Bulletin of the National Speleological Society

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Bulletin of the National Speleological Society

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Title:
Bulletin of the National Speleological Society
Series Title:
Bulletin of the National Speleological Society
Creator:
National Speleological Society
Publisher:
National Speleological Society
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Language:
English

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Subjects / Keywords:
Regional Speleology ( local )
Technical Speleology ( local )
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serial ( sobekcm )
Location:
United States

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General Note:
Contents: Preface -- Frontispiece -- Techniques for Dating Cave Deposits / by Ivan T. Sanderson -- Southwestern Caves as Books of History / by M. R. Harrington -- Caves and ROckshelters in Southwestern Asia / by Henry Field -- Cave Exploration on Jebel Baradost, Iraq / by Dennis J. Batten -- An Engineer Inspects the Rigging / by G. Alexander Robertson -- Origin and Development of Positive Water Catchment Basins, Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico / by Donald M. Black -- Wyandotte Cavern / by Clyde A. Malott -- Mechanics of Cavern Breakdown / by William E. Davies -- Idyll of the Ennessbee / by Jay Espee -- The Cave Salamanders of California / by John. W. Funkhouser -- Report on the Mineralogy of New River Cave / by John W. Murray -- Report on the Titus Canyon Expedition / by Richard F. Logan -- Cave in Rock / by George F. Jackson -- Who's Who in Bulletin Thirteen.
Restriction:
Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Version:
Vol. 13, no. 1 (1951)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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K26-00546 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.546 ( USFLDC Handle )
7465 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0027-7010 ( ISSN )

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BULLETIN TI-IIRTEEN Affiliated with the American Association for the Advancement of Science IN TI-IIS ISSUE ... Accurate and informative articles on caves including TECHNIQUES FOR DATING CAVE DEPOSITS CAVES AND ROCKSHELTERS IN SOUTHWESTERN ASIA THE CAVE SALAMANDERS OF CALIFORNIA MECHANICS OF CAVERN BREAKDOWN WYANDOTTE CAVERN AN ENGINEER INSPECTS THE RIGGING REPORT ON THE TITUS CANYON EXPEDITION SOUTHWESTERN CAVES AS BOOKS OF HISTORY AND OTHERS DECEMBER 9 5 I

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BULLETIN THIRTEEN Published by THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY To stimulate interest in caves and to record the findings of explorers and scientists within and outside the Society IN THIS ISSUE, December, 1951 PREFACE ........ .. . .................. ......... ............................. ......... . .... .. ... 1 FRONT I SPIE C E ......... : .. .................... ......... .. ................ .. ......... ... ... .. 2 TECHNIQUES FOR DATING CAVE DEPOSITs .. lyan T. Sanderson 3 SOUTHWESTERN CAVES AS BOOKS OF HISTORY M. R. Harrington 10 CAVES AND RQCKSHELTERS IN SOUTHWESTERN ASIA Henry Field 14 CAVE EXPLORATION O N JEBEL BARADQST, IRAQ Dennis J Batten 19 AN ENGINEER INSPE CTS THE RIGGING G Alexander Robertson 22 ORIGIN AND D E V ELOPMENT OF "POSITIVE" WATER C ATCHMEN T BASINS, CARLSBAD CAVERNS, N E W M E XICO ......................................... Donald M. Black 27 WYAN DOTTE CAVE RN ...................................... Clyde A Malott 30 M ECHANICS OF CAVERN BREAKDOWN ......... William E. Davies 36 IDYLL OF THE ENNESSBE E .. ...................... ......... ........ .. Jay Espee 44 THE CAVE SALAMANDERS OF CALIFORNIA John W Funkhouser 46 REpORT ON THE M I N E RALOG Y OF NEW RIVER CAVE John W. Murray 50 REpORT ON THE TITUS CANYON EXPEDITION Richard F. Logan 55 CAVE IN ROCK .. ................................... .... ..... George F. Jackson 59 WHO'S WHO IN BULLETIN THIRTEEN ...................................... 64 P UBLISHED inter m i ttently, at l e a s t once a year ; EDITOR: Jerome M Ludlow, 1l0B West State St., Trenton B N J Inquirie s r elating to the publication of manuscriplS in the BULLETIN should be addr essed to the Editor; those relating to the di stribution of the BULLETIN should be addres sed to the National Speleological Society, 1770 Columbi a Road, N W. Washington 9 D. C COPYRIGHT, 1951 by The National Speleological Society THE N ATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY w a s organiz e d in 1940. It now has mem ber s scatte red throughout the United States, and also has many members in foreign countrie s THE SOC IETY i s a nonprofit organiza tion of m e n and wom e n interested in the study and e x plor ation of caves and allied phe n o m e na It is chartered under the law of the Di s tri c t of Columbia. Its energies a r e d ev oted to the unlocking of the s ecrelS of th e world underground. THE S O C I ETY s e rv e s as a central agency for the collection p rese rv a tion and publi cation o f scientific his torical and legend ary in f o rmation r elating to Speleology It arous e s interest in the discove ry of new caves and encourages the preservation of the n atura l beauty of all caverns THE AFFAIRS o f the Society are con troll e d b y a Boa r d of Governors. The Boa r d appoinlS the n a tional officers The Board al s o appr o v e s committee chairmen who a r e c ho se n not only for their prov e d ability i n a p articular field, but also for th e i r a c tiv i t y in the work of the So ciet y O FFICERS FOR 19511952: Charles E Mohr, President; William E Davies Vice P resident (Scie nce) ; Bu r ton S Faust, Vice P resident ( A dminis tration) ; Jerome M. Lud l ow, Vice P re sid en t (Publications) ; I van T Sand e r s on, Vice-P re sident (Public R e l ations); L ewis C Kibbee, Treasurer; Chrissy V Mans field S e cr e tary to the Boa rd of Gov ern o r s BOARD OF DIRECTORS: Ernest A c kerly, James E Comer Jr., James W Dyer, Duane Featherstonhaugh, James A Fow ler Emmons Graham, William S Hill, George F Jac kson Richar d F Logan, J S P e tri e, G A lex ander Robertson Nancy Roge r s Howard N. Sloane, William J Stephenson Ralph W Stone OFFICE S ECRETARY: Mrs Ellen Mofletr. LOCAL SECTION S of the Society are called Grottoes They serve to stimulate and co ordinate activity and increase the interest enjoyment and p roduc tiveness of caving. LIBRARY : An excellent speleological library is owned by the Society and is being con s tantly enlarged Items on may be borrowed by NSS members Ex tensive collections of cave maps photo graphs and slides are being gathered and are available on a loan basis. Member ship helps to support the pub lications special investigations, and the operation of the Society. Associate .. .......... .$ 5 Institutional .... $10 Regular .............. $ 5 Life ...................... $75 Sustaining .. ........ $10 PUBLICATION S include the BULLETIN pub lished at least once a year, and the NEWS appearing monthly. All members receive the BULLETIN and the NEWS,

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Preface to Bulletin Thirteen The editor of this BULLETIN and the Soci e ty may well b e proud of it. It shows unmistakably the broa d ening sco p e of th e National Speleo logical Soc i e t y Its publicatio n s lo g i ca ll y h ave become the clearing house for Ameri ca n s p e l eo l ogical ac tivities whether ca rried o u t a t home or abroad. As s i g nifi cant as the r e p orts h erein on cave studies in Iraq and Sou thwes t As i a i s the d e scriptio n of a n expeditio n b y NSS members to Titus Canyon. This i s the first publis hed r eport of a we ll organized, offici a l ac ti vity. vVe hope that it will b ecome the p attern for m a n y more. The Society's effort t o k ee p its m embers in forme d o f th e l a test scientifi c advances is ex e mplifi e d in a n upto-th e-minute r ev ie w of the current work o n dating cave d e posits. Vit a l informa tion fr o m the field o f engineer ing i s applie d to s p e l eo l og i ca l probl e m s in two a rticles desi g ned to inc r ease both the safe t y f ac t o r and th e enjoy m ent of cave exploring. Other articles of hi g h calibe r round out the BULLETI N makin g it one of the m ost important yet publis h e d The next BULLETI N alre a d y un d envay, i s expec t e d in mid-1 952 Considerable progress is b eing m a d e a lso o n th e next region a l bulle tin, due in 195 3 December I 195 1 Greenwich, Conn. R ea d e r s of the BULLETIN s h ould n o t ove r look the interes tin g and valuable articles whic h appear in the monthly NEWS. In the l ast four years, a total of 278 pages h ave appear ed. Due to the l a r ge r and more conde n se d nature of the NEWS page a great amount of copy ca n b e h andled-the equivalent of a 200-page bulletin eac h year. While muc h of this material admit t ed l y i s of temporar y interest, a n impress i ve pro portion of the articles i s of l as tin g value A n index t o these major a rticles and reports i s plann e d. At the last annual meeting the g r ow in g IIn porta n ce of the Society'S publication program was recognized b y the e l ec ti o n of a v i ce-president in c h a r ge of publica tions. In addi tion t o the B ULLETIN and the NEWS, the Society this yea r publis h e d P a l aces Under the Earth," a direc tory o f comme r cia l caves. Underway are t wo ex tremel y ambitio u s proj ec ts, a "Handboo k of Speleology" and a Bibli og r aphy of Speleology, 175 0 1950 Both a r e in r e l a ti ve l y advan ced s t ages of pre paration. The Society expresses its g r atitude to its edi tors and contributors. CHARLES E :\ fOHR, Pr e sident

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I-V z ;> ::J o z ;> t'" CJl "0 t'=l t'" t'=l o t'" o C') Ci ;> t'" CJl o t'=l ..., -< Pho t o b y Gustav A b e l, S a/ zbwg, Ausl1-ia Eisr"iesenwelt, Das EistOl"; at the 'l'ennengebirge in Austria" The I ce Gate of the E i sI"iesenwelt C1Lve" This beautiful photogl"U,ph was chosen fOI" our" rr"ontispiece fr"om It /:'I"OUp of 14 entries of Gustav Abel of Salzburg-, Austr"ia., submitte d to the 1951 Photographic Salon of the National Speleological Society"

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Techniques for Dating Cave Deposits By IVAN T. SANDERSON Zoologist All/Jhotos by Ame!-ican MuseulII of Natural Histo!y, New York The coming of man to N01-th Ame1-ica, long believed to have taken piace a meTe 35,000 years ago, has jJwbably bFen jJUshe d back into time fmbeyond that figuTe by new discoveri es and advcl1IcfS in th e t echniques of dating clTchae ological finds_ The methods for elating a -rtifacts aTe desnibed h e r ein in a 1I1anner which makes complicated t echnical jJ1"Qceeltl1"cs eas il y grasjJed by th e average reade1-_ T h ere are severa l well-establis hed meth ods for dating geo l ogica l and archaeologi ca l speci m ens; among which five are of outstandin g s ig nificance to spe l eolog y namely, the statisti ca l anal ysis of radioactive carbon H content, fiour ine -analysis, varveclay l ayer counts, tree-ring counts, and spore-analysis_ Each may be applied eithe r in general o r in specia l cases to the dating of cave deposits_ The extent to which thes e tech niques h ave b ee n applied to cave materi a l is as yet r egrettably small and a n endless task awa it s spe l eo l ogists in this fie ld Before reviewing w hat has been attempted or accompli shed, it would be we ll to d escribe briefly the bases upon whic h th e five specific techniques mentioned above are founde d. The radiocarbon method is probabl y of first importance to spe l eo l ogy. T h e basis of this tech nique is tha t the half-lif e of ca rbon-14 is 5 568 plus o r lllinu s 30 years, w hi c h a ll ows accurate d ating-though it can not b e too strongI y stress e d that t hi s i s only on a statistical basis-of material up to about 25,000 years of age. This is far more compreh e n sive than a n y previously d evise d methods-and much more precise, b e it noted-for dating late quaternary deposit s and their contained human artifacts. As a resu I t: of t h e consta n t press s tories and articles in scientific and popular magazines which h ave appeared during t h e last few months it has become we ll known to geologists, archae o l ogists, and spe l eo l ogists that a ll plant and animal matter contains, during life, a fairly if not entire l y constant amoLlnt of the carbon isotope number fourteen. This i s caused b y cosmic rays striking our atmosph e r e and b eing BULLETIN NUMBER 13, DECEMBER 1951 captured by the nitroge n. The resultant nucle us imme diatel y di sinteg r a tes, throwing out a pro ton, which results in th e formation of a carbon a tom of a tomic w e igh t 14. These carbon atoms happe n to b e r adioact i ve. T h ey are ultimate l y again r ed u ce d to ordin ary nitroge n of atomic w e ight 1 4 -b y t h e expuls ion of a n e lectron. In the m eantime, howeve r the radioactive carbon atoms enter into the carbon-dioxide con tent of the atmosphere and a r e absorbed by p lant life a long with their s i s ter isotopes Carbon 1 2 and 13. As a result they become transferred to a ll t errestrial animal life because this is ulti mately dependent upon plants for its growth and sustenance. The proportion of radiocarbon 1 4 to ordinary carbon 1 2 is of the order of 1 x 10-12 gm to a gram of carbon 12. W-hen a p l ant or animal dies, absorption of radiocarbon ceases and the r emains of said anim a l or plant, if preserved in any way, are not thereafter altered from t hi s particular point of view unless contaminated b y physical proximity to some secondary source of nuclear disturbance. Thus, any such r e m a ins may, b y analysis of the propor tion of their radioactive to non-radioactive ca r bon content, b e dated with an accuracy that is d ependent only upon the degree of refinement of th e methods of analysi s and the abse n ce of contamination. Dr. '''. F. Libby of the Institute for Nuclear Studies of t h e University of Chi cago so lved both thes e proble ms a n d initiate d this great advance and its practica l application to historical, arch aeo l ogica l and geologica l researches. Howeve r a warnin g should b e sounded here, for it has b ee n far too r ea dily assumed-not only by the 3

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non-sp ec i alist-that this technique is absolutely precise and invariably infallible. This, alas, is far from the cas e The method is entirely statis tical, and the actual age of the material analyzed has almost as much bearing upon th e degree of precision obtained in estimating its apparent age as does the care taken in the analysis and the liability to contamination. Dr. Libby, his co-workers, and others now entering this field with similar equipment do not and never have claimed the degree of precision that has often been attributed to their findings by both popu lar and by some scientific publications. N ever theless, the method is an extraordinarily valu able advance in this most important field of re search and has as we shall see later, already resulted in a numbe r at most remarkable dis coveries. The next two techniques that h ave been applied to the problem of prehistorical dating are Hourine-analysis and varve-clay counts. The first is of a purely chemical na ture and is a pplic able only within any ane stratum ar d epas it. Being dependent upan the ex t ent af TejJiace ment af matter, it is only of use in' the deter minatian af the age of fossils which it may be suspected are af older or yaunger age than the d epasit in which they are faund. Fassils may be washed aut af ane stratum and depasited in anather, newer sediment, at any time. Normally, such redeposits are obvious: a Liassic 1 ammonite in a Pliacene clay wauld be a sU'iking and easily nated example. When, on the other hand, human bones such as the Piltdown skull and lower jaw and teeth, and mammath-bane artifacts faund alang with them are washed out af ane quaternary gravel and redepasited in anather, it is impassible at first sight, to. t e ll whether they were all derived from the same ariginal stratum. In certain places and at certain times, haw ever, flaurin e campaunds-notably, flaUl-apatite -of spec ifically d etec tabl e nature may enter into. t.he list af minerals replacing the bones ar ather materials being fassiliz e d. The rate at which such materials are replaced, ar the amount af such flourine campaunds available vary fram place to. place. Thus, it i s passible to tell by analysis af th e praportiona l content af these campaunds whether ane fossil faund in 1 The oldest division in th e European Jurass i c system. 4 R eco nstl"Uction of slmlI of Piltdowll man. 'any bed is af similar age to. any athers assaciated with it. The m ethad has b ee n applied to. the variaus bones associated with and including the specimen af the < [p e -man known as EoanlhTopuS discover e d by D awso n at Piltdown in Eno 'land b and as a resul tits previously claimed age has had to. h e very cansiderably reduced becaus e the analysis showed much lower flourin e concentra tian in the fassilized bones af the apem a n than in the assaciated fassils. In ather wards, this skull was a late r intrusion into the gravel b e d fram' which it was dug, prabably through hav ing lain in-ar passibly even having be e n buried in-a packet sunk from above into. that deposit. Lowel' ,j!LW of EOltnthlO[JIlS. NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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The study of varved clays, which was ongl n a ll y initia t e d in Sweden b y g laciol og i sts, i s a m ec h anica l rathe r than c h e mi ca l m ethod of calculating pa s t time. The m elting of a g l aci e r foot or front, e spec i a ll y in a co nfin e d fjord or va ll ey, procee ds much more r apidly unde r s um mer suns than during the ex t ende d northern winte r The water resulting from the m elting i ce ca rries with it a certa in amount of very fine sediment d e riv e d from the grinding action o f th e moving morainic material containe d w ith in the g l ac i e r. The fine sediment remains in s u s p e n s ion in the water for a long tim e and i s thus carried out into the still wate r s of th e l akes th a t u s u ally li e b e l ow the g l ac i e rs ; it is th e r e s l ow l y d e po site d. The result i s a d e p os it of cl ay m a d e up of a continuous succes sion of l ayers that alternate in thi ckness accord in g to the seaso ns. Slight variations in texture and co lor b e tw ee n th e alternate layers d eposite d in summer and winter respective l y make it possibl e to count th e actua l number of years that th e process has b ee n going on and thus to date precise l y any include d fossil s or other for eign bodies that ma y be found the r e in. Varves may ofte n b e found in caves, not on l y b eca u se of th e prese nc e of a loca l ice front, but also b eca u se of pronounce d seasonal variations in r a infall. Their presence has often b ee n over looked b y the e xcavators of cave d e posits for th e very simpl e r e asons tha t th ey do not look for t h e m and the a rtifi c i a l li ghts us e d are not brig h t e nough to r e vea l them. ''''hen fou nd they m ay b e exceptionally valuabl e, esp ec i a ll y in th e tropics or in othe r areas wh e r e there is a pronounce d seaso n a l variation in precipita tion. In a cave in Trinida d the author m a d e a ver y rough cou n t b ac k to 700 yea rs in a small s id e poc k et, in orde r to try to date a surpris in g l y fresh l ooki n g pots h erd that occurred a t a d epth of jus t ov e r three feet. '''' h e r e cave d e posit s run up to 20 f ee t in d epth without noticeable strati fication. a varve count mi ght produce so m e sur prising results T h e two r e m aining m e thods m entione d prev i o u s l y [ o r dating th e r ecord of the past a r e 0( a biolog i c al n ature and are onl y appli ca bl e to th e pos t-gla c i a l e r a. S easonal variation is also d e t ectable in tree rings, and in so m e cases th e extent of variation th e r e in recorded is so g r ea t b eca u se of th e sen s iti v ity o f th e tr ee to th e d ay B ULLETI N NUMBER 1 3 DECEMBER 1951 climate, that s i )e cific years of drought, flood or othe r catastrophes m ay b e d e t ec t e d ''''h e n thi s i s done, tree trunks of various ages m ay, wh e n a n a lyzed b e linke d to gethe r b y t empo r a l over l a p with a hig h degr ee of certainty in a nyon e a r ea, thus g i ving us an extended pi cture b o th of past clim a ti c his tor y and of the age of the trunks the m se l ves, togeth e r with a n y assoc iated r e m a in s found d e posite d with th e m. S u c h de posits so m etimes occur in caves, esp ec i a ll y in sink holes n ear their mouths o r a t the b o ttom of a compl e t e roof cave -in The l ast m ethod that r equires sp ec i a l m en tion h ere has now b ee n d eveloped to such a high d eg r ee of compl exity that it has w arrante d the est ablishment of a separate d epartment of sci e nifi c r esea r c h known as Palynol ogy. This, in s im pI e r t erms, mea ns tJollen ana l ys is Polle n analysis, as employed today, was fir s t d eve loped b y the Swedish geologist, L ennart von Post. There are two great modern works tha t may b e consulte d b y a nyon e wishing to pursue suc h studies and it i s a field that would r e p ay the spe l eologist. The m ethod is b ase d upon the fa c t that the polle n grains of flow er ing plants and e v e n the spores of low e r plant forms are of incredible variety, though specific a ll y of constant appearance, when examine d microscopically These forms and patterns have a hig h specific value to the systematist and eco l ogist and now tha t enormous co ll ections of t y pe-sp ec im e n s h ave b ee n built up, the p a r ent plants may b e ide ntifi e d v e r y r ea dil y and r a piel ly. Moreover pollen and spores are e x ceeding l y durable, outlasting a lm ost everything e lse e xcept mollusca n s h e lls-if burie d in suitabl e d e posits whic h vary from acid p ea t bogs to alka line cave d eposits. The vast m ajority of poll e n g r a in s are, of course, n orma ll y destroyed but enough fall upon bodies of wa t e r swamps, and bogs in the bottom d eposits of which they may b e pres e rv e d esp ec iall y if oxyg e n is defici ent therein, as in anae robi c muds on many l a k e bottoms. A n a l ysis of the specific grains found in a large vari ety of pos t-glaci a l d e posits has now be e n comple t e d, and as a result an extraordinar ily d e tail e d picture has be e n constructed of the c hanging v egetational c ov e r of the land surface, the clim a ti c variations that ca u se d thes e changes, and consequently, of the comparative ages of 5

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various deposits o r [ ac ies o f deposi ts. The fin a l o bj ec tiv e o f paly n o l ogy i s to survey the entire l and surface o f th e earth w i th a v i e w to cata loguing a ll exi sting t y pes of pollen grains and spores, and id entifyin g th eir p a r ent plants, then recording th e inc id e nc e, proportional a m ount, and spati a l distribution of a ll s u c h pollens and spores in surface d e p osits, and, fin a lly, extending this analysi s a s far back as pos s ibl e into the past. In d o in g thi s some worke r s h ave alrea d y s t eppe d as p o ll e n grain s m ay b e prese rv e d ill such pla ces alone, the entire surrounding t erritory b e in g eithe r too dry, too m o i st, o r othe rwis e c h emically unsuitabl e for their preservation. It is certainly a p ossibility th a t should n o l o n ge r be n eg l ec t e d. The result of t h e s e t echniques i s t hat w e h ave now gaine d a v ery muc h clea r e r and true r pi cture of the past hi story of our earth' and more e speciall y o [ t h e gla c i a l and p ost-g l ac i a l p eriods. Of course th ese n e v ver t echnique s h ave Tree rings a s s hown br cl ose-up o r .) 1 f{l.Ioia Tl'a silillg /(lIIii 6 ove r into t h e r e a l m of wholl y fossiliz e d spores and g r a in s whi c h open s u p the possibility of extending th e chro n o l ogy b ac k hundreds o f millio n s o [ yea r s T h e m e th o d i s of potentia l value to s pcl e o l ogy, esp ec i ally in flood strea m s or wh e r e l arge ca ve m o u th s are o p e n to wi nds bu t protec t e d rrom direc t rain. So m etimes fine mate ri a l s u c h b ee n combine d w ith th e more ordinary and muc h l ess s p e cta cular though re li a bl e meth ods [or cia ti n g the pas t tha t h ave b ee n used by geol o g i s t s and a r c ha eo l og i s t s since thos e sci e n ces were fir st formulate d and practi ca ll y appli e d. More ove r, since th e establi shment of th e radio carbon t echnique, so m e great surprises h ave co m e to light n ecessitating a n almost comple t e NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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r eo ri enta ti o n of our prev i o u s l y est ablishe d ideas of chro n o l ogy This i s p articula rl y true in th e fie ld o f N orth A m e ri ca n a r c haeol ogy Until r ecenLly it h a d b eco m e a n accepte d m ax im that m a n ente r e d this continent o nl y a f te r the l ast r etrea t of th e i cc ca p th a t thi s took place 35,UOO yea r s ago, th a t h e ca m e ex clu siye l y fr o m eas t ern A s i a by 'ay o f ..... I as k a a n d tha t eve n th e ca rl i es t traces of' hi s h andic r a f t w e r e of a lm os t r ecent d a t e. T hi s co n cept was fir s t s h a k e n b y th e di scove r y o r huma n artifac t s asso c i a t e d with th e dung o f a n ex tin c t g i ant ground s l o th in G y p sum Cave in Nevada. The n in R el"ollstl"lldio n o f g 'iant /:"I"olll\(1 sloth. P eruv i a n coas t a l r eg i o ns, eve r d ee p e r l aye r s o[ culture ca m e t o light: th ese oln' i o u s l y r equire d muc h g r ea t e r p e ri o d s o f tim e [ o r th e ir acc ulllula ti o n d e p os i t and r eplace nl e n t than h a d prev i o us l y b ee n ass i g n e d to th e m in th e accepte d chro n o l ogy o r A m e ri ca n ln a n A l so d e T erra in M e x i co cla im e d a n age o f 11,000 yea r s f o r th e a m erin di a n t y p e skull w hi c h h e n a m e d Tep expa n jvla n At th e sam e time a l a r ge numbe r of' p eo pl e b o th a lllat eur and prof'essi o n al. cla im e d ages th a t w e r e so metimes p ositi\'e l y e n ormo u s f o r certain Northern Am e ri ca n cultures s u c h a s th a t o f th e m a k e r s o f the f a m o u s F o lso/ll P oinls a m os t di stinc t f orm o f n o t c h e d stone s p ea r h ea d found in the '' 'est. The radiocarbo n m e th o d has o n th e o n e h and, g reatl y r educe d m a n y o f th ese estima t es d ow n t o pro p e r s ize, but it h as a l so provide d so m e as t o ni shing and m os t unexpec t e d support f o r th ose w h o claim a g reat age fo r m all o n t hi s BULLETIN N UMBE R 13, DECEMBE R 1951 co n t in e nt. For in s t a n ce, Tepexpan i\l{an 's age h as, according [ 0 t hi s a n a lysis, b ee n redu ce d t o 4,200 years, whi c h stro n g l y supports th e t h eo r y that h e was eithe r bur i e d in a m u c h olde r de p os it b y his r e l a ti ves, o r f e ll into a h o l e a t d eath. On t h e oth e r h and, c h a r coa l f r o m certain cam p-sites in Ohio prove d to be 6 40 0 yea r s old. But [u n her s u rprises foIl owed. Mat e ri a l f r o m m ound b u r i a l s in K e ntuck y a n d w oo d fr o m a n a n c i e n t fish-weir found in the mud unde r Bos t o n during r ecla mati o n pro j ec t s turne d out t o b e ove r 5,00 0 yea r s o ld. Objec t s [ro m C r a t e r L a k e gave a n age of 6,5 00 yea r s th ose fr o m a South D a k o t a camp s i te, 7,00 0 yea r s and a p a i r o [ w ove n fiber sanda l s found in a ca \'e in O r ego n prove d to be at l eas t 9,0 00 yea r s o ld T h e firs t a n a lysis of m a t e ri a l o f th e age of t h e Fol som p oints ga y e a n antiq tti ty of o nl y 4,300 years, but furthe r m o r e ex h a u st iy e tests h a \'e p r ove d t hi s to h a y e b ee n i n erro r and 9,900 yea r s i s n ow g i ven as a minimum age [o r thi s culture. But o lder s till is th e so ca ll e d Ll a n o Culture o f th e p l a i ns of New Mexi co whi c h i s n ow est im a t e d at 1 0 000 yea rs, w hil e t h e dung o f th e s l o th m entio n e d a b ove as h a yin g b e e n assoc i a t ed with huma n Fols olII an'ow p oints, Folsom New l\'1exic o r e m a in s in G y psum Cave N.e\ a d a, i s certa inl y 1 0 500 yea r s o l d. T h ese find in gs would be in te r es tin g 1Il th e mse!\ es, and \ro ltl d co n s id e rabl y ex t end th e 7

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Sandal made of unsplit yucc a blades, Grand Gulch, New Mexico. hi story of American man, but th ey tak e o n an entire l y diff e r ent significance in view of another discovery brough t to light by the radio carbon m ethod. This is th e unquestionable fac t tha t th e i ce-cap started to retreat from ''''iscon sin only 11,500 years ago and not, as prev iously cla im e d 35, 000 years ago. This can only mean that man, and p erhaps semi-civilized man was li ving in th e Americas during and presumably b e ore the la s t ic e advance. As d emonstrated by Brooks, Alaska and S ib eria were not covered by the northern ic e caps because of th e ir geographica l position and a bsenc e of the n ecessary precipitation, factors that play such a m ajor part in glacial periods. J everthe less a n enormous belt of territory was so cove red from th e Pacific to the Atlantic sea bo ards and ex t ending down to Long Isl and in the eas t St. Louis in th e cen t e r and the mid R ock i e s in th e west. The thous and' years b e tw ee n th e b eginning of th e retreat in ''''isco nsin (9,500 B.C.) and the appearance of man with th e g i ant sloth in th e Gyp sum cave (8,500 B C.) i s not e n o u g h for immigra tion via the A l eutia ns and A laska particularly because the i ce s h eets did n o t jus t m e l t away inst a ntly, but took at l east thi s period to r e tr ea t north and brea k up into west, central, and eas t ern ca ps which alone would allow huma n mi g r a tion s fr o m north to south. 8 Thus m a n was h e r e before the last g l acial adva nce. But how long was h e h e re? At present we h ave no satisfactory data to work upon, but there has b ee n one serious, though admittedl y startling, claim m a d e In a gravel pit n ea r Fre d e rick, Oklahoma, the r e has b ee n found a l a rg e assortment of flint and other stone impleme nts of fairly welladvance d human workmanship. They are intimate ly and appare ntly inextrica bly associated with sundry extinct animal s species of e lephants, camels, and large, lion-like cats-that ex i s ted during the first inter-glacial period, 750,000 years ago. The age of these deposits is hotly debate d, but the protagonists and critics are about equally matche d and the former numbe r among the ir ranks several outstandingly conservative geologists and p alaeontol ogists The question is at present without concre t e a nsw e r, but should the arti facts prov e to b e of the same age as the animal remains-something that the radiocarbon m ethod cannot h elp us to d e t ermine we will b e confronted with the c h a ll enge of filling in some 7'10, 000 years of huma n history in Norlh America. In thi s the speleologist will of n ecess ity play the outstanding role b eca use it is almost ex clusiv e ly in cave deposits that it A g laciel' front, Unte l'gab elhol'n, Swi tzel l a nd. will be worthwhil e s earching for the evide nce. There is r ea lly only slight r easo n for doubting th e possibility th a t m a n m ay h ave b ee n present in America since pre-glac ial times, b eca us e NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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continuing r esea r c h e s in the Old World are constantly pushing huma n his t ory backward, and the age of Che ll ea n and Ac h eulia n cultures in Europe, and their equiva l e nts in East Afri ca and So u th eas t Asi a are alrea d y comparable 111 age t o the Okla homa finds or eve n olde r. So far w e h ave n o t look e d inte n s i ve l y enough in this country for something that we h ave be e n conditioned not to ex p ec t whil e E uropean s h a ve d o n e so for so m ething tha t they alw ays b elie v e d must e x i st. T h e oldest r emains of American man that h ave b ee n actually dated h av e b ee n found in our caves and it i s in caves that we must sea r c h for furthe r ev id e n ce, and eve r y m ethod at our disposal s h ould b e used notabl y the five t echniques s p ecifica ll y m ention e d in this a rticle. BlBLlOGR -\PHY ( I ) Radiocarboll Datillg I LIB I\\", W. F alld LEE, D.O. Phys. Rev. 1939, 55 2-15. 2 N I E R A. O. alld GUl.IIRAl"SEl", E. A ] Allier. C h e lll. ..... u c. 1939, 6 1 ()97 3 :-'IURI'HEY, B. F. a ll d N IER, A. O. Phys. R ev_, 1941 ,59, 771. '1. LIlIIIY W F Phys. R ev_, 1 9 16,69, (11/ 1 2) 67 1 -2 5. Al" U ERSON, E. C., LIIIIIY, \'\T. F \NEIl"HOUSE, 5 R EID, A .. F., A. D., GROSSE, A. V S c i e n ce, 1 9 -17, } 05, I. 6 G ROSSI-:, A. V. alld LIlIllY. \V. F ., Sc i ellce, 19 [7 } 06, 88. 7. A:-;DERSON, E c., Lllmy, W F., 'vVEIl"HOUSE, 5., R EID, A. F KIRSHENBAU.\I, A. D and GROSSE, A. V., Ph)'s. R e v 1947, 72 9 31. 8 J. A., JR Ph)'.\". Rev. 1 9 1 8 73 1277. 9. Lilli\\". \ \, F ., Al"DERSOl". E. C. and ARNOL.D. J. R Sciellce, 1949, 1 09, 2278. 1 0 ENGELKEMErR, A. G ., HA \lILL. \ V H., M. C and LIlIllY W. F ., 1949, Phys. Rev. 75 1 8 25-33. BULLETIN NUMBER 13, DECEMBER 1951 I I. --and LIBBY, W F ., Rev. Sc i. l11stl'., 2 1 550-4. 1 2. ARNOLD, J. R. a n d LIBBY, W F. 1949, Sc i ence, JlO, 678-80. 1 3 GATES, D. M ., 1950, S. W. Lore, 16 1 -4. 1 4. COR N WALL 1. \'\T. 1950, Archaeol. News L et/er, :' 1 77 8 1 5 A N DERSON, E c., LmBY. \ V F .. WEI N I IOUSC., 5., R EID, A. F A. D and GROSSE, A V., 1 9 17, Phys. Rev. 72, 931 -6. 1 6. Movl u s H. L., 1950, A llt .iquity, LOlldo ll 2-1, 99 1 01. 17 Z WNE R F E., 1950, Nature, L Olldon 166, 756-7. 1 8. BR,\IDWOOD, R and L., 1950, J anno, A lltiqllity, LOIl don, 2-1, 1 89-95. 1 9 National Research Counc il Div. of Geology and Geograph y, Was h D C .. 1950-R e p o J'l of the Com mittee o n the i\leasuremelll of Geologi c Time, 1949-1950 p. 21. ( 2 ) F lourine Datillg I. WILLARD, H H a n d \o\' Il"n : R O. B ., Indllst. Eng. C h e m (Anal. Edit .) 1933, 5 7. 2 OAKLEY, K. P., A d vallcelllent of Sc i e n ce 1948, -I, 336. 3 OAKLEY, K. P. and MO NTAGU. i\1. F A., BIIII. B,it. Mus. (I\' a / His t .) Ceol. 1, 2 1949. (3) P o ll ell Analysi s I. G. All Illtroducti oll t o P o ll e ll-allal ysis, Chronica Botanica Co., Waltham i\l ass. 1943: [ demo Na/m'e 153, 5 1 I '4-1, Idelll. Ibid., 15-1, 6 1944. 2 FAECRI K and IVERSFl", J Text-bool! of Moden, P ol l e 1l-analysi s, 1unksgaard, Copenhagen 1950. Idem : Philos T rai lS. Roy. Soc. 233, B. 600, 275 1948. 3. IVERSEN, J. Dallll/aI-j{ s Ceol oo is h e Ulldersouei se II 66 J9+1. '" '" , 4. GOOUWIl", H. New Phy t o logist 23, 278 and 325 193-1. 5. Idem. Pro c. C eo l Ass., 52, 328, 19-11. 6. JESSEN, K. Proc. Roy Iris h Acad., 52, B.6, 1949. (4-) Oth e r R e f e rell ces BROOK S C. E P Clill/at e t h ro u g h the Ages, L o ndon J 949. 9

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Southwestern Caves as Books of History By M. R. HARRINGTON A ll / )IIO / us b y SOIl/hwes/, M llselllll, Los A IIgel es, Cali f ornia Cu.m t01' Sou.th wes t N / USeUlI7, Los A nge l e s Californ ia T h e tl'emendou s assist ance w h ic h th e s p e l eo l ugis t c an g ive t o th e (/"I"c!w eu l ogis t in supfJ l y ing th e miss ing cliajJte1"S i n our hist ory o f Inan un this continent is dram ati cally jJu")"tHlye d i"l1 th.is vel")' i n form.at ive (/j ti c le. D escrib e d l,e")"ei"l1 i s a jJot en ti a l fie l d o f in teres t to")" a ll c a ve r s t h at cou l d y i e ld excitin g ({lid v al uable r esu l ts. W e s h ould a ccep t i t s c h a ll enge. It was a ni ce little dry cave, as s u c h places go. It f ace d southeas t if I r eca ll and the river was just a r ound the corne r ; I would n o t mind camping t h e r e myself. But w h o, except a n a r ch eo logi st would ever g u ess it s 8 b y 1 2 f oo t floor mi ght co n tain a r e a l hi s t o ri ca l r eco r d tha t could b e read b y t h e tra in e d eye? I t did n o t l oo k ve r y tidy, h oweve r whe n I fir st r a n a c r oss i t during m y work in t h e Moap a Va ll ey, Nevad a. Busy p ackra t s h a d clutte r e d up the Ooor with a ll kinds of s ti c k s and bits o f cac tus. But a m o n g them 1 s pi e d t races o [ m a n Not ver y a n c i ent, I f ea r but s till part o f the cave's s t o r y M i xe d with the p ackrat junk l ay c h arre d s ti c ks, a s h es, a worn-ou t p a ir o f s h oes, some c hi c k e n b o n es, t h ree tin ca n s and o n e whis k ey b ottle (empty). I studie d th ese specime n s to C a ve n e al' Las Veg:a. s Nevada, with the author', 1\1. R. Harr'ing "ton. as a n a r c haeol og i s t s h ould. Part o f a l a b e l r e main e d o n o n e ca n ; it h a d conta in e d b a k e d b ea ns. T h e second w as obvi o u s l y a sardine ca n ; t h e third, so m e what larger tha n th e firs t was s m o k e d o n th e outs id e and co n ta in e d a [ ew coffee g r ounds. T h e l ast occupants o [ t h e cave 10 h a d b e l o n ge d t o th e i v I o d ern A m e ri ca n culture -tha t muc h was indisputa bl e fact. As a theo ry, since the r ailroa d w as near, I g u esse d tha t th ey h a d b ee n m e m be r s o f th e H o b o or Bindle St iff t ribe. I clea r e d a w ay this m ess and dug d ee p e r. Soo n I struc k a dusty l aye r conta ining dry r u s h es and g r ass so m e p artly burne d the r e lics o f so m e b o d y's b e d. In o n e s p o t as hes and c h ar-Tn s id e the l'ntr-ance to GYP SUIIl C 1 L v e, N e V ltda, showing c r'ibbin g need e d in test pit. Tn this pit pieces o f plLint e d woode n dar1; shafts wm' e found in It htye l' b elow o n e containing sloth dung. l t bove whie ll was anot h cr' with r 'e Hes of a l a t cr' p e r iod. coa l s h o w e d the o n e -tim e l ocatio n o f a camp fir e; mixe d throu g h th e rubbi s h we r e deer b o nes split fo r th e marrow and quids o f coo ked mesca l fib e r th a t h a d b ee n \"igor o u s l y c h ewe d T h e r e w e r e a l so so m e fragm e nts o [ coa rse d ark-brown p otte ry, so m e scr a p s of worn-ou t b as k e ts, a f e w b its of h o m e-made fib e r string, a co u p l e o f s m all tri a n g ul a r arr ow h eads m a d e o f o b s i d i a n a bro k e n ca n e arrow. Ev id ently th e Southern P a iu te India n s h a d used th e c ave befo r e our h o b o fri ends N ATIONAL SPE LEOLOGICAL SOCI E T Y

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B e l ow this, i f I r emember correc tly, cam e a l aye r o f plain di r t that was quite compac t and containe d n o t race o f huma n occupa ti o n Natur a ll y I t h o u ght it m i ght b e the botto m but to m a k e s u re I d u g thro u g h it. G oo d thing I did! Underneath i t were mor e as hes and c har coa l and quite a l o t of brok e n p otte ry, som e f r o m a white j ar, som e f ro m a re d b ow l both tas t efully decora t e d in bl ac k T h ere was a l so a s m a ll s t e mmed arrow h ea d a few s t o n e b ea ds, scattere d anima l b o nes, so m e diminutive cor n co bs, a m a n o s t o n e for grinding corn. Without a n ything e l se, the potter y told me tha t E a rl y Puebl o India n s h a d p r ecee d e d t h e P a iu tes. Section s h owing whe r e the stone d art p oint l a y in a layel' b e n eath tha t containing the ground sloth slmll in Gy p sum Cave, Nevaila. But t h a t was n o t a ll ; deeper s till l ay s till a nother b e d of c h a r coa l and ashes, w i t h anima l b o nes split for t h e m arrow a f ew m o r e corn co bs, seve r a l l arge s t o n e p oints for j avelins o r darts, and some frag m ents of a g r ay pottery b ow l wi t h rath e r crude patterns compose d of thin b l ac k lines a n d dots-clearly t h e work of a peopl e ca ll e d "Late Bas k e tm a k e r s" b y arc h eo log i s ts-and p r o babl y more tha n 1 ,30 0 years old! This l aye r reste d o n the roc k bottom of the cave; co nseque ntly, unless they t h e msel ves h a d clean e d out older d eposi t s befo r e m oving in, th e La t e Basketm a k e r famil y we r e the cave's first h u m a n occ u pa n ts. W h e n I fini s h e d m y di gging I r ealized t h a t in t hi s o n e little cave I h a d found a recor d of f o u r differ e n t peoples w h o h a d lived in w h a t i s n ow so u t h ern Neva d a from 500 o r 6 0 0 A.D BULLETI N NUMB E R 13, D E CEMB E R 1951 o n wa rd. And not only tha t in eac h case I h a d found so m e of t h e c haract eris ti c things eac h peopl e h a d used eve n hints as t o the i r f avorite f oo d s O f course w i t h o u t training and experi e n ce I would not h ave b ee n able t o identify the p eo p les b y t h e ir p r oduc ts; witho u t r eading I would not h ave known th e age, f o r ins t a n ce, of the Lat e B as ketm a k ers, whic h h as b ee n worke d out b y the fa m o u s t ree-ring m ethod-f r o m the l a t e 4 00's t o the l a t e 600's A .D Apparentl y these Late B as k e tmak ers h a d u se d t h e cave during t h e ea rl y p art of the i r per i o d b eca use t h e l a r ge p oints indica t e d tha t t h ey we r e s till u s in g j avelins or dart s hurle d with the spea r thrower know n as atlatl to a r c h eo l og i sts, whic h they l a ter a b ando n e d in favo r of the b ow and arrow. A side li ght i s thrown o n the p erio d w h e n thi s occurre d b y a nother cave n ea r Lov elo c k Neva da, expl o r e d b y the University of C a li for nia and the M us eum of th e A meri ca n India n H eye F oundati on. H e r e was f ound o n e l aye r containing b oth d artp oints and arr ow h ea ds, w hil e th e d e p osits a b ove conta in e d o nl y arrow h ea d s and those b e l ow o nl y d a rt-p oints. E vid e n t l y th ere was o n e peri o d w h e n b oth we r e b e in g used a ft e r whic h the less effic i ent a tl a tl was di scar d e d P erha p s so m e cave, some tim e, w ill produce evide n ce t o t ell u s v\THO introduce d the b ow Expe di t i o n Sec.ebuy, M. s B e r t h a P a.I{er Cod y, p oints to s pot whe.e s h e found g r ound s loth slmll in Gy p sum CILVe, Nevada. 11

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and arrow into the southwest. W e know that epoch-making event probably occurred between 400 and 500 A.D.-possibly a little earlier. We also know that the bow and arrow was not in vented here, for we find no early stages of development. It arrived in perfected form. The little cave in the Moapa valley could not be called important; but others have been found in Nevada that gave us real information -for instance, Gypsum Cave near Las Vegas explored by the Southwest Museum in collaboration wilh the California Institute of Tech nology and the Carnegie Institution of Wash ington. This cave furnished evidence to support a fact which had been disputed. Previously var ious clues had been found showing that man had arrived in America before the strange ani mals of the Ice Age had become extinct, but some archeologists would not accept the idea. In one room of Gypsum Cave we found a very deep dry deposit in which the lower levels were composed mainly of the dung of the ground-sloth, a large Ice Age animal long since extinct. Buried in this were two fireplaces, a stone knife or scraper and some sticks which had been cut with stone implements. Above the dung layer was a thick deposit of rock fall and dry debris barren of human indications; then near the top a succession of Bask etmaker, E a rly Pueblo and finally Paiute layers similar to Simll of gTolJlld sloth found in Gypsum Cltve beneath a slab in a st.atum above anothe. containing a stone da.t point. that we saw in the little Moapa V a ll ey cave. Tests made by the n ew Carbon 1 4 method show th e ground sloth dung, in which the older hu man traces were imbedd ed, to be between 8,000 and lO,OOO yea rs old! Still another good record was found in Etna Cave, near Caliente, Nevada, explored unc l er 12 the direction of its discoverer, Mr. S. M. Wheel er, one time archeologist for the Nevada State Park Commission. Here the lowest layer of all contained, among other human traces, a dart point of early type; the next layer above yielded dart points of Gypsum Cav e type and along with th e m the dung of an extinct American Ground sloth claw, dart point and wooden dart foreshaft from Gypsum Cave, Nevada. horse. Above this again was an Early Basketmaker layer, then a Late Basketmaker; then Early Pueblo and finally Paiute. A still more outstanding record appeared in Ventana Cave in southern Arizona, explored by lhe University of Arizona and the Arizona State Museum, under the direction of Dr. Emil "V. Haury. This yielded relics of human life from an early p eriod when man hunted animals now extinct through various geologic changes as the centuries roll e d on, up to the modern tribes of the r eg ion. The final report of this important projec t has rec e ntly b ee n published. Perhaps the most important of all is Sandia Cave in New Mexico, explored under the direc tion of Dr. Frank G. Hibbe n of th e State Uni versity-important in that it d emonstrably carries th e historical record farthe r back than any other cave thus far reported. Here the soft upper layer contained pote ry fragm e nts and other articles l eft by Pueblo Indians, some of them guite mode rn. Below this lay a hard stony crust which effectually sealed off the lower deposits. Breaking through this a layer was encounte r e d more or less h arde n e d into brecc ia again containing signs of human occupation. The people responsible for it were identifi e d by their peculiar dart points as b elonging to the NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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"Folsom" group-an early culture well known to American archeolo g ists and before this dis covery the oldest to b e d e fin e d This l a y e r a l so contained th e bone s of extinc t horse, camel bison, mammoth and ground s loth evidently hunte d and eaten by th e people. But that was nor a ll. The Folsom layer rested upon a barre n d eposit of yell ow ochre, laid down in so m e r emote wet period the cave stood unoccupied; unde r this again l ay an eve n olde r huma n d epos i t containing fir e pl aces, \ 'arious stone im pl e m e n ts and th e bones of ex t in c t horse, bi so n camel mastodon and mammoth. The o n e-shoulde r e d spear or dart-points found in this d eposit are entire l y diff e r ent from the Fol som very di s tincti ve and unlike those produce d b y a ny ancient A m e ri ca n p eo pl e prev i o u s l y known. T h ey do howe ver r esemble ce rtain points of th e Solutrea n div i sion of the Europea n Paleolithic period-but the r e i s prob a bl y no connec tion. Occasional ones h oulde r e d p oints of this form h a d previous l y b ee n pi c k e d up in various places, es p ec i a ll y in th e southwest ern states but until th e Sandi a Cave find th e i r age and a ssociations w e r e not known. The late Dr. Kirk Bryan o f Harvard Univers it y considered the yellow ochre in Sandi a Cave to have b ee n d eposite d during the last advance of th e g l ac i a l i ce, d a t e d approx im a tel y at 25, 000 yea rs ago, and of course the m a k e r s of the o neshouldered points liv e d in th e cave b efo r e the ochre was laid down. \ I"hether th i s estima t e i s correct or not the f ac t r emains th a t the ancient culture, now n a m e d "Sandia" from the place of its di scove r y is th e oldest thus far defin e d in North Ame ri ca. Caves m ay furnish some surpris in g informati o n B efore th e r ecent e x cavations in Bat Cave New Mexi co, made b y H arvard U niver s it y unBULLETIN NUMBER 13, DECEMBER 1951 d e r the direction of Dr. H erbert VI/. Dick, it w as thought that the growing of corn was introduce d into the southwest by the Early Basketma k e rs, about th e beginning of the Chris ti a n Era. From discov eries made in this ca v e it .appears th a t corn w as grown in what i s now ew Mexico p erhaps 4000 years ago. Ev e n more inte r esting to students is the fact tha t corn w ent throug h a prog r ess i ve d evelopment in this r egion, sta rt in g with a variety tha t combine d P9P and pod corn, without husks, th e o ldest and most primitive t y p e of corn known. L a t e r examples show a r eg ul a r increase in size of co b s and kerne l s as time went on. It i s plain that caves containin g human deposits s h ould b e treat e d with resp ec t and that th e ir excavation should be left t o skille d h ands and t o those a lone; to eyes that ca n read these price l ess and unique r ecords of the p ast. Dry caves a r e esp ec i a ll y va lu a bl e, because in the m eve r y thi n g ma y b e preserved, down to fibe r h a ir and eve n feath e r s for literally thousands of yea r s as in the tombs of E gypt. Once di sturbe d the l ayers laid down throughou t the ages lose th e ir value-can no longer b e r eac l. If you loca t e o n e of these precious book s of hi story" d o n t m a n g l e or destroy its irre pl acea bl e l eaves. Notify so m e r elia bl e museum o r university-the n volunteer to h elp th e m di g i f you w i s h There are m a ny, pro b a bl y th o u sands, of s u c h ca v es s till unexplore d in th e Southwest, waiting to t e ll th eir s t o ry. Smoke d ceilings d ee p Aoor d epos it s chips of Hint y sto n e on the dump running down th e b ank outside,-all are among th e clu es that pre histori c m e n h ave l e ft a r ecord in s id e. Rather s h allow caves w e r e pre f erred, or areas n ea r the entrance in l arge ones, in most but not a ll cases. It should b e co n side r e d not only a pl easure, but a privil ege, for eve ry Spelunker to locate and r eport a ll h e ca n of th e m. 13

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Ca ves and R ockshelters in Southwest.ern Asia B y HENRY F IELD Research Fellow) HanJard University During the past twenty-five years a systematic search has been made in order to establish the antiquity of man in Southwestern Asia The authm') a renowned aTchaeologist) heTewith pj'esents some of the details in this pmductive ques t among the mins of ancient cu/tw-es This (LTticie) and the companion piece fol lowing) show dHl. matically the impoltant part which caves play in this fascinating field of resemch In Southwestern Asia, ranging from south western Sinai to eastern Afghanistan and from the Caucasus to the Arabian Sea, flourished one of the great civilizations. Here was the birth place of writing, law-making, astronomy and sci e ntific r esea rch. From this soil sprang two of the great religions, Christianity and Islam. :Man has liv e d here in caves or rocksh e lters [or at leasL 50,000 years Our interest in these n atural sh elters lies in their human occupation rather than from a geological aspect. Hence we shall concentrate mainly on those which have thrown light on man and his cultures from modern times back into the mists of antiquity. Several groups of cave-dwellers today live in this area: (a) Bedouins at Es Salt (No.4) near the road from Amman to Jerusalem in Jordan; (b) Chaldeans near Al Qosh (No. 12) in north ern Ira q; and (c) the Shihu, a wild tribe near Ras al-Kheima (No. 26) beside the P ersian Gulf on the Trucial Oman Coast. Caves have long sheltered Bedouin raiders and l a wbreakers One of the largest is Mukamin al-Walaj (No.9) in western Iraq. With a small e n trance this sinkhole is reported to b e able to hide 1 ,000 horsemen; abundant water is avail able. In 1934 at the western end of J e b e l Sinjar we craw l ed inlo a small cave (No. 11). Recent A r a b pottery, including blackened lamps, were embedde d in the muddy floor. In Kurdistan (AnaLolia, Iraq and Iran) and Luristan the hundreds of limestone caves have sheltered shep h erds and those who through the centuries have feared the loca l governments. In Biblical times th e r e are several examples of the us e of caves: (a) "And Lot went up out of Zo a r and dwe l t in the mountain, and his two daughters with him; for he feared to dwell in 14 Zoar: and he dw e l t in a cave, he and his two daughters" (Gen. XIX, 3 0); (b) Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebekah and L ea h were buried in a cave (Gen. XLIX, 29-32); (c) when the Philistines attacked in great strength the Isra el ites hid in caves (I Sam. XIII, 6); (d) David escape d to the cave of Adullam (No.3), which b eca m e a rallying point (I Sam. XXII, 1); and EI ijah received th e word of the Lord in a cave in Horeb (I Kings XIX, 8-9). The ancient Egyptians sheltered in a small lim esto n e cave on the northern side of the Wadi Khra iza. a tributa ry of the Wadi Feiran (No.1). Here in 1948 we found a large b asalt pounder of the typ e us e d by the ancient Egyptian mine rs on their way to Serabit el-Khade m or to the turquoise mines in the nearby Wadi Muqattab. Chalcolithic impleme nts lay on th e surface. Fresh camel and sheep tracks on the sandy ap proaches proved recent temporary occupation by Bedouin shepherds. This place must have served as a shelter from the Chalcolithic p eriod to the tw entieth century. At P etra (No.2) the Nabateans liv e d wor and were bLlried in the rock-cut multi hued sandstone. At Athlit on Mount Carmel (No.5) a series of ske l e tons of the Old Stone Age and the ir cultures and associated fauna were excavated. The thickness of th e d e posit indi ca ted a long occupation by th ese ancient hunters. Near En Nebk (Nebek) (No.6) in Syria excava tions in Yabroud ro c ksh elte r ide nti fied forty-five cu ltural l eve ls ranging from Acheu l ea n to Neolithic. Northward near Trip oli in Lebanon Upper P a l eolithic deposits hav e b ee n found associate d with stag gaze ll e and wolf bones. The honeycomb caves at Nahr e l K elb (No.7) have b ee n explore d for many NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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yea rs. E v id e nce o f a n c i ent and r e l a ti ve l y m o d ern occupa ti o n s we r e f ound. On th e e a s t ern s l o p e o f Tell e l Hibr in n orthwest ern Saudi A r a bi a, D o n Holm, A r alllco geo lo g i s t g u id e d m e t o a s m a ll ro c k s h elte r (No. 8) whe r e in la y a B edouin s k e l e t o n. Nearby w e co ll ec t e d a fine series o f l a r ge N Ulllmulites. T h o u sa n ds o f h o ney co l o r e d H illt s m a n y fla k e d b y pre hi s t o ri c m a n w e r e s tr ew n o n the summit and slopes o f Tell elHibr. M ov in g eas tward w e co m e t o seve r a l s ink h o les o r p o t h o les n ea r H aditha (No. 10) o n thl: Euphra tes in Ira q. T U RKEY CAVES I. Wadi F c ir a n S in a i 2 P elra J ordan. 3. Cave o f Adllilam, I s ra el. 4. EsSall, J o rd a n 5. Ml. Carmc l Isra el. 6 EnNebk (Neb c k ) Syria. 7 Nahr e l K e lh L ebano n 8. Tell e l Hibr. Salldi A r a hia 9. a l W a la j I ra q 10. Hadilha, Iraq. II J e b e l Sinja r Iraq. 1 2 A I Q os h Ira q 13. J e h e l Barados t Iraq. 1-1. Hazar M ere l and Z a r z i n ear Sulaimaniya, Ira q B ULLETIN N UMBER] 3 DECEMBER] 951 During the P ea b o d y ifuseu lll H a rvard Ex p editio n t o the Near East in April, 1950 D ennis B atte n of the Ira q P e tr o l e ulll C ompa n y guide d m e t o o n e o f these p o th o les. T h e circula r de pression was a b out 250 ft. ac ross. Climbing d own a b out thirty f ee t we ente r e d a s m all, n a r row lUnn e l b y w ri gg lin g h ea dfir s t ove r a ver y r oc k y s l o p e Once in s id e we we r e a bl e t o s t a n d up in a l ow c h ambe r D ennis' h ea dli ght swept onto th e pale face of his b r ide, B ernice Until that mome n t I h a d n o t realiz e d thi s was h e r fir s t ex p e ri e nce in s p e l eo l ogy T h e ca v e was dry and mus t y and a n e \ 'il ste n c h p e rm e a t e d eve r ything. 1 5. Tamla m a near rmia ( R eza iyeh ), Ira n. 1 6 j3isitlln ( B e hi sllln), Ira n 17. B ell C a ve ( G h a r i K a marb and) n ea r B e h s h ahr, Ira n 1 8. H o tu Cave, southe a s t corne r o f Cas pi a n Iran. 1 9. Khllnik R oc k s h elle r sOllth Khurasa n Iran. 20. Khurrllmabad, Ira n 21. Ncar P e r se p olis Ira n 22. Lakc i\laharTlI n ca r S hinlZ, Ira n 23 Jebel e d DlIkh a n B ahra in I s l and. 2 1. A I Dllh ail, Q alar P cnins ul a. 2!i. i\li d w ay b e lw ce n Dllkh a n and Umm S aid, Q a t a r P enins ul a. 26. R as alKheima, Trucia l Oma n Coas t 1 5

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My f1a.shlight picked out a hunk of raw meat near my right foot. B ernice shuddered. We move d cautiously ahead into the earth. Now we were surrounded by hundreds, if not thousands, of animal bones. Here lay skulls and long bones of camels, hors es, hyenas, foxes, jackals, sheep and goats: Far inside we came to a fork. To the ri ght the vault was covered with bats hanging h ea d down. As we disturbed. them, they flew p e ll-m e ll squeaking madly. We cornered them in a low chamber. The walls were black with bats. Suddenly with a wild rush they came to ward us. They hit us in the face as they flew panic-stricken past our flashlights Dennis, like Horatio of old, swung a butterfly net backwards and forwards above his head. This was an eerie picture with strange shadows flickering on the walls. After it was Dver we picked up twenty seven victims felled by the thrashing white net. These have been identified by Colin Sanborn at Chicago Natural History Museum as six male and tw e nty-one females of Rhinoporna cystops cyslo/)S, a new species to be recorded in Iraq, but prev iously known from Egypt and Palestine. However, Bernice was found crouching in a corner with h e r hands clasped tightly over her hair. She seemed to b e enjoying the bat hunt eve n less than she would the skull chase which was just around th e corner. Yusuf put the poor little bats into a bag and we started down the other passage. A drip from the roof disturbed the utter silence. In the mud b e low were large pad marks. '''' e were in a wolf's d e n. Without comment Dennis and I eac h picked up a camel's thigh bone as a weapon. 'Ve advanced slowly and cautiously d ee p e r into the cave until we reached a narrow path l eading up into a small tunnel. Here the pad marks had b ea t e n a track in the fine dust. My hand tighte n e d around the up raised femur. As light flash e d into the tunne l I expect e d to see a pair of eyes glow ing as coa ls. The tunnel was 'Vas the wolf or his mate in their lair just around the corner? We did not venture to crawl in to see. B ac k in the outer c hamber we began to hunt for human remains. I found a lower jaw with the mol ars showing considerable wear. D ennis, l ying full-l ength into a sloping crevice, spotted a skull which h ad rolled into the deepest point. 'Ve began to clear a space through a pile of ]6 animal long bones and earth. Bernice watched with fascination as she h eld the Hashlight for the diggers. 'Vi th our hands and geological hammers this was slow work. Bernice whispered, "I've never touched a human skull before, but I can wriggle in there far easier tha n you or D e nnis. With her sylphlike figure, this was obviously true. A few minu tes late r B ernice crawled headfirst down the narrow tunnel. Her right fingers almost touched the skull. A little more was cleared out. This time by pushing and wriggling like a snake Bernice remove d the skull d e licately and dragged it slowly back to our willing hands. It proved to b e a middle-aged male of local Bedouin type. Did a wolf d eca pi tate a body and drag this skull into its d en? Was this possibl e or was the r e another ex pl anation? 'Ve still do not know. During the n ext hour we found six more fragmentary human skulls and three m a ndibles. Scrambling upward through the entrance, each carrying a skull in either hand, was hard work. The air outside was refreshing indeed after two hours inside that smelly cave. Another day we returned with duffel bags to co-Ilect a repr ese nt ative series of animal bones and eight more human skulls [or study at Harvard. Our next speleological venture was high on Jebe l Baradost (No. 13) in northeastern Iraq. In this phase of the ex p edition w e were work ing cooperatively with th e Iraq Department of Antiquities, Sayyid Fuad Safar being their rep r esentative. Five cars carried us and our equip ment to Havdian village at the foot of the mountain. 'J\T e walked and rode for five hours up a narrow, rocky trail. One of the "sure-footed mountain. ponies" slipped and fell twenty feet to a ledge. Fortunately, he was only carrying some bedrolls. Seeing this we a ll dismounted and walked for a time without comment. 'Ve arrived panting and footsor e outside Dian Cave. Snowbanks covered th e slopes for we were at 3,500 feet. J e bel Baradost stands near the Iraq Iran-Turkish frontiers. 'Ve were surrounded by snow-capped mountains and huge limestone peaks. Our purpose was to dig trial tr e nches to search for ancient human habitation in this cave. \'\' e were quite a party, thirty-three of us altogether, including: Robb White, my brother in-law as photographer; Dennis Batten, speleo-NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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l og i st; Fua d Sa far, poLt e r y s p ec i a li st; fourtee n A.ssyrians and fourtee n Kurds fr om Havdi a n ; two mou n t e d p o l i ce as esc ort; and h orses and donkeys, the p a c k anima l s Sen tries w e r e poste d day and ni ght [or these m ounLa in s harbor bandits. During th e ni ght w e o ft e n h ea rd s hOlS ringing out ac r oss th e valley At these moments we were g lad to b e abl e l O Illu s t e r s i x t ee n riH es. "Ve eac h s l ept with a riHe at o u r s id e F o r a wee k w e li v e d in th e o p e n o n arm y co t s outside Di a n Cave. T h e t r e n c h b eca m e s o d ee p tha t w e h a d L O procee d b y 3 ft. s t e p s down until v i r g in roc k w as r eac h e d at 1 4 feet 6 in c h es. Potte r y anima l b o n e s and a f e w flints w e r e found. Fuacl Safar id e ntifi e d th e pott e r y as s imi l a r t o that [rom Uruk, H assuna and o th e r [ a m o u s a n c i ent s ites in M esopoLami a attribute d to about 3, 0005 000 B. C. During this time D ennis Batte n and Robb "Vhile ex p lore d ever y m e t e r o [ th e in t erior of th e ca \e. T h e wa ll s w e r e t oo rough [or pre hi s tori c cave paintings or e ngTavings T h e r e w e r e tw o pitc h es, o n e of tw enty f ee t and a n o th e r o [ thirty f eel. T h e floor o f the l owe r c h ambe r conta in e d a l a r ge pool o f water. Another small sounding wa s made in the interior; a simi l a r cultura l seq u e n ce was found to gethe r with anim a l b o n e s wash e d d ow n. "Ve move d t o P astun Cave, h alf a n hour's walk across t h e mounta in. Thi s was a muc h l arge r cave with giant sta l actites a n d s t a lagmites Two soundings w e r e a l so made d ow n to virgin roc k again at a d epth of 1 4 f ee t 6 inc h es. "Ve found m a n y h earths, pottery, flint s and a beau t i f ul n ec kl ace o f lhirty-five cylindri ca l t erra cotta b ea d s These soundings proved for the fir s t time that hunle r s and n o m a ds inhabite d caves 111 Kurdis t a n fo r th e past 7 000 o r m o r e yea rs. ,,,r e climbe d to the p eak of J e b e l B a r ados t (No. 1 3). T h e air was fresh and co ld. "V e saw ib ex trac k s b e s i d e brea th l aking prec ipi ces. To th e n orth we r e th e s n ow-ca ppe d p ea k s of so u th eastern A n a t o li a, but l\It. Ararat was jus t t oo far to b e see n thro u g h th e Z e iss g l asses On t h e e ast ern s id e ros e t h e P e r s i a n p ea ks. Standing o n a roc k o u t o r vie w of th e r es t o [ the p arty I r e I t t hat d ee p thrill inside whi c h co m es o nl y to m ounta in ee r s a l o n e with n ature . . At th e foot of J e bel B aradost w e examine d Ha\'di a n r oc k s h elte r. I J e r e o n th e scr ee s l o p e Fua d and I found hundre d s o f mi c ro li thi c flint imple m e nts indicating occupa t i o n b y m e n of th e BULLETIN NUMBER 1 3 DECEMBER 1951 Stone Ag e The R ow andiz a r ea h as man y c aves worthy o f exploratio n and lri a l tre n c hes. "Ve drove south to Erbil (a nc. Arbe l a) and Kirkuk Clnd eas tw ard t o C h e m c h e m a l w h e r e w e w e r e told aboul a g i ga nti c cave ca ll e d M a m l a h a ill mounra in s abou t tw enty mi les easl. A roarin g torrent f o ll ow in g h eavy rain s m a d e th e tra c k from C h e mc h e m a l t o M a ml a h a impassa bl e KurdistJ n f ro m R owandiz thro u g h Aq r a to S ul a im a ni ya (No. 14) and P enjwin h as m a n y caves a n d r ocksh elte rs, l h e majority of t h e m un expl o r e d or unexamine d for traces of a n c i ent huma n h abitatio n H owe\,e r Hazar M erd and Z arz i n ea r Su l a imani ya w e r e excava t e d by Miss Dorothy G arrod, who found P a l eo li t hi c imple men t s in s itu. Moving eas t ward o n this survey li es Ira n or P e r s i a. The mountains of Kurdista n and Luris tan o n th e west contain hundre ds, if not thous ands, of r ocks h elte r s and caves L as t yea r I searche d for S l o n e imple m ents i n three r ocks h elte r s in the Khurrumabad a r e a (No. 20) At K onji t y p o logi ca ll y Paleolithic flint impleme nts were found at a d epth o f e i ght f eet. This wa s the fir s t tim e Stone Age imple m ents w e r e e x ca vate d in Luris tan. J n 1 934 Dr. D o n ald McCown and I found microlithic flint imple m ents o n a scr ee s lope o u tsid e a s m a ll r oc k s h e l t e r besid e Lak e Maharlu (No. 22) n ea r Shiraz Dr. Ernst H e rzf eld describe d t o m e a l a r ge unexplore d cave (No. 2 1 ) a b Ollt three h ours b y horseback eas t of P e rsepolis, a n c i ent capita l of P e r s i a founde d b y D arius I (52 1 -486 B. C.) To the south and eas t ac r oss to Kuh-i-Taftan n o pre hi storian h as sea r c h e d for P a l eolithic Illan and his culture s Excavations h av e b ee n m a d e in fiye ca ve s b y Dr. Carle t o n S. Coon of the U ni ve r sity M u s e ulll o f the U niver s i ty of P ennsyl va ni a: (a) Tamtama, 1 3 miles north east of R e zaiyeh at 5 000 f ee t (No. 1 5) A f e w anima l bones and o n e Neandertha l o id f emur w e r e found assoc i a t e d wi th 23 crude im pl e m e n ts and c h erty fla k es. (b) Bi situn (anc. B e hi stun), 3 0 mil e s eas t of K erma n s h a h a t 4 5 00 f ee t (No. 1 6). A b o llt 1 100 imple m ents and many anima l bones w e r e unearthe d. (c) B elt Cav e (Gh ar-i-Ka m arband), 5 miles west o f B e h s h ahr, about 120 f ee t above th e Cas1 7

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plan (No. 17) A n Upper Mesolithic female skull (aet. 12) was found associated with Hint imple m e nts and animal bones. (d) Khunik rockshelte r in southern Khurasan (No. 19) Patina ted Mousterian imple m e nts l ay on the surface. Early I slamic potte ry was excava t e d. Evidence of a n earthquake was recorded. (e) A t Hotu Cave (No. 18) at the south eas t ern end of the Caspian h e found in May, 195 1 three skeletons of Homo imnicus, their flint implements and animal bones. This i s a most important discove ry in Southwestern As i a for we now h ave for the first time prehis tori c s k e l e tons midway b e tw ee n Mt. Carmel and the Neanderthaloid child's s k e l eto n from TeshikTash rockshelter near Tashkent in Soviet C e n tral As i a. In the P e r sian Gulf o n Bahrain I sland Mr. T. G. Bibby and I examine d two small rocks h elters (No. 23) on J e b e l e d -Dukhan (450 ft.). Some r ecent s h erds were co ll ecte d on the scr ee slopes. In the center of the Qata r P eninsula midway b e tw ee n Dukhan and Umm Said, we climbed to the bottom of a 90 ft. sinkhole (No. 25) with a pool of water at the bottom. No traces of an-1 8 cient human occupation we re found. At Al Du h a il n orthwest of Doha, we found animal bones and some human remains in anothe r sinkhole (No. 24). This material was ver y similar to that from nea r Haditha (No. 10) in Iraq. The a nimal bones are now b e in g ide ntifi e d a t Harvard. Othe r s i g nifi cant areas worth careful inv estigation for caves and rockshelters a r e the Red Sea coast from Aqaba to the n orthern fringe of the g r ea t Rub' a l-Kh a l i sands, in the m ounta in s of Oma n and along th e H adhra m aut, A d e n and into the Yemen. S p e l eo lo g ical reconnaissance I in Southwest ern Asia has a lr ea d y thrown li ght on the ea rliest inhabitants o f this r eg i o n the ir many cultures and th e anima l s they hunte d for f oo d As a result m a n y l acunae are b e in g fill e d in the g reat histori ca l m osaic o n the crossroads of the three contine nts of Asia .-\f ri ca and Europe. J For r efe r e n ces s e c Carleton S Coo n "Cave expl o rati o n s in Iran, 1 949 Uni ve r sity Museum Monograph, Phila d elphia; A Te/w e%g. vol. 4 No.2, pp. 116-118; and H enry Fie ld "Contributions t o the Anthropology of Ira n Fi e ld :\[llS eum of Natural History, 1939, a l so R econnaissa n ce in Southwestern Asia ," Sou.t hwcst c i n Journal of Allthropology, vol. 7, No. I pp. 86-102, 195 1 and R econnaissa nce in Saudi Arabia, JOllnllli of the R oya l Central .-\sia n Society vo l. 38, pts 2-3 pp. 185-197, 1951. NATIO, AL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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Cave Exploration on Jebel Baradost Iraq By DENNIS J. BATTEN Civil Eng in ee r h a q P e t1"Oi e w n C o mtJ a n y During t h e spr in g o t 19 5 0 Dr. H enry Fi e ld who wa s th e n l eading th e P ea b o d y M useum H a rv ard U ni ve r sity Expeditio n invite d m e t o j o in him in hi s sea r c h for pre hi s tori c m a n in the caves o f Kurdis t a n T h a t I accepte d with a l acrity n ee d h ardly b e m entio n e d and I w ould lik e t o h e r e r ecord m y apprec i atio n o f his offe r and th ank hi m fo r hi s kindness, goo d humo r and ge n eros it y during our p e ri o d o f assoc i a ti o n Dr. Field co n clude d tha t earl y m e n w h e n mi g r a tin g fr o m the n orth, used the p asses thro u g h th e m o ul1l a in s o f A natolia and Kurdis t a n as easy a ccess r outes t o the fer til e l ow l ands o f the Middle E ast. His suppos iti o n th a t R owandiz G o r o e h a d a L so m e time b e e n o n e of these mio g r a t o r y routes w as correct: thi s w as I think the p ointe r h e used in c h oos in g Mount B a r a d os t as a field o f ac ti v it y Man y caves o n th e so u t h and eas t f aces o f J e b e l B a r a d ost were vis it e d but Dr. Fi eld I y sel ec t e d tw o ca v es, Dia n and P astun, as b e lll g m os t lik e l y t o y i e ld the ev id e n ce h e so u ght. A camp C a ve Sa f a r site was the r efo r e c h ose n outside Dia n Dr. Fie ld Robb White S a yy id Fua d and m yse lf ex pl o r e d b o th ca ves. "Vhil e the r e m ainde r of th e p arty we r e a ll otte d the t as k s whic h best suite d their p articul a r t a l ents I as a n a mateur p otho l e r (I p re fer Lhe t erm r a th e r tha n tha t o f S p e l eo logi s t ) w as g iven the t as k of m aking a quic k survey o f the c a ves Since this sun'ey w as m a d e with th e aid o f a 5 0 ft. t a p e and a 6 ft. flexible rule in accura c ies a r e b ound t o h a v e occurre d B y m ea n s o f tw o t o r c hes, o n e fr o m eac h l eg o f t h e cave, th e conve rO'en ce a no'l e w as m easure d at th e inte ro 0 sectio n o f th e light b ea ms. ESHKAFTA DIA N E shka ft a Di an' ( H a wdi a n o r H av di a n) lies approx im a tel y 1 0 0 0 ft. fr o m the summit o f J e b e l Bara d ost. T h e cave entrance f aces eas t and ove rlook s a s n o w w a t e r drainage va ll ey r un nino almos t n orth-south d owll the southern [ ace o B ULLETIN NUMB E R 1 3 DECEMB E R 1951 o f the m ountain. A s m a ll spring lies a b o u t 10 0 yards south and a b ove t h e cave. This cave, whic h i s o f Cret aceo u s limest o n e, appea r s t o b e b oth a so lu t i o n and a n e r os i o n cave Accura t e ide n tifica ti o n has n o t b ee n m ade, but the n e i ghboring B ekhme limest o n e h as b ee n ide ntifi e d as Camp a ni a n Maestri c hi a n (Upper C r e t aceo us). B ekhme G o r ge lies n orthwest of J e b e l B a r a d os t Fro m obse r va ti o n of t h e cave p os iti o n i n r e s p ec t t o th e s n ow wa t e r drainage va ll ey, i t h as b ee n inferre d tha t the forma ti o n of the cave a n d vall ey w as t aking pl ace while the b e d of the va ll ey w as l eve l with the cave entra n ce. T h e dip o f th e s trat a gave th e infiltrating w a t e r a southwes t e rl y direc ti o n. Whe n the vaIJey b e d b eca m e l owe r t h a n that of cave l eve l th e forma ti o n b y e r os i o n undoubtedly cease d. Surface wa t e r in filtr a ti o n h as b ee n resp o n sible fo r the s t a lag m a ti c forma ti o n but it i s impro b a bl e tha t a n y g r ea t c h a n ges h ave t a k e n p l ace since the m ain w a t e r flow was direc t e d into a diff e r e n t c h annel. Fro m o bservati o n of r oo f and waIJs it was d educe d tha t th e cave i s b oth a solutio n and e r os i o n cave. T h e fla t r oo f and' th e s h a pes and s izes o f the m a t e ri a l compos in g th e sc r ee l ea d s 1 0 this b e li ef. Unfortuna t e ly, the f ace t s tha t w ould h ave m a d e ide ntifi catio n e a s i e r h ave b ee n o b scure d b y f a lse w aIJs and o b se r va ti o n of th e orig in a l a n g les o f f ace t s and roo f b eco mes im p oss ibl e A ll roof and wa ll j oints h ave b ee n o bscured b y a h eavy limest o n e g l azing t o s u c h a n ex t ent that it h as b ee n almos t imposs ibl e to r eco n struc t in imagin a ti o n the origina l cave s h a p e, with th e exceptio n o f t h e implica ti o n A. M H amilto n i n hi s R oa d throug h Kurdis t a n m e n ti o n s Eshka ft a Hawdia n calling it th e "Cave of th e ''''ind."' At n o time d u r in g our occ upati o n of i t w as eve n th e slightes t breath of wind f elt i n sicle th e cave Dr. F icIci puts f o rw a r d a n in ge ni o u s th eo ry: T h e cave i s kno wn l ocally uncl eI' t w o n a m es Di a n and H a wcll .an; H a wdi a n o r H av d ia n b e in g th e nearest v ill age D r. Fie l d presume d that H amilto n gave th e a n A r a bi c t rans la t i o n and fin ally r eso l ve d It 111 E n g li s h as "Th e Cave o f th e W ind." 1 9

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<-"i,lQ] < 00 .s = c: I!J u '" u 0 ., p v ==-:;,.; -0 u c;:::;: :=:oJ ---,< 20 NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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tha t the three l eve l s o f the ca v e we r e origina ll y o n e c avern unde r one roof. T h e cave entrance h as b ee n partia ll y bloc k e d b y m a n to afford g r ea t e r protec tion for himself and hi s anima l s Tha t the cave h as b ee n h abite d b y m a n a t inte r va l s o ve r a l e n gthy p e ri o d i s b orne Oll t b y the thickness of the ope n h earth l eve ls. In ge n e r a l the entra nce i s dry, altho u g h so m e wa t e r drips fr o m the roof in i s ol a t e d s p o t s but in in suffic i ent quantity t o m a k e the cave uninhabita bl e Fro m tri a l t re n c hes it was est ablis h e d tha t the o ri gina l scree s l o p e floo r dips a t the sa m e a n g l e as the a dj oining s tr a t a. T h e r oof i s cl ea r and (r ee o f c r ac k s and joints. Prog ress in the fir s t c h a m b e r i s easy f o r t h e m os t part, and ca n be m a d e wit h a s li ght b ending o f the b o d y F r o m th e r e o n h o w eve r it i s n ecessa r y t o c r a wl. Prev i o u s e x cava ti o n h e r e inc r ease d the h ea d r oo m Movin g into Chambe r No.2, o n e i s face d with a p assage widening a t the extremity with a vertical wa ll o n the l e ft h and and a s t a l ag m a ti c wall o n the ri g ht. Vith th e form a ti o n of th e l a tte r ca m e the r e t e n ti o n b ehi nd th e wall of forei g n m a t e ri a l with a corresp onding rise in floo r l evel. In addit i o n the r e t ention o f infiltJ'a tin g wate r h as both l eve ll e d and g l aze d the floo r. E xamina ti o n o f the floor showed the sand wi ching of f o r e i g n m a t e ri a l and g lazing. T h e vertic al pitc hes s h own a r e n o t o ri g in a l p ortions of the cave f o r matio n but ca n b e co n s id e r e d f aces o f the s t a l agmitic wa ll s o bser v a ti o n of th e r oo f and floor p o ints w e r e impos s ibl e b eca use o f limest o n e g l az in g and the f a l s e w a ll. T h e s li ght pi tc h t o Chambe r No. 3 ca n b e easily n ego ti a t e d th e effec t b e in g m o r e of a tunne l tha n a c h ambe r. So m e l o w s t a l agmites r ise fr o m th e floor. T h ese e n crustati o n s a r e wide b ase d and mushroo m in s h a p e; som e a r e basin t oppe d and conta in goo d drinking w a t e r. The l a tt e r I t a k e to b e s t a l agmites cau se d b y fillin g up o f flukes in t h e o ri g in a l sc r ee s l o pe. /\. tunne l l ea d s fro m C h ambe r No. 3 t o C h ambe r No.4. T h e tunne l whic h appea r s t o h ave b ee n r ece ntl y e x cava t e d dro p s vertica ll y a b out t e n f eet, w h e r e i t t a kes a 9 00 turn; full l e ngth c r a wlin g i s n ecessa r y t o n ego tiate t h e re m a ind e r 9 f the tunnel. In C h ambe r No. 4 a l th o u g h n o n e o f th e o ri g i nal scr ee s l o p e i s v i s ibl e, t h e lim esto n e g l az in g and s t a l agmites BULLETI N NUMB E R ]3, DECEMB E R 1951 h ave not entire l y obliterate d the sh a p e of the s l o pe. One s h ort st a l agmatic wa ll h as b egun to t a k e sh a p e but a t n o p oint has it attaine d m ore tha n te n feet. The l o w est p oint in the cave, i s the water r e t aining l eve l of the cave. Di a n C ave undoubte dl y continues beyond thi s p o in t, althou g h it i s not a t the m o m e n t appare nt. H oweve r wh e n n ature d ecides to brea k d ow n the walls n ow dividing the caves, furthe r explorati o n s h ould b e possible. It i s tho u ght tha t the cave ex t e n s i o n if a n y w ill b e 111 a so u thwest e rl y direc ti o n E SHKAFTA PASTUN Eshka ft a Pastun prove d t o b e the l a r ge r o f the t w o caves Erosi o n played a g r ea t p art in the form a t io n o f P astun, as i s appa r ent fr o m a g l a nce at the ground plan. T h e wa t e r entry a t P oint A would a t fir s t appea r to b e f r olll the surface. This I do n o t b e li eve to b e true The northea st ern corne r of the cave w all shows m a n y w a t e r entries of va ri o u s l eve l s f r o m roof to floo r ; eac h w a t e r entry a t o n e time cor responde d to cave floo r l evel. Som e wa t e r i s a t the present infiltrating thro u g h the stra t a but it i s appa r ent tha t P oint B i s n ow only a wa t e r outle t during spring floodin g and carries a w ay only the wa t e r t h a t infiltr a tes thro u g h the r oof o f the c h ambe r. T h e floor in the m ain c h ambe r co n s i s t s of mate ri a l fore i g n to the cave b e in g in the m a jority ope n h earth ash and brok e n potte r y E vid e n ce o f m a n's sea r c h f o r p o tash from among the ash a r e appa r ent in m a n y places. S p oo r o f b ea r pig and wolf we r e see n althoug h n o n e c h a ll e n ge d our t empo r a r y occupa ti o n ri ghts T h e s ize o f the cave and the simplicity of it s structure s till puz z les m e To d a t e I h ave b ee n una bl e t o f orm a n opinio n as t o it s o ri g in and f orma ti o n P astun C ave s h ows a ge n e r a l t e nd e ncy t o a southwes t e rl y direc ti o n as d oes Dia n C ave. The dip o f t h e s tr a t a appea r s t o b e resp o n s ible. The a r c h eo l og i ca l find s t include d H assuna, A l U b a id and Uruk w a r e as w ell as anima l b o nes and fr o m the l owes t stratum in Pastlln a huma n femur bl ac k e n e d b y fire. I See F u a d Safa r "Pon e r y from Caves of Ba r ados l;' SlIme,-, vol. 6 No.2, p p. 118-1 23, Ba g hdad, 1 950; a mi H enry l i e ld R econna i ssa n ce in Southwest ern As i a ,. Sou l h wes /em J Oll n w / of AII/hro/J%gy, vol. 7 No. i, p p. 861 02 1 951. 2 1

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AN ENGINEER INSPECTS THE RIGGING G A LEXANDER ROBERTSON A /I dra w i ngs by Gmce Ridde ll Lu.ndin M are than th irty yem's' exp e ri e n ce in acciden t prevention, most of which h as been spent i n industTial operations, qW.l.lifies th e (luthOT of this aTticie to sjJea k with a :uthority. His W01'/{ entail e d -resc u e t echniques, {/Ttifi c ial le.Hlsc ita tion, first aid, th e us e of mpes, slings, lifts hoists, scaffolding, laddel's, bloc k and ta ckle, boatswa.ins' chain and othel' type s of construction and rigging. In v iew of the eve r inCTeasing numbe1' of persons exploring wild caves, this a.lticie is a time ly one to give them sound advice. On n e arly eve ry caving expedition some safety practice is viola ted, and usuall y when the exploration involves rope work, the violation is flagrant. Presente d herewith are suggestions based on ex p lorations of a considerable number of caves and years of t echnical experience and sound engineering practice. Everyone of them has good grounds for support. Most of the r ea sons will b e ev id ent, eve n to the novice. It is a l so h o p e d that the r easo ns will be evident to that growing numbe r of in expe ri e nc e d and over-confident spelunkers who have bee n lucky e n ough to l ower a companion into a cave and pull him out alive, and have th e reafter con sidered themse lves compe t ent cave ri gge rs. Some of th ese suggestions may, a t first glance, appear to b e radical ; others proba bly cannot a l ways b e followed, for th e r e is hardly any such thing as a n a b solute l y p erfec t safety rule. Some, no doubt, will b e m e t with such b e l l ig e r ent r e t orts as: 1 have b ee n caving for years without following these ru les and h ave n eve r b ee n hurt!" Surely such an attitude is just as illogi ca l as th e r e m a rks of a "jay wa l k e r who, when ca uti o n e d aga in st cross in g a bus y s treet between inte r sect ions d e finitely repl ies "I've b ee n c ross ing wh e r e 1 pl ease d all my lif e and I've n ever be e n hit. To th a t group of cavers whose co n stant aim i s n o t to m a k e SAFETY a pmbability, but who continuall y stri ve to make ACCIDENTS an un possibility, this article i s dedicate d ROPE A l way s us e a line (cable or rope) tha t is of adequate size for the job, and tha t is in good condi tion. I nsp ect and test ever'y rope before it is used on eac h tTil). The often-heard sayin g that "testing a rope weakens it" is sheer non s e ns e TESTING ROPE About the best and most practical m ethod of t esting a rope, after fir s t i nsp ecting it for obvious d efects, is to subjec t it to a steady pull in the approximate magnitude of one-half the rope's ultimate breaking strength (when n ew). Any rope that fai l s in this test (half-life) shoul d b e discarde d as it. wi II no longer poss ess the r e qui r e d f ac tor of safety to m ee t e m e rg e ncies. One of the simplest tests i s tbat of tying one end of rope to a tree a bou t three feet a bov e its bas e and having th e n ecessa ry numbe r of p er sons pull on the other end in a s t eady "tug' of war" fashion, k eeping the rope three f ee t a bov e ground. ''''he n pulle d in this m anne r on a l eve l grassy surface, tbe s tr a in or pull on the rope will average about 75 p e r cent of the total weight of those pull in g Pull on rope equal s about tlwee-four t h s total weigh t of peopl e pulling 22 NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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MAIN LINES F or the m ain raising and lowering line in vertical caves, a Ys inc h manila rope is r ecom m ended. Its weight is approximatel y 1 3 pounds per 100 f eet, y e t it h as an average breaking strength of 4 000 pounds when new or a half li fe" fa c to?' o f saf e t y of ten to one for a 200pound man. Sisal rope may b e used but i s only three-fourths as strong as manil a and i s more s u sceptib l e to in jury from moisture. Neve?" use a facto?' of safety o f less than five to one. Six or s e ven to one i s g reatl y to b e preferred. SAFETY LINES A sa f ety l ine, as the name implies, is a line u sed to "safe t y" a p e rs o n climbing by his own effm' l (su c h as o n a rope ladder, hand-overh and, rope loop, e t c.). A Y2-inch manila rope is sufficient l y strong for this purpose. It we i ghs a b out 7.3 pounds per 100 fee t and, w h e n n ew, has an average breaking stre ngth of 2400 pounds or a h a lf -life" of 1 200 pounrls Nrmp.T use a "sa f e ty line" on a p erson when h e i s b eing r aise d or lowered on a "main line." It not only i s wo?" thless and confusin g but highl y con duc ive t o acc id ents b y b ecoming fou l ed, and it may b eco m e a r ea l hazo rd b y l ooseni n g rocks that might fall and strik e the caver CARE OF ROPE Do n o t j erk a rope whe n it i s kinked-it t ends t o wea k e n it, and therea ft e r it may ca us e it to brea k unde r a moderate pull. Never subjec t a rope to a sudden j erk of a n y g r ea t magnitude; its stre ngth m ay be p enna n e ntly r educed. The author has seen s i ght-seers lowered into d ee p caves b y virtua ll y dropping the m a lm ost as fast as in a free fall only to b e j erke d t o a sudde n stop about 1 5 f ee t from the bottom b y snubbin g the top end of the rope around a tr ee. T h e strain on the rope w as ter rific, and why it did not brea k and result in a serio u s accident wi ll foreve r remain a mystery, for sure l y it could not b e attribute d to the use of any judgement or common sense on the p art of th e p e rson resp o n sib l e for the rigging. What a price could h ave b ee n paid, jus t to g ive some o n e a thTill! u se a rope when it i s fmzen-the fib e rs are the n quite brittle and the rope may break even unde r a v e ry light l oad. This is es-BULLETIN NUMBER 13, DECEMBER 1951 p ec ial.l) d!Jpli cable to those who do caving and campmg m the f all and winte r and l eave their ropes a t night. Thaw the rope b y warml11g it s l ow l y excessive h ea t also ruins rope. Do not drag a rope on the ground a n y more t h a n is absolute l y n ece ssary. It not only wears the fibers, but it pic k s up grit that may work 111 and c u t th e inne r ones If rope b ecomes caked with mud and sand, it i s advisable to wash it with cl ea n water, but without soap. A l arge ga l va niz e d wash tub, fill e d with water, is exce ll ent for this purpose and accommodates about 50 feet of Ys-inch rope a t a time. Shake the r o p e around vio l ently and a m a jority of the dirt and grit will b eco m e l oosen e d and f a ll to the bottorn of the tub. vVet rope should b e d?'ie d 1J1'omptly and thmoughly. One of the best m ethods is to hanrr o n a wooden r ac k in a garage, so tha t air m ay CIrcul a t e fr ee l y through it. Never l eave a we t in a bag or other closed s pac e, esp ec ially 111. warm weather, as it will almost certainly mIldew. Although this greatl y weakens it, the r e may b e no m arke d diff e r e nc e in appearance. If, on the contrary, the w eather i s very hot and dry, as prevails in certain sec tions of the United States it may b e a dvi sa bl e to wet the rope b efore u sing A wet rope is stmngeT than a dry one. A void b ending rope over s h arp corners whil e unde r lo a d. I t not only cuts the fibe rs on the under side, but, by excess ive t e n sion, it breaks thos e on the oute r side as we ll. Never store ropes on the /iOO?' of basem e nts and garages. Aside from the dange r of excess i ve dampness that i s u s u a ll y present, they a re the r e accessibl e to p ets. Animal feces and urine are ruinous to rope, and it i s an estab li s hed fact that n ex t to the s tr ee t corner fire plug, the re is nothing so attractive to Fido as a co il of cave rope No rope s h ould eve r b e dis c(l1'de d or l e ft i n or near a cave A dis carded rope presents too great a tempta tion to the novice. A n ropes that a re condem n e d s h ould b e immediate l y destroye d b y burning or cutting the m into s hort un usa ble length s SIZE OF WORKING GROUP 'Wh il e a perso n can pull, when standing on l eve l sodded ground, u p to 85 or 88 per c ent 23

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o f his w e i ght, it ca n b e done for only a very s h ort p e ri o d o f time vValking groups", pulling p e rsons from ve r tica l drops ca n never r e l y o n b eing a bl e to util iz e m o r e tha n o n e -h a lf the total w eight of group. If m a n y p e r so n s mus t b e pulle d up and no reli e f i s available, due L a the f atigue fa ctor 4 0 p e r cent o f Lotal w e i ght is a b out a ll tha t s h ould b e r e li e d upo n D o n o t ove rlook the fact tha t r o p e drag", o r fri c ti o n ca u se d b y th e r o p e b e in g pulle d ove r pro j ectio n s in s id e a cave as w e ll as o ve r r oc k s and earth a t the entra n ce ca n eas il y supple m ent li ve" load b y 100 p e r cent o r m o r e In d ee d it i s n o t at all uncommo n [ o r a pull in excess o f 3 00 p ounds t o b e n ee d e d t o r a i se a I S O p o u nd p e r so n [ r o m a ca ,e. This fact cl ea rl y d e m o n stra tes th e n ee d for a l a rge factor o [ sa f e ty, n o t o nl y f o r the r o p e but f o r m anpo w e r as we ll. K N OTS So muc h h as b ee n writte n a b out h ow l o l ie diff e r ent kn o t s that it is d ee m e d unnecessa r y in t h is a rticl e t o e l a b o ra t e o n tha t pha s e o f ri gg in g. T h e r e a r e, h o w eve r othe r as p ec t s in their use th a t a r e equally important but o f te n negl ec t e d T h e ca v e rigger n ee d n o t know m a n y kno t s five gen e rall y w ill s uffi ce. T h ey a r e: 24 a b as i c kn o t f orm, ve r y sel d o m u se d a l o n e but o ft e n f orming a part o [ othe r m o r e complica t e d kno t s Its m ain u se in ca yes i s t o secure othe r work in g kno L s aga in s t unty ing. b Flal o-r Rer' f-Excellent in a n y c a se w h e r e the strain is rr o m within ( n o t a p pli e d t o eithe r end o [ r o p e). F o r e x a m p l e: A loop ti e d aro u nd a tree w h e n it i s de s ir e d L o a tta c h (w ith a s h ac kl e) a s t a nd in g s h e ave b l oc k N(' ve r lise a {I a l kno t when strain i s to b e put on eithe r end of rope a s the n it ca n slip and convert itself into two h alf-hitc hes-slip knots. c. B ow line-Un e xcelle d [ o r t y in g a loop in e n d of r o p e s u c h as f o r a "safe t y line" a r ound a p e r so n o n a r o p e l adde r. d B ow lil/ e U/1 a B ighl-Ideal [ o r produc ing a loop a l o n g a r o p e ( n o t at o n e end) A s it i s in r ea lit y t wo loops, it is r eco m m ende d f o r the leg loops o f the soc all e d p a r achute h arness" t y p e o f ri g u se d f o r vertic al drops. e. S h ee l B end-Good [ o r f as t ening tw o r o p es t ogethe r esp ec i ally if they a r e o [ diff e r ent siz es . \ word of ca u tio n III t h e u se o [ kno t s is in orde r. lNhe n strain I S applie d eve r y kno t "cr ee ps" until it b eco mes set. T h e r e [ o r e, n eve r tie a kno t close to t h e end o f a line It m ay untie wh e n sLra in i s applie d T i e the knot a t l eas t 1 8 t o in c hes [r o m the end. Man y L y pes o [ kn o t s th a t are s t able wh e n w orking in th e o p e n a r e suujec t t o unly ing if th e kn o t ca t c hes o n so m e obstructio n. The b o w lin e and s h ee t b end are n o t a bl e examples. A s s u c h a d a nger a l ways e xi s t s in caves, suffic i ent rop e s h ould b e left w h e n t y in g the w orking" kno t L a put a couple o [ h a lf hi tc hes around Lhe lin e. T hi s will sa f eg u ard th e working kno t [ro m b ecoming unt i e u NATIONAL SPELEOLOGI CAL SOC I ETY

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BLOCK AND FALL. Neve, us e a tTav eling bloch (sheave) in a vertica l cave drop to rais e or low e r anyone. The only possibl e exc us e for using one is when the rope is too sma ll or w ea k (and therefore has to b e double d) or when suffi c i ent manpower is not a vail a ble. W eighe d against the potential acci d ent haza r d howe v e r n eithe r exc use is va lid. The arguments against tr ave lin g blocks are: a. If it i s within r eac h of the cave r it may cut off his fing e r s or at l eas t sey e r e l y in jure his h and. b If pl ace d too hi g h t o b e r eac h e d b y the caver it is th e n s us ceptible of b ecoming foul e d on a projecting l e d ge, or even wors e, in a c r ev i ce in a l e d ge. B e in g the n out of r eac h of th e ca v e r h e would b e unable to extricate it. The pulling party (generall y out of s ight of and out of h earing di stance o f th e cave r ) upon f ee l ing ex tr a resistan ce would proba bly pull all th e harde r. This mi ght eas il y result in breaking eithe r the r o p e or the block or it. might dislodge a portion of the ledge which could fall and strike caver who i s pinione d imme di a t e l y underneath. In any case suc h an acc id ent could well be fata l. c. In verti ca l drops ropes a lw ays twi s t or unwind to a certa in extent. In cases wh e re traveling block s a r e u se d this causes th e two ropes to b e wrappe d around eac h other thus fouling them and making the m inope r a ble-a ver y COIll mon e x peri e n ce. There i s n o wa y t o r e mov e all twi s t [rom a rope since one of the factors governing the amount of twi st is w e i g ht. r\ rope tha t will n o t twi s t with a lOa-pound g irl w ill twist with a 200-pound llIan and vice versa Standing bl oclis ca n b e put to e x ce ll ent us e both insid e and outside caves: a As a m ea ns of posilioning a drop over th e cenle 'l" of an opening th ereby e limi n a tin g th e friction and w ea r on the rope that wou ld b e ca u sed it: it w e r e pulle d ove r th e earth and rocks at the edge o[ th e opening. A l so, it l esse n s th e t ende ncy BULLETIN NUMBER 13, DECE1\IBER 1951 of the rope to loosen roc k s which might fall and strike the cave r on the rope) and others b e low. b. As a m ea ns of changing di"ection of pull to facilitate easie r handling-as for instance, when a block i s secured to a tre e so lo ca t e d n ea r th e cave entrance that the pulling party may hois t a caver b y w a lk ing down hill-a very r ea l h elp. There are seve ral rules that should be s tri ct l y adherre d to in th e se l ection of s h e ave blocks: 1. Never use a sheave tha t i s t oo sma ll in diame t e r for the rope. It not only r equires consider abl y more work to operate but it greatl y weakens the rope b y excessive l y stretchiri g the oute r fib e rs passin g around th e s h eave. A sa f e practice is to h a \ 'e a ll s h eaves e ight times as l a r ge in diame t e r as th a t o[ the r o pe. Ex ample: A 'Is -inch rope s h ould use a five -inch s h eave. Unde r no circulllstances u se one whose diame t e r i s l ess than seven times that of the rope. 2. Never use a c h ea p o r I ig h t s h eave of th e awning", toy or window sas h variety. A good five -inch block should not weigh more tha n five or six pounds-truly a s m a ll amount of we ight when human safe t y i s involve d 3. Never us e a n y bloc k e x cept of the safety t y p e-one that has a stro n g pi ece of m e tal ac ross the low e r side which will ca t c h and hold th e rope in the e \"ent that th e s h e ave pin work s ou t or wears in tw o. B y u s in g a good bloc k of standard d es ign and care fully in s p ecting and lubricating it b e for e e ach u se n o trouble s hould b e experie nc e d on that sco re. 4. l eve r use a bl oc k th a t i s equippe d with a h ook-in shon DO NOT USE HOOKS! They are dangerous, tim e co n suming, and eve n if the hooks are ti e d th ey are st ill unfit for cave work R e mov e all hooks fr ol1l bloc k s and u se so"ew pin s hncld es in s t ea d They r equire only a frac ti o n o[ th e tim e n ee d e d for t y in g a hook, a r e far stronge r and, abo\"e all, they stay put". "Vh e n r emov in g hooks from bloc ks they ma y ge n e rall y b e cut so as to l eave th e ring sti ll at ta c h e d T hi s ring i s o ft e n large enough for th e insertion o[ a shack le. If not, have a "eliable welding shop for ge and we ld a ring a t th e top of eve ry block. Do not h ave th e rings welded (attached ri g idly) L O th e bl oc k 25

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5 Stee l blocks are superior to wooden ones. They will stand more abuse and are not a ffected by moisture. However, a good wooden block with steel shrouds (bands extending from top to bottom of block) should give good service if care i s exe rcis e d in its use and it is not subjected to h ard knocks which might brea k the wood. As to size 'of sheave: Since all ropes ge t larger with us e it i s a dvis able to get a bloc k one size larg e1 tha n the rope for which it i s to be used This reduces friction on sides of s h eave and l esse ns wear o n the rope. SHACKLES Screw pin shackles-not loos e pin-are ideal for attaching sheave blocks to supporting ropes. The Y2-inch siz e i s recommended. They are large enoug h to accomodate all sizes of rope up to and including %-inch, and while they may appear s mall, they will support more than eight tons NOT this but THIS 26 To k ee p from bending rope too sharply at shackle the rope should b e carried around a suitable sized thimble. Both shackle and thimble should be galvanized. The pin should be screw e d up snug. If desired it can b e locked by running a wire through the hole in the pin and around the body of the shackle LIGHTS Never r a ise or low e r a caver by a nonmetallic rope while hi s carbide lamp i s burning unless rope i s protected. If the person on the rope h as a good flash li ght (which every caver should h ave) fastened to him by a strong cord to prevent dropping there will seldom, if ever, b e n ee d for another source of li ght during the d escent. For thos e who in s i st upon keeping a carbide l amp lit while being raise d or low e r e d the fol lowin g suggestion is made : Place a flexible m e tallic s l eeve around the hoist line n ex t to caver. This is extremely simple and effici ent and co n s i sts m e rely of slid ing a short section (about two feet long) of % -in c h Gree nfi eld flexible conduit over the hois t rope just above the chest knot. This may b e purchased for a few cents from almost a n y GIeenfle ld flexible conduit pIotecting Iope I'Iom flame of cltlb id e lamp. NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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e l ec trical contractor and makes th e rope prac tically immune to damage from carbide li g hts. B e for e slipping the Gree nfi eld tubing into position apply a couple of l aye r s of fri ct i o n tape to th e rope for a b out three in c h es a t p oints where ends of m e t a lli c s l eeve will be. This will prevent injury to the r o pe. Afte r th e s l ee v e i s in position apply anothe r three -in c h l aye r o f ta p e a t eac h end of it-o n e and o ne-h a lf in c hes o n s l ee v e and the s a m e a m ount o n rope. T hi s i s done to pro vid e a smooth surface and to prevent grit from entering th e s p ace b e tw ee n th e tubing and th e r o pe. T h e above precautio n s aga in st fla m e apply equally to "sa f e t y lines" and m a in lines. " BOSUNS'" CHAIRS B osuns'" c h a ir s a r e sa[e [or \ ertica l drops in caves w i th ampl e-sized entra n ces prov id e d that prev i o u s explorati o n has r e \ea l e d n o inte r vening l e d ges. B osun" c h airs p ermit a l a r ge group of p eo pl e to b e h andle d in a r e m arka bl y s h ort tim e They s hould h ow e \er b e so co n struc t e d th a t a cave r w nll o l p oss ibl y s lit) 0111 o f c hair if, p erchance, it h a ngs on some obsta cl e and tilts or tips over. ANCHORS AND MOORINGS A line (ca bl e o r r ope) that i s m a d e fast ( ti e d) to a n o bj ecl is never any mor e s ecure than the objec t to w h ic h i t is ti e d. This may sound e l e m entary. It i s a n axiom o f great est importa n ce, h owe \er esp ec i a ll y in cave riggin g. .Too ofte n cave l adde r s h ave b ee n ti e d and safe t y l in es snubbe d a r ound s t a lagmites whi c h we r e of ample proportions in the mselves, but which clos e ins p ec ti o n would have shown to b e f01 m e d on tot) of a mud d e posit. Obv i o u s l y s u c h a n objec t m a kes a d a n gerous l y in secure m ooring. A n c h ors s hould b e insp ec t e d and test e d as diligently as ml)e. The a b ove treati se o n ca \e whil e admitte dl y in comple t e, i s intende d so l e l y as a s u gges t e d guide to a l ert those who assume th e resp o n sibility f o r th e saf e conveya n ce in a cave of tha t mos t prec i o u s commodity -the huma n life thos e who ac kn o wl e d ge the e t erna l tru th tha t Safety is an Art, IIO t an Accident. Origin and Development of Water Catchment Basins, Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexicol By DONALD M. BLACK Range r National Park SenJ i ce OBSERV.-\ TIONS D epress i ons whi c h h ave, and do ac t as, ca t chment basins for wate r seeming l y f ollow d e finit e patterns o f d eve l opme nl. In o ri g in they mig h t d e v e l o p as so lu tion basi n s in the b e d r oc k as collapse damme d so lutio n a r eas sea l e d with mine ra l s o r s ilt (fig. I ), o r as p os itive g r owin g structure s whi c h blIild a b ove th e topograph y B ULLETI N NUMBER 1 3 DECEMB E R 1951 of th e immediate a r e a (figs. II, III). A ca r e ful sea r c h of muc h o f th e cavern h as not r evea l e d a n indisputabl e so lu tion ca t chme n t basin. A f e w b as in s are probabl y co ll apse damme d. T h e most commo n kind of ca t chment basin i s the posi ti ve" t y p e J Approved f o r publica tioll b y the Direc tor of the Na ti olla l P a rk Ser v i ce. 27

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POSITIVE BASINS A positive basin is peculiar in that it is bounded on two or more sides by flow stone or "retaining dams" of crystalline carbonates, The maximum elevation of the water surface i s con trolled by the growth of thes e carbonate crystals across the areas of overflow, Overflow causes retaining dams to grow in h eight; in fact, with out overflow, these dams will cease to grow, New dams develop when the water level is high enough to spill through other low places in the topography ; eac h spillway eventually b ecomes dammed, R e t aining dams a re composed of two zones of growth, and no less than two types of carbona t e crystals, The zone of growth in con tact with th e basin water (basin side) consists of massive triangular, crystals that radiate late rally (fig, II, AI); back side of the dam is faced with l ayers of acicular crystals whose longest axis is normal to the slope of the dam (fig, II, A2), Individual dams are often formed on formations that slope thirty or more degre e s (fig, IV), Although the general trace of several adjacent r etaining dams is concave toward the source of water (fig, II, C) the i ndi vidual dams h ave a trace tha t is con vex to ward the source of water (fig, II, B), Positive basins formed by the converging of "aprons of flowston e (fig, III) within narrow confining solution joints are responsibl e for many of the water l evels seen in the Left Hand Tunnel. Vhere not co nfined betw ee n narrow solution j o ints, flowing water tends to build retaining dams to confine or impound water (fig II, IV). This latte r typ e i s repr esente d by the Mirror Lake, Longfellow'S Bath Tub, and the Devil's Spring. Positive ba s ins are r espo ns ible for the various types of lily pads" which comprise an important part of the scenery of the Carlsbad Caverns. J. H. Mackin and H. A. Coombs I r ecognized the ex ist e nc e of water basins in which they found cave p ea rls The basins d escr ibed by the m would be considered flows tone sealed depres sions and not the positive typ e basin. I "An occurre n ce of 'ca ve pearls' in a mine in Idaho", J our. Geol. pp. 58-(i5, vol. LIII, No. I Jan. 1 9 -15. 28 FIG. I 10 ft Fig. I-Collapse dammed solution ,joint sealed with flowstone, A, bed !'oc\(; n, flows tone ; C, f1owston e sealed rubble ; D, watel' level. FIG.II Sed-Ie fM B M n C 3ftd c I SC('Il e fo r A 6fed Fig, ] lA-Retaining dams in cross section, 1, latel' growing, massive, tJ'iangula, r, PYI'amidal, cal' bonate crystals; 2, layers of acicular crystals with long a .xis nOl'lnal to bacl( slope of dam; 3, bed !'ocl(; 4, flowstone slope deposited pl'ior to formation of I'etaining dams; 5, watel' level. Fig, IlB-Trace of sel'ies of adjacent retaining' dams; III'I'OW indicates direction of ove rflow, Fig. nC-Tmce of single I'etaining dam; arrow indicates diJ'ection of overflow, NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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FIG.l[ .... ... .. .... .... : ':. ..... ,.', .. ...... .. .. ......... ,: .. --.. . 0:. .. Fig' 'III-Solution joint damme d b y two sources of fiowstone : A, b e d I 'ocll; B, o lde s t soul'ce of fIow stone ; 1 f1anll 01' al)l'on of fIow stone 1'1'0111 sOUl'ce "B"; C, 1I10st recent soul'ce of fIow stone; :?, apl' o n or f1anl, of fIow s t o n e ... sOUl'ce "C"; D o ld I'etaining dam on f1anll of "B"; E, o ld wutc r l e v e l at h c i g h t of r etaining dum; F, new maximum wate r l e vcl due to building of fIow stone from SOUI'C!' "C ". ""atm' in basin I'etained the old I'etaining dam comple t e l y dis!1PI)e al' e d b efore f1alll, could invade the bas in. FIG.TIl" . . ", -, .. . .... .. .. ... . .. '. ... .. I .. "" .. : : ......... / I / I l' 5 feet ... .......... '.... "". Fig lV-TelTacing of fIow stone s I Ol)!! hy l-etainillg' darns. BULLETI N NUMBER 1 3, DECEMB E R 1951 ....... .. -.. .. ..... -, ," '-"" .. .. Sedl e .. -. 29

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WYANDOTTE CAVERN CLYDE A. MALOTT Indiana Univenity (Publislle d IJosthll mOllsly) Dr. Malott h e1'ewith presents a scholarly histm,), and d esc 1'ilJtion of one of Ame1'ica's most fa.mous cave1'l1S, enlivened by his distinc tl y inte1'esting lit e1'n1')1 styl e and authentica ted by his yeaTS of IJersona l exp e1'ience in I h e H oosie1' state. This palJe1', hithe1'to unpublished, was gmciously given to the National Speleo lo gica l Society by his famil y afte1' his d eath. on August 2 6, 1 950 Caves have l ong exc ited interest in Indiana, a state possessing an abundance o f karst f eatures. No area, however, has attracted visitors so ea rly or continuous l y as ''''yandotte cavern in south eastern Crawford COHnty, so m e t e n miles west of historic Corydon, the ea rly Hoosie r State Capital. This g r ea t cavern was discov e r e d about the year 1 800. It wa s exploite d for its nitrous earth used in th e m anufacture of gun powde r [rom about 1812 to J 818. The s it e of the cavern and some 4, 000 acres of Jand w e r e acquired by H. P. Rothrock from th e U. S. Government in 1 82 0 and the Rothroc k famil y st ill r e t a ins the cavern and its environs of wooded hills. The lure of th e great cavern was at fir s t r a ther l ocal, but a ft e r 1850, when some inquisi tive explorers dis cove r e d a passage l eading into th e lower l eve l s composing th e main part of the ca vern system, word of its vast size and seeming l y endless passages w as spread afar, and the Rothroc k family in self defense was compelled to o p e n th e cavern to th e public and build an inn to ca r e for the v i sitors who floc k e d to sec the cavern with its wonders wrought in stone. It was visited in 185 1 by H. C. Hovey, the fam o u s cavern s p ec i a li st, who pre p a r e d articles on the cavern for th e AlI1e1icnn .Journal of Science and Arts, the Vew Yo 'rli Tribllne and the Indianapolis .Journal. Hovey, like others, r eturne d again and again, and in 1878 brought a specia l artis t with him to prepare sketc h es of many interesting f eatures o[ th e cavern for Snibne1"s Magazine and for hi s book on C e lebmte d II m e 1 ican Caverns Detaile d accounts of th e cavern syst e m were publi s h e d in th e Annual Reports o E th e Indiana Geol ogica l Survey b y Col l ett in 1879 and by Blatc hl ey in 1 897 both 30 of which are r e pl e t e with information on the cave rn. Though th e romantic name of 'Vyandotte was g i ven to th e cavern on behalf oE the Indians who forme rl y were present in th e region and who left abundant ev id ence of th e ir visits in the g reat cavern, it appears unlike ly th a t any of the Indians were of the Wyandotte tribe, These fonne r inha bita n t s of th e r eg ion left crude s l edge-hamme r stones in the cavern with which they quarrie d out a large sect ion of th e base of th e gigantic "Pillar o[ the Constitution" in th e olde r and uppe r ga ll e ry, and cut away qua nti ties o[ flint stone from the roof section o[ the main gallery syst e m 70 f ee t l ower. 'Wyandotte G l\ 'ern i s hollowe d out o [ the thick limestone form ations in th e western sec tion of th e wide limestone t errain of so u thern r ndiana wh e r e s i nkholes, s i n ki ng streams, grea t up-w elling sprin gs and caverns abound, and where th e high uplalld ridges arc composed of sandstones and shales. Blue Rive r and its im m ediate tributaries h ave d ee ply diss ec t e d the upland terrain into valleys and ridges with a r e li e f exceeding 400 f eet. The n o isy riming waters of Blue Rive r n ea r the cavern are 390 feet a bov e sea l eve l while th e adjacent sand stone r id ges r eac h or excee d 800 f ee t in altitude ''''yandotte Inn and th e n earby cavern entrance are l oca t e d on th e s l opes reaching from th e d ee ply-s e t riv e r to th e c r ests of the upland r id ges, T h e view l ook in g eastward from t h e Inn across Blue Rive r vall ey is a mag nifi cent one, and in th e autumn, wh e n the lu xuriant summer [oliage of forest green changes to brilliant hues, the v i e w b eco mes o n e of m a rv e lous b ea uty, State Highway 62 l eading westward through th e sink-NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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h o l e country wes t ward f r o m C o r ydon and along the winding va ll ey o f Blue River i s a n a dmir a bl e work of e n g in ee ri ng a l o n g and about the L w i st in g va ll ey sunk so d ee pl y in the hilly t e r r a in, It p asses close b y th e g r ea t cavern and the nce wes terl y thro u g h the most rugge d and pi c tu resque country in southern India n a. T h e m o r e r eadily availa bl e p ortio n of the cavern syst e m h as b ee n d eve l o p e d into a n easy route of trave l for s i g h t seeing v i sito r s while the r e m o t e portio n i s o p e n to the m o r e adventurous cavern v i s i to r s wh o w i s h to ex t end their time and enduran ce in th e great subterra n ea n pas sages tha t l ea d into t h e unmappe d and unexpl ore d sec ti o n s o f the syst e m T h e r eg ul a r trip with guide ser v i ce thro u g h t h e more diver sifie d sec ti o n of. 't\ Tyando tt e requires a b out t wo hours time and a trave l dis t a n ce o f o n e and three f ourths miles. Once in side th e cavern, h oweve r t im e and dis t a n ce b eco m e vag u e and uncertain t o t h e v i sitor. Progress thro u g h the cavern i s a n a dventure in to the unknow n and a continua l c h a n ge o f n ove l f eatures come into v i ew without p ers p ec ti ve and in turn pass b ehind with a f a d in g co n ception o f the s p ac i a l r e l a ti o n s of dis ta nce and direc ti o n T h e imm edia t e as p ec t s of the cavern a r e a ll tha t th e v i sito r h as in sight a t a n y moment, and t h ese c h a n ge from one to a n o ther and s o comple L e l y a b sorb hi s att ention tha t h e b eco mes more o r less obli v i o u s of time ;md di s t a nce. The entra n ce to '''yandotte cavern i s a yawning void a b out 7 f ee t in h e i ght and 2 0 f ee t in width in th e we ll-b edde d limes t o n e B o th the floo r and the r o o f desc end r athe r Pho/.o b y P erry D GI iffit h Entmnce to Wyandotte Cav ern, s i tuate d on II steep, l'o cl{y s lope in the mo s t rugged pOItion of s cenic southe l n JndhwII. B U LLETI N NUM B E R 13, D E CEMB E R 1951 s t eeply {nto th e g r ea t vestibule of the cavern to a p adloc k e d ga te in the twili ght 2 1 5 f ee t from the entra n ce. B eyond, the smoo th-t rodde n p ath way l ea d s al o n g rugge d wa ll s unde r a higha r c h e d ceiling o f dark limest o ne. It l ea d s p as t a g i gantic bl oc k of r oc k fall e n f r o m the right wa ll so m e 6 5 0 f ee t fr o m the e n t r a n ce This rup ; ge d s ton e, call e d F a ll e n Rock" i s estima t e d t o we i g h 535 t o ns. I t h as r e p ose d in the d ark cavern for century a ft e r century and h as th e dus t of ages accumula t e d upo n it. A t a distance of 865 feet fr o m the entra nc e a l a r g e p assage l ea d s upward o n th e left into the old uppe r l eve l o f the cavern and the nc e o ve r a rugge d and diffi c ul t route t o the g re a t "Se nate Cha m ber" w hi c h conta in s a n enormo u s flut e d column ex t ending fr o m floo r to ceiling know n as the "Pilla r o f the C o n stitution". This r oute i s a s p ec i alty in itself. To th e right o f the junctio n of t h e old cavern a d escent of 3 0 f ee t o r more i s m a d e r athe r abruptly d ow n we ll co n struc t e d s t airs t o th e m a in ga ll e r y syst e m of the cavern. H ere, the siltc ove r e d floo r of the m ain ga ll e r y syst e m firs t b eco mes evide nt. It i s quite dry, t h o u g h it r epresents a depo sit m a d e b y wate r s whi c h form e rl y coursed thro u g h the g reat cavern p assages. In pl aces it i s litte r e d with rock fa ll e n from the ceiling o r i s interrupte d b y grea t a r c h e d rooms in whi c h hills of rugge d roc k h ave accumula t e d f r o m a b ove The floor o f the m a in cavern i s 110 fee t b e l ow the cavern entra nce and 6 5 o r 70 f ee t a bove t h e wa t e r l eve l of Blue Rive r. A s u ccess i o n of features in turn e n g ross the attention of the V I S It O r. R e p etition occurs, tho u g h in diff e r ent d eg r ees Fundamental geol og i ca l asp ec t s a r e impressi ve l y appa r ent and in esca p a bl e The cavern i s roug h h ew n from l aye r s of limest o n e b y forme r wa t e r a cti o n whi c h di sso lved and e r o d e d the p assages throug h t h e limesto n e F oss il s a r e occas ion a ll y see n on th e wa ll s and ceilings. Features of ir reg ul a r solutio n a r e l oca ll y striking l y appa r ent and som e c u r i o u s f orms attract s p ec i a l attentio n T h e rugge d wa ll s and th e ce ilin g a r e d omina nt l y cove r e d w i t h a coa t i n g o f gyp sum w hi c h h as d eve l o p e d thro u g h ages o f capilla r y exuda ti o n fr o m the country roc k c rystalli zing on the dry wa ll s in th e dry cavern a ir. L oca ll y th e white, s p arkling a l a bast rine gy p sum i s o f unus u a l b eauty, and in th e l o n g ga ll eries g lorifies s u c h 31

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places as th e Bi s h o p s R ostrum" the B a ll R oom", "Fros t King's Pal ace", "Morton' s M a r bl e H all", and th e "Fairy Palace". P erha ps th e most admire d fo rm s are th e dripslOn e forma ti o n s compos in g the p endant s tala ctite s o f th e ceiling, the squa t s talagmit es o f the floo r and t h e as t o ni shing and preplexing h elic t i t e s s o im p ress iv e l y arraye d in th e "New Discove r y" p as sage. the c a v ern som e of the carbon dioxide is giv e n up, ca usin g an over-saturation of the s olution, and inte resting d e posits a r e forme d. The s tal actite s or i c icl e -lik e p endant forms, are m a d e whe r e the drip fro m the ceiling is r e l a tiv e l y s low p ermitting r e le a s e of carbo n dioxide from the solulio n T h e sta la clite form grow s in l e n gth by c ry s t alline d eposit of ca l cium ca rbo n a t e o n th e end, and inc r eases in g ir t h b y Pho t o b y George F ./acliso n Stalactites, stalagmites anll h e li ctites in I L I'emote pass Lge of Cavmn. The photogTaph iHustnltes how the s tahLg 'mite s (on the floor) a1'e more l"Oundell than the stlLla c tite s ahove them. DI'opl ets of W !Ltm', aftm' lea. vingminute quantities of mincml JrHLtte l on the ends of the s t aladih's from whic h the y fall, splas h at.op t h e staJagmites b elow. Holling down-wanl the y thus build up the outClp eJ"iphel'y of the lattm-, fillin g with mille l'al mattel' any roug-h 1)I'uj edions or COInelS T h e drips t o n e d e p os it s o [ the ca v ern a r e found wh e r e see pa ge wate r s [r o m a b ove ente r lh e cavern afte r h a vin g p asse d s l o wl y thro u g h thic k masses o f soluble limest o n e. The w a t e rs, c h a r ge d with carbo n di ox i de, di sso lv e lh e calcium carbo n a t e co m pos in g th e limestone b y d ir ec l contac t m ov in g s l ow l y thro u g h the s m all c r ac ks, c r evices and lhrou g h the p o r o u s b e d s th e m s el ves. On seeping into th e fr ee air o f 32 s u ccess ive d e p os it s o n th e sid e s o[ the s u s p ende d tube whic h in it s primitive form i s h ollo w Some o f th e m m ay b eco m e ove r-thi c k e n e d and d e vel o p into vari o u s heav y forms, whil e oth e rs m ay r eceive th e d e p os it s o as t o r esemble r o w s o f long h a n ging l eaves o f t o b acco. T h e drip o f the o v e r-satura t e d solutio n o n the floor in time builds up d e p o sil s o f calcium carb o n a l e, pro ducing th e s t a l agmite form. Since th e s e a r e built N ATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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up agains t gTlvit y and u s u a ll y with so m e sprea d ing o f th e w a t er-drip, they a r e u s u a ll y muc h thic k e r than th e normally s l ende r s tal actites. Loca ll y a st alactite and sta la gmite may join t o produce a column r e a ching fr o m floo r to ce iling Dripstone form a ti o n s o f v a ri e d c h a r ac t e r and ass o c iati o n s are abundant in th e "Thro n e R oo m", a l o n g "Purga t o r y '''' alk'' t o "Pilla r e d P a lace", th e "New Di sco v e r y" p assage, "S p a des Grotto", P e nelop e's Grotto ", o n and a b o v e pl ay o f drips t o n e formatio ns. T hi s p assage wa s o n ce o n e of th e m a in ,vat e r r outes o f th e ca \ 'ern stream but in th e l a t e r p e ri o d of w a t e r dis c h a r ge throug h th e c av ern i t beca m e silte d n ea rl y to th e r oof. B eca use th e p ac k e d clay and silt r eac h e d close t o th e r oo f it l ay undiscO\'e r e d until 19+1, whe n it w as tre n c h e d thro u g h and o p e n e d as a p a n o f th e r eg ul a r cavern r OUle L oca ll y the p assage v e r it a bl y bri stles with s t a l ac ti tes s t a lagmites, co lu m n s and h e li ctites, so m e o f 1'11010 by G eorge F. j a c hsoll "Monument Mountain" in W yandotte Ca\'e m Towe l'in g 175 feet hig-h this i s said to lJe the unde l'gl'ountl "mount.ltin" in the wol"ld. Because of the tilte d caml'I', L ang-I e the flat. s lalJ of limestone alJo\' e the top of the "mountain" appeal's tu lJe a flat wall. A ctually it i s dil' ectly abov(' the stalagmites. i\I onument Mounta in and l ocally at o th e r pla ces in th e cavern. S in ce muc h o f th e GI\'ern li es 3 00 f ee t or m o r e b e l o w th e surface and ben ea th th e ridge whe r e th e limestone b e d s a r e protec t e d from see pa ge w a t e r s b y thi c k layer s o t impe rvi o u s s h a l e, it i s o nl y l oc all y that drips t o n e d e p os it s a r e made in th e G IVern. The "New Discove r y" p assage, o p e n e d in 194 1 i s espec iall y attractive f o r it s ri otous dis-B ULLETIN N UMBE R 1 3 D ECEMBE R 1951 whi c h a r e e x ceeding l y white and d elicate. H el ictites a r e irregularly twi s t e d o r contorte d g r owths o f c ryst alline ca lciulll carbo n a t e fr equently ac compa ni e d b y bulbo u s and b otryo id a l m asses. forme d in caverns w h e r e see p age wate r s a r e ver y s l o w ;tnd whe r e muc h o f th e evapo r a ti o n t a kes pl ace with littl e w a t e r d rip, allo win g g r owths t o f ollo w v a ri o u s direc ti o n s inde p endent o f th e d ownward pull o f gnl\ ity. They a r e forme d 011 33

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Photo b y George F. J aclo oll An unus u a l IlhotogTa.ph ta.l
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normal s tala ctites, s t a lagmites, irreg ular roof mass es, and eve n on one another, ofte n in curi o u s curis, lo ops and exte nsions and in s u ch profusion as to d efy d escription or explanation. Countless thousands of th e m run a gamut of display rarely equale d in any other cavern. A nother f eature of Wyandotte caver n i s the d eve lopmen t of grea t rooms through roc k falls from the ceiling, wh e r e the width of the c hannel runways b eca m e over-wid e n e d and f a il e d to support th e flat-l ying b e d s a bove. The fall e n ro c k masses ri se hi g h above the silt-cove r e d channe l s into g r ea t arched r oo ms Among the l a r ges t of these rooms are "Odd Fellow s H a ll and the S e n ate Chambe r in the old upper l eve l and the "House of R epresentatives" and Rothrock's Grand Cathedral in the main ga ll e ry. T h e l a r ges t and mos t impressi ve i s "Rothroc k 's Grand Cathedral", the ceiling of which rises 135 feet above the s iltcovere d floor and whic h contain s a great mass of fall e n roc k 10 5 f ee t in hei g ht. The grea t room is ova l in shape, h av in g a l e n gth of 360 f ee t and a width of 1'10 f ee t ins id e th e room 4 0 feet above the b ase of t h e f alle n ro ck. Its b ase a t the floor l eve l of the cavern proba bl y cove r s an area in e x cess of o n e and four t e n th s ac r es, and the mass of f alle n ro c k i s equivale n t in volume to a bloc k m easuring 100 feet long, 1 50 feet wide and 60 f ee t hi g h with a content in excess of 110 000 cubic yards and a weight of at l eas t 225 000 t o ns. Atop thi s g reat pile of fall e n rock, known as "lVlonument l'Vlountain", a r e masses of flowsto n e and seve r a l prominent s tala gmites, o n e of which is ver y white and i s known as "Lot's Wife". Thirty f ee t a bov e "Monument Moun tain" i s th e flat ceilin g forming a g r ea t oval with a thi c kly-set frin ge of s t a lactites h a n g in g from a l edge b e l ow it. T h e great rugge d roc k m ass with its up-stand in g s tala gmites and th e fring e d ova l above it i s an impressive s i ght whe n v i ewe d as a subdue d silhouette formed b y a li ght b eyond the mountain away from the observer. In co nclu s i o n o nl y a word ma y b e offered BULLETIN NUMBER 13, DECEMB E R 1951 co nc erning the L o n g Route" wit h a s uggesti o n b earing o n the origin of t h e grea t cavern run ways transec tin g the limest o n e t erra in The "Long Route" of the cavern includes the g r ea t runways b eyond th e "Auger Hole", a small opening at the northern end of "Rothroc k 's Grand Cathedral" room A full trip requires a minimum of four and o n e-fourth miles of cavern trave l in the mappe d and r ea dil y avai lable parLS of th e syst e m. The g reat runway void s of the "Long Route" a r e obviousl y the underground c h anne l s of cavern strea m s which formerly floo d e d throug h the m Evidences of the solu tion, e rosi o n and d epos iti o n produced b y floodin g waters a r e impressivel y present, and th e ques tion of the ori gi n or source of s uffici ent waters to ca r ve o u t th e great c h anne l s i s a n atura l o n e for th e visitor to pos e R ecent study i n the region indica tes that th e waters \ 'e r y probably came fr o m Blue River w hi c h so u ght a n underg r ound route ac r oss the n ec k of a wide eas t e rl y detour. Such a rou t e is a t l east seve n miles shorte r and possesse.d a h yd r osta ti c h ea d of 50 f ee t or more. The question of th e a b andonment o f s u c h a route when once so well d eve loped i s a compl ex one. It may b e in p art assoc iated with massiv e roc k falls in th e mature cavern routes, which so bloc k e d the p assages th a t th ey b ecame ilted up.' Such bl oc kin g and silting of the underground routes, how eve r cannot fu ll y ac count for th eir a b andonme nt. Blue River va ll ey in its later his tor y h as unde r go n e a r elativel y rapid down-cutting p eriod and has b ee n d eepe n e d som e 65 o r 70 feet b e l ow the w e ll d evelope d unde r ground pass ages, l eaving th em high and dry. S uch a downcutting p eriod was ,brought about b y the n earby Ohio River whic h was g r ea tl y enlarge d a n d d eepe n e d b y th e g l ac i a l wate r s directe d down its course and whic h sup pl aJ1le d a muc h s m a ller and shallowe r pre g l ac i a l predecessor. Thu VVyandotte cavern i a specia l feature whose history of d eve lopment i s a n intima t e p art of th e t errain in whi c h it l ies. 3 .rJ

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Mechanics of Cavern Breakdown By WILLIAM E. DAVIES The f e m'some f )ossib il i t y of th e co ll apse o f c aves is one o f the firs t thoughts o f th e inexp e 1 i ence d jJe1"So n w hen contemj ) l a ting th e a c tiviti e s of the sp e l eo l o g i s t C avern co ll al)se in th.e catas t mphic ino /JOrlions ment a ll y conce ived b y th e u n illiti a t e d howeve1', is pmct ica ll y tmknowu il1 th e /li s t01Y o f subtenanean ex / ) IOHlt iol1. The a utho r show s l UTe i n that co ll a ps e, w h e n i t d oes OCCW' f o ll ows d efinit e mechanical l aws and that i t s p ro b a b i lity can, at l eas t in some ins tances b e /nedi cte d sufficiently in ad vance o f a ctua l o ccu nence a s t o i ) 1'eci u d e the I)OS si b i lit y o f any grea t danger t o th.e exj J l ore L R oof fall o r breakdown i s r ecog nized a one o f th e p o t e nti a l d a n gers o f cavern expl o r a ti o n but s p e l e olo g i s t s h ave g iven little attentio n to conditio n s l eading t o cavern collapse. Similar f ailure o f r oo f s and w alls in mines, h owe v e r h ave b ee n studie d b y mining e n g in eers throug h o u t the world and seve r a l theories o n the ca us e of roo f f a ll s h ave b ee n arlvanced tha t are applic a bl e t o cavern breakdown. B reakdow n for the purpose o f this p a p e r i s d efine d as th e f ailure e n m asse o f the r o of o r w a ll s of caverns O ccas ion a l spalling or s l abbing o f s m a ll r oc k fr ag m ents i s exclude d fro m break d o wn altho u g h ove r l o n g p e ri o d s o f time, ro c k f r ag m ents accumula t e d f r o m s u c h ac ti o n m ay r esemble breakdow n Brea kd ow n h as b ee n classifie d a ccording t o its physical appea r a n ce I and a t l eas t four for m s a r e r ecog nized-Bloc k S l a b Pla t e, and Chip but o f these o"nl y th e firs t tw o a r e o f direc t inter est in t hi s discussi o n Bloc k breakdow n i s the f ail ure e n m asse o f a p o rti o n o f th e ceiling and w alls extending short di s t a n ces h o rizontally but o f g r ea t ver tical m agnitude; s l a b breakdown i s f a ilu re ex t ending g r ea t di s t a n ces horizonta ll y bu t limite d ve rti ca ll y to a s in g l e b e d o r a f ew b eds a t th e ceilin g f ace. T h e o th e r forms of brea kd o wn a r e n o t co n s id e r e d with bl oc k and s l a b f ailure s in ce th ey a r e o f s m a ll m agnitude in compa ri so n to bl oc k and s l a b f ailures and involve less in te n se, l oca l stresses Breakdo wn i s f ound in prac ti c all y all t y pes o f cavern p assages with l o w-ar c h ceilings or in p assages w hi c h I i e close t o the s u r f ace. In the l ow a r c h p assages brea kd o wn i s o ft e n d eve l o p e d I \ V illi arn E. F ea lu res of c a vern breakd o wn: Nali o n a l S p e l eo logi ca l Soc ie ly, 131111. II Nov., 1 949. pp 3 1 35, 72. 3 6 whe r e t wo p assages lie p a r a ll e l and cl ose t o o n e a n othe r. It i s also commo n in areas adjacent to Lhe inte r sec ti o n o r c r o s s in g o f l arge p assages but i s seldo m d eve l o p e d a t th e p oint o f inte r sec ti o n o r crossll1g. B reakdown i s co nfin e d ge n erally t o p assages in whic h the dip o f r oc k s i s l o w '!\Th e r e dips a r e st ee p it i s u s u a ll y a b sent e x ce p t in p assages that are d evelope d al o n g the strike. Roc k f ail ure i s n o t co nfin e d t o a n y s p ecific limest o n e but i s equa ll y w e ll d eve l o p e d in p assages in lim e s t o n e o f a ll t y pes and ages S imil arity o f cavern breakdow n and r oo f failure in mines has b ee n n o t e d and m a n y of the conclus i o n s co ncerning conditio n s in mines ca n b e applie d t o caverns. Syst e m a ti c studies o f r oo f f ailure d a t e b ac k t o 1 885 w h e n H. Fayol publis h e d his o bser va ti o n s o n conditio n s in Fre n c h mines. H e a d va n ce d the idea tha t the ceiling o f a mine t ends to move into the o p en ing and th a t in d o in g so, a zon e o f stress i s est a bli s h e d in the f orm' o f a dome a b ove the o p ening. It i s thi s th eo r y of d oming tha t for m s the b as i s f o r m a n y l a t e r the ories co ncerning r oc k failure F r o m 1 885 t o 192 9 nume r o u s pape r s were publis h e d d escribing roc k f alls but f ew d e lved into the cause In 1929 H enry Briggs o f Edinburg h Sco tl and publis h e d a b oo k e whi c h summa rized the kn ow l e d ge co n cerning r oc k f a ilu re. This b oo k a l o n g with o n e b y L a n e and R o b erts,3 stimula t e d co nsid e r a bl e in t e rest in the subjec t and, during the 193 0 's, a number o f pa p e r s wer e publis h e d o n the ca use o f r oc k B riggs H enry. Mining Subs iden ce: Edwar d Arno l d Co L ondo n 1 929. :I L a n e, W T. and R o b erts, J. H T h e princ ipl es o f suh s id e n ce and th e l all' of' s u p porl : A l f r e d -\. Kn opf, Ltd., L o ndon 1 929. NATIONAL S PELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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fall s P J. Crowl e and J ac k Spalding working in the Kol a r Goldfields of India; C. J. Irving, O. "'Teiss; and E. H Joseph in the Rand, South Africa; and D. '''T Phillips and J. R. Dinsdale in England made important contributions to w a rds tht understanding of roof failures 111 mines. Although ge n e r a l conditions of rock fall in shallow mines and in caverns are similar, there a r e several important s p ec ific differ ences. The most important diff ere nce i s tha t the beds form ing the ceilings and walls in caver n s have not been subjected to severe shocks of blas tin g as have thos e in mines. As a result the conditions in caves allow the study of roc k in which only simple uniform stresses a r e operating. This i s a g r ea t ad va n t age, for observa ti ons can b e made tha t approach conditions ass um e d in m ec h a nical analysi s of the forces act in g o n the ceiling and walls. A second diff ere n ce i s the e l e m ent o f time. Drifts and stopes in mos t mines have b ee n opened a relatively short time, while cavern passages and rooms h ave e xi ste d in the ir present form for thousands and possibl y millions of yea rs. As such, the stress-tim e factor is fully d evelope d. A third diff e r e nce i s the a bsence of artificial supports in caves which, lik e the fir st differen ce. m a kes conditions much simple r and permits th e application of simple mech a nical a n a lysi s to cavern breakdow n. In analyzing the mechanics of breakdown, the st r ength of rocks is of utmost importance. T h e strength of rock varies co nsid erably accord in g to the form and direction of stress applied. In compression, rocks exhibit co nsid e r a bl e strength and, in limesto ne, the crushing stre n g th is in the order of 6,.000 to 12, 000 pounds p e r squa r e inch. In t e nsion howeve r the strength i s muc h less and the modulus of rupture for lime sto n e i s in the range of 1 4 00 to 2800 pounds p e r square inch. Under conditions of shear, roc k i s much weaker than in t e n sion and s h ea r strengths for limestone vary from less than 1 5 0 pounds per square inch paralle l to the b edding t o about 1500 pounds per square inch at right a n g les to the b edding. To understand the m echanics involved in breakdown it is n ecessa ry to revi e w the forces A summary o f the id e as advanced b y these autho r s is in: Jeppe, C. W. R ev iew o f the rock pressure probl e m : J our. Chemical, Metallurgical and Mining Societ y o f South A frica vol. 44, n o. I July August, 194 3 pp 3 20. BULLETIN NUMBER 13, DECEMBER 1951 ac tin g on cavern roofs and walls from the tim e of origin of the cave until collapse takes place. B e fore a cavern i s d evelope d the r e ex i s t s a t d epth within the earth a limestone formation which is overlaid b y series of other rocks ''''ithin the limestone formation two dis tin c t t y pes of forces m ay ex i st. T h e first i s due to th e weight of the rock a b o \ e the limesto n e which will vary with th e d epth t o the limest o n e The second are stresses resulting from d efo rma tion of the limeston e by earth moye m ents. T h e fir s t t y pe of stresses ca n be d e t ermined wi th r easonable accuracy, bu t the second t y p e varies so greatly tha t no r easo n a bl e analysis ca n b e m a de. However, over th e l o n g p eriod of time n ecessa ry for caver n d evelopme n t stresses from earth rno ve m ents r eac h equilibrium and pl ay o nl y a minor part if a ny, in th e ultimate ca use of breakdown. Stresses resulting from th e weight of rock above the limestone are a lw ays present and pl ay a n important part in the d eve lopm ent of brea k down. If a point i s c h ose n at depth in the solid limestone b efo r e solution effec t s d evelop, the s tresses acting will b e a vertical stress (P) due to the weight of the rock and a horizonta l stress (Q) which is the horizontal component of the vertical stress (ab"ou t 4 0 % of th e vertica l stress). Since the limestone is in equilibrium at depth there a re equal and opposite for ces upwards and l a t e r a ll y (Figure 1). ? 0' p Fig. 1. Equilibrium of forces acting on solid limeston e at d epth. (P) v ertical force due to weight of rocl{s; (Q ) horizontal component of vertical forces. (P' ) and (Q' ) equal and opposite forces maintaining equilibrium. 37

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As the limestone is uplifted and the cover reduced by erosion it enters a zone in which solution and cavern development take place. With the d evelopment of large solution open ings, the equilibrium of stresses is upset and new conditions of unstable equilibrium are esta blished. The horizontal and vertical forces are rearranged so that th ey tend to move the walls and ceiling into the cavern opening but are J :estrained primarily by the strength of the rock. During this stage the vertical stresses can be resolved into two types. At the ceiling of the cavern the beds sag into the opening under their own weight. The area of sag is not con fin e d to a single bed but is ellipsoidal in shape, extending into the rock mass above where it becomes progressively less in each bed until a point is reached at which sag no longer takes place (Figure 2). In horizontal strata the maxi mum sag is near th e center of the passage but / / 1 \, If /II \ '\ 1\ I \ I \ I \ I l'l IlIt1\\ \ I \ CAVERN Fig' 2. Diagram of sag developed in horizontal strata ove.lying :t cavern. Sag grea, tIy exag'gerated. in inclined strata it is offset in the direct ion of the dip (Figure 3). The arch or dome within which the sag is confined was first recognized by Fayol in 188 5 and has b ee n called a pressure arch or dome. However, in th e case of caverns which li e at shallow dept h the rock pressures 38 above the opening are not critical and the sag of beds forms a zone in which vertical stresses are not transmitted. Therefore the term sag or tension dome is more sui table. Since the beds in the tension dome are not in contact they do not transmit the weight of the beds above them. Fig. 3. Diag.aJn of sag developed in inclined strata ove.-Iying a cavern. Sag greatly exaggemted. The weight above th e dome is transferred to the roc k adjacent to th e dome and to the walls of the C(lve (Figure 4). This greatly increases the slress adjacent to the face of cavern walls and is important in the development of some forms of breakdown. Since the weight of the overlying rock is not effec tive within the dome, it may be eliminated
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solid and span the opening as a single unit they act as fixe d beams. G '''' h e r e the roc ks contain open joints or c rack s extending laterally throug h the beam separ ating it into two distinc t seg m ents, th e b eam acts as a cantilever.G I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I \ \ \ I I I / / \ \ \ t I / / / \ \ \ t I r / / / \ \ \ I I I / / -----\ \, \ '""'" I I I I 1/ / / /lc ==--=:\\ \ \ \ \ I 1/1// /Id ::::::::.::::: \ \ \ \ I III/ ((I. .\\ \ \ III 11I11!r -::.. 111\ \ ..-.;; \1111 1 111111 CAVERN 111111 lUlU\. ;11111 c c F i g. 4. Dhtgl'lunmatic d ist.-ibution of stress lines al'ound :t Cltv e l'n opening' and t e n s ion dome (C) vertical com pl'essiv e I'ol'ces; (:t-e ) w e i g 'ht of s agging beams t.-ans mitte d to cav e l'n walls. C eilings adjacent to l a rge rockfall s in Patto n Laure l Cree k and oth e r caves in vVes t Virginia are forme d b y continuo u s b e d s tha t a c t as uni forml y loaded fixe d b ea m s with the wa l l s se r v ing as a n c h o r abutments. The st r ess that will ca u se failure unde r s u c h condi ti o n s i s obtaine d from the formula: = M Y I whe r e ] \![ i s the maximum b ending m o m ent of the beam y i s the distan ce [ro m the n eutra l plane to the edge of the beam I is the mome n t of inertia of th e cross section of a rectangula r b eam, i s th e st r ess applie d t o the beam. :; A fixed bcam i s a s ill g l e beam \\'ilh b oth ends finnl" anchored. o A calltilever i s a beam with o n e end firml y a n c hored and I h e othe r fr ee o f support. BULLETI N NUMBER 13, DECEMBER 1951 For practical purposes M W I -fi bt" = 8 -111 a xed beam; and I = f2 whe r e b i s t h e width of th e beam i s the thickness o [ th e b ea m i s th e l e n gth of th e beam 't\T i s th e total w e i ght o n the beam. T h e m aximum dis tance y i s eyua l to o n e half the thickness of th e b ea m and may b e expressed as T h e stress ( f ) that w ill ca u se [ ailure as d e t e r mine d fmlimestones ranges from 1 4 00 to 2800 pounds p e r square inc h and for m a n y limeston es avei 'ages 2300 p s i With t h e equations outline d a b o v e it i s possible to establis h th e r e lation b e tween the span of a beam and the minimum thickness o f solid rock within th e beam to sup port the span. F o r this th e eyuati o n ca n b e re arra nged to the f ollml'ing express ion: 3 '1" t = -=iT whe r e w i s the unit w e i ght of t h e m a teri a l [orlll ing the beam. Application of th e f ormula to Poorfarm Cave, '''' es t Virginia wh e r e the limestone h as a unit w e i ght of 165 p ounds p e r cubic foot and the rupture modulus (l) i s ?pprox imatel y 2600 pounds p e r square inc h s h ows th e r e lati o n ship b e tw ee n span and minimum b ea m thickness as: Span l\[inill1l1l11 thichness of b eal/1 4 feet 0 00 53 f ee t 8 0 .021 1 6 32 64 100 0.08 4 0.33 1.35 3.3 1 I[ th e rock b ea m o y e r the ca y ern I S a unt f ormly load e d cantile \ e r s it will h a y e th e same r e l a ti o n of thickness and span o f a fixed b ea m if each pair of opp os in g cantile \ e r s span e xa c t l y h alf th e opening. The table b e l o w s h ows the r e l a ti o n of span and minimulll thickness o[ a sing l e cantilever e M in a cantile \ e r i s expresse d WI 3wP) as 2--and f -), ; This i s based o n a s lllllm a tion o f th e negati ve a n d p os i t i ve m o m ents o f the fixed beam Cantileve r s s p all passages ill pai rs \dth o n e co mponent a n c h o red in o n e wa ll and Ih e oppos it e compo n ent a n c h ored i n the othe r wall. 39

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Span 2 f ee t 4 Minimum thickness of b eam 0 0053 feet 0.021 8 16 3 2 6 4 100 0 084 0.3 3 1.35 5.40 13.24 T h e a mounL of sag in a b eam that will ca us e rupture ca n b e calculated from the following formulae: Fixe d Beams uniformly loade d: d ] 384 \lVP x --EI ( 1 ) whe r e \I\T is the total weight on the b eam= Ibtw, w i p the unit weight of the beam, is the l ength of the beam t i s the thickness of the beam, b is the width of the beam, d is th e d eflection (sag) of the beam E is Youngs (Elastic) Modulus, I is the moment of inertia of a rec bt'i tangular beam = 12 T h e equation ca n b e rewritte n as: 1 2 d = 384 w I x Et" ( 2 ) The ultima te strength (modulus of rupture) of the mate ri a l forming the b ea m is g i ven by : 3 1"w r = 4 x B y s ubstituLin g this into (2) above : I d = IS x Ew Calculations f o r fixe d b ea ms of minimum thick n ess in Poorfarm Cave breakdown areas, where E i s approximate l y 6,300,000 pounds p e r square inc h show that a sag of 0.0 52 inch is the point a L which colla p se occurs. Cantil eve r uniforml y load ed: 1 x \lVI o r 48 x d = 8 El T8 r Ew The limiting sag of beams of minimum thic k n ess in this case i s 2.5 in c hes. 4C The figures for sag, like those for thickness, are not absolute since v ariation in the character istics of rock strata will produce variations in the rnoduli of rupture and e l as ticity. In addition the moduli determine d by laboratory m ethods are generall y less than under natural conditions: However the figures given indicate the order of magnitude and are in agreement with conditions observed in PoOt -farm Cave. Since the moduli of rupture and elasticity are relativel y the same value for most cavern limestones, the figures for sag and beam thickness m ay b e t a k e n as typic a l for most caverns. The failure of rock b ea ms within the tension dome occurs in several ways to form breakdown. In the simplest case, the roc k b ea m forming the ceiling, either a fixed beam or cantilever, sags t o the point of failure and falls This f ailure is t ypical of cantileve rs and, while generally con fin e d to a singl e b e d in depth, i s of considerable extent horizonta lly. The breakdown in the ce n tra l passage of Poorfarm C ave is of this type Massive bloc k breakdowns arise from the failure of successive cantilevers or fix e d b ea m s The failure may start in the lowest cantilever and spread in rapid progression to the overlyin. g beams. -Based on conditions observed in caves, this type of f ailure appears Lo b e of minor im pOt-tance. The progress ive failure of cantilevers starting with a b ea m higher in the t ension dome apparentl y is the more common cause of breakdown. In this case a b ea m fails within the dome and transfers its weight to the beam b e low which in turn fai l s and loa ds the n ext low e r beam with its weight and the weight above. Unless this action is arrest e d by the j amming of broke n blocks to form a voussoir a r c h 9 the f a ilure of b eams by overloading from above wi ll continue to the ceiling face where the m ass will f a ll to form block breakdown. This d eve lop m ent i s confined to a short section of pass age but generally ex t ends a great distance vertically. The walls are invo l ve d in this form of break down with passages widened a t the point of failure as a r esult of the rock faces slabbing and Lhru st in g into the passage. The failure of wall s is prominently shown in the breakdown area on Lhe uppe r l eve l of Laure l Creek Cave, \ Vest Vir ginia as indica t e d in figure 5. "Vollssoir a r c h i s a low arch formed by b l oc k s h eld in p os ili o n b y fr i c li o n and lateral r est r aint. NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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12,0 {tJ O f Lower leve I Upper level : \ Rise of 30ft, r1\!J Block breakdown w i t h lJI passage enlargement @ [j ____ ____ Fig, 5 L aUl'e l Cr'cell Cave, 'West V i r'ginia: Section of Ill'eallllown n ear crossing of upper' and low e r l e \'el s ErH' i r'('l eil numbe r's ar' e ceiling h e i ghts in feet The co n ve r s i o n of fixe d b ea m s to ca ll1il e \ 'e r s i s a critica l s t age in cavern brea kd ow n. T h e co nver s i o n t a k es pl ace whe n a fixe d b ea m sags to th e p oint o f failure a n d o p e n t e n s i o n c r ac k s d eve l o p se parating th e b ea m illl O dis tin c t call1i l eve rs, If the lin e o f sep a r a ti o n di vi des t h e b eam into t wo r e l ative l y equa l ca ll1il eve r s i t w ill in all probability rem a in s u spende d s in ce th e sag that w ill C:1u se failure of ::I ca ll1il e v e r i s f a r g reater th a n th a t 0 1 a fixed b ea m If, h oweve r t h e c r ac k sep a r a tin g th e cantilevers i s close t o o n e wall o r di ago n ally cuts ac r oss th e p assage it will Form o n e cantileve r o f g r ea t e r l e n g th whic h m ay ex cee d t h e l e n g th--thi c kn ess relati o n n ecessa r y to s u s t a in t h e b ea m and co ll a pse w ill occur. T hi s r e l a t i o n ship i s clea rl y see n in t h e centra l pas sage of Poorfann Cave w h e r e a n o p e n j o in t cuts di ago n ally ac r oss a w id e passage and s lab break-BULLETI N NUMB E R 1 3 DECEMB E R 1 95 1 d o wn h as d eve l o p e d o n o n e s id e of the crac k whe r e th e cantile v e r excee d s h a lf th e width o f th e p assage Ultimate f a i lure o f b o th fixe d and cantile ver beam s t o f o r m brea kd ow n ta kes p l ace close t o th e wa ll w h e r e t h e s hear i s g r ea test ( Fi gure 6). T h e erra ti c f r acture fr ont o f t h e trunca t e d r emnant o f th e b ea m a t th e f ace o f th e wa ll I S inclined ove r t h e passage a t a s teep a n g le, rMOlllflum Mo .. mum I tnSl on-; \ \pii Q _ -__ 0 I II \11 MOJlmum CAVERN I'ig 6 Z o nes o f s tr'ess in \ sagging beam (B) b ending for'ces; (S) s hear'in g f o r'ces; (Q) later 'al ('o ml)l'essi o n flJl'ces, Earthqua kes a r e commo nl y cite d as th e ca u s e o f b r eakdow n and Gar d n e r 1 0 went so far as to s p ec ul a t e tha t m os t b reakdow n was brou g h t a b out b y a n a n c i ent qua k e of continenta l m ag nitude O b se r va ti o n s in mines and ca y erns do n o t support th ese id eas T h e New Madrid earth q u a kes of 1 811 and 1 8 1 2 qua kes o f seve r e inte n s i ty within 1 50 miles of ;\I a mmoth Cay e, K entuc ky, ca used n o roc k fall o r o th e r di s turb a n c e in t h e cave, Saltpe t e r w orkme n in th e ca\'e at tha t t im e r e p orte d n o r oc k f a ilu re. R ecent o bservati o n s in Appa l ac hi a n ca yes s h o w n o r oc k f alls altho u g h l oc al qua kes h a y e ta k e n pl ace during th e p erio d of obse r va ti o ns. T h e e l e m ent of tim e i s of co n s id e r a bl e im porta n ce in d eve l opment o f ca y ern b r ea kd ow n f o r t h e physi ca l conditio n o f r oc k s i s alte r ed som ew hat if unifor m stresses ex i st for l o n g p e ri o ds. T h e t im e y i eld in r oc k s i s p roportio n a l t o th e stress applie d t o a certa in poin t b e yond w h i c h th e resi stance d ec r eases r apidly and failure occurs unde r l oa d s apprec i a bl y l ess th a n i f stresses w e r e applie d fo r s h ort p e ri o ds. In caverns t h e time th a t th e ce ilin g h as b ee n sub j ec t t o st r esses i s t h o u sands o f times l o n ge r th a n '" Ga r d ner. J a m es 1-1. O ri gi n and developm enl of lime' sLOn e cavc rns: B IIII. Ceol. Soc. -\l1Ie r \ 01. 1 6, n o "I. A ug" 1 935 p p 1 2721 273 4 1

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that experi e n ced b y a n y man-made opening. For this feflture caverns offer a n opportunity to study th e ultimate effec t s in tim e yield. Indic ati o n s a r e that eve n after extr e m e l y l o n g p e riods (10,00 0 t o possibly 50 0 000 years) o f exposure to uniform load s the roc k b ea ms forming t h e cavern r oofs are far from the rup ture point. Limestone, appa rently, is more rigid and durable th a n l a b o r a t o r y t e sts indica t e pro viding i t h as not been s ubj ec t to severe shoc k b y blasti ng. The tim e at w hi ch breakdown d evelops in a cavern i s not w e ll estab li s h e d. Few caves h ave been obse r ved where t h e process i s in action t o day. T h e o nl y active breakdown known to the autho r i s that in Poorfarm Cave, ,,, T est Virginia, where ceilin g can til eve r s a r e increas in g in sag and s l abs fall occasionally. Extensive break d owns ge n e r ally lie o n clay fill s that h ave b ee n cons id e r a bl y eroded. T h e surfaces of blocks within th e r oc k fall a r e fresh and s h ow no effec t of wealhering o r solutio n action and seldom with the exception of g u ano deposits and s t a lag mitic m a t e r ia l a r e th e r e a n y cavern d epos it s coveri n g or l y in g o n the breakdown. In a few caves, h owever, rock falls a r e covere d with ex t e n s i ve deposits of flowstone and stalagmites which indicate that th e fall took place a con s id e rabl e l e ngth of time ago and that r oof con di t i o n s h ave b ee n s t a bl e since. R oc k falls of this typ e a r e common in Rapps Cave, West Virginia, S h e n andoa h Cave rns, Virginia, and severa l other Appal ac hi a n caves. In so m e caves r ock falls ge n e r a ll y co n s i st in g o f a f ew s l abs or isolated blocks, but n o bloc k brea kd own, h ave b ee n obse rved in the clay and g r ave l fills. T his, h owever, i s not com m o n and most fills are fr ee of brea kd ow n Apparently the ea rly s t ages of cavern d eve lopment a r e relatively free o [ exten s ive rock fall. A n y that did occur has be en remov e d by solutio n a condition that i s not t oo probable if l arge m asses fell and were cove r e d by fill soo n afterwards. T h e detection of ceilings tha t are nearing failure i s a ll but imposs ibl e at t his s ta ge of i nvestiga tion. However, the following observa tions m ay a id in preventing ser i o u s accidents. Passages wi th broad, l ow arc h ed cei lings free of sta l actites s h o uld be travers e d with caution. T hi s condition i s ge n e r ally indica tive of fixe d beams in w hi c h so m e sag has occurre d allowing water t o t r ave l a l o n g bedding planes r athe r than a lon g open verti ca l j oints. Since the sag ca usin g failure of fixed b ea m s is very small it i s probabl e tha t the conditio n d escribed r epre sents a n area of possible r oc k fall. Cantilever beams that are "peeling" from the ceiling and s h ow distinct sepa r a ti o n s h ould be avo ided. In trave r sing passages wh ere danger of roc k fall is prevalent, it i s best to s t ay close to the cavern walls as few breakdow ns, except those resulting from failure of the e n tire tension dome, ex t end to the wa ll s T h ose resulting from cantilever failures, eithe r singly or success ively, h ave a fulcrom p oint a s li ght distance out from the wall face. The interpre t a ti o n s p r esented in this paper a r e the beginning rathe r tha n the end of r e sea r c h More know l e dge wi ll be ga ined co ncern ing the m ec h anics of rock failure and conclu s i o n s will b e more positi ve. Vith a better understanding of rock failure many lives as we ll as valu a bl e property w ill be save d in mine oper ations. Caverns offer an excelle n t opportunity for study in this fie ld and may, in the l o n g run, h o ld the k ey to solving' the riddle of rock fall and subsid e n ce. H oweve r work on this interes t in g subject w ill b e hampe r e d unless investigators ca n obta in data o n the e l ast i c and rupture m oduli of limesto nes whic h most laborat o r y tests ge n e r a ll y i g n o r e SUMMARY B y application of knowl edge gai n e d in min in g it i s possible to explain th e ca uses of cavern breakdow n based on the following: I. The rock strata over t h e cavern act as uniformly loaded b ea ms e i t h e r fixed or canti l eve r. 2. T h e b ea ms sag under t h e ir ow n w e i ght to a point w h e r e failure takes place. 3. The cr iti ca l time in d eve l opment of breakdow n i s the point at which a fixed b ea m sags and sep a r ates in to ca ntil eve rs. If th e canti l eve r s a r e d eveloped in n early equal proportions across the passage it will ge n e r a lly stand; if it i s unequally developed, co ll apse will take place a long the l o nger segment of the cantilever. 4. The r e l a ti o n of b ea m thi ckness to l e ngth as "veil as the sag ca u s in g failure can be approximated, by applying the e n gineerin g formulae d evelope d for ordinary structural b eams NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCrETY

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Blo c l, Iwealulown ."es ul ting from the failUl' e of a t e n s ion dome, Laure l C.eel, Cave, \\T. Va. Slab brea\ulo\\"n resulting from t h e failure of a g r oup of cantilevt' s, Poorfarm Cave, \-V. Va. Sag i n cantileve. beam s diJ'ectly ove It b.eal,down, Poor f arm \-V. V a 1 Y:, in c h sag in eantile\' eJ's, Pool"fal"lll CIWe, \-V. Va. V e .ti ca l joints sep a .ate t h e .oc\, beam s into eantil eveJ's of VltrioUS l engt h s BULLET! NUMBER 13, DECEMBER 1951 A rnLllgemen t of blo e l, s within I t fall e n mass of bl oc I brealHlown Poo..r a."In Cave, "V. Va. 43

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IDYLL 'OF THE ENNESSBEE \!\Th e r e North thru Adirondacks sweeping, \ Vind s R oute 9 a silver trace Past blue l a kes, g r ee n m eadows s l eeping, Emble m s o f thi s r eg i o n 's g r ace Sa r a t oga sce n e s left l a t e l y \!\Tith th e p as t that n a m e r eca lls; C r oss in g Hudso n h e r e s till st a t e l y A t the c i t y of Gle n s F a ll s T h e n L a k e G e o r ge in l ov e l y seuing, \!\Tarr' n sburg, C h e s t erto wn the hill, R ound o r ov e r it w e r e getting E r e w e co m e t o Potte rsville. P otte rsville, f o r u s the loc u s On t his hi g hw ay o f r enown, or our in t e r e s t s whi c h foc u s Just outs id e this little town. H e re in bro n ze, m o n gs t n a m e s of other B oys l o n g go n e t o fina l rest, Not e lh a t mid-n a m e, N eubuck, brother or th e L ydia w e lov e best. To :\1or t h and l eft we l e av e thi s hi_ g h .way On a r oa d b y c ourt'sy call e d '''' h e n t w as nothing but a b y way F o r t h e v i s i to r s it galle d. V i s i to r s t o the y d wonde r .-\ s t h e y first e ssayed t h i s t r e k ''\li t h the ir b o nes h a lf s h oo k asunde r ;\nd .t.h e ir c a r approa ching w r eck. 4 4 H e r e w e h a st e n to b e li e you: G o n e s tha t b yword o f the p as t; Now that l eague-long stre t c h won t try yo u Safe and smooth from first to l ast! Fro m the eas t thi s r oa d comes c r awling ; Northward r ea r s the mounta in ridge; \ V e st and s outh the broo k g oes bra 'wlin g; N e a th us, quie t and the Bridge H o w is s t y l e d this s i te so sightly? V h a t o ccas i o n s these co ncl aves? B oth these que ries a n s w e r rig'htly: NATURAL STON E BRIDGE A N D CAV ES! On 'Frie d a D o n ald, Dav id, Jane t ; Mothe r s i s t e r bro th e r s tw a in ; All h elp do th e j o b and pla n it; L ydia Linda's l oya l tra in. Dwe llin g h o use and touris t c abin, Ly di a's cabin n ea r the bluff; T i c k e t g ifts h o p f o r h e r gabbin' And th e libr'y, t h a t' s e n o ugh! With a sh o p -ga r a g e f o r Jessie, And a bin f o r st oring i ce, V h e n th e w eathe r g elS quile m essy, And f o r u se wh e n warm and ni ce. \'" e s tw ard o f these s t r u ctures I i S l e d Pine y g r ov e with ming l e d birc h A ir lik e wine, and ofttime s mi ste d ; F in e r camps i te u s e less sea r c hl NATIONAL SPEL E OLOGICAL SOCIETY

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Nodding t ree t o ps, st a r s atwinkle d S h a rpe t c h e d dark o r g l i s t ening b o l es; Balsam scente d n ee dl e sprinkle d Spri n gy carpe t neath b e d roll s D ow n Fro m a t o p th e Bridge w e wande r D ow n th e rus ti c z i gzag s t a ir ; N I o r e w e see, t h e m o r e we' r e fo nder Of this p a r a dise so f a ir. D ow n past c a ve m ouths wide o r hidc i e n Y awning c h as ms, d ev il' s s li de, Jutting l e d ges, t endril-ridde n R oots o f g r ee n e r y t o p s id e. T o th e gor ge, a w a ter c h anne l Only w h e n spring fr es h e t s rise; For th e r est a brilliant p a n e l Of wild b eauty fore our eyes. Ca n yo n w a lls, s t ee p Bridge rock f ac in g, \ I V ith H e r ca bill o n th e c rest Hillside s h ee r t r ees inte rl aci n g, Towering hi g h in g r ee n f ull-dr essed. Noisy C a v e it s n a m e w e ll s ui ted, Torrents lUmbling thru p e ll m e ll ; P o th o l es, 'Wh irl p oo l co n volu t e d ; .-\Iso h ere, J e n 's '\lVi shing-\ IVell. Unde r R ound a corne r loom s th e a r ching Outline o f th e Bridge a t l as t Varico l o r e d brillia n ce m a r ching In g r a d a ti o n s s h a d ow-cast. In this cavern j aw's a soc k e t T wi s tin g up f orke d lik e a tooth, Barre l C ave, so's n a m e d thi s p oc k e t Cave within a cave, fo r sooth. BULLETIN NUMBER 13, DECEMB E R 1951 I eath the g r ee n frin ge d campgrove covering Iv[e r g in g d own in r oc k rimme d arc, D a n c in g sunlit wa t e r s h overing Ere e nveloped in th e d a rk Fl o t sa m j a m s thi s d a r kso m e tunne l ; H a lf-subme r ge d l ogs inte rl oc k ; Ce ilin g l ow'ring lik e a funne l Fa th o m s d ee p e r e h a lf a b l oc k T h e n thru sipho ned myste r y cours ing, P ;trL e m e r g e s f a r d ow n strea m ; Other wa t e r porti o n s forcin g C h annelle d passages abeam. From Gor ge and Bridge-e n d m e r ge toge th e r : Los t Pool E c h o, Garne t Caves ; F l oo d e d d e p t hs, m ouths op' n to weat h e r ; O\'e r t hi s t h e t ourist r aves! Ca \ 'e, a length y h alf-fille d boring, Limpid st r ea m in gradua l A ow; H eard, a ge ntl e rhy th m i c snoring; See n a n ee ri e a m be r g l o,,'. Garnet Cave its m outh s m ooth r ounde d M e t a m orphose d s h e h in g roc k ; Thus, a wide d ee p p oo l i s b ounde d ; H e r e the ba th e r s r ea ll y floc k D ow n strea m wa l ers r e u ni t e d F airy l and n ow left b ehind; To t hi s s p o t our troth i s pli ghted; Sure l y h e r e h a th God b ee n kind! Silho u ette d ga ins t th e s k y lin e, L ydia's cabin see m s t o m e Castle o t the r a di ant fr a lil ein Of th e C aves o f ENNESSBEE. J A Y E S PEE 45

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The Cave Salamanders of California By JOHN W. FUNKH0USER Natural History Museum, Stanford Univel'sity, California Among the most interesting of the udatiuely few Cl'eat1.l1'es which inhabit caves the salam ,ander is tJ1'Obably one of the 1IIost th01'Oughly studied. Thus the life history of this animal is cont1'l'buting an i 'mportant phase to our still limited knowledge of the fauna of caves. Organisms which are fitt e d to lif e in total darkness freq u e n t l y s p ec ial ize in to biza a r e forms which are no l ess f ascinating in their relation ships to th eir environment than in their L1n usual morphology. This is espec i a lly true of cave dwelling animals, among which various salamanders adapted to a subterranean ex ist e nc e are of particular inte r e st. Some salamanders are so speci fic a II y fi tte d to ca ves tha t presu ma bl y th ey could ex ist nowhe r e e l se, while still others occupy caves m e r e ly as one of several suitabl e habitats. The Lrue caver ni colous sa lamanders a r e hi g hly specializ e d to fit a n underground environm e nt. They arc co lorless and sightl ess There are [our s u c h salamande rs in North America, of which a r e p erma n ently larval in form, These are Haideutlilun, wallacei, TyjJhlomolge mthlJ'uni, T yphlutliton spe laeus, and T. nere7ls. -\n additional genus i s known from Europe. J-iaid eolriton, the Georgia blind salamande r known only from a single specimen r ecovere d from a well and Typltlomolge, the Texas cave salamande r h ave quite d ege n erate eyes, no pi g m enl, and are p erma n ently l a rval. TyjJhlotl'iton sjJelae'l.ls and T. n e reus inhabit caves and under ground st r ealllS in th e Oz ark Pla t ea u. The adulls or both h ave d ege n erate eyes and are al1Il0st co l o rl ess, but their l a rv ae, which fr eque nt l y occ llr in surface waters, possess both eyes and pi g m e nt. These larvae ente r caves at a critical point in th e ir d evelopment, at "vhich tim e there is a rudimentation of th e ir e yes and a loss of pi g m e nt. (Interestingl y Noble (193 / : 34,94) h as s h o wn th a l T y jJ/ilotriton sjJelaeu.s will r e lain fun ctio nal eyes and pigment if kept in lhe lig ht. ) A ft e r its entrance into caves, T. spelaeus 46 loses its g ill s and metamorphoses into a terres lri a l adult. Typhlotriton nerew, howeve r, r e tains its gills and r emains p ermanently aquatic. Almost nothing is known about the eco logy the breeding habils, or the life histories of a ny of Lhese remarkable anima ls. Asid e from th ese highly specialized cavern i co lous species, there are other sal a m anders which show no visible modific ations for a sub t erranean lif e, but which spend most or all of their lives in caves. These are generally terme d e r e jJ'USc7licl1', or twiligh t-zon e, species eve n though th ey are fr equently found well within the zone of total darkness. Some m embers of the genus Eu.rycea for exampl e, found in certain sections of the eas t ern and central United States, are of this type Another example is Plethodon dixi, which occurs in a limite d area of th e south e rn Shenandoah Valley Virginia. In addition, there are visitant species which, thoug h usually found in non-c ave habitats, occa sionally enter caves wh e n the opportunity pre sents its e lf. Such a series, from visitant to cavernicolous s p ec i es, probably r epresents the progress iv e ste ps in the colonization of caves by sa lamand crs The exact m echanism in the production of such bizarre forms as th e cavernicolous species is not yet w e ll understood. Though it appears to b e large l y governed by evolu tion and genetics, there is evide n ce LO show that the physiologic a l r eaction of th e individua l animal to its environ m cnt p l ays som e part. This is evident in the eye d ege n eration and pigment loss of T yphlotn:ton s j Jelael.ls and T nereus. It should b e borne in mind, howeve r that th e ability to effec t sLich c h a n ges must b e h e recfitary. NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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Tha t tim e and e n vironmenta l stability are important would b e indicate d b y the f ac t tha t a ll ca v ernicolous s p ec ies so f a r known co m e from a r e a s l o n g ge olo g i ca ll y s t a bl e, w h e r e the r e a r e g r ea t ex p a nses o f limest o n e co n taining ex t e n s ive subsurface wa ter syste ms. A l so there i s a seeming co r re l a ti o n with Ple i s t oce n e g l ac i a ti o n inasmuc h as the forms m ost highly s p ec i a lized are t h e f arthest r e m ove d fr o m t h e sce n e o f g l ac i a ti o n while in t h e g r ea t cave syst e m s o f the Ohio V a ll ey r eg i o n whic h wer e direct l y influ e nced b y g l ac i a ti o n co l onizati o n has go n e n o farther than c r epuscul a r s pecies (E i genmann, 1 9 0 9: 1 7). T hi s m ay b e a n other indica t io n th a t tim e i s a n important fac t o r and tha t cavernicol o u s s p ec ies prob a bl y b ega n evo l v in g t oward their p r esen t s p ec i a liz a ti o n not l a t e r than th e tim e o f th e la s t g l ac i a ti o n In th e caves o f C a lifornia, co l o ni z ati o n has jus t b egun; and those sa l a m ande r s whi c h have b ee n o bs e rv e d o r c oll ec t e d in C alifornia caves a r e v i sitant surface f orms F o r various r easons this would b e expec t e d. The W e st Coast, unlike Southeastern Unite d St a tes, has not b ee n a g r ea t cente r of dis p e rsal f o r sa l a m ande rs. Its present sp ec ies and ge n e r a h ave b ee n d e ri ve d fr o m s tock s whic h originate d in othe r plac e s For e x ample, the l argest sa l a m ande r f amily, Pl etho d ontidae, whic h includes many California forms, had its cente r o f distribution in the Southern Appa l achia n s P erha p s the m ain r eason why thi s situation ex i s t s in C a li fornia i s tha t the vVest Coast h as not b ee n nor i s it yet ge ol og i ca ll y s t able The clim a t e i s a n othe r limiting f actor, b eing wet in winte r and dry in summe r with m a n y a r eas s h owing va r y in g d eg r ees o f aridity Whe r e sa l a m anders d o e xi s t their breeding cycl e s mus t b e syn chro nized with a r e l a ti ve l y s h ort winte r r a in y seas on, o r to the brie f p eriod e a c h spring whe n m elting s n ows in the hig h e r altitudes furnis h moisture. T h eir l a r va l d eve l opment mus t b e comple t e d in time f o r the young adult to see k out a suita bl e s p o t in whic h t o esti vate during th e l o n g dry p e ri o d Vith the clim a t e t ending t o b eco m e eve n dryer as i s indica t e d b y distributio n a l p atterns o f m a n y plants and animals and b y geo l og i c evide n ce, m a n y a r eas whic h f orme rl y prov id e d sal a m ande r h abita t s a r e n o l o n ge r suita bl e Man h as a l so b ee n resp o n s ibl e by apprec i ably l ower-B ULLETIN NUMB E R ] 3 DECEMB E R 1951 ing the wa t e r t a bl e ove r l a r ge a r eas thus depriv ing sa l a m anders o f suffic i ent g r ound m o i sture fo r their esti va ti o n. "Vith the s p ecific r efere nce to California caves, it s h ould further b e borne in mind tha t (1) the r e a r e n o limestone a r eas in the s t a t e as g r ea t as those in the eas t ern Unite d Sta t es; ( 2 ) th e caves are re lativel y young -or a t l eas t h ave b ee n subjec t e d t o th e a b ove-mentio n e d r e cent geo l og i c c h a n ges ; and (3) the l a r ges t cave areas w h e r e climat e p e r mits sa l a m ande r s t o ex i st were influ e nced b y Pl e i s t oce n e g l ac i a ti o n E st i n ti o n appears t o b e the most importan t s in g l e facto r l eading sa l a m ande r s in to caves. T h e moist cave atmosphe r e p rov i des a n ideal r e tr ea t during th e dry seaso n In n on-cave areas these anima l s must estivat e in anima l burrows mud c r ac k s or a n y othe r available c r ev ice offe r in g a d equa t e m o i sture On the othe r h and, some sa l a m ande r s c h oose a cave h abitat eve n t h o u g h esti va ti o n i s n o t n ecessary. Ensatil1a esc hsch o lt z i i I J l a t ensis h as b ee n n o t e d t o s h ow s u c h a pref e r e nce. T h e f o llowin g i s a li s t o f sal a m ande r spec ies so far n o t e d in C alifornia caves : COASTAL RECIO Santa Cruz A r ea: Dic a mptodon e nsatu s ( l a r val) SIERRA N EVAD A RECIO Sequo i a Nati o n a l P a rk A r ea Ensatina eschsch o lt zii p l a t ens is* B a t rac h vseps a ttenuat us ssp Mothe r L o d e A rea E nsat ina eschsch o lt zii zan thoptica Aneides lugubris lugubn:s* T,itunl s sienae OR THERN CALIFOR! I A S h as t a A r ea Hydmmant es sp Mos t of these s p ec ies b e l o n g t o th e f a mil y Pletho d ontidae, as indica t e d b y as t e ri s k s in the a b ove li s t It i s t o thi s famil y th a t th e vari o u s North A m e ri ca n cavernico l o u s and c r epuscul a r s p ec ies b e l o ng. A ll Pl etho d ontid sa l a m ande r s a r e lung less and a bsorb oxyge n thro u g h th eir m o i st s kin s T hey th e r e f o r e r equire eve n m o r e m o i sture th a n m ost othe r types of sal a m ande r s Co nseque ntly, they find caves a n id ea l habit at. T h e s in g l e l a r va l s p ec im e n of Dicamptodon e n satus w as co ll ecte d in Empire C ave. Since the b o d y o f wa t e r in whi c h it was ta k e n communi-17

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cat e d with th e outs ide, it i s n o t like l y tha I it d eve l o p e d from a n egg' l a id in the ca v e Prob a bl y i t swa m o r was w as h e d in It w ill b e n o t e d t hat most o f the r ecords co m e from the S i erra 1 eva d a r eg i o n with but a s in g l e s p ec im e n fr o m th e Coas t R a n ge. This p a tt ern m i ght b e e x pec t e d beca use of th e l a r ge r number of caves i n the f o rm e r r eg i o n. T h e p a u c i t y o f r ecords f r o m the S hast a a r ea ari ses [ro m the f ac t thal th e r e ha s b ee n little wo rk d o n e t h e r e during th e spring, wh e n sal a m ande r s a r e most r ea dil y o bserved My informa t ion o n HydTomantes in that a r ea c omes from J oseph Gorma n o f th e U niver s it y o f C alifornia, wh o i s prese ntl y e n gage d in study in g the eco l ogy a nd t a x o n omic s t a tu s of thi s animal. R ecent di scover ies o [ sal a m ande r s in caves h ave contribute d to the ge n e r a l knowl e d ge o f th e g r o up. T h e firs t sa l amande r s whi c h the S t a nf ord Gro tt o o f t h e atio n a l Spe l e ol og i ca l Soc i ety collec t e d in a cave we r e t wo s p ecime n s o( E nsat ina esc h sc h o lt zi i xanth optica fr o m the C ave City C ave, l oca t e d n ear Sa n Andreas, C a l a v e ras C ounty, C alifornia. S t ebbins (1949: 4 1 5, 449, 45 0 ) h a d r ece ntl y r ev ised the genus En satin a, m a kin g it a complex o f seve n subs p ec i es, all unde r th e s p ec ies eschsch o lt zii. His s ub s p ec ies, xanth optic a h as a s it s m ain range th e Inne r Coas t Range of C ali[ornia, b e tw ee n the g r eat Centra l V a ll ey and San Fra ncis c o B ay, fro m east-ce n t r a l Sonoma County on the north to n orthern Santa Cl a r a County o n the south. T hi s subs p ec ies appea rs, in th e r ecent geo l og i c past t o hav e c rossed th e C entral Vall ey, whi c h n ow i s n o t a suita ble h abita t for Ensati n a and t o h ave est a bli s h e d itself o n the l o w e r west e rn [ oo th il I s of th e S i erra Neva d a in the t e rri t o r y o ( E nsati nrl eschsch o lt z i i pla t e nsis, with whic h it h as b egun to interbree d. St ebbins b a s e d thi s r e m a rk a bl e distributio n pa ttern o n o nl y tw o l oca lit y r ecords: a suppose dl y r e li a bl e s i ght r ec ord [r o m t h e B erke ley T u olumne Camp, T uo lumne County; and a collectio n from J a wb o n e Ridge, T u olumne C ounty A n othe r s p ec im e n possibl y o [ thi s subs p ec i es, ta k e n a t B ea r V alley, ?vfariposa County, California, w as l oa n e d t o Ste b bins b y S h e rm a n C. Bi s h o p T h ese [acts ex pl a in th e in te rest in the r ecord 1'1'0111 Cave City C av e, whi c h ex t ende d the r a n ge SOllIe f orty miles b eyond th e m os t northe rl y 48 T u olumne County r ecord, subs t antiating the occurre n ce of xantholJtica in the Si erra r eg i o n and s u ggesting tha t its r ange in thi s r eg i o n is m o r e extensive tha n hithe r to s u s p ec t e d (Funk h o user 195 0 ) Subsequently, m embe r s o f the S t anford Grot t o est a bli s h e d a n othe r r ecord for xantho j J /ica a t "Vendle r Cave, C al ave ras County, whic h f alls r o u g -hly o n a line betw ee n th e J a wb o n e Ridge lo cality and C ave City. A n interes tin g bi t of hi s t o r y i s connecte d with th e prev i o u s l y m entio n e d Ensat i na esch sch ollz ii j J la.ten s is. In 1 875, Jime nez d e l a Esp a d a d escr ib e d a n ew s p ec ies o f sa l a m ande r as U1'Ot1'Op s i s pla t ens is, n aming it f o r th e Rio d e l a Pl a t a, Urug u ay. T hi s s p ec im e n w as turne d ove r t o him with a co ll ec tion o f r eptiles fr o m th e v i cinity o f Montevideo. To judge from E s pada's d escription and his figure o f the s p ec im enb oth o f whic h a r e e xcelIent-U1'OtTOp sis plat e n s i s i s id entic al with the a b ove C alifornia sa la m ande r. Except in th e Andea n r eg i o n fro m B o l i v i a n orthward, sal a m ande rs are a lmost unkno wn in South A m erica; and from thi s area o nl y the genus O e d ipus occurs. The genus Ens alina. has b ee n r ecorde d only from th e vVest Coast of th e Unite d Sta t e s and th e ver y southernmost tip o f Britis h ColumbIa; and it see ms e x ceeding l y stra n ge that som ething identica l with o n e of the C alifornia forms should o c cur in Uruguay. Furthermore, no m o r e s p ec im e n s have turne d up in South Ame ri ca According to E s p a d a's o w n account, it d oes n o t appea r that hi s s pecim e n w as se p a r a t e l y l a b e l e d whe n h e r ece ived it, and the donor die d b efo r e inquiries about it could b e m a d e C o n sidering these f ac ts, it h as b ee n pos tul a t e d th a t th e typ e s p ec im e n of U1'Ot1'Opis j Jia t e n sis ac tu a ll y w as co ll ec t e d in C alifornia. T hi s i s not as improba bl e as it mi ght see m Es p a d a's d escriptio n w as publis h e d only tw enty five y ea r s afte r the discovery of gold in C a lifor ni a, whic h precipitate d the great Gold Rus h and bro u g h t p eo pl e fr o m a ll parts o f th e w orld into t h e t erritory inha bi te d b y t h e sa l a m ande r w e kn o w as E11Satina. esc hsch o lt zi i j J l a le11Sis. S ince these anima l s are striking in th e ir appear a n ce, b e in g j e t bl ac k wi t h bright vermillio n s p o t s i t i s quite co n ce ivabl e th a t som eo n e pre -N ATIONAL SPE LEOLOGICAL SOCI ETY

PAGE 51

served one-possibly in a bottle of whiske y and that it found its wa y to Uruguay, as suggest e d by Myers and Carvalh o ( 1 945: 1-5). Thi s ex pl anation h as b ee n generall y accepted b y h e rpetologists. In accordance with th e International Rules o f Zoological Nomenclature, the oldest name g iv e n to a n animal ha s priority The ge neri c name, E1lSatina, had been est a blish e d b e for e Espada's d escription, but the s p ec ific name, 1J/ate n s is (now place d in subs p ec ific status) was o ld e r and the r e for e h a d priority o ver the more appropriate name, siel'me, whi c h had b ee n ap plie d to these anima ls. ,.\. short tim e ago m embe r s of the Stanford Grotto ca m e across what i s proba bly the fir s t r ecord of a California cave sa lamander. It i s r ecorde d in the unpublis h e d journal of I saac '''T B a k e r who v i sited Ca lifornia during th e Gold Rus h. In the summe r of 185 3 h e explored a c a ve, now known as the Cave of Sku lls, n ea r Va ll ec ito. His d escription of the cave includes th e followillg passage: "There was a li v in g in habitant of this dark abode, r e d as vermi llion and rather spite ful at fir st-tame enoug h at prese nt. A sketch of a bottle of SpIrItS containing the salamander i s include d at th e margin of h i s journa l. Mr. Bake r s journa l proves, if not-hing e l se, that a t l eas t one p e r so n who took part in th e BULLEr!N NUMBER 13, D ECEMBER 1951 Gold Rus h did prese r ve a sa l amande r. Though I h ave not b ee n abl e to ascerta in how Mr. B a k e r r eturne d to his home in Massachusetts a ft e r that summe r in California, nor what h e did with his salamander, I am satisfi e d that hi s s p ec im e n was a n El1satina. No other sal a m ande r whi c h occurs in that a r ea fits hi s description. This first cave r ecord could b e Espada's s p ec im e n REFERE :'\CES BISHOP, SIIER.\IAN C. 1 943. Handbook of Salmand ers. Com s tock Publishing Co.: 1 . .. 1 9 1 1. A n ell' Neoteni c Plethodon t Sa lamander, with Not es o n R e lated S p ec ie s Copeia I : 1 E IGENMANN, CARL H 1 909. Cave Verte brat es of North A m e ri ca A SLUdy in Degenerati ve Evolu ti o n Carlleg i e IlI s l. lI'ash. Publ. :-.io. 1 04: 1 1. FUNKHOUSER, J O H N W. 1 950. Further Evid e n ce Regardin g the Occurrence of the Sa lamander, EIISalina escschollz ii xallihoplica, in the Sierra Nevada of California. Colleia I : 59. i\[Y ERS, GEORCE S .. and . -\. L. DE. 1945. Not es o n Some Nell' or LillleKnown Blaliliall Amphibialls with an Examination of the His tory of the Plata Sa lain ander, Ellsalilla plalerls i s. Bole lilll d o J\Il/ sel/ N a c i o llal 35 : 1 .. 1 2. Rio d e Janeiro. l\'OIl L E G. KINCSI.EY. 1 931. Bio logy of the A m phibia. 1 -5 77 STEIIIIINS. R C. 1949 Speci a tion i n sa l a manders of the Pl etho d onud genus Ensatina. V lli v 01 Calif. PI/V loo l. --18, 6 : 377. 49

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Report on the Mineralogy of New River Cave By JOHN W. MURRAY All IJ/lOlos by tile (Il/liIo r Associat e Professor of Chernistry Virginia P o l y t echnic Institute This 1e port froll1 th e Comll1ittee Oil F01"lnation and Nline ralogy of th e V.P .!. Grotto, suumitted I)y its Chairll1an, e x ce ll ently portrays th e importance of s jJel elJlog icaire searc h A ll 171ell1iJers of r eg lll a r gro tt oes o f th e N.S.S., and lrIell1-{Iers of student grottoes in prntiC1llar, s //Ould r e ali ze aft e r r eading this article, that any nll/nb er of scientific jJroj ec ts cou ld b e lInd ertal
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Flowstone c ascades in m ain passage of N e w Rive l Cave The S Ul'face i s c uv c r e d in places with It bhtcl{ coating', A small gl'otto i s seen in the low e r l eft comel' p.-obabl y ( lIused h y shl'inluige 01' washing out of the mud bani, o n whic h the flow stone was d ellOsite d BULLETIN NUMBER] 3 DECEMBE R 1951 5 1

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third o ( th e p a rt :whi c h l s n o w known. G y p sum i s fOlll i d as a n i n crus t a tio n o f c ryst a l s up to a b out a centime t e r in l e n g th o n th e w a ll s o f a r oo m upstrea m fr o m th e wa t e d al'!. T hi s i s ca ll e d th e R oo m. T hi s i s th e o nl y p art o f the cave in whic h gy p sum h as found. T h e d e p os i t' i s dry and r athe r dirty looking. Anthodites gTo\\'ing 011 ealdte s talac tites ill the Attic' Roo m or e \\' Rive t C a ve The a r ea a b ove t h e w a t e d all conta in s a m aze o f p assages containing a g reat d ea l o f bro k e n r oc k and mud. T h e r oc k s and mud a r e coa t e d in pl aces w ith a bl ac k surface l aye r whi c h h as b e e n test eel c h e mi cally a n d found to conta i l l m a n ga n ese. It i s pro b a bl y co l o r e d by a n oxide o r m a nganese. T h e p a r t o r th e cave n ca r th e entra nce co n t a in s formatio n s o f calc it e and a r agonite in n ea rl y equa l abunda n ce. The m a in p assag e n e a r th e e n t r a n ce conta in s seve r a l s p ac i o u s r oo m s w ell d eco r a t e d with f ormatio ns. One o f th ese room s i s a b out a hundre d [ee t in h e i ght and co n ta in s so m e l a r ge columns. T h e l owe r wa ll o r thi s room i s a tre m endo u s m ass o f f-Io w s t o n e r ese m b lin g a [ o z e n w a t e d all but h aving a bl ac k surface coa ti n g. T h e A t t i c R oo m a n d the F 01'. cs t Room whi c h a r e l oca t e d in th e uppe r passages o f th e ca v e a r e a l so weLl d eco r a t e d as i s 52 a limite d part of the low es t l eve l n ea r the strea m. The Forest R oom i s the prize f orma liol1 exhibit o f the ca v e. Stalactites and' s t a lagmites o f b oth ca lcit e and a r agonite a r e f ound in, a ll o f these a r eas. Ofte n b o th mine ra l s a r e found in the sa m e d e p osit in a l ternating l aye rs. Curtains, b aco n and e l ephant ea r s t a l actites a r e d eve l o p e d in seve r a l pl aces. Fl o w s t o n e s h ee t s h ave b ee n l a id d own on mud banks in the m a in p assage. In so m e ins t a n ces th e mud h as shrunk o r b ee n was h e d out l eaving s m a ll p assages unde r th e s h eet. Anthodites o f a r agonite a r e f ound in the F o rest Room t h e Attic Room and in the m ain p assage. M os t o f this m a t eria l i s d e a d and brownis h but so m e live d e p os it s whic h a r e pure white a r e found in and n ear the A tti c Room In a l a t e r a l bra n c h o f the m ain p assage, th e a n thodites see m t o g r a d e o v e r o r t o b e r e pl ace d b y a n in cr u s t a ti o n o f s m all aragonite c ryst a ls. O n so m e 0[ the antho clit es, s m a ll s t a l actites o f aragonite a r e p endant fr o m th e ends o f the anthodite spurs w hi c h s u gges t s tha t a n inc r ease in the r a t e S talaC'tites ellc t'u s t e d wi t h anthodites, N e w Rivet C a v e H elictites ILml :U1t hoclites on ceilin g of -Attic Room ill N e w Rivet Ca.ve. NATIONAL SPE L EOLOGICAL S OCIETY

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of f ee d of water to the formation h as occurred. These pendant s t alactites h ave a rathe r coarse structure of n eedle lik e c ryst als radiating downward and outward from the axis In some cases, anthodites are found growing from the s ides or e nds of calcite stalactites. In clos e proximity to anthodites in the main p assage and in the A tti c Room, vermiform h e li ctites-of calcite are found. These h ave their g r ea t est dev elopment on the ceiling of the pas sage northeas t of the Atti c Room where m edusalik e groups, perh aps e ight inches in l e ngth are found. V ermiform h e li ctites of aragonite are found in the stream p assage These are thinner than the calci t e h elictites, so m e of the m b eing only about a millimeter in diame ter The ca lcite h e lictites have r ather so ft t exture and are friable. Flowstone pools a r e found in the main pas sage as well as in the Attic Room and the Forest Room. Most of these are formed of calcite and contain calcite cave coral. A part of the m ain passag e was formerly damme d to form a n ex t e n sive pool. Old water l evels are evident on the walls. Below the old water lev e l the w a lls are line d with masses of a rounde d grape-like de-posit. A so m ewhat s imilar but more j agge d d eposit i s found in some of the active p oo l s in the uppe r part of th e cave. Some of the pools contain a lining of sma ll but well c rystallized dog-tooth spur. A drie d up pool a t the bottom of the Forest Roo m i s cove r e d on the bottom with a friable sca l y mass containing calcite and aragonite. The walls h ave remnants of horizon t a l s h eets of calcite adhering in pl aces which appear to h ave b ee n cr u sts formed on the s u r face of the pool. T h e upper surface of the crus t s i s fine l y granular whil e th e l ower surface i s studde d with rhombic calcite c r ysta ls The l ow e r p art of the wa ll s of thi s pool is encrus t e d with rounde d coral knobs with a radiating structure. These contain both calcit e and aragonite. C ave p ea rl s of aragonite coa t e d o n s ili ceo u s pebbles are found on l e d ges in the stre a m pas sage. The outer coa tin g is very fin e grained and the pearls va r y in s ize up to about an inch in diameter. Temperature measurements have been taken a t numerous points in th e cave both in air and in water. The results are give n b e low. All r ea dings are d egrees Centigrade. AIR AND WATER TEMPERATURES, I N DEGREES CENTIGRADE, AT SE LECTED STATIONS IN NEW RIVE R CAVE,GILES COU TV, VIRGINIA DATE STATION 8-45 1 -16 3-31-16 2 1 Air I ,Vat e r Air I \Val e r Air I Wale r Air I 'V a ler Air I Waler Outside of cave I I -5.0 I -I I I Allie Room, south end + 1 2.6 I + Il..j +11.8 I +11.4 +11.5 I + 11.0 +11. 8 I +11.-1 +11.9 I +11.6 Allie Room, n orth e nd I -+11.6 I +11.5 I +11.5 I I -Forest Room I -I -+11.5 I -I -I -Crack below Attic Room I -I -I + 12.1i I -I '-Winter Forest Room, olr main passage about I I -I I -+ 6 9 I 1 :30' from entrance Main passage about 50 I I --2.5 I I -from e n tra nce Main passage about I I -+5.5 I I -I GOO' fr o m entra nce Lunc h Room about I -I -+8.8 I -I I 1 000 from entrance I Strea m at bottom oE I + 1 2.2 I -I I + 1 2.7 I -china slide I Stream below Lunc h I -I +9.0 I +11.5 I + 1 0.6 I + 1 2.0 R oo m BULLETI N NUMBER I 3 DECEMBER 1951

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l'vleasure m ents of r elative humidity were made by the V P. 1. Grotto using a Hygrother mograph. If and when thes e data are organized, a supple m ent to thi s report will b e submitted on this topic. Samples of w a ter h ave b ee n taken [rom a \ 'ariely of locations in the cave r eprese nting the main strea m dripping water and pools in flow stone. About 27 sampl es in a ll have b ee n ex amined. The analyses range d from singl e d e t e r minaLions o [ pH to d c t erminations of all eight of th e quantities l i s t e d in the table b e low. Due to the diffi culty of obtaining some of the samples such as dripping w ater, and th e d iffi-culty of transporting large samples, most of th e d e t erminations were made on a micro scale sometimes by m ethods specially developed or adapted for the probl e m. Some of the results are not v e ry co nsi s t ent and the results t abulate d b e low r epresent onl y a f ew of the more complete anal yses. They w il l suffice to show the general character of the water in the cave and its variation [rom one situation to another. It is hope d that when sufficient d a t a of a d equate precision is accumula t e d the r easo ns [or some of the changes in the form of d epos its in caves w i ll b eco m e apparent. COMPOSI T ION OF WATER IN NEW RIVER CAVE, GILES COUNTY, VIRGINIA All concentmtions [l1'e expj' essed as parts p e r million. I I I Alka I Free I \ I I I Total No, l Source pH linity COe C I -SO,= Ca++ Mg++ So l ids I (CaCO,) :).-1 I Main Stream 3 / 3 1 /46 12.7 7.5 I 90 I I 0.4 24 II 110 5:1 I Main Stream 2 /25/51 12.0 8.1 63 1.1 I 1.2 17 6 60 5 1 I Drip [rom Calci te I I I I flows tone sheet 6.5 8.0 I 230 I 3 3 I 2 1 5 46 30 I Dri p from cei ling I I I Atti c Rm. 3 / 31/46 1l 8 7 5 I 122 I 1.3 27 28 23 Hi5 52 I Drip from ceiling I I Winte r Forest Rm. 6.6 7.7 I 358 8 1.5 15 65 50 295 33 I Drip from aragonite I I stalactite 12.6 7.7 I 134 38 27 40 5 1 I Pool in Atti c Rm. I b e l ow drip o f I sampl e 29 8 /19/51 11.3 7 8 134 1.5 17 18 25 156 54 NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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Report on the Titus Canyon Expedition By RICHARD F. LOGAN Dej)(lrtment of Geogra.jJh y, Unive1'sity of California, Los Angeles This tlnilling account of one experience o f a large ?xtJcdition organized a y the South.em California. Grotto of the National SjJe i eoiogicai Socie t y highlights the advcntt/.1" e and im/Jortant sc i entific work wh.i c h awaits spc l eo lo gis ts with s irnila1' quests in v iew. It was originally suamitted as a 1'eport t o th e National Penh Serv i ce TIle fift y-seven jJe1'so11S who took 1)(nt in the ex1Jlorati o n h e r e d eso'ibe d have e a c h contriaute d to 01lr growillg know l e d ge of the treasures whic h exist 1 1 n d ergroun d. During the Thanksgiving w ee k end o ( 19 5 0 the Southern California GrOLto of th e National Speleological Society cooperate d with the Na tiona l Park Service in the opening and explor ation of an extraordinary cave in Titus Canyon, D eath Val l ey National Monume nt. The cav e i s loc a t e d on th e west wall o f th e vallcy, at the north end o f th e abandone d town of Leadfi eld, and n ea r the eas t entrance to Titus Canyon. Lead and silver ore had b ee n disco ve r e d 111 the a r ea as earl y as 190 5, when Barney j "I cCann and S eaman filed a dozen cla im s ( I). Som e o r e was sortcd, but it prove d to b e too lowgrade t o warrant packing OUL o( th e valley. There w as no road at the time. During J\ilarc h of 192 1 Ben Chambe rs and F. J. Metz loca t e d sixtee n cla im s which w e r e take n over in July of the following yea r by the Vestern L ea d Mine s Company . -\t a cost of $ 60 000 a road was literally ca rv e d out of th e moun tains, p ermitting acc ess from Lhe older mining cente r s o f Rhyolite and Beatty, just o ,'er th e line in Ncvada; and the town of L eadfield sprang into ex ist ence It was esscntia lly a waterless town .. \ spring of sorts a quarter-mil e east pro"ide d so m e wate r but most of the camp suppl y had to b e haule d lip a nine-hundre d foot ris e from a spring (K lare Spring) two miles down ca n yo n . -\nd so it was not surprising that, when the mining boom coll a ps e d the following yea r (thanks to watering of stock and th e l ac k of ore ) t h e pl ace b eca m e a ghost town. During th e 192 5-26 opera tions, one of th e "March Storm" group of mines on th e w es t wall of th e valley inte r cepte d a cave LWO hundre d BULLETIN NUMBER] 3 DECEMBER] 951 f ee t [rom it s entra nce . -\[t e r th e demise o( Lhe town professional mineral co ll ec t o r s h a d raided the cave, rcmovi n g large q u a n Li ti e s of speci m e n s from its w a ll s and ceilin g. The a r e a ca m e unde r th e jurisd i ction o ( Lhe N a L i o n a l Park Se rvi ce a t the Lime of th e c r eation of Death Valley Nati o n a l Monument, in 19 33 In 19 -1O, ill orde r to h alt th e vanda li s m and t o protec t un wary w ande r c r s Lhc minc and ca c wcrc sca l c d off with m asonry b y Park Sen' i ce employees. Early o n the morning of th e day aft e r Thanksgiving, 19 5 0 two p anies I of m embe r s of the National S p e l eo lo g i ca l Societ y attempte d a n exploration of th e ca e. It \I'as ( ound that the mine h a d two horizonr a l tunne ls, one a hundre d f ee t aboye th e othcr. Sta n Kaha n of Lo s Ange les City Col l ege l e d a p arty into th e uppe r mine Lunn e l (forme rl y known a s th e "Clark" o r "NlImb e r One" tunne l ) and found that it con tacte d th e cave about o n e hundre d (eet ins id c the entra n ce. Climbing do\l"n two short l e n gths of old l adde r they r eac h e d Lhe top of a steep s l ope. Roping down it th ey c m e r ge d in th e l ow e r tunne l in th c mids t of th e second p a n y o ( can: explore rs. From h e r e on, th e second pan y, h ea d e d b y -\1 Hildinge r a l so of Los -\n ge les C it y College, t oo k th e l ea d. Equippe d with ropes, wire -rop e ladde r s carbide lamps and oLhcr cquipment, they made th e d escent of Lhc G l, 'e shaft Lhat droppe d st eeply (rom th e H oo r of th e l owe r I ORGANIZATION OF EX PEDI T IO:,\: L ( 'ad",' -Dr. F. Logan, of California, L os -\ng el es. Kahan. Los Angel es Cily Col l ege; A I Hdc \Jnger L os -\ngel es Ci l y Colle ge. RndioWalter C h ambcrlin, Pasad ena, Calir. ; Ed Simmo ns. Pasaden a Ca lif. Trallsporlalioll-Lillian Cas l e r P asa dena. Ca l if. Fillall("( 's-D o rolh y Chambe rlin. P asa d e n;J, Calif. Door COllslmc li on-William I3roll n Pa sadena. C alif. ; D onald Emc r so n. ronro"ia, Calir. 55

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LUnnel. T h e m a in p art o f the cave l ay entire l y bel o w the len: 1 of this LUnne l ( f orme rl y know n as the "Staunto n o r "Numbe r Two" tunne l). N early fift y p e r so n s m a d e the trip throug h the c av ern in the neXl t we llly-( our h o urs ov e r the r o u te t h ey scouled. B y m eans o f a wire -r o p e ladde r s ecure d to a ring bol l in t h e ceiling of the mine tunne l they m a d e th e d esce n t o r a 60" s h a ft to a crude pl a tf orm appa r enlly e r ec t e d b y the mine rs some fift y feet b e l o th e lunne l. Ducking unde r the plalform spelunke r s e m e rged into a s l o t elonga t e d a l the sa m e 60 a n g l e about fift ee n [ ee t in h e i ghl, and a b out three feet wide. Sidling a l o n g this visitors b el ly-crawl e d lhrough a n arrow throa t scarce l y l a r ge r lh a n a p e rs o n 's b o d y and e m erge d into a l a r ge r room Down a s t ee p mud co ,er e d s l o p e b eyond footh o ld s h a d b e e n c h oppe d e n abling a n easy d esce n t. Up lO lhis p oint th e cave h a d b ee n uninteresting-a mudHoor e d a p erture in solid r oc k Bu t sudde nl y in d escending the footholds in the muddy s lope, o n c enle r e d a ''''inte r '<\' onde r land!" On al l s ides th e r ays (rom the h eadlamps disclose d g r eal a r e a s o f walls coa t e d with c rystal s s p ;lrkling in pristine white n ess Eve r ywhe r e that o n e lo o k e d pin-poinls o ( li ght s h o n e bac k fr o m g r ea l b anks o f "s now" seemingly drifte d into e e r y noo k and cranny o ( the cave Ins p ec ti o n s h o w e d th e m to be r adiating crys tal s of aragonite o ft e n attach e d lO the \vall b y m e r e l y a s in g l e thin-s h a f ted n ee d l e. Man y w e r e so fine and sharp lha l th ey p e n etrated the skin o ( un wary spelunke r s who unwitting l y l ea n e d against the m causing irritalio n s imil a r lo that resulting rr o m th e car e l ess h a "dl i n g o ( r oc k-wo o l i n s ulali o n . \ t th e [OOl o f th e s t ee p s l o p e the cave o p e n e d up inlO a se r ies o r inte r connecting c h ambe r s up l O thirty fee l in l e ngth and fift ee n f ee l in width wilh ceilings t e n f ee t above the Iloor. E, e rywh e r e th e ir walls and ceilings w e r e r adiant wi lh clear while c ry s t a ls. Despit e th e frosty appearance th e h ea t and humidity w e r e oppress ive. The t emperature wa s 70" with a r elalive humidity o ( 96 % The ex ertio n o ( climbing, c rawlin g, and squeez in g lhroug h narrow pa ssages m a d e one p erspire fr eely. In th e humid a ir p e r spiration would not eva p orale but r c m a in e d annoy in g l y o n the skin. Even t h e wall s see m ecl l O p erspire for o n the 56 e nel s of m a n y of the crysta l s tiny droplets of moisture gliste n ed. Most of the u s u a l cave formati o n s were absenl. Only in one place were good developments of s t a lacti t e s stalagmites, H ows t o n e and dra p e r y found. The stumps o f a f e w othe rs marke d s p ecime n s r e moved b y co ll ec tors befo r e the sea lin g of the cave. App a r ently this lac k of n o r m a l formations i s the result of the abse n ce of running wat e r o r eve n o( dripping wale r since the exca v a li o n of the cavern cease d The (ave itse H seems t o h ave b ee n forme d in the u s u al m anne r b y t h e solu tion o ( lime b y g r ound wate r. T h e solutio n took place along b e ds o ( the d a rk-gray, m edium-gra in e d Pogonip limesl o n e (2) w hi c h occurs in a l o n g n orthsouth b elt thro u g h th e Grapevine m O lln l a ins, as w e ll as a t o lh e r scatterecl l ocatio n s in the gene r a l area e as t of D eath Va ll ey. H e r e the s t eeply-f olde d b e d s dip n orthward a t a n a n g l e of 60" In so m e places a b e d was entire l y rem ove d b y solutio n leaving a s lot the thic kn ess of the b e d. Of s u c h o ri g in was the s lol jus l b eyond the mine r"s platform. Els ewhe r e, str ea m e r os i o n had, by abras i o n c u t lhrough inte n"Cn in g b e d s of l e ss-solub l e m a t erial, making a nar r ow, twi sting throat like tha l o f th e b elly-craw l passag e In conjunctio n with the folding of the b e d s the r e appears to h a 'e b ee n so m e slipping a l o n g the b edding pla nes resulting in f aulting p a r allel lO the b edding. This wa s indi<;at e d by the pres e n ce o f f ault gouge at pl aces in the tunn e l wa lls. S in ce the r e is in suffic i ent groundwate r in the a r ea today to accom pI i s h (e v e n ove r a ve r y long p e ri o d ) the r emoval in solulion o f e n o u g h limes t o n e to form the cave, il see m s lik e l y lhat i t wa s forme d during the Pl e i s t oce ne. T h a t p e ri o d synonom o u s with th e I cc Age o f m o r e p o l eward and more humid a r eas wa s o n e of h eav i e r r a in f a ll in the w es t ern deserts. Many o f the present arid basins w e r e partially oc cupie d b y l a k es in wh ose wate r s li ved cla m s and fish Death Va ll e)' itse lf w as p a rtl y inundate d b y t h e waters ot: "Lake Manl y". Follow in g th e lerminatio n of the r a in y Pl e i s t oce n e the a m ount of g r ound w a t e r dimin i s hed lo th e present s t a t e of aridi ty Consc <{uently the bulk o f the ex i s tin g formations (st a lactites and th e lik e) we r e probably form e d NATIO;\IAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCI ETY

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during t h e period o f excavati o n ; altho u g h a t esp ec i a lly-favored l ocatio ns, w h e r e st r o n g J Oll1t ing admits a wea k flow of see p age, growth o f s u c h fo rmati o n s st ill continues in a li mite d m anner. In pl ace o [ th e u sua l form atio n s the bundles o f n eee dl e -lik e a r agonite crys t a l s h ave d eve l o peeL To the i r appear a n ce t wo s imilarsounding terms m ay b e applie d: "fascicular ( from L atin, fasces, a bundle of rods) t o the ir co ll ec ti ve r a diating grow t h habi t; and "aci c ul a r ( from L atin, acus, n ee dl e) in re f e r e n ce t o the i r individua l s h apes. In m os t cases b oth t erms a r e applicable. T h e d eve l o pmen t of th e c ryst a l s m ay p oss i bl y b e rel a t e d t o t h e cl ose d (pre -19 25, p ost-194 0 ) n ature o f t h e cavern a n d th e hi g h humidities tha t preva il therein. B eing l oca t e d in a middle latitude desert e n vironment the outside atm os phe r e experie n ces g r ea t seaso n a l y aria ti o n s in t empe r ature Ave r age daily t empe r atures in mid-su m m e r approach 110 ; 111 mid-winte r 5 0 S o m e o f thi s great seaso n a l vari atio n mus t be f e l t within a s s h a ll ow-depth a cavity as this o n e. With rel a ti ve humidity in t h e middlenineties o nl y a s li ght drop th erma ll y would pro duce a satura t e d conditio n w i thin th e cave r e sulting i n co nden sa tion o n the wa lls. S u c h co n d e n sed droplets mi ght accomplis h a minute amount o f solmio n of t h e limest o n e. With a r eturn o f hi g h e r temper atures and a co n sequent r educ ti o n in th e r e l a ti ve humidity the dro pl e t w ould b e r e-eva p o rated l eaving t h e di sso l ve d matter b ehind in the c ryst alline form. A t the t im e o f the v i s i t dropl e t s we r e v i s ibl e eve r y w h e r e, at a ll p os iti o n s o n the ex i sting c ryst a ls, including so m e points t hat it w ould h ave been imposs i b l e f o r seepage wa t e r t o r eac h Most o f t h e few s t a l actites h a d their surfaces bristling w i th f asc icles o f a r ago ni te c ryst a l s As was t o b e ex p ec t e d f r o m a cave tha t h a d been l o n g sea l e d n o ev id e n ce of anima l life was found. On the other h and a m os t r e m arka bl e t y p e o f pl ant life was see n T h e fir s t 6 0 s h aft in th e cave did n o t end a t th e miners' pla tf orm but co n tinue d downward t o deadend a s hort dis t a n ce b e l ow Into the s m a ll c h ambe r a t the end a mining timber had f a ll e n f r o m a b ove and rest e d against t h e wa ll. T h e ti m b e r was h a lf e n cased in a g r ey-w hi te m old and l o n g "s t a l ac tites" of the m old hung p endulo u s l y fr o m it, o n e s w e llin g bulbou s l y at th e l owe r extr emity, othe r s mergin g t o f orm a "dra p e r y" o f m old. B ULLETIN NUMB E R 13, D E CEMB E R 1951 S in ce n othing of a n y s i g nifi ca n ce or beaut y l ay a bow t h e l owe r lUnn e l it was d ec id e d t o recement t h e e n t r a n ce La th e upper s h a f t in a fixe d and p e rman ent manne r In ord e r to co n trol access 1 0 the e n t rance t o t h e l o w e r lUnne l membe r s of the Grotto erecte d a metal d oo r o n the entra n ce a n d l oc k e d it with a p a dl oc k s u p plie d b y the P ark Se r v i ce. T h e So u t h ern Calif ornia Grotto was g reatl y pl ease d by th e fr i endly coo p e r a ti o n o f t h e mem b e r s of the Nati o n a l P ark Se r v i ce s t aff with w h o m they ca m e in contact. Superintendent T. R Good win m a d e p oss ibl e th e entire undert aking by hi s inte r est and unde r standing i n the early stages of n ego ti a ti o n s b e t wee n the G r otto a n d t h e P ark Serv i ce P ark Natura li s t L. Floy d K e ll e r C hief R a n ge r E. E O gs t o n and R a n ge r Lewi s Kirk d e m o n s t ra t e d th e k ee n active i n te rest of the Se r v i ce in th e work a t the cave by m aking th e l o n g j ourney t o th e a r ea and ca r e f ull y e x p l oring th e cave with m embe r s of the Grotto. T h e r e i s n o quest i o n co n cerning t h e unique fea tu res o f th e cave. Its di s pl ay of a r agonite c ryst a l s i s unsurpasse d in th e Unite d S t a tes, i f n o t in t h e world. T h e n o rmal forma ti o n s s t a lactites, s t a lagmi tes HowsLOn e, dra p e r y a r e n o t s p ec t ac ul a r but a r e preselH in suffic i e n t a m ounts to b e of use for d e m o n s t ra ti o n purp oses. To a n yone inte rest e d in spe l eo l ogy, ml11-e r a l ogy, geo l ogy o r jus t pl ain beauty the cave h as g r ea t attracti o n H o w eve r ser i o u s tho u g h t s h ould b e g iven to b oth sides of the q u estio n b e fo r e a n y d ec i s i o n i s m a d e t o o p e n th e cave t o the ge n e r a l public. T h e c ryst a l s (the m os t aLtracti\e part of the ca ye) a r e f ragile and easily destroye d ; and a l so a r e subjec t t o easy rem o y a l f r o m th e cave. F o r t hi s r easo n n o g r oup s h o ul d b e a ll owe d in the cave without proper supe r v i s i o n T hi s i s esp ec i a ll y t h e case w i t h mine r a l -collectin g soc i eties. For seve r a l r easo n s th e r e i s co n s id e r a bl e d oubt as t o w h e th e r opening t h e cave t o t h e public w o ul d b e worth w hile. T h ey a r e : (A) t h e cave would h a\e to h ave a l a r ge a m ount o f wo rk don e in i t t o m a k e i t ac cess ibl e: 1. A s t a irw ay [r 0111 th e mine r s pl a tf orm t o th e tunne l i s a necess ity. 2. T h e p assage [r o m th e miners' pl atform 57

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to the 60" slot should b e enlarged. 3 T h e b e ll y c r aw l passage would h ave t o b e g r eatly e nl arge d. This would have t o b e a n a llh and operation since blasting so close to th e main cente r of inte r es t might have a damaging effec t on the crystals. 4 A long s t a irwa y and r amp down the mud-cove r e d passage to the lower cham b ers would have to b e constructed. Such stairways and ramps would have to b e of m e t a l to p revent the growth of organisms on them as has occurred on th e mll1l11g timbe r m entione d above. (B) it would b e best to h ave the cave flood lighte d in order to bring out the best effec t s of th e mine r a l display. Howeve r this is not a vital n ecess ity, and the public might enjoy th e n ovelty o r wearing e l ec tric mine r s' h ea d lamps. (C) it would b e imperative that a Nationa l Park S e r v i ce r epresentative b e on duty a ll of the tim e that th e cave is open and that he accompany a ll parties through the cave to preve lll v andalism. vVhethe r such ex p e ns e would b e justifle d is doubte d in view of the small numbe r of persons who would visit the cave due to th e condition of the roa d In o[ general public admittance to the cave it i s s u ggeste d that th e following policy b e adhe r e d to: 58 (A) Tha t th e cave b e k ept lo c k e d at a ll tim es; (B) Tha L a s i g n b e pl ace d there indica tin g that th e Natio n a l Park Service h as juris dic tion ov e r it. Since th e r e is no s ig n indicating the p oint at which the Monument bounda r y is c r osse d o n th e r oa d in, some members of the pu bl i c III i g h t not b e a w a r e tha tit li es within the monument; and eve n if such a boundary s ign is pl ace d th e cave-jurisdiction s ig n should s till be set in place (C) That access b e made readily available to r eputable soc i e ti es or groups. In most cases a ranger should b e on duty with the group throughout the time they are in the cave. C ertain organizations such as th e Sierra Club would r equire no such supervision ow ing to their high standards for m embership. Others such as mine ralco lle cting groups should b e carefully supervised for obvious r easons (D) That on certain occasions a "tour" might b e run with a cavalcade of cars organ iz e d at Furnace Cree k the drivers prope rly advised of road conditions b e for ehand, and the whole trip in charge of a ranger or ranger-naturalist. So that the inte r es t e d seg m ent of the public could b e notifi e d such tours might b e announced well in advance through the press, and more es p ec iall y through such publications as D esert ]\II aga zine". P e rsons inquiring about entry as a r esult of the sign a t the cave entrance the n could b e notifi e d regarding the n ex t da t e of a public tour. (E) To provide lighting the National Park Service might purchase a numbe r of mine rs' lamps to b e rente d to the public on such oc cas ions. Such tours would, of co urs e, n ecessi tate b e lly-crawling; and th e public should b e full y waTn e d of the discomforts involv e d and the soiling of clo thing that is the inevitable r esult of the trip. The Service should also protec t its elf in some way against pos s ibl e suits for p e rsonal injury or d amage to clothing. REFERENCES TUCKER, W. B URLING. "The Leadfield Mining Dis tri c t ", ill R e l Jort o f the Sla l e M il/ e ra/ogist 1926 San Franc isco, 1 926. 2 BALL, SYDNEY H. "A Geological R econnaissance in Southwestern Nevada and Eastern California", U. S Geological Survey Bu.lI etin 308 1907 NATION AL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCI ETY

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CAVE IN ROCK By GEORGE F. JACKSON All 1)/10/0 5 b y the GII/hor This tlnilling accoun t o f piwry UI1 t h e Ohio R iver illus t rates ti, e ada ge that "tmth is stHl17geT than fiction" find h i ghlig lil s the fact that a.fJjJ(I1-enliy C((1les h a ve been th e centeT o f in t e Tcst f01-nul ol1l y th e sfJcleologis t iJut in this instance at l eas t 101a s rnunlemus a g an g of cu lll,roal s as eve T jn-eyed lI}Jon th e 1Inwar y t-ravcl e l-! Ca ve in R oc k o n the 0 hi o R i v el' in soulhern Illino i s has n e ither th e !!r ea t s ize nor the l o \-el y b eauty of lTla n y caves, but few, if any, caverns o n the Ame ri ca n continent h ave a m o r e f asc i natin g, co l orful or b loody hi story than t hi s huge rock -ribbe d vau lt. I lome and hiding p l ace of m ound builde rs, India ns, ea rl y Fre n c h voyagelln and pionee rs, it a l so housed and was th e h eadquarte r s [or so m e of t h e most b loodthirs t y desp e r a d oes in American frontier hi sto ry_ In fact the r e was a time w h e n th e w h o l e o [ K entuc ky, T ennessee and parts of neigh bori n g s l a tes w e r e terrorized by th e criminals from Cave in Rock_ T h eir d ee d s r ea d like th e wil dest fiction and if they w e r e not v e rifi e d b y authorita tiv e sources would hardl y b e b e li e \-ed_ S p e l e olog i ca ll y t h e ca v e i s something of a puzz l e Located in Illino i s o n th e n onh bank of the Ohio Riv e r iL is about e i ghty-five miles bel ow Evansv ill e India n a and fift y miles above Paducah, K entucky_ The entra n ce i s in the St. L o ui s limesto n e and r esembles m o r e the" tory b oo k ide a of a cave entrance L1lan lhat of a n y A stl"il d n g view jus t outs id e t h e entnuH'e to en v e in R od, s h owingthe h ol"iw ntal natlll'e of the St. Louis linH' stone. B ULLETIN N UMBER 13, DECEMBE R 19.51 59

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othe r whi c h the author h as see n The rocky cliff s along the riv e r 's b anks h e r e a r e hig h and s h ee r and, [ro m a dis t a n ce, appea r to b e smoot h Prominently l oca t e d in a g r ey limeston e w a ll i s the huge a r c h e d tunnel-like o p ening, seeming almost t o o r egula r t o b e entire l y n atura l. But it is, and althoug h the g i ant f o rest s around it h ave di sappea r e d it must l oo k today n o t g r ea tl y diff e r ent from w h e n firs t see n b y white m e n Otto A. Rothert,. an authority o n the cave, w h ose b oo k a b out it i s th e resu l t of m a n y years of study and r esea r c h says tha t the first recorel o f it i s in The H is lO1Y o f New Fmnce b y Cha rl evo i x in 1744. This account includes B e I lin's Map o f Louis i a n a, showing the ge n eral course o f L a B e ll e Riv i ere" fro m o bser va ti o n s m a d e b y M. d e L e r y wh e n h e ex pl o r e d it in 1 729. On this map th e cave i s re f erre d to as the C averne d a n s I e R oc" A ft e r wards the pl a ce was g iven v ario u s n a mes, a ll o f the m but o n e ("House o f ature") contal11l11g th e w ord "cave". Apparently the n a me, C ave in R oc k h as b ee n the o nl y o n e appl i e d since the b eginning o r the 19th century. T h e ca v e itself has a uniform width of fift y f ee t and ex t ends b ac k into the hillside approxi mate l y two hundre d f eet. Altho u g h the r e i s a s li g h t incline o f th e floor t o w ard the b ac k the cei ling i s l e v e l thro u ghout its entire l e n gth. Some e i ghty f ee t bac k i s a n arrow cr ac k in the roof about fift ee n f ee t l o n g whi c h connec t s w i t h th e surface. During th e tim e o f occupa ncy b y riv e r pira tes this c r ac k ser ve d as both a n out l e t f o r s m o k e fro m fires and a lso as a n e s cape route if n ecessa ry. On o n e s id e a t the b ac k i s a s m a ll r oo m a t o n e tim e r a th e r diffi cult of entra nce but n o w comple t e l y dug o ut. This ex cavat in g may h ave b ee n d o n e w h e n th e s t a t e o f Illino i s too k ove r th e a r ea and m a d e i t a s t a t e p a rk. T h e floo r a t t h e entra nce i s split by a w e d ge s h ape d c h anne l ex t ending a lmost entire l y ac r oss it and a b out five fee t l ower tha n t h e r est o f th e cave. It continues r earward into the cave n a r r owing and sloping upward until it m e r ges with th e ge n e r a l floo r l eve l a b out thirty f ee t b ac k ( see accompa n ying photo graphs). So m e hi stor i a n s see m t o think th a t thi s c r ac k m ay h ave b ee n dug b y India n s o r ea rl y white m e n and di scount th e p oss i b ility o r e ros i o n Howeve r th e autho r ca n see n o oth e r p ossibility tha n t hat of 6 0 erosion from surface wa t e r entering thro u g h the sm o ke" outle t a t the r ea r o f the cave, and po s sibly the waves o f the river during times of extre m e floo d s It i s a lmost in concei va bl e to think tha t m e n r e d o r white, could h ave h a d a n y incentive f o r all the b ac k-br eaking toil n ecessa r y t o dig this big tre n c h thro u g h solid rock. A puzzlin g f a ct agains t the eros i o n theo ry, h o"veve r, i s tha t th e drainage a r ea above the c r ac k i s h ardly l a r ge enoug h t o p e r mit much of a s tream to ente r e v e n in w e t weath e r. This i s o nl y one of m a n y puzzling things a b out the forma tion of C ave in Roc k Tha t this cave i s the result of e r osion b y a n unde r ground river like mos t othe r caves, would see m t o b e th e l og i ca l theo r y in r egard t o its f o rm a ti on-until it i s examine d close l y T h e fr o n t p art h as this appea r a n ce, but s u c h a t h eo r y does not explain th e solid limestone wa ll at the end. The p assage w ay simply s l o jJs. It h as d e finit e l y n o t b ee n cl o s e d b y breakdo wn and the r e i s n o evide n ce o f a continua ti o n. Neithe r i s the r e a n y indica ti o n o f the entra n ce o r exit o f a l a r ge st r ea m. T h e r e h as b ee n so m e eros i o n fr o m the wate r whic h ente r s the ceiling c r ac k during w e t w eathe r but, as m entione d p rev i ous ly, t h e sm a ll sink h o l e on th e surface above it d oes n o t drain a l a r ge e n o u g h a r ea to h ave fur ni s h e d a w a t e r supply o f suffic i ent quantity to form a l a r ge cave. The n t oo, g r ea t vir gin forest s h e r e in times past r e t arde d the wa t e r of h eavy r ains C o nsequently the flow thro u g h th e c r ac k yea r s ago mus t h ave b ee n a ver y s m a ll s tr ea m So m e th eo ri s t s h ave said tha t uphea v a l s dur ing th e p as t h a v e sea l e d off th e rest o f t h e cave S ince m os t o f the limest o nes o f the middle wes t a r e m o r e or less h o rizon t a l this ex pl a n ation i s n o t sa t isfac tory. Uphea v a l s g r ea t e n o u g h to colTl[) l e t e l y close a huge cave would h ardly l eave th e massive s t ra t a in t h e ir orig in a l pos iti o n Othe r s a r g u e tha t "the p ounding of the r iver m ay h ave m a d e th e cave A l o n g sea coas t s wh e r e the r e i s co n stant b ea tin g o f wind and w a t e rs, g r ottoes a r e co n s t a ntl y b eing form e d and b ro k e n dow n again b y s u c h for ces. It i s d oubtful if s u c h a n age ncy form e d C a ve in R oc k f o r altho u g h the Ohio d oes g o o n t e rrific r ampages a t t imes of h eavy s t orms and great floo ds, i t i s ordinaril y t oo p eacef ul t o have f orme d the w h o l e o f C ave in R oc k b y s u c h a process. For o n e thing t h e cave i s t oo d ee p F o r NATIONAL SPELEOLOG ICAL SOCIE T Y

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anothe r it i s a n entire l y diff e r ent t y p e fr o m p ounde d out" coas t a l g r ottoes T h e r e a r e m a n y other t h eo ries as t o h ow this cave was form e d but a comple t e di scuss i o n could go o n endlessl y A lm ost a ll of the earl y west ern t r ave l e r s o n t h e Ohio River w ro t e d esc ri p ti o n s o f the cave and o f the i r impressi o n s o f it. T h ese accounts, so m etimes g reatl y exagge r a t e d w e r e either w rit t e n b e f o r e the time o f the pira tes w h o m a d e th e c a ve their h eadquart e rs, o r during brief p e ri o d s w h e n it was unoccupie d Certa inl y during th e re i g n o f the outlaws few h o nest p erso n s saw the cave close up and lived t o t e ll o r write o f it. No m a n kno w s w h e n it fir s t b eca m e a r endez vo u s f o r desp e r a t e crimina ls, but o n e o f th e firs t s u c h crimina l s was Samue l Maso n form e r office r o f the C ontine n ta l Army, w h o se rved with dis tinc ti o n throu g h the R evo lu ti o n It i s inte restin g to s p eculate o n h ow a n a rm y officer f r o m a di s tin g ui s h e d f a mil y and with a promising future fin a ll y ca m e t o b e a river p ir a t e Man y tho u sands of words h ave b ee n writte n tracin g his his t o r y and th e p oss ibl e r easo n s f o r hi s abrupt c h a n ge t o a life o f r obbe r y and mur d e r but no one see m s to h ave d e t ermine d w h a t ca u se d thi s c h a n ge except tha t i t w as a n easy w a y to ge t quantities of m o ney. He arrive d in the vi cinity of C ave in R oc k around 179 7 At the cave h e post e d a l a r ge s i g n o n the rive r b ank r eading "Liquo r V ault and House for Entertainme nt. His carefully w o rk e dout pla n w as b ase d o n the theory that river boa t p e r sonne l seeing the s i g n would disembark fo r rest and enterta in m ent and, while b eing "entertaine d b y m e m b e rs of his b and, could b e di s p a t c h e d with ease. A ls o the boa t s could b e l oo t e d a t will. T h e pla n worke d b eautifully. If a n y prosp ec ti ve v i c tim su s p ec t e d tha t the s i g n w a s a ruse the r e i s n o r ecord o f it t o d ay. Str a n ge t a les o f vanis h e d rive r cr a ft and unus u a l d o ings a t the cave drift e d b ac k to th e more c i v ilized p oints along the Ohio, but it w as som e tim e b efore nver m e n b ega n t o avoid the place If it see m s st r a n ge tha t capta in s and c r ews o f ea rl y river b oa ts, t h e mselves a pretty t o u g h and w a r y group, could b e e nticed t o ti e up a t s u c h a s p o t co n side r the fo ll ow ing. T h e r e we r e no a d equa t e road s thro u g h th e wilderness. The best arte r y t o the wes t and s ou th was v i a the Ohio to the Mississippi. A n y tr ave l e r o r shippe r BULLETIN NUMB E R 13, DECEMB E R 1951 w i shing to v i s it o r to ship goo d s t o a n y p oint wes t o r south of t h e present middle west was f o rced t o trave l the s t rea m. It was a pl ace of d a n ge r o u s curre n t s tr eac h e r o u s shifting sand b a rs, i s l ands and rapids. No m a n knew it t h or o u ghly. So m e of th e m o r e d a n ge r o u s s p o t s we r e li ste d o n the crude c h arts the n availa bl e, but at so m e pl aces i t was the cu sto m to e n gage l oca l guides t o pilot b oats throu g h intrica t e c h anne l s and r apids. S u c h a d a n ge r o u s place was th e Hurrica n e I s l a n d r apids, jus t b e low Cav e in R oc k It m ay b e th a t som e boat s s t o pped at M a so n 's H o u se of Entertainment" f o r a b r i ef rest b efo r e entering the rapids; othe r s m ay h a v e so u ght guida n ce, s till o th e r s t h e dubio u s ente r t ainme n t" offere d. At a n y rate th e r e is n o d oubt t hat c r ews and p asse n ge r s would ordinaril y l oo k fo rward to a s t o p -ove r a t s u c h a n inte restin g pl ace as Cave in R oc k see m e d t o b e w h e n v i ewe d fr o m t h e river. T h e l ast important s t opping pl ace h a d b ee n the "Fall s of the Ohio" ( n o w Louisvill e K entuc ky) so m e dista nce a b ove Maso n o p e r a t e d at the cave fo r som e time, and w hil e th e r e h e did so m ething tha t h as ca u se d co n side r a bl e co nfu s i o n among his t o ri a n s o f the place. H e c h a n ge d his n a m e to W ilson T h e f ac t tha t l a t e r the r e was a n othe r '!\Tilson o p e r ating t h e cave has resulte d in many inaccurac ies a m o n g th e chro nicl ers o f th e pira tes of Cave in Roc k. Maso n (o r Wilson ) fina ll y l e ft the cave b e gan o p e r a tin g a l o n g the Nat c hez Trace, and w as eventua ll y s l ain and d ecapitate d His h ea d w as e n case d in clay t o prese rve it while the s l aye r t o ok it t o pro p e r autho rities f o r id e ntifi ca ti o n and r ewa rd This see m s t o h ave b ee n a n ac cepte d p r ocedure a l o n g th e frontie r for it h appe n e d in the c ases o f seve r a l C ave in Roc k crimina l s V h ethe r o r not Maso n ins ti ga t e d the pla n o f h av in g o utl aws s t a ti o n t h e mselves a t va ri o u s st r a t eg i c p oints a l o n g th e river and offe r t o pilo t boat s thro u g h the Hurrican e I s l and r apids i s unkno wn but thi s was a n o th e r ruse f o ll owe d s u ccess full y b y pira tes a l o n g thi s s tr e t c h of the ri ver If o n e pil o t was r e fused b y th e b oa t 's capta in there wer e a lw ays o th e r s f arthe r d ow n to e ntice him. Once aboard the b oat, the pil ots" w ould e i the r run the c r a ft as h o r e f o r th e l oo tin g and s l ay in g of th e c r ew o r i f th e 61

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ca rgo w a s insignificant, actually run it throug h th e rapids for l egitimate money. Anothe r charac t e r operating along this st r e t c h of th e Ohio Riv e r was a Colonel Fluger, who used an entire l y diff erent approac h. He would wait until a boat had t ied up along the banks and then, stealthily boarding it, would bore holes in the bottom. Whe n the boat b egan to sink, h e and his confe d erates would murde r the passen ge r s and crew and take whateve r goods they could use [or profit. Fantastic as th ese ta les seem they are quite true and a r e undeniably s u bs t antiated by r e li abl e acco u n ts and old coun r ecords. Of a ll th e brutal o utl aws who infest e d the river and its e n v ir o ns, the m ost t errible and bloodthirsty wer e the two H arpe brothe rs. One historian r e f e rs to the m as th e "most brutal mons t e rs of the human race." The r ecorde d h istory o f th e ir d ee ds i s astounding. "\Th e n one co n s id e r s that m os t of th e trave l e r s who actually f ace d the m n eve r li ve d to g i ve a n account of what happen e d it m a kes their unwritte n hi s tory o n e o [ mystifying h orro r. T h e Harpes ca m e from North Carolina. Mica j a h known as Big" Harpe was born about 1 768, whil e '!\Til ey, know n as "Little" Harpe was born about 1770 Their earl y history i s not too w e ll know n but a b out 179 5 they left North Carolina with tw o wom e n both of whom w e r e cla im e d b y Big H arpe as wiv es. They roamed central T ennessee for severa l yea rs, s p ending so m e tim e with India n s who w e r e committing outrages against their own p eo pl e as well as aga in s t th e whi t e man. Not o nl y did the H arpes h elp the India ns, but also th ey adde d so m e embe lli shments of th e ir own to th e India n s bruta l practices. T h e ir progress from this part of T ennessee to K entuc k y ca n b e follow e d b y their t r a il of murde rs. Apparently they n eve r m a d e any at tempt t o hide the ir trail nor t o disg uis e th e m selves o n ce they ca m e upo n a n unwary trave l er. "\The n th ey m e t large parties of trave l e rs, or wh e n th ey w e r e in communities and s ettle m e nts th ey simply followed what th ey probably th o u g h t t o b e common se nse and r e fr a in e d fr o m killings in pl ain v i e w o f oth e rs. O n ce, as th ey follow e d th e "Vild erness Road into K entuc k y at D a nvill e, th e entire party-b o th Harpes and 11/"1"('c w o m e n now-were 62 j ai l e d for the brutal murder of a Virginian who h a d as k e d their company through the wilde r n ess. The Harpes e scap e d leaving their wiv es" in j a il where, b e f o r e they came to trial, a child w as born to eac h woman. The entire a ccount of this affair and th e cos t to the county may b e [ ound in t h e old Lincoln County R ecords Eventua ll y a ll three wome n were set fr ee and m e t the Harpes at Cave in Rock. A l a r ge group of outlaws h a d b ee n living h e r e prior t o the time of the H arpes' arrival. One historian says that, s in ce most of this grollp h a d b ee n chase d Ollt o f the so ca ll e d l aw abid ing" communities (whic h in the m se l ves were pretty rough and h ard gatherings), it ca n b e imagine d tha t the band at Cave in Roc k was mi ghty tough indee d But e v e n these unscrupu lous cutthroats found th e Harpe s too muc h for the m! One story r e l ates h ow the H arpes had hardly arrived a t t h e cave wh e n a flatboat ca m e down the river and l ande d not far a bov e a t a place know n as Cedar P oint. The p asse n ge rs, not knowing th ey were near th e ga th ering spot o f outlaws, h a d go n e as h o r e and w e r e strollin g a long the river b anks. Amon g th e m was a young man and his bride -to be. These two stroll e d to th e top of a bluff and sat down looking out across the river. T h e Hatpes, who h a d b ee n watching the scene, s n ea k e d up b ehind th e two l overs and unceremoni o u s l y pushed the m ove r the hi g h clifL To them this was a g reat j o k e and they returne d to the cave l a u ghing abou t th e tri c k they had playe d but it did not have quite th e same e ffect o n the oth e rs o f the b a n e!. A p p a r ently they did n o t lik e it and t old th e brothe rs so. Shortly afterward the H arpes saw what they thought t o b e a n opportunity t o m a k e ame nds. A boa t h a d b ee n captured and most o f its pas se n ge r s slain and the ir good s s t o l e n One o r two of th e m e n h owever, had not b ee n kill e d bur w e r e ti e d up as captives while t h e outlaws d e bate d what to d o with th e m T h e Harp e s quiet ly took one of th e captives strippe d him, ti e d him to t h e b ac k of a h o rse and l e d the anima l to th e top of th e cliff o n e hundre d feet above th e cave. B e low, th e r est of the band was gath e r e d a r ound a g r ea t fir e, t alking. Suddenl y th e Hatpes drove h orse and b ound ride r ov e r the cliff s e d ge and both [ell scr eaming and NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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thrashing, directly upon the fir e and outlaws gathered around it. The o ther outlaws found this feat a little too much for them and ac tu ally drove the Harpes away from their h a n go ut. After this the Harpes committed twenty-two known murde rs (including those of severa l women and childre n ) w hil e wandering in cent ra l K entuc ky. It must h ave been during this period that Big Harpe took o n e of hi s ow n offsprin g and d as hed its h ea d agains t a conve ni ent rock because its crying bothered him. Whe n h e was d y in g h e sa id thi s was the only o n e of his ac t s h e r eg r etted. Big Harpe was killed and b e headed near Roberson's Lick, Kentucky, by a m a n whos e wife h e h a d ea rli e r s l ai n in her s l eep. Little Harpe, though wounde d esca p e d to r esume his life o f outlawry in a noth e r p art of the country but was eventually a l so kille d. His brother' s h ea d was m ounted on a pole and for many yea r s serve d as a r evo l ting warnin g t o other bandits. Thus ende d the ca r eers of the two most famous Cave in R oc k pirates. Although Mason and the Harpes were th e most notorious of the Cave in Roc k crimina ls, the r e were many less e r o nes who us e d th e spot for a hideout or for h eadquarters. Thei r l e n g th y >lories are of inte r est b eca use th ey are a part of the history o f our country. They were m e n who, indirec tl y but n o n e th e l ess surely, h elpe d to bring l aw and order to the country. Cave in R oc k today i s the chief attracti o n of Cav e in R oc k State Park and altho ugh the grounds h ave b ee n cleare d of their underbrush and probably appear more pleasing than when first seen b y th e pioneers, the great cave still l ooks the same as wh e n the first Fre n c h explorer glimpsed it from th e blue water s of "La B e ll e Riviere" It s t ands above th e p eace ful rive r whe r e powe r boats cut th e waves at speeds th e old-t im e river pil ots would h ave t hought un b e li evable. And it k ee ps it s enigmatic silence about its formation and about it s b loody history This vi e w inside Cltve in R{)cl{ shows the flv e -foot hi g h eha.nne l whil'h ext ends I'eal'ward into the cave for som e distance. BULLETIN NUMBER 13, DECEMBER 1951 6 3

PAGE 66

l1'ho in Bulletin Thirteen DENNIS J. BATI"I-:1\ i s connected with the Civil Engine.ering Department of the Iraq Petroleum Company. He IS reo sponsible for the organization of the Iraq Potholers up of a group of employes of his company who are IIlter ested in cavern exploration. Through the courtesy of the IPC's General Manager at Tripoli he was granted three weeks l eave of absence without pay to join the expedi. ti o n headed b y Henry Field whose article entitled "Caves and R ockshelters in Southwestern Asia" appear s in this issu e of the Bulletin. In addition to his caving equipment Balle n contributed a good technica l knowledge of cave exploration and the ability to speak Arabic and to d ea l effectively with Arabs, Kurds and Assynans. DONALI) M. BLAC K was born in 1921 at Vincennes, Indi a n a. H e r eceived his elementary education a t 'Wes t T erre H aute Indiana and studie d forestry at Purdue University and Utah State Agricultural College from 1940 to 1942. After serving a s seasonal Ranger National Park Service at Y e ll owsto n e Nationa l Park in the latte r year, he en tered th e U. S. Arm y as a priva te in 1943 and was r eleased from ac ti ve duty in 1946 with the grade of capta in. In December 1946 h e r ece iv e d his MS d eg re e in Geology from the Utah State Agricultural College and enrolled in the Univ ers it y o f Arizona in 1947 as a graduate student, minoring in edu cation and biological sciences. A seasonal Naturalis t a t Yellowstone Nationa l Park in the summer of 19' 1 8, Blac k accepted a permanent appointment in the National Park Service in February, 1950 First acting as guide at Carlsbad Caverns Nation a l Park he was trans ferred as a R anger to Grand Canyon Nati o nal P a rk in 195 1 \ VILLlAM E. DAVIES wa s h orn in Cleveland, Ohio in 1917 H e i s a profess i onal geologist now with the U. S Geolog i ca l Survey in Washington after hav in g been with the Army Map Se r v i ce for three yea rs. B e fore that h e was in th e Army. Davies became interested in caves in 194 0 while working with the P ennsy lvani a Geological Survey ( influ ence of Dr. S t o n e obvi o us). Since the n h e h as covered the caves of Ma r y land and autho red a report entitled: The Caves of Maryland for the Mar yland Geological Sur \'a y H e has also b ee n with th e West Virginia Geological Survey a nd in ves tigated th e caves of that State for a re port since issu ed entitled: Caverns of \ Vest Virginia H e ha s done work o n the terraces of th e Potomac river in cluding data on th e r e lati o n of caves to the m His true interes t i s the applicati o n of e l ec tri ca l surveys to the mapping o[ cavern sys t e ms from th e surface Thi.s work gOI under wa y in 1 9 17 but with th e other comnlltments coming a long it has been s id etrac k ed. Hi s article o n the m e c h a nics o f cavern breakdow n is the result of studies carried o n during the past 3 years primarily in the caves of Virginia and West V ir ginia. HE NRY FIELI), rcn o\\' n ed archaeologist, was born in Chi cago llIino i s in 1 902. H e r eceive d degrees o f B A MA and DSC a t Oxford, England, and b ega n the study of caves f o r archaeology, anthropology and primitive art in 192 6 with Abb e \3r e uil in Spain and France. S in ce the n he h as heen o n 5 expediti o n s t o the Near East and was l eader of the P eabody Museum-Harvard Expedition t o that p art of the world in 1 950. H e r es id es in Washington, D. C. 64 JOHN \ ,V. FUNKHOUSER was born at B eaverdam, Virginia, in 1926. Entering Washington and Lee Univers it y in 1943 h e had his first ta ste of caving in the Cave Springs Cave (Spring Hill) located a short distance fr o m the unive r s ity campus His studies were interrupte d by n a val servi ce but h e returned t o \ Vashingto n and Lee in 1946 with new enthusiasm for caving and was influ entia l in esta b li shing the Lexingto n Grotto, o f which h e was the first pres id ent. In 1948 h e graduated with a B A., majoring in b i o l ogy and minoring in geol ogy, and ente r e d Stan ford U ni versity for graduate study in eco log y a nd syste m a tic s, specializing in South American amphibiology. There he joined forces with o th e r N. S. S. m embers to stir up interes t in caving and helpe d to found the Stan ford Grotto, of which he was also the first pres id e nt. He received a predoctoral trave l grant to study the ecolog" of Ecuadorian amphibians in the field and spent half of 1950 on this assignment. Returning to Stanford h e com plete d his Ph. D. in 195 1 and i s now in structing in the School of Biology at that in stitution. He i s a l so con tinuing his resea rch on tropica l American amphibians. His main interes t s in s p e l eo l ogy are the tracing of the geologic his tory of individua l caves cave photography and ca ve vertebrates. MARK RAYM01\1) HARRINGTON was born at Ann Arb o r. Michigan, July 6, 1 882, the so n of Professor Mark "V. Harrington, a t tha t time professor of astronomy and directo r of th e o b servato r y at the U ni ve rsit y of Michigan. "M. R." attended school at An n Arbor, at Washington, D. C. Seattl e, Washington and Mt. V ernon, New York, with co ll ege w o rk at Ann Arbo r and at Columbia U ni ve r s ity, where h e graduated and t ook his A.M. degree. Always interested in the A m e ri ca n Indian, a nci ent and modern, Harri n g t o n spec i a lized in anthropology. H e h as \I'O!' ked at different times for th e A m e ri can M useulll of Natural Histo r y the Peabody Museum of H a rv ard, the U niv e r s it y of P ennsylvania Museum, and for the Museum of the A m e ri ca n Indian, H eye F oundatio n Except for a brief period when h e was b orrowed b y the Nati o n a l P a rk Serv ice, h e has b ee n Curator of the Southwest Museum of L os A ngel es for the past 23 yea r s Ethnologi. cal work has tak e n him to more than 35 Indian anr! archeological expeditio n s to New Y o rk Florida, Ten n essee, Oklaho m a Arkansas Missouri Texas, Ne\l' Mexico, Nevada, California and Cuba. H e is the author o f a number of books, m os t of the m of a m o r e o r l ess t echnical nature and of m a ny shorter articles and some fiction. "M. R." is married, lives a t San Fernando, Cali fornia, and i s st ill Curat.or o f the Southwe s t Museum at L os A ngel es He has o n e so n and tw o grandchildre n GEORGE F. JAC KSON, o f Evansville, Indiana, s p ecia liz es in cave pho tography His hobby i s Indiana caves his favor it e o n e being th e huge Wyandotte Cavern. Over 125 of his articles on caves and c a ve photography have b ee n pub lish e d F o r the pas t three yea r s h e h as been a m ember of the Board of Governors o f the NSS. At present h e is working o n a detailed map o f Indiana cav e lo cations and comple t e l y r e-writing his book-length "Cave R eg ion of Indiana" which will contain all known f acts about Hoos i e r caverns. His co ll ection of cave pictures includes d oze n s of colo r 5 1id cs and hundreds o f black and white negatives. He does f r ee l a n ce writing as a "sideline" in addition to hi s voluminous writing o n the subjec t of caves. During th e course of hi s spel eo logi ca l explorati o n all over the country h e h as u sed all kinds and sizes of ca m eras and eve n th c s m a ll es t of the m h as often b ee n t oo large for co mfort in so m e of the small h oles h e has explored. He i s n ow tryin g t o desigll o n e t o fit his particular needs Jac k so n was r es p o n s ibl e for the form a ti o n o f the India n a Grotto which, according to him is apparently the most lIllll s ual of a ll o f th e NSS Grottoes. Only two members NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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of it live all year in Indiana. Of the others, two live in the state of Washington, one in Colorado and one in Ohio. This, jackson says, cau ses considerable confu sion at headquarters of the NSS and gives rise to the rumor that he is The Indiana Grotto. He is one of our mos t active members and carries on a voluminous corre spond ence pertaining to Indiana caverns and to Grotto affairs RICHARD F LOGAN was born at Great Barrington, Massa chusetts in 1914. After attending school in Massachusetts and Connecticut, he received his BA and MA from Clark University in 1936 and 1937 respectively Degrees of MA and PhD were received from Harvard in 1948 and 1949 respectively. He was first chairman of the reorganized ( after the war) New England Grotto of the NSS. Along with William B Halliday he a s sist e d in organizing the South ern California Grotto in 1948 and has served as its chair man. Before associating hims elf with the University of California at Los Angele s, where he is now an A ssistant Professor, he taught at Clark, Yale, Harvard, and Can necticut College for Women. JEROME M LUDLOW, NSS Vice President for Publications and Editor of the Bulletin, w a s connect e d with the Brook ings Institution at Washington D C. when that economic and governmental research organization was founded. H e spent two years with a Chicago firm of consultants in municipal administration and s e ven years as chief clerk and research assistant with the New jersey Taxpayer s Association before joining the U S Geological Survey in january, 1940 An invitation f rom Charles E Mohr to participate in an NSS field trip in April, 194 7 resulted in his gradual change from a somewhat normal individual to a speleoeditor. CLYDE A MALOTI, who died on August 26 195 0 was a native Hoosier and long was connected with Indiana Uni versity. He had made speci a l s tudies of the karst features and underground drainage phenomena of the lime stone belt of southern Indiana. He w as familiar with its many caverns and had given special attention to their connec tions with water sources which were respon s ible for their development. Among them is the noted Los t Rive r r egion of Orange County which offer s unusual opportunities for the study of cavern phenomena and the relations of cav erns to the subterranean waters which develop them. Out of these studies has come his invasion theory of cavern development, in which accent is placed upon cavern development by rain born surface waters which ream out and align initial and rudimentary sub-surface joint open ings into long and integrated cavern systems at or n ear the watertable. The present paper, previous ly unpub lished, was graciously given by his family to the National Speleological Society for publication. JOHN W MURRAY is associate profes sor of Chemistry at Virginia Polytechnic Institute. He is chairman of th e VPI Grotto Committee on Formations and Mineralogy and represents that committee on th e corre sponding Nationa l Committee. He i s also a faculty adviso r to the VPI Grotto and as s uch tries to k ee p the members con sciou s of safety and conservation and to interest the m i n the sci e ntific aspe c t s of ca ve e xplora tion H e is a native of Flushing, N Y and got his Ph. D from Johns Hopkins in 1933, but he has long since migrated to a land where the mountains a r e higher and the caves more numerous. G. ALExANDER ROBERTSON has been asso ciated with the Department of Public Util i ties, City of Richmond, s in ce 1925, during which time he has b e en respons ible for the installation and maintenance of g e ne rators, water w hee ls pumping and other heavy equipment u sed in water purification, gas and water pumping, and electric gener ating stations Mr. Rob ertson has b ee n e ngaged in w o r k of an e nginee ring n atur e since completing his sch ooling. He has b ee n interested in photography sinc e his e a r l y bo yhood and for the past five year s h as been Chairman of the Photographic Committee of the National Speleo logi ca l Society. It wa s through his interes t in photography that he was introduced to spelunking and because of h i s engineering experience and exten s ive u s e of rigging it wa s only natural that he becam e al armed at numerous ca ving prac ti ces which he con s ider s d a ng e rous. A mem b e r of the Arch eo logical Institute of America, t h e Arc h e ological Soci e t y of Virginia, and th e Central V ir ginia Engineers Club he has b een a member of the Board of Governors of the National Speleological Society sin c e 1946. IVAN T SAN D ERSON was born in Edinburgh, Scotland In 1932 he received degrees in Zoology, Geology, and Botany from Cambr idge Univers ity England. His inter est in speleology developed as a s ideline from his work during nine zoological expeditions to the Orient, Africa, and South America on behalf of American and British sci e ntific societie s and museums His major work has been tropical e c ology and th e relationships betwe e n the distribution of animals and plants on a worldwide basis He published a number of p a pers on this subject before the war. After a period with British Naval Intelligence and in wartime propaganda h e became a resi dent of the United States His e ffort s to popularize the n atural science s through books, magazine articl e s lectures, radio and tele v i s ion have resulted in his forming the only company in America in corporate d solel y for this purpose. He joi ned the National Sp e l e olo g ical Society in 1948, and is now president of the M etropolitan Grotto of New York and national Vice President in charge of Public Relations. He plans to initiate a palaeontological explor ation of eastern cave s u si n g color film a s a recording medium in such a manner that it may be applied to color television In the latter field he r e cently started the first regular broadcast for the Columbia Television Net work His hobby is firsthand investigation of reports of mons ters and other weird animals. He has actually found several of the latter, some of which are named after him. LIVINGSTON PUBLISHING COMPANY NARBERTH, PA.


Description
Contents: Preface --
Frontispiece --
Techniques for Dating Cave Deposits / by Ivan T.
Sanderson --
Southwestern Caves as Books of History / by M. R.
Harrington --
Caves and ROckshelters in Southwestern Asia / by Henry
Field --
Cave Exploration on Jebel Baradost, Iraq / by Dennis J.
Batten --
An Engineer Inspects the Rigging / by G. Alexander
Robertson --
Origin and Development of Positive Water Catchment
Basins, Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico / by Donald M. Black --
Wyandotte Cavern / by Clyde A. Malott --
Mechanics of Cavern Breakdown / by William E. Davies --
Idyll of the Ennessbee / by Jay Espee --
The Cave Salamanders of California / by John. W.
Funkhouser --
Report on the Mineralogy of New River Cave / by John W.
Murray --
Report on the Titus Canyon Expedition / by Richard F.
Logan --
Cave in Rock / by George F. Jackson --
Who's Who in Bulletin Thirteen.


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