolrilon s j Jeia c us. While st ill in co ll ege my inte rest was greatl y excite d b y m y occasio n a l contacts with the American Museum's ex peri m ental biologist, G Kingsley Nobl e His handso m e l y illustra t e d articl e "Cr eatures of P erpetual N ight"," puhlishe d in NATII R -\f. HISTORY, A 'l1REMEN])OUS POPUhltiOIl of flaLwOI'ms lives in Bat; ea. v e Oldahonm. Ahout haIr all inc-h IOllg', the plamll"ians can swim at the S\ll"fa<"e (1;"1"0111) at l eft) 01" move along' the hottom. B ULLETIN NUMBER 12, NOVEMBER 1950 I

PAGE 10

8 fir e d m e with a Lre m endo u s urge to v i sit the Ozark caves Finally, after yea r s of d reaming, a hurrie d s id e trip fr o m a mission to St. Louis a t Christmas Lime, gave m e th e c h a nce I n ee d e d I spe d t o Marvel Cave Lhro u g h a p ow d e ry s n ow T h e g r eeting o [ Lhe Lynch s i ste r s who ow n e d the pl ace was warm, but Lhe ir r eport t hat n o blind sa lamanders had b ee n found f o r years in the ac cess ibl e p o rti o n s o f Lhe cave was di s h eartening n ews. T hey l e d m e down a woo den s t a ir way Lhro u g h a h o l e in th e d o m e of a vast unlit ball room a n d Lhe n a l o n g d escending tourist tr ails At las t w e reached a drips L o n e ca n o py; circling b ehind iL. they pointe d to a small spring. \ Ve used lO see Lhe sa l a m ande r s h e r e l\fARVEL CAVE'S "AmlitOJ'ium" i s e ntel' e d tluoug h a hol e ill the roof. A IJian o low e e d th"oug h the roof tHree l")J"ovide d mus i c for' slIhte'Tallea n dancing. My h o pes bounded. As I turne d m y flashlight toward L h e s h a ll ow pool I saw halE -inc h l o n g, whiLe i so p ods, and Lhe n a l a r ge r white c reature a l a rval blind sal a m ande r. F eaLher-like g ill s pro L ruding [ro m iLS n ec k es tabli s h e d its immaturity. BUL iL was n't blind; I co ul d plainly see its eyes! E l sew h e r e in t hi s BULLETIN, M. B. M ittl e man L ells abouL Lhe a mazin g tr a n s[o rmaLi o n tha t takes place a s th ese larvae maLUre. Naturally I wante d L O see a r ea l ", adult blind sa l a m ande r, and m y guides, unwilling that m y v i s it to Marve l Cave s h ould n o t be comple te I y su ccess ful s u gges t e d: ']f you could r eac h Blondie's Thro n e, you might find blind salamanders a l ong Mystic River. Young Charlie D av i so n c rawl e d bac k th e r e while h e worked [ o r us; you might get him L O ta k e you to BIondie's Thro n e-if h e's a t h o m e." Following th eir directio ns thro u g h Harold B e ll 'Wright's "S h epherd o f th e Hills" country, I found Cha rli e c h opping wood outside hi s s m a ll cabin. H e was willing, so early the n ext m orning we e t out o n our sea r c h for Typhlo tl iton. A waterfa ll marks th e s p o t in th e cave where th e tourist turns b ac k It was there that our trip bega n A fift ee n-f oot, slippe r y clay b ank stoppe d us, until we h a d dug toeholds. At the top w e [ o unel oursel ves in a ser ies of p oo l s of vary in g d e pths. T h a t wa s Myst i c River. T h e fir s t plunge into .155 wate r l e ft u s brea thless but our e x erLions soo n w arme d us. For h a lf an h our w e a lt erna L e l y waded and cra wl e d b e n eath the Lhreefoot ce ilin g, a l ert [or sp ec im e ns a l o n g the way. A t la st we r eached a l a rg e room. What a r e li e f it was Lo stand up! Blondie s Thro n e tow e r e d above us. Nam ed f o r a fair-haire d b oy w h o found i t l o n g ago i t prove d to b e a huge stal agmite which v irtuall y sepa rated Lhe room into two c h ambers. B eyond, a broad pool mark e d the continuati o n o f Mysti c River. VVe wa d e d kn eed ee p a l o n g the s h a llow edge, l oo kin g m o r e hopefull y n ow [or sa l a m and e rs, but st ill without lu c k Pushing o n w e sea r c h e d more anxio u s l y clow n o n our kn ees again as th e roof abruptly lowered T h e st r eam s l ow l y dwindle d and finall y disa ppeare d as Lhe p assage b eg a n t o ri se. Loos e r oc k made c r aw lin g a clumsy process. I was breathing with diffi cuILy. A[Le r a n othe r st ee p climb w e found that th e passag e ende d in a poc k et. T h e dung of anima ls, probably r accoo n s cove r e d th e floor. My breaLhing b eca m e e v e n more labo r e d J was p erspiring fr e el y Could t hi s b e o n e of Lhe oxyge n d efic i ent pock e L s said to occ u r ina f ew ca ves? I didn't wait L o make a n y furthe r obse r va Lions. T h e blood was pou nding in m y ea rs as I ba c k e d a wkw ardly down t h e narrow passage. I NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 11

gaspe d the coo l e r a ll over the u nde r g r o u nd ri ver. The impul s e to hurry o u t o f the cave w as over powering, but just th e n direc tl y a h ea d of m e on a tiny i s l and in the strea m I saw a blind sal a m ande r. "It's l ooking r i g h t at u s," I whisp e r e d ex cite d l y to Charlie, but h e obj ec t e d saying, I t's blind, i sn't it?" Blind it was, but p erfec t l y aw a r e of our pres e n ce, if its a l ert pose indica t e d a n ything. It s h owe d little r esemblance to the white l a r va I had see n This salamande r was d e finit e l y pink, n o t fr o m pigment but [rom th e d e nse n e t wo rk of blood vesse l s in its s kin It h a d n o lungswhe n it g r e w up th e g ill s disappea r e d and oxy ge n th e r ea ft e r was a b sorbe d directly thro u g h the m o i st sk in. Undis tu r b e d the amphibian moved a l o n g like a s niffin g d og, apparentl y in searc h o f food. Collec tin g was easy; I pus h e d a n open jar to ward my victim then t o u c h e d its tail gently. It walked right in. We found blind sa lamande r s a l so in the t errace d pools inside Rive r C ave, a t Hahatonka. Som e times both larvae and adults we r e seen in the sa m e bathtub-s ized pool. Severa l of the g ill e d l a rva e we r e l o n ge r and h eav i e r bodie d than the adult T),phlot7 -iton speleus. T h ey w e r e un doubte d l y the n eo t enic, perm anent larva" later d escribe d b y Sherman C Bi s hop as T nereus.10 T h e biggest sa l a m ande r population w e found in the O zarks was a t ''''at so n Ca ve, Arka n sas T h e re, iil June 1938, we co u nte d 44 s lim y sa la m ande rs, Ple th.odon g ill/ inoslIs in t h e fir s t hun dred f ee t of th e cave 'fWO S PECI E of blind sal a mandCl s occupy the sam e pool in Rive. Cave, At l eft i s the htl gll "pClmaJl ent hwva," TYPHLOTRITON NEREUS, about foUl inches l ong, and at i g h t lin adult T .81 ELAEUS. You n g of t h e latte. s p ecies a lso l utv e g ill s but neve. attain t h e size of T. NEREUS. BULLETI N NUMBER 12, NOVEMBER 1950 9

PAGE 12

If it had been late S Ullllll e r we would have made a special search for eggs of glutinosus. It was on August 17, 1 928, in Sheridan Cave, n ear Mountain Home, Arkansas, that Byron C. Marshall 1 1 found [or the first time the eggs of this s peci es. And o n September 3, of the same year, a second se t w as discover e d in India n Cave, Ilear B e ll e Vista, Arka ns as The r e were 1 8 eggs in the first bunch, 10 in the second. They "ve r e [ound in small c revi ces. three and fOllr feet above the floors of the caves. One set was n ea r the e n tra n ce, the oth e r 100 feet inside. The eggs of this s p e cies have bee n found onl y one othe r time, b y J a m es A. Fowle r in a W es t Virginia cave. Caves, of course offer the b es t opportunity for studies of sa lamander life histories The eggs of se veral ca v e -fr e q u e n ting s l)ecies have never b ee n found. That includes T Y i Jhlotl'iton, EU1'Ytea longica/ld a lHc iJl/ ga, and a numbe r of species found in Eastern caves. Afte r w e had captured T),phlotl' il Ol1 in Mar ve l Cave we explored another of t h e large r side passages. There we ca m e upon several hundre d sq uare feet o f wa ll cover e d by a great furry blanket. Examining it at clos e r range, we recognize d it to b e composed of t housands of hibernat ing bats. To m y surprise they prove d to b e Gray :i3ats Myotis g ris e sc ens, the first l arge colony to BAT TAPES1'RY ill i'\'1:II've l Cave i s co m:lo sptl of 14,500 hih cl'nating Gray Bats. The colony has heen much I' CIIm 'ell in I 'ccent ycals. b e found in the O zarks. Calcul ating carefully, we co ncluded tha t the r e were 14 ,500 of the c r ea tures. Our photograph of them l a t e r confirme d this estimate. During the following winte r Mary .J. Gil thrie, '" l a t es t o f M i ssouri's women s p e leol o 10 gists, bande d 583 bats, approxima t e l y 1 4 % of the co l o ny. Nine months late r the Uni ve rsity of M is souri zoo logi s t found onl y three bande d b a ts altho u g h 3, 100 bats w ere handle d in the search Anoth e r grou p of 148 indi viduals were bande d in Rocheport Cave, Boone County, with n o sub se q lie n t r ecoveries. While the b anding exp eriment prove d to hp. disappointing, Dr. Guthrie and h e r student, eventually carrie d out a series of s i g nifi cant in vestigations on the r eproducti ve cycl e in bats. Six species of bats have b ee n found in Ozark caves This includes fOllr s p ec i es of the wide spread genus M .yotis, the small solitary PipiS tl e!Ius sUbflavus subfla vus, commonly knmvn as the Pygmy Bat, and the largest ca v e s p ec i es, the Big Brown Bat, Eptesicus Juseus Jus e us. Most wide l y distribute d throughout the Ozarks i s the Pigmy B a t, scattered individuals hibernating in virtually e v e ry cave. They are sometimes found also in summer. These little bats are li ght yellowish or reddish brown; when moisture -cover e d they may look si l very whi te. The hardy Big Brown B a t i s uncommo n in the Ozarks. Small numbers have been found :)otll in Ark a ns as and Missouri caves in winter; oc cas ionally in spring. lvlost numerous of the genlls M)l Otis i s the Gray Bat, M. g n :sescens, whic h w e found in Marvel Cave. In that cave it appears to b e a year-round r eside n t but elsewhere in the Ozarks and farthe r east in Alabama and Tennessee, the f emales, at least, occupy the caves principally in summer. There are still many gaps in our knowl edge of the distribution and seasonal move m ents of this species. The status of M. socia.l is, the Cluste r or Pink B a t likewi se is not too clear In D enny Cave, in northwestern Arka nsas, John D. Blac k 1 :: f ound 5 00 hibernating on Decembe r 2 1 19 34. They have been observed in Roc h eport Cave, Mis souri, wher e Dr. Guthrie s uspec t e d the m o f migrating during the winte r following breaks ill the cold w eather. Scattered individua l s have b ee n r eporte d in summer. The common Little Brown Bat, M. lucifug lls lucifugus, was a co n spicuous, regular hibernator in the northern Ozarks, though not abundant, writes Dr. Guthrie. It hasn't b ee n r eporte d fr o m th e sou thern Ozarks, however. NATIONAL SOCI E T Y

PAGE 13

The ollly record [ o r th e LiLLIe Long-eared Bat, M. keenii sejJ/entrionaiis, is from Rocheport Cave where a few apparently migrato r y individ uals were taken on February 6, 1932. The great bat colony in Marvel Cave h as dwindle d considerably since 1935. It is doubtful whether bat banding and the moderate collect ing for r esearch studies at the University of Mis50uri seriously affected the co lony. It is known, howeve r that a collecLOr took 4,500 specimens [or sale to a biological supply house. Such heavy mllecting-approximately 30 % of the co l o nyseems entire ly unwarranted It must be recogniz e d t oo, that the n ee d for specimens of blind fish, salamanders, and cray fish for l egitimate scientific r esea r c h poses a threa t LO the very ex i ste nc e of these rare crea lUres. It would indeed b e unfortunate, if in our desire to better understand the m we brought about the extermin a ti o n of any of these truly unique cave inhabitants. Certainly eve r y s p e l eo logist and spelunker should us e restraint in co ll ec ting. It would be far better to r ejJo1'1 the presence of the larger cave animals-salamanders, crayfish, and fish-to the NSS Fauna Committee and to spec ialists study ing these groups than to co ll ect them. Members of the NSS have a special responsibility for pre serving our irre pl aceab l e cave fauna so that gen erations of speleologists and spelunkers still unborn may enjoy this remarkable feature o[ th e Ozark underworld. BULLETIN NUMBER ]2, NOVEMBER ]950 REFERENCES lOWEN, LUELLA Ar.:-.IFs. Cave Regions of the Ozarks and Black Hills. Ci n cinnati: The Editor Publishing Co. 1 28, 1 898 Cave Animals from Southwest ern l\Iissouri. Bull. l"'lIS. Com! ) Zool. 17 ( 6 ) : 225 1 889. "EIr.ENM; \:-.IN, CARL H Cave Vertebrat es of North America, A Study in Degenerative Evolution. CanJegie h 1Sl. Was il. Pub!. No. 104: 1241 1 909. HUlms, CARL L. Fishes from Yu catan Caves C((rIIegie IlI s l. I!"ash. Pub. No. 49 1 : 261-295, 1 938. I; STEELE, l\IARY. The C ra yfis h of \[issouri. Ulli v. of Cincirl11ali BIIIl. 10 : 1 -26 190 2. G FAXON. V,'ALTF.R. 111 Garman, Samue l A : Cave Animals from Southwestern \[issouri. Bltll. Mus. Camp. 7.001. 1 7 ( 6 ) : 225-239, 1 889. 1 LlIlIliF. H North American Tric1ad Tur bella ri a, X. Additiona l Species of Cave Planar ians. Trans. A m er. Micro. Soc. 58 (3): 276, July 19 39. S LIBBIE H North A merican Tric1ad Tur bella ri a, XI. Nell' C hi e H y Cavernicolous, Pl a nar ians. Amer. MidI. Nal. 34: 475-484, 1945 NOIlLE, G. KINGSLEY. Creatures of Perpetual Night. Nal. His/. 27 (5) : 405-419, May, 1927. 1 0 B I SHOP, SHERM. \ N C. A New Neotenic Plethodollt Salamander, with ;\Iotes on Rela ted Species. Colle ia I : 1-5, 11 NOIlLE, G. K. AND B. C. MARSHALL. The Breeding Habits of Two Salamanders. A Iller. M ils Novi lales 347: 1-12 April 27,1929. Ie GUTIIRIE, MARY J. Notes on the Seasonal Move ments and Habits of Some Cave Bats. JOllr_ MalllTn. 14 ( 1 ) : 1 1 9, February, 1933. 1 3 BLACK, J. D. N f ammals of Northwestern Arkansas. JOllr_ Mall/III 17 ( I ): 29-35 February, 1"936. 11

PAGE 14

Cavern-D"TeUing Salamanders of the Ozark Plateau By M. B. MITTLEMAN The Ozark Plat e au U )' l"c(lson o f its top ograp/II'c l'Clic f ((IJllIlr/((lI.t dr((in((g e p enti ful cove r ((nd r e lativel y mild c lim((/ e //{fS lJ'rolled t o IJe ((II id c((l cente r of di U erentiation for ple thodol1tid s((l((lI/((nders, Its cave s not ani)' IJI'Qv i de til e dim, li ght 01' d((r/m ess I Jl'e f e lT e d U )' t1,ese ((nill1als I Jut als o afford til e only //{fbit((t W;tI, l'el((tivel y con stant conditions of 1I10isture so lIecess((ry 1 0 '/1'(()st o f tli em, NorLh and Middle A m e ri ca are w e ll endo w e d with a g r ea t vari e t y of amphibian s p ec i e s and are es p ec i a ll y c h arac t e rized b y a g r eate r numbe r ,Ind diver s it y of salamande r s tha n i s any othe r land mass. B y far the mos t important Ame ri ca n salaillande rs, nume ri c all y s p eaking are th e m a n y gen era and speci es which comprise the [amily Ple t h o d o n tidae These a r e sa lama nde r s wh i c h wh e n adult a r e easil y id e ntifi e d b y their la c k o t lungs, b y the prese n ce uf a lIaso labial groo ve (a ( in c groove running from the lowe r e d ge o f the n ost ril to the edge o f the uppe r lip), and by th e prese n c e of t eeth ( p arasphenoids) o n th e 1'001' of the m outh b e tw ee n the eyesoc k e t s o r b e tw ee n Ih e inne r nares. H erpetologi s t s agree gene r a ll y that th e f oca l point of o ri gin and dis p e r sa l of the Pl ethodonti dae in North America h as b ee n th e southern Appal achia n uplift. The progr ess iv e expansion o f Illan y pl e thocl ontid f orms [r o m their ancestral Appalac hi a n h o m e h as b ee n acco llip a ni e d b y s u ccess i ve changes in bodily forill. G e n e r ally s p eaking, th e g reatest dive r sity of [ o rnl s h as oc ClIrr e d in those r eg i o n s c h a racterized by suffic i ent r e li e f and topographic varia ti o n to provide a va ri e t y o r eco logi c al h abitats capable o f suppo rt in g without undue compe titi o n a d ynamically d e v eloping salamandrine p opulatio n The Ozark Plateau b y r easo n o f it s topographic relief abundant drainage, pl entiful cove r and r e la tivel y mild climate h as proved t o b e an ideal cente r of diffe r entiati o n f o r pl e th o d ontid sa l a ma nde r s \llI o ngst Ih e m os t illlportant sa l a m ande r habitats afforde d by th e Ozark Plateau -and by all odds th e m ost inte resting-ar e th e many caves with whic h th e Platea u i s marke d 1n passing, it m ay b e said that 1II0H pl etho d ontid sa lamande rs are n egali\'Cl y phototro pi c o r in simple r w ords ] 2 prde r to avo id light so [
PAGE 15

unde rg oes an almost comple t e d ege n e r aLio n of it s opLical a pparaLus, th e eyes b ecoming aLro phie d and th e eye lid s b ecoming virtually fused In a ddiLion a lmo s t all co l o r is l ost, and the a nim a l is Lhe n a g hostly whiLe, o r pinkis h white. 1n 17.ele us whi c h i s b elieve d to be a n eo L e ni c C l ose l y r e lated to th e cavernicolous T yphlo triton, a r e the crepuscular or twi li ght s p ec ies of the genus Ewycea Three s p ec ies of Ewycea occur in and a r ound O zar k Pl a t e a u caves, thes e b e in g E1I1ycea i017g icavda 1I7e irtn ojJleum, Ewyem / o17gieauda i ueiJuga and Ew-ycea mullipliALTHOUG H it i s the most wid ely di shibu/e d of the w orld's five s pecies of blind salamande ls, TYPHLOTIUTON S 'PELAEUS i s found onl y in the Ozarli It was di s("ove r e d in Rocl{ House Cave BalTie County l\1iSSOllli, in 1891. Adults reach a l e n gth of fOlll inc h es. speCIes (i.e., a p e rm a n ent, l a rv a l-br eeding s p ec ies) th e eye in the mature l a rv a b eco mes so m ewhat r educed in s ize but is st ill functional. S p ec im e n s f ound in c aves are co n s iderabl y more pallid th a n thos e from open st r ea m s Nothing is known of the breeding h abits of these remark abl e salamande rs, n o r h ave Lhe ir egg s b ee n de scr ib ed-here i s a f ertile fie ld for the paLient s pcleobiolo g i st. T yphlotl it o n are kn own from Rockhouse Cave, "Vil son's Cave, D ow n e r s C ave, Marbl e (Marvel) Cave, D o ri s Cave, River Cave and numerou s springs and strea m s in N Iissouri A rk a n sas, Oklahoma, and K a n sas Adult T y phlo tliton have been tak e n from points 600 f ee t with in Rockhouse Cave (Barry Co. Mo. ) and from a point ov e r h a lf a mil e inside of Marble (Marvel) Cav e (Ston e Co. Mo.) BULLETIN NUMBER 12, NOVEMBER 195 0 (([/a.. The first two s p ec i es, m.ela.noj J l euTO. and luciJuga., are l a r ge (approximating 4112 to 6112 in c hes in l e n gth), b oldly-patterne d salamanders, easily ide ntifi e d by th eir flec k e d or s p ec kled ap p ea r a n ce, and b y their l o n g and verti ca ll y co m presse d t a il s which co n stitute at l eas t 60 % of the LOtal l e ngth in ad ul t s p ec im e ns. The third form, 1I1111tiplie ata i s co n s id e rabl y s m a ll e r averaging a b out three in c hes or so in total l e n gth, and h av in g a so m ewhat r ounde d tail whi c h comprises b a rel y 50 % of the total l e ngth. The sa l a m ande r s o f th e ge nus Eur)le ea unde r go no c h a n ges of a d ege n e raLiv e n ature so far as their v i s u a l equip m ent i s co ncerne d. Rath e r since they prefer the twili ght zones of th eir cave h abitat, their eye s are distin c tl y func Lional and are so m ewhat better d evelope d (as to size ) tha n are those of their 13

PAGE 16

1 4 UPPER: EURYCEA LONGICAUDA MELA.NOl'LEUR.-\. R:U' e : y found outside t h e Oza..-I{s. L e ngth: 5 in c h es. LOWER: EURYCEA LONGICAUDA LUCIFUGA. F. equents caves frolll Viq; ini a to Oldahoma. Length: (j in c hes. PLETHEDON GLUTINOSUS GLUTINOSUS. Found f.om :-ie w Yo"', to c asten. Texas. L e n gth: 6 in c h es. kindred relatives li v in g wholly outside caves. The three species of Ew"y cea li s t e d h e r e as being dwellers of the cave twilight zone are found also outside of caves, but generall y prefer a cavern habitat wheneve r it i s avai lable. The breeding habits of melanopleum and multiplicata a re very poorly known, and t heir eggs are undescribe d. The l arvae of luci fuga are fairly well known, but lhe eggs are undescribed. These spec ies of Ew-y cea h ave b ee n found in many of th e caves li sted [or Typhlotriton, but detaile d distributiona l and ec ologic a l d a ta are much to b e desired Two r emaining s p ec ies of salamanders ofte n found in Oz ark caves are in the category of visitant s pecies. These are th e t errestri a l form s Pl ethodon g lutinosus g l utinosus and Plethodon cinne lls angusticlav ius whi c h normally occur outside of caves in the g r ea t e r part of thei r ranges, but w hi c h often r esort to caves, esp ec i a ll y in hot and dry p e ri o d s Like the species of Etl1"y cea, th e Plethodon species l a rgely prefer the twilight zone in caves. Plethodon g g l u tinosus, the s lim y sal a m ande r attains a fairl y l arge size, up to about 6\t2 inches in total l ength, and is a dark bluish-black above and below, with many white flec k s dorsally and especially a long th e sides of the h ea d and body. Its common name, s lim y salamander, is very apropos, for it sec r e tes an extre m e l y sticky s lim e w h e n handled. The lif e history and esp e cially the breeding habits, are very imperfec t l y known, and further infor mation is muc h to be desir e d The Oz ark r ed ba c k e d salamande r P cil1er e us angusticla v ius h as b ee n d escribe d on l y r ece ntl y (19 44), and practically nOlhin g is kn ow n of i t sav e for its distribution and slruclura l variati o n. The t y p e specimen was collec ted at Mud C ave, n ea r Fairy Cave, Stone County, Missouri, and othe r speci m e ns are known from various lo ca lities in so u th ern Missouri and northern Arkansas. It i s a small sp ec ies, probably attaining a m aximum lotal l ength of about four in c h es; the tail i s round in c ross-s ection, and the most strikin g f eature of pattern i s the very narrow vertebral stripe, whic h is r e ddish and thus stands out f a irly promin e ntly against the gray ish or bla ck ish ground co lor of th e b ac k A species v e ry close to the Ozark r e d-ba c k e d sal a m a nd e r i s the east ern r e d-b ac k e d salamander, P l ethodon c in e l 'eus NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOC IETY

PAGE 17

C I / Ul'CUS which occurs in extre m e east ern ]\Iris souri, and whi c h may b e found in caves in that a re a It is disting ui s h e d fr o m th e Ozark r e d bac k e d salamander by its much wider dorsa l r e d stripe (see ide ntification k ey). It will b e see n r eadily that study of th e dis tributional, eco logi ca l and breeding nature of th e cave-dwelling salamanders of the Ozark Pla t eau provides a n e Xlr e m e l y f ertile field for I. <) 1,l entification Hpy for' Adult" Salalllamiers fr'OIll Oza.li t:a ves 'Tongue r ound, free o n a ll s id es, o n a centra l stalk and rathe r mushroo m lik e in appeara n ce .... 2 Tongu e adhering to the floor of the mOllth free o nl y on the sides and in the rear, n o central stalk ....... ........ .. ....... .4 Costal grooves b e t\\ 'ee n the limbs o n the s id es of the trunk 19; the finger s and toes of the fore and hind limb s se p arated b y 8 t o 10 costal grooves wh e n appresse d towards e a c h other. Tail abo u t 50 % of the t otal l e ngth. i\IA;-;Ylullllm SALA' \IAN D ER. Ellr)'cc a II!lIltij)licata. Costal grooves 1 1 ; appressed toes overl apping, just lIle eting, o r separate d b y not more lhan I o r 2 costal grooves. Tail approximatel y 60 % o[ the LOtal l e n gth ...................... . .... ... .. ... 3 3. B elly speckl e d spolle d flec k e d or m auled. S id es d ark brownis h with llIan y li ght d o ts. DARK'SIllEIl t:l/.r yce a 1 0 ll girallria lII elallopl ellra. B e ll y not spec kled, lIlollle d o r flec k e d but im maculate. S id es and bac k o r a nge o r reddish, with llIa n y blac k d o t s o r s p o t s LO:>iG'TAILED CAVE SAI.AMA;-;IlER. EI.II)'cea 1 0 ll g i c(lllda Illcilllga. in ves tigati o n. Virtuall y a n y information o n these sa l a m ande r s i s much t o b e d es ir e d and th e r e i s e v e ry lik elihoo d th a t undescribe d s p ec i es will ye t b e found in so m e of th e Ozark caves and th e ir attendant drainage syste m s T h e autho r w ill b e pl eased to corres p ond with inte rest e d students o[ th e O zark h erpeto[auna, and would b e espec i ally g rateful for a n y s p ec im e n s of sa l a m ande rs [rom th e Ozark caves I. E yes dege n erate eyelids fu sed. Col o r w h iti s h o r pinkis h while, lillie or n o d a rk pi g ment. OZARK BI.I;-;D SAI.A \I. \:-;DER. T YI)lilotrit.oll sjJela e lis. E yes norm a ll y devel oped, body pig m ented ..... ..... 5 5. S i z e large (up to 6'12 in c h es); co l o r blue b lack above and b e l o\\', \\'ith m a n y white flec k s and patc h es o n bac k and s irle s of body and h ead, o r o n sides o nly. SLD I Y Plethodoll gill' lil/oSIIS gilltinosils. S i ze smalle r ( 1 in c h es o r l ess ) a distinct r eddis h o r c h estnutcol o red band o r stripe running the length of the bac k ; h e ll y saltand p eppe r m Ollled n o t uniform blue b l a c k ................ .... 6 G. Width o f the dors al r e d ,tripe 1 3 % t o 33 % ( av e r age of the width of the body. OZARK RED IIACKED Pletho d o ll cil/e r e ll s al/g llsti ciaOJitis. Widlh o f the d o r sa l red s t r i p e 3 1 % to 57 % ( a ve r age 45"!,,) of the width o f the b o d y. [ASTERN REI)' IIACKED Plethodol/ cilll: r e ll s cillerells. As u se d h e r L t h e t erm "adult" r e f e r s to m eta m orphosed (non-larval ) s p ecime n s 13IBLlOG R .l.I'HY 131.51101', SIIElOIAN C. Handhook of Salamanders. Ithaca: Com stoc k Publishing Co. pp. xi\ 555, f igs. 14 1 maps )56, 1 9 1 3 Blsl-lol', C. .'\ New Neot e ni c I'l elho d ont Salamande r with Not es o n R elate d S p ec i es Cajic ia I : I :;, figs. ) .. 1 1 9 14. DUNN, ETT REID. The Sa l amande r s of lhe Family I'l ethodontidae. NorthampLOu: SlIIitll Coli. 50th AI/I/iv. PlliJ pp. viii41, figs. 1 maps I S (i, 2 pis 1 926. (;ROII,\I"N, ARNOLD 11. The Distrihutio n of the lllJl.LETI N N Ui\IBER 1 2 NOVEi\IIIER 1900 Sa l a m ande r s of the Genu s PletllDdoll in East ern Unite d States and Ca n ada. AI/I/. S. 1". Amri. Sci. 45 ( 7 ) : 2611 6 figs. ) 11, 1 9 1 1. NOIlU:, G. KIM; SI.EY. Bi o logy o f the Amphihia. New York: :'l cG rawHill Book Co. pp. x iii figs. 1 1 1 931. NOIILE, G. KI:>iGSL EY. C r eatures of P erpetual Night. Nat. His/. 27 (5): i\lay 1 927. STE J N[,GER LFO:>iHARIl and THOMAS BARIIOU R A C h ec k L i s t of North Ame ri ca n Amphihians and R eptil es. 111111. J11I1S COIIII) l(wl. 93 ( I ): x ix 10 19 1 3. 15

PAGE 18

The Invertebrate Fauna of Ozark Caves By LESLIE HUBRICHT From th e standpoint of the fauna there are two typ e s o r caves in the Ozarks. In the most commo n t y p e th e wate r they contain i s d e ri ve d from seepage Ilnollglt rock and all o r ga ni c mat ler h as b ee n filt e r e d Ollt. In s u c h caves bat guano i s th e prima r y food source. Since the r e is n o way in whic h anima l s may b e washe d in they are a ll o f the voilllltm)l t y p e, tha t is, they are living in the c ave b ecause th ey a r e adapte d and "prefe r t o li ve the r e. T h e second t y p e comprise s the sink-hole and llInne J caves T h ese a r e found most l y east of the C r ysta l City Escarpment. In these caves the wate r is d erive d dil'ectl y fmrn th e s1.t.1"face. Such caves h(lve (In abundance o f o r ganic m atte r in the form o f d ea d l e aves st i c ks, and so m etimes logs which h ave b ee n was h e d in S u c h caves are lik e l y to have many involll.17imy resid ents which have b ee n wa s h e d in a [t e r storms s u c h as fr ogs, sun fis h s n ails o r th e genus PI/y.w and m a n y sma ll e r organi sms some o [ whic h m ay adapt the m se lves LO th e total d arkness and liv e and bree d the r e T h e followin g Jis t conta in s only s p ec ies whi c h appear to b e a b l e LO li ve and bree d in the LOtal darkness of caves. S p e c i es found only a b out cave entra n ces and accidenta l s h ave not b ee n li ste d. l'hylulll PORI FEHA (SI)Onges) S llon gilla sp. Freshwaler s ponges arc sometim es f ound abundanlly in e Slreams whi c h have clircCl surface COli IICClioIlS, as in lIIl1l1e l a n d sinkhol e c a ves. AiJllndant ill Jam-Up Cavc, S hann oll Co .\Ii ssouri. I'hy illm (Hyd.-as) H ydra s p. are somclimes found in lunne l and s in k h o l e caves, as i n C lif f Cavc, S l. Loui s Co., and J a m U p Ca c, S h anno n Co., .\ I i s o u ri. Phyillm I'LA'I'nIEL:\lI:\" 'nIES SllCoIJ/ii/a /I/Lbric!tli H y lIlan. Co mlllun ill lIla n y c av cs in th e e a S l ern Ozarks Sorocclis {[II/ e ricalla I I Y llIan Fuund in c avc s in n orlhe a s l e r n Ok laho m a and nonh wesler n i\ r kalls a s Geo riesli/lls alracyaJ/cJ/s ( W a l l o n ) This land p lan :Ir ian h as beell f ound ill .\I ec k e r Cave, Perr y Co., and Rive r C av c Camde n Co., 16 Phylum BI(,YOZOA (Moss Animalcules) P/umatel/a s p. O ccas i onally found in tunne l and sink-hole caves Al\"NELTDA (Segm ented WOl"lns) A small, s l ende r while earthworlll about a n in c h l o n g v e r y muc h lik e lh ose u se d LO feed lropi ca l fish, i s occ a s i o n a ll y f ound in drip-pools. A reddish-brow n fr ee-swimming l eec h about two in c h es l ong wh e n ex t ende d i s so m etimes found in sink h o l e and lunne l c av es. Phv lulll AR'l'HHOPODA (Crustaceans, Insects etc.) CopelJOds Copcpods are occas i onally see n in the drip-pool s in c av es, but wh ethe r lh ey r epresent d i slinc t c ave s p ec ies i s nOl known. Alllphipods T h e f ollowing s p ec ies of A III 1III i/'nda a r e known fr o m Oza rk c a ves: Galll/llorUS trag / o I Jiti/us Huhricht &: Mack in F ound in caves in t h e eas t enl Oz a rk Garnl7larus /ili/J/ocJ/s ( Smilh) Foulld ill cemra l Mis souri in caves whi c h have large c ol o ni es o f bals, w hi c h provide th e m wilh a n abundance of guallo for food. Garnlllants a c h e roJ/dy l e s J-1ubri chl &: Fouud III tw o caves in soulhe rn Illino i s Alie c raJ/goll Y x /l c /u cidus (i\l a ckill ) F ound ill c av es in th e central Ozarks : lIId in the Arbuc kl e i\loulllaiu s Oklahoma. Crangoll Y x forbesi (Hubricht &: i\la c kill ) F ound in caves lhroug h out th e Oz a rk s CraJ/go ll y x g racilis jJoc!wrdi ( Smilh) Found ill soulh eas t ern Ka n sas. !Jaelrllnts IIlt/eralwlus ( F orbes) Known fr o m c av es in s oulhern Illino i s and Mi ssouri. i3a etnLrllS bracitywlldus Hubricllt &: Fo ull d in caves in th e eas l e rn Ozarks StygO!JTOIII/lS /l e l crollodlL S Hubrichl. Kn ow u oll l y fr ol1l S l e. Ge n ev ieve Co Misso u ri. S tygo {no II/. tLS oJ/olldag a e llsis (Hubricht &: I\lackin). Found over mos t o f th e Ozark r cg i o n. S )' J/jJ/ e ollia clalli olli C r e a se r F oulld ill th e wCSlern Ozarks. S )'1I1J/ eo J/i a ({lIleri al/l(/. ( Mackin). Found ovcr IlIOSl o[ th e Ozark r egion. ] sopods In addilio n lo th e species of Asel/lls lis l e d b e l ow, lh e re arc a numbe r o f n e w s p ec ies th e d escriplions of wh i c h have 1I0 l as yel bee n publis h ed. Asellus breviw/ld/ls Forbes Abulldallt in llIan y c av cs ill the n onheas l ern Ozarks. Asellus s l ygelLs (Co p e). F ound in c av e s e a S l oJ: lh c C rysl a l Cily E scarpmenl. Asel/lis lIiclwjac!wJ/s i s ( Pa ckard) Found in c a ves e a s t o[ th e C ryslal Cily Escarpment. Aselllls ({lItricolus (C r e a se r ) Found ove r mOS l u [ l h e (emra l Ozark rcgion west of the C ryslal City Es c arpment. NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOC IETY

PAGE 19

Asel/us tridelltatus (Hungerford). Iound along the northern fringes of the Ozarks. Asel/us dim.01phus (Mackin & Hubricht). Iound in the southeastern Ozark region. Asellll s lIlacrojn'ojJodlls (Chase & Blair). Iound in northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern A rk ansas. Cl'ayfish In additi o n t o epigean s p ecies of crayfish which some times enter caves there are two white, blind species described from caves in southwestern Missouri. Call1UarllS a y ersii Stee le. Iisher's Cave Smallin's Cave, and Moore' s Cave, all near Springfield. Cam. u01us s e toSlls Iaxon. vVilson's Cave Jasper County. Cambanl s sp. A still undescribed s p ecies from Lewis Cave, Ripley County. AnLChnills A pseudoscorpion, severa l species of blind, unpig mented mites, and pale blind spid ers, a ll probably un named are found in many Ozark caves. Millipede s Millipedes a r e common in many Ozark caves. The following list i s suppl ied by Richard L. Hoffman: Conoty la sjJecus Loomis. St. Louis and Iranklin counties. Scot erpe s d e m/ro/JlIs Loomis. Jefferson, Franklin, a n d Stone counti es. Tingllpa jJal/ida Loomis. Camden, Crawford, l\, r a ri es ",rayne, Texas, Miller, and Pul.1ski counties. Cambal a minor (Bollman). Ste. Genevieve County (Cellar Cave at Zell). Zost e ractis illtenllillata Loomis. St. Louis and S t c. G e n ev i eve counties. A ll of thc foregoi n g except C. millor are truly troglo d y t ie. Other, epigaean species wander into caves from lilli e to time. Ps elldopol y de.HltIIs h uu.,. i chti (Chamberlin) has been found in caves in St. LOllis and Pulaski counti es. lL i s not a true cave form. Of the a bove spedes, 7.os/ eractis inte rmi1l a / a is the o nl y known form in its family. The other spec i e s of Tillg11jJa occur in U l a h a n d Cal if ol'l1 i a. Insects Seve r a l species of hlind, white sprin g tail s are found in Ozark caves. T h ey a r e probably undescribed. Camel cr i ckets ca n be found in most Ozark cavcs. During a country-wide survey T. H. Hubbell v isited many Missouri caves and reported the following species: C e ll/ .hojJhillls williamsoni Hubbell. Iirst co ll ected in Krapf Cave near Waynesvi ll e, 1 929, and Onondaga Cave, 1930. It was the onl y species inside these caves, but i n Lesterville Cave it was outnumbered by gra c ilip e s. Commonest spec i es in the Ozark uplands. C euthophilll s gracilipe s Haldeman. A wide.ranging species. In the Ozarks it has been found in caves in Rey nolds, Iron, Carter, and McDon ald counties. C eu/.hojJhillls s e c/uslIs Scudder. Coll e cted in the western part of the Ozarks particularly at Big Mouth Cave, near Grove, Oklahoma. Ceuthophilus uhl e ri Scudde r and C. si l v estris (Brune r ). Have both been found outside Onondago Cave Severa l species of beetles a r e found in Ozark cav es. The commonest spec i es i s PtomaplUlglIs cave rlli co la (Sch warz) BULLETIN NUMBER 12, NOVEMBER 1950 The following species of Hies have been identified (rom R ice s Cave, J efferson County Missouri : Megaselia cave1n.ico l a ( Brucs) L e jJtoc e m tenebmrwn Ald. S c iara sp. Pllylum MOLLUSCA (Mollusks) Aml1icol a ald1 i c h i ant1'Oe c e tes Hubricht, is found i n cave streams in the eastern Ozarks from the Gasconade and Current River Drainages to the Mississippi. Amnicola p1'OCe rpil1a Hubricht, is found in cave streams onl y in the counti es bordering o n the Mississippi River. Car), chium e x il e ( C. H. Lea) this land snai l i s found abundantl y in River Cave Camden County Mi!sou ri Physa sp. This spec i es occurs in s evera l tunnel caves where they have been washed in and adapted themselves 1 0 the darkness, and have multiplied. Ferrissia sp. Found abundantl y in Hall's Cave Boone County, M i ssouri. MlIsctl'/ium sp. Ve r y abundant in some of the sink hole and tunnel caves east of the Crysta l City Escarpment. BIBLIOGRAPHY CREASER, EDWI N P. A New Blind Isopod of the Genus Caec idotea, from a M i ssou ri Cave. G c c Pap. MilS. Zoo l. Ul1i v. Mich. 222: 1-7, March 1 2 1931. EAXUN, ""ALTER. /n Garman, Samu e l A: Cave Anim3. l s from Southwestern Missouri. Bull. 1I' [u s. Camp. Zool. 1 7 ( 6): 225 1 889 GARMAN, SAMUEL. Cave Anima l s from South western M i ssour i Bull. lV[US. Comp. Zool. 1 7 ( 6): 225 239, 1 889 HUBBELL, THEODORE HUNTINGTON. A Mono graphic Revision of the Genu s Ceuthophilus. U 'lliv. of Fla Publ. Bioi. Mtls. Sci S e ri e s 2 ( I), 1936. HUBRI(;IIT LFSLlE. T h e Ozark Amnicol as. Nautil tls 5 3 ( 4 ) : 118 122,April 1 9 4 0. HUBRICHT, LESLIE. The Cave Mollus c a of the Ozark R eg ion. N au.tilus 54 ( 4): 111-112 April, 1 941. H'JIIRI C I I T LESLIE, and J. G. MACKIN. T h e Fresh water Isopods of the Genus Lirceus ( Ase llota, Asellidae). Allie r. Midi. Nat. 42 ( 2): 33' l-349 S eptember, 1 949 HYMAN, LIIlBIE H North A merican Triclad Tur hellaria X Additional Species of Cave Planarians. TrailS A m e r M i c1'O. So c 58 ( 3): 276-284, July, 1939. HYMAN, LIIlIlIE H. Endemic and Exotic Land Planarians in the United S tates with a Discussion of Necessary Changes of Names in the Rhy n c h o demidae. Amer. Mus. Novilate s 1241: 121, 1 943. LIBIII E H Tonh American Tricla d Tur bell a ria XI. New, C hi efly Cavernicolou s Plana1' ians. Allier. Midi. N at. 34: 47548l, 1 945. l\fACKI:-I, J. G. and LESLIE HUBRICHT. Descriptions of Seven N e w Spec i e s of Caecidotea (Isopoda, As e lli dae) from Central Un ited S tates, Trans. Am. Mic1'O. Soc 59 ( 3): 383 July, 1 940 STEELE, MARY. The C r a y fish of Missouri. Univ. of Cillcill11ati Bull. 10: 1 1 902 VAN NAME, 'V. G. T h e American Land and Ires hwater Isopod Crustacea ns. Bull. Am. cr. MilS. Nat. Hist. 71: 1-526, 1 936. 17

PAGE 20

Bones in the Brewery By G EORGE GAYLORD SIMPSON Curator of Fossil j \1ammal s and B irds, The A'I'ne n:can j \1usewn o f Natural History A P a leonto l o gist's R en d ezv o us w ith Hist ory an d Pre h ist o ry in S t L o uis In th e heart of a g reat c it y, unde?' th e very feet of its unsuspecting citizens, an a r c h aeo l ogica l tl' easure is brought forth n ft er thousands of years of burial. The exciting story is l'ep?'int e d h e l'e from NAT URAL HISTORY, June 1 946, jJP. 252 by stJec ialjJermission o f its authol' a.nd of Editor Edward M. WeyeT. Three currents of hi story m ee t at the corne r of 1 3 th and Cherokee Streets in St. Louis, Mis souri. South of Cherokee, where 13th does not run through, there i s now an immense shoe factor y On the northeas t corner of the intersec tion th e r e is a l arge bu t apparently r ather plain brick h o use. T h e northwest corne r i s a l o t with o nl y o n e small structure, which lo o k s lik e a one car garage Each of th ese buildings is more tha n i t seems to b e because eac h has a historical s igni ficanc e The s h oe factory was forme rly a brew ery: it r eca ll s a current of history th a t starte d in th e Rhine l and, more than a century ago. The house turns its plain sid e to the street but wh e n v i ewe d from the east, within its own spacious grounds, it i s see n to b e a statel y mansion with a g racefu I pillare d portico: its hi story traces back throug h th e D e Menil s and the Chouteaus to the p i o n ee r days o [ th e fississippi T h e app arent ga ra ge i s r eally the entra n ce to a cave that rambles b e n ea th t h e surrounding buildings: its history is the m os t a n c i ent of a ll and in it are burie d anima l s t hat lived bcl:ore man ever saw th e s i t e of St. Louis. Our introduct i o n lO t hi s converge n ce of his tory at 13th and Cherokee Streets began w ith a l etter. L ee H ess, a pharmace u tical manufacture r in St. Louis, wrote to say that h e had found some bones in th e cellar of a I r e wery 'Vould the i\[us e um b e in terested? l a n y suc h letters co m e to a curator' desk. l in e times out of t e n they do n o t l ea d to anything or "alLie, bLit we a l ways r ollow th e m lip a s far a s possibl e b eca use the t e lllh )cll e r m ay b e a clue to a n important sci e n tific discov e r y. vVe wrote to Mr. Hess ask in g him 1 8 to send some of the bones so that w e could deter mine their possibl e importance. The bones sent to u s h a d b ee n considerably broken b y th e workme n who found them, but 'when we pi ece d them together in the laboratory we found that th ey include d a skull of an extinc t peccary, Plat ygonus compl'essus b y n a me. Now, Platygonus i s not a parti c ul a rl y rare fossiL Its remains had already been found in many places throughout the United States. For instance, 22 skulls (12 of them n ea rl y compl e te) had b ee n collec t e d for th e United Sta tes National Museum in a cave near Cumberland, Maryland, 5 parti a l ske letons h a d been f ound in a peat bog near B elding, Michigan, and 9 n ea rl y complete skele tons had been di scovered at Goodland, K a n sas, in the clay-pit of a brickyard, and sent to the Unive rsity of K ansas. One of the K a nsa s s k e l e tons, obtained from the University b y the A m e ri ca n Museum of Natural History, was r e stored and mounte d in a lifelik e pos e and h as been exhibite d h ere for yea rs. In spite of these and other p rev iou s discover ies, we b ecame quite excited about the bones from St. Louis. Platygonus had n eve r turned up in a beer ce llar b efore, and extinc t animals are rar}!l y found in the heart of a g r ea t c ity. How they ca m e to b e there was a mystery worth so lv ing, and we r eso lved to go to St. Louis and try to clear up the mystery with a little geo logi ca l detective work. I wrote to Mr. H ess asking wheth e r more b o nes remained in place and whether we could come out and investigate the find. His r e ply assure d u s tha t many bones reo m aine d to be excavate d and cordially invite d u s to study the occurrence. In a few days G eo r ge O NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 21

vVhit a k e r, o f our f ossil verte brat e l abora t o r y and I we r e off fo r what turne d out to b e a n unexpec t e dl y fascina tin g r ende z vo u s with his t ory, a n c i ent and r ece nt. M r. H ess m e t u s in St. L o ui s and drove u s imme di a t e l y t o the D e Meni! m a n s i o n the his t o ri c h o m e a t 3352 S outh 1 3th Street. This h o u se, unoccupie d but rest o r e d b y M r. Hess with suffic i e n t m o d ernizat i o n for co mfort, was our camp thro u g h out our stay : a camp s u c h as a b o n e -di gge r h as seldo m e nj oye d in his wilde: t drea m s o f luxury B e f o r e w e we r e thro u g h It w as a l so o u r b o n e l aundry, s h ellac k e ry, and pac k e r Y Here we droppe d at o nce into a n atmos phe r e o f old St. L o ui s o f t h e d ays the C i vil Va r. T h e h o use was o n gll1a ll y buIlt 111 t h e 1 84 0 's b y H e nri C hatill o n a west ern guide and hunte r of t h a t p e ri o d In 1 854 i t w as pur c h ase d b y Dr. N i c h o las N D e Menil and in 1 863 h e e nl a r ge d it b y adding seve r a l s p ac i o u s r oo m s and the m ag nificent p ortico o n t h e eas t s id e, ove rl oo k i n g his l arge garde n and t h e s l o p e o f A r se n a l Hill d ow n to the M ississi p pi. N i c h o l as D e Menil w h o h a d co m e t o A m er i ca o n a v i s i t (whic h prove d t o b e life-l o ng) in 1 833, was a physi c i a n w h o est ablis h e d the fir s t s u ccess ful c h ain o f drugsto r e s in St. L ouis and b eca m e o n e of the a ri s t oc r a t s o f tha t gTowin g ce n te r. H e m arrie d E mil y Sophia C h outeau linking his famil y with the real pi o n ee r s of r eg i o n f o r s h e was t h e g r ea t-gr a n d d a u ghter o f Mari e T h erese C h o u tea u t h e fir st white wo m a n t o se ttl e in St. L o ui s and s till r evere d as the m othe r o f th a t c ity. A l exander D e Menil so n of N i c h o l as, lived in the h o u se throu g h o u t his l o n g life. B y the tim e h e di e d A rsen a l Hill was n o l o n ge r a s w anky residentia l dis trict but h a d b ee n over grown \-vith s m o k y f ac t o ries and surro u nde d by slums. His h eirs c h ose n o t to live the r e and th e prope rty Finally p asse d out o f t h e f a mil y w h e n they so ld it LO lv1r. H ess, a lmost a century a h e r the famil y acquired it. L ik e his f athe r A l ex ande r w as a physi c i a n but h e was a l so inte rest e d in li te r ature and b eca m e a p oe t o f l oca l re n ow n A m o no his volumino u s produc ti o n s i s a rath e r o quaint but f orcef ul d e f e n se of hiS g reatg r eatg r andmothe r the f a m o u s : Ma d a m e Choutea u. (Sh e l ef t h e r hus b and in N ew Orlean s b eca u se o f his cruelty t o h e r and f orme d a n irreg ul a r unio n with L acle d e, wh o b eca m e t h e f Ollnde r o f BULLETJN NUMB E R 1 2, NOVEMB E R 19 5 0 St. L o uis; her solut i o n of a marital probl e m w h e n divorce was imp ossibl e wa approved b y h e r contemporari es, but b e ca m e a worry to some of her d escenda n ts.) vVe ofte n t h o u ght of t h ese vanishe d occu p ants as we roam e d t hrou g h t h e h o u se or o n its s p ac i o u s b a l conies and wa t c h e d sp nng co m e to the garde n If, h owev e r, the g h osts of t h e C h outea u s and t h e D e Menil s roame d thro u g h the h o u se a t nig h t we never knew it, for we s l ept soundly after o u r hours of bone digg in g. Ghost s st ill m o r e exo ti c mig h t ce i vably h ave tro u b l e d our s lumbers. The fasCl n a ti n g h o d gep o d ge accumulated b y IVIr. H ess with a v i ew to future ex hi b i t i o n included a r e co n struc ti o n of a D a m ascus pal ace w ith its furnishings. A ft e r di splay a t t h e St. L o ui s fair in 1 904, these o ri enta l trappings h a d b ee n crated and s t o r e d until rece n t l y w h e n our h ost acquire d the m and pile d the m into the D e Menil h o u se. Thus i t h a ppen e d that our librar y include d a n A r abic Bible, along with H edin's My Lif e a.s a.n Expl o 1"e1", the C atholic Directo ry, B occacc i o s D ec ame-ron, and How to Devel ojJ a TtVinning Penonal i t y P ending the avail ability of rn o r e s p ace and the sorting o f a ll these u"easu res our quarte r s we r e furnish e d in a m edley of sty les in c h arming co nfu s i o n. T u b ul a r met a l mod ernisti c In t h e "fi eld l a bol'atory" in t h e D e M enil house: G eorge \'Yhital{ e l and Lee Hess e x amine t h e slmU o f a n anima l that liv e d at l e a s t 2 0 000 year s ago, during or s h ortly a ftel t h e Ice Age. M I '. Hess discov e r e d the bones o n hi s pl opelty and invite d t h e A m e l ican Museum t o e x c a vat e t h e m Sf. L ouis Post Dispatch

PAGE 22

ch a irs jostled a mid-nineteenth century chaise I017gue, over which was thrown a vivid Mexican s erape and beside whi c h was an old Turkish tabouret of ebony inlaid with motherof-pearl. The introduction of our pre historic peccaries struck no jarring note but seemed only to com pl e t e this r emarkable mixture. History and Pre-History It was after all, the prehistoric peccaries that had called us h e r e and that claimed most of our attention, but e ven thes e brought us into con tact with history as w ell as with pre-history. Unre st in th e Rhineland well over a century ago was one of the influences that led to our journey to St. Louis last March and to the exhuming of th e s e ancient remains. It was in the 1820's that on e Gottfrie d Dude n came to the Mississippi Valley to spy out th e land for his German neigh bors. Here in St. Louis he found several caves in th e limestone underlying the city and he re ported that the site was propitious for breweries. Befor e th e coming of artificial refrigeration, successful brewing on a large scale required natural repositorie s where the temperature was constant and low throughout the year. These cav es, which retain a temperature near 55 re gardless of the w eathe r outside, were ideal for the purpose Rhineland brewe rs migrated to St. Louis and conv erte d th e ca v e s into storerooms for their lage r. It was one of these immigrants, Adam Lemp, who cleared out the cave at 13th and Che roke e and built his bre wery above it. foward th e end of th e nine t eenth century, all --conditioned storehouses made the caves un nec e ssary, and the y wer e abandoned by the brew e rs. One or two were con verte d into under ground b eer p a rlors and place s of amusement: Uhrig' s Cave was su c h an establishment in the gay 90's and i s nost a lgi cally r emembered by St. Louisians. But the cool dark dampness of the cav es, so suitable for bee r b e fore it is drunk, s ee m e d to depre s s th e custom ers after they drank the b ee r. "Uhrig' s C ave" b e cam e an open air theate r above th e actual cave The cave itself enjoyed only one more brie f flair of f a me whe n a large distill e r y w as discover e d in it during pro hibition. The other caves w e r e closed their en trances wall e d up or bl oc k e d with d e bris, and eventually the y b ec am e vag u e m e mori es. The 20 Lemp Brewery went out of business during pro hibition, its buildings were sold to the Interna tional Shoe Company, and its cave the Cherokee Cave was forgotten until Lee Hess recently con cei ved the idea of reopeni ng it as a si te of historical and geological interest. '''Then we arrive d we took only a quick glance at the noble De Menil mansion ("our pup tent, George called it) and then hurried down into the cav e A circular, brick-lined shaft abou t 35 f eet dee p had b ee n reopened and a spiral iron staircase installed. At the foot it opens in to a long s e ries of storage rooms once full of lager b eer but now dismally empty. The rooms were form e d simply by clearing out a natural cave a former underground river channel within th e solid limestone, and by dividing it by masonry walls The first room at the bottom of the shaft still bears traces of its use for private thea tricals and parties by a g a y bl a de of the Lemp family who took it over when the beer was moved 011t. Across one end he constructed artificial sce n e r y made of wire screen and plaster. The scenery represents a fair imitation of the wall of a cave; this hiding of a real cave wall behind an artificial cave wall is one of the touches that made us feel at times as if we had stepped into Alice's Wonderland. There are still remains of the crude but serviceable floodlights used to illumine this scene. The cav e extends in an easterly direction for some 200 feet beyond this "theater." There it is joined by another channel, coming from under the former brewery to the south, also cleared and converted in to storage rooms. A t the intersection is a concrete-lined pool, presumably used as a reservoir in the old brewing days and reputedly used as a swimming pool in the later (but now also old) days of theatricals and parties, although we thought that a party would have to be very stimulating, indeed, to t empt us to plunge into thos e Stygian waters! Where No Man Has Been This w a s the end of the ca ve so far as the bre w e ry was concerne d. It terminated here with a masonry wall. To s e e whe re it w ent beyond, Mr. H ess h a d the wall broken down with a hydraulic jack and was disconcert e d to find that altho ugh th e cav e does indeed, continue it was NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 23

almost comple t e l y filled by a d eposiL o( sLiff, we t clay. This madc it impassab l e (or anything muc h l a rg c r Lha n a rat. H e had workme n dig a nar r ow passag e in th e clay, following th c a n c i enL channel of th e cave. 'I\ iLhin 20 (eet (r o m Lhc wall it turnc d to the left, n orthward, and had, aL th e Lime of our v isit, b ee n ( ollo w e d in Lhat d irecLion f o r some 2 00 f ee t farth c r w i Lh n o s i g n o [ ending, or o f coming out to t h e surface, o r o f j o i n i n g a nOLhe r adj acc n L o ld brewery cave (Lhe Minne h a h a Cave) wiLh whic h H ess h o pes ("venLUally LO make a connecLio n T h e p oint wh e r e th e cave Lurn s is a lm os L unde r the p o r c h o( th e D e Meni! house, whe r e we us e d to rel ax aL lunc h or in th e e ven in g, 4 0 o r 5 0 ( ee t sLraighL abo v e our digg in gs. A more Lal enLe d and imaginaLi ve writer Illi ght co nLrast these superpose d sce n es in a sort o f allego r y In Lhc uppe r w o r l d it i s spring. T h e air i s warm and balmy, and th e sun i s shining. The' g rass is gn:en and sprinkle d with v i o l e ts. Bus hes and trees are in b loom and innume r able birds are selling about their seasonal l oves a n d labors. T h e ca r e t a k e r 's pre tty baby g irl toddles about, l earning to wa lk The world o f life is d eve l oping its fULure in a sce n e just old e n o u g h t o b e l e isure l y and pleasantly m ello w e d In the l owe r world there are no seaso ns. The motionless air i s a lw ays cool but n eve r co l d The humidity is a lw ays near 100 % and nothing i s eve r quite dry T h e white limesto n e ceiling i s d e w ey as if p e r spiring q ui e tly, and water drips s l o wly from t h e tips o f th e scatter e d sta l actites. T h e wate r is limpid but it carries in solution minute quantities of lime, the s l ow, impe r ce ptible precipitatio n o f whic h throug h the ages h as forme d the sta l actites, stalagmites, and cave onyx, all forms of what has appropriatel y b ee n c all e d dripstone. Y e ll ow lights illumine a sce n e that has never known the sun and make t empor a r y is l ands of light in a sea of a b solute darkness that h as bee n li ghtless for hundre ds of tho u sands of yea rs. Smeared from h ea d to foot with yellow mud, workme n s l id e a l o n g th e narrow passage, di gg in g Ollt the s tick y clay p e n etrating s till f arther into th e mysL e rioli s entra il s of the earth whe r e man has n eve r b ee n bdor e. In spite o f this r as h intrusion, the strange scene seems as a n c i ent and timeless as a tomb. And it i s a tomb, a place o f m ass burial, sea l e d aw ay as a m o nll m ent of the d ea d past, b e for e th e first India n BULLETIN NUMBER 12, NOVEMB E R 1950 St. Louis Post Dispat ch The a u t hul', assi s tcil George 0 ,,'hita l, el', also of the Amel'ir-an MUSPUIlI, digg in g for 11I'e hi s to!'ie animal hones in the ea."". (COl' llIany rear s the caye was IIsed for the s tora::e of heel' and as an e lltel-tainlll e n t cente r without anyc;ne SlIs lwcting thilt i t containe d I 'e m a rli:lhl e s ci entific tre a sU\es e \ 'e r hunte d a d e e r a l o n g the top of t h e hill in s id e w hi c h i t lies. A Nice Find That fillin g of clay is a n e x as p e r ating a n d ex p e n s i ve nuisa n ce to the m e n wh o w a n t to reo open the o l d c av e c h anne l but it is a d e li ght L O the b o n e -di gge r It \\' as in thi clay that Lhe workmen found th e b o nes tha t brought u s t o Sl. L o uis, and we began findin g m o r e b o nes as SOOI1 a s w e dug into i t f o r ourse l ves. In the w ee k that w e w e r e the r e, w e f o une! too many b o nes t o COUIll, b u t wc g u ess t haL we excavated beLwee n 2,000 and 3 000 o f them, so m e almos t too small to see while o th e r s \\' e r e large, complete skulls. As w e dug b o n es, w e b ega n o llr d e l ecti\ 'c w o rk. '" V hat: t h e b o nes are i s p erhaps th e l eas L part o f the myst e ry, and t h eir ide ntifi catio n had t o be d o n e back in N e w York, a n y way w h e r e w e 21

PAGE 24

could study and compare the bones a t our l eis u re. H e r e the proble m was how th e bones came to b e h ere, in the core of Arsenal Hill unde r the D e i\lIenil house. So m e clu es a r e s till missing and a more fortunate d e t ec tive t han I m ay prove someday that I am wrong, but w e did soon find enough clues for a t entative solution of the myst e ry. As Clue No.1 the r e i s the cave itself. B y t hat I m ea n th e long, branc h e d channel-like cavity in the limestone, r egardless of the fact that it is or has b ee n n ea rly fill e d up with clay It averages 20 t o 25 f ee t wide, with sol id limestone w a ll s and ceiling. We do not know how long it is, wh e r e it co mes from or w h e re it goes to: important missing clues. 'Ve do not eve n know how d ee p it is or wh a t the Hoor i s like; b eca use as deep as anyone has yet dug (12 to 1 5 feet in places), the bottom of the cl ay has not b ee n r eac h e d. Clue No.2 is the clay or rathe r, this is a series of clu es, b ecause the clay proves on investigation to b e complex and to include several distinc tive superposed l aye rs. The l owest l aye r visible, as far as it has b ee n excava t e d is massi ve, yellovvish gray, and somewhat gritty. 'Ve found no traces of bone in this. At its top in some places but not in all is a l aye r of drips ton e (cave or "Mexi can" onyx) from whic h rise sta l agmites, burie d by the overlaying l aye rs of clay The next hig h e r clay lay e r sometimes absent but in other pl aces two feet or more thic k is ve ry smooth and fine, without grit, and is d e posit e d in thin, horizontal l ayers. There a r e no bones h e r e, eithe r e x cep t occasionally right at the top where they proba bl y sank in from a b ove when the clay w as less compact. The top of thi s is s harply di s tin g ui s h e d from the overlying b e d but it has n o l aye r s of drips tone so far as we saw. Next hig h e r i s a b e d of clay quite vari a bl e in thickness but averagi n g 1 8 to 20 inches, also fine and plas tic, bu t wi thou t layers and co n lallllllg m a n y scatte r e d chunks of lime sto n e and of dripsto ne. A lmost a ll the bones are in tbis b e d o f clay, which we calle d "the peccary layer. Above it th e r e i s occas i o n a lly, but n o t u s u ally, a thin l ayer of dripsto ne. At the ver y top i s a b e d u s u a ll y less than a root thick, of r e lativel y l oose, granular, earthy clay. In places i t fill s h o les extending down into the l o w e r l aye rs. A few ver y s m all bones were found in this b ed. In so m e places wh e r e th e r e i s a s m all unfill e d space abov e this 22 top l aye r the r e a r e sma ll stalagmites on it, and where these occur th ey are usuall y set on small plaq ues of dripstone Our major clues are the bones the ms e lv es, not only b eca u se of wha t th ey are but also b e cause how they occur. As I have said, almost all the bones are in the p ecca ry l ayer." You cannot dig long in any p art of that particula r stratum withou t finding bones, bu t they do lIS u a ll y tend to b e more common toward the bottom of the l aye r. Even whe n several are f ound tog ethe r, they are just pil e d up at random. No two bones of the same animal are found together. Most of the long bones a r e burie d in a more or less horizonta l pos ition but some are oriented without r egard for the natural b edding of the d eposit and they m ay eve n b e venicaI. Sma ll solid individual'bones are u s u a lly whole, but the longer and more fragil e bones are u s ually broke n. Ve did not find a s in g l e comple t e rib. A f e w of the bones h ave tooth m a rks and had b ee n gnawed b e for e b e in g burie d h e re. Bones of th e extinct p ecca r y are b y far th e most common, but the r e are a lso a f e w bones and t eeth of other extinct animals and of some li ving species 1Il thi s l ayer; I will give th e list l ater. The rare bones in the highest l aye r t end to occur in a few pockets, sca tte r e d bu t sometimes with the r emains of one individual n ea r eac h other. Except for one or two bones appare ntl y wash e d out of the p ecca r y l ayer, the r e a r e no extinct animal s in this b e d and most of the bones b elong to sma ll burrowing rode n ts. The Story of the Cave Those a r e the m ain clu es. This I S m y pro pos e d solution, so far as it h as yet b ee n carrie d : The very first thing that left tra ces h e r e happe n e d so l o n g ago that i t is only indirectly involved in our proble m of the bones. This w as the d eposition of the limesto n e, wh i c h occurred in a sea tha t covered this s it e about 3 00 000 000 years ago Muc h later, perhaps on l y a million years or so ago (the event ha s not b ee n ve ry exac tly date d, and it took a long time), the cave was formed. The sea had withdrawn long since and the region had b ee n uplifte d ge ntly. 'Vat e r b ega n to p e r co l a t e a l o n g the c r ac k s and sea m s of the limest o ne and as it w ent, it slowly but stea dil y di sso lved the rock. Eventually it formed N ATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCLETY

PAGE 25

a l arge unde r g r ound c h anne l which w as, and is, the ca v e At t hi s stage th e c av e was fr ee o r any exte n s ive d e posits of clay, and it probably had a subterra n ea n stre am or rive r at the boltom. This probabl y r eac h e d the s urfa ce some d i s tance away and eventually flowed into th e Mississippi. So m e h ow the exit [rom th e cave b eca m e clog ge d a n d t h e cla y and s ilt brought in I)), s tr ea ms [r om the surface, instead of b e in g washed o n through the cave and out aga in be-gan to pile up in the cave. These sediments eve n tuaU y fi lie d the cave up to wi thin a f e w feet of its ceiling The n for a l o n g t i m e the re was no partic ular act i v ity except th e s low dripping of lime -fill e d wate r within th e cave, dev eloping dripstone d e posits h e r e and there on the top of th e sil t whi c h now form e d the floor of the cave. This floor wa s not eve n but co n ta in e d s h a llow d epressions. The n ex t r ecorcJe d event, which probably occurre d during a particular r a iny Massive plastic cia):' with bones; fragments of limestone and of The stm y of t h e c,tVe h e fot c and a.ftc, the animals lived in t h e ,egion was dcciphete d f'Olll t h e c ,oss section of t h e d e po s it s that had P 'l1tIy fiUe d i t, a.s c1esc,ibed in t h e a,ticl e BULLETJN NUMBER] 2 NOVEMBER 1950 23

PAGE 26

p eriod of th e Ice Age was th e filling of these d epress ions with water, forming within the cave a lake, or a series of s m a ll l a kes. Tiny, in so l ubl e clay particles w e r e s l ow l y w a sh e d into this stand in g wate r and t h ey accumulated a t t h e bottom, forming the b e d of horizontally b ande d clay tha t we found b e l ow the p eccary l ayer. Now came what is for us the great event: the d epos iti o n of t h e b o nes in the cave. The evi d e n ce s how s cle arly that these animals did not live o r die in the cave and it strongly suggests that this was not the fir st place in which they were burie d. T h e a nim a l s proba bly fell into a s i n kho l e or fissure somewhere n ea r the cave, perhaps a h o l e that h a d b ee n an entrance to the cave but h a d been sea l e d off from it b y the older accumula ti o n of cla y or by a fall of rock. The exac t spot has n o t b ee n found and search for it would n o t be ve r y h o p ef ul n ow that the whole r eg i o n has bee n built up as p art of a great city. T h e bones of m a n y animals, hundre ds certainly and p erha ps thousands, piled up in this sink h o l e o r fissure and were burie d there in mud and clay tha t "washed in over their bones. Then the accumula ti o n-clay, bones and all-was so me how washed into t h e cave T h e r e a r e s everal ways in whic h this could h ave occurred. P erhaps the most like l y i s th a t the sinkhole or fissure fille d up with wa t e r a b ove the clay and bones, that this wa t e r found a n outle t into the cave, and t hat it suddenl y flus h e d the whole d eposit into the cave and spread it out over the older clay depo it s o f the cave. T h e n ature of the pec cary l ayer in the cave s u ggests that it ca m e the r e rapidly, p erhaps in a n h our o r two-one dra m a tical! y rapid eve n tin a seque nc e where most: c h a n ges can o nl y b e m easured in terms of thousands or hundre d s of thousands of years" Afte r this sudde n c h ange, things quie t e d d ow n aga in A little more clay was washed in [rom tim e to tim e Rode nts occasionally wan dere d into the cave, roote d a r ound a bit in th e top clay, and die d the re. T h ese late r events did not matte r muc h so f a r a our interests go, until the final event of the r eo p ening of the cave b y m a n It i s surprising that the di scove ry of pre histo ri c a nim a l s h e re was d e lay e d until 1946. ''''h e n th e brew e ry cleare d part of the cave, m a n y tons o f cla y were r e m ove d and in thi s the r e must h ave b ee n th o usands of b o nes. So far as i s know n n o o n e p aid any altention to t h e m Pre s um a bl y th ey we r e carted off with the cl ay 24 dumpe d somewhere, and burie d agall1: their third burial. The bones that h ave now b ee n recovered and save d for scientific study include a ll anatomical parts of numerous individuals of the extinct p ecc ary, Platygonus cornjJl'esstls. B oth s exe s and all ages a r e r epresente d from tiny jaws of pec ca ries n ewborn, or p erha ps actually not y e t born when they die d to skulls of big, tough boars. North America was peccary h eadquarte rs for millions of years. Numerous extinc t kinds have b ee n discov e r e d and the r e are two kinds still liv ing in South and C entra l America one of whic h the collared p ecca ry (Tayassu angulatus), ranges as far north as southern Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. P ecca ries are sometimes ca ll e d "wiltl pigs" and they do look muc h like pigs, but the r ea l relationship is not very close. They do not b elong to the pig family (Suidae) but to a dis tinct family of the ir own (Tayassuidae). True pigs have b ee n native to the '''es tern H emisphe r e The living p ecca ries are rathe r small animals, seldom over 20 inches hig h at the shoulde" r. They usu a lly run in bands and a r e inoffe nsiv e vegetar i a ns although the ir sharp, curved tu sks give the m a somewhat fierc e appearance. Some trav e l e rs have told horrendous tales of b eing at tacked b y large bands of p ecca ri es, but more reliable observers report that they will not attack except as a l as t r esort whe n they are mol e sted. The norma l us e of the tusks is to pull up and cu t roots for food Our extinct p ecca ries from Cherokee Cave had the same habit, bec ause s ev e r a l of the tusks that we found have grooves worn in the sides from rubbing against gritty roots. In fact th ese a n c i ent p ecca ries must have looke d and acted very muc h like th eir surviving co usins, e xcept that they w e r e about twice as large. O ther Animals '''' e h a d hoped to find r e m a ins of other ani mals that liv e d at the same time as th e p ecca ri es, and in this we were succ e ssful, but only one of our additional dis coveries was p articularly strik ing. Apparently the trap in which thes e animals w e re originally burie d the sinkhole or fissur e from which their remains were flush e d into the cave, was specially adapted for catching pec caries. F e w other animals fell into it, but w e did NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 27

find scanty r e m ains of a blac k b ea r a raccoo n and a p orcupine, a ll muc h lik e those still li v in g in the r eg i o n wh e n white m e n arri ve d th e re. The unexpec t e d dis co v e r y was a n extinc t armadill o, r e lated t o th e r ecent T e xas armadillo but l a r ge r. T hi s is a n important n ew r ecord, b eca u se St. Louis i s muc h f arthe r north than a n y othe r know n occurre n ce o f a n armadillo, li v in g o r extinct. R ecent armadillos r a n ge n o farther n o rthward than T exas, and th e only compa r a bl e pre vious find s o f extin c t armadillos w e r e in Florida. Both th e armadill o and the p ecca ry, a l so a warmth-loving a n i m a l s u gges t tha t whe n these anima l s lived the r e th e climate of the r eg i o n was milde r th a n at prese nt. T hey m ay h ave li ved just b efore or jus t after th e l ast g l ac i a l stage of th e I ce Age, for th ese were times of r e l a ti ve w armth. Aside from this infe r e nc e, it is imposs ibl e to g i ve a very clos e a n s w e r to th e question as to h ow old the bones a re. T h e difficult y i s in c r ease d b y th e fact th a t the bones w e r e not o ri g in a ll y burie d where they are n ow found. They may h ave l a in for a l o n g time in t h e ir ori gina l tomb b e for e b eing wash e d into th e cave They a r e pre tt), sure l y m o r e t h a n 20,000 yea r s old, and it i s not lik e l y t h a t they a r e more than 500,00 0 yea r s old-the inte r va l g iv es a good d e al of l ee w ay. In a n y case, t h ey are ve r y a n c i ent in t erms of huma n hi sto r y but a r e quite young as fossils go. Bones Almost Like New H ermetically sea l e d in co n tinuo u s l y d amp clay si n ce s h o rtl y a ft e r th e animals die d the bones h ave b ee n unus u a ll y w e ll prese r ved. T h e m arrow and o th e r so ft anima l matte r h ave decaye d and di sappea r e d but th e hard bone s ub s t a n ce has n o t c h a n ge d at a ll. The bones w e r e r o u g hl y j olte d w h e n they w e r e flu s h e d into th e cave and many of the m w e r e broke n the n but e v e n th e fragm ents a r e stron g and fresh and so m e of th e unbro k e n bones look a lm ost as i f they w e r e the r emains o f l as t ni g h t s pork r oast. T hi s b eautiful preservation made th e bone digger's j o b muc h simpl e r and quic k e r th a n it u s u ally is. It was not n ecessa r y for u s to appl y prese rvatives to th e b ones immedia t e l y o n ex posure or t o e n case the m in r einfo r ce d plast e r before m oving th e m-procedures u s u a ll y n eces sa r y with f oss il bones. A ft e r ca r e full y expos in g t h e m o n o n e s ide, they could immediate l y b e BULLETI N N UM H E R 12, lOVEJ\I B E R 1950 prie d out of th e cla y with out damage. The prob l e m of cleaning the m was a l so unus u a ll y simple No s lo w grinding, sc rapin g and c hiselin g to r emove t h e r oc k in whic h most fossil bones a r e burie d. vVe s impl y soa k e d the m in a wash basin [or a n h our or tw o and th e n scrubbe d off th e cla y with a s tiff brus h Vith the h elp of lVIr. H ess and th e ga n g o f workme n h e provide d, w e d evel o p e d a massproduc ti o n syste m in o u r b o ne-diggin g The bones we r e p il e d up in boxes as we dug th em o u t and th e full boxes w e r e th e n ta ken up to the D e Menil house, w h e r e we h a d what w e ca ll e d our bone l aundry. H e r e in th e o ld kit c h e n they were set to soa k and when t h e clay h a d softe n e d suffic i ently, th ey we r e thoroughly scrubbe d The cl ea n w e t bones were th e n spread out to dry o n tables in the dining room. Like fr es h b o n es, they do tend to c r ac k w h e n dry; th e fact that they h a d not b ee n dry for t housands of yea rs i s a reaso n for th e ir exceptio n a l preserva ti o n. So th e next step in the pruductiull line was to paint the m thoro u g hl y with thin white s h e ll ac and t h e n to dry them aga in. T h e s h e ll ac soa k s in suffic i ently t o sea l a ll the inc i p i ent c r acks and forms a transparent pro t ec tiv e coating that will prese r ve the m prac ti ca ll y fo r eve r. T h e n they w e r e r ea d y for the l ast s t e p and were mov e d o n a l o n g the line into th e parlor, wher e they w e r e ca refully wrapped and p ac ked in boxes and bar r e l s for shipment to New York. B e tw ee n th e cave and t h e mansion, our b o n e mine, l aundry, and p ac k e r y humme d a ll d ay and so m e times f a r i n to the night. In o nl y o n e w ee k w e had ,,,hat would ordina ril y b e a good bag [ o r a whole co ll ec tin g seaso n Not o nl y t h a t but nine-t enths o f the bones w e r e a ll r ea d y for study o r exhibitio n wh e n w e shippe d the m r eljuiring n o n e of t h e u s u a ll y t edious additio n a l pre p a ration in the New York l a b o r a t o ry. So th e myst e r y of the bones in th e brewe r y was so l ve d and a goodl y sample of th e b o nes m oved o n to the lVIuseum b y w ay of th e D e M enil h o use. D e lvI e nils and C h outea us; p ecca r y knuc kles and b ee r ; caves and p a laces-th ese w e r e so m e of th e in g r e di ents in a unique a d venture in bone-digging. It was a curious mixture, so st r a n ge th a t at times w e w e r e h ardly sure whe ther w e w e r e a w a k e o r dreaming. But as I write th ese l ast lines a p ecca r y skull l ooks at m e blankly, r eass u r in g m e that th e fascinating m ed ley o f histo r y and pre hi sto r y w as r eal. 25

PAGE 28

SEX RATIOS IN HIBERNATING BATS By HAROLD B. HITCHCOCK Def)(LTtment of Biology, Middlebury College, Middlebw'y, Vermont An apparent f)j'eponderance of male s in hibernating bat populations of eas t ern Ont(L1c io Quebec, New England, New Y01' h Pennsylvania and New J ersey pos es a problem o f interest to scien tists. This unbalanced sex ratio gives n : se t o the need f01' fwthe1 study. The author g i ves a numb e r of p ossib l e explana tions and w'ge s coo p era tion f rorn speleologists in so l ving the mystery o f th e "missing" females. For the tirn e being, at l e ast the rallying C1y o f the chiropt en:st may well be "ch e 1'ch ez l a femme!" To th e ordina r y spelunker, "a bat's a b a t for a ll of th a t"-just a part of the cave picture The more sci e ntific-mind e d spe l eo logi s t may inte rest himse lf t o th e extent of learning the identity of th e various spec ies of cave b a t s The chiropte rist (not chiropodi s t or chiropractor, if yo u p l ease), and by that I merely mean batman, i s concerne d n o t o nl y with th e identity of the b a t s but also with many other asp ec t s o f th eir liv es. Since caves are the common meeting pl ace of spelun k e rs, spe l eo logist s and batmen, it seems appro priate for m e as a batman to report to thi s ann ual meeting of the National Speleological So c iety certai n findings regarding th e ways of bats and to point out h ow cave m e n may h elp the b a tm e n in their in ves ti ga ti o n s in t o the ways of th e o ri g in a l trog l o dytes-the b a ts. but once a winter. Obviously muc h more could be l earned by a more continuous observation. I hav e banded most of the b a t s found in order t o ge t d a t a regarding their movements and l o n gev ity. In banding b ats it is n ecessa ry t o r ecord th e sex as we ll as the s pe c ies o f eac h indiv iclual. The n ecess ity of ke eping banding r eco rds firs t m a d e m e awa re of the fact th a t during hibernatio n th e m ales greatly outnumber the f e males, as shown in Table 1 b e low. A I though th ese figures represent totals of many populatio ns a t s e vera l diff e r ent lo ca tions, the ratios for individual populations show in general but little deviation from thos e of the e n tire group. P e rc e n t ages for four species studied in P ennsylvani a b y Charles E. Mohr, Table 1 Population of H ibernating Bats b y Sex Spe c ies E /Jte sicu.s f. fuscu.s Myot is h eenii septent1'iona lis M. I. lucifugus M subul atus lei bi i Pipistre llus subflavus obscu.nts Since ]93 9 I h ave been study in g hibernatin g bats in cav e s and abandone d mines in Onta ri o and Que b ec Living some 400 mil e s from these ca v es, I h av e v i site d the m infrequentl y-us u ally A t a lk b y Haro ld B. Hitc h coc k. Assoc iate Professor of Bi o l ogy a t i\fiddlebury M id d l ebury . Verm ont, at t h e seve n t h annllal co n ven ti o n of th e Natio n a l S p e l eo l og i c a l Soc i e ty, Washington, D. C. i\f a r c h 3 1-April 2, 1 950 26 Ontario and Quebec Penna. Total Males Female s % Males % Males 104 8 805 243 76.8 64.9 279 214 65 76. 7 1814 ] 389 425 76.6 62.3 528 291 237 55.1 57.1 ] 52 138 1 4 90.8 7 4.7 Vice-president of th i s soc i ety, hav e been include d f o r compa rison. I s h a ll trea t in d e t a il only one of th e species, th e common little brown bat, Myotis l. lucifugus, but b efo r e doing so let u s g l a nce at the others. In Table 1 you have alrea dy note d that in all NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 29

five s p ec ies m a les outnumbe r f e m a l es. Altho u g h the highest p e r centa g e i s s h ow n b y the pipis trelle, th e fig u re m ay n o t b e to o s i g nifi ca nt, s in ce tn e r a ti o i s f o r a tota l o f o nl y 1 5 2 bats. The case for M heenii s eplent T i ol1a li s i s simila r in tha t the r a ti o i s b ase d o n a t o t a l p opula ti o n of only 2 79. In eac h of the othe r s p ec ies a t l eas t 5 00 b a t s w e r e co ncerne d m aking the r a ti os m o r e s i g nifica nt. MyO l is subul a tus leib i i sho w s the l eas t pred omina nce o f m a les55. % The l a r ges t p opu l a ti o n I e n counte r e d o f thi s s p ec i es, a t Fourth Chute Ontar i o, F ebruary 26, 1944 was equa ll y clivid ed-71 m a les and 7 1 fem a l es. It i s inte rest in g t o n o t e th a t Mr. Mohr, who w r o t e a p a p e r o n sex r a ti os o f hiberna tin g b a t s in 1945, f ound in a 1 4 yea r study o f thi s s p ec ies in P ennsyl va ni a that 5 7 1 % we r e \n a les-a diff e r e n ce o f 2 % fr o m m y figures in C a n a d a. Eplesicus f. fuscus the bi g brown bat, s h ows a clear pre d omina n ce o f m a l es, but in D ecembe r 1 949, I e n counte r e d in a n On t a ri o mine a p opulati o n of 1 5 co n s i s tin g of o n e m a l e and 14 fem a l es. Inte resting l y e n o u g h Mohr a l so f ound o n e in s t a n ce w h e r e f e m a les outnumbe r e d males in the big brow n b a t th o u g h his ove r a ll p e rcentage o f males was 64.9. Mohr, as I h ave a lread y indicate d, f ound a sca r c it y of hibernating f e m a les in P ennsyl va ni a Othe r s h ave found the sa m e situa ti o n in N e w Eng l and and eas t ern New Y ork, n o t a bl y D onald G riffin In Euro p e the sa m e situation has b ee n r e p orte d f o r MyOlis 111.yoli s b y E i sentraut, w h o f ound th a t in a t o t a l o f 4,89 0 hiberna tin g b a t s 58 % w e r e m a les. T wo r ecent co nverts t o b a t b anding in E n g l and, J\iIr. and J\iIrs. .T ohn H oo p e r have wri tte n m e that they, t oo, a r e findin g a pre p onde r a nce of m a les. T h e phen o m e n o n, the r e f o re, see m s n o t t o b e restri c t e d to the eas t ern Unite d Sta tes and C a n a d a In comparing m y r a tios f o r the little brow n b a t with those o f Mohr and othe r s I H a t e d tha t the pre p onde r a nce o f m a les was g r ea t e r in C an ada tha n t o the south. T h e idea ca m e t o m e tha t th e diff e r e n ce might b e a clu e t o th e solutio n o f this pro bl e m Mi ght i t n o t b e th a t the f e m a les a r e m o r e incline d t o mi g rate t o a warme r reg i o n l eav in g the m a les b ehind? The r e the sh orte r winter w ould g i ve the m m o r e time in w hich t o r aise th eir young Mi g rati o n b y o n e sex o nl y mig h t see m to b e unlikely b eca u se, yo u say, th e m a les s h ould b e with th e f e m a les t o in sure a n e w B U LLETIN NUMB E R 12, N O VEMB E R 1950 ge n e r a ti o n. T h a t 's r i ght. But these b a t s are know n t o m a t e in the fall, the fem a les ret aining th e m a l e sex cells until the eggs are libe r a t e d f r o m the ova r y a t the end of hibernatio n (W imsatt '44 and '45) T h a t b e in g the case the r e would seem to b e n o bi o logi ca l n ecessity fo r the m a les t o trave l with the fem a les. W h a t' s m ore, in this s p ec i es, tb e m a les d o n t seem t o like the f e m a les, o r vice veTsa, fo r during the summer the f e m a les r etire t o l a r ge m a t ernity roos t s whic h m a les f o r the m os t p art avo id. To c h ec k o n thi s idea I v i site d b a t caves a n d mines during the winte r o f 1 947-48 as f a r south as Mammoth Cave, K entuc ky, l oo kin g fo r the "missin g" f e m a l es. I a m indebte d t o M r. Moh r for h elping m e se l ec t the best o nes and t o the A m e ri ca n Aca d e m y o f Arts and Sci e n ces for fina n c i a l ass i s t a n ce. My fir s t s t o p was in the H e lderbe rgs with T e d Judd of the Sch e n ec t a d y Grotto as guide A t Kno x Cave 76. 0 % were m a les-the sa m e percentage I h a d found in C an a d a A t Durha m P ennsyl vania, w here I was as s i s t e d b y a l a r ge group f r o m the Phila d elphia G r otto, the old iro n mine y i elde d 1 ,28 0 little brow n s 6 3.4 % o f whic h 'wer e m a l es. The n ex t l oca ti o n in a so m ew h a t wanne r area, tho u g h not so f a r south as Durham, w as a t Hibernia, New J e r sey. Here D r. Willia m Stull o f Ohio Wesl eya n and I worke d a full d ay, scarce l y m aking a d ent on the tre m endo u s p opula ti o n of little brow n b a t s th e r e O f th e 94 7 little brown b a t s h andle d the p e r centage o f m a les was 56 3 Perh a p s the theory was ri ght-a t any rat e the p e r centage of m a les was dropping. Dixo n Cave, K entuc ky, part of the Mammoth Cave syst e m was as fa r south as I we nt. Altho u g h the r e we r e plenty of b a t s the re, m os t of the m we r e of a close l y r e l a ted s p ec ies, j\lI. sodalis. I did find 110 li t tl e brow ns, h oweve r and o f these, 65.5 % we r e m a l es. My t h eo r y n o l o n ge r see m e d so goo d H ere, w h e r e winte r i s s hort e r tha n in New J e r sey, the r e we r e more, in s t ea d of f ewe r males. lVl o r eover, b oth : Mohr and ''''im satt h a d r e p orte d m a les compris in g 54-56 % o f t h e p opula ti o n a t Aitkin Cave, in the m ounta in s of centra l P ennsyl va ni a. T hi s l oca ti o n I h a d h a d t o omit for l ac k of time, and a t seve r a l o th e r pl aces, s u c h a s R o x bury, Con n ec ti cut, w h e r e L e R oy Foot e and ass i s t ants fr o m the New E n g l and G r o tt o h a d h elpe d m e, the r e 27

PAGE 30

were too few little brown bats to be significant. Perhaps the phenomenon of sexual unbal ance can best be explained by assuming that the f e males have a higher mortality rate than the males This explanation has been advanced by both Griffin and Eisentraut. Do shorter summers and the longer, colder winters of Ontario and Quebec account for a greater mortality there than in New .Jersey? One might well conclude that such would be the case. But there may be another explanation, as the following will suggest. During the summer of 1939 I banded 154 adult females at a summer roost near London, Ontario. In 1940 and 1941 the roost was visited many times and 75 of these bats, or 48.7 % were recaptured. The average percentage of recaptured females at the Canadian caves studied most intensively is 10.1. At Durham, Pennsyl vania, Mohr recaptured 39.1 % of the females banded there. Thus, it would appear that the London bats survive even better than those hibernating in Pennsylvania, if one assumes that bats regularly return to the same place for hibernation, and that collections for each location were reasonably complete. ''''here do the females go? That is the question you can help answer as you poke your way into the caverns all over the land. Some migration seems inevitable, for the caves in eastern Canada, New England and New York do not begin to hold the number of these bats that are resident locally in the slimmer months. Look for banded bats, and if you find one, record its num ber carefully and report it to the Fish and ''''ild28 life Service, Washington, D. C. This government office will not only tell YOll who banded the bat, and when and where, but will also notify the bander so that he will know where the bat was picked up. Do not remove bands unless you find the bat already dead. Release the bat unharmed; maybe you'll find the same one there again another year. If YOll can identify bat species, and find a large population of little browns (M. l. lucifugus) determine the sex of a hundred or so to see how the ratio stands. Perhaps you can discover the winter home of what at present must be called the missing females. BIBLIOGRAPHY EISENTRAU T M., 1947. Die mit Hilfe der Berin gungsmethode erzielten Ergebnisse uber Lebens daner und jahrliche VerlustzifIern bei M yotis my otis Borkh. Experimentia, vol. 3, pp. 157 GRIFFIN, D R., 1940. Notes on the life of New England cave bats. J Mamm., vol. 21, pp. 181-187. HITCHCOCK, H. B., 1949. HibernaLion of bats in southeastern Ontario and adjacent Quebec. Can. Field Nat., vol. 63, pp. 47-59. :MOHR, C. E., 1945 Sex ratios of bats in Pennsy l vania. Proc. Penna. Acad. Sci., vol. 19, pp. 65. WIMSATT, W. A. 1944. Further sLUdies on the survival of spermatozoa in the female reproductive tract of the bat. Anat. Rec. vol. 88 pp. 193204 '''' I MSATT, W. A 1945. Notes on breeding behavior, pregnancy, and parturition in some vespertilionid bats of the eas t ern United States. J. Mamm., vol. 26, pp. 23-33. NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 31

SPELUNKING IN A PYRAMID By ALEXANDER D. THERRIEN p GREAT OF GIZA C Iosssection L oolling West AC Al\fFP AP CC DP FP G Ante Chambel' A I Mahnoun FOI'ced Passage Ascending Pass age Chambel's of Co nstl"llCtion Descending Passage E ntJ-ance FOJ'('ed Passage GJ'otto Gr' 'J GP HI' IW P Q C SC W GnuJ(l Gallety G J'anite Plug Hodzontal Passage liing s Chambe r Pit Queen's Cham b et Subternmean ChambeJ' W e ll Scal e : 1 in c h equa!s 100 feet Any spelunker who h appe n s to visit Egyp t should plan hi s trip so as t o h ave a d ay or t wo to do a little cave c r aw lin g in the manm a d e pas sages in the Grea t P y r amid o f Giza, n ea r Cairo. There a r e m a n y p assages to explore and mo s t of th e m are so sma ll that it is n ecessa r y t o stoop or c r awl. Two of the p assages s lope at an a n g l e of 26 deg r ees which d oes n o t add t o the ease of progressing along th e m. One a lm ost vertica l pass age requires so m e expert rope work. The p assages h e r ei n d escribe d a r e in th e larges t of a ll th e p y r amids in Egypt, of which th e r e are more than seventy. This pyramid was built about 2700 BC perhaps, as so m e think, as a tomb for Pha ra o h Khufu or Cheops Due BULLETIN NUMBER 12, NOVEMBER 1950 t o th e religious b e li efs of those times rich treas ures were buried with th e Pha r ao h s This of course, resulted in m a n y of t h e tombs being plundered. In a n attempt t o circumvent thi s plundering e laborat e systems of secret passages and hidde n r ooms were built. The Great P yram id o ri gi n a ll y had smooth sides which were cove red with hi g h quality cas in g s tones. These h ave almos t all b ee n r emove d and used in the construct i o n of buildings in and around Cairo. H o w eve r a f ew of the original cas in g sto nes of th e 1 0'west l ayer are s till in place a lon g the north side of the pyramid. Around the year 900 A D Caliph Al Mal moun attempted t o plunder this pyramid and forced a pas age into its n orth s id e. This would 29

PAGE 32

indicate tha t th e r eg ular entrance was not known a t tha t time. However, A l Malmoun afte r forcin g a p assage into the p y r amid for a distance of about 100 feet, did di scover the pass ages that are known today. This di scove r y was quite ac ci d enta l as his p assage in the center of the north face of th e pyramid, whereas the original passages are so m ew h a t eas t of center. The acci d ent which ca used him to discov e r the original passages was th e falling of the ceiling stone at the intersect ion of the d escending and ascend ing passages. His workmen heard this stone fall and th ey forced their way to the east into the ori g in a l pas sage syst e m The fallin g of this stone also l e d t o the di scovery of the Granite Plug and uppe r p assages The entra nce to th e syst e m of passages is on th e n orth face of th e p yramid about 70 feet above th e base and a little south of center. Upon en t ering th e pyramid one finds himself in a l ow pa ssage w hi c h d esce nd s at a n a ngl e of 26 d egrees ( o r a di s t ance of about 335 feet. It descends into h e d rock below the pyramid where it joins a s h ort h orizonta l pa ssage l eading to the Subter ranean Chamber which h as a very unfinis h e d appea rance due to its irregular floor, in which th e re i s a small pit or well. Back up about 80 feet from the entrance, b y u sing a part of Al Malmoun's forced p assage one ca n climb around th e Granite Plug and into th e Ascending P assage The Granite Plug and ce il ing s ton e which fell in A l Malmoun's d ay were probably originally installed in an attempt to k eep plunderers out of the uppe r passages and chambe rs. After crawling abou t 128 feet up th e Ascend ing P assage one reaches what i s p erhaps the most breath taking sce n e in the pyramid. At this point o ne ent e r s th e Grand Gallery with its high cei ling, p ec uliar side ramps and overlapping wa ll sect ions. From thi s point one h as the choice of going in a nyone of three direc tions ; up the s lopin g floor of the Grand Gallery to the King's Chamber, along the Horizontal P assage t o th e Queen's Chamber, or d ow n the Well. Getting started up the Grand Galle ry i s quite a little problem. The end of the sloping portion of th e Grand G a ll ery floor i s about three feet above o n e's h ead. This i s due to th e entrance of the Horizontal P assage being a t this location After n e gotia tin g th e s lopin g floor of the Grand G a ll ery for about 1 50 fee t one arri ves at upper 30 end where there is another step. This step although only 36 inches high is not easy to climb as one is standing on a floor sloping at 26 d eg rees. Having reached the top of this step one is on a horizontal floor. From this point to the King's Chambe r is through a low passage where one has to stoop, through a small ante-chamber and fin a ll y through another low passage This whole dist a nc e is about 27 feet. The King's Chamber i s a l arge rectangular room with granite wa ll s and ceiling. It is about 17 feet by 34 feet by 19 fee t high. The ceiling i s horizontal. The King's Chamber h a s two ventilating ducts, the entrances being on the north and south walls The only original object within the King's Chamber is a stone Coffer about 38 by 90 inches b y 4 1 inches high. One interesting feature of the King's Chamber is the l a r ge granite beams which form the ceiling. Because th ey wondered how stone beams could pos s ibl y support the tons of rock above the chamber, egyptologists forced a pas sage from the Grand Gallery to a point above these b eams. This lead to the discov e r y of the five Chambers of Construction a bove the King's Chamber. A climb into these chambers would be a delight to a spelunker who likes to crawl into places where he shouldn't! If one returns to the lower end of the Grand Gallery it i s comparatively easy to proceed along the Horizonta l P assage to th e Queen's Chamber. However, the ceiling is only about four fee t above th e ffoor as far as the step, which adds about 21 inches to the height o f the south por tion of th e passage. The Quee n's Chamber is an empty room about 17 by 19 feet and has a gable like c eiling the peak being about 20 feet a bo ve the floor A p eculiar niche in one wall of the chamber i s of interest. Originally the Quee n's Chamber was without ve ntil a tion. However, in 1872 it was dis covered that ventilating duc t s had bee n built in, but purposely had not b ee n connec t e d to the Queen's Chamber. By breaking away a few inches of s ton e th ese ducts were opened which greatl y improved the air in this chamber. R eturning to the north end of the Horizon tal Passage one may descend into the well. This IS the most difficult passage to n egotiate and re-NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 33

quires the use of ropes. It I S a very irregular passage with some vertical and some nearly ver tical portions. About half way down this Well there is a sma ll room ca lled the Grotto. Its chief interes t to spelunkers might be its use as a p l ace to rest. that the sides of the pyramid s lope at the exact angl e necessary to m a ke the ratio of th e original height to the d i stance around the base t h e same as the rati o of the radius of a circle to its cir cu mference. There are many interesting features about this pyramid which are quite removed from spe l eo l ogy and will therefore be men tioned briefly. There are many interesting mathematical features. For exampl e, many investig a tors claim The D escending Passage should be of inter est to persons interested in Astronomy. Due to the s lope of this passage and the l atitude of the p yramid, this passage is a lm ost parallel to th e axis of t h e earth. Some calcu l ations indicate that this p assage may h ave pointed to what was th e North Star at th e tim e the pyramid was built, at th e a u tumnal equinox. Cavern Hymn of the Earth Planet 1. Mine eyes have seen the glory of wild caverns none displ ay; They have witnesse d matchless beauty ne'er within the light of day; They have viewed Creation's splendor by a feeble manmade ray; Our caves form, fill, allure. Cho.: Gleaming, serried, lactites pendent; Sparkling, crusted, 'mites resplendent; Twisted, Hut e d, shapes transcendent; Earth's caves form, fill allure. 2. In the darkness everlasting, life, tho blindly, still h olds sway; Greater fauna rounds its cycle, animalcul ae its prey; Crysta l growth profusely rampant, flora merely held at bay ; Where caves form, fill, allure. 3. Toward man's effort to recapture, iridescent charm portray, Light intense he's learned to master as he photographs his way Thus to myriads in absentia, caverns' secrets s h are their say; As caves form, fill, allure. 4 With the dawning age atomic: W hat transpireth ? 'Who wi ll pay? March I 1950 Will our caves aid our sa l vation? Will a neutral p art they play? Let us humbly, sane l y ponder! May we ever watch and pray; Whil e caves form, fill allure JAY ESSPEE. BULLETIN NUMBER ]2, NOVEMBER 1950 3]

PAGE 34

ICE C A V E S By PATRICIA .MERRIAM Gmd ua t e s tudent Geo l ogy D e paTtment Un ivenit y o f Sou thenl Calif ornia I ce caves are I Jel'manent caves in w h ic h ice fm'ms and remains f ar int o th e summer o r tlnollgh oll t th e ye a L Severa l sugges ti ons a s t o th e ir or i g i n m'e p re sented. T h e fac ton necessary for th eil' formation m'e jno b ably a mck f o rmation with many c l 'evices, col d win ten, a goo d c i rcu l a loTY sys t e m and a d equate shading in th e summe'J'. A l is t o f ice caves i n th e U n i ted S t a tes i s p lesen t ed. Introduction I ce caves m ay b e prese n t w h ereve r fr eez in g wea ther prevail s seve r a l m onths eac h yea r and th e conditio n o f th e roc k s i s s u c h as t o p ermit ve r y l ow t e mper a tu res in th e cav ities and c r ev i ces. A n a d equa t e s h ading b y f o rest cover or a n orthern ex posure a l so favo r s i ce cave d eve l op m e nt. T h e term ice cave d oes n o t include caves act u a ll y in ice s u c h a s occur in m a n y g l ac i e rs. T h e term i s used in s t ea d t o desi g n a t e p erma n ent caves in r oc k for matio ns, in w hi c h ice form s and re m a i n s far into th e s u mmer o r th ro u g h o u t th e year. Ice found in mines and t alus piles s h ould a lso b e co n side red in connectio n w i t h ice caves T h e earliest r ecorde d n otice of a n ice cave occurs in a l ette r d a t e d 1 584 co ncerning th e G l ac i e r e d e C h a mp-les-Passa n a n t (Ba l c h 1 900). S in ce th a t t ime, the r e h ave b ee n innumerable r e port s o f ice cave occurre n ces in var i o u s p arts o [ th e wo rld. T h e most co m p l e t e work o n th e s u b j ect i s by Ba lch ( 1 9 00) w h o lis t s a b out 300 i ce caves th r o u g h o u t th e wo rld, H ende r so n ( 1 932) presents a n exte n s ive bibli og r aphy o n th e s ubj ec t a nd provides muc h ge n e r a l informa ti o n. Arti cles o n ice caves of th e Unite d S t a tes a r e nume r o u s a n d o nl y th ose co n s id e r e d b y th e a u t hor as outs t anding are include d Formation of Ice Caves It has of t e n b ee n s u gges t e d th a t cave i ce i s a r em n ant o f g l ac i a l ice l e f t fro m th e G l ac i a l Epoch T h o u g h some cave ice a t hi g h a l titudes or hi g h l a ti tudes may dat e bac k t o th e Pl e i s to.. Addilions l O the a U l h or's li s t of i cc caves a n d t o th e bibliography h ave b ee n made by th e Nali o n a l S p e l eo logi c a l Soc i ely 32 cene, in most caves all the i ce m elts b efore the end of t h e summe r o r i s g T ea tl y r educed during thi s p e ri o d. A p opula r f allacy co ncerning cave i ce i s tha t th e i ce m elts in winte r and freezes i n summer. This i s pro b a bl y b ase d o n o bser va ti o n s b y t O llr i s ts, in certain w e ll known caves, o f w a t e r on the cave floor in th e ea rl y spring and solid i ce in th e sa m e area in l a t e summe r. A n othe r f a ll ac iou s co ncept s u gges t s th e freez in g actio n b e in g due t o a m mo ni a in so m e f orm, a n idea d e ri ve d fr o m th e preva l e nce of ammo ni a gas in i ce pl ants and n o t fr o m ac tu a l p r ese n ce o f it in a ny cave th a t has bee n studie d, S t earns ( 1 928), w h o e x amine d occurre n ces o f i ce in the C r a t e r s o f th e Moon di s tri c t in Ida ho, di s mi sses the questi o n with the s t a t e m ent th a t w a ter i s fr oze n b y cold c ircul a ting' a ir This s t a t e m ent, th o u g h undoubtedly true d oes n o t explain w h y the r e s h ould n o t b e a n equa l c ir c ul a ti o n o f w arm a ir in the summer whi c h would m elt th e i ce. A l so, seve r a l othe r caves e xi s t in th e sa m e r eg i o n but no ice r e m ains thro u g h the summe r in a n y o f them ( H arring t o n 1934). Andre w s ( 1 9 13) in his v i sit t o the S we d e n Va ll ey I ce Mine in P ennsylv ania, a tt empte d t o a ccount for th e p ec uli a r conditio n s T h e mine is l ocate d in a s h a ft in limest o ne, 1 2 f ee t d ee p, a t the b ase o f a s t ee p hill, In winte r it i s dry and f r ee fro m i ce, th e t empe r ature outs id e b e in g the sa m e as tha t inside, In spring, the snow o n th e hill m elts a n d wa t e r tri c kles d ow n the s ides o f th e s h a ft whe r e it i s froze n as sm a ll i c icles. Freez in g co n tinues until b y July, the s ides of th e pit a r e comple t e l y cove r e d with a coa tin g of i ce a f oo t or m o r e in thi ckness. In ea rl y fall the p rocess s t ops and the i ce g r adually m elts. NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCI E T Y

PAGE 35

According to Andre w s the expla n ation for this lies in t h e prese n ce o f cold currents of air i ssuing fr o m the c r ev i ces in the r oc k s along th e sides o f th e s h a ft (see Fi gure 1 ) The air mus t gain access t o these fissures a t so m e othe r point, whic h must b e a t a highe r altitude tha n tha t of the pit. This b e in g true, in t h e winte r time, the column of air direc tl y o ve r the pit i s co ol e r and c ons equently heav i e r th a n tha t in the roc k W INTE R CIRCULATION SUMME R C IRCULATION Fig. 1 CiI'culatioll ill S w e d e n Ice Mine (al"t e r Antlre w s). p assages The r efo re, it f o r ces its way d ow n into the pit and up thro u g h the Ii mest o ne, chilling the r oc k s t o a g reat d epth and s t oring up a vas t quantity o f "cold", As the warm wea th e r co mes o n the column o f a ir o v e r th e pi t b eco mes h ea t e d and i s di s pl ace d b y th e cold, h eavy a ir flow in g dow n out o f th e p assages. This cold current o f a ir fr eezes a n y s u r f ace wa t e r w hi c h flows ove r the edges o f the pit and m ainta in s a fr eez in g t empe r ature as lon g as the supply o f "co ld in the hill las ts, a ft e r whic h the c ir cula ti o n of a ir ceas e s and the i ce form ation melts ]'vIille r (1913) s u gges t s that Andre ws' diag r a m should b e inverte d : Ev e r y fr ee zin g cav e' th a t has b ee n r epres ente d in v ertica l section sh ow s th e m o r e r emote r ecesses of the cave low e r th a n the m outh, and th e more n early vertica l the c ir culatio n o f the air i s in co nseque n ce of this, th e b ette r th e co n ditions fo r i ce accumula tion. Into these p assages, the cold air t ends to d escend in winte r and fr o m the m to r ise in summe r, due t o c h a n ges in r e la ti ve d e n sity conditions o f th e interna l and externa l atmosphe r e BULL ETIN NUMB E R 12, NOVE l\ 'IBE R 1 9 50 M a ny ic e caves occur in the numero u s b asalt flows of the 'west ern Unite d S t a tes. H arring t o n (19 34 ) offere d a n explana ti o n f o r conditio n s a t one of the Sh os h o n e Ice C aves a fter a numbe r o f test s we r e m a d e with s m o k e t o d e t ermine th e air circulation a t differ ent times o f the yea r (see Figure 2 ) The theory i s as follows: "The l ette r A indicates a s m all air passage. .. L ette r B r epresents the basin, a b out 50 fee t d ee p through whic h entra n ce i s m a d e t o the ca ve This b asin f aces south, and the winter sun strikes a l a r ge p art of it. Its s h elte r e d positi o n g i ves it a t emperature in winte r a number o f d egrees w arme r tha n exp ose d p oints like A .. In s u c h a case, a n air c i rc ul a ti o n would b e set up fro m A, throug h the cave, and out a t B. . If wat e r fr oze in the cave, the h ea t liber a t e d would h elp warm the air passing out thro u g h th e entran ce D Su c h a c i rcula ti o n would f r eeze ice in winte r and would ac tu a ll y draw the cave full o f ve r y cold a i r. Tha t this circula ti o n ac tu all y does ex i s t during the winte r wa s d etermine d b y the write r w h o m a d e a numbe r of test s with smoke ... The s u m m e r sun i s m o r e n e arl y ve rti ca l and part o f the basin B i s s h elte r e d fr o m the direc t r ays b y the o verha n ging cliff. On the othe r h and, vent A i s expose d to the direc t r ays o f the sun for a l o nger p art of the d ay On s u c h a day, the tempe r atures a t B and A would probably b e n early the sarne, with A possibl y the w arme r resulting in no or a r eve rsed c ir c ul a tion .... Som e of th e ice near the entra n ce melts in summer, but thi s m elting s t o p s near the m iddle of the ca ve and the i ce w all i s a lw ays in t ac t in summer or winte r. S w artzlow (193 5 ) has described the ice ca ves in and near L ava B e ds Nationa l Monument 111 BASALT Fig 2 Circulation in Shoshone Ice Cav e ( after Hlll"l"in gton). 33

PAGE 36

northern California. 'Water h as co llected in abou t one-third of the 300 caves in the r egion by percolating d ownward through the pervious basa lt Swartzlow agrees with Harrington (19 34) th a t the water i s co n verte d in to i ce by an ac ti ve circulation in winter and little in summer: "During the cold m onths the surface air in c r eases in d e n sity and n atura ll y migrates t o lower l eve l s In doing so, it displ aces warmer a ir that ma y be presen t. This process repeats its e lf until the t emperature at the bottom of the cav e rea c hes or passes th e freezing point of wateL During the summer months the warm surface a ir expands and rises but the cold air adjacent t o th e ice i s not displaced; thus the summer is a season of minor circulation. The d ea d air spaces in the vesicular b asalt ac t as a n efficient insul atoL" A more spectacular ins t a n ce of i ce b eing pre served due to the poor h eat-conducting qualities of an ove rl y in g ro c k was found a t Mt. Etna_ A g l ac ier was covered by volcanic sand, the n by a st ream of hot l ava witho u t b eing destroy e d. The i ce was p rese rv e d for many centuries and in 1 828 was quarrie d out for use during the summer in the n earby towns Instances of alter n ati n g l ayers of ice and lava h ave also been reported ( Lyell 1 850) Adiabatic cooling has been s u gges t e d as an o ther possible ca use of ice formation (Macdonald, 1948). The air upon entering the cave through a sma ll orifice would be compressed. T h e sudde n expan s i o n when r eaching the wider cave beyond would ca use it to b eco m e coo l e r than it was b efore entering the opening. While this may well be a subsidiary cause it i s doubt f ul that e n o u g h pressure could b e d evelope d t o r educe the temperature more than a very few d eg r ees. Ice Caves of the United States Arizona. In 1901 ice was being h a ul e d to F l ags t aff from th e Winona ice caves in lava 9 miles to the southeast ( 19) 41< ( Knox, 1 935). A n -other in th e "Vhite Mount ains (20) was said to be h eld sac red b y th e Zuni Indians (Hende rson, 1 932). T h e i ce caves at Sunset Crater ati o n a l ?vI onume n t ( 1 8), 17 miles northeast of F l agstaff a r c we ll known ( Park 1 929). :"\lIllliJ c r s r e f e r [(1) fig-lire 3. 34-California. The ic e caves in and n ea r L av a Beds National Monument (7) in northern Cali fornia h avc b ee n d escribed on a preceding page. Colorado. There is a r eport of an ice cave on Cow Mountain, Pikc's P ea k Distri c t (17) ( H e nd e r so n 1932) Berthoud ( 1 876) [ ound welI d efine d vein s of solid ice parallel with the bedding of th e rock and fillin g all it s c r ac k s in severa l mines o n l\It. McClellan at George town ( 1 6). The ice b ega n a f e w fee t below the surface and ext ende d th e full l e ngth of the excavatio n s Connecti c utAt tw o l ocations betw ee n Hartford and ew Haven (32), ice was found as l a t e as July in talus, protected from the sun b y a h eavy forest (Sillim a n 1 822). Chasms of co n s iderabl e ex t cnt occur n ea r Salisbury (31 ) form ing n atural ice-h o u ses w h ere th e ice and s n ow remain m os t of th e yea r ". ( L ee, 1 824). Idaho. There a r e 1 5 r eported ice caves and i ce-water pools in th e l ava of Crat e r s of the Moon National Mon um e n t (9) (St earns, 1 928) The Shoshone Ice Cave and a sma ll e r nearby cave a r e loca ted 30 miles north of S hoshone (8) (Harring ton, 1934). I owa. In the Decorah ice cave (24) ice begins to appear in mid-winter and l asts until earl y autumn. (Henderson, 1932) An i ce cave is reported at Bixby (25). Kentuchy. M ill e r ( 1 9 13) mentioned a freez in g cave" near Gap Cree k 'Wayne County (26). Massachus e tts. Kimball ( 1 90 1 ) d escr ib e d a cave in the Northfield Mounta in s (33) conta in in g i ce in A u g u st. M onlanrz. Free m a n (1919) describes three ice caves l oca t e d nc a r L ew i stow n in the Bitle r R oo t R a n ge and other m ounta in s (I 0) ( II ) ( 12). Nevada: S M. ''' h ee ler reports a n ice cave in the Bakcr Creek r eg i o n (NSS files). New I-lompslll r e: I ce was n o ted b y H enry H e rpers, Geologist N .J. Geological Survey, in a t a lu s pile cau sed b y a l a nd s lid e at Carter Notch in th e Vhite Mounta ins, in S eptembe r 1 940. New Nlexico. 50 miles southeas t of Gallup (21) th e re i s a cave in l ava where a perpcndicular wall of ice ex t e nd s across the cave a di sta n ce of 50 feet and rises 1 4 feet above the Aoor ( L ee, 1 926). Harrington ( 1 934) visite d an ice cave in l ava at Grants (22) and r ound co ndi tio n s prevailin g s imil a r t o those at S hosh o n e T ee Cave. Othe r ice caves are known at J ohnson l\I I esa and S ierra egras (23). SPELEOLOGICAL SOCI E T Y

PAGE 37

l \ 'e w YOlk Ice was found as late as A u g u s t III :t cave n ear Caldwell, \ Narre n County (36) (Kimball, 1901 ) Orego n. Arnold Ice Cav e southeas t o f B end (5), Edi so n Ice Cave, southeas t of Bend (4-) are severa l in lav a ( H ende rson, 1 932) Stalag o f ice in Malheur Cav e ( 6 ) h ave b ee n r epone d ( D a ke, 1936). P e nnsyl v ania. There are two n atura l icem anufacturing plants in roc k c r ev i ces near Coude r sport, Potte r County (30). One of these, Snow Hole", in a rock c r ev ice n ea r Pownal (34) where snow r e m a in e d throughout the year pro t ec t e d by a forest co v e r On a later v i sit h e found th a t destruction of the forest ca used th e s no w to b e m elte d b y th e fir s t of Augu st. A n earby c hasm more fully protected, had a n abundance of ic e and s no w throughou t the year. Washingto n. I ce fou nd in l ava, 35 miles fr o m th e m o uth of 'Whit e Ri\'er (3) w as used b y Portland during th e ea rl y sixties (Condo n 1896). The M t. Adam s Ice Caves ( 2 ) a l so have Fig. 3. Ice Caves of the United St,ttes th e Sweden Va ll ey I ce Mine has b ee n d escribe d o n a preceding p age SOlllh Dako ta. A n ice cave i s r e p orte d a t Gale n a (14) ( H e nd e r so n 1 9 32), and anothe r n ea r Sp earfis h ( 13) ( P ahasap a Quarterly, April, 1915 ) Utal!. An ice ca v e southwest of Panquic k i s s aid to be "well known". Ver m ont. I ce occurs or did occur in a r av in e fille d wilh talus at "Wallingford, Rutland County (35). It was prescnt in sufficient quantity a t one tim e to suppl y inhabitants of adjacent town (Lathrop, 1844) D ewey ( 1 818) d escribed a B ULLETIN NUMB E R 12, NOVEMBE R 1950 b ee n reported b y Condon ( 1 896) and i ce caves on Mt. St. H e l e ns (1) are mentione d (Anon., 190 3). The NSS file s contain note s on ice cayes n ea r Chelan and at th e northeast corne r of Fi\"c mil e Pra irie, n ea r Spokane. W es t Vi1"ginia. Ice w as found in th e talu s o n th e northwest s lop e of I ce Mountain in Hampshire County (29) (Hayden, 1843) Ice h as b ee R found in talus and s h elte r cave a t Ice Cav e, Droop Mountain, Pocahontas County (28); a nd at Crowder Cave, Monroe County (27) JtVy0111i"llg A horizontal s h ee t of i ce, as muc h as a foot thi c k and about 18 in c hes b e n eath th e 35

PAGE 38

turf, was r eporte d in the Rocky Mountains, 40 miles from South Pass (15) (Gibbs 1853). Due to the high altitude, the phenomenon is prob ably s imilar to the "permafrost" of the Arctic region. Conclusion Rocks containing numerous creVIces or honeycombe d b y small connected passages, which p ermit free circulation of air during the ea rl y part of the winter, and presenting a l arge amount of surface to the cooling effects of the atmosphe re, a r e favorab l e to the production of i ce caves. Thus, they are usua ll y found in lime stone formations or in lava In general the cold air in winter, s l ow l y circulating through the va riou s openings, thoroug hl y c hill s the rocks to co n siderable d epths and freezes any water con tained in the cavities. As snow m e lts in l a te win t el' and spring, the water runs down the crevices and freezes in the chille d caves The freezing process in the cave may continue long after warm t emperatures preva il above ground. It is interesting to note that the re i s a l ways a lag at both e nds of the season, fr ee zing not b eginning in th e cave until some time a ft e r it b eg ins at the surface, and m elting not b eginning below ground until so me tim e after it b egins above The l e n gth of time the ice r e m ains in the cave and a lso its thickness d e p end, of course on the prevailing temperature and amount of precipita tion during t h e winter. 36 BIBLIOGRAPHY ANDREWS, M. O. The Sweden Vall ey I ce Mine. P ot). Sci. Monthly 82: 280, 1913 ANO:-lYJ\lOus. L arges t I ce Cave in the World. Scientific A merican 109 : 267 Oct. 4, 1 913. ANONYMOUS. Lava Caves of St. H e l e ns. Mazama 2 (3): 2, July, 1903. BALCH, E S Ice Caves and the Ca u ses of Subter ranean I ce. l o 1/1'11 al of the Franklin Institute. Vo !. 1 43, No.3, March 1897, pp. 16178 BALCII, E. S. Subterranean Ice in Amer i ca. j ou1'l1al of the Franklin Institute, Vol. 147, No.4, April 1 899, pp. 286. BALCH, E. S G l ac iers and F reezing Caverns. Phil adelphia, 1 900 BALCH, E. S Coudersport, Pennsylvania, Freez in g Cave. Sc ientific American 114: 663, june 24, 1916. BARCK, C. Caves. Mazama 4 (2): 60-69, December, 1 9 13. BELL, HUGH STEVENS. Strange Sights in ew Mexico. Natwe Magazine 28 (2): 77 79, A u g u s t 1 936 B ERTHOUD, E. L. On Rifts of I ce in the Rocks lear the Summit of M t. M cC l e ll a n Co lorado. American j O llrnal o f Science all d Art s 11 (3rd series): 108 1876 CONDO!'\, THOMAS. The I ce Caves of Mount Adams. M a z a/J/a 1 ( 1 ): 102 103, 1 896. CONDON, SAMUEL. Geolog y of vVinneshie k Co., Iowa. [ orva Geol ogica. l SUnJey 16: 1 42, 1 906. DAKE, H C Curious Sta l agmites in 'Western Cave. The M in e ralogist 4 ( 9): 5-6, 3 1 September, 1 936 D E WEY, C HESTER Sketch of Mineralogy and Geol ogy of th e V i cinity of Williams' College vVilliamstown, ?I' l ass Ameri ca n journal of Scie n ce a.nd A rts 1: 340, 1 818. FREnl \!'\, O. W. Geography and Geology of F e r gus County: Fergus County High School Bu.ll e tin 2 1 9 1 9, p. 48. GlIlBS, GEORGE. Notice of the I ce Spring" in the R oc k y Mountains. A lIIeri can j O 'llrnal o f Sc i e nc e and Art s 1 5 (2nd series): 1 46, 1 853. HARRINGTON, E. R The Origin of I ce Caves. j o u.rnal of G eo l ogy. 42 (4): 433 436, 1934 HARRISON, CLARK. P erpetual I ce Caves of New Mexico. R ochs fllld Mine rals 1 5 ( 9): 305, Septem h e r 1940_ HAYDEN, C. B On the I ce Mountain of Hamp shire Co., vVest Va. American jow'llOl of Science and Arts 45: 78, 1 843. Hf.!'\DERSO!'\, JU!,\IUS. \Iex i co Ice Caves. El Pala c i o 16: 79, 1 924. HENDERSON, JUNIUS. C a ve rn s Sink Holes and Nat tIl al Bridges. Co l ora d o Univer sity Studies 20 (2): 115 127, 1932. HOWARTH \-\T. E. Perpetu a l I ce Caves. Rocks and J \ifi'lle rals 1 5 ( 1 2): 410, D ecember, 19 4 0. KENNEllY, FLDIING. P erpetual l ee Box on th e D esert. The D eser t Magazi n e 1 (6): 10-l!, April, 1938. KIMIlALL, H H Ice Caves and Frozen w e ll s as lIf e t eo rologica l Phenomenon. Monthly Weathe r Review 29: 366-37 1 1901. K!'\EELA;o.;D SAMUEL. ( Decorah Ic e Cave). P1oceed ings Boston Soc i e t y of Natural History 20: 244, lII ay, 1 879. KNOX, RI CII: \RD K l ee Caves Amid Lava Beels near \-\Tin ona, A rizon a Natu r e Magazine 25 (6): 294, june, 1935. LAMIlERT, R '''' Among the Craters of the Moon. National Geographi c Mflgazin e 45 (3): 302-328, May, 1924. LATHROP, S. P. of an Ic e Mounta in in vVallin gfo rd Rutland County, Ve rm ont. A IIleri can journal of Sc i e nce and A rt s 46: 331 1 844. LEE, '''' T. A n I ce C a ve in New Mexico. Geo gra1J/iical Review 16 ( I): 55-59, 1926. LEE, C. A. S ketch of the Geo l ogy and Mi n e ral ogy of S ali sbury, Conn. AlIle ri c an j Ollrnal o f Sc i e n ce and. Arts 8: 25: 1 1 824. LOWE, N. \f. Paradoxical P henom e n a in Ice Ca v es. f(ansa s Cit y Review of Sc i e n ce and In dustl')' 3 (2): 97, june, 1 879. NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 39

LnLL, CHARLI:S. Princ ip a l s of Geology, 8th edi tion, John Murray London, 1197-398, 1 850. MACCLARY, JOHN STFWART P erpetual I ce Under Lava. Natl/wl Hislmy 38 ( 6): 5 6-59, June, 193 6. MAC DoNALD G. A. Personal Communica t io n 1948. MILLER, ARTHUR M. I ce Caves. Sci e nce n.s 37: 980-981, 1 9 1 3. Literary Di gesl 47: 1 28-129, July 26 1 9 1 3. PAI' IASAPA QU,\RTEIU. Y ( R apid City S D.) Vo l. 4, No.3, April 1915 p. 37. Picture of a n i ce cave ill the Black Hills near Spearfish, S. D PALMER, JESSE L. T h e S h os hone Ice Cave o f Ida h o. Bul/e tin G e ogra / Jhical Soc i e t y of Philadel phia 29 (2) : 1 301 36 April, 1931. PARK, C. F. Government Cave. Museum o f Norlh e m Ariwlla 2 ( 6): 1-3, 1 929 PECK A. P. Perpetu a l I ce in a Lava Bed. Scie ntifi c AII/e ri can 1 53 ( 6): 305 December, 1 935. ROSSITER Ice Caves of Washingtoll Territory. Overland Monthly 3: 421-427 Novembe r 3 J 869. RITCHIE, J., JR. Paradoxi ca l Phenomena in I ce C a ves. ""all sas Cit)' R ev i e w of Sci ellce alld In d usI r y 3 ( 3): 179 1 8 1 July 1 879, 3 ( 4 ) : 215-2 1 8 A u g u s t 1879. ROlliNSON, H G. S h os h o n e I ce Cave. T h e Volcano Letter (Hawaii) 296, A u g ust 28 3 1 3, Decemhe r 25, 1 930. S I LLIMAN, BENJA. \IlN. Natura l I ce Houses. Ameri can J ournal o f Sci e n ce a lld A,ts 4: 1 74177 1 822. STEARNS, HAROLD T. Craters of the Moon Nation al Monument. Geographical R e v i ew 14 : 326-372, 1 924. S TEARNS, HAROLD T. Craters of the Moon Na ti o n a l Monument of Ida h o. I daho Bureau of Mines and Geo l ogy Bulle till 1 3: 1 8, 1928. STEARNS, HAROLD T. T h e Crat e r s of the Moon in Idaho. Smithsollian Illstitution Amwal R eport for 1 928 307-3 1 3. STEARNS, H A R OLD T. Lava B eds Nati o n a l Monu ment, California. Bulle till G eogwphical Society of Philadelphia 26 (4): 239-253, October, 1 928. SWARTZLOW, C. R. T h e Lava B eds Nati o n a l Mon ument. The COli/Pass of Sigma Ga m .111a Epsilon 1 5 ( I ): 17-25, November, 1934 SWARTZLOW, C. R I ce Caves ill Northern Califo r nia. Journal ot Geo l ogy ( 4): -140-442 19 35. VANDERMUELEN, C. A I ce Mille that Free z es in Summe r and Melts in Winter a t Coude rsport, Pa. Sci entific American 114.: 4 70, May 6, 1916. "VHlTE, CHARLES A. R eport of the Geo logi ca l Sur vey of the Sta t e of I owa. I : 80-8 1 1 870. WHITE, H M (Decorah I ce Cave.) Sci entific Ame r ica n 40: 1 96, 1 8 79. BULLETI N NUMBER] 2 NOVHvIBER ] 950 List of Grottoes Wherever sufficient interest in speleologi cal research or other activity exists membrs of the National Speleological Soci ety are en couraged to form Grottoes. These localized units ge n e r a ll y select their own officers or ganize field trips carryon self -inspire d re search projects in a p articular cave or series of caves and otherwise implement the efforts of th e p a r ent body Following is a li st of sllch l oca l units, with the names and addresses of p e r so ns to contac t for information: l. Atlanta J. Roy Chapman, Box 701, Atlanta Ga. 2. Cha> l e sl .on Sara h McGriff, 222 South Street, So. Charleston, '''. Va. 3. Chm'lottesvi ll e Kalford Howard, J r. 244 Roger s H all, University of Virginia, Charlottesv ille Va 4. Clev e land Betty Yoe, 28923 ';Vestwood Rd. B ay Village, Ohio 5 C01'l1ell Marjorie Paquette, 408 Dryde n Road, Ithac a N. Y. 6. Dist,-ict ot Columbia Marion ''''ormald, 4114 2 1 s t St. N., Arlington, Va. 7. Elkins (Inacti ve) West Virginia 8. Indiana (Inactive) India n a 9. Iowa Cit y Arnold H. J ennings, 8 1 5 Rive r Street, Iowa City, Iowa 10. Lexington J E. Comer, Jr_, R D. No.3, Salem, Virginia II. Metropolitan N Y. Ernest Ackerl y, 12 Sheridan St. Valley Stream, L. 1., Nell' York 12. New Englall d Howard J. Pendleton, Thomaston Savings B ank, T h o maston, Conn. 13. North ern Califomia Ethel y n Fusselle, 453 Northridge Road, Sa n Francisco 24 Cal. 1 4 Philadelphia Margaret L oye 625 Fordham Road, Bala-Cynwyd, Pa. 15. Pi ttsbu.1gh Robert Dunn, R. D 2 S h anno n Road, Verona, Pa. 16. R e nss elaer A r thur H Fiese r, 634 Magenta St. l ew Yo rk 67 N. Y. 17. Richmond Betty V. Loy d R D. No. 2 Vay nesboro, Va 1 8 SOll.th e m Calitomia Don Emerso n 1 78 N. A l ta Vi s t a Monrovia, Ca l. 19. St antm'd George Mowat, School of M in e ral Scie nce s, Stanford, Cal. 20. Ta,-evac Thomas L. Car r 202 Tayl o r St., Cannelto n Indiana 21. T1'i-County C h a rl es J H anor, 84 Elm Street, Oneonta N Y. 22. Wythevill e Richa rd S. Sander s, 585 E Uni o n St.. W y th ev ill e, Virginia 23. fI.P,!. H arry W. Webb, Jr., 14 Oak Hill, Abin g don, Va. 37

PAGE 40

Calcite Bubbles A New Cave B y GORDON T WARWICK Chainnan of th e Cave Resem'c h Gmup of G1'eat Britain and l ectIne r in Geomorphology, Universit y of Birmingham Calcite deposited amund ail' bubble s was found in rim s ton e pool s in one of the limestone mines of Dudley Castle Hill, WOl'cestershil'e England. A brief de scription is given of thes e mines t oge the? with a full des cription o f the calcite bubbles and a 1'eport on th e conditions under which they were found. To date no calcite bubbles have b een reported fmm tHl e caves, but it appears p ossible that the postulated conditions for tll e ir formation should be found i n natu1'Ql cave rns. Rising from b e neath the Coal Measures of the Black Country, in the h eart of the English Midlands, are three inliers of Silurian rocks, They form th e hills of Sedgley Beacon, the Wren's Nest and Dudley Castle Hill and consist of strongly folded and faulte d \ Venlock lime s tones and shales and Ludlow shales, The three hills run e n-echelon from northwest to southeast, though the general direc t ion of their individual axes is roughly north-south. The most southerly of these hills, th e \ Vren's Nest and Dudley Castle Hill are composed of sharply folded, elongated domes, with dips varying from 37-75 The limestones occur in two illain bands, separated by shale, and they were much sought after by the loc a l iron-maste rs who obtained their fuel and ironore from the ov e rl ying coa l-m easures which outcrop around the in l i ers Today the majo r p art of th ese mineral resources has bee n exhausted, At first, the outermost limestones were quar ri e d [rom the flanks of these hills, but th e inne r (and geo l ogically older) limesto nes were won by m ining which commenced during the closin g years of th e e i g h te e n th ce n tury, before the d evel opment of rail tr a n sport. In th e case of Dudley Cast l e Hill a tunne l was driven through the hill [or one of th e lo ca l canals, Use was made o r thi s in winning the limestone, a branch ca n a l being co n struc ted alo n g the direction of the stri ke, in th e limestone i tself, At inte r va ls, s t ee ply sloping roads were drive n upwards from A pnpc r presented ;11 a/is( 'lI/ia at th e seventh annual co nv c llli o n oE th e Nalional Spel eo lo g ical Soc i elY. ''''as h in g l o n D, C" Marc h 3 I ,, -\pril 2 1 950 38 the level of th e canal into the up-dip part of the rock to permit further exploitation of the stone. The limestone obtained from these operations was carried away by boat directl y to the blast furnaces, Two galleries, parallel to the canal were also constructed a t higher levels, l eaving the roof supported by pillars of rock, These openings are 20 to 30 feet high. Many of the roads or headings were carried to the where they can now be seen at the bottom of shallow quarries. Active mining h as not been carried on for over thirty years, and Dudley Cast l e grounds, which includes the hill has b ee n taken over by P. 1 3 Binns Fig. 1. V iew ins ide D u d ley C!tstle min e showin g t h e o l d callal and the 1'001' I ) ill al's. 'l'he I'ocl ( h el'e dips at llllout 45 NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 41

the Dudley Zoolo g i ca l Soc i ety (or its zoo. It was through the goo d offices of th e zoo m a na ger, Mr. Donald Bowl es, that th e author and hi s friends Marjorie and L ewis R ailton were a bl e t o explore these in t e r esti n g old worki ngs. During thi s visit, carri e d out during the fall of 1948, the a u tho r was ins p ec tin g som e s h a ll o ,, rimstone po o l s whic h h a d form e d on th e uppe r ga ll e ry, when h e noticed s e vera l small, white b odies floatin g unde r t h e surface o[ the wa t e r. Simi lar objects were t o be see n restin g o n th e floors of the p oo l s C l oser in s p ectio n r evea l e d that th ey were h ollow L a ter some w e r e di ssolved in dilute h ydrochloric ac id with m a rked effervescence, and excess ammonium carbona t e so lution was adde d which ca used a white precipi t a t e to be formed It appear e d from thi s super ficial examination that the walls o f th ese co n c r e tions were m a d e of calcium carbon a te-and probabl y in th e form of calcite To the best of our knowledge, thi s phe nomen o n has not be e n prev iou s I y d esc ri b e d so it was d ecide d t o call th ese obj ec t s c al c il e [)'ubbles.' They m ay be defi n e d as hollow co n cretio n s of calc i t e d e p os i ted on th e surface of a gas bu bble, som e of wh i c h are cap a bl e of flot a tion Judg in g by th e inte r est s hO\\"I1 in calcite bubbles w h e n they were exhibite d and d escribe d b y L e wis Railto n a t th e Inte rn a t i o nal Spe l eo l og i ca l Meeting at Va l e nce-sur Rho ne, 1 949 it was th o u ght that A m e ri ca n s p e l eo logi sts mi ght b e in t e res t e d in the m and b e e n courage d to sea r c h for them in A m e ri ca n caves. vVhi l e it i s true that these Briti s h e x am ples w e r e found in a manmade cave rn th ey appear to h ave be e n formed b y n atura l processes which s h ould b e duplica t e d III natura l cave rns. The rilll s ton e po o ls, i n w hi c h the calcite bubbles were found, were ver y s h a ll o w being onl y a b out o n e in c h d ee p with occas i o n a l 'dee ps' o f tw o in c hes of w a t er. T h e source of suppl y of th e wat e r was a n o p e n e d fissure in the s id e of the wall so m e f orty to fift y fee t b e l ow the surface A thin film of dust and l oose l y conn ec t e d ca lci t e flakes was prese n t o n th e sur(ace of most of th e pools. T hi s film h a d drifte d t o th e l owe r e d ge of th e pools o n our v i sit, probably due 0 th e ge ntl e flow a c r oss t h e m foll o win g a p e ri od of rain which preceded our e x curs i o n The ca lcit e bubbles were impriso n e d b e neath thi s film w hi c h appea r s to pla y a n important part in th e ir o ri g in In additio n t o th e calcit e BULLETIN NUMBER] 2, NOVEMBER 1950 b u bbles, ordinary o nes we r e a l so prese n t be n eath the s kin. It did not prove possible to h ave th e contents of th ese bubbles a n a lysed, but it w ould appea r lik e l y that they are air bubbles formed by dro p s o f water falli n g in to the pool. This p rocess was obse rved b y Lewis R ailton on a second v i sit," and some of the resulting bubbles broke immedia tel y whilst others were impriso n e d unde r the surface scu m "Vh e n s u c h bubbles a r e impriso ned in this way they would se rv e as nucl e i for deposition in a satura ted so lutio n of ca lcium carbona te. Some of the ordinary l oo kin g bubbles we r e co llected from under the s urfa ce and they s howed remarkable resistance to pricking with a p aint b r u s h presumabl y indica tin g the presence of a thin protective coatin g of calcite P. B Binns Fig' 2. T h e J'imston e pools ill whic h the calc ite bubbles w eJ'e fiJ-st discoveJ e d. The s hape of th e calcite bubbles bears out th e h ypothesi s o [ formati o n advanced above. They a r e eithe r sph erica l o r ovo id in s h a p e, with symmetri ca l cross sec tion s A few h a d spi cu l es extending from o n e o r both ends of their major axes. Restin g o n the floor s of the pool s were the r e m ai n s of seve r a l half-formed calc it e bubbles, with r e lative l y l a r ge openings in the c r ystalline surface, a ll of w hi c h w e r e found pointing up wards. These latter ,,"e re of the orde r of 2-3mm across th ei r major ax i The floatin g calc it e bu bbles vari e d i 11 size from a fraction of a mill i m etre up to abou t three millimetres in diameter. ver y n oticeab l e feature was the fact that these floa tin g bubbles in ge n e ral did not protrude abov e th e surface. A f e w bubbles h owever were 39

PAGE 42

exceptio n s t o thi s rule These w ere generally muc h l arge r, up t o 2 c m di a m e t e r and ofte n shortliv e d So m e of them w e r e see n to c o ll a ps e l eav in g a f e w extra pla tes of calcite on the sur f ace These large r bubbles were more common in a p oo l form e d in the now-abandone d bra n c h ca n a l whic h was damme d b y roof f all d ebris T h e scum on the s u r face o f thi s poo l containe d a muc h g reat e r pro p ortio n o f dus t than on the surface o f the s m a ll e r p o ols. This i s l a r ge l y due to th eir rel a ti o n ship t o the e n trance to the workings. This lics immedia t e l y a b ove the ca n a l p oo l whils t the rims t one pools a r e about 2 00 f ee t a w ay On a subsequent v i sit," P e t e r Binns, anothe r E n g li s h NSS m embe r to o k s om e o f the photo g r aphs whic h illustra t e thi s article. A l s o r ea d ings w e r e t a k e n with a whirling p sychro m e t e r. T hi s r evea l e d tha t the t empe r atures and humid i ties we re s li g h tl y l e s s inside the mine tha n in th e o p e n and tha t the r e l a tive humidity a t the p o ol s (84<;70) was less th a nat the e n tra n ce and a t th e canal poo l (91 % and 88% r espe ctiv e ly). On th e d ay in questi o n the externa l r e l ative humidity wa s 92 % a t a t emperature of 4 6 F. H o w eve r it ha s n o t b ee n possibl e to makc [ur th e r observ a tion s o f thi s characte r. The fr ee air circ ul atio n within the mines, and the connec ti o n to the surface b y a t l eas t one major opening, does p ermit dri e r condi ti o n s tha n a r e t o b e found in m a n y cavcs. L ewis R ailton arra n ge d for photo micro graphs to b e take n of s om e o f the bubbles and some o f these a r e publis h e d 'lith thi s article It ca n b e see n that th e inne r surface of the calcit e bubbles i s s m ooth and the oute r sid e a jagge d mass of d ogt ooth c ryst als-a furthe r proof of their b e in g cal cite The broke n bubble was 2.4mm l o n g a n d the w a ll s va r y in thi ckness from 0.0 6mm to 0.2mm. So muc h f o r th e fac t s ,-wh a t of the m o d e of f o rm a ti o n ? As alrea d y indica t e d it appear s that gas o r air bubbles ac t as nucle i for calcite precip ita t e d as a result of wat e r and carbon dioxide l osses fr o m a calcium carbo n a t e solution. Pro b a bl y th e l atter i s th e most important f acto r. In p c r co l ati n g thro u g h th e o r ga n i c ru bbi s h a t th e bott o m o f the qua rries, th e wa ter w ill pi c k up ex t ra carbo n di ox id e f r o m the so il-air but so m e of t hi s w ill b c lost wh e n th e solutio n again has atmospheric a ir a b ove it. The scum o n th e surface appears t o b e connec t e d with th e nucl e i 4 0 offe r e d b y th e dus t particles, though s u c h f eatures a r e not unknow n in dus t-fr ee caves on s till p oo l s T h e imprisonment o f the ga s bubbles sec m s to b e a pre -r equis it e t o calcite bubble f ormation. A ft e r this th e process o f prec ipi t a ti o n o n the s urface o f the bubble comme n ces, but its d e v e l opment mus t d e p end on va ri o u s f acto rs. Presum a bl y d epos iti o n commc n ces a t o n e p oint, p ro babl y a t the top of the bu bble w h e r e the so l u tio n i s m o r e satura t e d during s tagn ant conditio ns. F ro m thi s and o th e r s imil a r nucl e i c ryst a l g r owth spread s ove r the surface o f th e bubble and a lso ext ends out from the surface as c ryst a l f aces d eve l o p. R. A \V. \Vhircak('r Fig. 3 Calcite bubbles floating in a test tube Magni fication 4 x This d e v e l opme n t i s most probably uneve n, and the bubble gradua ll y b eco mes top heav y causing s low rotation. This p robably p ermits d epos iti o n to take pl a c e on the unde r surface It is su g ges t e d th a t thi s r o llin g m o v e m ent ca uses the symme tri ca l d eve l opment o f the ca lcit e skin, and preve n t s adhesi o n t o the surface The h alf comple t e d bubbles on the floo r s of th e p oo l s a ppear to h ave b eco m e to o h eavily coa t e d f o r th e buoya ncy of the bubble and t o h a v e sunk, a ll owing the bubble to esca pe. P e r h a ps they may h a v e b ecome trappe d and r o t a tion inhibite d for t h ey are just a s thic k as the othe r calcite bubbles, if n o t thi c k e r but h a v e n e v e r comple t e d th eir s kin. Thus it w ould a p p ea r th a t th e bubbles mus t n o t b e t o o big, and the scum n o t t oo thin, t o p ermit o f t h e film be in g bulge d upwards b y th e bubbles. Once the bubbles h ave sunk t o th e n oo r of th e pool so m e N ATIONAL SPE L EOLOG ICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 43

o f th e m b eco m e cem e n t e d t o the floo r and n o d o u bt acc r e ti o n s till co n ti n u es. The r e we r e comple t e bubbles of all s izes a l so o n the H oo r o f th e pools, indica tin g tha t th e fioatin g s t age i s only a t emporary f eature, b e in g fini s h e d whe n th e we i ght of the ca lcit e bubble equa l s the we i ght o f a n equiva l ent v olume o f w a t e r. R ece ntl y w a t e r co ll ecte d fr o m the r im s t o n e p oo l s was acc id entally expose d t o direc t s unlig ht, and sma ll bubbles (pro b a bl y o f c arbo n dioxide) we r e see n t o ri se t o the surface w h e r e they b ro k e and minute H a kes, presuma bl y o f ca l cite, Hoat e d d o wn to the b o tt o m o f t h e b o ttl e w h e r e a s imilar d e posi t has accumula t e d This g a s m ay have b ee n r e l ease d ow in g t o the heating effect o f th e sun, o r it m ay h ave b ee n produced b y b ac t e ri a l ac ti o n T h e source o f the w a ter i s n ea r t o th e surface, and the r e mus t b e som e organic matter t a k e n into solutio n b y w a t e r p ercolating thro u g h d ecay in g vege t atio n. Assoc i a t e d w i t h thi s will b e b ac t e ri a, but thi s has n o t b ee n test e d as yet It see m s hi ghly like l y th a t b ac t e ri a R. A. W. \VhillClh'r Fig 4 The inteJ'iOI' of t calcite bubble Note the smooth inter'nal sud' ace in cuntrast to the ilTcguhu' e xterio\ iUa g nifi catiun 2 6 x mi ght h elp in th e precIpitatio n of calcium carb o n a te, but it i s diffi cult t o assess thi s f ac t o r. P erha p s s p e l eob ac t e riol og i s t s m ay b e attrac t e d b y thi s questio n Two o b se rv atio n s o f s imil a r phe n o m e n a oc curing unde r l a b o r a t o r y conditions h a v e b ee n discove r e d C H. Dre w ,'l working o n the actio n B U L LETIN N UMBER] 2 N O VEMB ER] 950 R. A. \V. \Vhitlakcr Fig 5. The exteriol' of a calcite bubble showing the dog too t h Cloystals The bla c l, S l)ot s al' e holes in the s kill. This compound bubble was p\'obably d ellOsite d al'o um1 two coalescin g bubbles. Mag nifi cation 2 6 x o f d enitrify in g b ac t e ri a in the tropic al sea-wa ter o f the T ortugas d eve l o p e d hi s b acteria l cultures in a m edium containing a hig h co ncentrati o n of organic salts o f calcium, and amongst so m e of his olde r cultures h e o b ta in e d d e p osits of ca l cium carbo n a t e a r ound gas bubbles. T I V Vau g h a n : w h o s p ent m a n y yea r s study in g the calc a r eo u s muds off th e coas t o f Fl orida a lso n o ticed ,the f o rm a ti o n of s imil a r d e posits around gas bubbles in samples of this mud a ft e r t h ey h a d b ee n r e m ove d fro m th e ea-b e d and put in s t o r age for so m e l e n gth of tim e H e co n s id e r ed th a t they w ould se r ve as o n e of seve r a l t y pes of nucle i f o r oolite f orma ti o n In thi s last case th e bu bbles we r e co nfin e d in th e mud. It h as al so b ee n s u gges t e d:; t h a t so m e o f the lll) ; s t e ri ous hollo w sphe res found in the Eng li sh. chalk and in the so-ca ll e d Orbulina or G e o rge t ow n Limest o n e o f T e x as m ay h ave o ri g in a t e d in thi s f as hi o n In thi s connec ti o n H. D Tho mas" r efe r s t o the d eve l opment o f c ryst a l s into th e inte ri o r o f the gas bubbles-Lhis i s not b o rn e out in our e x amples. H o w eve r Dr. Tholllas regards the gas-bubble theo r y o f the f orma ti o n o f these sphe res as n o t f ull y prove n In co nclu s i o n it appear s tha t th e optimum conditions f o r th e formation o f calcite bubbles a r e r easona bl y s till w a t e r with ac ti ve d e position of ca l cite, and the prese nce of air o r gas bubbles impriso n e d b e n eath a surface film o f dus t o r 4 1

PAGE 44

calc ite, or a combination of b oth. The se condi tion s should b e fulFtll e d in natural caves and it i s hope d that thi s pape r will e n courage others to look f o r th e m in s u c h places. The author would w e lcom e comment from s p e l e ologists and othe r inte r es t e d p e rsons, esp ec iall y those inter est e d in th e processes o f ca lci t e crysta llisation and th e origin of the 'spheres' allude d t o above. 1 should lik e to pay tribute to Lewis Railton and hi s v if e f o r th eir ac ti ve h elp in the pre pa ration of this p a p e r and to P e t e r Binns and Mrs. R A. \ I V. Whittake r [or allowing m e to use th eir photographs Las t but not l eas t I should lik e l O th ank 'vVilliam .J. Fos l e r 1'01' th e encour a gelllcnt whic h h e has g iv e n m c, for arra nglll g th e original reading o f thi s pape r and [or seeing it th r ough th e press. REFERENCES I 'AKWICK, C. T., RAII.TON, C. L., and RAILTON, M. E. 19 1 8. "Calcitc Bubbles", Cavc R escarc h Grollp ( CRG) New s lette r No. 2 0. 7-9. "WARWICK, C T., 1949. "Calcite Bubbles-a F lIr I h e r Note" (CRG) Newsletter No. 23 3--1. "DREW, G. H., 191-J.. Oll the Precipitation o f Cal cillm Carbonate in the Sea b y :'-Iarinc B ac t c ria, and of th e \ c ti o n of D enitrifying Bac t eria in Tropical and Tcmperate Seas' Camcg ie Ins l. Was h. Pub. 1 82. Vol. V. 7 1 5 es p. p. 42. 1 VAU ("IA N T. \V., 1 912. "Studies of th e Geol ogy and of th e \Iadreporaria of the Bahamas and of S. Fl orida. Ca m eg i e lns t. Was il. Yearbook II. 1 531 6 -1. es p. p. ,i3. 191-1. "Preliminary r emarks on thc Geol ogy o f th c Bahamas, wit h s p ec ial r e f e r c n cc to thc Origin of the B ahaman and Floridan Oolitc," Carnegie lnst. Was h. Pub. 1 82. Vol. V. 1 7-5 -1. c'p. p. 53. ;, TARI<, W .. -\., 1925. I s the Chalk a C h e mi cal D epo, it;' G eol. i\lag. Vo l. 62. 252-264. esp p 255 H. D 1 932. Origin of Spheres in th e Gcorgctown Limes t o n c J. of Palaeontology Vol. 6. 100101. GORDON L. CURRY, 1872-1950 42 Dr. Gordon L. Curry, D ea n Emeritus of thc Lou i s ill e Collcge of Pharmacy of the U ni vc r sity of K entuc ky, di e d on January 21, 19 50. H e w as 78 yea r s of age His elllhusiasm for GI\e exploration w as r cflec l c d in his aricd s p c l co l ogical in t e r ests,-geol ogy, flor a, fauna, mapplllg and photography all r ece i v in g attention. Fr o m 1 904 until 1 930 h e s p ent many o f his vacatio ns exploring the G I\es of K entuc k y and soulhern India n a esp ec iall y \ '\fyandOll c Cave, in c ,er y acc ess ibl c p art of whic h h e h a d b e e n at so m e lime. Dr. Curry p ossesse d a wonderful co ll cc t i o n o f slercosco pi c pholographs m ostly tak e n with /lash p ow d c r and an Easlman stereo box ca m e r a in t h e days whcn ste r eo phoLOgraph y wa s nOl n ca rl y as easy as i t i s now. H e t oo k m a n y of hi s stude nts from th e Louisvill e Coll ege of Pharmacy wilh him o n hi s trips and impresse d a ll with the n eces sity of safelY No one was c v e r hUrl or in th e sightest dangc r lhro u g h out hi s yca r s o f exploralion. H c also impresse d upo n hi s many fri ends how hard Goel workc d lO create our caverns and h o w long it took t o makc lhis underground b eauly for our enjoy m e n t, admo nishi ng his f e llows p e lunke rs o n th eir duty and obligation to prese rv e it uns p o il e d f o r fUlur e ex pl o r e rs. Up to abo u t th e middle 1920 s prac ti c a ll y all Dr. Curry's cxplorations wcre m a d e u sing candles lor li ght and r e d f1arcs for illulllinaling any l arge rooms. Dr. Curry w as a m embe r of the A m eri ca n Pharlllace uti c al As soc iati o n K enluc k y Pharmaceulica l Associalion K c n t u c k y Acade m y o f Sc i e n ce, National Spcleological So c i c ty, F cllo w \ rne rica n Associa tio n ror the Aclvan ce m ent of Sc i c n cc, charte r m CJllb el' o r V e t erans Drug Club o f Louisvill c anc! .lohn St; trk Chaplet" Sons of Amcri ca n R e\"o lut.i o n NATIO:-lAL SPELEOLOG ICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 45

The Survey of Schoolhouse Cave with. a series of drawings and a Sketch Map by Tom Culverwell By H. F. STIMSON 1 Physi r i s l l\' alirn)({/ B tneau o f S t anc/rnds Edilor' s \. T o le: This (nticie i s re p r in t e d vy p ermissi o n o f H. F. Stimson a n d th e P o t o m ac A j J p alac hian T m il Club whic h {tlst i Juvlis/Te d it in 1 9-15 Becau s e of it s ge m 'wl inle lest t o sjJe l eo l og i s t s i t was deemed aiv is(d'/e t o j J lesr' n t it t o 0 1/1 l e ad ers also. F o r f ive dra m ati c plro t ogralJ/IS o f som e o f th e diffi culli r s tonfwn ting Sr h oo ll/Ouse ex I J / o r eTS see Bu lIe tin E / ev en o f Ihe NSS, Nov. 1 9-19 I J I J -17-50. Sc hoolho use Cave, l oca t e d 111 P endleton COUnl j ' v V a., was d escr ib e d b y Tom Culver w ell in the Janua r y 1941 Bulle till of the P o t o m ac Appalac hi a n T r a il Club in a n article entitle d "fv I ountaineering Unde r Ves t Virginia V h e n h e wro t e thi s article, th e ex p a n s i o n b olts h a d n o t b ee n se t fo r th e lra e r se up a l o n g th e Ang el Roost La th e Judg m enl Sea l so a ll th e h o p es, h orro r s and h ea d ac hes o [ th e ca v e b eyond th e Bi g R oo m we r e unknow n." I Dr. Stimso n in writing hi s account o f the survey of Sc hoolh u u se Cavc has presellte d the achi eve m e n t in a manlle r so c a s u a l t h a t th e r eade r m ay be comple t e l y de ce i ve d co n cerning th e ardu u u s n ess of th e labo r whic h h e h :u l undertake n . \ hint of th e a u t h o r's character a n d a b elle r Illld e r standing o f the ta s k whi c h h e has p e r f ormed m ay h e gathe r e d from th e kn o\de dge th a t this c av e ha d r emained unexpl o r e d h eyo n d t h e Jumping OIl Place prio r LO 1939. altho u g h kn o wn [ o r gen eratio n s and even mined f o r nitrates during the C i\ il War. Furthe r m u r e in N o vembe r 1939 an ex p e d i t i o n b y th e Nati o n a l S p e lcologi c al Soc i e ty. equippe d ex p ress l y fo r t h e purpusc of exploring this cave, h a d s u ccee ded in gelling but o n e p e r so n ])o n Bloch o n to th e s l oping approach LO the C a scade I'it, an a d vance beyond prev i o u s p arties o f ap proximate l y 5 0 fcct forward and 1 00 feet down It wa s o vc r this f orhidding route a mI t h e eve n m u r c impossible rcgi o n s b cyund th a t S timl1li e has t a k e n hi s surve y in g cqnipmcnt. T h e r emote strc t c h cs o [ this c av c h a d s p ent the p as t in tota l darkness, but, t o a man lik c Stimmic "the r e is n o d arkness hnt. i gnorancc. T hi s darkncss a n d th e myst e r y of 'ic hoolh o n se Cavc h e ha s fo r e v e r dis p ellc d Wilh th e li ght of c\c fillit c kll o ll'l e dgc furnis h e d b y tape and trail siL D umTld Hubhard. "d ee "Suhterranean R ock Climbing. b y Tom C ul ve r w c ll;' A / J / J (l/(l r it i(l, June 1 9 1 3 ; "On U lld c t :g r ound T r a il s," b y Tum C ul ve rll' c ll Potoma c Appa l ac ht a n TraTl Club /I II 1/1 1 ill, O ctobc r 1943; and .\hout a s F a r a s \ Vc Ca n Go." b y T Olll C ul vc rll' cll, P O lOllla c -\ppa la chian T r a il Club /IlIl/l'l ill, Onob c r 1 9 J.I. B ULLETIN N UMBE R 12, NOVEMBE R 1950 Three m o n t h s l a t e r our climbe r s h a d gon e o n n e a rl y twi ce as f a r and di scove r e d the Greal Gall ery whic h w as bl oc k e d off at the far end b y sediments containing strea m-er o d e d s t o n es. S in ce these s t o nes m USl h a v e co m e d o wn fr o m the s ur f ace they ga e u s h o p e that the surface w as near. \ Ve v i s i o n e d the p oss ibili ty o f o p ening a secrel b ac k door l O th e Grea t Galle ry, as a w oo d chuc k d oes to his burro w and th e r e b y m aking l hat part o f th e cave access ibl e without a ll t h e r o p e -work and struggl e i t n o ,, l a k es. Since w e knew the l e n g th and di rec ti o n of th e cave t o the end o E the Bi g R oo m [ro m Tom 's string and compass m e asure m ents, w e h a d a n approxima t e idea o f w h e r e the end o f th e Greal G a ll e r y mighl be with r es p ec t t o features o n the surface. A n e x amination in lhat r eg i o n di s cl ose d a l a r ge sink with three h o l es whic h draine d o r v enle d dml'll T h e fir s t h o l e w as f ound t o h av e a fluctuating current o f air throug h it. T hi s fac t intrig u e d u s \\'ilh t h e h o p e tha t th e bl oc k e d end o f th e cave w as n ea r this h o l e and a l so lhat the third h o l e was n ea r th e o th e r side o f th e o b struc tio n wh e r e w e mi ght e n te r t h e continuati o n o[ the Grea t G a ll e ry. It see m s c e n a in tha t lhe r e a r e m o r e ga lleri es b eyond this p oint b eca use Sc hool h o u se Ca, e H e ll H o l e, and the comme r c i a lized Se n eca Ca erns all li e a l o n g the V ili s Mountain Alllicline a lillI e o e r a mile a p art and pro b a bl y a ll drain clo wn into Judy Spring a t the b otto m th e va ll ey n ea r th e Potom ac Rive r. In orde r La find out h o w n ea r th e end o f lhe c ave w as t o thi s l a r ge sink, o r to som e othe r f ea lUr e o n the sudace, a good survey w as r equired. It w as t h e n up t o Stimmie t o add a vertica l g r a d u a t e d c ircl e l O hi s 5 5-yea r old e n g in eering tra n s i t so that a thre e -dim e n s i o n a l trave r se could b e m a d e [ro m th e sink o ,er the surface t o t h e e n tra n ce o f th e ca e and th e n ins id e th e cave to t h e end o f the Great Gall e r y T h e c ircl e h a d b ee n in s t alle d so th a t th e survey could b e s t arte d o n Mem oria l D ay, 1 9 -11. Vario u s p eople h elpe d o n 43

PAGE 46

[ our different w ee k-end trips and b y th e end o f th e summe r a preliminary survey had b ee n run t o th e end o f the cave. It prove d to b e in comple t e and l ac k e d th e prec i s i o n th a t inspires co nfid e n ce T hi s effort s h ould n o t b e co n side r e d as l os t h ow eve r b eca use during t hi s p e ri o d so m e simple d e \ 'i ces w e r e m a d e fo r i n c r eas i n g t h e prec i s i o n o f m easure m ent, and furtherm o r e, so m e simple practi ces we r e a d opte d t o jxe\ 'ent mis t a k es and o missi o n s in a future survey. \ 5 Eas t e r wa s approaching III 1 942, D avid A ppe l expresse d his desire t o s p end hi s v a ca ti o n h elping t o m a k e a comple t e n e w survey in o n e l o n g sess i o n. Good Friday a ft ernoon found him and hi s hi g h-school classmate, B o b Ludwig, o n th e w ay t o th e c a ve with Old M a n Stimmie, r ea d y t o t ackle th e j o b. T h e w ork these young f e ll o w s did m a d e th e trip a s u ccess. T h e ir inte r est and enthus iasm k ept u s goin g in th e cave f o r 1 2 h ours eve r y d ay b e tw ee n our m orning and evening m ea ls, and t h e r e w as n o l oa fin g. T h e d a t a c o ll ec t e d in th e f ollo win g w ee k n o t o nl y sati sfie d our curiosity a b out th e lo ca ti o n of the end o f the Grea t G a ll e r y bu t a l s o furnis h e d th e s k e l e t o n o f T o m Culverwe ll's s k e t c h m a p w hi c h i s r eproduce d h e re. Tom g av e body to the s k e l e t o n and, if thi s b o d y lives up t o his ea rli e r produc ti o ns, n e w c h ambe r s will b e round b ac k o f so m e o f the shado w s h e has so faithfully r epro duce d So m e o th e r fine examples o f his s k e tch e s of the cave m ay b e found in th e .Jun e 1943 num b e r o f AjJfJ ala c hio and still o th e r s in the O ctobe r 1 943 Bulle t in of th e P OLOmac Appalachian Trail Club. Since th e d ay f o ll owing our arriva l w as w arm and fair it was the idea l tim e to d o th e surface sun' ey in g 'l\Te r a n a line ove rl and in t e n e asy jumps [ro m the sink t o the zer o s t a k e at th e m outh o ( th e cave Ve h a d put thi s zer o s t a k e t Inder th e e n tra nce a r c h of the cave in a pl ace w hi c h i s s h e lt e r e d [rom r;tin yet (r o m w hi c h a s i ght could b e m a d e o n the pol e s t a r P o l a ris. This s ight, a l t h o u g h r ea ll y unnecessa r y for our pur p ose was m a d e so we could r efe r our survey t o th e true o r geographi c n orth. T h e resulting m a p, the n i s refer r e d t o t h e sa m e n orth a th e l a r ge r geo logi c m a p s o f thi s r eg i o n T hat a ft ernoon a (ter we h a d fini s h e d t h e s ur f ace survey wi t h t h e in s t r u me n t over th e zero stake, there we r e a couple o ( h ours to spa r e be fore i t would be cla r k e n o u g h t o ge t a s ig h t o n th e 44 s t a r. This time was s p e n t the r e fore, in t e a ching B o b a f e w o f th e fir s t princ iples o f r oc k climbing with a sa f ety rope and, f ollowing t h ese, the n ec essary t echnique o f r oping d own. A f t e r suppe r w e m a d e th e obser va ti o n s o n P o l a ris, r ecorde d the m a ncl th e times they we r e m a de, a nd turne d in ( o r a n o th e r ni ght's s l ee p o n th e s h e lf unde r the entra n ce arc h T h e n ex t m orning w e p ac k e d our tra n sit and a ccesso ri es in a n Adirondack. P ac k B as k e t and s t arte d in with a ll our equip-. m e n t fo r the sun'ey o v e r t h e course o f s t a ti o n s whic h w e had l ocate d o n the prelimina r y surveys In c av e sun'eying w e run a continuo u s series o f straight lines fr o m t h e entra n ce throug h to the e nd. Our proble m i s t o l ocate the inte r sec tion s o f these lines at places whe r e the instru m ent ca n b e pl ace d to m e a sure the a n g l es T h e data for these m e a sure m ents are obtaine d b y firs t p ointing the t e l esco p e to a li ght at the prev i o u s place i. e a ba c k s i ght, the n m aking a fores ight to a light a t the n e w place. T h e azimuth and e l e vati o n of eac h s i ght a r e r ead ori the horizonta l and v ertica l graduate d c ircl es of the instrument f o r eac h setting, and the a ngl es a r e d e riv e d fr o m the m b y taki ng the diff e r e n ces of the r eadings. S t ee l t a p e s m easure t h e l engths of the lines o f sight. The pl aces wh e r e th e instrument i s lo ca t e d a r e marke d b y "stat i o n s," whi c h a l : e shallow drill h o l es in th e roc k eithe r direc tly b e l o w the inter sect i o ns or \ e rti c all y above th e m in the c eiling. E a c h statio n o n t h e m ain line thro u g h the cave was ide ntifi e d with a number m arke d on the r ock, T h e li g hts f o r th e f o r esights and b ac k s ights w e r e f r o m tin y e l ec tri c flas h li ght bulbs These bulbs we r e h eld in place o n s in g l e flash-li ght c ell s with simple, bcnt-wire h o ld e rs. T h e li ghts w e r e l oca t e d with a plumb b o b eithe r directly a b ove o r b e l o w th e s t a tio ns, and in orde r t o b e see n fr o m th e in strument they u s u ally h a d t o b e set o n a ca m e r a tripo d w hi c h wa s adjus t a b le [ o r h e i g ht. Candles we r e used [ o r th e li ghts o n the fir s t t w o trips o f the preliminary survey; but they w e r e disca r d c d o n la t el' tr i p s in [a vo r o ( th e flash-l i g h t bulbs b eca use th e ca nell e fla mes w e r e t oo l a r ge a mI the i r p os iti o n s change d as burning pro cce d e d T h e h e i ght o( th e li ghL up o r d o wn fr o m its stati o n ancl, similarly, th e h e i ght o f t h e axes o f th e in strumcllL (rom its s tati o n w e r e d e t ermine d ATfONAL SPE LEOLOGICAL SOC I E T Y

PAGE 47

Swing' in g a('!'OS S nile or the w ells afte r rappe l B ULLETIN NUMBER J 2, NOVEl\IBER I 45

PAGE 48

' J h e hig h line a c,ooss the Entnwce R{)OIll C limh out 01" the Grotto 'I' h e Nidi 01' Tilli e 'fra ve ,ose: G,ooan Uox to A n g e l' s Roost 46 NATIONAL S PELEOLOGICAL SOCI E T Y

PAGE 49

for eac h s ight. The distance of eac h sight, taken from the axes oJ: the instrument to the li ght, was m easured with ste e l t ape. For some s i ghts it was n ecessary to ti e two tapes together to r eac h across [rom the instrument to the li ght. \ simple spring d ev i ce was used to pu t the same tensi o n o n the tapes during eac h measurement so that correct a llowan ces could be made for the sag in th e t apes. T h e h e i ght at w hi c h the instrument had to be set to s i ght to the li ghts at t h e foresights and ba c ksights vari e d from extra high in a few places to extra l ow in the l owest passages. For this w e provide d three sets of tripod l egs to b e u sed at different stati ons; o n e set h a d extendabl e, l o n g l egs g i vi n g a height o f from four to seve n feet; a nother set had extendable, sho r t l egs g i ving a h e i ght of from two to four feet ; and a n o th e r tri pod had stubby l egs about s i x in c h es long. In m a n y ins t ances the strai ght lines from ant: stati o n to th e n ex t s eemed very simple in COlll parison with th e indirect routes n ecessary to get th e re o n foot. The lines of s ight ohen w ent many f ee t a b ove th e d epths to which we had to d escend t o get across. In about h a lf of the cases m ov in g th e instrument ac r oss fr o m o n e statio n to the n ex t required taking i t off the tripod and slow in g il in the pack basket to tote. In about half o f th ese instances we h a ul e d the basket u p cliffs with a rope b eca u se this was simple r than struggling up with the loaded basket. In a f ew pl aces we had to hitc h th e basket a l o n g sepa ralely because lhe r e was n't room [or bOlh the b as ket and a man at the same time. To get the t a p e across the s i ghts over d ee p places w e o ft e n l ossed a cord across success ive chas m s and l e d it a l o n g till i t r eac hed t h e oth e r station and the l a p e could b e h a uled in. T h e s igh t to sta tion I was no exceptio n It went near th e ce ilin g of the e n trance room to a s h elf o n the east side, avoiding th e descen t and steep crooked climb t o the uppe r passag e. In t hi s case the end of o n e lape was droppe d down from the s h e lf l o t h e bottom of th e e n trance room and then carried up the s lope till it could b e t i e d to th e end of the second tape. The s h e lf was so n .ear the ceiling lhat i t was ralher cramped, and the tra n sit had to be set o n t h e stu bby tripod. Stations like this one, which we r e diffi c ul t to occupy were well worth th e effort b eca use eac h BULLETI N NUMBER ]2, NOVEMBER 1950 s u c h stati o n u s uall y save d us th e trouble o[ set tin g up se veral oth e rs to get to the same end. It i s ax iomati c that the errors o[ m easurement ill crease with the numbe r o[ sta tions and, COII v erse ly, the nUlllb e r of stations saved Illea n s final prec i s ion ga in ed. S tation 2 was we ll inlo the long upper pas sage wh e re th e inslrument could b e set up on its regul a r tripod. From here on to the Big Room th e s lati o n s were r elativ l y n ear together because the passage was bOlh narrow and winding. As th e line approached th e Big Room where t h e Aoor was n ea r the ceiling, the short tripod l egs w e r e us e d instead of the r eg ular o n es. Station 11 was at th e .Jumping-Off Place l ooking illlo t h e deep, damp darkness of th e Big Room. As we left this s tati o n we w e re agai n reminde d of Leo SCOl.t's i n scriptio n o n th e wall, A ll Hope Aban don Y e \ Vho Enter Here." Station 1 2 1 was down th e next s lope very near th e east wall at a pl ace where we could s i ghl [or h a lf th e l ength of th e Big Room 1 0 Sla ti o n 1 4 o n to p of the BigBite. \ s t a lion 1 3 was c h osen during the prelimi nary survey bUl wc abando n e d i t for lhis sun ey b eca use stati o n 1 4 had prove d to b e both super ior and s uffici e nt. T hi s s l a li on 1 4 ,, as a luc k y find for us, b eca u se it was h a lfw ay b e tween th e cei lin g and t h e d eplhs of the Big Room at the one pl ace wh e r e s i g hts could b e made a ll the wa y to stati o n s n ea r the ceiling at the ends of the room. The Big Bite i s a n cnormous c h oc k stone, wh i c h i s wedged a c ross frolll t h e east to th e "est wall about midway betwee n th e Gar goyle Pit all lh e so u t h and th e d ec p Thunde r Pit on t h e nonh It ge t s il s n a m e frol11 a part of a horizonta l cylindrica l surface on the east side, which look s li ke a bite o u t o[ a slice o[ cake magnified to seve n feet broad. It i s evident t h a t lh i s bi te was o n ce veri i c:l1 and pan of the wa ll of o n e o [ the t .dl w e ll s n ca r t h e ceiling of th e room. T h e stone s lopes steepl y 1 i'lea r this point a r elatively i nexperien ced young spelunk er ( n o t it m embe r of the NSS) fell 85 feet to his death o n Jnly 1 8 1 950. Appare llll y th e rope w hi ch h e u se d s napped as h e climbed back up th e s lope, hand over hand, between S tati o n s 1 2 and II willlolli all addiliollal safe l y Lill e Hi s body landed on a ledge adjacent to the '\ick of Time. This unfortunat e occurre n ce poi11ls to the n ee d for ex tre m e cauti o n o n the pan of eve n experienced spel eo l o g isl s when expl oring caverns of this nature. It s h ould serve to warn all who c01llcmplatc entering a n y dangerous cave 1 0 ohtain dctailed information in adva n cc from t h e Natio n a l Spe l co logi ca l Socie t y or o ther co mpetcnt so u rce. 47

PAGE 50

lip o n t h e n onh, south, and west s id es, but th e to p i s l a r ge e n o u g h and n ea r e n o u g h l ev el so th e in strume n t could be set up o n its s h ort l egs and m anne d b y a p e rson sitting o n th e rock. T h e t o p i s o nl y a b out a s bi g a s a dining t a bl e and, had we s t oo d up t o the ins t.rum ent o n its long l egs, we w ould h ave h a d th e f eeling of plung in g on : into the d epths o f the w ells besid e it with eve r y s t e p a r ound. To get up t.he r e w e m a d e a h and h old tr ave rse d o wn ac r oss the south side ove r t h e Gar goy l e Pit t o the G a r goy l e Bridge. From h e r e w e m a d e a s t ee p r oc k cI imb up the west s id e to the to p the n h a ul e d up the appara tus o n the eas t s id e p ast the bite Fro m thi s s t atio n the f o resight w e n t over th e Gu ill o tine, wh i c h i s a n othe r l a r ge c h oc k s t o n e, and O \ e r th e Judg m ent Sea t to s t atio n 1 5 in a ni c h e a t th e end o [ the r oo m n o t f a r from th e ceiling o n th e eas t s id e During the prelimina r y survey instrume n t l o cati o n s [ o r s t atio n s 1 6 and 1 7 had b ee n m a d e to orde r [ o r u s b y Fitzhug h Cl ark and L eo Scott, who h e w e d m a n y yard s o [ clay o u t of th e w a ll s with t re n ching pi c ks. T h e lin e m a d e a switc h b ac k ac ross from 1 5 in th e eas t w a ll nic h e t o 16 in the ir h ell'e d-ou t alcove a t th e t o p of a hig h b ank o n th e w cst. T hi s a l cove was in a vertica l clay b ank whic h w a s only a ve n ee r o n th e cave wa ll and l oo k e d as i[ it were r ea d y t o p e el off a t a n)' minute As a co n seque n ce, all the o p e r a ti o n s wer e m a d e in thi s a lc ove with b o th th e o p e rator and his instrument r o p e d t o the ring in a n ex p a n s i o n b olt o n the r oc k f ace beside t h e entra nce t o th e H o d ag R oo m p assage. T h e p assage i s th e o n e t hat P a ul Bradt and othe r s had r easone d ex i s t and h a d l a b o r e d [or five trips t o r eac h. T h e ring used while o bser ving at sta ti o n 1 6 i s t h e o n e t h a t Fitzhug h fir s t put t h e r e w h e n h e and P a ul finally di scove r e d t h e p assage. S t a ti o n 1 7 w as o n to p o [ th e clay h ea d w all in line with this p assage T h e s i g h t o n to 1 8 was l o n g in spite o f its go in g thro u g h th e s m allest t wo passages o n the entire r oute. T hi s s i ght w as m a d e possible b y m ov in g a lot o ( m a t e rial out o f th e w ay, and eve n t h e n t here we r e o nl y a f ew in c hes le e w ay. T h e firs t o[ th ese p assages was so l ow th a t th e p a k bas ket wi t h th e i nstrull1e n t h a d t o b e d ragge d a l o n g o n it s ( ace in stea d o [ uprig ht. T h e s i g h t the n p asse d th e full l e n g th o f th e H o d ag R oom and h a lf way th ro u g h th e second s m a llest 48 p ass a ge. The trav e rse o f th e Hodag ROO lll i s m a d e o n the w est wall n car the ceilin g, b y m ea ns o f fin gerholc1s vhic h are muc h like a picture m oulding The r e are n o f ootholds [ o r a b o u t 3 0 f ee t o f t.he traver se, and the s l o p e i s so s te e p th a t fri c ti o n d oes n t heIp muc h T o tin g th e bas ket of ins t r u m e nts ac r oss h e r e h a d th e Old -Ian pufbng lik e a l oco m o ti ve aoin g upg r a de, c \ e n t h o u g h a a [ e t y r o p e h el d [ ro m e a c h end adde d co n s id er a bl e m o r a l support. AI. s t a ti o n 1 8 a h o l e h a d t o b e dug in t h e clay floo r t o a ccommo d a t e th e l egs o f the stubby tri p o d e v e n whe n sprea d out R at. T h e ceilin g was a b out 1 8 inc hes [r o m th e floo r a t Lhis station, and all t h e observa ti o n s h a d t o b e made with the o b e rver sprawle d o u t o n hi s s t o m ac h. During the prelimina r y survey, afLe r th e ins Lrum eI1l had b ee n l a b orio u s l y l ev el e d it ,"vas f ound to b e a fr ac ti o n of a n inc h t oo hi g h t o see a ll the wZlY b ac k to 1 7, so it h a d to b e set l o w e r and r e lcvel ed. \<\Th e n the light s till couldn' t b e f ound, Fitzhugh h a d s u gges t e d it ""ould b e b etter if the ca p we r e tak e n off the tel esco p e A ft e r w e h a d craw l e d o n OUI' hands and kn ees several tim e s b ac k and forth thro u g h these l o w p assages, it w a s a r e I i e f to ge t o u t t o s t a t i o n 19 a t the h e ad o [ the P a r a p e t w here th e r e was room t o s t and up o n ce in a while. G elling th e line acr oss the Thunderbo l t R oo m to s t atio n 2 0 was eve n m o r e l a b o ri o u s Lha n ac r oss the Bi g R oo m. Fortuna tel y a p ositio n could b e m a d e to Ol-d e r b y building up a pl aLf o rm wiLh r oc k s a L the brink o f the First B a lc o n y A stone wa s cem ente d in pl ace with cl ay o n this plaLf o rm to m ark th e s t a ti o n. To m a k e so m e o f the r eadings h e re, th e o b se rver h a d t o lean out ove r the brink w hil e h olding o n t o a r o p e ti e d to a b i g r oc k o n tlt e B a lc o ny. In orde r t o m e a sure the di s t a nce across thi s roo m three p eo pl e h a d t o m a n e uver the t a p e Ito a p os i t i o n whe r e i t would s win g [r ee w h e n the L e nsi o n w as applie d G elling ac r oss the r oo m f ro lll s t a ti o n 2 0 t o 19, involvecl go in g bac k on the Balc o n y t o the l oose roc ks, w h e r e the r e i s a pas sage to th e unde r s id e of th e B a lc o ny; go in g f o r ward t o th e [r onL; r oping d o wn fro m h e r e to the end o f th e bi g pit; climbing lip th e side of the piL and ove r to th e P endulum Pit; climbing a w ir e ladde r t o a s h arp e d ge leading b ac k thro u g h a k ey h o l e into th e b o tt o m o [ th e Av al a n c h e Pit; NATIONAL SPE LEOLOG I CAL SOCIET Y

PAGE 51

T h e G l'eat Ga ll c l'Y tnl.VCI'se llUl.l,ETI N NUMIII : R 1 2 NOVEi\IIIER 1 950 H

PAGE 52

Trave "se ac,'oss the G uillotin e Stone C limbillg' up to t h e Judg m e n t Seat The west w all i\laill Ro()m J"'avc"se atross thc Hoda g 50 NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 53

"-"" OtT "-,,-" '\ , , '..g-----------P[NDLHON COUNTY-W[ST VIRGINIA. tW( SMA.Ll ClIlCl[S I NDICAn: STATIONS ON TlU. SURV(V AND ARr IDtNTlnro b)I NUMBER. IN TIa: ACCOMPANYING ARTK:LE. IN TH( 5CAL or MAP CIQC\.S ARt SO<. Ft(Tin &ING A.PPROXIMATl V n, L-ltIGI-IT Of A MAN. 1l([y WILL GIVE SClM( IotA Of 1lI PROPORTIONS CS 5a.OOLI-OJSE CAVE. IN rUT nUHDERIIOlT ROOM SIH(jU'G WHl [UVATION TI-IROUGH STATIONS 5-25 SUT BIG ROOA TIIUI1 01 A P .... S A P ...

PAGE 54

lU[ UPI>[A PASSAGE BIG ROOM ,.,. ... UPPER wrll. LOWER PASSAGE PASSAGE Il DOM[ ROOM H[VATlON TIlROUG r ROOM. AND

PAGE 55

climbing a rope for 18 [ ee t to get out of this w e ll to the Bridge; toiling up the st ee p rolling cla y slide to the v ertica l clay w all of th e Parape t ; and finally crawling up this wall LO the level of sta lion 19. Whe n -the tape had b ee n led to th e stalions at each end, it still had LO b e h eld aside with a string in the r egion of the Bridge b y a third whil e the t e nsion was b eing ap plied, so that it would n o t b e caught unde r protruding ledges. Station 20 is appare ntl y lo ca t e d at .the only place where th e instrument could have b ee n plac e d to run the survey lin e through -to th e end of th e cave. Certainly th e job could not have b ee n done without several more stations that would have b ee n n ea rl y as awkward. Ev e n h e r e t h e tel esco p e had to b e poil1l e d up at an ang l e of 56 from the horizon l a l to sight to the n e x t station, and th e eye pi ece of th e t e l esco p e w as so n ea r the plate th a t a r e H ec tin g prism had t o be used to make th e s i ght. As Donald Hubbard re marke d "Thi s s t a liun n ea rl y h a o StilJlmie stymied." vVhil e th e w as at s lation 20 we made lWO other secondary sta tions, 20\ V and 20E to d e t ennine th e dime nsion s and d epth o[ lh e Thunderbolt Room. The si t e of station 2 1 was at the e dge of the Second B a lcony, as far b ac k [rom 20 as possible. It was on the dry dirt where th e Balcony was thin and, although some of the edge had b eell broke n off to s i ght further b ac k Paul still did not consider ,the r e m aining support a ny too s ub stantial. H e h a d insi s t e d therefore, th a t in u s in g this station both th e observer and the in strument be roped for safety. From the brink of the Second Balcony th e line w as run through th e Great Gallery b y l ea p s and bounds. The sights were about 100 feet long, and convenient locations could b e found for the stations whe r e th e observer could stand up to the instrument. The last sta ti o n was numbe r 25. From lhi s howeve r, two more sights were made on as f a r as w e could see, one to th e l e ft side and the other to the right side of the gallery up where the fill w as clos e to the ceiling. B eyond -the right sight it wa s pos s ibl e for a s m all p e rson to c r a wl about 3 0 feet more, over s ti c k y mud, to a small upright chamber large enoug h [or two to s i t in. This chamber was th e e nl a rg e m ent o[ a fault in the ceiling, the LOp of which w as wedged tightly with BULLETIN NUMRER 12, NOVEMBER 1950 rounded co bbl es. These co bbles indica l e d that the fault was one of th e channe l s through which the sink had emptie d its conlenlS into th e cav e From the low e r pal1t of thi s chamber there were holes e Xlending out unde r the ceiling, but these w e r e too small [or eve n a littl e old man" to get through. The sighls [rom sta tion 25 comple t e d lh e prima r y survey line a ll the way o n th e outside, from th e sink to the entrance of the cave, and the n ce on the in s id e, from th e entrance of th e cave to th e fill at th e end of th e Grea t Gallery. ''''e n ext wante d to know a/:lout th e position o[ lhe Lower P assage, whi c h had b ee n explore d on th e first trip into th e Bi g Room in F ebrua r y 194 0 As our tim e w as geuing short w e d ec id e d lO s p end only one afternoon on this survey. To ex p edile matte r s w e d ec id e d not to haul th e transit down there throug h the downpour which r a in s into th e Cascade Pit, but r athe r to sun' ey th e passage with a n army compass, a h and l eve l a carpenter's rule, and th e t a p e Fro m the Bi g Bite sta tion 1 4 we lo cate d a n ew station numbe r e d 1 3 high above the K ey hole beside Hubbard Pinna cl e, wh e re w e could set th e transit. H e r e w as anothe r station whe r e the o bs e rv e r had to hold a rope and lean ou t over the brink to p ee k through the t e l esco p e From 1 3 we could sight s te eply down, over the bottom of the C asca d e Pit and over the P a nc a kes with their continual r a in of wa-ter, to a dry s ta tion 161 feet away n ea r the east wall. This one m easure m ent was so long and through so muc h water that w e preferred not to us e and muddy the steel tapes Inasmuch as it was of secondary importance w e chose r athe r to get this dista nc e with a cord whose l ength we compared with the lapes further on in one of the straight sections of the Lower Passage. Sev e n more sights took liS all the way through to the end of the Lowe r P assage a t the top of J aco b 's Ladder. This line ende d the surveying we did in April 1942 Tom, on the other hand, had spent m a n y hours before and afte r this session making meas ure m e nts of the rooms and the positions of things wi th resp ec t to the prima r y survey From his copious notes of these rneasurements h e put the Hesh on the s k e l eton of the line survey. This work, howeve r will h ave to b e l e ft for him to d escribe tilt so m e othe r time. 51

PAGE 56

One pan o f th e c a ve which we would h ave lik e d to h a \ 'e put o n the map m o r e comple t e l y i s the Grind Ca n yo n This Canyon ca n b e e n t e red by wi gg lin g d ow n fr ol11 the bottom oE the Casca d e Pit thro u g h Lowell's Rib Fiddle along with the water whic h drains out of the north end o [ the Big Room o n its way to j oin the stream in the ca n yo n. The ca n yo n i s 25 f ee t d ee p for a l o n g way; i t a v e ra ges 2 teet wide and meanders so muc h that few places afford a stra i ght line s i ght [ o r as much as 3 0 f eet. T h e sides a r(: cove r e d with m y ri a ds o [ h e lictite n odules, which are so s h arp the)' m a k e one's bare hands sore; from thes e the ca n yo n gets its name of "Grind." A few crude string and compass m easure m ents were made a b out New Year 's Day, 1 94 1 goin g down strea m 500 feet and upstr ea m 100 feeL. T h ese s howed that the strea m flowed in a south erl y directi o n if we di s regarded t h e m eanders and that it was not direc tl y unde r a n y o[ the uther passages of t h e c a ve except a t its entranr.e. The ceiling for the last 100 fee t s lopes down to the stream l eve l and shuts off a n y furthe r ad vance in this direot ion unless o n e c h ooses t o sw im unde r water. vVe w e r e n o w eage r to l earn the results o f our w ee k 's suney and f ind out w h e th e r the v i s i o n of a sec ret back door running down [r o m the bOl tom o[ the sink could b e made a reality. T h e fir s t ste p was to d e ri ve th e azimuth of th e true n orth [rom our obse rvati o n s on Polaris, u s in g t h e tables in th e Nautica l Almanac f o r th a t particular day o [ th e yea r and those times o[ d ay at w hi c h th e o b se n a ti o n s were m a d e. From th e n on, th e azimuth o [ each s u ccess i ve s i ght was r ound by t h e c h a n ge o [ azimuth derived [rol11 hori zonta l c ircl e r eadings at each statio n. T h e n ex t step was to d e riv e both t h e h o ri zontal and \ enica l distances betwcen s u ccess i ve stations. The h o ri zo n ta l dis t a n ces were co m puted [r o m t h e tape di sta n ces a l o n g the lines o E s i ght by u s i n g tables o [ the 'lr-igonom e tri c fu n c tions o[ t h e cleva tion a n g l es, which h a d been m easure d with the vertica l c ircle. T h e venica l di s t a n ces a l o n g the lines of s i ght were compute d in a simila r manner, but to get t h e diff e r e n ces in el evatio n b e tw ee n s t atio n s a n a ccount h a d to b e taken both [or t h e h e i ght of t h e instrument ; lIld th e h e i g h t of t h e li ghts [rorn th e statio n s o n the r oc ks. T h e n ex t step was to CO III pute the three co-52 ordina tes o f each s u ccess iv e station, u s in g the zero s t a k e as th e arbitrary origin of coordina t es. Since the cave i s all south oE the entrance the three r ec t a n g ul a r coordina t es were taken as posi ti ve t o the south, th e west, and up. T h e south and west coordinates were d e ri ve d [ro m the horizontal dista n ce and azimut h o[ the f o r es i ght, b y lise of trigonome try, and summe d togethe r s uc cess i ve l y for each s tati o n. T h e verotical h eights were obtained by adding the s u ccess i ve diff er e n ces in h e igh t b e tw ee n stati o ns Following a ll the way back t o t h e end of the cave on 'th e in s id e, and ove r the surface to the sink o n the outside, we [ ound how far t h e b ot1 0 m o [ the sink was [ro m a p o in t directl y over t h e end of the cave and also how far i t w as above th e cave. The survey s h ows that the last point s ighted o n at th e ri ght side o [ the G r ea t Gall e ry beyond statio n 25 la c k s o nl y a little ove r 5 0 feet [ro m b eing directl y unde r the fir s t h o l e of the sink. Sin ce th e s m a ll c h amber b eyond this last s ight i s anothe r 30 [eet in the direction o f the h o l e, this c hamber must be o nl y a b out 20 feet from a p oint directly under it. On the othe r h and, t h e h o l es a r c 70 [ ee t above the s m a ll c h a m b e r a distan ce too far to burrow down eas il y [ o r a back e n t r a n ce. It is p oss ibl e that a w ater passag e is incline d down t o t h e small chambe r along a j oint in the rock at this s l o p e o r 20 f ee t in 70 If this i s the case, th e n p erhaps the far h o l e o [ the sink m ay drain into the continuatio n o f the G r ea t Gallery on the far side o [ the shut-ofl, and a n equ a l dis t a n ce o n [rom th e small chambe r. If this i s true, it w ould require lLInnclin g a dis t a n ce o E o nl y 38 [ ee t t o get through. It i s eve n p oss ible th a t t h e -middle vent goes t o the: far s id e, so tunneling in this direction i s intriguing. Paul i s willing to try and has already enlarge d the thin crawl p assage for more than haH its l e n gth, so that mud and sto n es ca n b e dragged out as the tunne l a d va n ces. One fact that s h ows lip ve r y clearly from the su r vey i s that the ceiling o [ the cave i s essentia ll y l eve l over its entire l e nglh Taking this into co n s id e rati o n the cei lin g i s more than 70 f ee t a b ove statio n 13. This ce ilin g, o n the oth e r hand, i s o n I y 7 5 fee t b e low s t a tio n D o n the s u dace where th e b end in the road c r osses the strea m gully. A little upstr ea m from th e road the g ull y is approx imatel y ove r the Cascade Pit and probably ac-NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 57

counts for the continual spatter of waLer dO\\"n onto th e Pancakes and the C asca d e Pit. It appears that the cave was first formed b y underground w a L e r dissolvin g th e softer lime stone a long a fault under crest of the long anticline of harder roc k The cave was subsequently fill e d almost to the ceilin g with silt. R e m a in s of this s ilt l eve l suill s h ow a l o ng th e 'iVest Passag e, into whi c h one can craw l for 100 feet to a poin t where th e sil t i s too n ea r th e ceilin g for eve n a thin p e rson to proc ee d further. R emains of thi s silt l eve l a l so ex ist the entire l e ngth of th e Upper Passage fr o m th e Entrance Room LO the .lumping-Off Place; the n again in the small p as sage from the south end of the Big Room LO the Hodag Room; ag ain in th e l o ng e r pa ssage from Lhe Rodag Room to the Para p e t at the north end of the Thunderbolt R oo m ; and finall y on the Second Balcony b e tw ee n the Thunderbolt Room and the Grea t Gall e ry. At a still l a t e r Lime t h e warp-r coming in from the surface found its way down to streams at a Illuch l ower l eve l s u c h as the Grind C a nyon SLrea m, and wash e d out the silt to form rooms. As the surface SLreams c h a n ge d th eir l ocations, th e rooms b eca m e large r. This process has tak e n a very long tim e, as is shown b y the [ ac t that so m e of th e present mud slopes are cove r e d with flow-ston e icings that h ave taken thousands of yea rs to build up to the ir present thickness. The crude survey of t h e Lower Pas sage showed that it i s far from b e in g directly unde r Lhe upper one, altho ugh the Sand Roo m in th e Lower Passag e corresponds LO the wid ening of the Uppe r and doubtless is due to a softer rock in that plane Another thing the survey of the BULLETIN NUlVIBER 12, NOVE-r,1BER 1950 Lowe r Pas sage indica tes i s that the d ee p En trance Room was f orme d b y material dropping down from it inLo the n orth end of th e Dome Room. The present distance from the bottom o f Lhe Entrance Room Lo th e top of J aco bs L adde r at the end of th e Dome R oo m i s about 25 feet. To summa riz e th e whole survey, it has been shown that the shut-off a t the end of the Great G a ll e r y w as ca used b y the empLy in g of th e s ink but Lhat the distance down from th e surface i s too g r ea t for a ny amateur excavato r s to di g a n enrance either to the known part of the cave or to the continuation that probably lies b eyo nd it. How long a p art of the cave i s fill e d b y this intrusion is m e rel y a matter of s p eculation g u esses vary from a f ew feet up to a hundre d. In a s imil a r manne r it i s p oss ibl e that a continuo ation of Lower P assage m ay have be e n sea l e d at th e far end of the Dome Room b y the m a t e ri a l which came down whe n the bi g Entrance Room was form e d. The ceilin g of th e cave was found to be a t esse ntiall y th e same l eve l ov e r its entire l ength, and the chambers of diff e r ent sizes va r y vertically on l y in the d epth to which they h ave bee n cut below the ceiling b y water eros ion. The Oas ca d e Pit i s not only the d ee pest but h as the mos t w a ter falling into it, and furthermore it was round to lie unde r the wate r course now on th e surface Following a long the qirection of th e anticline b eyond the s ink for a few hundre d f ee t th e r e is anothe r larger w a t e r co urs e unde r which w e m ay expec t another bi g room. This and ot.he r feaLures await th e explore r when SOln e wa y can b e found, or made, for him to get to th e m. 53

PAGE 58

51J ..., Dll(lfh' F{'ll t h e r.'il o nlwllgh Stud y of solution-fomo varicties of fo. olllations shie ld s, massivc fio\\"ston e, C lJIotajn s and stalacti tes forlll an inleteslin;:, stud y in Gnmd Cave.ons, G ooUoes, Vi.ogo inhto NATJONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 59

C A V E MAP PIN G By A. C. SWINNERTON PTOfessor of Geo l ogy, Antioch College One of the II1Ust important contributions which can b e made to speleological science i s th e C017stni c tio n of accurate maps of existing C(lvems The author, 0 recogni zed outhOl 'ity on kant topography and limes tone t en-ones, IJresen ts h e l'ein sUlI1e vaillable sugges tions t o the c ave enthusias t which will enabl e him to per f or m this necessary C(/1"togmphic tunction with (I minimum of equipment and knowledge. One o f th e i m portant w ays in w hi c h spe lun k ers can ass ist with the solutio n of some of the sc i e ntifi c probl e m s r e latin g L O caves i s b y provid ing ske t c h m aps. Pro fessi o n a l sc i entis t s can visit o nl y a limite d numbe r of caves, but when more cave maps, including Lhose m a d e b y exploration hobbyi s ts, become availabl e th e professional can v i sit the m appe d caves by proxy. Mapping a cave for sc i e n ce i s not th e only r easo n a cave r s hould learn to map. A sketc h map, draw n ca refull y and to sca l e, record s the fact that a cave h as b ee n explored th oroug hly, not jus t clambere d into, and s h ows v i v idl y and in correct dime n s i o n s a ll th e n o teworth y [ea tures. A simple o u tl i n e plan i s u s u a ll y n o t e n o u g h ; accuracy in dime n s i o n s and e levati o n are r equire d and this ca n not be ac hi eve d by g u ess Altho u g h mapping n ee d not be diffi cult, it does require time. Mapping ca n be fun and m eeting th e c h a ll e n ge of careful accura r cy and patie n ce brings a tremendous se nse o f acco m plishme nt. The m a p o f a cave has for it s purpose the representatio n o f the cave o n a pi ece of paper with its va ri o u s parts h av in g the sa m e m easure abl e relationship t o eac h oLhe r as in nature. A cave is a more diffi cult mapping problem th a n a terrain because th e cave i s entire l y e ncl ose d ; a cave m a p must s h ow th e dime n s i o n s and form of the inside of a comple t e h o ll ow The diff er e n ce between a 1I1(lP and a s h e t c h map i s that the l atter d oes not preLend t o the sa m e accuracy as the form e r. A m a p made wi th e n g i n ee ri n g 111-"' Edilors n Ole : For ano th e r arti cle o n this s uhjec t see Cave and l apping. h y Wi l1ialll E /lllllr'lill N ill/ ', N S.S .. Se p!. pp. 1 7. BULl.ETI N NUMBER 12, NOVEMBER 1950 struments s h ould g i ve distances to a f raction of an inc h. T h e meth ods described in this article w i II not m a k e a cartographer ou t of the average p erso n but th ey should e nabl e him to draw an outline that i s accura t e to a f ew feet. So t h ese t echniques a r e reall y map s k e t ching rather tha n mappin g, but i f carefull y practice d g i ve results that are very useful. 1. The fir st s L e p in a n y kind of map s k e t ching I S to survey the w h o l e cavern in order t o ge t a compr e h e n s ive idea of s ize and ge neral shape. You will then know w h a t sca l e to se l ect. Sca l e i s very important for it expresses the dimen s i o n a l relations betwee n the map and the cave T h e sca l e s h ould be c h ose n with prac ti ca l con s id e rations in mind. The l a r ge r th e sca l e the m o r e accurate th e m ap; but yo u do n o t want a sca l e so large th a t th e m a p i s bigger than your piece o f paper. For example, i f your paper is 10 x 1 2 in c h es, i f the cave i s a l o n g n arrow cav ern 2,000 feet l o n g, and if yo u c h ose a sca l e whic h represents 100 fee t of cave distance by I inc h o n the m a p, then th e m a p of the cave would be 20 inc hes l o n g and would "run off" th e p a p er. On th e oth e r h and if yo u select I inc h e q u a l to 1 000 f ee t th e cave map w ill b e only 2 inc h es l o n g and will be too small. So som e thing in between, like 1 inc h equals 25 0 feet, making the cave m a p 8 in c hes l o ng, will g i v e good proportion and allow for a marginal border and bbeling. Of course, yo u can L a k e advantage of a l a r ge sca l e b y mapping th e cave in sect i o n s and put the sect i o n s togeth e r w h e n co m p leted. 55

PAGE 60

As p art o f the r econnaissa nce you should se l ec t at l eas t a few s t a tion s w h e r e late r you are going t o make your o bser v ati o ns. D oing this will est a bli s h a pla n o r a t l eas t an approximate r oute t o follow. A ft e r a little experie n ce the c h o o s in g o f s tati o n s and r oute will become al m os t intuitive and will e n able you to map effici ently One simple way of d elinea tin g a cave i s to survey a line a l ong the cente r o f th e bottom of th e cave and the n impose on this framework a n outline and a series of c r oss sec ti o n s and a longi tudina l secti o n. S u c h a r epresenta tion if ca r e f ully made, ca n serve many purposes espec ially if the cente r Ii n e and sectio n s g i v e the changes in e l evation. A somew h a t m o r e comple t e s k e t c h map ca n be draw n i f the contour principle i s applie d. I[os t s p e l eo lo g i s t s h ave used the topog r aphic maps of the Unite d S t a tes G e ologi ca l Surveyor o th e r go v ernment (tgenr.ie.s and a r e fa mili a r with the brown contour lines w hi c h a r e us e d to sho w th e e l eva ti o n a b ove sea l eve l as w ell a s the s h a p e of hill s and va ll eys. R epresenting ca v erns b y contours i s jus t as simple as r epre s enting a l a nd sca p e, but reading a contour m a p of a ca ve i s n o t as easy as r eading th e contour s of a vall e y For the cave i s lik e a va ll ey c o ve r e d b y a roof. And th e r eade r i s apt t o ge t the vall ey contours mi xe d with the r oof contours Once the prin c ip l e i s mast e r e d and so m e ex p erie nce h as b ee n ga in e d in cave rnco n to u r reading, the contour m a p i s idea l for induc in g a menta l image o f the cav e. S ince the outline sec ti o n m ethod is s irnpl e r th a n contouring th e former will b e discussed firs t. Contouring d e p ends basi call y on the p r in c iples used in th e o u tlin e-sec ti o n t echn iqu e so t h a t meth o d s h ould b e l earne d first. The equip m ent i s th e sa m e for either method and a f e w words w ill be d evo t e d to w h a t h as to b e done in m a p s k etching and w hat in struments are n ee d e d t o m a k e o b serva ti ons both easy and accura t e The e l e m e nts of mapping are fourfold: l e v e l, d i r ec ti o n dis t a nce a n d s l ope. Yo u h ave t o b e a bl e to t e ll w n e n an obj ect or a line i s l eve l ; you h ave t o yo u rself a n d d e t ermine the di rec ti o n o f a lin e of s i ght; yo u h ave to measure dis t a n ces accuratel y eve n to inaccess ibl e points; and yo u h ave t o be a bl e to measure a vertica l a n gle a b ove or be l ow th e h o rizonta l. The r e are 56 o ther things whic h supplement th ose f our r equi s i tes bu t the f o u r are suffi c i e n t t o produce a sa ti s f ac t o r y s k e t c h m a p. Simple instruments a r e a va il a bl e f o r all of th e s e d e t ermina ti o ns; s o me ca n b e home m a d e. For t e llin g whe n a n objec t i s a t th e sa m e l eve l as your eye the r e i s the h and l eve l ; it ca n a l so b e used to l eve l your work t a bl e T h e .direc ti o n of a n objec t ca n b e told b y a compass, p refe r a bl y o n e with squa r e sides and a sighting d ev i ce; i f th e compass does n o t h ave s i g hts a tri a n g ular ruler ca n b e used fo r direc t io n s i ghting. Dis t a n ces ca n b e measure d direc tl y b y a s t e el t a pe; but inacce ssibl e obj ec t s ca n b e loca t e d b y tri a n g u l ation or their di s t a n ces can b e measure d b y u s in g a s m all r a n ge finder lik e thos e us e d with ca m e r as, but p r efe r a bly m e a suring up t o 500 o r 1 000 fee t The a n g l e o f a sloping line ca n b e m easure d b y a clino m e t e r-some comp asses a r c equippe d w i t h the m If you ca n t buy o n e c h eaply, m a k e o n e A s i x in c h squa r e board a protrac t o r a thumb t ac k a short piece o f s t ring and a small w e i ght like a fishing line sinker a r e all tha t are r equire d In addition you will n ee d p e n c ils, e r ase r a couple of pins, a protrac t o r Sco t c h t a p e or thumb t ac ks. Mapping co n s i s t s o f applying t h e f our s e p a r a t e f ac t o r s of l eve l direc tion, di s t a nce and s l o pe, r e l a tin g the m and recording the m on a p i ece of p a p e r. The eas iest way to do the r eco rd in g i s t o draw the m a p a s yo u m a k e it. A fla t board lik e a brea d board to whic h you h ave fixe d a soc k e t so it ca n b e attached t o a sturdy ca m e r a tripo d i s a co nv enient w ork t a bl e. In m a p p in g the board and tripo d combinatio n is know n as a pl a n e t a ble. F as t e n the pape r to the board with S co t c h t a p e or thumb t ac k s and yo u a r e r ea d y to sta rt. II. H av in g m a d e a quic k survey, k eeping in mind a t enta ti ve sel ec tion of principa l s t a ti o n s and route and having d ecide d on a n appr opri a t e sca le, yo u ca n b eg in ac tu a l m apping. The first s tep i s t o set up the pl a n e t able. The t able top s h ould b e l eve l ; thi s ca n b e c h e cked and aclj u ste d b y u s in g t h e bubble o f the h and l eve l o r b y th e clin o m e t er. Chec k the l eve l in various di rec ti o ns. NATIONAL SPE LEOLOGICAL SOCI E T Y

PAGE 61

Orient the table by placing the compass parallel to one eage ot the board and turl1lng tue table until t11e e dge IS Horth and sou tn. Marl<. thIS dlrecuon wah a line and indicate clearly which end of tne l1ne is nort11. This is vel-Y important since working underground is not like surface mapping and it is easy to l ose track of your orientatlon. No map is so hopeless as one in which the directions are reversed. If you are in a region in which magnetic north (i.e. north by the compass needle) is different from true north you can do either one of two things: adjust the compass (if it is adjustable) so as to give true north readings, or make your map on magnetic orientation and when it is finished indicate by appropriate arrows the mag netic and true bearings. The latter plan is the simpler and is just as accurate. In fact it may be more accurate for an inexperienced person, as even those who ought to know better, are apt to adjust the cornpass in the wrong direction. Orienting one e dge of the table north-south is not a bsolutely necessary If the proposed Illap will fit better if the north-south line is at an angle, then draw a north-south line and place an edge of the compass on that for orientation. But, l e t me repeat, be sW e to mark th e north end of tlte line. Actually maps can be drawn without using a cornpass, by orienting a long the sight lines between stations, a proceeding called backsighting". But this requires skill and ex perience and since a compass is part of the caver's usual equipment it might as well be used 111 mapping. After leveling and orienting the board, select a point on the paper to represent th e spot in th e cave where the tripod is l ocated. Put a fine p e n ci l dot on the pape r; this is "Station 1 and should be so marked. Next put a common pin firmly through the dot and place your sighting devic e against the pin and s ight toward some object which is to be r epresented on the map. Take time to sight accurate l y and to check to b e sure the edge of the s ighting d ev ice is against the pin.' When the sight direction is accurate, draw a fine lin e from the pin in th e dil 'ec tion of th e object. Then take the range finder and d e termine the distance to the object. If good accu racy is desir e d take at least three readings of the distance and ave rage them. By refere nce to the sel ected sca le, mark off th e distanc e on the BULLETIN NUMBER 1 2, NOVE1'vfBER 1950 pencil lin e. If your scale is 1 inch eq uals 250 fee t and if th e range finder readings s h ow the object is 375 feet away, the n your mark should be 11/2 inches from the pin and on th e p e n c il e d s i ghtlin e The object has then b een lo ca t e d and should be labe l e d "A" and either li ste d on the map m a rgin or directly besid e the object. 1 the object i s not on the same l eve l as the plane tabl e and you wish to determine the differ e nce in level, tak e the compass, it has a clino m e t er, or your s lop e bo a rd, sigh t th e object and determine the angle of the sight lin e a bove (o r b e low) th e horizontal. 1 the a ngle is 5 refer ence to trigonometric tables (si nes) will tell yo u that you multiply th e 375 foot distance b y .087 and that the diff ere nce in e lev ation i s therefo r e 35.225, or approximately 35 feet. For r e asonable accuracy you must add the h e i ght of th e tabl e or whatever your sighting position was. S ee Figure 1. You should also r emembe r that your first sight line is not horizonta l and the range find e r distance should b e cor r ec t e d by a small amount. The correction factor is found in the table of cosines, and turns o u t to be 996. The true, hori zonta l distance is therefo r e 375 x .996 or 373.5 feet instead of 375. See Figure I. If the a n g l e i s l a rg e r the amount of correction b ecomes more important. If your mapping program i s like l y to involv e th ese calculations it w ill be u sef ul to compile a sma ll tabl e of factors for both vertica l and hori zontal di s tance sllc h as the ( ollow in g : --10 --------, ________ .. _ _________ ______ J F E Fig. 1. S I,etch to illustl'ate t h e pl'in c ip! e of detel'min ing elevation. The line TA i s the lin e of sight from t h e plane table T to the top of hU'ge stalagmite A. The angl e ATD is meaSUl'erl by t h e s lope board, The dill'er e nce in e levation betwee n t h e point of obsen'ation aud A is AD; the height above the floor F i s AE. T h e s l,etch also s hows that the I'augefinrlel' distance TA, i s l o n gel' than the map di stance, TO. 57

PAGE 62

Table I. When Sight Distance is 1,000 Feet H or i zonta l Vertical Angle Distance Distance (cosine x 1,000) (sine x 1,000) 3 999 52 5 996 87 7 992 121 9 987 156 lID 982 191 1 3 974 225 1 5 966 259 If the sight distance is more or less than 1,000 f ee t multiply by the number o f f ee t and mark off three d ecima l places; for example, if th e a n g l e is 9 and the sight distance is 330 feet, th e first step will be 330 times 987 or 325721, th e n marking off three places, 325.721 or 326 f ee t ; the vertica l dist a nce will be 330 x 156 e q u a l s 51480 or 51.480 feet. To ge t b ac k to Station 1 and cave mapping: Point A ca n n ow b e relocated on the sight line if the corrected horizontal dista n ce is signifi cantly diff e r ent from the range finder distance It s h ould a lso b e m arke d 1 + 35" if above Sta tion 1 or 1 35" if below. Now sele c t other points and after checking the orientation of the t a ble, r e p ea t the direction s i ghting, range finding, clinome t e r sighting, the calc ul a ti o n of diff ere n ce in e le vation and hori zontal di s t a n ce corr ection of each in turn. This may see m lik e a tediou s c h o r e but o nc e learned it goes quickly and automatically. Afte r spotting in a d oze n or more points, cor r e c tly located as to dist a nce and e l eva tion, there comes th e problem o f s k e t ching in the cave out lin e. 'Whic h part of the cave wall will you select? Us ually the procedure i s to im agine a horizonta l plane and approximate its intersection with the wa l ls, draw in g th e outline with your vari o u s l oca t e d points to guide th e line. Sometimes one o u tlining lin e i s not e n o u g h So m e tunnels are tre n c h e d and th e locati o n o f the trench in the floo r of th e tunne l m ay b e s i g nifi cant. A finer o r a bro k e n lin e ca n be used bu t the feature so r epresente d s h ould b e distinctly labe l e d. An othe r person reading your map ca n t b e a llow e d t o g uess; h e must b e told. Now yo u are ready t o mo ve to Station 2.Befor e m ov ing, c h ec k your table and location 58 carefully. Is everything l eve l and oriented as it should be? Can you find the exact spot again? Have yo u l oca t e d where St ation 2 is to be and do you h ave it marked both on the ground and on your m ap? If eve r ything is in order, mov e your plane tabl e to Station 2, s e t up, l eve l and orien t for th e n ew series of sighting shots. To co nfirm the correctness of your table orientation and to b e sure yo u h ave not rev e rs e d your orien t ation put your sighting d ev ic e on the line from Station I to Station 2 and sight back. Does Station I fall exac tl y on the line of s ight? If not, something is wrong; yo u should correct the error befor e yo u go further. If the direction is rig ht, tak e a range-find e r reading to check the distance. It is p articularly important that your primary stations b e correctly located otherwise the secondary points will not be in their proper relation to eac h other. After yo u h ave checked the position of Sta tion 2 by b ac k-sighting on St ation 1, look for so m e of th e points sighted from St ation 1. Sight to these same points and measure their distance with the range finder. You now have th ree loca tions for each point: the sight and distance from Station I, th e sight and distance from Station 2 and the point wh ere th e two sight lines inteTSect. This l ast point has b ee n lo ca t e d by the m ethod known as triangulation. (See Figure 2 ) Unless you are more accurate t h a n most huma n b eings these three points will not quite coincide,-N SDFeet Fig-. 2 Pa,tly completed s l { etch m[tp of hypothetica. 1 PigCave, showingsig-ht lines from Stations 1 !tnd 2 and the outline s l {etched in. Note the tliang-ulation fOl points Band C, Magnetic NOlth anow and the bal scal e NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 63

almost, but not quite The cor r ect position i s somewhere b e tw ee n th e three p o in ts; the r eso lu tion of this problem i s hi g hl y t echnica l but in ordinary prac tice th e correc t position ca n be approximated by draw i n g a tri a n g l e between th e poin t s and estim a tin g the cen ter of the tri a n g le. Us u a ll y yo u ca n correct your points by inspec tion. Now that yo u h ave estab li s h e d Station 2, backsighted, triangulated, correc t e d your points and m a d e other n ecessary adjus tm ents s u c h as modifying th e s h a p e of the outlines, b eg in lo cat in g n ew points as yo u did at Station l. Pi c k up th e l oose ends of th e outlines and continue th e m as far as yo u ca n arou nd and beyond Sta ti o n 2 Then move on t o Station 3. By this tIm e yo u should have sel ec t ed o n e o r more places where the walls, roof and floor show either characteristic s h apes or spec i a l features which yo u wish t o r epresent in a c ross sect ion. Such a sec ti o n is the outline w hi c h the cave would make on a vertical plane cutting throug h th e cavern. In a sense it is a verti ca l m a p. Some times the sect i o n lin e w ill run thro u g h one of the primary s t a ti o ns; h owever those s t a tion s a r e se l ec ted m ainly for wide v i sibility and th e sec tions for th eir profiles. So don' t ex p ec t t o use the stations for making the sec tions but est ab lish special poin ts. 'i!\Th e n yo u have selec ted a point w h ere yo u wish t o draw a cross sect i o n set up the plane tabl e as if yo u were a t a primary stati o n. Locate yourself on the m ap. Select and s i ght the section lin e and draw it on the m ap, marking it "Sec ti o n I ". Select a blank area on the map, put a pencil dot near the cen ter of the space t o repre sent your observation point and draw a horizon tal line throug h the dot. Now with your clinometer or s lope board s i ght to the critical points (i.e. c h a n ges in s lope o r spec i a l features) close to th e section lin e and read the a n g les. 'i!\Tith your protractor layoff eac h a n g l e from the horizontal lin e, the d o t serving as the center. Next with the range finder (or t a pe) m easure th e d i s tan ces to th e sam e points; scale the m off o n th e s i ght lines. Now yo u are r eady to sketc h in the sectio n u s in g the c ri tica l p oints as a guide. (See F i gure 3.) As yo u s k etc h yo u may n ee d t o take a noth e r shot o r two to fill in a n uneven part of th e sec ti o n It i s better to h ave too m a n y p oints than not e n o u g h. Be sure that you mark th e sides of the section b y l etters or compass BULLETIN NUMBER] 2 NOVEMBER] 950 directions so that it is not reversed. If you draw more than one cross sect ion, it I S a good id ea t o li ne them up o n the paper so lhat th e e l eva ti o n s agree, from one sectio n to the n ext. This procedure w ill give vividly the u p hill or down hill tre nd of the cavern. Sometimes a l e ngthwise sec tion of the cave should a l so be s h ow n. A t this point, if yo u h ave stayed with it, you are beginning to d eve lop some self-assura n ce. You will fee l that you can skip some of th e c h e c kin g and re-checking. Perhaps you can but watch out One incorrect sta tion orientati on and your map is worthless. It i s better to take a minute to c h eck than to waste the work of sev eral hours or days. Once a mistake is incorpor,.__ c I --_. I I I I "' 1 N .. . ----B--..... \ "', S \ Sc1dio,., line 1 so Feet F ig. 3. Hypothetical Pig C:Lv e with 1II0st of the s i ght lines omitted. Two cI'ossseC't i o n points a r e located l-CS a n d 2 -('S, also t wo sectio n lines, 1 and 2, with the ends mal'li e d wi t h appI'oximate dit -ections. Cross sect:on 1 s hows the s i g h t lines and I"lLllg' e p oints Both sec' tions s how dil'ection nUlI'li s, Nand S. The dilfmence in obsel'vation-p oint e levati o n s i s indicated. The sam e scale i s used 1"01' e a c h secti o n a s 1"0\' the sl{etch lIIa p. a t e d in th e map it i s very difficult to l oca t e it and even h a rder t o r eadj ust th e part of the map that foll ows. III. T h e con t our s k etc h map adds to the map the co n tinuous e l e men t of e levation and thus aids the imag inati o n in picturing th e cavern. Con tour lines a r e lines draw n a t specific l eve ls. In the outline m apping it was s u gges ted that the outlin e be s k etc hed in as if a hori zon t a l plane inte r ected the cave wa ll s A lin e so drawn i s in r eality a contour. In contour mapping severa l 59

PAGE 64

s u c h l eve l s or h o rizonLa l pl a nes a r e used e a c h s u ccess ive o n e se p a r a t e d b y the sa m e di s t a nce, i .e., the conto u r inte r va l. In m aking a s k e t c h m a p with contours you p rocee d e x actly as d escribe d in the outline m a p ping until the outlining s t age i s r e a c h e d T h e n co mes th e sel ec ti o n of a n approp r i a t e contour inte r va l tha t is, the vertica l distance b e tw ee n t h e imagin ary h o rizonta l pl a nes w hi c h inte r sec t the wall s and obj ec t s o [ th e cave. This c h o ice i s lik e sel ec tin g th e sca l e T h e m o r e contours ( th e s m a ller the contour inte r va l ) the m o r e accura t e i s the resulting m a p. But a m a p ca n b e so o v e r c r owde d with lines th a t it i s n o t l eg ible; and a goo d m a p, lik e a goo d s t o ry, ca n l e a v e so m ething [ o r th e imagin a ti o n t o fill in provide d the c riti ca l c h a n ges a r e d e finit e l y clear. A little experi e n ce w ill soo n indicate w h a t co n stitutes a n app ropria t e c ontour inte r va l for a s p e cifi c cave. P ossibly a t e n -foo t interva l i s a goo d one t o t r y a t fir s t ; yo u ca n see r a th e r quic kl y w h ethe r your m a p w ill f a il to s h o w suffic i ent d e t a il o r p erha p s w h ethe r a 20 f oo t in terval w ill suffice A highly prec ise contourm a p m a k e r will go t o so m e trouble to d e termine the e x ac t e l e vati o n a b ove sea l eve l o f some p oint within the cave. Contours ca n the n be d raw n with re f e r e n ce t o thi s b e n c h m ark and the cave m a p ca n b e comp a red directly with m a p s of the gTound surface overhea d If a b a r o m e ter i s availa bl e the e l eva ti o n of St a ti o n I ca n be determine d within a few feet whic h f o r m a n y purposes i s accura t e e n o u g h H o w e v e r i f nothing i s kn ow n a b out th e a bsolu te e l eva ti o n yo u can s till procee d with contour mapping S e l ec t so m e p o in t as the r e f e r e nce p oint for e l eva ti o n This i s know n as your d atum p oint o r datu m Ass i g n so m e arbitra r y e l eva ti o n t o i t : 0, 500, ] ,000, a n y numbe r. S o me thing l a r ge r th a n zer o i s u s u ally c h ose n simply t o avoid minus numbers w h e n yo u go t o a l owe r e l eva ti o n T h e eas iest thing t o d o i s t o sel ec t St a ti o n I as th e d atum p oint and, unless a n a b solute d atum has b ee n est a bli s h e d b y a b e n c h m ark, th a t i s u s u a ll y a sen s ibl e way t o start. Y o u ca n a l ways t i e in your d atum with the outs id e wo rl d and t h a t i s a good thing to do, b y u s in g t h e method s a l rea d y d escribe d. T here are t wo ways t o find out w h e r e a contour lin e s h ould be draw n: ( 1 ) b y direc t o b 60 servatio n and (2) b y inte rpol a ti o n. The fir s t i s simplest but i s so m etimes h a rd to d o; the second r equire s a smaJJ a m ount o f m athematics. B oth m e th o d s can b e used to ge th e r. The direc t o bser va ti o n method ca n s t art b y assuming that the top of th e plane t a bl e a t St a tion I i s datum. L ay th e hand l eve l on t h e t a bl e and, b e in g sure th e bubble indica tes l eve l sca n th e cave. Ever ything cut b y the c ross-hair i s o n th e d atum contour. Sel ec t a numbe r of r ecog nizabl e p o ints s i ght th eir direction with your s i ghting dev i ce, draw t h e s i ght line s o n th e m a p ; use th e range finder t o find their dis t a n ces m ark th ese o n th e s i ght lines from Stati o n 1. The n o bser v in g th e change s in s h a p e o f the w a lls, s k e t c h in a line connec tin g all o f the p oints a t d atum e l eva ti o n. This line i s your fir s t conto u r. Unless a dark p assage o r an entra n ce interrupts the lin e it should b e a continuo u s line and close o n itself. It i s essentia ll y a horizonta l sectio n. Dra win g th e second contour m ay not b e so easy, s in ce yo u have to find a s p o t whe r e the t a bl e t o p is jus t 10 f ee t (o r wh a t eve r contour in t e rv a l you h ave s el ec t e d ) a b o v e (o r b e l ow) wh e r e it wa s a t St ation 1. The idea l situation w ould be to have a s p o t dire ctl y ove r Statio n I but thi s i s u s u ally imposs ibl e The n ew set -up mus t b e ti e d into Sta ti o n I b y direc tion and di s t a n ce and mi ght b e desi g n a t e d "Sta tion I -X". H av in g gotte n set-up and o ri ente d r e p ea t th e h and l e vel scanning, find p oints o n th e d a tumplus-10 (or d a tum-minus-IO ) l eve l, s i ght and r a n ge them, plot the m on the map and s k e t c h in contour numbe r two. Can yo u g o o n from this point for the third, fourth and r emaining co n tours? The m e th o d o f interpo l a ti o n m a kes use o f a ll o f the p o i nts prev i o u s l y l oca t e d o n the m ap. T h e ir p os iti o n and eleva ti o n in resp ec t t o S ta ti o n 1 a r e alrea d y d e t ermine d but p r obably the e l eva tion s d o n o t m a t c h th e e l ev ati o ns c h ose n [ o r your contours. H oweve r th e kn o wn e l eva ti o n s can b e used b y interpo l a ti o n in this w ay: If th e r e i s a uniform s l o p e b e tw ee n t w o p oints, wh a t eve r fr actio n o f th e di s t a nce yo u go b e tw ee n the p oints yo u w ill a l so h ave clim be d (o r descende d ) th e sam e fr ac ti o n o f their altitude diff e r e n ce For e x ample, suppose p oint M i s +35 f ee t and p oint i s +25, th e n h a lf way b e t wee n NATION A L SPEL EOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 65

the two p oints it will b e +30 feet i f the slope be tween th e m is unifo rm. (See Figure 4A.) !,/-t35 '" 30 A Fig. 4 Locat. ion of co ntoUl' J)oint s by intel'JlOla, tioJl. See text for d etaile d explanat ion. To t a ke another example: Let's say point R is +42 feet and S is +55, where d o yo u find the +50 point in orde r t o l oca t e th e +50 contour? (See Figure 4B.) Assuming a n eve n s l o p e be tw ee n Rand S, yo u proce e d thi s way: The dif fC:'r e n ce between 55 and 42 i s 13; the 50 foot point i s then 5/1 3 of the way (r o m 55 to 42. So on your m ap, m easure the di s t a nce b e tw ee n R and S and place the point f o r 50 feet 5 / 1 3 of th e dista n ce from S. Be sure it i s 5 / 1 3 from S n o t fr o m R. Now a m o r e complica t e d problem: Suppose p oint F i s +15 and G i s +33. If your contour inte r va l is ]0 feet, t wo contour points li e be tw ee n F and G; how d o you l oca te th em? Aga in, 13lJl.LETIN NUMBER 12, NOVEMBER 19 50 if th e s lope i s uniform, it i s easy ( S e e Figure 4C.) The differe nce betwee n F an d G i s 18. The 2 0 foo t point i s 5 above 15, so it will fall on th e lin e b e tween F and G 5 / 1 8 of the distance froll1 F. The 3 0 foot poi nt i s 3 less th a n G, so it wi II b e 3 / J 8 from G toward F. That conditio n of interpol a ti on-if the s l o p e i s unifonn-is of course se ld o m m e t when yo u a r e d ea lin g with th e wall s o f caves. It se r ves, h owever, as a fir st approximati o n ; yo u ca n pro ceed o n the assumptio n of uniform s lope and aft e r comparing the actual s lope with th e im agi n a r y uniformity yo u ca n adjust the contour point. In ord e r to ai d your ability t o esti m ate th e correc t posi ti o n s it m ay b e goo d practice to s k e t c h occas i o n ally, the profile of th e cave wa ll to sca l e and m easure off wh e re the contour points co m e. I t i s in esti m a tin g th e positions of the co n t our points and in s ketching in the lines co n n ec tin g th e points of equa l contour e levati on, th a t the r ea l sk ill and art of the map m a ker a r e r e q uire d At the start it i s best t o plot many points, more tha n yo u think yo u n ee d in ord e r t o d eve l o p your contouring sen se IV. F o r a n illustration of w h a t ca n be d o n e u s in g the t wo m e th ods tog e th e r l oo k a t Figure 5. This shows a s k e t c h map made with only the in strume n ts m e n tion e d. Note that the contour inte r va l i s 25 f ee t but the contours are accom p anie d b y c r oss sect i o n s which h elp the map r ea d e r im ag in e the fissure form a t the south end m erging into th e tunnel form at the north end. The prese n ce of sea water in the cave was idea l for establishing th e e l eva tion datum. Possibl y a ( e w ge n e r a l r e mark s should be m a d e about h ow to e n sure th a t your comple ted map w ill be of va lu e both t o yo u and so m eo n e else. ''''ith your map in your hand, go quic kl y through th e cave, c h ec kin g th e ge n e ral orientation. Does your map s h ow that the turns bend in the sa m e direct i o n as they actually do? Do the contours indicat e up hill and down the way the c ave goes up and down? N ext co n s id e r the s h apes and s izes. Does o n e sec ti o n o f the m a p r epresent that part of the cave as s m a ll ; is it r ea ll y s m a ll? Sometimes ge n e ral c h ec ks of these kinds will unearth surpris in g and disco n cer tin g erro r s in your map. 61

PAGE 66

J "JV ,I \Jo .- 0 Fig, ii, S l, e t c h lIIap made in Aug u s t 19-18, u sing' both {'on t ol!I' s ,tnd C I OSS sections Contours w el'e dnLwn 1'01' sea l e v e l (SL), + :!5 and + 50 ; at the exke m e nOIth end of the cave a + I i contoul' W,tS Pll t in to show : t low ceilin g bnlllch. Vsing' an odd contolll' is onlinal'j)y no t good pla ctic e. S ince you will w i s h t o k ee p the o ri g in a l m a p as th e ba s i c r ecord, you s h ould m a k e a trac in g o f th e outlines and sec ti o ns, omitting' the s i ght lines and o th e r working lines and n o tes. Su c h a trac in g can h a v e a n y d eg r ee o [ profess i o n a l fin i s h yo u w i s h to put o n it. It ca n b e blue-p rinte d at a n omina l cos t and co pies ca n b e m a d e ava il able t o your fri end:, to N.S.S. files or an y wh o a r e inte r este d To b e of h elp t o a n othe r p erso n the fini s h ecl m a p mus t s h ow the sca le, th e direc ti o n a l o ri e n ta tio n and t h e conto u r inte r v al. If y ou assume d a n e l eva ti o n d a tum, lIsed a b a r o m e t er, or est a b li s h e d a b e n c h m a rk wh a t eve r yo u did s h ould be m a d e c r ysta l cle a r so th a t th e m a p r ea der w ill know h ow t o judge th e e l evatio ns, S o m e times it 6 2 i s important to know the date o f m applllg, s o a d a t e s h ould b e s h ow n. Whe n a ll i s said and d o ne, it i s not the pro fessi o n a l fini s h tha t counts, all the fin e drawing and p erfec t l e tt ering 'will not m a ke up f o r a n in acc urat e m a p It is b ette r t o t a k e ti m e to achieve accura rcy tha n t o dress up the appear a n ce. H oweve r legibility i s second only t o accu r acy w h e n j t co mes t o u sefulness. "Vh a t g o o d i s a n accurate m a p if it ca n n o t b e read ? S o a s yo u tr y mapping and co m e t o e nj o y it, remembe r o th e r s m ay find d a t a and c h a r ac t e ri s tics of im pOl' t a n ce in th e cave on th e basi s of your m a p. How to Make a Slope Board Place a cellulo id o r cardboard protrac t o r o n a -6 x 6 board about a h alfin c h from one e d ge with the stra i ght e d ge o f th e protrac t o r a s nearl y p a r a ll e l t o th e edge of th e bo ard a s you can poss ibl y ge t it. Mark eve r y five degr ees (o r eve ryon e degr ee) a r ound the se mic ircl e. Tie a s m a ll we i ght t o a p i ece o f string, put a thumb t ac k in the .cente r point of the se mic ircl e make a loop in the s t r in g t o slip ov e r the thumb tack so tha t the w e i ght h a ngs b e l ow the board and yo u h ave m a d e a clinome t e r or slope board. R e m embe r tha t yo u w ill s i ght along the top e d ge o f the board and th a t you want t o obse rv e the ang l e b e tw ee n th e top o f the board and the h o ri7,ontal. Y o u a r e m easuring tha t a n g l e by h av in g a we i ght o n a string w hi c h a lw ays h a ngs vertica lly, th a t is, at r i ght a n g les t o the h o rizon t a l ; so th e zer o p oint i s at th e b otto m of the semi-circl e and yo u number b o th ways a r ound th e semic ircl e t o 90 Now t o m a k e th a t clea r h o ld t h e s i ghting e d ge l eve l and the string w ill h a n g stra i ght d ow n ove r th e 0 m a rk T h e n turn th e b oa rd so th a t th e s i ghting edge i s v e rti cal ; n o w th e string w ill hang p a r a ll e l t o th e s i g h ti n g e d ge a nd be ove r th e 90 mark. ''''h e n yo u tilt th e b oa rd at 45 th e string sh ould h a n g at 45 NATI O I A L SPE L EOLOG ]CAL SOC IETY

PAGE 67

Formation and Mineralogy of Stalactites and Stalagmites By FORREST L. HICKS Graduate Student, Geolog;y D epQ.1tment, University of Southern California Stalactites and stalagrnites (/1"e shown t o be f01'rned fmrn over sixt y rninerals and seveml oth.e 1 substances b y a prec ilJitation o f th e mineral, by solidifying from its liquid s tat e, and by severnl l ess co mll1on m eans. Facto1"S affecting tltei1' mte of gmwth and th eir shape include th e mte o f incomin g flo w, H lt e of evapor ation, c hemi cal coll1jJosition o f the solutio n and the s i ze of the s tal actite or s t alag mite, accQ1'ding t o the author of tlti s rnos t in te-restin g artic l e Introduction Slala ctites and s t a l agmites have b ee n kn ow n [or many ce ntul'i es. Since Ol a u s "\I Vormill s ( 1 654) first used the l er ms and d efine d th e m (M urray, 190 I) work ha s b ee n d o n e to d etermine their origin s and th e physi ca l co n s t a nts controlling lhe ir growth. From Plot's s t a t e m ent (1677) that "s u c h Stones a r e made of n o th i n g but s u ch water as it dro p s from th e roofs and caverns of the Roc k s and th e r e for e a r e ca lled Stalactites" to th e ide a s Oil. th e mol ec ular breakup of calci um bicarbonate in solution has lak e n severa l cenLUries. From the literature of the Greeks and R o mans the r e i s I illl e lO b e f ound on cave phe nome na The G r ee k s u se d the stalactita l lim e stone in some of their sculpturing, but refe r e nces to the caves and dripstone are diffi cult to obtain. Roman and Gree k co in s h ave b ee n found in limestone caverns in southern Europe; t emples to Pan, Bac chus, and oth e r gods with their associated oracles w e r e a l so in s u c h caves; so it i s the r e for e certain that sta l ac tites wer e viewed. Stalactites, other th a n ca lcit e, w e r e fir s t m e n tion e d by Woodward in 169 5 (Murray, 1901), who stated "Spar and othe r crasser Mine ral s . form Stalactites or Sparry I ceycles hanging down from the Arches of the Grottoes". T hi s was the first article writte n ill. E n gl i s h Oil. the subject, the previous ones having b ee n writte n in the scien tifi c Latin of th e day. In th e lhird edition of the Encyclopedia Bri tannica (1795) i s the fir s t m enlion of the nalure of th e "oth e r c r asse r Min e r a l s", gypsum b eing d escribe d as "s tala ctital". The purpose of thi s pape r i s to report the occurren ces of s t a l actites and sta l agm it es, esp e c ially other t han calcit e, and lO note the factors BULLETIN NUMBER] 2, NOVEMBER 1950 affecting their gTowth As u se d h e r e a s t alactite i s an ob j ec t of d e po s ition in a hang in g pos iti on, yet, also include d a r e the types which g row with no co n s i s t ent ori enta tion with resp ect to gravity (see plate 4); a s t a la gmite i s a growth caused b y a drip. Actually th e definition of s talagmite i s th e sa m e as th e Wormius original ( 1 654 Gree k that which dro p s), but the o n e for s t a l ac tit e ( 1 654, Greek, oozing out in drops) is s li g htl y broadened from its first d e finition. General Description Stalactites are ge n e rall y long, pointe d or tape!1ing p enda nt s from a roof of a cave, mine, or arch. Calcite halite, m a r casite, sphalerite, and mos t othe r s a r e commonly found with a hole in th e center, a hole va r y in g in dia m e t e r from e ight to one-ten th millime t e r s (the limit of the eye' r eso lu tion powe r ); in the eccentric stalactites of Glory (1936) th e largest hole was 0.008 mrilli m e t e r the h o l e u s u a ll y b eing much sma ll e r. T h e sta l actites form e d from freez in g of liquids and those form e d with a great abundance of w a t e r ( th e sulfates) a r e u s u a ll y not hollow. The c rystalline asp ec t s of the sta lactites a l so diff er. Usuall y sta lactites a r e cry ptocryst a llin e t o fine l y c r ysta lline. O cca ionally they are coa rsel y c ryst a llin e as in marcasite (l4 inch long crystals), spinel (y,t in c h octahedrons), and calcit e (Y2 inc h c rystals). Ofte n th ey arc amorphou s as in opal. A fas t-growin g s t a l act it e t e nds to b e l o n g and thin, whi l e a s l ow-growing one b eco m es fat and stubby in th e sam e l e n gth of tim e This is due to seepage b y capillarity of the olution through the w a ll s of the s t a l actite and d e position on the out s id e (Allison 1923). 63

PAGE 68

Stalagmites are u sually slower to form than sta l actites. Ofte n totally l ack in g due to running water on the Boor of the cavern, they differ in shape considerably. A v e r y s l ow-growing stal ag mite i s just a knobby mound, while, as the rate of growth increases, the top b eco mes c u p -shaped and the sides smooth Lava sta l agmites r esemble the drip-castles childre n build on the seashore Fig. 1. (Top) A group of lava stala ctites from l{au mona Cave. Mauna Loa Volcallo. Hilo. l'elTitol'Y of Hawaii. Longest is 5 in c hes. From geology co llection of Univ e l'sity of South em Califomia. (LOWe!' l eft) AI-tifl c illl spine l stalactite ft'OIl1 Vitl'ifax COI'J)olat ion Los A ngeles. CalifOln ia . (Lowel' right) Eccentl'i c sta.lac tites from C OIII'nioll Cave in Fnmce. (ft'om G lolY. 193:,. Mineralogy The mineral ogy and occurrence o f s t a l acbites and stalagmites is given in Table l. Numbers in p a r entheses refe r to the bibliography which is arranged in chronolog i ca l order. so tha t th e 6 4 highest numbers indica t e con t emporary pu blica t!ions whil e the l owest ones indicate dates as far back as 1797. The absence of a refe r e nc e numbe r indicates that th e source w as a p ersonal co mmunication or expe ri e nc e of the author. If th e num b el' is preceded by a d as h the pl ace of the occurre nce is not given in the publications which were revi e wed. :Mixtures of two or more mine rals are not uncommon. Limonite, marcasite. pYf'ite sphalerite. and galena form sta l actites toge th e r (Dana, 1926) and. spha lel'it e and ga l ena stalactites are r eporte d by Pos epny (1873) from Central Europe. Limonite and mimetite. (Curtis. 1 884). and, mimetite and p yromorphite (Kurr. 1859) a r e found in alternating l ayers. Milton (M
PAGE 69

w ay and th e Abbe G l o r y ( 1 936) devoted a n ani cle t o "eccentric" ca lcit e s t a l actites f ound in Fra n ce (see Fi gs. 1 and 4). Methods of Formation LIQUID S o l idifying.-Seve r a l I iq u id s m a k e s t a l actites and st a l agmites b y direct fr eezing o f th e liquid. I c icles are the commo n est o f this t y p e, yet despite their commo n o ccurre n ce, little h as b ee n d o n e t o es t a bli s h their c ryst alline struc lUr e o r t o l earn the fa c t o r s tha t aff ec t th eir g r owth. Spine l ane! m o issanite (carborundum) f orm from their vapor co llectin g o n the furnace roof in whic h they a r e m e l te d the va p o r co ll ecting, conde n s ing, and dripping, f orming a coarse l y c ryst alline s t a la ctite. These diff e r fr o m magnesium s t a l ac tites in tha t the spine l and m o i ssanite have a tip r ounde d as tho u g h from a so lidifi e d drop, while the m agnesium is s h arply c ryst alline, as tho u g h partially precipita t e d fro m the va p o r direc tly. Lava f orms b oth s t a l acnites and stalagmites from th e h o t liquid (see Figs 1 and 3), altho u g h so m e o r t h e stal actites pre \ i o u s l y th o u ght to b e lava h a v e be e n [ o llll d to b e bl ac k s ili ceo u s sinte r (Brig h a m 1 9 0 9); the l atte r t y p e w e r e f ound forming in a hot, but not flowing l a v a tub e ill Hawaii in th e flo w o f 1 8 81. LIQU ID S AN D SOLIDS Unsta bl e C a seolls Member i n So l u l io n .-Due t o the ins t ability o f carbo ni c acid, HoeO " es p ec i a ll y as th e solutio n t empe rature rises and a lso as the co n centrati o n of oth e r m embe r s o f the solutio n c h a n ge, th e carbo n a t es a r e esp ec i a ll y sllsceptible t o t hi s t y p e o f d e p os iti o n. In gen e r a l th e mine r a l carbo n a t es h ave solubilities o r t h e sa m e degr ee of m agnitude, va r y in g fr o m cerussite ( 0 0 0 0 I g j lOO ml. ) t o magnesite ( 0 00 7 g jlOO I Solubility of l -bCO,,0 355 g r a m s per 1 00 1111. a t 0 C enti g r a d e; 0.097 g / IOOml. a t to c.; 0 058 g / IOO 1111. a t 60 c.; a ll fig u res hcre and f ollo l\'in g a r e [rom the H and boo k of Phy s ics and Chemi stry, 1 947 "Calcit c so lu bili ti es-O.OO I-! g / IOO 1111. a t 25 c.; 0.00 1 8 g /IOO ml. at 75 C. ; but, 0.1 3 g / IOO Ill!. at 9 C. ; a nd. 0.077 g / IOO 1111. at 3 ::; C. in H,O saturated i th CO,. Fi.>: 2 Halite staladih's I'I'IUII BI'islol ])ry Lal,!'. Sail B cnu\lulilln Coullty. Califonlia. cst stala('tite is nill c indlt's Iong. B ULLETIN NUl\IBE R ] 2 N OVUfBE R 195 0 65

PAGE 70

lHine ral NA TIVE ELEMENTS SlIlfur Arsenic i\I agnesi u m Moissanite SULPHIDES Galena Sphalcritc 'Vurlzite P yrite :\Iarcasitc ]\I clnikovite HALIDES Halite Embolitc OXIDES Opal Ars enolite Ice Corundum Hematite Spinel Dia"1Jore Goethite Limonitc Gibbsite I'silome lane Ca l vo ni g ri tc Wad Chal cophanitc Sass olitc CARBONATES Calcite 66 Dolomitc Magnesite Aragonite Smithsonite Cerussite Malachitc Azurite H ydrozindite Lansfordite Table 1 ST ALACTITIC AND ST ALAGMITIC MINERALS Fon/llt/a S As Mg CSi PbS ZnS ZnS FeS, FeS F eS. NaCI Ag(CI ,Br) As,O" H,O AbO" Fe,O" MgALO, AIO(OH) F e O (OH) Fe,O,,nH, O A I (OH)" MnO, nRO nH, O f c Cu pSilomelan e (Mn, Z n)0.2:\lnO,.2H,0 B (OH)" CaCO" ; 'vfgCO ".CaCO" MgCO" CaCO" ZnCO" PbCO" C uCO,,Cu (OH), 2CuCO,,Cu (OH)2 2ZnCO,,Zn (OH), MgCO".5H,0 Occurre llc e saltdomes, Louisiana and Texas (43); Lakc Co Ca lif. (!i7). --(53); probably Santa Cruz Co., Ariz.; -(31 ). artifi cial, from B. M. 1.. Las V eg as, Nev. artific ial from Vitrifax Corp., Los Angel e s Calif. Galena, III. ( 3 1 ); Carinthia, Austria (8); Upper Silurian dolomitc of Mississippi Valley ( 1 0). Galena, III. ( 3 1 ); O s wego Mine, J oplin, lif o. ( 1 2); Carinthia Austria (8);-( 27). --(53). --(32) ; Missouri (31). Galcna and Trenton limestone of Uppe r Valley ( 30) ; Galen a, III. (31); Mo. ( 12). --(32). Salt Mines, Merkcr s near Slassfurt, Gcrmany (!i8); Bristol Dry Lakc, San Bernardino Co ., Calif. ( 59); Orensberg (?), southeastcrn Euro pean Russia (50). Brokc n Hill Distri c t New South Wal cs A u stralia ( I u). Po ttsvill e and '''ay nesburg ss. 1I10rg anlown, W. Virgini a ( 4 1 ); nOrlhern California (34). --(53) stalagmites, Malheur ClJ. ve Burns, Oregon (46 ); icicles worldwidc. "stalagmites"-artificial jewel manllfac lUring. Hartville Iron Ore Range, Wyo. ( 20). arlific ial Vitrifax Corp., Los Angel es Ca lif. artificia l and-(53,31). Brazil ( 25). Holhrook Mine, Bisbec, A riz ( 25); Oriskany Min es, Botetourt Co. Va. ( 26); Sicily ( 6); Butte distric t Mont. (23); Shasta Co. Ca liL (57 ) Richmond, Mass. (5, 53) Ncw South Wales, Australia ( 16). (53). N izhn e Tagils k, Ural Mts. U S.S.R. (53). Passai c Mine, Ogdensburg, Susscx Co. New .Jers ey (53). --(53). Innumcrable limestonc and dolomite regions. A fcw fam o us cavcrtls in the United States are Ca rl sbad Caverns, N. Mex.; Mammoth Cave, K y.; Caverns of Luray, Va.; Blac k Hills, S. Dak.; e lsewhcre in the world, Jenolan, N e w South ''''ales, Australia; Gailenreuth Cavc, Franconia, Germany; Kirkclal e, York shire England; Causses di stric t, Fra nce ; Adelsberg, Carniola Austri a; Calcly Island, England; Aggtclek Cave, Hungary; Poslllmia, Italy ; Grottoes of Belgium. Carinthia. Sic il y (6). England (52) Missouri ( 1 2); --( 3 1 ). Missouri ( 1 2). l\forcnc i, Greenlee Co., Ari z., (azurite layer s). j\lorenci, Grecnlec Co., Ariz. (malachitc laycr s). 1I1issouri ( 1 2). l es qll choning Mine, n eal' Lansford, Carbon Co., Pcnna.; change s o n cx p osure to Nesque h onite (3 1 ) NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 71

/IiI i lI erat SILICATES Calamine Prehnite Allophan c !\I clite PHOSPHATES, ctc. I'yromorphitc !\Iimctite Va n adinitc Turanite VoliJonhite Tyuyamunite (Tayalllunite) Hopcite Phar ma co l i t e Rocsslarite S p e n cerite Turqu ois SULFATES, c tc. i\ I ascagn i t e Barite Ang\esite Gypsum Epsomite Goslarite i\l e lanterite I'i sanite B c iberite C halcanthite Boussingaultile I'i ckeringite Cupro-.-\Ium Alunogen Alums Copiapit e Rhomboclasc Glock erite SlIus /Ol/r!: Lava i\lnd S ili ceous S int e r Salld ST ALACTITIC AND ST ALAGMITIC MINERALS Forlllllia 1-l:, Zn SiO" H,Ca,;\I (SiO.), A \,SiO,,: n H O A\,Fe,SiOr., 1 H O (pbC I )pb. (PO.)" (l'hC I )pb. ( AsO.) (PbC I ) l' b. ( VO .)" C n .,v, 0 > H 0 Hvdrou s C u Ba Ca vanadatc CaO UO,, V,O. nH, O Zn., ( I' O ,) -IH, O H C aA sO . 2 H,0 Hi\l g A sO . 2 H 0 llh (I'O.),Zn (OH),H,0 H ( ClIOH) [A I (OH),]o (PO.). ( NI-I.),SO. Ba SO. PbSO. C aSO.1 -LO i'IlgSO . 7H,0 ZnSO.H, 0 F eSO 7 H 0 ( F e,C u)SO 7 H O ( Zn ,C u F e)S O 7 H O ( Z n.Cu)SO . 7H,0 CoSO.H 0 C nSO.H 0 (NH ),SO. i'IlgSO H, 0 i'IlgSO . A" (SO.),, 22 H,o C n SO A\, ( 5 0.),, 22 H,0 A I ( SO.) ,.16 H 0 --(28). F e. ( O H), (SO.),. H,O F c, 0 ,,S0,9H,0 2 Fe 0 ,SO,,6H,0 ( Continued) Orcurrellce Salmo, B c.. Canada Granhy, \10. ( 1 2 ) P a t e r so n New J e r sey. --(31). Saalfie ld Thurin g ia Germany (:i3). --(7 ) Bad enweiler, G ermany ( 7 ) ; Nussiere, D epl. o f Rho n e, Fra n ce ( 7 ) Ahumada and Las Lamentos, Chihuahua, F e r g h a n a di s tri ct Turkes t a n USSR (:' 1 ) F e r g h a n a di s tri c t Turkes tan, SSR ( 54). F e r g h a n a di s tri c t Turkestan. USSR ( 5 1 ). Salm o, B. c., Canada ( 2 1 ) Schll'arzwald, Andreasberg. H arz :-'It s., and Erzegebirge, G crmany ( 7 ) Rcic h e r s dorL H esse n -Nassa u Germany ( 7 ) .5allll o B c., Canafl3 ( 2 1 ). ( 3 1 ). \IL Etna, V esnvius Ita l y ( 3 1 ). Raddlls a S i cily ( 6 ); Matl oc k and YOllI g r e av e, Ne\\' haven, Engl3nd (31 ). --( 3 1 ); !\Ii ssouri (12 ) C av e of th e SlI'ords Naica, \Iex i co; L as Vegas Nevada; ( 4); la"a tnhcs. H l\l' ai i ( 2 1 ); Co m stock L o d e Ncvada (Ii) Co m stock Lode, Nev. (-17); The Geyse r s, Son o m a Co., Cal if. ( 57). Ramme lsherg i\line, Gos l a r Germany ( i ); Cornwall (7); Buttc \ l olIl. ( 23 ) ; L yo n D e p t. of Rhone, Francc ( 3 1 ). Butte. "I onl. ( 23); Harz i\lts Sa x o n y Saxony_ and Sch\\arzenberg. Gcrmany ( 7 ) ; numerou s l ocalities. Ca lif ornia copper mincs. Butte, \Io nt. ( 23 ) Hntte, i\l o nt. ( 23). Hllttc. i\l ollL. ( 23). H e ib e r H esse n -N assau, Gcrman y ( 3 1 ); L ando n Ca lif. ( 57 ) :\1 t. V i c\\' \1 in c Butte. i\l ont. ( 23); Bi siJee Ariz.; i\l a rkl ee"ille C alif. ; --( 26 ); numerous othe r copper mining d i s tricts. The Geyse rs, So n o m a Co., C alif. ( 5i)_ Co m s t oc k L o d e. :'\ ev. (Ii). :\naw nda ?llil1e. Bl1ll e \(0 11t. ( 23 ) COlllstoc k L ocle. :-.; c (-I i ) --( 28 ) COllls t oc k Lode. Ne\'. ( 47 ) COllls to c k Lode. Nc\'. ( I i ) Gos lar. Harz \Its .. Germany ( 3 1 ). NONMINERAL STALACTITES AND STALAGMITES O n u''''''IIl't" :\T. C alif. :).1): !\.:I1II11:wn:t a vc. ;\I alllla Loa. H ilo. H3waii: Hawaii ( II ); (55): .\ri/. (:1:\. Elrod C I\ crn. I mli:\IIa \Ill) stalagmites ollly (:i); l.ava H : I\\'aii \I!)) Coos Bay. Orcgol1 ( 1 :1. ,(alal'li(cs 0111 BULLETIN NUMBER 12, NOVEMBER 1950 67

PAGE 72

:'1 Fi.I.:.:3. A peculim pIth or !twa stalagmites jOined at the top to 1'01"111 one. F.om ]{a,ul\1onu Cave, M auna Loa "olea no, Hilo, l'e lTito. y of Hawaii. C o!lected by Gordol1 MacDonald and now in the g e olo g Y coHeetion at the U niveI sity of So u thel"l1 C a lifol'lli a. mI.). A l so th ey all see m to s h ow the result as typifi e d b y calc ite", a very r a dical in crease in solubility wi th thc additio n o[ carbon di ox id e to t h e wa t e r T hi s m ca n s that the formula for the d e po sition of limeston c b y th e bicarbonate m ethod i s a d equa t e to account [ o r t h e d e position o f th e r est of the carbonates: R (HCOJ, outs id e hcat RCO" CO, H O R = many common o r e m c tals including Zl\1C, l ea d copper, i ro n and m ag nesium. Unstab l e Solds in SolL/lian.-As the so lu tions in caves and mines a r c ge n e r a ll y compl e x it i s obvious t hat o n e of the mcmbe rs of the solu tion will b e less soluble th a n the oth e r s unde r a o iven set o f co nditions. Thus, many o f th c b s ulfid es: ) present in the com pl ex solutions of th c l ead-zin c mining di st ri c t s of t h e world a r e com monly d e posit e d as sta l actites. The marcasite-pyritc-m elnikov it e group i s of c p ec ial inte r est as i t i not unus u a l t o find t h ese Solu bi lities-Zn S 0.000065 g / lOO rnl. at 1 8 C.; PbS 0.000086 g /lOO 1111. at 0 C ; FeS" 0.00049 g / lOO 1111. at 0 C. 68 three crystal variati o n s of F eS, in a sing l e s talac tite, r eflecting the c h a n g in g temperaturc a nd ac idity. Similarly th e sphalerite wurtzite group i s f ound, including a n amorphous vari e t y analogOlls to m elnikovite (All e n et aI., 1912; P a la c h e e t aI., 1941)-O t h e r s of the insoluble g r oup are the silv e r h a l o id s 1 l ea d and barium s u][ a tcs, and, appa r e ntl y thosc ox ides not d e posited from colloidal s u spe n s i o n Gibbsite ( A l (OH)" ) i s d e po sited fr o m alkaline solutio n s d e ri ved [ro m alumino u s rocks So m e s ili ca and iron o xides are d e posite d fro m so lu t i o n in th e prese ncc or a bs c nce of cer t a in o r ga ni c acids (Bay les, 1935). Unst abl e So l vcnl.-vVate r evaporating, and Lhus co ncentraLing the solutio n is th e only so l vcnt unstab l e e n o u g h to evaporate unde r most preva ilin g conditions and a l so ava il a bl e in n ature. The extremel y hi g h solubilities G of thc sulfa tes, boron h ydroxide, a rseni c trioxide, and sodium chloride see m to indica t e th a t this i s th e o nl y way in which they could .. b e precipitate d. The conc entration on the su r face of a drop in creases ve ry rapidly from evaporation so eve n a solu tion well
PAGE 73

REPLAC E M ENT CUrLis ( 1 884) and P osepny (18 73) b elieve tha t ga l e n a can re pl ace calcit e and d o l omite s t a l ac tit es, b oth geo lo g i s t s h av in g w o rk e d exte n s ivel y in the l eadz in c di s tri c t s o f th e Unite d S t a tes and Euro p e The iro n mine r a l s commo nl y f orm s t a l ac tites and a l so f orm pseudo m orphs and, in the T ri S ta t e di s tri c t o f the Unite d S t a t es, limonite, m a r cas it e and p yri te s t a l actites arc f o u nd in th e sa m e v ugs, so it i s n o t surpr i s i n g tha t Curtis ( 1 884) f ound examples o [ li m onitc r e pl ace m ent a ft e r iro n s ulfid e s t a la c tites. Stalagmite and Stalactite Gro. wth T h e [ ac t o r s affect in g t h e g r owth of sta l ag mites are muc h simple r tha n th ose affec tin g sta l ac ti tes. A simple outline will b e used t o de scribe th eir g r o wth. }ACTORS AFFECTI N G STALAGMIT E GRO\'VTH I In com in g solution a. r a t e o f drip G 2 F ormatio n o f a prec ij J it a t e a a ir circ ul a ti o n 0 b r e l a tive ,humidity G c. t empe r ature 0 d. c h emis tr y o [ th e so lutio n e. co n centration o f t h e solutio n 3 Orientatio n o f th e g1'Owtli a positi o n o r c h a n ge o [ positi o n of source b. direc ti o n of air circ ul atio n 4. S i ze The r e i s littl e n ee d for ex pl a n a ti o n of the a b ove outline sinc e the disc u ssion o n s t a l actites in the fo llowin g s ec ti o n cove r s the individua l ite m s thoroughly. A lli son (19 23) has w orke d ou t formul ae t o d e t ermine the ag e o f a n y s t a la gmite from the ite m s f ootnote d in th e above t a bl e Als o in Alliso n 's a rticl e a r e e xcell ent s k e t c hes and disc ussions on th e growth of ca lcit e s t a l agmites and s t a l actites. II These w c r c us e d in Alli so n s g r owlh f ormula. ( Allison 1923) B ULLET! NUMBE R 12, NOVEMBER 195 0 F -\CTORS AFFECTI N G STALACT ITE GROWT H In com ing Sulution.-Th e size o [ th e o ri g in a l f ee d e r s and th e r a t e o [ H o w thro u g h these f ee d e r s a combine d effe c t o f g r ound w a t e r satLlIa ti o n p e rmeability, and p o r os it y a r c th e m a jor f ac t o r s affec tin g t h e in c oming solutio n Seaso n a l and l o n ge r p e ri o d vari atio n in r ainfa ll m ay c h a n ge th e H o w as a lso m a y l o c a l physiogr aphic c h a n ges affec tin g th e w a t e r t a ble. A.lso th e div er s ion o f riow co mm o nl y t a kes pl ace due t o crac k s f ound in the s ides of the s t a l ac tite, b y brea kin g o r f a llin g of th e roof o f th e ca ve, o r b y o th e r m ea n s affe ctin g inHo w o f th e liquid. F o r mation of a Preci/Jilale. This group may b e furthe r suhdi\' i ded into f o u r groups, I ) r a t e o f eva p o r a ti o n 2) f o rm a tio n o f the dro p 3) c h e mi stry of th e soluti o n and 4) adhe r e nce o f t h e precipita t e t o th e s t a l ac tit e T h e r a t e of e \ a p o r a ti o n of th e soh 'ent, w a t e r i s direct l y affec t e d b y th e a ir circ ul a tion t empe r ature, humidity, and os m o ti c pressure. The air circ ul a ti o n i s m e r e l y th e a m ount of a ir moved past the s tal ac t i t e r athe r tha n the direction of air m ove m ent s p o k e n of l a t e r. The o smotic pres sure i s b e tw ee n the dro p of liquid and the air throug h th e m embra n e f orme d b y the pre cipi tate o n th e surface of the drop. The extent tha t this restri c t s ac ti \' e e v a p o r a ti o n d e p ends upon the c h emistry of b oth th e solutio n and the precipitate. The rate of f ormati o n of th e dro p m ay a lso restrict t h e f ormati o n of a prec i pita t e A s low r a t e of dripping will h ave a b ette r c h a nce to d e posi t a prec i pi ta t e th a n a fas t e r r a t e o The m a j o r f acto r controlling the r a t e o f dripping i s of course, the rate o f flo w but with a giv e n rate of flow th e dro p r a t e m ay s till \' a ry. The f o r c e s of capillarity t ending to h old the drop on the s t a la ctite, the s urface t e n s i o n controlling the s ize o f the dro p close l y co n s t ant gravity pulling the drop d o wn and vi sco ity affecting a ll and va ry ing with th e complexities o f the solut i o n ; a ll o f these will cau se t h e drip r a t e to c h a n ge. The c h e mi s tr y of t h e solutio n affec t s t h e prec ipi ta t e and with th e c h a n g in g conditio n s of a cidity, temperature, and solutio n source, the end prec i p i ta t e changes m a rk e dl y T h e solubility o r s u s p e n s i b ilit y o f th e v a ri o u s substa n ces, i onic, colloidal, o r o th e rwi se, will aff ec t the fina l pre-69

PAGE 74

Table 2 RA TES OF GROWTH OF STALACTITES Calcite Stalactites Location Adelsberg Cav e Moravia Time m e asu,-ed 30 y rs. I I y rs. Ing leborough Cave, Devonshire, England '''T ilson Dam, Muscles Shoa ls, F l o r e nce A l a. Concrete Culvert Coal mine ( n earby?) Lead mine tunne l s Bric k A r c h es, Ft. D e laware, D e l. Bri c k A rches Ft. Pickins, Fla. Roofs Ft. Morgan, A l a B e low limestone balas t on bridge Gulf I s land Dam On pipe 28 stalactites on arc h es 11 of above sti ll growing 4 longes t One stal actite North Bridge, Edinburgh, Scot l a n d Ft. Delaware, Del. 2 y rs. 40 yrs. 40 y rs. 7 y r s I yr. 8 y r s 8 y rs. 102 y rs. 3 0 )'rs L ongest m e asw'ed 0 .06" (g rowth) 3 4 c m. 1 5.2" 3.5" minimum I11axinlull1 2 1.0" 5 0" 10.0" 8.0" 12.5" 5.1 8 63" maximum 11.50 1 .5" diameter Rate 1 Sow'ce 2 0.0002 /),r. (9) 0.125" /yr. (9) 0.295" /yr. (17) 3.04" /yr. (35) 1.7 5 /yr. (35) 0.47" /yr 6.8" / yr. (35) 0.8" / yr. (37) 0 17" / y r. (36) 0.25" /yr. (36) 0.14" /yr. (38) 1.04" /yr. (39) 0 28" / yr. ('l2) 0.5 'l" /)'r. ( '12) 0.53" / yr. (42) 2 68" /yr. (42) 0.95" /yr. (42) 2 3 0 / yr. (42) 0.015" /yr. in d i ameter (17) Other Minerals Location C halcalllh i t e Other sulfates, Comstock Lode, Nevada Halite, Bris t o l Dry Lake, Calif. H alite, laboratory, U niv. So. Cal., Los A ngel es 1 day Lava, Kil eaua and Mauna Loa, Hawaii several days 'Growth in length unless specified eN umbe r s refe r to bibliography cipitate Another factor, c r ysta l seeding, t e nds to inhibit t h e c h ange in precipitation caused b y a change in pH or t empe ratur e Thi s last factor may ca use a precipitate t o continue to settl e from solution: for insta n ce, in a solution of copper, iron, and sulfate i o ns, iro n sulfate, w h e n the t emperature, pressure, and pH indicate copper sulfate s h ould fall from solution, w ill co n tinue to precipitate becaus e the iron sulfate crystals a r e present to grow on and there i s no copper sulfa t e to seed th e solution. The adhere nce o r co h e r e n ce of th e prec ipi t a t e d m a terial to th e Lip i s affecte d b y forces on an a t o mi c or mol e cular l eve l including th e [ o r ces of co hesi o n and adhesi o n betw ee n the so lid s and liquids present at th e tip of the s talacti te. T h e s urfa ce t e nsi o n o f the drop will a l so change the syste m of these f o r ces. The adhesion o f th e solid to liquid will carry t h e precipita t e d ow n with t h e drop; adhesi o n of so lid to solid wi ll d etermine wh e t h e r th e precipitate s ticks to th e s t a l actite tip. 01'i e n talion o f Grow th.T h e orientation of g rowth i s so m ewhat a d eve lopment of the crys t alline structure of the dripstone and the average wind directi o n in t h e cave. In some cases these h ave assume d a grea t e r r o l e than gravity, 70 0" .:J diameter 0.016 / y r. in diameter se vera l feet 1.5" /1I10nth over eight feet seve r a l feet / y r. 10" 2" 2"/day over I / lI'cek (37) (26) ( 10) (59) (author) (21 ) another and the usual major factor, and the r e sult i s to get a sta lactite growing in weird fashion count e r to gravity. The direction from which the air generall y blows ca u ses evaporation to tak e place predominantl y on that side of the drop. If the wind is strong enough to blow the precipitate to the leeward s ,ide the stalactite grows away from the wind; oth e rwise the stalactite grows into th e wind. Size of Sta lactite.Size may not seem import a nt, but if the liquid flow is k ept a t a con stant rate a t the head of the sta lactite as it grows, th e Aow at the tip will diminish. This i s due to friction in passage and to the a b sorption of the liquid through the walls and subsequent d epos i tion on the outsi de In ex p eriments conduc t e d in the fa ll of 1948, it was seen in halite stalactites that the outside diame ter a t the top of t h e sta lac ti t e
PAGE 75

The above groups of factors affect stal actites deposited from solution. These facto r s have been discussed w ithout exten sive regard to their rela tive importance as it is somewhat apparent that some factors h ave bu t a n eg li g ibl e effec t upon the end result. Some of the factors will cause misshape n sta l actites but would not change the speed of growth of the sta l actite. Upon the cor r e lation mathe m a tically of these factors into a 1\ COHV[CTIO'" CUR"EHT I I ,. _, Fig'. 4. Stalact.ites eun'ed in growth due to wind pl'evailing in dit'edion s ho,,"n (after Glory, 1936). formula wh i c h chec k s with the data gathered, the absolute importance of each factor may be determined. Othe r stalacti tes than thos e formed by so lu tion m ay fit into the classification by elimination or addition of a few items. The major point in t h ose of sole l y liquid deposition is the freezing point in r elation to the temperature of the surroundings. Conclusion Any mine ral which i s solubl e, which may be carried as a co lloid, or which may melt under the given conditio n s ca n form sta l actites and stalag mites. Seventy-one su bstances, including s i x ty seven minerals, are known to occur as such : Most of th e m a r e infrequ ent, but some are com mon. The commonest are, of course, ice and cal cite. The sulfates anc! s ulfides of iron, zinc, copper, and lead a r e common, and the oxides of iron, silicon, and manganese are much l ess so. T h e r est a r e probabl y rare. BULLETIN NUMBER 12, NOVEMBER 1950 BlBLlOGRA l' HY (i1l c h'l'Ol1ological order) I OLAUS, 1 654. lv(usacum, i, ii iv 2. PLOT 7 NEIIEMIAl-I 1 677. Oxfordshire 3. GREW 7, ROfiERT, 1 681. Musaell11l. 4. A:-IONy, \lOUS. 1 797. Encyclopedia Britannica, 3d edi tion, vol. 12. 5. EBE!\,EZEK, 1 824. Geol ogy and mineralogy of a part of Massachuse tts: Am. J our. Sci vo l. 8, pp. 31-39. 6. FERRARA. All. F. 1 8 13. Noti ces on geol ogy and miner a l ogy of S i ci ly: Am .IOUI'. Sci., vo l. 8, pp. 40-47 7. KURK, J. C., 1 859. The Mil1eral Killgdom: Edmonston and D ouglas Edinburgh, Scot l and (English edition) 8. POSEPNY 7 FERENCZ, 1 873. Di e B lei und Galmei Erslagerstatten von Raibl i n Karnte n: Jahrb. del' k. k. geologisten Reichsanstalt, Vienna. 9. DAWKINS, V,1 B., 187 8. El1c y clojJcc/.ia Bri tanllica, 9th edition. 10. CURTIS, J 5 1 884 Silverlead deposits of Eureka, Nevada: U. S. Geol. Survey Mon. 7. II. D \NA, J. D .. 1 89 0. Chamctc ristics of Vo lcall oes: New York. Statements o n lava stalactites by E. D. Dana. 12. W INSLOW, A 1 894. Lead and zinc deposits of Mis souri: Missouri Geo!. Survey Bul!. 6 and 7 13. DILLER,.J. S., 1 899. Sand s tal actites: Science, n .s., yol. 9 pp. 37 1 -372 14. STOKES, H. '-\T .. 1 901. Pyrite and marcasite: S. Geo!. Survey Bull. 1 86. 1 5. MURRAY, SIK JAMES, 1901. A 1ICW English dictionary an historical prill cilJie s: Oxford. Engl and. 1 6. PlrrMA:-I. E. F. 1902. New South Wales Geo!. Survey i\li n e ral R esollrces for 1 901. 17. GEIKIE. SIR ARCHIMLD. 1 903. T extboah of G eology, Macmillan and Co. Ltd., London. 1 8 CIIAMHERLAI N AND SALISHURY, 1 906. Geology, Vo!. J. P rocesses. 2ct edition. p. 229. 19. DAWKI:-IS, W B 1 904. Quarterly J ournal of the Geo!. Society, vo l. 60. p 374. 20. BALL, S H., 1907. The Hartvill e iron ore range. Wyo.: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 3 1 5 pp. 1 90-305 21. BRIGHAM. 'V. T .. 1 909. The volcanoes of Kilauea and 22 23 24. 25. 26 27. 28. 29 30. 31. Mauna Loa: Bernice P. Bi s hop Museum M e m. 2 n o. 4. ALLEN ET AI ... 1 9 1 2 The mineral s ulfid es of iron: Am. .IOUI'. Sci., 4t h seri es vol. 33. pp. 1 39. WEED, W. H .. 1 9 1 2 Geol ogy and ore deposits of BUlle Mon t.: U S Geol. Survey Prof. Pape r H. 'WALKER, T. L .. 1918. Mineral ogy of H. B. mine Sa l mo. B. C : Toronto U niv. Studies, Geo!. se ri es. no. 1 0. POSNJAK AND MERWIN. 1 9 1 9 The hydrated ferric ox ides: Am .IO UI'. Sci .. 4th ser i es. vo l. 47 pp. 311. MIT C HEL, G. J., 1 921. R a t e of formation of copper sulphate stalactites: and M e t. no. 1 70 p. 33. J. F. 1 921. Sta lactites: A m. Inst. M in. and Met. Eng. Trans. 66 pp. 64 65. CLARKE, F. "T., 1 920. The data of geochemistry: U. S Geo!. Survey, Bull. 695 ALLISON, V. c., 1 923. The growth of stalactites and stalagmites: .IOUI'. Geol. vol. 3 1 pp. 1 06-125. GEORGE, H. C., 192 5 Some stalactitic forms of marca s i te: Oklahoma Acad. Sc i Proc., yol. 5 pp. 1 25. DANA, E. S., 1 926. A T extboo k of Mincralogy: 4th edition, John Wil ey, N. Y. 7 IIOt r efe rred to direc tly, but of probable value to the subject 7 1

PAGE 76

:;2. TARR, \I'. A., 1 927. Altcrnating depositi o n o[ pyritc, m a r casite. and p oss i b l y m elnikovite: Am. 1\1 incral o g i s t, vel. 1 2, pp. 116 121. 33 PARK, C F 1 929. Govcrnmcnt Cavc: Museum Notcs of thc !\Iuscum of l\:orthern Arizona, vol. 2 110 6 pp. 1 -3. . 31. ANDERSON, C. A .. 1 930 Opal stal acl1tcs 111 lava tuhc in North crn Ca lif ornia: Am. J our. Sci., 5th se r ies vol. 20, pp. 20-26 35. JOIIN5TO:'-l, W D 1 930. G rowth o[ s talacti tes: Science, I1.S. vo l. 72 pp. 298 299. 3 6 ELLIS R. W 1 931. Growth o f Stalactitcs: Sc i ence, I1.S . vo l. 73 pp. 67, (is 3 7. RICIIARD5, GRAGG. 1 931. Growth of s talactitcs: Scie n cc, n .s., vo l. 7 3, p. 393. 38 EDWARDS, H. :"If.. 1 932. Growth of stalactitcs : Scicncc, n.s. vo l. 76 pp. 3 67 368. 39. VERSTEEG, K ,IRJ., 1 932. Growt. h o f s talactit cs: Boston Tran script. Mar. 1 2. 1 932. '10. :"I[ALorr, C A. AN)) SIIROC K R. R 1 933. Mud s t a l ac tites: Am .lO Iir. Sci., \"01. 2;; pp. 55-60. 41. BORN. K. E. 1 933. l iIJr o u s p yritc: A m !\I in cralogi s t vo l. 1 9 pp. 385-388. 42. l ISHER, L. W., 1 934 GrO\l"lh o[ stalactites: AIll. Min eralogist, vo l. 1 9, pp. 1 29-'131. I J3. ODONNEL.L., L., 1 935. J effc r so n Isl and Sal t Dome I b eria Pari s h La. : Am. A ssoc. Petrol c lIlll Geologist Bull. 1 9 pp. 1 6021 641. 14. BAYLES. R. E. 19 36. Opal s t a lagmites in sands t o n e : W es t Virginia Acad. Sci Proc. 9, p 8 2. 1 5. GLORY, ]\UI\I':, 1 936. S t a lactitc s cxccntriqucs: Spelunc \ (131111. Soc. Spelaeol. d e France) n o. 7, pp. 9 1 1 02. 'I(i. \}AKE. H. C. 1 936. Curio u s s t a lagmitc s in W cs t crn Cave : i\lincralngist, vol. 4, pp. 5 G 47. MILTON AND JOHNSTON, 1 938. Sulfa t c mine r a l s o f COUl s tock Lodc. Ncvada: Econ. Gcology, vol. 33, n o 7 pp. 7 1 9 -771. 1 8. H OLDEN, R J., 1 938. H e lectites o[ Skyline Cavern: Gcol. Soc. Ame ri ca Bull. 49 pt. 2 p. 1 886. 49. TWENIIOFEL W H., 1 939. Prill ci/J les o f S e dilll e llta ti oll 1\lcGraw-Hill Book Co. Nc\\' York 50. DZEN-LITOVSKY, 1 940 Le karst d es gri se m ents d e l se l: Soc. Geogr. U .R.S.s., lzv. vol. 72 n o 6 ( i n Russi a n ). [;1. FOOSE 8, R. M., 1 943. G rowth of iron oxide stala c tit. cs: P ennsy lvania Acad. S ci. Proc. 1 7, pp. 21i-29. 52. DO:'-lAI'ON 8 D. T., 194 \. S t a l a ctitcs of Grcal Britain Cal'es: U ni'v Bris t o l (Spelaeol. SOc.) I'roc. 5, 110. 2. 53. P -\LA CI-lE CHARLES BERMAN, I -fARR Y ) \ N O .. CUFFORD, 19 1 4. SI's t elll of Mill e ral ogy of ] D alld E. S. Dalla: 7th cclitio n vo l. I, J o hll Wiley alld So n s, Ncw York 5". ANO:'-l\'.\IOUS. 1 9 1 6. :"Ilincral s Ycarbook, U. S. Bureau o f :"Ilillcs. 55. ANO:'-l\'.\IOUS, 1 9 IG. EII('vrln/Jedia Brit allllica 5 6. Al'ON\'.\JOUS. 1 9 1 7. Hrllldboo k of Physics and Ch elll i s tn, C h e mi c a l RlIbbe r PlIhlishing Co., Cleveland, OhIO 57. i\I U l wO CII,.J.. A:>;n WEIIH, R W., 1 948. Mill eral s of Califo l'llia: Cali fornia Slatc Div. Mincs, Bull. 1 3 6. : :;8. \ l'O:'-l\'.\ IOU5, 1 9 19. L os Allgeles Times part II, page I .Jail 2 0 1 949. :;9. HI C K S F. L., 1 9 1 9. Halite Stalac tit es: Thc Compass, vol. 2(;. 110. if, pp. 33R-3 10. s lIot Icferred to directly CLYDE A. MALOTT, 1887-1950 72 Dr. C l y d e A. Malo tt, authority o n cav e rns, su b t erranean drai n age and othe r k ars t fe:atures, pass e d away A u g u st 26, 1950 Dr. Malott r ece i ve d hi s aca d e mi c training at 1 ndiana U niver s it y and was appointed to t h e faculty o f th e Indiana U ni versity Departme n t o [ G eo l ogy and Geography, w he:r e h e se rve:d wi th di st in ctio n [or thirty o n e yea rs. H e was a c tin g chairman o [ th a t department fr o m t o H e w as a n in spiring t e a c h e r and Il'a s extr e m e l y popular \\'ith hi s students. Dr. i\f a l ott al so serv e d o n t he: Indiana llin ois and Okl a h otna geo log-i et! S llr v eys at various titlles. Dr. l\falou's major in t e rests w e re in t h e fie:lds o [ physiography, st rati g raph y and p e trol e unl geol ogy. H e w as autho r o [ some: f orty t echnical papers, 11l ;lIlY o [ w hi c h d ea lt \\' ith caverns and lInd e r g r ound drainage syst cnls. The pit-marke d l and of southern India na w h e r e plac id s O 'ea m s di sappear and rio tous s t orm waters a r c swallo w e d up and disgor ge d fr o m lllyste ri o u s sllbterra n ean routes, was the a r e a of hi s m os t inter esting r esea rches. His invasi o n theor y o [ cavern development wo n him national rec ognitio n. Dr. j \lfalott kn ew Indiana w ell and had many records of hi s obs e rvati o n s He was co n sulte d free l y b y geo logi sts stu d ents and laymen alike o n a g reat m a n y diff e r e n t as p ec t s of Indiana geo l ogy. His own research undoubte dly s uffer e d g r eatl y b eca use he unselfi shly took time and effor t to shar e his wealth of knowle d ge with oth e rs. Dr. Malott was a m e m bel' o[ th e N a t i o n a l Spel eo logi cal Soc i e ty and Sigma Xi and Fell o w in th e Ame ri ca n Assoc iati o n [or the Advancemen t of Scie n ce, Geologi c a I Society of America and Indiana Ac a d e m y o f Sci e n ce.

PAGE 77

E XPLORATION S I N BALL' S CAVERN S choharie 1\ 1831-194 9 By CHARLE S J. HANOR AND OTHERS First Acco unt o f Ball' s Cavern' The first intimation of th e ex ist e nc e of the cave i s d erive d fr o m ML B a ll upon whos e land it occurs. H e h a d observ e d a co nical d epression in th e soil to the d epth o f 1 2 f ee t which t enni nate d in a n i rreg ular p erpendic ul a r fissur e in th e I im e ro c k 10 f ee t in l e ngth and 6 f ee t in breadth. In S eptembe r 1 83 1 Mr. John G ebhard, a gentleman to whom the taste [or mine ra l ogy and geology in hi s n e i ghborhood appea rs to b e principally due, in com p a n y with Mr. Hubbard and Mr. Branc h made arrangements for ascer t aining the extent o f th e cavern. The two l atte r gentlemen were low e r e d by ropes down a p erpendicula r d escent, to th e di s tance of 75 f ee t ; whe n the opening assum e d a n oblique direct ion to th e south, although it s till continue d some what precipitous H av in g dis engage d themse lves from th e ropes, and pre p a r e d the n ecessary lights, they d escende d abou t 55 f ee t through a passag e va r ying in width from four to t e n feet. H ere the d escent became perpendi cu lar for 1 5 f eet, afte r which th ey procee d e d as b efo r e abou t 3 0 feet, when they r eac h e d the bottom. The cavern h e r e i s only about ten feet in width, but of great h e igh t on one s i d e of which is a s m a ll stream of pure limpid water, running in a south e rly direc ti o n. P assing unde r an arch so low as sca rc e l y to e n able the m to stand upright, they follow e d the stream about 20 f ee t when they penetrate d b y an opening just large enough to admit a m a n of ordinary size, into a n apartment 20 feet in diamete r and above 100 f ee t in h e ight. Its sides were covere d wit.h c rystalline m asses of ca lcar eous s p a r and the r oof b y stalactites dripping with water. The effect of the torches upon this apartment is d escribe d as b eing very bril l i a nt. The skeleton of a [ox (as it i s sup pos e d) was s ubs equently found in this place; it mus t have fall e n throug h an opening abov e and found its way h e r e, whe r e it pro b a bl y p e ri s h e d from hunge r. L eaving this apartment, they pur sued the course of th e stream for about 2 0 f eet, through a n opening fr o m e i ght to t e n f eet in BULLETI N NUMBER ]2, NOVEMB E R 1950 All phor os by Tr" j.Counc y Gr olla width, wh e n their progress was ch ecked b y a co nsid e r a b l e body of wate r into which the brook emptie d. These a dventure rs w e r e now compelled to r eturn to the surface. In O c tob e r the investig ation was r e new e d b y lVIr. Gebhard, Dr. Foster, and lVIr. Bonny, who h a d prepare d a boa t to n av igate the water which had checked the prog ress of the fint expedition. Fixing a light upon the prow, they commenced th e ir voyage b y passing through an arched pas sage in the r oc k so low a s not to admit their standing e r ec t in th e boat. H aving proceeded about 50 feet in a southerly direction, they al t e r e d their course to the l e ft a rouncl an a ngl e in th e rock y pa ssage: and found the ms e lves in w a t e r about 3 0 f ee t in d epth, and so limpid that th e smallest object might b e seen at the bottom. The course of the water was varied b y the pro j ec tions of the p assage, which gradually, expand e d to 20 f ee t in width, b eing of a height some times not discover able, and at others onl y suffi c i ent to enable them to purs u e their way. Thus they procee d e d about 300 feet ""h e n they arrive d at a rugge d s helv i n g ascent, on the right shore of th e l a ke, and b e n ea th which its waters dis appea r e d. L eaving the boat, th ey landed upon thi s sloping ascent, and advancing 20 fee t th ey ente r e d an a p erture in the rock r esembling' a door wh e n they found themselves within an amphithea t e r p erfec tl y r egula r and circular in form. Its diame t e r i s 100 feet, and its h e i ght i s s u pposed to b e s till grea t e r. The floor d escends o n a ll sides gradually t o its center, whi l e the roof is apparently horizontal. Its wa ll s are d escribe d as ri c h in s tal ac ti c d eco r atio n s Great numbe r s of bats, di sturbe d b y the il1Lrlls ion of the a dven llIr e rs, w e r e see n flying about the cave rn. Subsequent v i s it l e d to th e di scove r y of five additiona l apartments, communicating with th e amphithea t e r a ll o f whi c h how eve r a r e s m a ll and none r e m a rk a ble, excepting one in whi c h the c ir c ul a ti o n s of currents of a ir or of w a t e r, or probably of both, produces sounds like the A eolian H arp. 7 3

PAGE 78

71 S;Lf ety f1r'st !-SlIcll'olo,dst, i1istr 'lIstflll of ancient wood c n I;Lllder', U SI'S n e w ropc laddc r 1'", Ilcs('ent into Ball's Ca ern, Schoharie COllnty, New YOI'll. NATIONAl. SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIFTY

PAGE 79

R elllrning to the l a k e wh e r e th e a(I\ enturen lande d it was n o ti ce d th a t upo n th e n orth s i de o [ the p erpendic ul a r e n t r a n ce to th e amphithea t e r th e r e exi s t e d a l o w narr o w aperture, througli which a stream i ssu e d T h e opening above w a t e l was only 14 in c h es hig h but it s dime nsi o n were see n to b e g r eate r within. A boat was co n structed t o s ui t this opening thro u g h whic h it wa s pus h e d containing a s in g le p e r so n in a r l cumbent posture Afte r a few f ee t th e pas sage enla r ge d enoug h to allow th e n a \ igatol' to as sume an u prig h t p os i ti o n ; a nd h e procee ded to the di sta n ce o[ a quarte r o [ a mil e, th e width o f th e p assage vary in g [r o m 5 to 20 feet. Here t h e wate r was 3 0 [eet in d epth and l os in g s i ght of th e l ig h t h e had Idt at th e comme n ce m ent o [ h i s voyage. in co n se q u e n ce o[ a llIrn in th e passage, h e a d va n ce d in a n e w direc ti o n f o r a bou t 60 fee t, w h e n h e e n cou11le r e d a sem i c ir c ular c1alll o [ ca lc a reou s tufa, over whic h th e wate r brok e with a slig h t ripple. Draw in g his boa t over t h e obstruction h e p roceeded as befor e, whe n h e nlet a similar barrie r. In this m anne r h e pass e d 14 of th ese dams whic h va ri e d in h e i ght fr o m 2 t o J 2 in c h es above th e surl'a ce o f the wate r, T h e obstru c t i o n s b e in g passe d h e soo n r each e d th e extremity o [ th e wate r where quitting th e boat, h e ente r e d a l o w n arrow p as sage hi c h soo n b eca m e connec ted with a spac i o u s room at l eas t 50 feet squa r e. T h e r oc k i s r epresente d as h e r e passin g into a kind o [ greywacke, in co n seq u e n ce o[ whic h few in crustations w e r e v i s i b l e in this apartme nt. T h e floor was cove r e d b y large b l oc k s o [ roc k s w hi c h had b ee n apparently precipitate d [ro m t h e roof a n d the sound o f a distant water[all was h eard [r o m t hi s pl ace Mineralogical Report of Ball 's Cavernc The most ex t e n s iv e d e p os i t s o [ calcareou s spar arc at Ball 's Cave, s itll a t e d a b out f our and a hal( miles n orthwest o f Sc h o harie Courthouse. T hi s was fir s t expl o r e d in Septembe r IS!!I b y J ohn Gebhard, Es q and othe r gentle lll e n This c a vern a b ounds in s t a l a c tites and stalagmites o f g r eat s ize and b eauty, with occas i onal c rysta l s o[ th e calcareou s spar. T h e s p ec im e ns arc so me times o [ s n owy whit e n ess, and orten of it hi ghly c r ystalline t exlllre altho u g h regular [orlll s ca n not be observe d T h e g reatest l e n g th o[ the G l \ 'Crn as far a s it has b ee n expl o r e d i s about two thirds o[ a mile B ULLETIN NUMBER 12, NOVEMBER 1 950 I t contai n s fourtee n roonlS t e n o [ whi c h branc h off laterally [ro m th e main passage o[ th e cavern; and tw o l a kes o r poo ls, th e surface o[ the o n e in the n orthern passa ge b e i n g t e n feet a b o \ 'e th e l e v e l o [ the oth e r and b o th containing water \ 'aryin g in d epth fr o m tw o to thirty f eet. S t a l ac tites and stalagmites have b e e n f ound in it, whic h a r c o f th e p u r es t \I'hite, u sually v a r ying [r0111 three to e i ghtee n in c h e s in l e n g th. and from o n e t o seve n in c h es in diameter One or a muc h farger size w as remo\ ec! e n ti r e and i s now in the p osse'ssi o n o f J o h n Gebhard, Esq. I t s b ase, \I' h i c h i s o f a n elliptica l form, i s three f ee t s ix in c h es ; It the larges t d i a m e t e r \I'ith a pl a n e surface undernea th ; but it s uppe r surfaces ri se regularl y o n a ll s id es t o t h e cente r [1'0111 which t h e r e i s a column of fift ee n b y t e n inc h es in diame t e r and s e v entee n inc h es in h e i ght. At the uppe r p art the r e i s a horizonta l projecti o n from which a r c s u s p ende d forty-o n e s tal actites [ r o m o n e to fi\ 'e in c h es in l e ngth. The ,,,eight of th e entire mass i s about f our hundre d p ounds Reference to Ball s Cavern3 B a ll s Cave, in Sc h o h a ri e, a b o u t two miles n ortheas t [rom the courtho u se, i s one of the most inte r esting tha t h as b e e n f ound in !\le w Y ork. It wa s dis co y e r e d and explo red t e n or twe h e yea r s ago, b y M ess rs. G ebhards and Bonny o[ Sc h oharie. The s p aces a r c in some parts v e ry large, in oth e r s v e r y s m all, as in most a ll ca v es. .-\ stream of w a t e r flo w s thro u g h the ca v e, and the r e arc se \ e r a l s m a ll casca d es. A boat i s k ept f o r the purpose o[ explo rati o n, T h e g entle m e n who h a \ e explo r e d the ca \ e, h a v e g i \ e n a description of it ,, hi c h w as published in the papers o [ the day The C ly e i s c hi efly r emarkable [or it s extent and b eauli[ul talactite s and talag III i t e The s t a lagmite s o f B a ll's CI\'C. in choharie ; n'C among Ih e Illo st b eautiful I h:t \ c e \ e r een: r esembling in tr:lI1slu c n y o l o r and deli a c y t h e fin e I bl ach e d wax o r spcrllla c li \[1'. .J. Bonny :lI1d the G ebhar Is. of haric h ; ly e Illany tine spt.'Cilllt. ns: a n:i in Ih' II li o n or I o hll .ebh:lrd. Esq. b s eell a Ia la gmit rr o m tha t :l\ '('. of th \I'ei ght of t\\ hundr d jlO lilHis or m l r e. which e x 'ds :lily thing [the kind for its b e:lu ty Ih:1l I h : I\'C e\'t.'r S '\1, talag nlil e s :In: somt. tilllt. s u s e l f o r o rll:l Ill Ill:l 1 mar ble,: : llld thos e or Rill's 0 111\ they b pro-75

PAGE 80

clucc d o f suffic i ent S ize, w ould b e hig hl y prized r o r thi s purpose. Additio.nal Reference to. Ball's Cavern" B all's Cave was first ex pl o red in 1 83 1 and was at th a t tim e o n e o f th e few caverns know n in thi s country. Orig in a ll y di scove r e d b y TvIr. B a ll th e propri e tor o f the l and, i t subseque n t l y p asse d inLO th e h ands of "V. H. Knoepfel w h o a n n ounce d his intentio n s of o p ening t h e cavern t o t h e public in 1 854 T h e proj ec t h o w eve r was abando n e d and t h e condit i o n o f t h e caver n i s t o d ay w h a t i t was 7 5 yea r s ago. It i s m os t r ea dil y approac h e d fr o m the r oa d w hi c h ascends B a r to n hill north o f th e limesto n e o u t-cr ops. .T u s t after c rossi n g th e Sc h o h a ri e Sc h e n ec t a d y b ounda r y line a priva t e r oa d l ea d s southward to the h o u se o f C h a rles H Va n P e lt Fro m h e r e a wood p ath o [ about h a lf a mil e in l e ngth brings o n e to t h e cave e nl.r a nce. This i s m e r e l y a w id e fissure in the Coey m a n s be d s w hi c h everyw h e r e in t hi s re g i o n are st r o n g l y fissu re d. The m a in cavern i s disso l ve d out o f th e Manlius strata, and its g r e at est depth be in g a b out 6 0 f eet. Sink h o l es a r e nume r o u s in th e r eg i o n a b out the cave Co.o.k Repo.rt o.f 1906" B a ll 's Cav e i s th e o nl y o n e o f t h e group w hi c h i s accessiblc:. T h e e n t r a n ce i s a verti ca l s haft in th e Coey m a n's lim esto n e l oca ted o n t h e n orth s id e of Barto n Hill, 3 / 5 mile southeas t o f the poin t w h e r e t h e r oa d to Q u a k e r Street c r osses th e county lin e. It i s r eac h e d by a wood road rrom th e h o use of E d w in Dietz and admits o n e LO a cavern w hi c h as far as ca n b e see n has cli. sso lved out of the basa l Manlius b e ds. A s t ee p d esce n t fro m th e botto m o f the s h a ft l eads t o a p oint in t h e cave a b out midway be tw ee n t h e limits of ex pl o rati o n in eithe r direc t i o n At some seaso n s th e w h o l e cavern i s full o f water but u s u ally the clow n stream (so u t h wes t ern) h alf ca n b e t r ave rsed witho u t a b oat. T hi s part ex t e n ds for 200 [ eet t o a m ass o f fa ll e n rragm ents w hi c h m u st be clim be d in order t o r eac h what has b ee n spok e n of in t h e meager li te r a tu re of t h e cave, as il'S chief attracti o n a l arge room nam e d t h e R O lUnda" o r "Amphi t heater Nothing rem a rkabl e was f ound in the c h amber and p u b li s hed d escriptio n s whic h h ave p i cture d i t as "ri c h i n s t a l ac ti c d ecora ti o n s" h ave 76 UI'PER.: B l tts in Ampllitheatm. MIDDLE : L ltl'gc cl tlcite bl ocl{ in Spring Roo m LO"VER.: S. Heenan, C lbmlin and C G ill'ol'{l ill Bl'Ol{e n Room. N ATIONAL SPELEOLOG ICAL SOCJr.TY

PAGE 81

been drawn from p erfervid imaginings raLlle r than from [acts. This room and the passages beyond it li e at a l eve l highe r than that of th e principal channe l which is burie d by clay and fragments. The cav e stream appears as a spring in the last chambe r r eac h e d and disappea rs aga in almost imme di ately beneath a mass of limestone precipitate d from the roof. The upstream (northeastern) end of th e cav ern contains water which in pl aces is as muc h as 7 feet d ee p. The st r ea m is retained as a series o[ pools behind natural dams of tufa formed apparently as deposits from !-Iowing water. Three hundre d and thirty fee t [rom the beginning of the water this end of the cave expands into a chamber at a highe r l eve l b eyond which th e pa s sage is small and so filled with water and soft clayey Illud that it is practically impassable. Explorations in .1929'; Now let us transfer our explorations to another cavern Ball 's Cav e as it is known lo cally This, lik ewise, has a p erpendicular en trance in which the light of day is soon lelt behind as the visitor climbs down and down, sending the rays of his searchlight ahead into the darkness to pain t ou t perils of any misst e ps from rocky ledges that form the downward path of progress. After reaching the bottom one fol lows for a long distance a winding pas sage cut from solid rock,-now walking erect,-now bending and occasionally crawling on hands and knees,-the Bright Stars, finall y disclose an up ward asc ent 'which leads into a huge amphi theatre H e r e w e spent considerable tim e invest iga ting its many wondrous f e atures, a large marble white stalagmite over against o n e wall; myriads of tiny stalactites slowly forming [rom drip-water on the ceiling; crystal pools with tiny white formation stones in the cavern Aoor; a mineral spring on one side that di scolore d its rock y bowl with a reddish-brown pigment; a shiny subter ranean vine-plant that sent its t endrils crawling hither and yon; our Bright Star alwa y s disclos ing some new and entrancing d e tail at eac h turn of the light. At one end of this amphitheatre was a tre mendous mound of dry earth and clay. Upon climbing to its summit, we obs e r ved another passage branchi ng off, close unde r the roof, some BULLETIN NUMBE R 12, NOVEl'vIBER 1950 thirty feet hi g her th a n th e passage w e had fol low e d in to the am phi th e a tre. This n ew top pas sage was low and we crawl e d along it for many yards, Bright Stars illuminating the path ahead of us Sudde nl y th e path s eemed to co m e to an abrupt end, with a s h ee r roc k wall blocking it oft. "\Then w e came clos e to this wall how ever, we discov ered at the bottom a small hole, jus t large enough to wiggle through. After a bit of d ebating and pe ering a head with our Bright Stars the passage s ee m e d quite intriguing, so we lay Aat upon th e ro c k Aoor and, b y m eans of toes and e lbows, w e wriggl e d along. Even now, I hesitate to think what might have happe n e d if our sea r chlights had not b ee n of the safe and d e p endabl e Bright Star make for, after stru gg lin g forward so m e twenty fee t th e floor ahead of u s see m ed to bl o t out into inky blackness,-the r e was n o floo r "Ve found o ur se lv e s looking down from the top of a fift ee n foot l e dge where the path had sudde nl y stopped. ''''ith Bri ght Stars shifte d over the edge of this l e dge footholds were di sclose d and we climbe d down into a large room on one side of which we h eard plainly the sound of running water, di rectl y over our h eads, Explorations by Tri-County Grotto in 1949: This i s the third in a se ries of articles appear ing in th e S c hohilri e County Journa l and Coble s kill Times r egarding exploring of caves in Scho harie County They are writte n b y m embe r s of th e National Speleological Societ y who a r e mak ing an exte nsi\, e explo r a tion of th e ca\' e in this area. Probably the earliest knO\nl ca \ 'ern of dlO harie County ,,' as Ball 's Cawrn, The fir t Cox ploration wa s made in Septembe r I :' I. by John G ebhard Esq" Dr. JocI F os t e r. and John Bonny. This ca y e rn. truly, llIUSt ha\'e b ee n maauifi celll during the c xploration p eriod of the nine t eenth century Today th e b ealily of the a \ rn rnu s t b f ound in th e faT n oo k and r e where th e [ormation h:l\ c bc n out f re:t d l r pry in g h :l1lds f o r th past hllndr d y an;. Thc ca\'crn i s I atcd n lhe ilber H m s t ead at Han n H ill. farm h : n in g b n III the r : ltnil y sin e it fir st up: lIlt. j It n \"il b e r Esq. \ S w e w c r e o ndll l e d t.IU'Ol ,,' h tIl' fie ld s ell r o m to Lhe : nu'n: t Y ',"ilbe l' lh' Ti

PAGE 82

present ow n e r pointe d OUL LO our party th e lo cation of th e firsL h o u se. It was of l ogs and stood about half wa y b e tw ee n th e cavern and the present m o d ern [arm dwe llin g at the m ain high way '''' e were told o f the hundreds of p eople who h ave come [rom all sec ti o n s of the UniLe d States and eve n Europe L O visit this cavern during its ex i s L e n ce. SLeve ''''ilbe r and Charles "Vilber, now elde rl y gentlemen, h a ve s p ent a g r ea t amount of their time in the cavern. They prob ably h ave th e most first hand kn ow l e d ge of their cave tha n a n y of t h e anicles that h ave b ee n writte n Charles ''''ilber, during hi s caving days, se t off c h arges of blac k powde r in attempts to open more of this Sc h o h a ri e Cavern. J ohn ""ilber, a cousin to Charles has fur ni s h e d m e wiLh a great amount of informatio n about the ''''ilbe r Homestead, and it was through him LhaL m y acquaintance with Ste v e was m ade. I shall a lway s r emembe r my acquainta n ce wiLh the ''''ilb e r f amily as muc h of the historica l in form aLio n o f the County h as b ee n compile d fr01l1 their accounts. My fir st v i sit to the cavern was during the summer of 19 38. My two compa ni o n s and I dragge d a small k yack d ow n the s ink-h o l e e n tra n ce and floated it on th e lake and pushe d along to the "Rotunda". During th e summe r o[ 1 948 lie d a Boy Scout T roop to th e cave rn. Vith a rubbe r raft we manage d to cross th e lak e to t h e RoLunda". 1n September of 19 48 I was o n a NaLional Speleologica l Soci eLy outing t o the cavern and follow e d th e souLh pa ssage [or a b out 5 00 feet until I was stoppe d b y a small pa ssage fill e d with fine sand. T h e LOLal di s L a n ce o[ th e p assage was dry at th e Lime; quiL e a diff e r e n ce [rom my fir s t and s econd Lrip wh e n w e w e r e compe ll e d to push ourse lves along b y our h ands on the ceiling in a rubbe r raft. T h e w a L eI' wa s probably five LO s ix f ee L d ee p aL th e Lime. The l a L es L expl oraLio n of th e cavern w as o n June J 1 19 'J9 b y Tri-Cou n t y GroLlO. C hesL e r Lasell, Leslie Shaw, St ewart K ee n a n Jr., and BurLon Col e compile d th e final d a L a [or a r eport L o th e A lb a n y l\IIuseum. Jus t ins id e th e Wi I b e r woodlot i s a 45 ft s i n k h o l e e n Lra n ce As o n e look s down the enLra n ce, the familia r coo l air hiLS your [ ace. The r emains of a n old log ladd e r sLill protrudes [rom th e h o l e. A co n ven i ent log h as b ee n place d 78 ; I c r oss the rim o f th e "sink" and our rope l adde r wa s a ttac h etl. '" e tried LO pl ay the ladde r down th e s h a ft without its enta n g lement in the old l adder but found that it wou l d be n ecessary [or o n e of our party t o free it foot by foot o n th e way down As I had b ee n to the Cel vern three prev i o u s Limes it was m y lLIrn to act as sa fety and contac t man outs id e. Stew K ennan w as th e fir st to m a k e Lhe d escent and [r ee d th e ladder on th e way. AfLer abou L 1 5 minutes Ches t e r L ase ll and Lesli e Shaw accompanie d him and I lost co n tact, know i n g tha t th eir j ourney into the d epths h a d started. At th e foot of the shaft a stee p dip slants d ownward for a noth e r 30 f ee t t o the floo r of the cavern. During the d escent l a r ge r ocks, l oose n e d from the ceiling mus t b e sca l e d to r eac h the floor. v\l e h ave found this condition in severa l ca verns and b e l i eve that th e earthquake in 1929 left its mark o n these caverns. St anding in a dry creek-bed a t th e bottom of the shaft a s h elf ca n b e see n on eithe r s id e from which th e water co mes and goes By l ying flat and c r awling unde r the lefth and s h e lf yo u find yourself in th e So uLhw est P assao e. T hi s i s a w ater worn p assage approximate l y "10 r ee t in h eight that winds and twists for 110 f ee l until it ente r s a hig h roo m By climbing up a S l ee p rocky wall a huge room is ente r e d T his i s calle d the amphitheatre b eca u se of its vast n ess. T h e room i s approximatel y a 5 0 foot ova l with th e ce ilin g abOUL 3 0 f ee t in h e i ght at the apex. The r e i s a huge mud bank i n the cente r of t h e room and if cauLio n i s not take n a f as t slide in s li! ) p ery mud will carry o n e smashing agains t th e lIm esto n e wa lls. At the north end of this amphitheaLre a passage l ea ds into anothe r room whe r e a spring h a s forme d o n the floor H er e rest s a l a rge white flowsto n e bloc k that b ea rs the blows of many h c llnm e rs. I t must have b ee n huge at the tim e of th e fir s t exploration. This sam e p assage goes o n for a nOLh e r fifty f ee t but b eco mes plugged with mud, clay and d e bris. if enoug h time wa s spent in explora lion a g reater disLa n ce could be p e n etra t e d. A t th e base o f the mud b ank i s a small h o l e enLering the floo r and i t i s here that the SLr ea m flows during hig h -wa L e r. I t would take a l o n o tlln e to clear th e Illud and clay from this room but I am of th e opinio n that if this projec t was NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 83

s tarted and co m p leted a n exten s ive cavern wo ul d b e uncove r e d F r o m the a m ount o f wat e r di sa p, p earing in t hi s r oo m it would warrant m o r e p assage unde r th e mud. N ea r the so u th wa ll of the a m p hi t h ea t re a l eafless, blood red p l ant was found g r owing out o f t h e clay bank. T h e p l ant i s a b o u t seven in c hes in l e n gth a nd h as severa I small f ee l e r s fr o m th e m a i n s t e m ]n p l ace of l eaves are a system of small h a i ry fee l ers a l o n g th e s t e m of this unde rground v in e. It i s se n s itive t o l i ght and ev identl y grows entire l y in the ab se n ce o f li ght. In th e so u t h w a ll o f thi s rool11 i s a nother p assage 1 5 feet [rom t h e floor t h a t turns and t a kes th e ex pl o rer into t h e B r o k e n Room. T hi s was so n a m e d beca use of t h e conditio n of t h e wal ls. T h ey a r e a ll crac k e d and laid every whic h wayan to p of eac h other. T h e app ea r s very l oos e and i t i s h e r e that o n e ge t s a f ee l i n g o[ close ness. Y o u d a r e n o t t o u c h t h e wa ll s o r ce ilin g [o r f ear that th e w h o l e p assage might g ive way. You go thro u g h t hi s passage and room w i t h out a sound and a co m p lete breath i s n o t t a k e n UnLit you h ave got t ell clea r o n the return j ourney. A ft e r a b o u t a nother 1 5 0 f ee t th e p assage n arrows d ow n to a s m a I I circle jus t l a r ge e n o u g h [or a s m a l l p e r so n t o fit ti ghtly As t h e floor of this p assage i s o f fine sand and g r ave l i t i s ve r y hard to n egotiate. T h e san d pus h es up in a b ea p a h ea d o f you and t h e r e i s n o way t o pus h i t b ehind. Thus the p assage was left and i s s till marke d unex pl o r e d O n t h e reLUrn j o u r n ey t o t h e s h e lf, a ri ght h and p assage jus t under the s h elf, w ill l ead o n e to the Fox Rool11_ T hi s i s a hi g h c r ev ice-like p assage, p r o ;) abl y a chimney t o t h e s u r f ace. I t was so n a med b eca use in M r. Gebhard found th e s k e leton o f a [ox in t hi s c h ambe r. So m etime l a ter the r e was a cave-in just missing a n exploring p a r ty. It h as b ee n in a semi close d co n d i t i o n ever s in ce. Members of our p arty got into t hi s room and hid fr ol11 t h e r est o f th e g r oup and p l aye d a ga m e o f hide and se e k Vo i ces could b e h ea r d a n d a b ea m o f li g h t co ul d b e see n o n th e oth e r side of th e s h elf bu t i t was qui t e a whi l e befor e th e sec ret was unloc k ed. T h e b est and m os t unus u a l part of Ba ll 's Cav ern i s t h e Northeast P assage. I t i s i n t hi s p assage that cave ex pl oring becom es a game of n e r ves a n d ve r y exc i t in g T h e r e a r e f o urteen l a kes in th e Northeas t P assage, 5 0 feet to 4 fee t in l e n g th. Each l a k e i s b ac k e d u p b y a n altlral BULLETI N NUMB ER] 2, NO\,U lBER ] 950 dam of tufa. T h ey a r e semic i rc ul a r in s h a p e and as s mooth as g l ass. It i s as i f a m aso n h a d t a k e n a t r owel and m oulde d th e m Our party c r aw l e d unde r th e rig h t h and s h e lf a n d found th e m se l ves in a passage e n t i re l y cove r e d w i th wa ter. T h ey \vad e d to t h e fir st d a m and s tood upon its base shining the i r li ghts a h ea d spotti n g t h e n ex t d a m in the i r beams. T h e wa tel' was c ryst a l clear and ve r y blue in co l o r .. It l oo k e d to b e o n l y t wo feet in depth but from previ o u s experi e n ces t h ey knew i t w as abou t 1 0 feet deep T h e temperature of t h e wate r was 4 5 F. T h e o n l y way to go was t o swim. Let me remind t h e reader th a t t hi s was n o easy matter. T h e ind i vid u a l had to swim with his clothes o n hi s body. H e had to sw i m w i t h his boot s or his s h oes. T h e most important thing was tha t h e h a d t o sw i m with a n o p e n flame carb i d e li ght o n hi s h e lm et. If li ght s h ould ge t the l eas t bit of water o n i t t h e fia m e would b e exting ui s h e d To th e membe rs per for m i n g t h i s f ea t I fee l t hat they h ave h a d a o nce-in-a-lifet i m e ex p erie n ce. T h e ir zest a n d zea l to gain informati o n o n th e Northeast P assage w ill be l o n g r e m e m b e r e d in t h e cav ing anna l s o f Tri -County G rotto. If th ei r b ea m s h a d been extin g ui s h e d t h e last r ay of li g h t wo ul d have va ni s h e d in the d arke n e d p as sage I would not fa ncy swimming in the d ark in a winding passage of s h arp ston e sides. T hrou g h fo urteen l a kes a n d ove r 14 dams our ex pl o r e r s we n t until th ey reached the Squa r e Room, at the end of t h e Northeast P assage. A d istance of abou t 300 feet had b ee n ga in e d through i ce col d 'I' a t el'. T heir han d a nd feet were n umb b u t still the continued, ex pl oring t wo mor e passages until they were satisfie d t hat th e fanh e t limi t had b ee n reaclled. A few for mati o n \\ 'Cre een in nook and mall passages_ S till cold the had to return t hrou g h t h e same pa S<1O'e and wim the la k es again After a b o u t a n hour and a haH in water th ey emer ge d a t t h e ba e or the rope ladder. Tyin g t h e sa f e t y line abou t tl1 ir \\ ai t the climbe d to t h e s u r face a til' d and wet grou p of "spelunke r s" The unshin n 0' t their b lood b ac k to n o r mal and aCt r walkino aroun d t h ey found that t h e oli i d still \l' th eir a r ms and l egs. \ s k ino -the m if th e njoyed the i r swim, the repl l w as .. lir e w w o ul d d o i t again, after a fe w \\ e k s rest. (colllilllll'd 011 page eighty-fo"r; 79

PAGE 84

EXPLORING AN UNDERGROUND RIVER By JOHN DY AS PARKER D e p ar tment o f Mollusks, Academy o f Natuml S cience s of Phila d elphia It a ll started with a routine b a t study trip to Aitkin C ave n ea r S i g l e r v ill e, M ifflin County, P ennsyl va ni a v V e set u p our camp beside a d e li ghtf ul trout strea m o n the Aitkin f arm .jus t a b out in the d ea d ce n te r o f P ennsyl va ni a S ud d e nl y we stoo d as i f roo t e d t o t h e spot f o r w e h eard a l oud squa wk fro m a duc k tha t h a d a im lessl y drifte d past on the stream a s "ve donne d our ca v e gea r. I turne d jus t in time to see the duc k swirl a b out in a ti ght circl e and then be b o dil y s u c k e d unde r. W e ran to th e place whe r e th e f ow l h a d di sappea r e d and the n n o ti ce d tha t the trout s tr ea m ende d in a s eeming l y quie t pool agains t the side o f a hill. The overha n ging b r u s h h a d scr ee n e d thi s phe n o m e n o n fr o m us. Of course thi s sipho n indica t e d C ave" in l a r ge l ette r s t o the s i x s p elunke r s prese nt. ''''ell w h a t a r e w e wai t in g f o r ," yelpe d Cha rli e Crutc h fie ld. Ell e n P eac h y" Pie tsch flun g a stic k into th e w a t e r and w e all watched as it swung in a n ever ti ghtening spira l th e n finally disappea r e d from v i ew. vVait a minute," r eminisce d Bill H ertl, "Didn't Jim Gossett and J erry Bl oc h r e p ort a w a t e r fill e d fissllr e h e r ea b outs l ast wee k?" I quickly unzippe d the topog r aphic case, s pill e d out se t s o f r e p o r ts, and s in g l e d o n e o ut. In G osse tt's f amiliar scr a wl I r eae!: "Ente r e d a ti ght fissure at b ase o f tree 7 4 0 feet fr o m entra nce o f Aitkin cave a t 351 0 magn etic. L o n g n arro w fissu re a lmost pinc hes o ut. D escende d t o keyh o l e whe r e we h eard running w a t er." B y thi s tim e Ruth B oye r and Bill Murphy we r e h auling th e cave gea r o u t o f the Chev r o l e t carryall. T h e rest o f u s l oa d e d up with the gea r as soo n as I had d e t ermine d the area of t h e en tra nce b y tri a n g ulati o n Bill H enl was the o n e who s potted th e h o l e Here it i s," h e c ri e d "but o nl y a cockroac h ca n get thro u g h it. vVe s i x cockroac hes g awk e d a t a s lit-lik e en tra n ce, the n pile d our gea r bef o r e the fissu re Blanke ts, fir s t aid kit, h ea t p a ds, coll a p sible st r e t c h e r extr a carbide, n y l o n m ountainclimb8 0 ino' lines a l adde r and a h os t o f othe r things t> m a d e a l a rg e pile o n whic h w e sat and pic k e d a l eade r. For som e r ea son I was c hos e n. I l o ok e d ove r m y c r e w and felt pretty goo d For I realiz e d tha t b ehind m e I h a d five o f th e best a ll round cave rs in this a r e a Elle n Pie t s ch s till in h e r tw entie s has m a n y c a ves t o her c r e di t. Sh e i s pre s e n t h ea d o f th e P athfinde r committee f o r Phillygr otto and i s a mineralog ist of m o r e tha n u s u a l ability. Rut h B oye r, as strong as sh e i s s h a p e ly, i s a n old h and at tou g h caves A nurse and a r o p e s p ec i a li s t s h e has long b ee n a l eade r and rope t eac h e r f o r Phillygrotto. Cha rli e Crutc hfield h as sev e r a l years of cav in g b ehind him. A c h e mi s t as we ll as a n infantry office r h e made a we lc o m e additio n t o th e p arty. Bill H enl, altho u g h s till in his t ee ns, m e as ures 6 f ee t 6 inc h e s and i s as stro n g a s a n ox. His ca vin g l og b e lies hi s age, h o w eve r and I kne w h e w as a n old h and a t ri gging and firsta id evac u a ti o n proble m s as we ll as pho t og r aphy Bill Nlurphy, in hi s thirties i s w ell ov e r a foot s h orte r th a n the younge r Bill bu t has p rovell himself a valua bl e l ea d e r n o t o nl y in th e N.S.S. but al s o in th e E x pl o r e r S cout prog ram. Firs t I s ent n o tifi ca ti o n t o M r. Aitkin of our c h a n ge o f pl a n s and put a f our h our tim e limit o n our ini t i a l unde r ground effo rt. T h e n I in vestiga t e d t h e rigging r equire m ents. I soo n saw tha t t o pass a p e r so n throug h the k ey hol e en tra nce to the l o w e r sec ti o n o f the fissure w e w ould h ave to dis p e n se with eve r ything but a sa f e t y line. I b ent a line about m e and Ruth 510wly p a id it out fro m h e r sa f e t y in g positi o n a s I sc r amble d d own with m y b ac k t o o n e wall and m y s t o m ac h we d ge d t o the opposi t e side. My f ee t hung limply in the d arkness b e l ow. So o n I b ecame j amme d and I saw tha t I mus t pi c k out t h e w idest s p o t s throug h whi c h t o slip m y b o d y In thi s w ay I c ould threa d m y w ay b ac k and f orth o n th e side o f the f issure, e v e r seeking a l o wer l eve l in muc h the sam e m anne r tha t a s m a ll b oa t pilot w ould threa d his way ac ross a NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 85

shallow-wate r b ay. T h e passage was too narrow for m e to look strai ght a h ea d so I had to k ee p my f ace LUrne d s id e ways To twist my head [rom o n e s id e to t h e oth e r I h a d to ti I tit bac k unti l my fac e was stra i ght up, the n tilt it b ack down on th e oth e r s h oulde r The beam o f my carbide l amp eventua ll y re vealed a natural solutio n crack running away from m e a t about a 60 a n g l e ''''orking over to this I found I could chimney down th e chute ve r y eas il y The only troubl e was tha t I was not descending verti ca ll y and if I s h ould fall, m y safety line would swing m e lik e a p endulum. I stoppe d to get m y b earings. My carbid e lamp was a lmost out for I h a d lilte d my h ea d so many lim es that th e wate r had draine d out and trickl e d down my n ec k. I pulled out my flash light. I u s u a ll y kept it ti e d a b out m y n eck but in sitc h close quarte r s I had r emove d the thong l es t I s h ould h a n g mys e lf. J had n o soo n e r s lippe d it from my pocket and started to examine this pitc h dark dungcon when I heard the "whisper" oE [ ailing rock s above the sound of th e unde r ground strea m I flatt e n e d o u t against t h e w a ll as a cascade of pebbl es slid past. One of the m hit m y h and with s u c h ve l ocity that I droppe d the flashlig ht. As it slid down I saw by its beam tha t the c r ac k ende d in thin air about 3 f ee t b e l ow m e T h e r e see m e d to b e a room s haped some what like a n inverted funne l into whic h I was entering by wa y of th e narrow spout. Furthe r r evea l e d wa s a clay bank about 10 fee t b e l ow m e and direc t l y unde r t h e ke y h o l e thro u g h ""hich I had ente r e d. T h e r e was a s pl as h as m y flash li ght hi t th e water and t h e n t wi li ght as the beam filt e r e d through. Finally eve n that di e d out as the li ght was swept o n b y th e restless curre nt. I f e l t m y way down to th e end o[ the crack in which 1 w as chimneying ul1lil finally m y f ee t we r e dangling in midair. L ets see," I muse d. "If I step off I s h ould swi n g to th e right on the safety line '''' i t h luc k I m ay l and o n that cla y bank. If I miss it I g u ess I swin g out inLO tha t room and bash m yse lf against t h e opposite w aiL" ] c h ec k e d th e knO[ on Illy safety I in e sn uggl e d b e n ea th m y s h oulde rs "Top s id e," I s h oute d I have to swin g o n th e line." No answe r but th e roar of t h e water, n ow m a n y times inte nsifi e d b y th e fr ea k aco us tics of the dome s haped room. I tri e d again. "Can yo u h ea r m et" Insta ntl y BULLETI N NUMBER 12, NOVEMBER 1950 th e line t i ghte n e d aga in s t m y body. Well the y could h ea r m e eve n if I could not h ea r th e m I r e laxed m y hold o n t h e rock chute and took oul. m y nylon hand line. If I could faste n that I could go down i t and s win g LO t h e ri g h t to the clay bank. Sudde nl y the re wa s a noise and the pi ece of rock to which I was clin ging ca m e off in m y hand as I f e ll b ackward. T h e tight sa f ety about m e prevente d a n y downw'lrd motion. However in working down tI1e fissu re I had traveled about 20 feet to the l e ft Now I swung in a 40 foot arc in a lmost inky darkness. I traile d my l egs hoping t o hit th e clay bank but inst inctiv e l y I kn ew I had mis se d it. I curle d up m y l egs before m e and a l so ex t ended Illy arms in th e direction I was goin g Suddenly, in the d illl g low of Illy almost dry h eadlamp, I sa w a wall looming out of the darkness I took th e blow with m y extremities and b e for e I could r ecover I swung b ac k. After I had b egun to rise again I flung o u t a n arm to m y right. My body turne d around just in time [or m e to f end off the opposit e wa ll. Just h o w m a n y wa ll s I carom e d off I do not know but I think it was the bus iest minute of m y life. I r e m embe r yelling encouragement to Ruth w h o w as holding the other end of th e bucking line Fina ll y the a r c of m y swinging b eca m e so s m a ll I no l o nger hit t h e wa ll I just r e laxed and "rod e the rope" till 1 hung st ill. "Lowe r away," I s i gnale d with m y whistle. Down I droppe d [or abou t 4 feet and the n I hit th e clay bank. I took a plumbe r s candle (rom m y poc k e t and lit it with a waterproof matc h Its feeble g l a r e re vea l e d a s t ee p mud s lope dropping down to m e b e d oE th e st r ea m. Unrolling a s t ee l ladder I fas t e n e d it to a piton driven in the roc k wall. T h e n after aga in warning m y safe t y I climbed down a muddy s l o p e a nd over a s m a ll preci pice o n t h e l adde r. T h e floor prove d to b e Ii ttle bu t strea m b c d 6 in c hes of wa ter on l oose rock and a f e w small pieces o[ brea kd ow n projecting a n in c h o r two above t h e water at this point. I refi ll e d and lit m y l amp. Then I aw I was a t th e bOLlom of a fissure f rom 5 to 1 2 inc hes wid e and a b out 5 0 f e e t lono Its boLtom was a mom about 30' x 50' with teepl y h e lv e d ides cove r e d with banks of mud. 11 top was th e k ey h o l e; a dUll1b e ll s hape d openino about 9 by 1 6 in c h es wide and about 90 f ee t above me. D eciding that th e b esl pl ace to handl e the 81

PAGE 86

dC'scent was up o n th e clay b a n k I ascende d th e l adde r f ound good f oo tin g and the n untie d t h e rope. "Up lin e," I s i g n a l e d with t h e whisLle and i n a m o m e n t I h a d seve r e d m y connec ti o n w i t h th e uppe rworld. T hi s a lw ays c r ea tes a blue f ee l in g even a m o n g experi e n ce d cave r s so, lik e the b oy w h o whi stle d in th e d a rk to keep up hi s courage I s t arted s in g in g a li ve l y p o lk a at th e t o p of m y lungs (Th e din of the water was terrific.) Soo n a t e n o r was h eard chiming i n and I sa w a n o th e r f orm coming d ow n I th e n sta r ted yel lin g in structio n s to th e climbe r f o r I could see wh e r e h e w as goin g and h e could n ot. V h e n h e r eac h e d the end of the chute I thre w him a lin e and bro u ght him o n d own t o t h e l e d ge o n w hi c h I "vas s t anding Murphy, f o r s u c h i t p rove d to be, w e n t o n d ow n to w a t e r l eve l b efo r e h e t i e d off" T h e lin e th e n we n t up fo r the next s p elunke r. P eac h y h a d a hard t im e with the keyh o l e bu t made s hort work of t h e r est o f th e desce nt. My j o b of cave m aster was quite un e n v i a ble, f o r P eac h y pulle d a l o t o f din and g r ave l thro u g h th e k ey h o l e As s h e and subse q u ent s p elunke r s d escende d they r a in e d t hi s m a t e ri a l into m y upturne d f ace until I f e l t as tho u g h I h a d b ee n stung b y seve r a l b ees. As P eac h y was t y in g off" Bill Murphy r e m ove d a th ermo m e t e r fr o m t h e "vat e r and san g out "Air 4-9 wa t e r 4-5 F" as h e ente r e d it i n t h e l og book B ill H ertl a n d C h a rli e Crutc hfi e l d ca m e d ow n in jig t im e l eav in g o nl y Rut h B oye r top s ide. S h e n ow droppe d o n e end of the sa f e t y line to m e and p asse d it a r oLlnd a t r ee b e f o r e t y in g o n ". Thus I sa f etie d her f r o m b e l ow. V hil e I brou g h t h e r d ow n t h e two Bills searc hed for c r ayfis h isopod s a n d P eac hi e m a d e a start on the m in e r a l ogy. C harli e started the sea r c h f o r sal a m a n ders and in sec t s o n th e s id e wa lls. O n ce Ruth and I we r e s t a n d in g in the wa t e r \ r i t h the r est of t h e ga n g we roped o u rse l ves to geth e r w it h C harlie, th e second in command, at th e r ea r and nle at t h e fr o nt. T h e other four we r e tie d a t interva l s a l o n g th e r o pe. A t last we were r ea d y [o r th e undergr ound river. ,Vas i t wa i t i n g for us? Upstr eam our i n gress was barred by b r eak down t h ro u g h whic h t h e wate r filtered Down stream t h e wa t e r ran t hrou g h a tunne l a b o u t 3V2 feet hig h D ow n t hi s the party craw l e d. At this poin t t h e water ve l oc ity was 4m p h accord-82 in g t o C h a rley'S slide rule computa ti o n s W e h a d gon e d ow n thi s tunne l o nl y f a r e n o u g h t o ex h a u st our supply of j ok..es a b out th e P a ri s sewe r s (a b out 30 f eet) whe n we ca m e t o a junc tio n A n othe r strea m ca m e throu g h a w a t e r h ew n c h anne l abou t 3 f ee t w id e b y 4-f ee t hig h. \ V h e r e the t wo strea m s m e t w a s a bl ac ki s h who rl in g m ass of wa t e r Afte r calling Rut h t o sa f e t y m e I s t eppe d i n to t h e pool i n t h e in teres t o [ Sc i e i1Ce. T h e first step was t hat cruc i a l plunge t h a t we t s t h e l owe r abdom e n and th e second s tep f ound m e in up to m y wa i st. I quic kl y too k a bearin g o n the secondary strea m and r e l aye d the infor m a ti o n t o logk ee p e r Murphy. I h a d a lr ea d y n o t e d th a t th e walls o f t h e cave w e r e unde r cut w h e r e the wa t e r ran fas t so I t old th e r est of the p arty t o t r y walking n ea r th e e d ge of the w a ll. fo.-Iost of the m m a n age d to ge t a r ound thi s pool in o nl y a f e w in c hes of water. "Ve we r e a ll gath e r e d o n a mud bank waiting f o r tag end C h a rli e Crutc hfi e l d to negoti a t e t h e juncti o n H e was d o in g fin e w h e n sudde nl y his overh a ng in g underfootin g crumbled b e neath his w e ight. With a c r y to his sa f e t y h e plunge d into the fri g id w a ter and di sappea r e d fr o m v i e w His h a l went floating d ow n s tr ea m t o P eac h y w h o fis h e d i t out as i t p asse d. Murp hy, hi s sa f ety m a n h eave d o n the line and jerk e d a completel y soa ked C h a rli e t o a c r o u ching p os i t i o n S ittin g in wa ter llP to his chin, C h a rli e r a n thro u g h a so m e what mor e t h a n m o d est vocabu l a ry. "Vh e n h e ex h a u s t e d hi s stoc k o f Englis h h e c h a n ge d to Fren c h a n d t h e n G erma n Ruth sa t o n t h e Illudba nk relit hi s l amp f o r P e a c h y and as s h e rest o r e d th e h a t to its ow n e r s h e sa id "What a pity YOll d o n't know S p a ni s h or P ortu g u ese." \I\fe took tim e h e r e to slUcly th e situa ti o n "Ve f ound t hat f r olll C harlie's pool H owe d a Illu c h l a r ge r st r ea m w hi c h lTloved ra pi d l y thro u g h a c h annel abou t 4[eet w id e a n d 6 to 1 0 feet hi g h above water. Besid e thi s was a mud bank w hi c h r a n pa r allel to il. but w as sepa r a t e d b y a thin wa ll whi c h f orme d t h e r ig h t wall o f the solutio n c h annel. T h e rock o [ thi s wa ll dippe d at 72 so that o n th e lTlud-b ank s id e o f the p artitio n b oth walls s l ante d at thi s a n g l e T h e floor w as o f cave clay. T h e ce iling was 6 to 8 feet a b ove u s At most poi nts t h e p assage was about 3 feet wiele. I c h ose thi s upper p assage as i t was dry. \I\fe wa lk ed a l o n g w i t h our feet o n t h e floor and our h ands fia t o n th e s lopin g wa ll. In severa l NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 87

places keyholes in the wall had [arme d S Ulllp S where clay had wash e d away. Tbese funnelshaped SPOlS were v e ry slippery and quile n asty lO negotiate. ''''e had crossed seve ral wh e n w e heard a splas h precee d e d by th e c ry,. "Sal'cty ", [rom Bill Murphy. Charlie and Bil l H enl both b e l ayed their lines about th eir hips and soo n we h eard a sputtering sound. vVhe n it had subs id e d Ruth co nfid e d ow th e r e i s Sp anish i t s hould b e spoke n. About that tim e Bill' s dripping h ea d poke d up throug h the funnel and soon h e was sh i vering on the mud floor. This pas sage abruptly ende d in a mud s lide about 7 5 f ee t from its b eginning. W e had nOl e d that we were steadil y climbing above the w a t e r l eve l but w e w e r e quite surprised to see the bank was about ]0 f ee t above the swirling wate r whi c h surged abou t th e bottom of th e s l ide. The at lhi s point were lOa far apart to be us e d for chi m n ey i n g so T der.i d ecl to go down on the rope. Bill H enl b ac k e d Ruth up on th e lin e and afte r c h ec kin g m y gear I stepped off tbe l e d ge I w e n t down so fast I thouglH I wa s ridi n g a roc k et. ''''ilh a sp lash I f ound mys e lf sitting in about a foot of water. "So m e sa[ e l y," I c om m e n ted acid I y. "Ye p it sure was ," agr ee d RUlh. \ Vho wants to dig m e out?" The n I noticed lb e for ce of m y descent had drive n h e r into th e o[llllud h a lfwa y to her knees Ruth spurne d the line and set the patlern for future d escents when s h e sat down with h e r l egs dangling ove r th e edge \I\Tilh a cry of G e ro n emo" s h e slid down the almost v erticle cliff o n her stern. The r e was a tre m endous sp l ash a nd there sat Ruth in a foot or wate r jus t as I snapped a picture P eac hy followe d Ru lh's exam pi e, bu t as Charlie sa id s h e added a back layout. Evidently s h e brushe d th e wall in h e r s l id e so tb a t s h e hit lhe water s id eways. Although s h e l ande d in shallow wate r s h e roll e d ove r and over into the main c h anne l. Bi ll H ert! quickly arrest e d h e r with tb e safety l ine and RUlh and I r e tri e v e d hc:r hat, flashlight and carbide r efill s as lhey swep t past us. P eac h y c1illlbed out o n a roc k that protrude d from the current. She was joine d on this foot square perch by Ruth and shortly late r by Bill Murphy who stood partly on the rock and p a rtl y BULLETIN NUMBER 12, NOVEMBER 1950 on P eac h y's foo t The three h eld hands and leaned away from eac h oth e r. "Now there is a tabl ea u ," said Bill H e rtl, and turning to look we really did see a s ight. The rock shifted or dis in tegrat e d. The r e was a wonderful v ista of flailing hands and f ee t as eac h tried to get on top of the other two. Then ca me the great plunge. At this point the water was 3 to 4 fee t deep and the walls were about 6 feet apart. Everyone was snarled in his ow n or so meone e l se's gear. Half th e lights were o u t and eve r yone was s houting. Both g i rl s fina ll y got over to the wall but little Bill Murphy was swimming around after gear till h e h a d the safety lin e a ll fouled up. \I\Te spent about 10 minutes unsnarling thi s m ess but finally we w e r e a ll straighte n e d out and the party was assemb l e d at the bottom of the slide. '''T e worked our way along first o n e wall and then the othe r, walking n ear the e d g e of t h e ,, ater o n th e thin overha n g a t or just b e l ow water l evel. I was sp r ea deagled across the cave with m y f ee t on one wall and my hand s on the other w a ll when I f elt the overhang crumble b e n eath me. ext thing I knew I was in inky black wat e r and was roll e d over on m y b ac k b y a jerk on Illy safe t y line When I callle to the surface 1 saw Ruth h olding the othe r end of the lin e "Look at th e s u c k e r I jus t ca u ght," s h e said to P eac h y as s h e pulled me in. "Ve inche d on down the passage which was alternately wide but fainy s h a ll ow, and n arrow but deep. As w e progress e d th e cei lin g b eca m e low e r and low er. Finally, afte r making a right a n g l e turn we found th e ce ilin g ca m e down bel ow w ater l eve l to form a siphon. '''T e gath e r e d in 312 f ee t of water a t this point and discuss e d th e possibilities of further progress. My calculations showed that we were about ]00 f ee t from Aitkin cave but running p aralle l to it. The cur r e n t was too h eavy to enable u s to duc k unde r with a n y hope of gettin g batk upstrea m. Also it was gettin g l ate. Then too though the weather had b ee n perfect wh e n w e ca m e in I was s till worrie d about what a rain storm would do if it were to catc h u s there. V e dec ided to return to the surface. vVe a ll plunge d upstream with a will as a ll bu t Bill H ertl had b ee n completely underwate r at l eas t once. The mud bank wa s a tough ascent 83

PAGE 88

I J lIt w e climbe d up e a c h o th e r 's shoulde r s to r eac h th e t o p. \l\Tithin a s h ort tim e w e w e r e aga in assemble d in th e entry room with its fis sure running t o th e surface T h e sa f ety lin e would n o t easily slip around th e tree b eca use o f fri c ti o n so I fo u nd it of littl e lise F o r thi s r easo n I d ec id e d to m a k e th e initia l ascent ins t ea d o f b e in g th e la s t o n e out. A ft e r turning the p arty ove r to C h a rli e I m a d e m y w a y up t o th e l e d ge w h e r e I had l ande d a ft e r m y p endulum-like ride. Fro m the r e I h a d a t e n foo t climb t o the solutio n c r ac k d ow n w hi c h I h a d d escende d A ft e r 3 fail ures t o ac hi eve thi s I climbe d up o n Ruth B oye r 's s h oulders Sh e wa lk e d unde r th e c ra c k and I easily inserte d m y h ea d and s h oulde r s in it. A ft e r 1 5 minutes o f h ard chimney in g I was s i tti n g o n the surf a ce. Ruth was n ext t o ascend and s h e had a h or rible tim e getting up t o th e c r ac k I h a d jus t as cende d Three times I w as h olding her in mid a ir. I h a d both f ee t plante d aga in s t a bi g tree and was l eaning stra i g h t out p a r alle l with th e g r ound. "Pull up," scr ea m e d Charlie's whi stle, and tr y I did, aga in and aga in. Fina ll y the r o p e w ent limp and I pulle d it up snug aga in s t Ruth. Sh e was coming up. 'With Ruth t o h e lp, it was eas i e r to pull P eac h y up t o th e c r ac k Getting h e r throu g h th e k ey h o l e w as a n o th e r m atte r. A ll three o f u s worke d for many minutes b efore s h e was t op s id e of th a t nast y squeeze. The m o r e of the party w h o arrived o n th e surface th e eas ier the initia l pull b eca m e Fina ll y eve n tag end C h a rli e was u p. 84 \lV e w e r e busy fillin g out the lo g and s ketch in g a r o u g h sk e t c h to h elp fill in anothe r un know n spot o n the m a p w h e n Ruth sa id "Look a t Bill H e rt!. H e isn t w e t a bov e the w ai st. Tha t call s fo r a ki ss." Bill b eame d and brace d himself as s h e ap proac h e d. Whe n a t arm's l ength s h e r eac h e d in h e r L ev i s and pulle d out a wate r s o a k e d molasses candy which s h e presente d to him. EXPLORA TION IN BALL'S CAVERN (cou/i l/u e d f rol/l p age seventy-nine) F o r the ave r age s wimme r t hat contempla tes accomplishme n t o f thi s sa m e f eat, T A KE CARE. The b o d y mus t b e conditione d gradually t o t a k e th e cold t empe r ature It is n o t th e good swim m e r th a t m ay m a k e it ; but the swimme r that f ee l s hi s way, r ea lizin g th a t hi s lif e h a ngs a t th e othe r end of the bal a n ce. I A m e ricall J ournal o f Sci e n ce Dr. Charles l S h epard, Yal e U lli ve r s it y 1 83;; i\[in e ral ogy o f New YorkNatura l Histo r y of New York L ew i s C. B ec k :\1. 0., 1 842 Geol ogy of New Y o rk -Natural His tory o f New York Willia m W M athe r, 1 843 Geol ogy and P a leontology o f S c h o h a ri e County, N. Y S t a t e M us. Bull., 1906 A m a d e u s ,.y. G r abau Limes t o n e Caverns o f Eastern New Y o rk Pro f esso r C o o k 1 9 0 6 G Cave Exploring With Bright Star Fla s hli ghts, Arthur H Van Vo ris, 1 92 9 Sch o h a ri e County J ournal, C h a rl es J H a n o r July 5 th 1 949 NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 89

WI,D in Bulletin T.I/elve CIIARLES .J. HMwR i s sccrctary of th c Tri-Cullnty Grottu Onconla, New Y ork, and wa s b u rn Il car S e ward New Y o rk jus t over thc Sch oharie COllnty Lin e Hi s s p cc ial inte r es t s in s p e l co lo gy are mapping, archaco l ogy, phu t og r aphy and compiling data o n ex i sting c a ves o f the coulllry. H e h as writte n many article s f o r thc l uca l p a p e r s o f Ncw Y o rk S t a t e te llin g o f th e ac ti v it y uf th e :\. S S -\t presc n t h c i s m a kin g a snrvcy oE th c forma ti o n s calle d "di s ks" that ca u ght hi s : Itt entio n whil e at Grand C a vcrns Va. H c h as E Ollnd thesc sallie for m a ti u n s in a certain lin e r i ght lip throllg h P cnnsyl vania and i s d es p e r a t c l y tryin g to find i f th ey again m a k e th e i r appea r a n ce i n hi s nativc statc. H e i s a stro n g a d voca t e of cave sa f e t y and i s try in g t o inte r est th e Ncw Y o rk grotl.Oes t o f orm an o r ga nizcd r csclle squad. Hi s regul a r w o rk i s s lIr veying and m apping f o r o n e o f th e l a rger utility colllpanics oE New York S t a t c. H c r ece i ve d hi s collegc cd u ca ti u n at Oneonta State Tca c h e r s Collcgc. F ORRFs T L. HI C K S w a s bo rn in L os A n ge les Ca lif ornia in 1 926. B eginning hi s mineralogi ca l intc r es t ea rly, h e w o n a mine ral collec ti o n p ri ze a t a hobhy s h o w bef o r e h e w as thirtce n W orld \-Var II inte r r u p t e d hi s lif:e a n d aEte r sea dnty o n th c A tl antic h e r eturned t o collcgc study in g geo l ogy a t the U ni ve r sity oE Southe rn Ca lif ornia. T h e r e, lIIarine geo l ogy, scdimcntatio n and m i n e r a l ogy we r e his main in te r es ts. As a g r aduatc student h e e n g aged in w o rk o n th e M o jave Desert wh e r e h c di sco v e r ed h alite s tal actitcs and miniatllrc ka rst. t o pography in a p l aya l a k e. In 1 9 1 9 th e State o f Ca lif ornia hired him f o r w o rk o n bridge f ounda ti o n s a n d in 1 950 h c r eturne d t o t h c U ni ve r s it y t o 1I'0 rk 011 hi s mas ter' s th es i s T h e situa ti o n in K o r ea h as lIIa d c i t n ecessa r y for him t o postpo n e hi s s tll d ies a n d I eturn to th e a rlll e d f o r ccs. HAROLD 13. HIT CIICOCK i s assoc i a t c p r ofesso r o E Bi o l ugy a t 1\[iddlebury Collcge and chairma n of thc department. Hi s illtc r es t in c aves i s an o lltgrowth of hi s stud ies o f b a ts. In 1939, whilc t c a c hill g a t th e U ni ve r sity o f '''es t ern On tario h c bega n study in g th e b a t s of eas t crn Canada and h as r cccntly publis h e d hi s findings in the Ca n a di a n I O icld Nalllralis t. T h c problem g i v in g him m os t co n ccrn now i s th a t of accounting fo r thc sca r city of fc m a les a m o n g t h e littlc brow n b a t s hibernating in the n ortheas t ern part of th c contincnt. LESLIE H UI\RICIIT i s thc Suc ie t y's 1II0s t ac ti vc in vertebrate ZOOlogi s t. W hil c sc r v in g 011 th c s t all: of the Missouri B o t a ni c al Gardell, St. LOlli s, h e v i sitc d a large numbe r o f e a s t e rn and O zark ca v es. III 1 9 -10 a r esearc h g r a n t fr o III th e Allle ri can Assoc ia ti oll f o r th e A d vallce m ent o f Sciellce enable d him t o explo r e a lld lIIa k c collcc ti o n s i n a b ollt fif t y j\lissouri caves. ] -Iubric h t has beell accompa ni e d o n m a n y of hi s trips, and in his sc ientilic w ri t in g has fr e qll cntly collabor a t e d with .1. G 1\lackin of thc Texas A & 1\[ R c sea r c h FOllnda ti oll. Hub ri cht h as di scove r e d m a n y n e w s p ec ies of illvcrtebratcs, has lIa m cd lIIallY f orms, allll has had qllitc a f e w lIa m e d ill hi s h OllOI'. BULLETIN NT.1MBER 12 NOVEMBER 19 5 0 1\L LUDLOW, NSS B ull etin Editor, \\ as co llnected with th c Brookin gs Institutio n a t \Vashington, D C. w h e n t h a t eco n o mi c and govcrllm enta l r esea r c h organi za ti o n w as fo unded H e spent tw o yea rs \.-ith a C hi cago firm of cOllsultants in munic ipal adminis t ratio n a n d seve n yea r s as chief cle rk and r esea r c h ass i s t a n t with th e New J e r sey Taxp ayers Assoc ia tion b e fore j o i n in g the U. S Geologi c al S u rvcy in J anuary, 1 9 -10. An i m itati o n from C h a rles E. M ohr t o participate i n a n NSS fiel d tri p i n April 1 947 r esulted i n h i s g radu a l c h a nge fro m a some w hat norm a l indiv i d u a l to a speleoeditor. PATRI C I A i s a native of L os A n ge les Ca lif o rtli a. and r ece i ve d a B A degree in c h e mistry from P o m o n a College. A ft e r a yea r s w o r k in a c h e mi ca l l a b o rator y s h e was attracted t o th e fie ld of geo l ogy. Enrolling as a g rad lIa t e s tlldcnt a t th c U ni vcrsity of SOllthern California, she hega n a study of gcology and rece i vcd a \la ter's degree in th a t sllb ject in .June of t his year. H e r interest i n i cc caves arose d u r in g a course in Ground \ Vater a n d her arti cle i s a portio n of a paper \Hitten for th a t cOllr se Marriage t o a p r ofessor i n the Geol ogy Departm ent a t I SC a n d th e s lIb seque n t birth o f a dallghte r h as so m e w h a t cllrtai l ed furthe r w o r k. 1\1. B l\frnLD I 'i': bcgan t o explore caves while studyi n g at O hi o U ni ve r sity. Sillce rare sa la m a nder s had been found a t Carte r Caves Ileal' G r ayso n K entllck y, o nl y 1 25 miles fro m Athe n s O hi o it \\ 'as n atural tha t the young herp e t o logi s t shoul d s tart his spelunking t h ere. Eve ntll ally h e lI'ent sa l a m a nder huntillg ill caves f r o m Virgi n ia t o Texas. illcllld in g a good m a n y in th e Oza rks. "Budd" 111 ittlc m a n earn s a livillg ill m allagc m ent ellg ineerill g b u t h as foull d e n o u g h time ill the last t CII ycars t o make t h c cxpedi t i o ns, collec ti o n s, all d observati o n s th a t have formed t h c basi s for n ea rl y ,,0 sc ie lltifi c papers. H e has o n e of the h es t priva t e h erpe t o l og i ca l l ihra ri es ill the COli II try. H e lives in L a r chmont, 1\. Y. CIIARLES E. \IOIIR fir s t \\' ent t o th e Ozarks in 1 935, i n scarc h o f a mI has beell b a ck f our times. In ] 9 1 6 h e arrive d ill St. LOllis th e day th e lIell's papers rc porte d th e d i scove r y of t h c re marka ble dcp osit oE f ossil p cccar i es i n Cher o k ec o r Brewe r y cave. A few h ours l a t c r h c lI'as in L h c cav e H c stopped by aga in l a t e r that yea r to di g a f c w h o n cs himse lf. lIl r. \Ioln's s p clllnking b ega n in P e llnsyl vania ill 1 930 a lld has t a k ell him ill to so m e 500 c a ves fr o m Ncll' Ellg l alld t o Florid a all d II'cs t to Ncw \Iex i co H e h as made t wo tri ps t o "I ex i cu ill se a rc h of vampire hats a lld othe r cave a llilll a l s A c h artc r m cmhe r 0 1 : th e NSS. Mr. Mohr h ecamc v i cc-pres id c llt ill 1 9 1 6 and this year \\' as c lec t e d prcsi d cllt. H e prop ose d and editc d th e Socie t y's first r cg i olla l bllll c til!. "Th e C;1\'e s of Texas." a lld i s th e a llth o r of IIl1mcrolls popula r a lld sc ie ntifi c articlcs o n s p e l eo l ogy. S ill cc i h e has h eell direc t o r of th c Alldll\) OIl N atll re Cell t el', G r ee nll'i c h COIIII. \ bi og r a phica l s k c t c h o f th e NSS p r es idellt appearcd in th e F ebrua r y 1 9 1 8 "'E"'S. 85

PAGE 90

JOHN DVAS PARKER, a malaco logi s t became interested in caves while a geology student at Rutgers University. His hobby of spelunking has been pursued on three contirl.ents when he was a fie ld geologist for Empire Mines and with the First Infantry Division. At present he works with marine snails, both fossil and living, under Dr. H. A. Pilsbry at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel phia. Although h e has provided a nice home for his wife and daughters in nearby Overbrook Hills his heart is still in his native Florida where he, in fancy, s till ex plores coral grottos deep in Neptune's Realm. He is a charter member of the Philadelphia Grotto and has been very active in that unit. He was elected to that Grotto' s Board of Governors for three conseclltive years, has headed important committees in that unit, and ha s been instru mental in training groups in cave safety procedures and rock climbing. He is Natonal Safety Chairman of the N. S. S. and i s a member of it s Editorial Committee. His lov es in caving are underground mountaineering, map ping, photography, mine ralogy and-you guessed itco lle cting snails! GEORGE GAYLORD i s chairman oE the Department of Geology and P a le ontology at the American Museum of Natural Histo ry. Among the m o r e than 200 scientific arti cles which he ha s written are several important ones on cave fossils. In 1940, Dr. Simpso n visited Craighead Cav erns, Sweetwater, Tennessee, to sllldy large tracks of an IInknown animal. His painstaking investigation proved them t o b e footprints of an extinct species of jaguar. He also made a firsthand stlld y of the "Bones in the Brewery" Cave in St. Louis in 1946 a nd has made a critical exami nation of most of the eastern c ave fossils discovered during the last cenlllry. Dr. Simpson' s r eputation as a literary writer is borne out by his article from NATURAL HISTORY, reprinte d in this issu e. He has also published a technical r eport o n his findings in the Brewery Cave H 1 7 i s a Yankee from L e i cester, Massachusetts. H e r eceived hi s Ph.D. in physic s at Clark U niv ersity in 1915. Since May 1916 h e ha s b ee n a phys i c ist at the Nati o nal 13l1rea n oC Standards in Washington. His prin c ip a l work there was first on the calorimetry of water a nd now i s on precision measurements of temperature r elated to the International Temperature Scale During th e war h e s p e nt a good deal o f time at proving grounds stndying th e performance of proximity fnses 011 roc k e ts. Hi s outdoo r hobbies include camping, mOllntain climb in g and color photography of wild flow e rs While a gradu ate student at Clark in 1914 he received a gift of an engineer's transit from his landlo rd an e x-civil -engineer. To this trans it h e has added a l eve l and a vertical circle 86 for cave surveying. David W. Appel, the principal helpe r on the Schoolhollse Cave Survey, graduated from college as a civil engineer and now, in addition to being a gradu ate student and instructo r in h ydraulic engineering at the University of Iowa, is Stimson's son-in-law. DR. ALLYN COATS SWINNERTON has been Professo r of Geology at Antioch College Yellow Springs, Ohio, since 1922. He r ece iv ed his Ph.D. at H arvard that year and has h eld many important positions in hi s field including work for the United States Geological Survey during field seasons from 1920 to 1936. He has also taught geology at Stanford U niversity and at H arvard and was consultant to the Tennes see Valley Authority. During "Vorld War II as a Major h e was Director of the Army Service Force' s Br:lnch ( N. Signal Laboratory. His spe l eo logical Il1te rest IS largel y 111 physiography and the hydro log y of lrm.eston e terranes. H e i s perhaps best known to s p e l eo loglsls for hiS paper on "Th e Origin of Limestone Cav erns" published by the Geological Society of America in 1932. H e is an Honorary Member of the NSS. AL.EXANDER D. THERRIEN h as been interested in caves and underground rivers ever since h e camped, as a boy on a lake near Lost River in the L aurentian Mountains in Quebec, Canada, way hack in 1908. Howeve r h e did nOl start a ny real cave crawling until 1919 and 1920 when h e spellt Illany weekellds exploring so m e of the caves in the limestone bluffs along the Big Muddy in central Missouri. H e is engaged in electrical work with a midwe stern utility and visits at l eas t one cave a yea r while on vaG) lion. At present h e is the Keeper of the NSS Scrap Books. GORDON T ''''ARWICK, a British associate member was born in Derbyshire, England in 1918 He first became in t e rested in spel eo logy whilst reading geography and geology at the University of Bristol, where he was a mem ber of the University Spelaeological Society. After six years war service in the artillery he became a lecturer in Geography in the University of Birmingham in 1946 He le ctures mainly in Geomorphology, and he is specially inte rested in limestone terrains. He is also interested in cave archaeology, b eing secretary of the Peakland Archae ological Society, which s pecialises in that work. His spel unking is mainly done with the Birmingham Cave and Crag Club or with L ewis Railton. In 1949 and 1950 he was elected chairman of the Cave Research Group of Great Britain, and in 1949 appointed British member on the newly formed International Speleological Congress Committee. H e is at present engaged in editing and com piling a speleological glossary for the Cave Research Group, to whose publications he is a regular contributor. NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY


Description
Contents: Preface --
Frontispiece --
Ozark Cave Life / by Charles E. Mohr --
Cavern Dwelling Salamanders of the Ozark Plateau / by M.
B. Mittleman --
The Invertebrate Fauna of Ozark Caves / by Leslie
Hubricht --
Bones in the Brewery / by George Gaylord Simpson --
Sex Ratios in Hibernating Bats / by Harold B. Hitchcock
--
Spelunking in a Pyramid / by Alexander D. Therrien --
Cavern Hymn of the Earth Planet / by Jay Esspee --
Ice Caves / by Patricia Merriam --
List of Grottoes --
Calcite Bubbles A New Cave Formation? / by Gorden T.
Warwick --
Gordon L. Curry --
The Survey of Schoolhouse Cave / by H. F. Stimson --
Cave Mapping / by A. C. Swinnerton --
The Formation and Mineralogy of Stalactites and
Stalagmites / by Forrest L. Hicks --
Clyde A. Malott --
Explorations in Ball's Cavern, Schoharie County, N. Y.
1831-1949 / by Charles J. Hanor --
Exploring an Underground River / by John Dyas Parker --
Who's Who in Bulletin Twelve.