Bulletin of the National Speleological Society

Citation
Bulletin of the National Speleological Society

Material Information

Title:
Bulletin of the National Speleological Society
Series Title:
Bulletin of the National Speleological Society
Creator:
National Speleological Society
Publisher:
National Speleological Society
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Regional Speleology ( local )
Technical Speleology ( local )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
Location:
United States

Notes

General Note:
Contents: Preface -- Frontispiece -- A Survey of Bat Banding in North America, 1932-1951 / by Charles E. Mohr -- The Guacharo Cave / by Eugenio de Bellard Pietri -- The Orca Goes Underground / by Phil C. Orr -- The Occurrence of Quartz Stalactites in the Rock Creek District of Douglas County, Oregon / by Robert Housley -- List of Grottoes -- The Origin of the Palettes, Lehman Caves National Monument, Baker, Nevada / by Charles J. Kundert -- The Caves of Malta / by T. R. Shaw -- The Kuh-I-Shuh Caves / by John H. D. Hooper -- Lava Caves of Central Oregon / by William R. Halliday, B.A., M.D. -- Hydrologic and Atmospheric Studies in Schofer Cave / by Carl H. Gaum -- General Notes -- Who's Who in Bulletin Fourteen.
Restriction:
Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Version:
Vol. 14, no. 1 (1952)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
K26-00547 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.547 ( USFLDC Handle )
7478 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0027-7010 ( ISSN )

USFLDC Membership

Aggregations:
Added automatically
Karst Information Portal

Postcard Information

Format:
serial

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 3

Preface The widening public interest in speleology has brought to the Society increased responsibility for disseminating knowledge in this field. Facts concerning speleology are sought by a variety of consumers -hobbyists, naturalists, and scientists. In order to serve beLter the needs of su c h differ ent groups, the Society last year increased the n um ber of its officers. Ther.e are now four vice-presidents responsible respectively for administration, sci ence, public relations, and publications. The good results of their specialized labors are already becoming evident. A proposal to enlarge the publication program, to mention one, has been approved by the Board of Governors. In reviewing the development of the present-day NEWS and B ULLETIN) the Board gave its support to pleas that every effort be made to further improve the NEWS by budgeting a larger amount for it. This will permit the use of more pictures and the printing of more e xtra-page issues Also more timely news stories will be sought from the gTOLtOeS and individual members. The NEWS will continue to be the Society s best medium of timely information. Since many of' its items are of lasting in terest an index is being prepared. The BULLETIN) from now on to be known as THE AMERICAN CAVER) will continue to bring to the members and to an expanding group of non-member readers popularly written articles on a large variety of speleological subjects. These will include articles on exploration of caves at home and abroad, interpretation of the findings of scientists as they apply to caves and the des criptions of caves and cave regions of general interest. The finest available photographs will be a feature of each issue '-Vith this number a new regular feature is being added: a section for Gene ral Notes. Under this category are included items too short to justify their use as general articles but nevertheless of sufficient importance to warrant the wider attention that publication here will bring. The notes may be of a more technical nature, but strictly tech nical papers, long or short, will not be published here. Instead, reports on substantial research in the field of speleology will be published in a new series of OCCASIONAL PAPERS. Published at irregular intervals they will be distributed only to members who request them. To non-members they ,vill be priced according to the cost of publication of the individual papers. Scientists, graduate students, and amateur speleologists whether members of the Society or not, are invited to submit material for the OCCASIONAL PAPERS. A more detailed description of the scope of the new publication will be mailed upon request. Serious concern has been expressed over the decline in the number of published reports in the field of American speleology. The dearth of papers has been attributed to the lengthened work week of (coli/inlier! OT! illside ba c h cove r )

PAGE 4

I'-:) z ;.. --l o Z ;.. r' (Jl r' t"'1 o r' '"' ?l n ;.. r' (Jl o n -< Photo I'." ThOll/as 1'. Milia, Jr, T h i s photograph, entitled F i rst G limpse of a New World," received the First Award i n the Fifth Internatio na l Photographic Sa lon ( 1952 ) of the National Speleological Society It was taken by a photographe r for the Loui svill e Courier-Jou rn a l in the so c al led "New Discovery" of Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, and ably p ortrays the effect he sought which, i n his own wo rd s was to depict 0 feeling of my s ti c i s m, of w onder, o f enchantment, o f awe."

PAGE 5

A Survey of Bat Banding in North America, ]932-1951 By CHARLES E. MOHR Direc t o r A ucilllJOn C e nt er Greenw i c h C Ullllatic llt A /I / ) IIO/o s by lite author ProlJauly f ew cave r eahze th e ex t e lll t o wlti c h u at bandi1lg Itas ue en can ied on b)1 scien ti s l s in th e las t twenty y ( : (1 "1"5. During tlta t lim e n earl y 70, 000 bats ha ve u ee n banded ( n e arl y Ihree quarters of tlt em from Cfmes) for tlte Inn/Jose o f studying th e ir lif e III'st u r y and h abits. Tlte ex t en t uf tlti s banding activity ; its 1I1e t/lOds, j Jrocedll1"es, objec ti ve s and 1'eslilt s is tuld Itere fur tlte first tim e b y one of "tIle nation's top ranking c ltirojJt er i sts. T h e marking of bats be ga n in 1 9 1 6 w h e n ornithologi st Arthur A. Allen ( 1 92 1 ) atlach e d bird bands t o the l egs of fivc bats. In Califor nia in 1 922, A. B. H owe ll bandcd J b ats and in 19 23, Luther Little bande d 3 7 ( H owe ll and LillIe, 192 4). Harold Vood in P cnnsyh 'ania used tw o bird bands o n bats in 1 929 and in the sa lli e yea r H B. S h erma n ( 1 937) bande d 7G juvenile bats in Florida. 010n e of these p c r so n s continuc d banding h owe e r. In 1 932, Donald Griffin ( 1 93 1 ) in Ne'" E ng l and, and Earl L. Poole (1932 ) and 1 ( ]\Johr, 19 33) in P cnnsylva nia b ega n b anding a c tiyities which proved to b e th e fir s t s u s t a in e d endca o r s in this field in -\me ri ca. T hese studics w e r e car rie d out alniost simultanco u s l y In b o th areas there had b cc n cx p erimentati o n 'ith m arking m etho ds, including thc u se of histo logi ca l stains and tattooing. In both a r eas aluminum bird b ands were finall y se l ec t e d as thc best m arking m edium. On the e ening o[ M ay 2 1 1 932, I caplllre d and t agge d a ser ics o[ 1 4 b a t s of three s p ec ies as thcy flew into Sc h o r c r Ca 'e, near Ku tztOWll, P ennsylvania. T hi s appea r s t o be t h c fir s t timc that cave bats w e r e marke d so that indi"idua l s could b e r ccog niz e d lOne of the P ennsyl vania pro j ects was the banding of 76 3 bats o f four spccies in sevc n abando n c d in comple t e tunne l s o f the South P cnn Railroad as e n ginec r s b cga n to tra n sform th'cm into P ennsyh 'ania Turnpike Tunne ls (Mohr 19 42). On Septcmbe r 7 J9 32, Griflln ( 1 934) b cga n 1 C. A. R Campbell ( 1 92 1 ) wrot e o [ capturing 2004 f ree tail e d ba t s ill a Texas cave daubing them with white wa s h and r e l easi n g them 30 mil es a way. H e reporte d Ih a t th e y n e w direc tl y t o th e cave in about one hour. BULLETIN NUl'vIBE R 1 4, SEPTEMBER) 1952 u sing bird bands in a summe r roos t o n C a p e Coel, and in 193-1 undertook th e banding of b a t s hibernating in ca ,"Cs i n Ne,, Eng l and a n d 1\"cw Y o rk. W ith th e a id o [ ,,ellorganized b anding te a m s hl: w as e cntua ll y t o b and a b out 8,500 i n GI\'l:S and mincs, and about 5 000 in summc r co l o nies in buildings. Not unli! 19% did banding actil' itics spread to othe r states. In Septembcr J 936 ?\Ia r y Guthri e ( 1 937) b andc d 7:)! bats in :\f a n e l and R oc h cport Ca \ 'es, Missouri, and th c late ''\T. A. \Ve lter, in A.pril J9 37, banded 2 000 in Bat C a "e, in eas t ern K entuc ky. In 1 938 H 1. Shreve b ega n b anding a se ries of 242 bat s in Vest Virginia caves. In 1939, G. N. R ysg a ard ( 19..J2) in Minne so ta initia t c d a study o f ..JG..J ca y e b a ts, and in Ne,, J c r sey and P ennsyh a ni a, H arold T rapido bande d the first of so m e 5,300 b ats, u s in g m a n y o [ thc m in a sc ries o f h oming experiments. :\.Iso in 1 939 H a r old B Hilc h coc k l aunc h e d a n ex t e n si"e progr a m hi c h b y 1 95 1 resulte d in the b anding o [ 13,125 bats. In Tcxas, N i c h o l so n bande d 200 fr eet ailc d b a t s but n e 'e r cOl1linued wit h additi o n a l o p e r atio ns. Fiyc banders (Cagl c, Cockrum, Elde r E n g l e r and G r ee l ey) r ccei"ecl banding p ermits in 1 9 W and four ad ditiona l ( Ll e we ll y n Riney, Southa m and Stor e r ) in j 9 J I. During th e w a r b anding acltnues ,,"e r e greatl y curtaile d No n e w p ermits w c r c g r ante d until 194-8. F r o m that t i m e until the present, 3 0 b anders h a y c b ee n supplie d with bands b y the U. S Fish and Wildlife Service. T h e b a t b anding r ecords were in c h a r ge of Dr. H. H. T. J ac k so n until l a t e in 19-17, and since the n have bee n unde r the supervision of 3

PAGE 6

Stanley P. Young until September of 1951. During this rflon th the Section referred to as Biological Surveys was combine d with the Sec tion of Distribution and Migration of Birds, and is now known as the Section of Distribution of Birds and Mammals, under the supervision of Dr. J 01111 W. Aldrich. In October 1951, in an effort to ascertain the current status of bat banding activities, I sent a questionnaire to all persons to whom the U. S. Fish and \Vildlife Service had sent an allotment of bands. This paper is based on
PAGE 7

of disturba n ce t o a 1ll1l11mUIll. Excessi v e and prolonged activity o n th e part of th e bat r e duce s it s c h a nc es o f surv i\ in g the hibernati o n r ecommended (Griffin 1 940a) No m o r e b a t s s h ould b e put in a cag e than ca n find pl aces t o h a n g ill it. TAIII.E I .-\ LI S T OF BAT BAI':DERS II': '1'111' U 'dTI:n S I A T E S A.,n 1 932 1 9 : j l Bander Y ear /lc gf11l Baker R o" S 1 944 Banfie ld :\. \\T F. 1946 Barbour, Roger \\T 1 937 Barkalow, F. S. 1950 B arnes W. E 1 948 Barr, T. C. 1 95 1 Beer J a lll es R 1 947 Broadbook s Harold E. 1 95 1 Cagl e Fred R. 1910 Childs, H enry E. J r. 1 95 1 Cockrum, E. L endell 1 9 1 0 Constantine, D enny G 1 946 Cope, J a lll es B. 19, ; 1 Crawley Eugen e 1 9 1 0 D a \ i s \ ,vay n e 1 950 Elder, \Vi Ilia m H. 1 9 1 0 E n g l er, C. H. 191 0 Gardne r R o h ert J 1950 G l ass Bryan 1'. 1949 Goehring, H arry H 1 95 1 Greel ey, Frede ri c k (and Beer ) 1940 Grie r so n Stanley 1 9 I S G riffin D o n ald R 1 932 Guthrie, i\f a r y II. 193G Hitc hcock Harold B 1939 Jac kson William B. 1 9 19 Koford, l\I a r y R 1 9 17 LJe\\'e ll y n Leonard 191 1 i\lason, C h a rles 1 9 1 6 i\[ille r J erome S 1 9 I S ;\/ 0111', Charles E. 1 932 Mumford, Rlisse ll E. 1 95 1 Neglls Norma n C. 1 917 N i c h o lson A. J. 1939 Olso n Andrew C. 1 950 Orr, Roben T. 1 9 -17 Pear so n Oli"e r 1 9 I S Rayn o r Gilbert Sidney 1 9 1 7 Riney Thane A. 1 9 11 Roger s, Nan cy 1 9 I S R ysgaard, George N 1 939 Shreve, H J. 1935 Sis t e r ;\1. Talitha 1950 S l oane H o\\'ard N 1 9 : ; 1 Smith, E li za beth W. 1 917 Southalll, Herbert H. 1 94 1 Storer, Rohen W. 1 9 11 Trapielo Harolel 1939 Ulmer, Fre d e ri c k .. \. 1 950 W elte r \\'. : \ 1 9 ,17 \Ves t Fento n T. 1 95 1 Wood, Sherwin F. 1 919 Young, H e w a r d F 1 9'i 1 [-Estimate d Total bats period. Ene rgy reser\' es and m o i sture content o f the b a t see m t o b e dangerou s l y l o w e r e d Both to redu ce activ it y and heat and to simplify h andling, scr ee n e d co ll ec ti o n cages a r e BULLETI N NUMBER 14 SEPTEMBER) 19 52 Active Bats lial/ded Now JJand e d il/ C a v es Deceased II i'\o 1 2 -12 Read y Y e s 7 No Read y Y es 1 000 1 ,000 Y es 119 :\' 0 1.922 R ea d y Y es 2.000 2 ,0110 Y es I -\(i Read y No Yes 1 1 4 1 1 000 Y es S(i 8 6 No 240 Yes I.(JOO I ,UOO R eady Yes 30 1 Y e s G -IUO :-"SUO Y es 8 7 'i0 :\'0 1 3 .000 S.'iOO No 7 3 1 73 1 Y es 1 3 1 2'i 9 8 27 No 1(j3 1 5 S No 1 .000 2.000 F No I (is -1(iS :\' 0 100 100 Yes 350 Y e s 3 8 8 0 Ready Yes' 2.700 2.7 00 E No 200 200 Y e s 7 1 Y es :;9 Y es 1,.100 i O O [ Y es 6 1 No Yes 1 0 1 G 1,01 6 No I (i 1 4(i 1 ;\0 2 -12 Yl' S 236 Y e s 2 1 2 1 Yl'S 1.5tH) i'\o '1.7 No c,O :\0 r>.:100 5 , 1 :;0 E Y es 1'>2 20 Dl' ce a sc d :2.000 2.000 R cad,' Y es 5 1 3 Y es 28G ballde d ........... ..... (i7, 279 :;0,021 ]11 bandin g a large series it i s ach 'a n tageous to h:l\'e th e b ands alrea d y sprea d and sto red o n metal r o ds. Hitc h coc k ( 19-1-1 ) h as d escribe d a u s el'ul d ev i ce [or opening s m a ll ba nds a ncl a 5

PAGE 8

method for tra nsferring them to rods. The stor i lge rods in ay be stuck into the ground _and the bands r emoved [rom the fr ee end. It is desirable L O u se a continuous s eries [or one sex, a different seri(:s for th e other. This greatly simplifies r ecord keeping. Fig. I. LEG BAN DI NG was first marking system used in this country. The band was closed around the tibia. wit h o r with out cutting a slit i n the interfemo r al membrane. The bands usually could not be seen as lo ng as the bat hung up. OBJECTIVES OF BA NDING Griffin (19:l6) c it e d Lhre(: princ ipal ob j ecti,'(:s in undertaking bat bancling : "I. To c1e t erm in e wh ether th e sallle 111-c1i,-iclu: lIs r eturn annually to th e sum m e r r oosts from whi c h they wer e absent in winte r and lik e wis e to determine whether th e same bats return in suc cesi\"e winters to th e caves wh e r e they hibernate; 2. To ascertain wh ether bats r e leased at a di sta n ce from their summer roost will return to it ; that is, whether they have a homing instinct. 3. If possible individuals bats." to trace the movements of by recoveries of marked Many of the bande rs today lik ew ise are 111-teres ted in these objectives but a number of additional objectives are reported: 4. To d e t ermine the average and maX1mum l ength of lif e S To d etermine the extent of the dispro portionate sex ratios quite generally found among hibermiting bats; G. To chart the growth of young bats; 7. To acid to the meage r k now l edge of the lif e his tories of various speci es; 8. To investig a te the physiology of hibe r -nation; 9. To trace th e lif e history of blood para sites in b anded individuals; 10. H possible, to follow the clay to day shifts of b a t s that occupy no r egular roost. Fig 2 EAR TAGS were used on near ly 3000 bats in Pennsy l vania. E xpense of the tags, privately purchased, limited their use despite the ir in creased visibility. NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 9

RESUL T S OF BANDING C o n s id erable informati o n i s n o \\' a t hand unde r m a n y o f th e var i o u s catego ries just li s t e d It i s p oss ibl e t o ans wer a t least partially so m e o f the fo ll owing questi o ns: I. D o tlt e s a nte individuals r cturn anl1uall y t o th e c a ve s in whir h th ry we r e bande d ? R ecaptures o f b ande d b a t s h a \ e co nclu sin: l y pro v e d th a t th ey d o co m c ba c k t o th e sa m e quarters yea r alte r yea r. Lik c\\' i s e b a t s m ay occupy th e sam c summe r r oos t s fo r ; 1 p e ri o d o f yea rs. In d escribing th e r ecapture o f b a t s it see m s a dvantageou s t o a d opt termino l ogy co n s i s lclll with th a t n o w w ell est a bli s h e d in bird b anding, a s foll o w s : R e turn : T h e t aking o f a bande d b a t a t o r clo s e t o th e pl ace of b anding afle r the co nclu s i o n o f t h e seaso n (summe r o r hiberna tin g) dur ing w hi c h it w as b ande d T hi s corresp onds t o the "Ia t e r-sea so n l oca l r eturn" o [ Griffin ( 1 945). R e jJcat : R ecapture a t o r close LO th e p l ace o f b anding during t h e sam e season ("sa meseaso n l oca l r eturn" o f G riffin). R ecovery: R ecapture f a r e n o u g h a wa y fr o m th e place o r ba ndi n g so th a t the m o \ eme n t mi g h t b e co n s id e r e d s i g nifi cant (" f o r e i g n I T turn" o f Griffin with IlJO \'em ents o f 10 miles o r m o r e) Due t o th e cx t e n s ive n ature o f m os t G I\ 'es and mines it i s obvi o u s l y diffi cult to r ecaplllre a l a r ge pro p ortio n o f b ande d ba ts. The f olIo\\, ing r ecords co n st i tu t e th e hi g h es t p e r centage o f r eturns in seri es o f s i g nifi cant s ize: In a ca v e at F ourth Chute, Onta ri o, Hitchcoc k (19 4 9 ) r ecorde d r eturns o f 7 3.5 % o f a series o f 2 7 EjJlcsie us f [uscus but o nl y 52 % o f it tota l o f 3 1 6 b ande d in seve r a l diff e r ent caves. Hitc h c o c k n o t e d 41.7% r eturns fr o m a sing l e yea r 's b anding o f 1 5 Myoti s s u bulatus l eibii, a t F ourth Chute, but o nl y 25.4 % o f th e r emarka bl y l a r ge seri es o f 252 b ats o f thi s s p ec ies w hi c h h e b ande d b e tw ee n 1942. and 19 4 7 Griffin (19 -1Oa) r e p orte d r eturns o f 56.8 % and 36. 7 % of b o th Myoti s t lu cifuglls and M so d a lis "at tw o s m a ll c aves in V ermont whe r e it i s p oss ibl e t o ca t c h a ll b a t s". BULLETIN NUMBER 14, S EPTEMBE R ) 1952 R oge r s has h a d 24% returns o n 504 C o ry110r hinll s 1'. b anded in seve r a l Ves t Virginia ca v cs. T h e l a r ges t series th a t h as b ee n unde r obser va ti o n continuo u s l y i s a p opula ti o n o f 899 Myoti s I 11Icifll g u s a t Durha m i\line in e a srern P ennsyl va ni a (i\f ohr 1 942). During th e y e a r fo ll o win g b anding r ecords co m p il e d o n three vis it s to t alle d 25% r eturns In subsequent yea r s addit i o n a l returns in c r ease d th e p e r centage t o 44 % Fiv e o f th e ba t s we r e r e t a k e n in five co n secutive winte rs, o n e in each o f s ix f o ll ow in g winte rs, and o n e in s even o f e i ght diff e r ent win t ers, furthe r d e m o n stra tin g th e r eg ul arity o f the r eturn o f b a t s t o th eir seaso n a l quarters. In ca v es and i ll in es in D e \ o n shire Eng l and, a r eturn o f 55. 7 % was reporte d o n a se ri e s o f 69 7 b ande d Rhino lojJh us ferr u m eq u in u m and a r eturn h as b ee n m ainta in e d fo r R. hijJjJOsideTos ( H oo p e r H oo p e r and S h a w 195 1 ) 2. D o bat s ha ve a hOlllin g in s t i nct? -\t l eas t 17 o f the b a t bande r s h ave perform e d h oming experiments o f so m e kind. G riffin ( 1 94 0 a, 19 45) tra n s p orte d a t o tal o f +79 little bro wn b a t s for dis t allces up t o I::;G mil es, and h a d nine r eturns f r o m th e l o n ges t di s t a n ce. B ee r and Gree l ey h ave reta k e n tw o l VI l Illcifug u s a ft e r h oming flights of 250 miles. One o f th ese b a t s c r osse d Lake M i c hi ga n Hitc h coc k and R ey n olds (19 42) r e p ort findin g 3 out o f 76 M. I lu cifllg u s rel ease d 1 80 miles fr o m th e ir summe r roost. In T r apido LOok a b out 1 525 ba t s fr o lll Aitkin Cave a t th e b eginning o f th e hiberna ti o n p e ri o d in 1 940 and 1 94 1 and r e l ease d the m a t va ri o u s p oints up t o 125 miles f r o lll th e c a ve. The r esults o f thi s ex p eriment unfortuna t ely a r e n o t ava il a bl e, but th e fe w r ecords o n file with the Survey indica t e tha t Illa n y r eturne d immedia t e l y to th e cave 111 O c t o b e r and Novembe r. Griffin ( 1 94 0 a) found, and m eage r d a t a o n th e T r apido ex p eriment a l so indica t e a h ig h e r jJeTCel1 t age o f 1'eturl1 S fr olll b a t s cani e d a.way fro 111. t h e roos t ( fo r di stances unde r 5 0 miles) thal1 [roll1 banded b a t s 1'el e ased a t th e cave. Hitc h coc k and R ey n olds (1942) had t h e sa m e ex p e ri e n ce with b a t s r e l ease d as muc h as 6 8 and 76 mile s fro m the ir summe r roos ts. A s alread y r eporte d 44 % o f the 8 99 little brow n b a t s b and-7

PAGE 10

ed at Durham Mine were retaken there in subsequent years. Of these returns, 70 were later re l eased at a point 55 miles away Over a period of several years 41 % of these bats have been taken as returns. Since all of these bats were n ea rly three years old, at th e least, when used in the h oming test, 41% must be considered a very high return. Griffin has suggested that the bats released at the cave m ay scatter as a result of the dislLlrb ance. On the other hand, "for some reason thos e carried to a distance seem to be less likely to associate the discomfort of b eing banded with the home roost". Several attempts .have been made to determine the sjJeed of the homew ard flight The only data obtained from banding 1 are a 40-mile return flight o[ a little brown bat in three d ays in P ennsylvania (rvIohr, 1942), and a 76-mile r eturn in six days by both young and adult of the same species in southern Ontario (Hitchcock and Reynolds, 1942) 3. Can th e movemcnts of individual vats ve traced? As already reported, banding has established the regularity of r eturn of cave bats to their hibernating quarters and proven the existence of a r eli1arkably strong homing instinct. On the other hand it has indicate d that some banded bats do not return to the same cave in successive winters. At Durham Mine, 8 % of th e 395 banded bats r etaken were found after apparent ab sences of four o r more yea rs (20 after inte r va l s of 4 yea rs 16 after .5 yea rs 4 after 6 years, 6 after 7 years, and one eac h aFte r 8 and 9 yea rs). It is unlikely that they all esca p e d notice during th e fr equent inspectio ns despite th e ex tensiv e nature of the mine. In New England, Griffin (19IOa, 1 945) has establis h e d th e fact that some bats move from cave t o cave during the winter. Bats banded at the exposed East Dorset cave in early fall have been f ound bte r the sallle winter in caves as muc h as 125 llIil es away. Other fairly long w in ter flights h ave been reporte d in the same re gion. Griffin (1945) estimates howe \ er "that [or every bat retak e n after a shift from one cave I Ca ll1ph ell"s \\"hite,, ashed hats ill Texas reportedly flew 30 lIlile s ill aho llt o n e h our. Dubkin (1952) d escribed the flight of
PAGE 11

F ig 4. WING BAN D ING, originally use d in E u ropean ex p e rim ents, became the accepted technique in t h i s country after 1940 If properly applied the band i s free to slid e along the fo rearm and does n o t distu r b the bat. T he project ing thumb aids t he bat in getting a grip in climbing or, so metim es, as it hangs upside d ow n l atler re s pe c t proba bl y accounts for the influx of b ats into caves a ft e r s h arp t empe r ature drops in early winter ( F o lk 194 0). The movem ent of indiv idu a l bats betwee n their summe r roosts o n C a p e Cod to caves in the mountains o f Vermont has been establis h e d by Griffin (1910a 1915). Al l eas t 5 bats hav e m a d e seasonal flighls o f 168 miles in one direc tion The percen ta ge of s u c h r ecover i es, b e tw ee n summer and winter qua rters h as be e n dis appointingly small-slightly unde r 2 % for th e most sllccess ful operations; for most bande r s no r ecove ries ,, h a t eve r. As Griffin pointe d OUl: "The data obtained do n o t sati sfacto ril y indicat e either the summer range of th e b a t s b ande d in caves or the winte r quarte r s of those marke d in summe r co l onies." Three p oss ibl e e xpl a n atio n s a re put forw ard by Griffin: "1. The coverage may h ave b ee n too thin to sample more than an insi g nific ant fr action o f the caves or summe r co lo Illes . 2. The b a t s m ay migra t e entire l y outside the area studiecl ... 3 There r e m a in s a s pe c ul a tiv e possibility th a t these b a t s may u se o th e r p l aces than caves for hiberna ti o n ,' at l eas t in areas whe r e caves a r e la c kin g ... While it mus t b e admitte d r ea dil y that cov erage of summe r colonies i s inadequate, th e location of access ibl e caves in the Northeastern BULLETIN NUMBER 14, SEPTEMBER) 1952 United S t a tes seems t o b e well kno wn. Most cave co l o nies numberin g 100 bats or m ore are v i s it e d a n .nually. No ev id e nce has b ee n found to indica te that th e b anded bats mi g r ate b eyond th e area studied by Griffin. It see m s r easonably certa in as already p ointe d out, that bats u se hiberna tin g quarters other than caves and m i nes. For studying th e shifts of individua l b a t s [rom one portio n of a cave t o anothe r p art, ea r tags offer a g reater opp ortunity for o bser va ti o n and recording wilhout disturbance tha n do b ands which are m o r e ofte n hidde n from v i ew 4. What is the maximum life s j Jan of bats of various species? To p e r so n s famili H with the extremely short lives of s m a ll in sec ti\ 'ores and rodents-few li v e as muc h as two years o r with s m a ll birds, in which five or s ix yea r s i s a n old age, b ats r eac h quite r emarkable ages. D a t a in Table 2 h ave been ex tracted from th e U. S. Fish and \Vild life Service files or h ave be e n furnish e d b y the bande r s 'With the exception of o n e EjJ t esicus a ll l ongevity recorcl s in Table 2 were [or cave b a t s and represente d r eturns at the point of b anding. The ages t abulate d abO\ e a r e calculate d fr o m the date of banding, during hibernation, so the minimum age m ay b e from 4 to 10 months greater. \ c tu ally the b ats were of un know n age wh e n banded. Scant attention has b ee n paid to the possi bility of r ecog ni z in g bats of th e yea r during hibernation. Conseq u entl y it i s diffi c u I t to d e t er mine the averag e age of groups of b ats, t he pro portio n of young t o adults b e in g unknow n One m ay arri\'e at a basi s for estimating av erage longe vity i[ th e surv ival r a t e is know n Eisentraut (1947) reports th e annual l oss a m ong Myotis myotis in G erma n y t o a m ount to 4 0 % with striking regularity. His calc ul a ti o n s were based upon the numbe r o [ d ea d bats found throughout th e yea r. S in ce his findings a r e com para bl e to those in th is co u n tr y in so m a n y o th e r respec t s it see m s r easo n a bl e t o assume a comparable m ortality r a t e [ o r \1[. I. Illcifug us for exa m pIe. Surv ival rate, th e n would b e 60 % l i ce ( 1 937) ha s calcul a ted the theoretica l age-gTo u p composition for s t a bl e populalions, b as in g the 9

PAGE 12

TABL E 2 LONGEVITY RECORDS FROM BANDED BATS Sj)ecies Age R ecord Locality Bander Myotis I lucifugus M. s odalis Many 10 a (ew II, 12, 1 3-one 1 4 years Two-ten years New England P ennsyl vania Kentuc ky Griffin Mohr \ I V e lter Hitchcock Mohr Hitchcock GreeleyE l d e r Hitchcock Greeley-Elder M. subulatus l eibii !V. h ecnii s ejJte nl1 'ion alis PijJi s tl' elius subflavlIs OUSC1Il'liS EjJl esi c lis f. fllsws 9 years 5 years 10 years Four9 years c a lcul a ti o ns on th e annual su n 'ival rat es and assuming that there is no differe n ce in deat h rate among th e variou s age groups. Adapting the data p r esented b y N i ce in the tabular form used by Farne r (1945) the theoretical ages woul d b e as shown in Tabl e 3 Sixty_per cent survival theore.t:ir.ally g i ve s an extre m e longevity of t e n yea rs. B u t it may well b e with bats, as Nice suggested for the Song Sparrow, t hat the survival r a t e ri ses somewhat in the l ater yea rs as the bats become more ex perie n ced. Thi s would inc r ease lhe numbe r of years that th e last survivors would l iv e, and account for the fr aclion o f one p e r cent whic h attain an age of 1 2 years o r even m ore. \l\Thil e not comparabl e LO longevity r ecords (or wild bats, m aximum a ges r ecorde d for ca p tive individua l s are o f so m e inte r est. Flower Pennsy I van i a Ontario \ Visco n si n Ontario vVisconsi n (1931) r eporte d that a f e m a l e African collared fruit-ba t, ROllsettus l eachii, born in the London Zoo, died a t an age of a t least 19 years, 9 months, and 25 d ays India n fruit bats, Pte1'Opus g iganleus, d o very well in European zoos, one femal e living 17 years, I month and 26 days. The n ext l onges t record w as for Rousettus a egy jJtiaC1ls 12 years, 7 month s and 29 days. Trapido ( 1 9 '16) reported an extre m e age of 1 2 yea rs and 9 months fo r t h e vampire bat, D esmo dus 1'Olundus murinus, kept in captivity at the Gorgas Memorial L aboratory, in P anama. Two other individu als survived for more tha n 10 years. It i s not surprising tha t the larger speci e s of bats have a longer life span tha n t h e small e r species. This d i ffer ence has been d emonstrate d a l so through bird banding as w e ll as through TABLE 3 THEOR E T I CAL AGE-GROU P COMPOSITION AND AVERAGE LONGEVITY ACCORDING TO ANNUAL SURVIVAL RATES S IIm ilia I Avemge HI I e 1 5 l 2 n d 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th II th 12th 1 3th longevity 7 5 % 25 19 1 4 I I 8 6 5 4 3 2 I 1 4.0 years 600 / 0 40 N 1 4 9 ) 3 2 I I I 0 0 0 2 .5 years 5 0 25 1 3 6 ;) 2 I 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 years 4 W 't. 0 60 24 1 0 41 I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.7 years 7 5 19 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.3 yea]'s 10 NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 13

records of capti\'e anima l s o [ various v ertebrate groups. 5. To what ex t ent IS th e s ex rali o dis/nojJO'rtiona te ? As r eporte d in the first survey o f P ennsy l vania hibernating co l o ni es (Mohr, 1 932) a pre ponderance o[ m a l e bats was n o t e d sometimes as high as 3 to I.Data [rom nine hibernating co lonies in caves, mines, and wnne l s (i'vJ ohr, 1 945) d efinite l y es t ablis hed this disproportion ate s e x ratio. The average predomina n ce of m a l e Myo ti s l. lu cifllgllS w as 62.3%; of Pi/ J ist r e1l1lS s. sub(lavus 74.7 % In the case o f M. s. l eibii a lone, the ratio h as been almos t exactl y 1 : I One of the f e w examples o[ [ emale pre d ominance so far r e p orte d was in a se ri es o [ 56 Eptesicl .IS f. fas cus in Blue Mountain Tunnel, P ennsylvania68 % f e m a l e But a larger se ri es, 292 Eptesicus showed 72 % m a l e During the winte r o f 1 9471 948, Hitc h coc k ( 1 950) visited 20 caves and mines, [rom Ontario to vVest Virginia and K entuc ky, including the m ajor known bat co ncentrations H e e x amine d 4987 bats and f ound tha t the m o r e northern .. o loni e s had th e hi g hest proportio n 01' males. The explanation [or the sex u a l unbal a n ce ad vanced b oth b y Griflin ( 1940b) and Ei sentra u t ( 1 947), and co n side r e d b y Hitc hcock is that fe males have a hig her m ortality r a te tha n males Canadian r eturns bear out this beli ef, s in ce r e turns o n f emales a r e muc h lower than on m ales. The m os t comple te data < I\ 'ailable, howey e r fr o m the Durha m P enns y lv ania, co l o ny, s h o\\'s that the number of f e m a l e r eturns in each o[ the following three winters was co n s i s t e n t l y 3 % l ess than tha t of m a l es. This s u gges t s tha t if a highe r mortality rate does exi s t among f e m a le s hibernating in Pennsy lv,inia, it o p e r a t es o lll y in the year following oandin g. E i sentraut' s r e p ort bears out this supposition. T h e numbe r of l osses of f emales i s higher than males during the first ye :lr-"nearly d ouble the corresponding numbe r of males". EisenLraut attribut es the higher mortality r a t e o f fem a l es to the inc reased p erils of pregnan cy and p arturition, n oting a preponderance of deaths during the months o r May and June. The r e is no reason to believe tha t th e se x ratio at birth is unbalanced. Griffin (1940b) ex amined 890 juvenile Myotis l. IIIC ifuglls in a summer col o n y in Massachusetts and found 450 BULLETIN NUMBER 14, SEPTEMBER) 1952 lIla l es and '].40 f emales In Illino is, Cagl e and Cockrulll examine d 432 jU\ 'eniles of this s peci es and r e p orte d 2 1 3 [ e m a l es and 2 1 9 males. It i s e n couragin g t o note that 1 3 of the b anders indica t e a n inte r es t in this field o [ lll vest igati o n. 6. Can th e g1'Owt/1 of bat s be c h arte d ? Only in the South have maternity roos t s beell found in I\ es. Northermos t i s COl'y nm'l,i ntlS 1'. rajinesquii, in Virginia and \Vest Vir ginia. In eastern T ennessee, M),otis gr i sesce n s occurs in l a rge "maternity w ards". In the South w es t T a d a ri d a lI1('xic(fl1a, /I1),otis v velifer, and othe r s p e c i es ca n b e found a t this season but in th e North ca \ es gen erally a r e comple te l y de \ oid of bats in sLImme r. \Ving bancls applie d shortly after birth have establis h e d the b c t lha t Myotis I. l ucifugus, for ins t a n ce, reach es fu ll aclult s i ze in about four week s (Cagl e and Cockrum, 1 94 3) The banding o f juvenile bats o lf e r s o n e o f the m os t pro m i s in g fields [ o r b anding acti vities. D a t a obtaine d wi ll thro w li ght o n Illa n y an unso l ve d problem. One o [ the most surprising discO\'eries w as m acle b y S h erma n ( 1 937) w h o b anded 76 jU\'e -Fig. 5. BAN DED BATS in a hib ernating cluster viewed from b e neat h Seven 01 these twelve bats w ere banded b u t several bands are comple tely out of sight. T orpid, in 50 t o 60 temperatu r e they arouse q u ick ly when di s t urbed. D urham Mine, Pennsyl v a n ia. nile Tadaric/a found tha t o n e within the year. cYl/ocep /taia 1n Fl orida and of them gaye birth t o young 7. Wltat call b e d e t ermine d avollt life his t01'ies? It i s a surprising [act tha t n o one ye t knows preci se l y whe r e certain s peci es o f b a t s spend 11

PAGE 14

h a l[ th e i r li\"es. W h e r e [or in s t a n ce d oes i VIyo tis soda /is s p end t h e summe r ? B a t C ave, C arte r County K enLuc ky, h arbours 9 0,000 o f these b a t s in winter. T hi s and oth e r winte r h aunts a re empty during th e summe r. A noth e r example: A.t l eas t 9 0 % of a ll Myoti s s'lIiJ'lIl at"lls / eib ii eve r see n b e tween 80 0 and 9 00 h ave b ee n f ound hi bernating in t wo ve r y r es tri c l e d cave a r eas, in ce n t r a l P ennsyl va ni a and in eJ.st ern O n ta ri o abou t 325 mil es a p a rt. T h e d oze n o r so eve r f ound in summe r h ave b ee n l o n g di s t a n ces [r o m lh ese hi berna tin g cent e rs. O bse r vat i o n s b y bande r s h ave indica t e d t h a t M. s l e iu i i a n d E j J t esicus f II/sellS a r e e x tr e m e l y h ardy and s p end o nl y th e co ldest p art of th e winter in caves. Fig 6 EQU I PM ENT f o r banding inclu des s creened cage with c ak e m oul d top and cylin d e r f o r lo ng metal rods eac h con taining 100 partly spread a l u min u m b ands Here recorder Bruce Sloan e a ssists author Charles E. Mohr in c hecking b ande d bats at D u rham Min e PijJistre il'lls s. slIu{la VlIS, o n th e o th e r h and, m ay b eg in hiberna li o n in ea rl y Septemb e r and n o t e m e r ge [ ro m t h e caves until Mayor .June. T h e pi p i st r elle i s a so lil ary s p ec i es w id e l y di s tribute d in c aves. In f ac t a lm ost eve r y cave has a f ew hiberna l i n g individua l s P opulatio n s o [ se v e r a l hundre d a r e bein g f ound in certa in areas s u c h as 'West V irgini a. T hi s r e l ative abund;ln ce h adn'l bee n s u s p ec t e d S in ce thi s spec i es i s ver y easily r ecog nized a ll s p elunkers ca n h e l p b y r e p o r t i n g th e nu m b e r t h ey find in eve r y cave, o n eve r y v i s i l. 1 2 Exte n s i ve studies o n th e life his t o r y o f C ory -17orilil7"l1S rafi.nes q u i i in tennedills in C a lif ornia h ave b ee n g r ea tl y a id e d b y b anding. Reports b y M a r y K o f ord and Olive r P e a rso n are n earing comple tion. In Fl orida a good-size d cave colony o f Myo ti s a us t m rijJarillS w a s r e p orte d a b out 2 0 yea r s ago but e tlorts t o find it in r ecent yea r s h av e b ee n uns u ccessf ul. Seve r a l s m a ll co l o ni es a r e unde r o bser va ti o n b y India n a b ande rs. The r e a r e n o r ecords from a n y o [ th e intervening s t ates. Oth e r jJmmi s in g pmjeet s alread y underwa y i ncl u d e : A n in ves ti ga ti o n o f the phy si o l ogy o f hiberna ti o n b y J a mes R B ee r in Minneso t a. A n attempt to tr ace the li[e his t o r y o f bl oo d p a rasites in b ande d b a ts, b y Sh erma n F. W oo d in C a lif ornia T r ac in g t h e d ay tod ay shifts o f r ov in g b ands o f b a ts, b y Jerom e S. M ill e r in Michiga n Studies in endocrino l ogy, and othe r l a b orator y invesLigali o ns, b y E liz a b eth \!\T. Smith in Ohio, alld D e llll Y G Co n s t antine, in C a lif ornia. Con cl usion ,1\' i th :10 acti ve b a t b ande r s 111 th e U ni t e d S l a les and Ca n a d a, it i s r easo n a bl e to expec t that our kn ow l e d ge o[ ba t s will s t ea dil y a dvan ce This report s h ould d e m o n stra t e the n ee d [ o r sOllie clearin g h o u se [or informatio n T h e m o n t hl y NSS N E WS prov i des a tim e l y c h anne l [ o r announce m ents and r e p orts co n cerning the b anding o [ CCI\' e b a t s whil e th e B ULLETI N a n d the n ew l y in stitute d O CCASIONAL PAPERS a r e availa bl e f o r comple t e d p a p ers o n the subject. A l so, h e lp i s a .vailabl e [ o r certa in t y pes o [ in ves ti ga li o n s Sco res of individua l m embe r s of the NSS a r e willing t o coo p e r a l e in va ri o u s ways. So m e NSS g r ottoes a r e in a p os iti o n t o prov id e valua bl e aid t o th e b a t b ande r Seve r a l p o illl s r e l a tive t o inves ti ga li o n s o n cave b a t s mus t b e borne in I. B ands a r e b y the U. S. Fi s h and \,Vildlife Ser v i ce l O coo p era t o r s wh o g i ve eVI d e n ce o f b e in g a bl e t o id e nlify th e vari o u s s pec ies o f b a l s a n d w h o h ave a d e finit e pro j ec t in mind. T h e Se r v i ce h as s u gges t e d t h a t b ette r co ordinatio n o f b a t b anding activ iti es w ill r esult if: m embers o [ t h e NSS w h o w i s h t o b eco m e co-NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCI ETY

PAGE 15

operators submit their applications e ither t o Dr. Hitc h coc k or t o the author f o r approval. 2. Extreme ca r e should be t a ken to avoid unnecessa r y disturba nce s to hiberna tin g co l o nies. The r e i s co n siderable evide n ce th a t a numbe r o f bat co l onies have seriously d ec r ease d in s ize due to di sturba n ces o f var i o u s kinds. Al so there h ave b ee n a l arming r e p orts of un warrante d removal of b a t s from caves. Members of the NSS a r e urge d t o d o eve r ything possible to safeg u ard r e m aining b a t populations and to dis courage the removal of a n y b a t s from hiber n ating quarters. 3. Cooperation is asked in reporting band numbe rs. The number must be r ead very ca re fully to make sure that it i s compl e t e Most numbe r s w ill h ave t wo parts, as: ;8\87;. R e port in g of th e stJec ies and sex if know n will provide a n additional c h ec k esp ec i a ll y if part of the numbe r i s obliLe r a t e d R e port s should b e sent promptly to th e U S Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington 25, D : C. T h e r eports w ill be ac kn ow l e d ge d and information as t o the tim e a nd p l ace of h anding w ill h f furnished. LiTERATUR E C ITED ALLEN, A. A. 1921. Banding' bats. J our. Mamm., vol. 2, no. 2 pp. 53. ANCIAUX, f. 1 9 1 8. L e sommie l hiverna l de nos C h e i ropteres d 'apres des Ohservati o n s local es. Bull. 1 ,,(u s His t. nal. H e l g. vol. 2+, no. 25 pp. 1. BELS, L. 1 952. Fiftee n yea r s of bat banding in T h e Nethe r lands. Reprinted from: PlIbl icati es van h e t Genoot sc hap in Limburg. Reeks V. CAGLE, F. R and L. COCKRUM. 1 943. Notes o n a S IIIn m e r co lony of Myoti s lucifllgll S IIICifllgllS J our. Malllm., vol. 2 1 no. 4, pp. 4 74 -492. C. A. R. 1 925. Bats, mosqnitoes and dol lars. T h e Stratford Co., Boston. pp. 62. DUBKIN, L. 1 952. T h e white lady. G. 1'. Putna m 's SOliS Nell York EISF NTJ
PAGE 16

1 4 Photo b y J V erlle r Cohni l z The Tower a magnificent stal agmite 15 feet high about 8 0 0 feet fr om t h e entrance of Guacharo Cave. NATIONA L SPELEOLOGI CAL SOCI ETY

PAGE 17

The Guacharo Cave By EUG ENIO de BELLA RD PIETRI The allUite llr natllmlis t s 1Jrobabl y not unfamili(1T w ith th e guac/)(lTo, or oil bird whic h inhabits th e n or th ern p o rti o 'll o f th e South A m erican continent, hut kn ow l e d ge o f til e e xist e n ce of S'IIc h a noetllmal cav e-dw e lling bij'd may come as sOJl1ew hat u f a s lIr/ Hise t u till : North A JI1e n'call sprlunhe r This account is /nesen t e d not so m1lc h f or its treatm e nt of th e gl.lac ham as for its tlni lling recor d of haw rciollS c a v e ex l J l ora tion b y a II ex p ert Venezu elan s p e l eo l og i st. F01" /Iis many contributi017S to sjJel eo l og i cal Imowl e d ge th e au t h or was j 'ecently mvanle d a Cert ifi c at e uf Merit by tile ,\'a ti ona l Spe l e o l og ical Soci e t y Guacharo Cave th e l a r ges t so f a r discove r e d ip V e n e zuela i s l oca t e d in th e n orthern part of Monagas s t a t e, n ca r th e vi Ilage o f Cari p e. 1 t s entrance, p oss ibl y o n e of the l a r ges t in th e world, i s 85 f ee t wide by 76 fee t hi g h. The total l ength o [ th e Cf the above llIe n t i o n e d sectio n s ha s b e e n rath e r a ccurately measure d to be 3,6 7 8 feet and can b e subdivide d in to 3 large por tions: T h e Guacharo H a ll (a l so known as Hum boldts. I-l a I I ), is 2 685 f ee t l o n g, the H a ll o f Sile n ce i s 622 feet l o n g and the Prec i o u s H all, 3 70 f ee t l o n g The fir s t hall is calle d T h e Guac h aro H a ll b eca u se it is inhabite d b y th e f a m o u s Guac h a r o Birds (Steato1"llis CfI1'iIJe n sis; Fami l y Stea t or nithidae, Orde r Caprimul g if onnes). This room i s m o r e of a huge and stra i ght ga ll e r y tha n a h all in t.he accura t e se n se of th e word. Its d o m e, o f g r ea t h e i ght, ca n only vag u e l y b e see n eve n with the powerful b ea m of a n as h -BULLETIN NUMBER 1 4, SEPTEMB E R } ] 952 li ght conta ining h e n ew dry-cells This gall ery i s inhabite d b y th o u sands of birds whic h sc r ea m co n s t antly a ft e r the first li g h t s t arts probing their d ark empire. The room its e lf h as a mor e o r l ess co n stant width of 68 feet va r ying in h e i ght [rom 83 f e e t t o 99 f e et. T h e cavern Aoor i s interrupte d p e riodi cally b y huge roc k s thus e l evating the floor of t h e cave co nstantl y In this sec ti o n of the ca \ ern only m ass i ve s t a l ac tites can be see n ; the r e i s a n abse n ce of sta l ag mites. A ve r y r.emarkable g r oup of s t a l actites a r e The E l ephant s F eet. This p art of the cavern i s course d thro u g h o u tits who l e l e n gth b y a ri ve r th e Guac h a r o Rive r a b o llt 4 yards wide and o n e foot deep. F o ll ow i n g th e eco logi ca l cl ass ification o [ T h o m as C. Barr, Jr. I 'ould include it w ith out hesitatio n (and in ge n eral a ll the ca y e as w ell) in the H ydros p o e l e div i s i o n. Pil o l o b y JIIe m e r Coill/Ilz" F i g I. The r oad t o Caripe. where H um b ol d t s p ent n e arl y a year a s his h eadquarte r s A t bas e of mountain a littl e path lea d s t o c a ve 15

PAGE 18

Ecologi cally, this p art o f the G l\ern prese n t e d T r og lophil es and Trogloxen es. IIi th e fir s t g r oup, T h e S t eatornithidae we r e the only m e m b e r s f ound, s in ce n o Chiropte r a w e r e see n a ny w h e r e. T h e second g r oup presente d a zoo logical indi\'id u a l a white rat, and a great many pl ants b e l o n g in g t o a few speci es g rowin g f r o m the see d s that th e G uach a r o birds dro p from their p e r c h es aftcr eating. P artic ul a rl y noti ceable w e r e p a lm see ds, so m e o f whic h mus t have been g a thered in r e mote places s u c h as the va lley of th e Ori noco Ri \"Cr a fan tasti c distance of 1 3 1 miles away. T h ese p artic ul a r p a lm trees have n o t b ee n id e n tiflc d in th e s u r r ounding (ores ts. The little, p a l e, a lm os t co lorl ess plants g row in pi tc h darkness. and h a \c th e r e f o r e n o c hl o ro phyll w h a t soe \er attaining sca r ce l y 1 8 in c h es in h e i g h tat the m ost. The pa ssage t o th e Hall o f Sile n ce, a Hy drospoel e, i s thro u g h a s h ort but n arrow a p ert ure. This s h ort c rawlway i s inhabit e d b y hundre d s o f c ri c k e t s ( F a mil y Gryllidae) w hi c h I 16 1'1/1)/ 0 b y Rober/ a COII/r('rns Fig. 2. The author h olds one o f the famous Guachar o or oil birds s h a ll classif y as T rogl obio u s biota, since n o li ght ever r e a c h es within 1,500 fee t of this fis sure, and b o th their e n v ir onment and anatomica l c h a r ac t e ri s tics sugges t th a t classification. The Hall o f Si l e n ce itse lf i s so-called b e ca u se of its vivid contras t with th e t r e m endo us n o i se con s t antly k ept up b y th e shrill sc r eams of th e birds inhabiting the previous room It i s 622 feet l o n g, b e in g a l so trave r se d b y the sa m e ri\ e r m entio n e d b e f o re. To the left a s m all opening connects it with th e Prec i o u s Hall, Pho t o b y W erne r Cohn;lz Fig. 3 Precious Hall contains hundr e d s of these un ique for matio n s which cover a low galler y at its end. lovelies t o f th e first section o [ the cavern, and at its very end a pool of [rigid wate rs, Hum bold t s Pool marks the app a r ent end o f this gal l e r y T hi s part of th e c av e i s only 24 f ee t hi g h ane! 2 1 fe e t wide. T h e Prec i o u s Hall i s conside r e d a Mesos pode s in ce it p osses s es quite a humid e n viro n m ent th o u g h it l ac k s con s t ant w a t e r d eposits or streams. It i s 3 70 f ee t l o n g, presellling l o v e l y f ormati o n s o f pure calcium carbo nate. T h e h e i g h t o[ this h all i s co n side r a bl e, b eing in so m e places n ea rl y equa l t o that of t h e Guac h aro H all; the wie!th va ri es con stantly, averaging a b o u t 45 Fee t. To th e ri g h t o [ th e hall i s a pi t near! y 20 fect de<.:p whic h conncct.s this great room with a Iess<.:r known p art o f th e ca v ern, th e "Caribe Vidal's Room ", a l so a Mesos poel e This galle r y n e a rl y 1 2 0 f eet l o n g. h as b eautiful h elictites all o \ c r o n e o f t h e walls. The passage to this d rea m rOOIll i s quite dange r o u s [ o r inexp e ri e n c e d ex plore r s s in ce o n e llIu s t clilllb into a n arrow NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 19

c r ev i ce at th e \'e r y brink o f a 26 foot pit. T h e h e li cti tes a r e so pure tha t th ey r esemble c ryst a l flo w e r s m o r e th a n a n ything e lse. second sec ti o n o f t h e c avern i s reached b y climbing a s t e e p b oulder in th e H a ll o f S il e n ce jus t a t t h e end of Humboldt's Pool. B e in g a n arro w and u g l y c r ev i c e f e w explo r e r s ture f arthe r On th e o th e r side th e river i s met a gain in a n arrow ga ll e ry. H e r e o n e mus t re m ove hi s equipment s in ce tw o n as t y p asses m u s t b e trave rsed o n e b y diving. H e r e i t i s a d v i sa bl e to strip d o wn t o swimming trunks in orde r to avo id a ll p oss ibl e w e i g ht. Sch arfFe n orth's Pass i s r a th e r e a sy, s i n ce th e icyco ld w a t e r m e r e l y r eac hes th e s p elunke r s n ec k Arriv in g a t "Vind Pass w e w e r e quite s h oc k e d a t its formi d a bl e, f orbidding app earance. This c r ev ice i s so -calle d o n a ccount o f a stea d y air g u s h th a t co n sta n t l y flows thro u g h i t s o p ening f r o m th e d epths t owards the m outh of t h e cave. It i s in s h a p e, presenting o nl y Pho t o b y Rob erto E. Contreras F ig. 4. T he f o rbi d ding appr oach t o Wind Pass is 700 feel f r o m th e Guacharo bi rds. B ULLETIN NUMB E R 1 4, S E PTEMBE R ) 195 2 a tria n g ul a r o penin g a bO\' e th e wa t e r 's surfa c e m easuring 9 in c hes w id e and 1 6 in c hes hi g h H e r e b e f o r e thi s so m b e r gap the frigid w a t e r s r eac h the ex pl o r e r s armpits. B e l o w th e w a t e r line, the o p ening w iden s jus t e n o u g h t o permit t h e ex pl o r e r t o dive thro u g h s id eways a t a p oint 2 f ee t be l ow the surface f o r th e full 4 yard s di s t a n ce o f th e Wind P ass. In th e middle of this p ass th e ai r ga p at the w a t e r surface d ec r eases to a sca r ce 2 inc hes hig h b y 3 inc hes wid e, thus f o r c in g th e ex pl o r e r t o ac tu a ll y di\'e a treac h e r o u s 1 2 f ee t wh e r e a n ything ca n h appe n. \ 'Ve s p ent th e m os t dange r o u s minutes in a ll our s peleologi ca l e x pl o r atio n s in getting t h r o u g h sLlc h a d a n ge r o u s c r e \ i ce. One m embe r o [ our p arty n ea rl y drowne d in attempting t o s\\' im i n a pro n e p os i t i o n in goin g throu g h. As soo n as h e llIrn ecl h e was h eld f as t b e t wee n b o th \\' alls of th e p ass. S h ee r luc k and a bili ty in S willllllin g s av e d hi s life. In s u c h a spot h e was \ 'irtually h elpless and w e were almost una bl e t o drag him f r o m t h e d ea th tra p due t o the \'e r y n a rrown ess of the fissure Nece ssa r y equipme n t w as p asse d thro u g h in sea l e d auto tire inne r tubes Behind th e Wind P ass a 1 0\\' ga ll e r y l e d u s t o th e "Vaterfall Room and f r o m th e r e, a ft e r a n as t y climb i n the R oo m of th e R o p e S t o n e (a \ 'ertica l s h a ft t h a t r equires it st r o n g r o p e l ift to be t r a \ 'ers e d ) w e rea c h e d the Great R oo m of th e Hall o f th e \ Vind .. -\n imme nse room quite a bit wid e r in ; til re3p ects th a n th e p r e v i olls o nes of t h e G u ac haro H all, o p e n e d b e fo r e liS. B lood red c ryst aline s t a l act ites, sta lagmites a n d sr.ag h etti -Iik e fo rmati o n s m e t our as t o ni s hed eyes. T hese for mati o n s g l owe d lik e fr ozen em b e r s as soo n a s t h e flashlig h t b ea m s fell upon t h e m Our Col e m a n gaso lin e l a m p (500 can d l e p owe r ) ga \ 'e u s o nl y a poor conce p t i o n o f th e magnifi c e n ce o f thi s huge h a ll. A white r a t w as see n h e r e, t o our Ulm ost a m aze m e nt. Tow ard t h e ri ght, Al ell's Room l e f t us. dumbfoundecl: h e li c tit es, s t a lagmites, columns,. sta lacti tes a ll w e r e uns p e a k a bl y b ea u t i fuL E \ 'e r y squa r e yard o f th e floor diff e r e d fro m the. prec eding o n e with 1 0 \ 'e l y l ace forma ti o ns. From lhe r e o n the cavern see m s t o s h rink into a n a rrow but t a ll ga ll e r y tho u sands o f f ee l l o n g. Thus w e arriye d a t the H a ll of T owe r s. th e dange r o u s P ass o f th e Kniv e s the H a ll of 1 7

PAGE 20

the Vaults and the Final Hall, so tall that a ll our lights combinc d fail c d to giyc u s a glimpse of it s d o m e. T hi s p art of the cavcrn is d a n ger o u s s in ce th e rivc r H o w s s il ently 25 feet below and o n e mus t walk o n slabs barel y balanced th a t co n stantly threaten t o cau se your [ all into thc narro w gor ge that the ri\'c r thro u g h centur ics o [ acti o n h as c u t in the r oc k s b e l ow. Th is b e i n g th e end we llIrn c d b ac k at 6: 3 0 p.m. a [t e r a Y e r y light lunc h o [ sausage and brcad that h a d b ee n soa k e d in th e i cy wate r s of th e 1liVind P ass. T h e r eturn trip w as without in c id c lll .1 n th i s sectio n o f the G t\ 'e wc o n I y f o u nd as biota a white rat (about 4 0 5 0 [ ee t fr o m the Photo b y W erner Co/mitz Fig. 5. The Elephants Feet. e n t r a n ce) and "Lapa" trac ks. T h e Lapa, a rodent (C lIl1i Cllias /Jaca; Family Dassyproctidae, Sub-Ordc r S il1lpli c id cnta t a, Order R o d entia) is a n animal vc r y similar to a b ea \ 'c r minus Lhe t a il. Both the rat and th c l a p a ev id ently come fr o m the m o unL a in s id e, whos e surface must be quite n ear to th e cnd halls o f th e cave through so m e s t i II u ndiscovcred crac k in the rock. Thcir prese nce in th e cave at this depLh, otherwi sc would b e absolute l y unexplainable. Thus, these s p ec im e n s o [ zoo logi ca l fauna must be include d a s T rogloxen cs, Lhat is, acc id enta l speleolo g i ca l Ltun a, p oss ibl y lost. o r astray in th e dark cavcrn 1 8 Photo /)\ II'CrIIGr CO/II/it : F ig 6. T he entrance room. a[ter failing to find thc fissure through whi c h they ca m e in. In f airness t o pre \ 'ious explore rs we must admit that wc we r e n o t the fir s t t o ve nLur e through thc \ Vind Pass but we w e r e und oubte dl y the first t o reach and explore the end of the GI\'C and the \ 'c r y first to photogr aph iLS somber breathtaking magnifice n cc T h c to tal e xpl<;>ration of Lhc H all of the Winds took 1 6 h ours, while the exploration of the better know n part of the cave a m e r e 6 h ours. T h e cxpl o rati o n o f th e Hall of Lhe \ Vinds was b egun at 9:-15 a.m., r eturning 1 6 h ours later at J AS a.m. T h e \ 'Vind Pass was trave r se d fir s t at 10:30 a .m and th e n at 12:30 a.m "fter hours of exploratio n I..ITER. -\TURE crrED BARR JR., Tllo ,\I, \ S c:. 1 9 -19. A prelimina r y sWei), of cave eco logy. Bull. NaL' 1 S p e leolo g i ca l Soc. No. II. R O llI. EDIJARDO. 1 9 1 2. Valili a d ese ripLi va de Ven e zu e l a. T i pografla .. \ IllC r i e alia. Ca ra e as. 1-1 U ,\I 1101.0'1', ..\U:X":-;DER 1!}lI Viajc a l as regi olles cqllill occ iaics d e l IIlIevo co nLili c llt e. Talleres d e artcs g r ;Ui c as. Ca ratas. NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 21

A Further Description of The Guacharo Cavern By DR. GEORGE HARTWIG This a cco Hnt of th e falllous G u ac ham C(l1Je was fuulld ill a bouli entitled TI,e Subterranean Torld" tJlIb li s hed by Longmans, Green, and Co. in London in J 87 j an d is 1'ejJrinted e rewi th as a campa nion piece to th e jJreceding arti cl e /;cc(l1Ise it tI,roWS l [ght on some of th e earlier explorations in this car'e In th e class o f birds w c find lTlany ca \ 'e h aunting s p ec i es. The pi geons lik e t o nestle in grotto e s whi c h a l so sen 'e as welcome retr ealS t o thc mopill g ow l ; a n d \ 'a ri o us swallows and bree d c hi e H y in the d arkness of caverns. One o f thc 1lI0s t remarkabl e of these trog l o d yt i c birds js th e Gu;\charo, w hi c h inhabit s a l a r ge G l\'C in th e Valley o f Caripe, n ea r th e LOwn of Cumana, and o f whi c h a n inte resting a ccount h as been g iven b y Humbo ldl, who first intro duce d it l o the notice of Europe. The Cue va del Guacharo i s pi e r ce d in th e v ertica l profi l e o f a r oc k and th e entra n ce i s t o wards th e south forming a nobl e v ault e i ghty feet broad and scv enty-tw o f ee t hi g h The roc k surmounting th e cavern i s cove r e d with Lrees o f g i ganlic g r ow th and a ll th e luxuriant pro fus i o n of a n inte r-tr o pi ca l v ege t atio n. Pl anLa in l eave d h e li co nias and wondrous o r chids the Praga p a lm and tree arums, g r o w a l o ng' th e banks o f a ri\"Cr that H o w s out o f th e G l\ 'e, w hil e li a n as and a v a riety of c r eeping pl a nts r oc k e d t o and fro b y th e wind, form elegant festoo n s before its entrance ,,, T ha t a contrast b e tw ee n this Illag nifi ce ntl y d eco rated portal and the g loom y m outh of the Surtshcllir, imbedde d in th e l ava wi ld ernesses of I ce l and? As th e cave at fir s t penetrates into th e mounta in in a straight direction, the light of day d oes n o t disappea r for a co n side r a bl e dispn ce fr o m th e entra n ce so that visit o r s are a bl e t o go fo rw ard for about [ our hundred and thirty feet without b e in g obliged t o li ght the ir t o r c h es; and h e r e, wh e r e li ght begins t o fail th e h oa rse cr ;es o f th e n octurna l birds are h eard froll1 afar. The g u ac haro is of th e size of the co III III o n [ o wl. Its hoo k e d bi ll i s wide, lik e that o f the goat-su c k e r and furnis h e d at th e base with stiff h a irs direc t e d forwards. The plumage like th a t B ULLE TJ N NUMBER 14, S EPTEMBER) 195 2 o [ mOSl nocturna l birds, is so m b r e brow ni s h g r ey mixed with b l ac k stripes and large while pOLS. The eyes are in ca pabl e of bearin g th e light o [ d ay, and the win gs a r e disproportiona L e l y large, m easuring n o t less th ari four fee t and a h a lf fr o m tip to tip. It quits th e ca \ 'ern o nl y a t ni ghtfa ll esp ec i a ll y w h e n there i s moon li g h t; and Humboldt r e m a rk s th a t it i s a lm os t Lhe o nl y frugi\'o r o u s n octurna l bird yet kn ow n [ o r it d oes n o t prey upo n insects lik e th e goat s u c k e r but f ee ds o n very h ard fruits, whic h it s stro n g h oo k e d b ea k i s w e ll fitt e d t o c r ac k The h orrible n o ise m a d e b y tho u sa nds o f these birds in th e d ark r ecesses of th e cavern ca n b e co m p ared o n l y t o the wild shrieks of the sea-mew r ound a solita r y bird m ountain, or to th e d eaf ening uproar o f the c r ows w h e n assemb l e d ip vas t H oc k s in th e d ark fir-f o r ests of the North. The cla m our inc r eases o n advancing d ee p e r in t o th e ca v e the birds b eing di sturbed b y the to r c h-li ght; and as th ose nestling in the side avenues o f the GlVe b eg in t o utte r th eir m o urn ful c ries wh e n th e fir s t sink into s il e n ce, it see m s as if th e ir troo p s w e r e alternatel y co n pl aining to eac h o th e r o f th e intrude r s B y fix i n g t o r c hes t o th e end o f l o n g p o l es th e India ns. who sen'e as guide s into th e ca v ern, s h ow th e lIes t s o [ th ese birds fift y o r sixty fee t above the h ea d s o f t h e ex pl o r e r s in funnel-s h a p e d h o les wilh whi c h the ca \ 'ern roof i s pi e r ce d lik e a s i e \e. Once a yea r about midsumme r the G u acharo e l\ 'ern is ente r e d b y the India n s Arme d wilh p o les t h ey r a n s ac k th e g r ea t e r p art of th e neSlS, whil e the o ld birds uttering lament a bl e c ries, h ove r ove r th e h ea d s of the robb e rs. The young whi c h fall d o wn a r e o p e n e d o n the s p ot. T h e peritonaeuIU i s [ ound l oa d ecl with fat and a l aye r of the sa m e subs t a n ce 19

PAGE 22

reaches [rom lhe abdomen LO the \ 'ent, forming a kind of cushion betwee n the birds' l egs The Euro p ea n nocturnal birds are meagre, as, in stead of f easting on fruils and o ily k e rnels, they live upon the scanty produce of the chase; while in the guacharo, as in our fattene d geese, the accumulation of fat is promoted by darkness and abundant food, At the period abo\'e mentione d which i s known at Caripe as the 'oil harvest,' huts are erected by the Indians with palm leaves ncar the entrance, and e ven in th e very porch of lhe ca vern. There the fa l of the young birds just killed is melted in cla y pots over a brushwood fir e, and is said to be very pure and of a good taste. Its small quantity, however, is quite out of proportion to lhe numb e rs kill e d, as not more th a n 150 or 160 jars of perfectly clear oil a r e collected [rom the massa c re of thousands. The way into the interior of the cavern l ea ds along the banks of th e small rive r whi c h flows through its dark recesses; but sometimes large masses of stalactites obstruct the pass age, and for ce the visitor to wade through th e w a l er, which is, how eve r, not more than two feet d ee p As far a s 1 ,458 f ee t from the entrance the 20 GI\ 'e maintains the same direction, width, ami height of sixty or seventy feet, so that it would be difficult to find another mountain cavern of so r egular a formation. Humboldt had great diffi culty in persuading th e natives to pass be yond the pan of the cave which they u sually \ isit LO co lle c t the o il as they b e li eve d its deeper penelra lia to be the abode of th eir ancestors' 5pirits ; but since th e great n aturalis t 's visit, they see m to h a ve abandoned th e ir ancient supe r stiti ons, or to ha v e a ,cyy i red a grea ter co u rage in f acing th e m yste rie s of th e grotto, [or, while lhey would only accompany Humboldt as far as 236 fathoms into the interior of th e cave, late r travellers such as Codazzi and B eauperlUis ha\'e acl\ 'anced with th e ir guides to double the distance, though without r eaching its end. They found that b eyond the furthest point ex plore d by Humboldt th e ca v e loses its regular ity, and has its wall s co \ 'ere d with stalactites. In the embranchmcnts o f the grotto Codazzi found innumerable birds, It was formerly supposed that the guacharo \"as exclusi\'el y co nfIn e d 10 this cave; latterly however, it has also be e n found in the pro\'ince o f Bogota. NATIONAL Sl'ELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 23

The Orca GoesUndergronnd By PHIL C. ORR San ta B (nbara l VI'IIselllll of .\' atllral HislrJI)' P/w l ns uy lI'al l e r S Challluerlill Nowlie l e w ill onc filld a lIIor e fascillatin g ({ccmlll! of a jJe rf ec tl y ur ganize d and administered s/Je leolo g iral eX/Jed;tion I/Jan iil tltis r eJnint of an rntiC/ c fr om Volume XXVI, No.2 of M USEU M TAJ.A", jJlIblish e d b y til e Santa Barbara N f useilln of .Vatuml f-li s tory. Fr on l i e n o f sjJe le n l ogica l res{>(Ircll we r e ad v al/c e d on til e 'lIlc lr/omb l e 7 lo)'ag e Itc r cin d esc rib e d and 1I711c h credit i s due t o J oscjJ/J TV. S c fton Jr oWl/er of lIlC ORC, } and to til e au/llOr and Iti s cOIll/){ll/io n s w lto g ivc us all ins; g llt illtu tile sec r e t s of tlt e U1ves of til e San t a Rarbam Cltallllf>i I slands. As the r esearch sh i p Orc a of th e Sdton Foundation o[ San Di ego dropped a n chor in Santa B arbara H arbor th e first of June 1950, a bigfour-wheel dri\'e truck labe l e d "National S p e l eo l ogica l Society, escortecl by th e ]\[useum jeep, pulled up at th e breakwater and procee d e d to unloa d Soon se\ 'e r a l co nv entional cars arri ved wi th more scien tists and gea r. vVhat in th e worlel! wondere d p eo pl e on th e breakwater as mi crosco p es, cli\ in g h e lm e t can l e ras, batteri e s picks and plant presses w e r e loaded in to a s kiff and f e rri e d out to th e Orca. The Orca is d edicated b y her Maste r J osep h \'\ Sdton, .Jr. to scie n tific r esearc h in coasta l wate r s [rom Santa Barbara t o M e xico and th e write r has b ee n fortunate t o h a \'e joined h e r ex p e di ti o n s a t l eas t o n ce a year. T hi s tim e it was t h e Sefto n Speleol ogica l Ex p edition, T hi s expeditio n th e culmina ti o n of about te n years planning on the part of th e autho r was made pos s ibl e b y th e ge n eros it y o[ Mr. Sdton anel th e cooperati o n of t h e Nati onal S pel eo lo gica l Society .through Eel Dane h y and Art Lange o f th e D Stanforel Grotto, and \ '\fa l t C hamberlin of th e Southern Ca lif ornia Grotto. Botanist Dr. C. I I. Muller, zoo l ogist Dr. D o n \'\ 'ootton and students C h arles Stase k and Charles Judso n all o f Santa Barbara Coll ege, the author and R S. Finley of the Museum stan, COlli pl e t e d th e sci e n ti fic c r ew. F ig I. Research shi p Orc a a t West Anacapa I sland. F o re ground: Phil C. Orr, C u rator of Geology and Anthropolog y at Santa Barbara Museum of Natu ra l Histor y and assistant, R S. F in ley Dr. C. H, Muller, B otanist from Santa Barbara Colleg e and Charles Stasek, stu dent. Our purpose w as to ilwestigate t h e sea ca \ 'es o [ A n aca p a and San ta Cruz I s l ands-to map them, determine the ir size anel to in\' est i ga t e th e cave life. Caves of the isl a nds h ave be e n known since 1 890, whe n Lorenzo Yates d escribed seve r al. BULLETIN NUMBER 14, SEPTEMBER) 1952 "SANIACllut SANfA IIOS.\ 21

PAGE 24

Other writers have mentioned or described some of them but apparently few have actually visited them. Four caves had been recorded for the Anacapas, but we found fifty. Captain K andy set a course for the west is land of Anacapa, then cruised in close to shore. With Art Lange and the write r at the maps and notes Dick and Walt Chamberlin hand ling color and black and white cameras and the remainder of the crew wit-h binoculars, we made a preliminary survey of the west, middle and east isl ands of Anacapa. Anchoring at Fish erman's Camp on ''''est Is land we worked out with small boats and a canoe, entering the sea caves, measuring, map ping, photographing, co ll ecting mine rals and a l gae, and observing marine life The most interesting c av e is on West Island. Dr. Yates m entione d it in 1890 so we named it Yates Cave. This huge room, hollowed out by wave action along a f ault measure s 200 feet across with an arched ceiling 100 feet high. Water occupies most of the cave and a forty foot boat could ride at anchor in it. At eac h end is a pebble beach. The remarkable coloring on the roof and walls is a bl ending of the yellows, greens and browns of algae and minute crystals of arago nite. Sea Lion Cave, also on West Island, must be entered by its six-foot tunnel at low tide or during periods of no surge, for the ceiling is too low to risk being smashed against it by a heavy wa ve. The tunnel goes back a hundred feet then turns to the l eft. The heavy reson a nce of sea lions barking within th e cave is depressing to the ear and makes one wonder if one of thes e five hundred pounders will land in the boat. Howeve r, they gathered qn the little beach at one end of the cave and' pos e d for flashlight pictures a nd, while some made frantic e fforts to escape, none l anded in the skiff. Key110Ie Cave which named for its shape, looked enticing and the author attempt e d twice to enter it in a canoe but waves t e n to fift ee n f eet high at its mouth prevente d eve n a p e ek. Abalone Cave on Middle Island is sma ll with b a r ely room for a skiff. It is th e only cave in which w e found liv e abal ones. 22 ""eather, as usual on the islands, was bad . Northwest winds kept the channel in a choppy condition and ground swells dashed on the rocks and completely filled the smaller c a ves, so we weighed anchor and coasted along the north shore of Santa Cruz Island from. San Pedro Point, on the east end, to West Point. More'than a hundred caves were located in this distance. After a hazardous attempt off Cache Point to investigate cav.es in what looked like a sheltered spot, we anchored in Pelican Bay where a shore party collected plants, lizards, moll usks and minerals. Another sma ll party in a boat investigated Algae C ave a small cave in a protec ted cove 1 ts walls and ceiling were coated with a brilliant red a l gae, it species of F ig. 2. In Cave, West Anacapa Island Rhodochorton first known from McKinnon's Tomb in Scotland and found in Finley Cave l ast year by the Museum's San Miguel Isl and Expedition. '''e found this algae again later in B a bys Cave and Sponge Cave. .. High winds prevente d us from making investigations of any but the more sheltered caves, so while the Orca went off on a porpoise hunt, the speleo lo gists went ashore a t L a dys Harbor which, with its companion, Babys Harbor, form one of the nic e st spots to be found on th e islands, The d ee p ,blue waters of the. two harbors meet the beach wh e r e a steep rocky canyon comes from the hills. A running stream i s b anked with ferns and mosses and the little is land tr ee frogs play in the pools. Babys Cave is locate d on the point o rock separating the two harbors and can' only b e NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETy

PAGE 25

ente r e d by Imal. The ceiling is coI 'c r e d with rcd algae and the water within the Gll' e is indirectl y li ghte d b y hidden underwate r passages t o the outside, so that the water along the edges of the roc k g i ves ofr a soft greenish g low, Spongc Cll' e, to the \I'est of this, i s entered thro u g h an opening just large e n o u g h to take a s kifL T h e roof i s suppe))'led b y pillars and our boat f10atcd in the narro\l' passage, going into total darkness for a hundre d feet a lld thell the li ght o f Ollr flash es n o 1 0llger reach e d the walls, \ Ve seellled in thc Illiddle of nowhere, until our eycs becallle accustollled t o the dilll li ght and lI'e saw ;1 largc roolll \I'ith another l a rgcr passage leading back inlO the Illountain, ''''ith our fLtshlights \I'e cOllld sec the bottolll o f this passagc f our lO twenty (eel below us Ihrough the crystal-clear \I'at e r and the rocks were coI'Cr e d wilh brilliant whitc objeCls o f Illany sizes. \Vondering what they were, we tried probing with an oar ulltil Dick Fillley went o \' crboard lO \I'a d e in the cold wate r hopin g a Illoray eel wouldn' t COllIe out of a c l T I i ce. Hc bro u ght up s lllall while spongcs that lil'e here b y the thousallds ill darkness. This cave i s about 3:)0 fect l o n g, up to :jO feet widc and, like Babys CII'C, is coatcd with r e d a lgac, Deep inside i s a s m a ll beach where w e collccted barnaclcs and 1llollus ks. 'I'res BOGt s at Valdez i s one that has bcen I'i sitc d by Illan y people, for thc best landing to Ih e c ln yo n i s Illade thro u g h this four hundre dB UI.LETI N NUI\IBER 14, SEI'TEl\flIER, (oot Gl\T. Boats ca n b e beached in o n e mouth, which is about forty feet widc, and the n yo u can walk dry s hod thro u g h anothe r entrance into thc ca n yo n Nearby is a dry gulch which i s concealed fronl land and sea, but which open s o nl y thro u g h a s h ort. tunnel-jus t the place for b oys to play pirate and f o r big ones to b e s p e lcologi sts, Sponge Cave Santo Cruz hland o = ceiling height from watcr (feetl adapt.:,J I f u m \hrf" h b ) A L. I.an!:!!..' SG ISS / / SANTA BARBARA CHANNEL 23

PAGE 26

The Occurrenc e of. Quartz Stalactites in. The Roc k Creek District of Douglas County, Oregon By ROBERT HOU SL EY Freshman, R eed College Rese arch in th e field of cave minemls needs the attention of all who can throw li ght on the relationships thal exis t in th e building up of the lIll1'ied fonna ti ons One little detail may not seem important but, adde d to many other little details eac h idea contributes toward th e solution of the most baffling /ymb!em. A glimjJse into th e comj J i exity o f some of th ese pmble ms is given in this ar ticl e so abl y W1'iUen b y a young h ig h school student who, b ecause of his o bvious abilit)" is a member of th e Committee on Formations and } \1inemlogy o f th e National Spel e ological Society. INTRODUCTION vVell-formed quartz s t alactites h ave recently been found at four loca litie s in the Rock Cre ek Dis tri c t of Douglas County, Oreg on. These four lo ca lities ; th e Lone Roc k quarry, the Rock Creek quarry, a gravel pit near Rock Creek, and a cut along th e n ew North Umpqua Hig hway are shown on the accompanying m a p. They have all been ex pos e d r ecently b y loggin g and road building activities. The re g ion is fairly m ountainous and h e avily timbe r e d The rock i s of a n i g n eo u s n ature and overlies the Umpqua Formation sediments of the Eocen e p e riod. DESCRIPTION OF LOCALITIES L oca lity numbe r one, the Lone Rock qua rry, i s in columna r di a b ase imme diately above the Umpquc; Formation. With the exception of a large vein of calcite with a little associated pyrite all the minera ls occurred in gas formed cav itie s up to about 10 c m in di amete r. There were few of th ese cavities and th e only minerals found in the m were quartz and calcite. The one quartz s t a l actite found h e re was 3.5 c m. in di a m e ter and 4.6 cm. l o n g It is broken off a t both ends and was found l oose It is made up of a 5 mm. c h a lced o n y center surrounded by qua rtz crys tal s approximatel y 1.5 c m. long. In th e middle of this c h alce d o n y cente r is a n area I rom in di a m e ter whi c h i s so fter and less tra n sluscent than the rest of the c h alcedony. Locality number tW9, th e Roc k Creek quarry, i s loc a t e d in diabase s imil a r to that of th e Lone R oc k quarr y except that it i s not co lum-24 n a r. H e r e th e minerals are found in gas formed cavities up to about 5 0 x 3 0 x 8 c m. in size. These were all line d originally ,vith cha l cedo ny, qua rtz or ca lcite which did not follow any order of d epos ition. In som e cases ca l c it e formed fir s t followed by chalcedony and druzy quartz, whi l e in o th e r cases chalcedony form e d first followed b y druzy qua rtz and cal cite. The l ast minera l s to form were the zeo lit es, l a um ontite, h e ul andite, and stilbite. Of these, l aumontite is th e most common, forming crys tals up to 1.5 c m lon g in m a n y of the cav ities, whi l e only a few small crys t a l s eac h have been found of h eulandite and s ti lbite. Three cav ities containing qua rtz stalactites and one loos e s t a la ctite group hav e b ee n found h e re. The whol e top of the largest cavity, which m easure d about 50 x 3 0 x 8 cm., was c over e d with s t a l actites up t o 6 c m in l e ngth. Many of th ese s t a l actites w e r e s p ec k led with small laumontite c rystals. On the b ottom of th e cavity w ere seve r a l calcite crys t a l s so m e coated with quartz, others not. T h e r e were no stalagmitesat l eas t none sufficiently d eveloped to be differentiated from norma l irregul a rity H ow ever, th e r e w as what appeared to b e sev eral s ta l acti tes th a t had broken of I th e top cemented haphazardl y onto th e b o tt o m. The a\ e r age diame ter of th ese s in g l e s t a la c tites i s from 2 to 4 mm. ; howeve r m a ny of th e m formed togeth e r in s h ee t s which a r e be tween I and 2 c m wide. The s ingl e stalactites a r e m a d e up almos t entire l y of druzy qua rtz NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 27

which radiates outward from the center. In some of the s in gle sta l actites, a holl ow chalce dony center was v i sib l e under 20x m ag nifica tion; in others none was seen : The sta l acti ti c sheets se e m e d to b e made up of single sta lac tites joined tog ether by a thin sheet of chalce@ Cur!N NeW IIberH HIGHWI1Y = bAo ---T,eqIL 1-+-IMtu-1 ( I \ , ,. / \ \ \ , I up to about 90 degree s Several have branche s at approximatel y 90 degree angles; then these branc hes in turn have stalactites hanging from them. There are other sta l ac tites that hav e forks out at acute angles, and some that split so th a t both fork s are acute to p erpendicular. ./' \ Ch'mne.!l """\ eock , Fig. I. Map o f R ock Creek District of Do u glas County, Oregon dony coated with druzy quartz. In some cases thi s sheet of chalcedony is indistinct or possibl y absent, and the s tal ac tites appear to be j o in e d only b y druzy qua rtz. An inte resting charac t e ri s tic of thes e s t a lac tites i s th eir t ende ncy toward turning and bra n c hing. 'Many of th e m h ave curves ranging BULLETIN NUMBE R 14 SEPTEMBER, 1952 The n ext l a rgest cavity containing qua rtz sta la c tites found a t the Rock Cree k quarry was abou t 8 x 8 x 5 cm. It con tai ned s tal ac ti tes that a r e approxima t e l y 6 m111. in diame t e r a n d 2 011. l o n g These sta l actites h a n g v e rticall y with no t ende ncy t oward abnorma l g rowth. They are made up of druzy qua rtz radiating from 25

PAGE 28

a center that is just visible in a few specImens unde r 20x mag nification. The smalles t stalactite-containing cavity found h e r e w a s about 5 x 5 x 3 cm in size The sta l actites found in it are approximately 2mm. in di a m e t e r and 1 c m. long. They consist of a hollow c h a lcedon y she ll covered with radiating quartz crys tals. T hi s c halcedony she ll is ap proxima tci y 0.12 5 mill thic k and the hollow center i s about 0.2 5 nUll. in diameter. Mos t of th ese stalactites hang straight down; however, a few have s h arp curves near the end, and several are growing out at angles from the sides. There were a l so L wo stalagm i tes growing up from the bottom. These sta la gmites seem to be identica l with th e stalactites, including th e hollow center surrounde d by th e chalcedony she ll. One of Pho t o b y William ] F os ter Fig 2. Single q uartz stalactite f r o m the gravel p it near R o ck Creek. 26 PllOto bl' Iri/lilllli ] Pos t l l Fig. 3. Single stalactite showing curve; fr o m th e Rock Creek Quarr y them e ve n h as a short projection ou L a t a righ t a ngle. In a small corne r of th e cavity was a s pa ce approx illl ately 0.5 square c m. ill are a where t h e stalactites co nsi s t e d onl y of the h o ll ow chalce dony sh e ll without th e coating of druzy quartz. These sta lactite shells are approximately o.r) mill in diamete r and 5 III Ill. l ong. Som e of th e m show curves identica l 'with the curves shown b y th e normal stalactites in th e cav ity. The l oose sta lactit e group [ Ollnd h e r e i s aboll, t 1 8 x 15 x Scm. in size. It consists of pale blue s t a l actites approximatel y S nln1. in di ame t e r of a soft dark material su r rouncl e d by a 2 to :I mm, l ayer o f chalcedony and quartz. On t o p o f this h as b ee n d eposite d a h eavy coa tin g 01' laumontite. Many of t h ese s ta \a cti t es are grown together in sheets, and a f e w of them have l ong, smooth curves. The NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 29

stalactites in the s h eets are j oi n e d b y a thin layer o f d ark material coa ted with c h alce d o n y and druz y qua rtz The third l ocality, a g r a v e l pi t n ear R oc k C r ee k i s ill a l aye r o f l oose roc k and cla y left b y the origin a l r oc k d ecay in g in pl ace The ma t erial h as shifte d so little th a t Illost o f t h e pi ece s o f a bro k e n geode w ill b e [ound clo se toge t h e r. Mine ral s f Ollnd h e r e include agates, j as p e r qllarLZ c r ystals, a m e thyst and o p a l escent quartz c ryst a l s T hi s opalescel1l qua rtz i s a p a l e blue co lor with some s p ec im e n s s howin g a f ai n t p l a y o[ co lors. The play of co lors i s caused by in t e r nal flaws, whil e th e o p a l esce n ce i s thoug h t La b e due t o sys t ematic ally arranged inclus i o ns. Thc f our s in g le quartz sta lacti te s and th e one s t a l actite g r oup f ound h e r e all seClll to h ave f o rlll e d in large qua rtz geodes Fro m th e c a s t s left, it i s obvio u s that calc it c a l so [ arme d in th esc gcod e s ; howe \er it i s a II ,, ea t h e r c d a u t n o w The l a r ges t o f thl' s in g l c sta l actites i s 1 2.5 C ill. in diamete r and 1 8 C lll. l o n g. It h as a h o l e 3 c m in d i a metcr and 1 7 Clll. l o ng in the cent e r. On o n e s id e o f thi s h o l e, th e s lllooth f a ces of a n cga tiv c quartz c r ysta l ex t end F o r m os t o f its len g th. The o th e r s id c s a r e r o u g h. Pho t o b y 11(i/i/{w/ ./. JU.lIef Fig. 4. Grou p of quartz stalactites from the largest cavit y at the Rock Creek Quarry. BULLET1 N NUMBER 14, S EPTEMBER 1952 T h e second l a r ges t sta lactit e from h e r e i s vcry s imil a r t o t h e fir s t. It i s G c m. in di a m eter and 7 c m l o n g I t conta in s a n irreg ular centra l ca vity 1.5 cm. in diame t e r and 6 c m. l o n g. The third l a r ges t s t a l actite i s 2.7 c m in diame t e r and 6.5 c m l o n g. I t h as a n ega ti ve quanz c rystal ( h o l e th e shape of a qua rtz crys t a l ) 9 IIlIn. \,i d e and .1.7 c m. l o n g in the ce m e r. On o n e s id e of the n egati\"C quartz c ryst a l and separ; lt ecl fr o m it b y a thin l aye r of c h a l cedony a r e th e impress i o n s l e ft b y so m e w eathe red out c a l cite c rystals. Surrounding the negati\ e quartz c r ysta l and the ca lcite impress i o n s i s a n othe r layer o[ c halce d olly f ollowcd by drmy quartz. The r emaining s in g l e stalac t i t e [rom this l o cality i s approxim a t e l y 2 cm in d iamet e r and J c m. l o n g. I t cOl1la in s an interna l ca \ ity l.5 c m. i n di a m e t e r and 3 5 c m l o n g, which is COI11pl e te l y lined with ca lc i te impr ess i o ns. The o n e s t a l ac ti t e g r o u p [rom h ere i s a pal e ame thyst co l o r. It co nsi sts of s t a lactites between 2 and 3 111m. in di a m c t e r and from 2 to 3 CI11. l o n g. These s t a lactites a r e composed almost ent ir e l y o f radia tin g druzy quartz. T h e fourth l o cality, a roadcut o n the North Umpqua Highway n ea r R ock C r ee k is a l so in dia b ase T h e o nl y mine r a l s that h a v e b e e n f ound h e r e a r e quartz and ca lcite. Photo by L. B Hic k s F ig 5 Large single q uartz stalactite from the gravel pit near R ock Creek. 27

PAGE 30

Cjl The );u '!!es t of III duet' (:, nue;; \lIOU f L l alaclil('S fo md he! ''';:11. ,1I1bom 50 x 30 x: 15 m,.ill size Il su;.1IlI::nrclliil[e;; art' I 10 5 mm, in UI.nn, Ho nnrdi \]11))' UWJUllnurdl lloo.':IffC 'I.'I.',1IS :},(()) :s.: TI51 ., nllUtt"JlD wi]" lJn;).J]((([((jj(Mtn)l' nlim" UIl'I)UU;J!] !()):'1LIl, iinlw, (0)1 (dhI1lLV1)5 (Qju.u:.1lJJlIl/ .. -'flJlICC' ((aJIX;ill)5 (oll u.JjllU;WI1VI lliHOlIlnn IIJlniii, lkofDltlJiiit aJlbtOJUDll 11:1 It}) :s.: :'3) ((J!nn.. iinn linn iilt (oil' \!I(((1T!l" IfnrOJllllll ((UU.U G'5;): W'IN s Jim"iil'l] hdhruH'''Y'1 CCln t b sc; rtii;J f g Jl"-
PAGE 31

II i s obvJOm tllat w h tli('!I tli' ori ginal s t a lac tiLe wa s 1 : 11'g't: 0 1 slIIall : 1 11(1 w h c t h 'l' il was co m p o s d ('o lllpl c t c l y o/' qll a l'lI 01' p a rtl y o r r h a l n :doI1Y, IV 'rIC d '/i" H I '"1 Oil th e phy s i c al ill)(! c h e m ic : Ila w r c o j Ihe s()lutio)) I'ro m w hi c h i l was d 'I'i vcd illid o n l h e s ize of th e orihce throllg h w lli 'll Ih e s o lu tioll 'Ille r d It i s quiL e lik I)" how 'v I', ill th C IS' o f t h e l a r g e r sta l acLiles, lltill addil i Olla l IlIat' r ial was d e p os il c d o n til e orig ill :II, The IIntill \\' 'akll ss 'S ()/' L ili s h y p o th e s i s a r c ils illability 10 ex pl a in t h e II X. 3 Jios/ oJ/ 1:1. Uki,s T h o m as C. lIarr R ol cn uti. 1'5, 3 DUll s t T Il o uSl:, entl' r .. C all1brid g e i\l a s s l -:Udn,. \\'. \ a I. C a.l'('(/rf( : II. 1\1I1f' I' IJriSf' I ilf'UII 1/1" I' e t c r 1\1. i\Ir I., 'II11Il, 22()(; Cres ce llt Ill'iI' c, l :iii Fll n SI-. S caltl" !!, "'u s ll K J 5. CII% ( 'II(lIIi(l I. I, Ull W S tella ]I, I'I el'('t, ; 1\ l a N t l s o n S t Ill)\ II \. lUl, C a7.cn ovlll N y 111I1 lhl l R ( HI. (i. C h (II' /CS/(HI 1':Q lll s \ 'iIIe, l"tI, Sa I 'll It f,l c(;l'i n 11\, I Ult'll 70ti FOl'I' s t (reiI', \)omlhy NClI'l'ull g. S(lilih e lHiriesl o ll \\" ii, o\\,n c \ \' c .. 7 C /IIII' / O Il N 'ill" l o\\'n ell), \0\1' I D u vlll g e ll mht1r l {\l\(\. Ii, / fwi trips carryon r esea r c h pro j ec t s o r otherwise implement the efforts of the p a r ent body. A I i s t o f s u c h regions and loca l grottoes, with the n a m e s and addresses o f p e r so n s t o contac t [o r informa ti o n foll o ws: 1 8 M e/ropolita n N Y. 28 S i erra I d a V. Saw t elle, 1 030 83rd S t. B ro o kl y n 2 8 N. Y. 1 9 ,\I o r g alltOWIl J. J. Ei c henm u ll e r, P. O. B o x 3 1 9 \(organto w n \ V Va. 20. X a /ty BllmjJo Clifford :->. F orma n. J r. Ridlfiel d Sp r i n gs N. Y 21. X etl' England I. LeRoy Foot e R D 1 \liddlebury, Conn. X illall\" "'ilJiam D e "itt II I igma .-\Ipha Ep-i1on l a l e Colle!!c. P a. SOl,thtTII .:Yen Jer s e H w:trd :->, Ioa n e. 181 Wild,, d -\''C .. l'pper \ ( ontdair. N J. Philllddpllia :-.r:tr\, ]-'. Pcarsall. :. 1-6' al nUl t. I'hibtlclphia 3. P a. I illsb llrgll R(lllt'rt ])""11. R n.' Sha llll oll Rd., \'(.,.01l: 1. l'a. H t 'IIs:wltu ',. I\tlll' a r d J. S t ofka No. (i P C(lples Dr. E. R l'llda e l Farms Tro y N. Y Elhe l y n Fus s elle 2 5 0 6 L eave nw o n h Sa n Fra n c i s co Ca lif. 29. SOIL/he rll California Rich ard Logan V i rginia St.. Santa M o ni c a, Ca lif. 30. Stall/ard Sch oo l o f Mineral S c i en c e s, S t anfo r d Ca lif. 31. Tareva c T. L. Carr, 2 0 2 Tay l o r S t. C a n n e l to n Ind. T ri Colinty C h a rl es I-Ia n o r Elm S t. Oneo n t a N. Y. 3:\. T iL'in City D a ill S G e bhard, 1 665 \(ontr e a l Av e., t. Paul 5 Minn. Cnil'ersit y of T exas B o x 1 62 5, I nive r sil)' S t a ti o n Austin, Tex a s 3 5. J P [. Sam i\f. Kin g B ox 49H Va. Tech S ta ., Bla ck sburg, V a. 3 6. Was h i ngton D C. E l a in e Hi g g in s 1 233 37lh S t. N W "Va shing t o n D. C 37. W y t heville 1.1 II lI'(lo d 110\1, I -lOll'\. \1. I't U)'jollll, J r .. :17, UichlllOllc/ E l i z a h elh Sab a l i n o s 102 Faculty St. l3!a ck sburg Va. 1\11:>: 17, 1 1 0 \ 107, B e tt y L oy d <:01 0111111 'il, IH: hhur!\, \ n R.D. 2 W a Yllcs h o ro V a. 11 11, Salt /,flitf', Dr. Will. R lli l n ilh l ) 1.' \ \111 Sillt I.:\k.: City. I tah. 29

PAGE 32

The Origin of the Palettes, Lehman Caves National Monument, Baker, Nevada By CHARLES J. KUNDERT M .ining Geolo gis t Calif01'l7ia State Di71/'si()17 o f Mines PIi()/ os ily NII/i o l/al Park Se r v i ce The lI17I1S/wl and mUlel' striking cave fonl/atiol/s hnowl/ as jHlle ll es a.jJPm e nt1 y exist in quantily at l eas t in only two !!I1mun localities, i.e in Gmnd Caven7S at Groil-oes, Virginia, and at L eitman Caves National N l o 'l7um ent at Ba!, el', Ne7la da. The author of this article, afte r an extensive study of lit e Nevada p a l ette for117ations jJresents Ite rewith a scl/O/rl1'l y ;YPo tlt es is t o explain their origin. Lehman Ca \ 'es National Monument i s 1 0 cated on t h e eas t ern flank of V heel e r Peak (E l ev. 13,0 6 0 f ee t second hi g h est mounta in in Nevada) in the Snake R a n ge of eas t ern centra i eva d a near th e Utah border. The caves a r c in eastward dipping middle Cambrian limestone. Underlying th e limestone a r e well b edde d quartzites of low e r Cambrian and p erhaps pre C ambrian a ge Granite of unknown age has in truded the sed im ents a l ong the limesto ne-E !Ell MIOOLE CflMBlZlflN L'MSTVN EJ 61CIINITE LOWER! CAMBlZlflN QUfllZTZITE w Fig. I Sket c h sect i o n th r oug h Wheeler P eak. quartzite contact. The last datable geo logi c eve n t took place c1uri n g the Ple istoc e n e when g l ac i e r s cut deepl y into the f lanks of V h ee l e r P ea k Magnificent cirques and large U-shaped va liCys are prima ry ev id e n ces of past g la c iation T h e e x cess ive moisture conditions of th e Pl e i s t oce n e probably initiated th e ca v ern d eve l o p menL Lehman Caves National Monume n t i s note worthy (or the palette t y pe (orm ation whic h to th e author's knowledge, is unique except [or a muc h l a rg e r s imi lar t y p e fOllnd in the Grand Caverns at Grottoes, Virginia. T h e palettes a r e most commonly c ircul a r in s hape, range in di ame t e r from 6 inc hes to 5 [ee t and var y in 3 0 thickness from \4 in c h to approximately in ch. They arc u s u a ll y tilte d a t an a n g l e, and are fr eque ntl y fasteneel t o t h e w a ll. So m e of the pale ttes a r c compl e t e l y fr ee from the surround in g roc k and s t and away from t h e floor b y means of a drips t o n e base. Later dripstone COIll monl y obscures a p ortio n of the palette, often th a t part :lttac h ecl to th e wa ll rock T h e palettes appea r to b e dripstone fillin gs a long j oints with l h e w a ll rock l a t e r being dis so l ved away lca\'ing the palette jutting forth. In support of th i s th eo r y of d eve lopm ent a l o n g joint planes, it wi ll be d emonstrate d that th e palettes do exhibit continuity with the joint pattern. The accompa n y in g map l ocates approx i m a tel y 2 1 5 joint s and palettes. It i s divide d into convenient units whi c h wi ll be d ea l t with in dividually. Only j oims with a t l ea st two f ee t of exposed l e ngth w e r e mappe d This size limita lion was n ecessa r y beca use o f l oca ll y abundant joints in hi g hl y shatte r e d a reas where the occur ance of a n un(racture d piece of li mestone more than a few inc h es across was a rarity Othe r areas of counlry r ock, m easure d in feet were r e lativel y fr ee from fra ctures. In the foll owing tabulatio n of joints and pa l ettes, the latter are fo llowed by a l etter. P a l ettes attach e d to o r in clos e proximity with hi g hl y fra ctured country r oc k are s u ccee d e d by a capi tal F. P a l e ttes with o bscure d country r oc k areas a r e foll owe d by a capital D to indica t e a dripstone cove r. In eac h unit the joints and pal ettes a r e l oose l y groupe d according to their attitudes (str ik e followed b y th e dip if avai lable). NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 33

, , " .. , \ , : , Unit 1 N67W N69W NG3W N7SW N88vV N89\I\T N78E 70E N76E N IOW NS NS NS N I E N58E N5SE N27W N45W Fig. 2 43N 92N 49S F I5N F 73S F ? E F 33 E F 33 E F N PALETTE fiNO JOINT PATTEI?N I N LEHMI'IN CfM:' ----Crn::clion pnd djO 01' -/);=Ii"" pnd dip o(joi nls " .. _,,,-... Ou l kne OrQ:7r'o!' til VA//J SC"'I".L I 'NCH' 40 Map showin g location of approximately 215 ioints and palettes in Lehman Cave. TABU L. \ T JON OF JOIN T S : \ND P:\.LETTES Unit 2N72W 60S D NS7E 0J63E N71 W 30 E D NS7E N63E :jSN D N6S \ V 66N D EW N69E N65W 425 D EW N70E NS7E N60E NSOE 29N D N65E t SN F N7SE N2W N 1 2 \I\r NS F N 7 5 E N5W N IOE steep\' F N 7 5 E N6W N IOE 45E F NS D NS\\ SOW F NS2E 6-l-N NS ? F N 15E 55 E F NS2E N83W 5501 D NS 3 E NS3W N22\\ NS I E NSOW 5SN D N-IOW N75\V N7SW G 3N D 1\'S2\\1 N74W UniL 3-NSSW 30W 22N N4SW ? S NSG\\ N35W N 5 ()W -ION D NS7\V N : l5 W 52N NSSW 1 0N D NS5W N 30W l\ 35 \\' N88E N-I-l\\ -l-2N N87W NSSE J7N F BULLET1 N NUMB E R 14, SEPTEMB E R ) 1952 D

PAGE 34

N67E 68S F NS EW N82,,,r N70E N5E 56W N89W 28N D N7 1 E Unit 7 N85W N62E N8 'lW NI I W N88W N55E 67S F N9W N89W N50E 50S F Unit 5 N86W N45E 50S F N88E N22W N80W N83W N30W N25W N87W N7W N25W HV N68'''' NS F N60W I\'SOW N8W S8E F N85W Unit S -N4W N35E 49S F N48E N I O\'" N20W N48E N IOW Unit 4 Nl2W N48E N IOW N30W N5 1 E N3W N25W 52N N5W N28W N68E N61E N26W 46N F Unil 6N60E N65E N23W 4 1 N F N77W 52N N7 1 E N24W 48S N82W N I8W N20W N7SW N82W N ISW N87W N8 1 W N I2W N85W N85W Nl3W N68E N87W N21 W N70E N I 7E N I7W Nb2E N5E N70E N80E N 'lSW NoH. !J2N N I2W N82E N46' 28N D N65E N I5W N46W 23N F N I7W N24E N55W 35N D EW N20W 1'\ 42 '\' N44W N85E N86E N62E Uni t 9 N24E 53E D N87E N65E N83E N80E 5 'JS N7 1 E N86E N23W N60E N8 1 E N28W N65W 45N D N70E N86E N25W 33N F N60W N65E N86E N57W F N80E N42W N75E N80E N54W NSOE N88E N52'''' 35S F N75E N86E N43W 51S F N86E N8SE NS7E N65W N86E N62W 'J\, F ig. 3. Vrews of palettes. with later depos it s of dripst o ne 32 NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 35

A n examinatio n 0[. th e m a p and a study o f the g r oupe d d a t a d e m o nstrates a n accorda n ce b e tw ee n t h e pal ettes a n d j oints except perh a p s fo r Unit 2. T h e discre p a ncy in Unit 2 i s prob < Ibl y due to l ac k of ex p ose d j oints ; \ t hi c k drip s t o n e co v e r o bscures all but a f ew majo r j oints. F orty s ix p a l ettes we r e m appe d and o f th a t numbe r 1 8 w e r e o bscure d b y drips t o n e and 28 we r e [ ound with hi g hl y fracture d counti'y r ock. T h e appa r ent res tri ctio n o f p a l ettes t o areas o f s h atte r e d country r oc k indica t es th a t th e r oc k h as b ee n r ende r e d m o r e soluble beca use o f t he fr acturing and tha t th e s h a tte r e d zon e p e r mitte d p e r co l a tin g w a t e r t o m o y e fr ee l y thus avoiding furthe r contro l b y maste ; c r ac k s a ft e r the m as t e r c r ac k s h a d been a t l eas t p artially obli t e r a teel b y dri p sto ne. S u gges t e d hi s t o r y o f a p a l e lte-1. T h e limest o n e was s u b j e c te d t o pressure d eve l oping numer o u s j oints. 2 Locally t h e r oc k b eca m e s h alte r e d w ith numerou s s m a ll j oints i n addit i o n to m as t e r j o ints. 3 During th e initia l pe ri o d o f d e p os ili o n of th e c a ve cycle th e c r ac k s w e r e partially or p e r haps completel y fille d (futu r e p a l ettes) i .e. lh e mas t e r c r ac k s b eca use th ey w ould go v ern lh e flo w o f t h e lim e ri c h solulio ns. 4. In th e s h attered a r e a s a lat e r p e ri o d 'of d i sso h in g so lu tio n s p e r co l a l e d lhro u g h lh e mino r c r ac k s and o nl y slig htl y di slurbe d lh e se al e d m as t e r j oints. 5 G r adually th e r oc k a r ound t h e fill e d mas t e r c r ac k s (fulure p a l ettes) w as r e m oved. The r ounde d f orms o f th e p a l eltes a r e probably due t o attac k o f a l esse r d eg r ee b y th e p e r co l a lin g wa l ers. Dri p s t o n e i s m o r e so lu bl e tlt a n COLI nlr)' r oc k lhll s if seconda r y p assages w e r e n o t a \ ail a bl e in th e country r oc k [ o r p e r co l a tin g so lll tio n s the drips l o n e m a t e ri a l (future p a l ettes) fillin g th e m as t e r j oints w ould pro b a bl y b e r e di sso l ve d .-\ l ac k o r p a l ettes in olht T limesto n e C;1\'es Illa y b e due t o p a u city o f shattered areas o f coun try r oc k B U LLETIN N UMBE R 1 4, S E I' TE1\ .fBE R ) ] 9 52 Fiy. 4. Dripstone o bscured exumple of p al ette iutting forth f rom wall in Lehman Cave. Fig. 5. T he Parachute in Lehman Cave ; a beautiful examp le o f a palette standing f ree fr o m the wall.

PAGE 36

The Caves of Malta B y T R. SHAW Royal Navy A Il lill%s b y the out hOI" Unlike Cibmltl/1" and Majorca, 1 11alta cmmot be l'egal'ded as one of th e main cave m'eas of the Meditenmlea"/1, It does have a speleological histor)" however, in which ston:es associating its caves with. the myth of the CyciojJS "and of th e nymph Calypso are intermingled with the fact of the shipwreck on that Island of the Apostle Paul. The author ab l y d escribes a 17l11nber of th e caves loco t e d on both the island of IIlalta and its !!:djoining island of COlO, some of which were supposedl y used by all three of th e above mentione d jJC1"Sonages. Malta cannot b e regarde d as one of the main cave areas ot the Mediterranean, to the same extent as Gibra ltar and Majorca. Nevertheless the r e are a number of caves in the island; fift ee n can still be located definitely, and it appears fj-om the older books that at one, time as many as_ thirty-eight were known. A few of these are to have been quarrie d away; others may have collapsed. and it is possible that diff erent writers may have described individual caves un der several names. The caves were first mentioned in 1647 b y F. F. Abela in hi s book D e lla Descrittione di M alta". No particular cave is named but the author speaks of the discovery in the hollows and fissures of tl1e rock of enormous bone s were r egarded at that time as remains ot the Cyclops an al1:icnt rac e of giants supposed formerly to have l ived in Sicily: "But l astly what further testimony can we desire of the habitation here of the Cyclops without the n ee d of borrowing from the ancient scriptures, in volved in the obscurity of time, than that given us by the gigantic bones found in Malta, and their hollow burial-places cut in. the living rock ... The fir st book to con tai n a accou n t of several of th e caves was written more than a hundred years latcr by G F Abela. and pub lished as two (olio volumes in 1772 unde r the titl e of "Malta Illustrata". It includes d esc rip tions of tw e lve caves, but several of them are small sea-caves and of very little interest. Then in 180 4 severa l cave ref e rences appear ed in a history written in English by one of the 34 Kni g hts of l'vfalta, Louis de Boisg e lin de Kerdu. This book "Anci ent and Modern Malta", was follow e d in 184 0 by Miege's "Histoire de Malte" which contained considerably more information than its predecessors. Since that date numerous guide-books and small histories have appeared, but they contain very little that had not b ee n wri tten before. In general the caves are sma ll by comparison with European or American standards, and to some extent this can be attributed to the water less state of the island. Betw ee n and Sep tember no rain f a lls at all. and in winter the water sinks a lmost immediatel y into the porous limestone. At the present tim e no permanent riv e r s or streams ex ist though the formation of the gorge-like valleys which inte rsect the island in all directions is often attributed to a period of greater rainfall in th e past. The caves them selves appear mostly to have been formed by phreatic action when the land lay very much lower relative to the water table. Fig. I Ghar Hassan. Malta ; East Chamber. NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 37

MALTA & GOZO o 2 3 4 6 I GEOG MILES HASSAN' S CAVE 2 GHAR DALAM 3 WIED HANZIR CNE 4 ST. PAUL'S GROTTO 5 CALYPSO' S CAVE 6 TA NINU CAVE 7 XERRI' S CAVE 8 GHAR IX -XIEH HASSAN'S CAVE MALTA 5 10 \ FEET o 20 40 60 80 100 , SURVEY BY T R SHAW 1950. 5 FIGURES DENOTE ROOF HEIG HTS BULLETI N NUl\JIIER 1 4, SEPTEMBER) 19 52 35

PAGE 38

Fig, 2, Ghar Hassan. Malta; Roof channel i n East Chamber T h e l a r gest cave in Malta i s Hassan 's Cavc o r as th e n ati\'es ca ll it "Ghar H assa n CG h a r b e in g t h e wo r d for a cave). T h e e nt r a n ce lies in a hi g h sea -cliff o f Oligoce n e co r al line lim esto n e ncar the so u th-cas t corner o f th e i s l and, a f'cw hundrecl yar ds [rom the R oya l Naval A ir Stati o n at H a l Far. T h e l eve l of t h c cave i s o \ e r a hundre d [ce t above the sea, and i t i s r cac h e d from t h c g r ound above b y a l e d ge a l o n g t h c cliff face T h e r e a r c in fact t wo othe r e n t r a n ces furthe r eas t a l o n g th e sa m c cl iff, but t hey a r e llu it c in access ibl e fr o m o utsid e and o n c has bec n railed off for sa f e t y b y th e autho ri t i es. T h e t o t a l passage l e n gth a m ounts t o 1270 r ec t th e ge n e r a l s h a p c o ( th e cave b e in g a r cctang ul a r network a s s h ow n in th e accom p a n y in g pla n A b roa d p assagc cx t ends fr o m th e m a i n c n t ra n ce a nel a (t c r a few yar d s it i s crosse d b y a nother at ri g h t a n g lcs. To t h e r ight th c tunne l runs parallel t o t h e cliff f ace and c m e r ges c \ c lltu a ll y, at the second and t hi r d e n t r a n ccs. B y th e larger o r these th e r e i s a l ow c hamb e r so m e 4 0 fee t by 3 0 [ ce l lit entirely b y d ay li g h t (scc fig. I). and fr o m th e bac k th e r e 36 exten ds ano th e r p assage n early p arallel t o the fir st and inte r connec t e d with it i n seve r a l places B eyond the c r oss r oa d s the entra n ce tunnel n arrows co n s id e r ably, the n tur n s ri g h t into a r ift pa ssage as far as t h e fin a l c h ambe r. A s m a ll circ ul a r tube continues f o r so m e 1 6 fee t and the n that too cl oses. Evide n ce of phrea ti c solutio n i s cle a r a li thro u g h t h e cave Maximum 'width occ urs eve r y w h e r e a t the principa l b edding p l a n e w hi c h p er s i s t s thro u g h out th e wh o l e cave, u s u a ll y a foot o r so a b o \'e t h e floor. Mos t o f th e j oint pl a n es a r e o p e n [ o r so m e dis t a n ce a b ove th.e passages, and in Jlla n y pl aces semic ir c ular c h annels ca n b e see n m eandering ac r oss the o th e r w ise fla t r oof. One of these roof c h anne l s in the chambe r b y the e a s t entra n ce i s shown in fig 2. T h e name Hassan's Cave i s d e ri ve d f r om the l egend th a t th e cave was used as a refu ge b y a n A r a b o f th a t n a m e w h e n his countryme n we r e ex p e ll e d fr oJll th e i s l and. A s m a ll circ ul a r c h a mber has b ee n excava t e d b y h and n ea r th e eastern e n t r a n ce and i s s h ow n as H assa n's actu a l dwelling. H e i s said t o h ave ke p t a s m a ll boat a t th e root of th e cliffs, a hund red o d d f ee t b e l o w and hi s o nl y m ea n s o f r eaching it w,is b y s w arming up and d ow n th e face o n a vertica l r ope. No pre hi sto ri c bo n es h ave b ee n r ecor ded [r o m Hassa n's Cave but a b out 1 865 seve r a l t r i a l tr e n c h es w e r e dug by L e i t h Adam s a zoo l og i s t wh o was sen in g as a doctor w i t h t h e ga r r i so n H e tells a n amLis in g story o f th e Maltese p eo pl c w h o Llsed t o s t and wa t ching the excava ti o n s and t r y in g to IlIa k e aLIt th e i r purpose. One after n oo n h e surreptiti o u s l y dro'ppecl a Spa ni s h d o l lar o n t h e s h ove lful o f earth, and next m o m ent Fig, 3. Ghar Hassan. Malta; Excavating f loor secti o n s. NATIONAL SPELEO-LOGICAL SOCIET Y

PAGE 39

it lay with the soil on the heap. He picked it up quite casually and put it in his pocket, and soon the spectators, whispering to eac h other, walked off. Next day when Leith Adams r eturne d he found that not only had his own trench been continued down a further four feet, but that several other excellent floor sections had be e n made by them in the hope of finding '!laney! Ghar Hassan is the only cave in 1\IIalta in which I was able to find bats. :\ numbe r of them used to frequent an inaccessible fissure not far from the main entrance, and though they used to squeak lustily at every approach I could never get close enough to id en tif y them. In an other part of th e cave, however, I handled a number of Myotis myotis (Bechstein)-the bat earthed there. This cave also i s situated in the southeastern corner of the island, 600 yards from Birzebuggia and th e shores of Xlok. The entrance has been gated by th e government Museum Department which has built a house above to contain some o f th e r e lics and provides a guide to show visitors round the cave The first 250 feet consists of a straight pas sage at right angles to th e valley outside, some 20 f eet w.ide and varying in h eight from 12 to 27 feet. It is in this section that the remain s have been discovered and the Hoor consists of a mass of tre n c h es of diff erent depths running in to eac h other and flanked by complele sect i o n s of fill ieft as controls. At one point is a stra n ge mushroom-like stalagmite whose uppe r h a lf Fig. 4. Ghar Dalam, Ma lta ; showing excavations for bones. referred to by Casteret as a Murin-and on one wall were sets of quintuple scratches where their claws had perhaps slipped in th e ir attempts to alight. Another of the large r caves, Ghar Dala m is frequently m entioned in the literature, on ac count of the enormous masses of prehistoric an imal bones and pottery that have been un-BULLETIN NUMBER 14, SEPTEMBER) 1952 continued to increase in s ize after the bottom wa s protecte d b y th e earth. The bone d epos its were fir s t notice d in 1865 but the first large scale excava tions wer e not m ade until 1892 (Cooke 1894) More work was done during the first ,,, T orId 'Nar and in several of the succeeding years anti in 1917 CO\1siderable interest was aroused by the discovery

PAGE 40

o f 'I"ha l were thought to b e two molar t ee th of Man. No o ther huma n r e m ai n s ea rli e r th a n th e Neolithic period h ave e \ 'e r b een found in th e i s l ands, and th e id e ntificatio n o f th ese t ee th h as not been unive r sally accepted. B eyond the oss if e r o u s sect ion of th e cave, the passages become muc h smaller and a nUlll ber of narro w tunne l s bra n c h off in diff erent di rectio ns. The continuation of the main e nt rance pa ssage I S almost blocked by a lin e of im mense boulde r s fall e n fr o m th e roor, but it i s possible t o scramble ove r th ese and clow n the o th e r s id e t o a l ow b edding chamber whose roof i s intersected b y so m e m eandering roof c h an nels lik e miniature editi o n s of thos e in Has san 's Cave On the opposite s id e of the va ll ey and in line with Ghar D a l a m i s a wid e cave entr a n ce, but the p assage b eyond is tota ll y bloc k e d with earth. It has been suggested th a t the two caves were f ormed as a continuous p assage b e n ea th th e water t a bl e a t a time b e for e the vall ey b o t tom r eac h e d its present l eve l or p erha p s before it ex i s t e d a t aIL Then as the c h anne l was c ut tin g downwards it eventually bro k e through the top of th e ca v e passage which then acted as a co llector fo r all th e b o n es and rubbish b e in g swept down b y the rive r. T h e little cave a t the junc ti o n of "Vied Hanzir and W ied il K ebir, in the centre o f l 'Vlalta is \ 'e r y diff e r ent t o the tw o preceedin;; o n es. It i s quite small, n o t m o r e than 76 f ee t l o n g and at le as t p art o f it h as been exca v a t e d by h and in th e soft r ock. The entrance li es it few feet above the valley bottom and ha s been s haped illl o a rectan g ular doorway 7 f ee t wide by S f ee t hi g h Insi d e, i t opens into a c h ambe r 48 leet b y 27. tt i s hi g h est in the centre where a fissure in th e roof appea r s to be n atura l but tL1e walls h ave b ee n cut b ac k artific i a ll y and both s id es h ave b ee n d eco rated by verti ca l ribs a littl e less t h a n a foot wide and sep a rated by recesses o f about t h e sam e s ize. A t the farther end of th e chambe r th e pick mark s on the walls ccase and a n a tura l passage co n tinlles f o r 28 feet b e fore b e in g completel y bloc k e d b y a boulde r c h o k e. I h a v e not b ee n a bl e to find any r e li a bl e d escriptio n of th e cave, but a s h ort article by th e R ev .J. Farrugia appeared a f ew yea r s ago in the Times of Malta. He suppose d tha t th e 38 F ig. 5 Wied H anzi r Cave, Malta; M ain Chamber s howing ribs and incised star. large b oulder j.ust outside the cave and half bl ocking the entra n ce indica t e d that it was in habite d at o n e tim e b y prehistoric m a n. T h e d ecorati\' e ribs and o th e r m arkings on th e walls h e th o u ght were add e d l a t e r when primitive Chris ti a n s u se d the ca \ 'e as a churc h, One o f th ese wall m arkings ca n be seen in th e photograph (fig, 5.), a five-pointe d s t a r incised on one of the ribs; and n ea r the entrance there a r e a l a r ge or s m a ll cros s es cut similarly 1TI t h e roc k Another of th e m o r e intc restiri g caves in i\falta i s comple t e l y a rtifi c i al-St. Paul's Grotto, where the Apostle i s sa id to have liv e d for three Illonths a ft e r hi s shipwrec k on the i s l and. A churc h h as becn built ove r th e grotto, in Cittit Vecc hi a, and a s tatu e in white marbl e placed in thc cave itself. T h e rock of th e wa lls is a soft linlcstone and th e mirawl o u s l)r 0 l;erty has b ee n attributed to it of growin g again whereve r the stOllC i s cut away .. -\nd as this n ew r oc k was supp oseel to b e supplie d by St. Paul it was in great d emand, be in6" valued as a cure for fev e rs and all kinds of s n a ke-bite. At one time thi s ston e, kn o wn as pi etra d e ll a grazia", u se d t o b e sent OLIl n o t o nl y all over Euroj)e but as f a r as I -ndia and the East. Also in and a r o uncl Vecchia there a r e s e \'er a l se ries of catacombs, but they a r c o tit s id e th e sco p e o r thi s a rti c l e. T h e small e r o t th e Maltese Isl a nds is called Cozo and lies about four miles to the n o rth-w est of Malta i tse lf. It conta ins several s m a ll caves in the Miocene co r alline limes t o n e, o n e o f great antiquity and the o th ers discovered within the la s t century. NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 41

Overlooking Ramla Ba y on the north coas t of Gozo is C a l ypso's Cave. It i s repute d t o b e the v e ry same cave as w as occupi e d b y the nymph Calypso in th e fifth book of Home r 's Odyssey. The entrance is l ow, howeve r and n o t very easy of access, and the interior of the cave co n s ists of a series of l ow crawlway s b e tw ee n shattered c h ambers floored with angula r frag. m ents of roc k. It certai nl y cannot b e imagined as the home o f a se lf-r especting n ymph, al tho u g h severa l of the ea rl y writers, who h a d p ossibl y never v i s i ted the place, repeate d th e l egend without comment. Sir Val t e r Scott, who passed near the cave o n his way to Malta s h ortly b e for e hi s death, was by no mean s complim e nt ary when he describe d i t in his diary. Two of the Gozo caves a r e found within a few hundre d fee t of eac h o ther in the vi ll age of Xaghra, and both were broken into accidentall y whe n the vi ll agers were sinking we ll s T h e fir s t di scove r e d in 1 888, i s kn ow n as th e Ta Ninu Cave [rom the l oca l name of th e prop erty and lies a littl e t o the west of th e parish churc h The cave co n s i sts of o nl y two chambe r s r eac h e d by a flight of ste p s from the yard above, but it is we ll furnis h e d w i t h sta lactites. The roof is studded with s traws, m a n y of th e m n ow bro k e n and in pl aces it i s joined to the I-Ioor b y s tal agmite columns seve r a l in ches thi c k The oth e r cave in Xaghra i s ca ll e d X erri' s Cave. It was di sco ver e d in 1 924 and the n a m e of th e cave i s n ow displ ayed ove r th e door of th e owner 's house A se t of regu lations i s hung inside th e building, includin g one which [or bids th e v isitor to damage th e inside of t h e Crotto' with th e optimistic requir e m ent tha t h e must 'make good a n y damage d o n e'. The cave itse][ i s so m e 3 0 f ee t below g r ound and i s r eac h e d b y a sp i ra l sto n e s t a ir case It con s ist s o f a s u ccess i o n of p assages a b out s ix f ee t hig h arranged at ri ght a n gles. At o n e point a l ow llInne l bra n c hes out fr o m h a Hwa y u p th e wa ll and extends for 1 5 f ee t into the side o f a we ll presumably th e we ll fr o m whic h the cave w as discovered. The calc it e formations occur in separate groups in thi s cave, t h e l a r gest b e in g a t the end farthest fr 0111 th e e n trance s t airwaya fin e s tala gmite flow and a numbe r of s t a l ac tites and curtains, m a n)' o f which wi ll ring when stru c k. The re a r e a l so a s m a ll number of h e li c ti tes. BULLETIN NUMBER 14, SEPTEMBER) 1952 The m ost interesting form ation and o ne which h as s till not b ee n sa ti sfactoril y ex pl a ill e d i s a g r oup of thinwall e d ca lcit e tubes f ormed r ound hanging r oo ts. In so m e o[ th ese the or i g in a l roots h ave disappea r e d compl e tely and in o th e r s th e r e r e m a in s o nl y a d ecaye d fibr o u s subs t a n ce. In sec ti o n th ese forma ti o n s a r e not simple tubes as might b e expec ted, n o r d o th ey reseJll ble a woody s k e leton ; bu t th eir structur e i s in fact \'er y compl ex. In th e t y pi ca l case it co n s i s t s o f tw o co n centric s h el l s of ca lcit e j o in e d together o n one s id e eithe r b y a sing l e partitio n o r by a n other tube; \I'hil e in o th e r s p ec im e n s there are seve r a l interna l tub(:s, irreg ularl y a r ra n ge d within a n oute r s h e ll. A n interest in g l egen d i s associate d with (\1'0 s m a ll s h elte r ca \ 'es overlooking \ V i e d Mgarr ix X ini in the south-eas t ern corne r of GolO It i n ea r t h i s spot that the fir st settl c r s in Cow a r e repute d to h a \' e li\'ed, and th eir c hi e f i s said to h a \ 'e administe r e d jus ti ce in a n o pen s h elter ca \ c called Gha r i x-X i e h. A f e w yards away i s anothe r cave El H abs, n ow partl y wa lled up and used for h o u sing goats, where th e pt : i so n e r s a r e s upposed t o h a v e been k ept. Most of these caves in Malta and Gozo h a v e been described r ecently in "Cave Science" the j ourna l of th e Britis h Spe l e o logi ca l A ssoc i a ti o n. T h ese r e feren ces a r e g i\ 'e n at th e end of this article togethe r wi th a s h ort s e lection from th e bibliogr aphy of the M a l tese caves. Thcre i s s till opportunity fo r more work unde r g r ound in i\{a lt a and p artic ul a rl y in the l esse r kn ow n i s l and of COlO. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY AIIELA, F. F ( 1 6 1 7 ) : Dclla D escriuione di \falla ; Fol., M a I ta. AIIELA, G. F ( 1 772 S O ) : \la l la IlIuS lrala o n e r o d esc ri z i o n e di \falla; 2 vols .. f o l. \Ia l l a A. L. ( I S70 ) : NOlCS of a Natura li s l in the N il e Valley and f alla; S v o Edinburgh. BOISGI'LIN DE KERIlU. P. L. \1. Ill' ( ISOI ) : Anc i enl and Modern \Ialla; 2 \lo is., 'Ito., L O lld O Il. COOKE, .T. H. (lS9-1): The Hal' Dal a m Cavcrn M alta; Proc. Roy. Soc. LIV, I S9I pp. 27 1 -2S I i\f IEr.E (lS-IO) : His l oire de i\lallc; I vo l s Svo Paris. 1\[I'RRAY, I. \ all d TIIO\lI'SON, G. C. (1923-5): Ex cav : lli o n s in Malta, Parts I &: II; Ito. London. SIIAII'. T R. ( 1 950): H assa n 's Cavc, i\(alla; Cave Scie n ce, II 1 3, 1 950 pp. 1 9 1 -3. S H All', T. R ( 1 95 l a): Ghar Dalam, i\(alla; Cave Sc i c nce. II 1 5, 1 95 1 pp. 30 -1-8. S HAW, T. R ( 1 9 : ; l b ): Ca\ es of Gozo; Cave Scie n ce, II. Hi, 1 95 1 pp. 339-3 -17. 39

PAGE 42

The K u h -I S h u h C a v e s By JOHN H. D. HOOPER A II Ilh% s II)' /h e all thor This fascinating a ccount of a visit to some little-known caves situated in a gorge of the Kanm Rive1' i n southern P e rsia i s rejJlete with history, both geologic and hwnal1, though not too much is knOWl1 of th e latte r The caves desC1"ibed h erein, once inhabited, lie along a lW1TOW l e d ge, in one place only 12 inc h es wide, which 1"1I11S a cross th e face of jJreci jJitous c liffs at a height of 1200 feet ab01le th e river! T h e Karun river, risin g amongst the rugged Z agros mOllnt a ins of southern Persia careers through many spectacular gorges b e for e it lea"es the hills b ehind and flows across I S O miles of d esert to the P e rsi a n Gulf. One sllch gorge lie s 10 miles to the northea st of Masjid-i Su laiman, ,the once busy town that formed th e centre of the e xtensiv e oi l fields r ece ntl y oper:tt ecl b y the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. In this go rg e, the Karun, perhaps 200 fee t wide in sum m e r Hows b e tw ee n two great congl ? m erate mas s ifs eac h roug hly 3000 fee t hi g h kno wn as the Kuh-i-Jariak and the Kuh-i-Shuh the latter forming the northern wall. Their cliffs which ri se in precipitous steps on eithe r side to a h eight of 1500 fee t above the riv e r a r e complete l y un sca lable for many miles although access ca n b e occasionally gained to ro"c k y t e rraces where narrow beds or" sandstone h ave b ee n ex p ose d Along these terra ces there a re small caves and ofte n springs of fresh w a t er, trappe d b y th e imperv ious sandstonc. Probably the most inter esting-and certainly the mos t sensational-are the Kuh-i-Shuh Ca ves, whi c h lie along a pre carious l e d gc, 1 2 00 fcet above the river. These caves are too f,llfrom c ivilisation to be rea c h e d in th e summe r when the sun tempe r ature at tains 160 F and t he roc k s a r e too hot to b e touched with t h e b a r e hand, but in the coo l e r of the late autumn, th e trip althoug h arduous b eco mes possible. T h e caves b ea r clear t races of huma n h abitation, but eve n now it is doubtful if they havc b ee n visited b y more tha n a sco r e of Europeans. During 1 949, I was temp o raril y s t a ti o n c d in Masjid-i-Su l aiman and in NO" cmbe r of that year I was able t o m a ke two trips to th cse caves : bmh ex p editions were in th e co mp:In y of Mr. T. St. John Eve, of l\IIasjid-4 0 Fig. I. General view of t he Kuh-I-Sh uh cave le dge. T he sheer drop below thi s ledge i s approximately 450 feet and the Karun R ive r i s 750 feet l o we r stilll The dark face o n the left marks t he scen e of an e n o rmous rock fall. i-Sulaiman and on th e second occasion we were joinc d by Mr. R. L. Cow l ey, a lso of th a t town. Our starting point was Godar Landa r a s m all village b y K arun, where the motor r oa d cnds at a pumping station which suppli es w a t e r to the oi l fie ld s 'Ve crosse d the riv e r at a nearby ferry, this being a r a ft some 6 f ee t square, m a d e from thin poles and supported on infl a t e d goa tskins-at fir st sight a ve r y flimsy craft on which to entrust o n eself to the fast-NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 43

m ov in g wate rs. Thc LwO o r three pa ssc n gc r s c r o u c h as bcst they e ll1 o n the wet poles and thc [ crry m a n knec lin g a t Lhe '[ront', scoops thc waLcr towards himsclt WiLh a spade l i k e paddle, m aking s k iltul u sc o[ ba c k cddies L O prevent the raft from b e in g swept too f a r downstrcam. The Kuhi-Shuh Caves l i e so m c [ o u r milcs upstrca m [ro m Godar Landar and ca n in [ ac t b e r c a c h e d by skirti n g along th c b asc o [ th e cliff s o[ Kuhi-Shuh and th e n climbing for n c ar l y 1000 f ee t throug h a se n satio nal g ul l y whi c h o I l c ads dircct l y t o the G l\ e l e d ge e howe\er prderre d Lo approach b y a l o nger but r a th e r l ess prec ipi to u s r outc whic h took u s O\'er thc top o [ th e m ountain and in to th e g ull y f r olll abO\ e ]n o rd e r to b y pass t h e cliffs "'hi c h form s u c h a n impe n ctrable southern f aca d e to Kuhi-Shuh. w c had to ascend a s id c y alley, foll ow in g a s m a l l ri\'c r t h c -\b-i:\nda k a h -until 'e reach c d a pass g iyin g access to th e m o r e gentle northern s l o pcs o [ th e mounta in. To e n te r this \"it! I cy h o\\"C\"Cr \\c "'e r c f orce d to cl i III b for MILE N ANDAKAH PLATEAU .-----.. ROUTE TAKEN F ig. 2. Map s h ow ing locati o n o f t he Kuh-I S huh Caves in sou t he r n B ULLETI N NUMBER 1 4, SEPTEl\fBE R ) J 952 4 1

PAGE 44

42 F ig. 3 R. L. C owley sta rt s t he return j ou rne y acr oss the narr owes t section o f the K u h I -Shu h cave ledge This trave r se i s 1 2 fee t long, but it i s well provi d e d with secu re handhold s NATIONAL S PELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 45

nearly 1 200 (eet up a steep scarp o[ conglomera t e forming th e southern end o[ an inte rv ening mountain ridge known a s th e Kuh-i-Landar. T his climb b ega n a b out a mil e b eyond th e f erry c ros s ing, as a w e ll-d efine d zigzag tra c k and ended with a success ion o[ hard scrambles up long roc k faces wh e r e hands were as important as f eet. The crest o [ Kuh-i -Landa r was broken by a d eer) cl e ft n ea rl y 100 f ee t hi g h and b a r e l y 1 5 f ee t wide a t its m outh. Thi s was known as "Th e Funnel" and in s ide a dark cave and a narrow chimney bro u ght u s out on a t errace a L Lhe t o p of th e cliff. B eyond l ay a broa d wind ing trac k whi c h continue d up the Andakah val l ey. The roc k s composin g thi s ston y paLh w e r e polishe d and shiny [rom the passage o [ count less pairs of sanda ls, as it was o n e of th e a n c i ent Bakhtiari hig h ways to th e m ounta in s where Lhe tribesm e n h a d their summe r quarters As w e foll owecl its s i n u o u s eve r clim bing course we o f L e n h a d th e f r i endly company o [ s m all g r o u ps of these tribes m e n o r h a d La ste p as id e L a give way to a ca r a 'an o f h ea "il y laden mules or a floc k of obstreperous goats. Giant boulcle r s o[ yell ow co n g l om e r a t e clung to the m ounta in s id e and wild almond bushes and a n occasional K a lK a ng" tree lent a w e l co m e Lauc h of g r ee n e r y to the oth e rwise arid scene. The l atte r tree ( Pisl acia khinjllk) had shiny resinous l eaves and bi g cluste r s of orange yell ow b erries. One hundre d feet bel o w o n our ri ght, th e Andakah ri,'er tumbled throug h a s u ccess ion of c ryst a l-gr ee n poo l s and b eyond, the sheer crags o[ Kuh-i-Shuh tow ered hi g h over h e ad, Lheir j agge d s k yline clear-cut agai n s t a dazzling blue sky. The r i ver looked ve r y invit ing', but its wate r s were l a d e n with gypsum and undrinka bl e. Howeve r thirty minutes walk fr o m th e top o[ "Th e Funne l th e r e w as a spring b es id e th e path, a curtain of clear but tepid water flow in g o ,'er th e sun-ba ked r oc k [ro m so m e hidde n outle t in a t a n g l e o [ f erns and vines a b ove. 'I\fe fille d our w a t e r bottles here as thi s was th e lasL source o[ drinking w a t e r until the caves w e r e reache d. A[ter plodding uphill [ o r a furthe r h a lf an hour, we r eac h e d th e h ea d o [ th e vall ey: h e r e, the p a th flatte n e d and the r av in e billowe d out into the Andakah Pl a t ea u-a bl ea k expanse, many miles across, where thinly cove r e d hum m oc k s o f gy p sum wci"e bro k e n o nl y b y th e dense BULLETIN NUMBER H, SEPTEMBE R ) 1952 groves of Lama ri s k tha t borde r e q th e river. VVe n ow l e ft Lhe path and a ft e r crossing th e ri ver b y a lin e of uns t a bl e stepping stones, we m a d e a two mile ascent o f the grassy northern s l opes of Kuh-i-Shuh-slopes far l ess forbidding than the cliffs that overhung the K arun and eve n p ar tiall y cove r e d with oa k tre es. Some o( these trees w e re as hi g h as 30 feet-an unus u a l s i ght in such a barre n di s tri c t where trees of a n y s ize w e r e a r arity. This s p ec i es (Qu ercus a egiiojJs) produces bulle t-shape d acorns, 2 to 3 in c hes l o n g fr o m which th e B akhtia ri tribesm e n pre p a r e a flour and a rather unpa l a tabl e bread in ti m es o f crop f a ilure The summit o f Kuhi-Shuh was a broad and s t o n y plateau gas hed b y numerous c h a r ac t e ri s tic stream defiles "'hic h b ega n in gentle fash i o n bUL soo n d ee p e n e d and ga ined s h ee r and un bro k e n w alls, severa l hundre d f ee t hi g h. These r avines a ll l oo k e d ery much alik e on t h a t fealUrcl ess l andsca p e and our problem 'as to sel ec t the one whi c h 'ould take u s do\l"n to the Kuh-i-Shuh ca 'e l edge. Fortuna t e ly, 'I"e chose w e ll and aft e r a mile o r tw o of Lediou s scramb ling a l o n g a rudimentar y track we ca m e in s i ght o f th e Karun gorge. The high c r ags w hi ch h emme d u s in m e r ge d into the walls of th e gor ge a nd th e dry SLrea m b e d o n our left dropped into a n eve r-d ee p ening g ull y th a t dis apFeared b ehind fr i ghtening cliff s falling awaY' t o th e ri" e r f a r b e l ow Our Lrac k skirting th e ver y e d ge o( th ese cliff s ende d a t a s h e lvin g t errace of s mooth reick 50 feet wide, th a t w as p anly r oo f ed ove r by a n e normous archway, 100 fee t hi g h and feet l o n g-presumably the r e sult of so m e ca t aclys mi c roc k f a ll. A tin y spring s e e i Je d OUL from the green e r y a t th e b ase of thi s a r c h and tri ckle d d ow n t o a n a rtifi c ial trough, r o u g hl y 3 feet squa r e A s w e rest e d h e r e, g r ea t eag les soa r e d e ffortless l y b ac kw ards and for\\'a rds o n I y a sco r e of feet a wa y from liS bu t 'ith nearl y 1 200 feet o f empty s pace b e n eath th e ir outstre t c h e d wings. The L errace fina ll y dwindle d to a shelf about 6 fee L "'ide, with th e roc k a bov e overhang in g t o [ o rlll a l ow haJ[ llInn e l and this l e d to the m ain ca,'e l e d ge. On m y firsL yis i t I e xplored it a l o n e, for m y compa ni o n preferre d t o save hi s breaLh [ o r th e three and a half h our r eturn j ourney : instea d h e s t aye d talking to so m e BakhLi a ri n o m a d s who h a d assure d liS tha t th e r e w as n o 43

PAGE 46

possible route th e cliff [ace and who were duly impresse d whe n I walked along the l e d ge without difficulty and st ill more impresse d whe n m y r eappearan ce, forty minutes l a t er, put a n end to th e ir g l oomy for ebodings as to m y prob a bl e fate. For the fir s t f e w hundre d fee t the l edge con s i sted o[ a se ries of broken, irregular t e rraces whi c h altho u g h narrow could b e tr averse d with co nfid e nce as the imme di a t e dro p was o nl y a matte r o f 1 0 f ee t or so and h e nce the f eeling of exposure w as slig ht. Amongst th e gTeat wedg e d b oulde r s o n m y ri ght th e re were a f ew s m all c h ambe r s and I f ound tha t th e ir d a rk archways provide d effec tiv e frames through which to v i e w th e go r ge Particula rl y fine was the v i sta ups tr ea m wi t h the pal e blue wa ters of th e riv e r, broke n at inte rval s by th e white lIec k s of r apids and cascades t a p ering away into th e distance until a b end in the towering cliff s hid it [r o m m y s i g h t. In th e a ftern oo n I ight.. the grea t precipices of Kuh-iShuh wer e t aw n y a llli golde n but the nver itself and t h e cliff s of the Kuhi-J a ri a k on the far side of the gorge w e r e dimme d by misty, blue-grey s h a dows Presently the t erraces and boulde r piles m e r ge d t o f orm a s in g l e rocky platform, s mooth and l evel. Near t hi s point a l ow arch in the ver tical c r ags on m y r i ght lec!' into a l arge, dark c h ambe r r o u g l 1 1 y 4 0 feet in dia m e t e r . T h e flat I"oof, 8 f ee t hig h was blackened by s m o k e and th e floor was litte r e d with goat dung, for thi s cave i s s till used by present day tribesm e n It appears, howeve r, th a t they d o not v enture far th e r a long the l e d ge whi c h beyond thi s n arrowed to s i x f ee t a nd l ess. O ver h ea d the rock overhung as an a lmost co n tinuo u s r oof, so l ow that I ofte n h a d t o s t oop. 'Walking shirtless b eca u se of th e hot su n I sudde nl y f elt a v i c i o u s sta b in 'lllY s h oulde r and found tha t I had be e n SLUng by a h ornet-an unprovok e d assault whi c h almost discourage d m e from p e n etrating a n y f arther. T h e continuing sect i o n moreover was a place wh e r e -esp ec i ally 'whe n alone-F i g 4. One o f the a rtifi c i al caves. s h o wing th e pi l lars hew n from the l iving r o c k The adze mark s s h o w c learly on the p illars and wa l l s T he autho r prov i d es the scale-and consi d e r s that the m o r o s e express i on must. be due t o the fact that h e had been s t u ng o n the back b y a horn e t only a few min utes previously I Note the shoes-the P e r sia n cloth-soled 'Giveh' which give an excel lent grip on a l m os t any r o ck. 44 NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 47

F ig, 5, T h e a u th or, hai r aw r y p o se s b y a c a v e e n t ranc e wh i l e a d el a y e d action d e v ice o n h i s came r a shuiter t ake s the pictu r e Thi s ph o t ogra p h s h o w s the r o ugh, p o ck m a rked conglo m e rate overlying the b e d s 0' solter r o ck ( c alcareou s sand sto ne) in whi c h t h e c a v e s are l ormed The base 0 1 th e ledge i s again and a large b ou l d e r 0 1 t he s ame r o ck s t ands at the r ight, e ver y possibl e e n couragemelll ,, as n ee d c d H c r e. b eneath a jutling fig' tree th e r cassuring I c \ 'cJ n ess of the t errace ga\ c placc to a h o ld l ess s lope, p erhaps 1 5 f ee t a c r oss and barel y [e c t widc, wh e r e the rock funnelled in\'iting l y dml'l1 w ards and outwards, F ce lin g m y way cautiously across this depression 1 wa s onl y too co n scio u s of thc (act that .J.50 feet o f s h ee r [a ce l ay im media t e l y b e l ow and altho u g h I could not sec the bas e of the cliff but o nl y the ri\'U i 5 0 I'cet lowcr down, r f clt that thc diff e r e n ce in dro p w as a matter of aca d cmic rathc r than prac ti ca l intc rcst! B eyond this obstacle, the l edgc b eca m c le\' c l again and remained a comforting width [or thc next 40 f ee t apart [r o m a corne r whic h it w as n ecessa r y to step a r o u nd o n a t o nguc o[ roc k onl y 18 in c hes wide T hi s h o wev c r wa s m c rel y a r ehearsa l [ o r the n cxt trave rsc-Iittle morc than a m anLlesh elf and full y 1 2 fee t l o ng, Be ing l ess than 1 2 inc hcs wide it r ca ll y did g i\' c me an opportunity to appreciate thc precipitous B ULLETIN NUMBER 14 SEPTEMBER) 195 2 nawre o f th e c1ifrs b e n ea th Fortuna t e l y the r e wa s an e x cellent' line of h and h o ld s and I soo n s t cppe d of[ onto a wid c and grassy t errac e whic h se n 'c d a s u cccss i o n of s m a ll ca v es, The m os t striking w as the fir st-a r ectangula r chamber. 8 f ec t d cc p and 1 6 f ce t l o n g with a l ow wall a l o n g it s open fr o nt. Thrce broad pillars, ca n T d from thc living j o in e d the Hoor to the Hat r oof, ,,,hil e a fourth, \\' hi ch did n o t extend quite to th e roof, wa s trunca t e d at the l e \' e l of a b e d ding pl a n e \ i s ibl e in the surrounding ,,, alls Thesc pilla r s r o u g hl y 1 8 inchcs in diameter and ri s in g from double-tic r e d plinths h a d b ee n can' c d with amazing p r ec ision: thc ir surfaces and al so thos c ot the walls w e r e clearly pattern ed "'ith diagonal a dze marks , \ f e w yards b eyond this c h ambe r the r e w as a se mi-circ ul a r r eccss in whic h wa s m ounte d a ra i sc d r cc ta n g ul a r tro u g h a l tho u g h the spri n g hi c h f c d it \\ as a lm os t dry and in the Aoor n earby there was a s h allo w cylindrica l h o l e \\'h i c h had prcsumably b e e n u s e d [or the grind4 5

PAGE 48

o f Carll , -\n()thc r r e cess o p e n e d at th e bac K into an arlific ial c h ambe r 10 feet square and ( j fee l hi g h and b e yond this th e t errace passe d 1\\'0 furthe r n n e l eading thro u g h a n eat l y ca n e d o p ening inLO a circ ul a r ce ll bare l y 6 feet in dia m e t e r Passin g this line of ca\ cs I negotiated anoth e r IlalT O \ \ l e dge and the n r o u 'nde d a corne r \\' h e r c I W:IS a bl c to \\'alk \\'ilh c a se, first a c r oss a wide t errace of b a r e rock and the n o n l O what c a n b es t b e d esc ri b e d as a h a n g i n g m eado\\', B oullde d b y s heer c l i fI' 011 the ri g h t it nd o p e n s pace o n the left. this wa s a spac i o u s t errace, 2 0 t o ,HI feet \\'id e and thic kl y O \ T r g r own with l o n g grass and e \ e n s m a II bus h e s thro u g h out its which alllo lllll e d t o o \ e r IO() yards-cer ta inl y it w as room y e n o u g h LO pro \ id e g r az in g f o r a f e w animals, This t errace ende d in ; 1 slip p e r y grass-co \ 'e r e d s helf' whic h p e t e r e d away inLO nothing afle r a f c w yards :\l o n e time it h a d e \ id ently beell p o s s ibl e t o continue beyond this 4 6 p o int. but an iillill e n se slab h a d peel e d away from the roc k [ace b e l o\\', n o t only interrupting the l edge. but :tls o r educ in g co n side r a bl y th e \\'idth o f the 'llleadQl.\ itsc lf. 011 Ill )' fir s l \ i s it. lillI e \\ a s pressing if' w e w e r e lIO l to b e caught b y darknes s while s till o n th c Ilioulltains and I had 1.0 hurry bac k al o n g the quartc r mile o [ l e d ges and 11,11'1'0\\' tran: r ses to r e j o in Illy cOlllpanio n but o n our second Irip, a f ortnight ble r \\'e \\'Cr e a bl e to examine the nUlll e r o u s Gl\TS Il10 1 T tho r o u ghly, It i s in I c re,ting t o s p eculate o n the peopl e who inhabite d the m but I halT been unable t o obtain ;tIly info l'lllati o n o n this p oint. It i s p oss ibl e h o w c \ e r that the ledg e pro\id e d a n in accessible ;tIlel easily d e f ende d strollg h o ld [ o r o n e o f the B:lkhtiari tribes ;IS the tribes m e n who dwelt
PAGE 49

Lava Caves of Central Oregon! By WILLIAM R. HALLIDAY, B.A., M.D. TIle C asC(/(Ii' (;W//(J o f til(' \ 'aliullo l S/J e ll'n/ogi('(ll Socil'/l' 11111' Iflldered ill ,Ialuaule S I 'r1IiC!' t o 1111' ({IIISI' of 1'j}(' lcologi('al rC,ll' a r cli I)), till' illiells i l y of ils eff()rt alld Ille qllllli l y ()f ils H o r/; ill Ille arNI ()f ils a d!;lil)" TIll:: illlpUrl{/IIC1' of i t s re c Orillais I 'llIlet' H,i/I uNollle illllnedioll' /), a I J / l llu'lIt t o I h e r ea d e r s of I h is a rticie, ;urilll'li I )), 0111' of i l s //I os l d),II (I//1.il' III I II/hl'r.\', Thc D cschlltes b\' a plate all of central Ore gon j LIs t t o the c a s t o f the h p eaks of the C a scadc Illo lillt a ins. presents t o the nilc (ln o s p e lcol ogist o n e o f the fin es t and largest g r o llp s o f la\'a lUb e s in th e continental Unite d S tates R e pea t e d lIolI's o f pahoehoe la \ (1 unde r opti llllllll cond i ti o n s ha \ e pro d lIce d : It le as t 2 0 n o tew onhy Ca\TS, and in \ i e ll o f the pro fu s i o n of confll sing sinks in th c indi\' idLlal flo ll 's it see lll s likely that Ill: tn y relll :lin lInre p orte d :lI1d lIndisco \'Cr e d, \ s lI' ill b e a g reat \ 'ari e t)' i s t o b e e n collnte r e d h o ril.Olllal and \' ertic al r Ollg h and easy \\,e t and dry. l o n g and s h ort, straight and branc h e d, Sig-l1ificant paleontological and arc haeologi ca l find s h : l\ e been Illae! e in se \ Tral o f the s e ca \'( ;s. lce c rystal s and f ormatio n fr e quently add beauty t o the illlpressi\T \'i s t as, ,--\11 charac t e ri s ti cs o f !a\' a floll's a r c h ere r e \'ealcd e \ e n thollg h multile \ 'c! f ormalio n i s p erhaps l es s prolllinent h e r e than in La\' a B e d s ;-.Ja ti o n a l l\f o nuJll ent. 1n sh ort. h e r e i s an area e n compass all and a refr eshing c h a nge f o r the s p ellinke r skille d only in limes t o n e, Phil Brogan, chairman o f the Oregon Ceo g r :lphic Board. o f B end, has pro b a bl y m o r e kno wl c dge o f these C I\'CS than a n y othc r m a n H R T'on seth, F ort R o ck Di s t r i ct Ranger al so h a s exte n si\' e field kno ll l e dge particularly o f the southern g r oup, -and h as pro \' e n himself a good fri cnd o f the C ascade Grollo \[uc h o f thc in f ormatio n h c r c i n conta in e d ,,,a s obta in e d fr o lll thcse gentlc lll e n and fr o lll the s t aff o f thc D eschutes Nati onal F o r cst. B es t known and Illost a cce s s ibl c o f thc !:t\ a tllbcs i s Lalla River C(/lIe, o n ce known a s Dill nlan' s Ca\'e, ri ght b es id c U. S Highway 97 abOllt 1 1lI ilcs sou th o f B ene!. D es i g n a t e d a s a s t:tt e I R eprillte d [rolll C asGld e Can: R e p o rt '\0 2. (J lln c, I ( F, I ) C:l scacic C; roll O :'\' a 1 ion:ti Sp c l eo lo g i c al Socicl\' ; \ \': I shing t oll S late, B ULLETIN N UMBE R 1 4, S EPTEMBER) 1952 p ark. : 1 ca r e t a k e r i s at h and \\'ith gasolinc lan tcrns f o r thc cOll\ c n i ellce u f the pll bl ic. \\' ood e n stairways h a \ 'c been in stalled le adillg d o wlI into the sink \\ hi c h i s Lhe entra n ce The touris l p ortio n o f the C;1\' e lea d s n orth,\'es t f o r o \ 'e r sono feet in gentle cun' es o \ e r :1 sand 1-1001' into \rhic h it c \ enlllaliv sinks, The opposite end i s extre m e l y r o u g h and d efie d expl oratio n lInti l t h e S Ullllll e r o f 1 95 1 ,\ h e n a local g r oup reach e d its end afte r I ,:JO O fcet o f exh a u sting tra \' el. -\p p a r ently fir s t d escribe d b y Ira \ Villi a lll s in :\a turc .\Jagazin e aboul :)0 yea r s ago. it i s IIlcnLio n c d in :'\SS Bulletin 3, Quite diffe r ent but allll os t :IS ,\ cli knO\\ n locally i s ,-I muld I ce Cmle. t o the southeast o f B end, This G I\'C se n 'e d as thc source o f i ce f o r B end in pio neer t bys, and c \ e n thc n d espite its mining, th e t o t a l extent o f ca \ e beyond and b e neath the i cc w as unkno'rn, Ente r e d thro u g h a slllall h o l e in the n orth end o f a !:t\ a sink, : 1 d a nger u u s GO-foot i cc s l o p e at : 1 ( ; 0 degree a n g l e is illlm edia t e l y e n counte r c d, Safet y r o p es a r e csse llli ai. ,--\t the noor thc i ce slo p e l e \ c l'i ofl ,\ 'hile the ca \ 'e d escends thlls blocking progr ess a ft e r so m c 100 feet. A duc k unde r the n a cr;nd o n the i ce lead to l\ro tiny 1'O 0l11S with fros t c rystal s o n their roofs, SOlll e,rhat simila r t o Ln' a Ri\'er Cav e is She ldoll C ml (', locatc d b e tween B cnd and _--\1' n o ld I cc C:1\'e, \/uc h o f its l e n gth i s s and-floor c d pro \ 'iding comforta bl e camping in ,ret ,\' e
PAGE 50

cupol a, deposits of aa ];I\ a pulled sta l actites and con traction fissures arc of n ote. T h e ca \e h as bee n mapped by th e Cascade Grotto of the National Spe l eo l ogica l Socie ty. C l ose to Arnold Ice Cave and confused wit h it in NSS Bulle tin 4 is Wind Cave, which measures abou t 5000 feet in l ength and is ex tr e mely rough. At about 500 feet from th e e nt rance is a h o l e in th e r oo f 50 feet over head, be Iml" whi c h were seen icc sta l agmites April 29, 1951. Beyond this point, the floor which previ o u s l y co n sisted of huge boulders piled indiscrim inately, presel1ls about eve r y 100 f ee t a 30[oot wa ll of aa lava which must be laboriou s l y sca l e d and d escended. Man y of the r oo m s thus formed are 50 feet high and very impress i ve. Locate d in the same general area is Charcoal Cap e, where c h arred wood cut with sto n e axes, has b ee n date d to th e 1 3th Century. r\ full report on this cave i s available in th e March 1 938 Oregon Historical Society Quarterly. Some 20 miles to the south, on th e southern flanks of th e Paulina Mounta ins, is Surveyor's Ice Cave, accessib l e onl y in midsumme r due to its hig h e r e l eva tion. T h e des cription of the a r ea as given b y Tonseth i s s imilar to that of South Ice Cave (see b e low). To the e ast thre e ice caves are s h own on the USGS Newberry Crater qua.drangle, two o n the Forest Service map. According to a l e tte r from B r ogan "th ese w e re discovered by Fred and crew whil e cruisi n g timber", and have not b ee n found s in ce They w ill therefore be r e ferred to as J\I[alz' s l ee Caves Easl I ce Cave s m entione d by Brogan, may b e th e same. Only about 3 mil es eas t of Bend, Horse Cave is said to res emble Skelelon Cave on a sma ller sca le, but as id e frol1\ its access ibility has no oth e r attraction. Barlow Cav e, 4 miles eas t of B end on th e Bu tie r road, h owever has yielded facts of the Fort Rock t y p e (see b e l ow). No other informatio n is currentl y known of th ese or the Redll10nd Cav e s n ear that city. Northwesternmost of the entire group is Shylig h I Cave. En ter e d through a vertica l opening 1 5 x 30 feet after a 20-foot d escent a 55 foot tunnel l eads to a r00111 with a 2 x 2-foot openi n g in the ce ilin g responsible for the name of the cave. Three miles west of vVanoga Butte just within the Bachelor Butte-Sh eridan Mountain 48 la\a field i s Edison Ice Cave. Not known to h a \e been v isited in rec ent years, its entrance is a small vertical s haft usuall y filled with i ce and snow. Bischoff in NSS Bulletin 4 mentions arti facts buried in the ice here. Seen o nl y hom the air, on the summit of the ridge between S heridan Mountain and Kwolh Butte i s the large entrance of a cave referred to as I\. wolh Butte Cave. In the same general a r ea, on the southwest point of Round Mountain i s a 20 x 30-foot cave partially fill e d w i t h rock d e bris with a 1-2-in ch project i ons of un id e ntified mineral deposits o n it s ceiling It I S known as the Round i \101mtain Cave South Ice Cave, 111 the Cabin Lake area, i s well marke d by the Forest Serv i ce Its main (southeast) sectio n has b ee n mapped by the Cascad e Grotto. Three hundred and fifty fee t l ong, two deposits of stratified i ce a r e present while earl y in th e season temporary formations abound th r o u g hout its three rooms. A co n siderabl e inward draft was noted between the first a nd second rooms. T h e shorter wester n passag e i s entered through a narrow 20foot crawl and is sa id to be m u c h more difficult. Farther so u th,. a she! t el' near Fort Rock, known l ocally as Cow or l '1.enk e nriuier Cav e, ha s 'nationa l arch aeo logi ca l a tte n tion r ecently beca use artifacts found there were date d back some 9000 years, earlier than any others in Am e ric a. The g e iger counter radioacti ve carbon ca l endar was empl oyed in th ese studies. Abou t 1 5 miles eas t of the Cabin Lake Range r Stati o n is D enic k Cav e, a p l easant 1800foot trip ove r a sand floor from the large ent. ra n ce T hi s area i s not included in any USGS l[ uadrangle b u t is shown on th e Fort Rock Ranger District map of the Des chutes Nati o n a l Forest. Some two miles to the northeas t of D errick Cave on a sagebrush flat is the obscure entrance of Button SjJrings Cave, dis covere d in 1941 by Tonseth and party, which enteri n g v i a a 20foot ladder, explored abou t Yz mile of large roomy passages despi t e large piles of rough rock. Other caves in this rough area undoubtedly exist. In v i ew of the sig nificant finds to date, it is obvi o u s that the region and its caves are d eserving of further study. NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 51

Hydrologic and Atmospheric Studies in Scholer Cavel By CARL H. GAUM A lmos t two years o f time (/nd many man hours o f wor k w ent into th e planne d 1 'esearch jnoject hC1'ein d escr ib e d, It iuas accomj J lish e d b y th e cooj J e m tive effort of m01' e than (l d07 .. ('n cavers fmm the T Ten ton, N, 1-aTea w h o with scientific e q1.lijJm ent l o aned t o th e N lltionlil SjJeleological Society by th e O ffice o f Naval R esc(l1"c h and with the coo /Jewtion of P ennsy l vania's Game Commiss ion, of its D epa1'tment o f H ealth, and o f oth e 1 organizations, w e re able to make this contribution to s p e l eo logi c al knowledge. l n tmduction The Schofer Cave project was originated b y a group of Tren ton New J e r sey, s p e l eo l og i s t s who undertook to make a comple t e study of one cave. This paper p erta in s to the h ydrolog i c and it tmospheric studies. Schofer Cave was chosen for study b eca use of it s accessibility for weekend trips (seventy miles from Trenton). It contained a f a irl y l a r ge a m ount of water, which m a d e it feasibl e to co llect h ydro l og i c data. Its r elative inaccessibility to v i sitatio n made it l ess like l y that in struments would b e disturbed as onl y ser iou s l y inte rest e d persons would take the trouble to c rawl into th e cave's one large roo m. Location and D escri j Jtion o f Cave and Area Schofer Cave i s l oca ted two mil es n orthwes t of Kutzto wn P ennsyl van i a about half way be tw ee n Allento' wn and Readin g. The cave i s l oca t e d in th e n orth s id e of Umbre ll a Hill n ea r the site of th e old Sc h o f e r mill o n Saco n y Creek. It was di scove r e d during quarrying operati ons. The quarried lim esto n e was used for ag ri cultura l purposes and a n o ld lim e kiln s till stands n ea r th e cave. The l oca ti o n of Schofer Cave ca n b e determine d from the H amburg Pa. U S. Geolog i ca l Survey topographic s h eet. It i s in Greenwich Township in B e rk s County a t L at. 4 00 3 1' 54" N and L o n g. 750 48' 55" 'W. To r eac h Sc h ofe r Cave from Kutztow n P ennsylvania, turn north a t th e bric k pillars at the n ortheas t end o[ the g r ounds of th c Kutz toWin State Teachers Coll ege. The entrance i s in a small cliff c r ea ted b y quarry in g o p e r atio n s a b o u t 1 Pape r at al1nu a l m e eting of A merican A sso ciation for th e Advancem ent o f Sci c nce, Philadelphia" Pa. D cce mbcr 28 1951. BULLETI N NUMBER 1 4, SEPTEMBER) 19 52 twenty f eet up a ta lu s s lope whi c h i s cov ered with vege t atio n The entra n c e i s hi g h and wide opening lik e an inve 'rted V, butsoon it n arrows to a c r a wl wa y twenty feet down a 300 s lope whi c h i s composed of s m a ll bl oc k s th a t h a v e f a ll e n from th e ceiling. The cave then open s into a s m a ll room litte red with large f alle n blocks. By craw lin g a k eyho l e -lik e opening about thirty-five fee t from th e cave entra n ce it i s p oss ibl e to continue in to a long n arrow corridor bare l y hi g h e n o u g h in which to stand. This corridor continue s for about eighty feet, al ,terna t e l y n arrow in g and wid ening to a point where the ce ilin g sudde nl y l ow ers t o about e ightee n in c h es (abov e the floor ) and it b eco mes n ecessary to c r aw l through a t e n-foot l o n g p assage in s n a ke-lik e fashion. B eyond thi s l ow point o n e can c r awl o n h ands and kne es and. afte r s e \'eral more sharp turns the so ca lled B i g Room b e com e s v i s i b l e to the l e ft thro u g h s e\"c r a l ope n i ngs. Largc fallen bloc k s l i e scattere d about e v e rywhere, T h e y a r e surrounded b y wate r o n e to six fec t d e e p d e p end i n g o n t h c h e i g h t of th e wa t e r l evel. Ex-Ph o t o b y J e r o m e M. Ludlow T he entrance t o Schofer Cave. near K u tztown, Pa, 49

PAGE 52

treme ca r e i s n ecessa r y 111 climbing over them. Seve r a l sect i ons of the r oo f look unsafe but s ince flowstone has begun to fill the c r acks i t i s lik e l y that it has b ee n thi s way [or a co n s id er a bl e period of t i me. There i s very littl e lime stone formation in t h e cave. Continuing eas t in t h e Big Room more breakdow n i s e n countered b u t o n a sma ll e r sca le. Climbing over this and th e n thro u g h sev eral sma ll passageways o n e r eac hes Jacobs ,tV e lls, two separate pool s whi c h are connec ted b y a 05' /0' ai 3{)' -40 I IN crawling beneath a l ow overhang though it is not possib l e t o n egotiate it without partl y s ub m e r g in g B eca u se i t i s usu a ll y inaccessible thi s chamber i s calle d th e Hidde n Room. It contains so me flows tone and m a n y anthodites or cave flowe rs. ''''es t o [ the B i g Roo m l ie t h e Catacombs, a series of inter-connect in g crawlways which final l y ascend to t h e cave entrance. Accurate m a p ping o f thi s ponion showed that so m e sec tion s were direc tl y under s tati o n I l oca t e d at t h e N MAP OF SCHOFE Ci1V, NE./I1i!. kVrzroWNJ ftNNSYJ.VANlfi Reducm' firmt orit;irv/ nv/!, bttQJ,6ossef /w [!ellised "" CIi.ChuI7, /5, /95/ I?ZZZ2I SOLiD eocK I.'J1TIe SVRR'iC c::::=J ffISSflSEttr1y, Ir1VO OR. STONE. /'i,()O,e Map of S c hofar Cave passageway compl ete l y fille d with w a t er. A flash li ght beam directe d into o n e o r th e pool s can be see n by an observer a t th e o th er. The deep es t sounding, about e ight ee n f ee t is obv i o u s l y n o t th e bottom. South of th e B i g Room a n o th e r sect i o n of t h e cave ca n b e reach e d onl y d uring p e ri ods of extremel y l ow water. It may b e entered by 50 entrance, a nd that in p l aces th e Catacombs cross th e ii ow n path at l ower l eve ls. Among the debri s found in th e Catacombs was a l a r ge broke n sta lagmite. It i s probabl e that at one tim e the cave was l a r ger, extendin g out into th e present va ll ey of Saco n y Cre ek. Eros i o n and cave breakdown evi d e ntl y h ave filled t h e l o w e r portion of the NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 53

a n cient cave The present entra n ce probabl y i s v e r y close to the former cave roof. G eo l ogy Schofe r Cave lies in th e cave b elt o f B e rk s County, P ennsylvani a, o n a line with Crystal, Dre ib elbis, Drago n 'and Onyx Caves. It see m s probable that there a r e other caves a l o n g this line, but as most o f t h e a f o r e-mentioned caves were di scovere d b y quarrying o peratio n s it i s unlike l y th a t solution cav ities whi c h a r e l a r ge e n ollg h to admit a g r o wn p e r so n connec t w i t h th e surface Care ful r econnaissance h as f aile d to l oca t e a n y n e w caves. According t o B arns l ey" th e country r oc k of Schofe r Cave i s v a ri a ble and ve r y impure. So m e beds a r e limes t o n e co n g l o m e rate, oth e r s are sandy limestone o r l ocally, true s h a l e The cav e lie s in th c lower part of the Martinsburg fo rm a ti o n which is Ordov i cia n in age. The cave h as b ee n dev e l o p e d by solut i o n a l o n g j oint and b edding pl a n es and a l so in fr actures ca used b y l oca l f aulting. Evide n ce o t this faulting m ay b e see n on the cliff n ea r th e entra n ce of the cave and a l so in the entrance passag eway Ba1"OIIl clric PrcsslIre s A t various timcs duri n g the coursc of the investigati o n a b arograph was pl ace d in the cave and a noth e r at th e entra n ce. B a rogr aphs are in strume nts for r ecording c h anges in a ir pressures. The in strumcnt co n s i s t s o f a n a n e r o id barometc r with a p e n so attac h e d as to r ecord the pressure 011 a c h a rt. T h e c h art i s mou I1lcd on a drum which i s clo c k driyen and r ccor ds time The clock must b e wound and the c h art c h a nged we ekly, o n the p articular instrunlents used Normally th e Bi g Room a ir pressure va ried directly and in the sam e llIagnitude as oiHsid e a tmosphc ri c pressure, bu t occas i o n a ll y for s hort p eriods (2 1 to 72 h ours) t h e lincs o n the c hart s did not co in cide. A diff e r c n ce in pres sure o f four milliba r s was noted No time lag in pressure effec t w as n oteel o n the weekly c h a ns, th e onl y variation b c in g o n e of magnitudc. T h e in struments w e r e c h a n gcel t o a d a il y sca l e fo r scve r a l d ays, and s till n o "Barns l ev E. R SlOlle, R alph W. ill P el/I/svival/ia Caves, COlllm o lllI' ealth o[ P e llnsylvani a. D ept. o f Illte rllal i\[' fairs. T o pographic alld Geologi c Survey Bulle till G 3 p 3 1 1932. BULLETIN NUMBER 14, SEPTEl'.'IBE R ) 1952 time l ag wa s noted. T im e l ags mus t certainly ex i s t but proba bl y are of y e r y s hort duration, p crhaps onl y a [ c w seconds o r at the most only a f ew minutcs. S u c h l ags could n o t b e deter mine d with th e in strumel1ls availabl e Baro m etric pre5sures in th e Bi g Room o f the cave were hi g h e r than pressures at th e entra n ce due to th c diff e r e n ce in e l e \ ati o n. V ariations in the mao'nitude of Ixessure did not sce m to h a v e any b dircc t r e l a tions h i p wi th surface temperatures. About fift y f ee t [rom the ca \ 'e entra n ce baro mctric pressures vari c d direc tl y as outside pres su res [ o r the peri o d of record. Air currents h a \ 'e often b ee n observ e d com in g fr om th e c aye in gentle g u s ts. The a ir current ve l oc it y 'a s so l ow tha t a s m a ll h and anem o mete r ould not r o t a t e when the r eco rd in'" di a l w as e no-ao-ed. "\Then th e r ecording dial u u b was disen gage d h oweve r the propeller would turn but additional fri ctio n from the recording d ev i ce quickly s l o wed it to a h a lt. Two diff e r ent a n e m o m e t e r s we r e used with identica l re sults . -\ir current was estimate d b y observing smok e drift a t tw cnty t:cet p e r minute S m o k e bombs co ul d n o t be used to trace air currents b eca use of p ossible dange r t o p erson n el. A ir curre n t s we r e so l ow and rooms and pas sages were so s m ai l tha t it wa s b e li eve d that p c r sonne l could n o t sa f e l y h av e gotten out of th e ca \ 'e before it would h ave comple tely fill e d with s m o k e. The r e w as n o w ay o f pl acing a b omb in th e CHe b y dropping it throug h a n o p cnll1g. Te171jJeralures T h ermograph s ( clo c k drive n instruments whi c h r ecord continuo u s t empe r atures) w e r e pl ace d in sC\'er a l p os i t i o n s in the cave and just in s id e th e enu'a n ce a t various times. In the Bi g Roolll, abou t tw o hundre d fee t from the entra n cc ( m c:l.sure d al o n g th e p assage way) no appar ent t cmpc r ature c h a n ge o f a n y m agnitude occurre d during a four-"'ee k test p e ri o d Vari a ti o n s o f about 0.25 F. e r e n o t e d o n the c h art, but th ey m ay h a y e b ee n due to in strument variatio n Hml" e y er, th c minutc t empe r ature fluc tu atio n s did s h o ,, : 1 diurna l pattern coinciding with o utsid e t emperatures. T h e t1lL'rIn o 'JTaphs s t a bilized ve r y s l ow ly. On u o n c occas i o n it tOok s ix h ours for one to stabilize [rom 55 F t o 50 F when it was 51

PAGE 54

PI,n/. n I y Hudolph F. Ga l L11I T he author using F o rester s compass d u r ing sur vey o f c a ve T h i s se r ie:s of photographs, taken durin g th e co u rs e o[ the i n v es ti g a ti o n at Sch ofe r C a ve, near Kutztown, P e nnsylvani a. s hows the w ide vari e t)' of data co ll ec t e d Piloto b y RII dol/Jh F. Gauln I nstall ing staff gage t o obtain data o n fluctuati o n o f w ater levels in cave. 52 Photo b y Carl H. G a ulIl Wate r sampies are coll ected fr o m nearb y spri ng b y J e r o me M. L u d low Photo b y J erome M. Ludlow Wate r l e vels are measur e d in Sacon y Creek b y R u dolph F. an d Carl H. G au m. PlIO / a by J erome M. Ludlow Norma Lipman enters data in f i e ld n ote book after read i ng b a rogr aph. NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 55

brought in from outs ide. A p erson approaching the th ermograph or jus t craw lin g past i t made the temperatur e rise about O.3 F. and each time someon e approached o r craw l e d past the instrum e n t th e t empera ture rise was r ecorde d by a tic k o n the charl. If someon e s lopped n ea r the instrument long enough lO read t emperature from a th ermomete r th e r ecorde d l e m perature o n th e t h ermograph jumped up about O.5 F. aga in s h owing a ti c k o n th e c hart. Some postal ca rds were left w ith a thermometer in th e Big Room. ,-\ note r equesle d a ll explorers to mark th e temperatur e o n the cards and mail lh em. I gnoring hi g h r eadings apparently due to th e th ermome t e r b e in g h e ld in the hand, a differ e nce in t emperature of t h c cave a ir of aboul 1 F. betwee n winter and slIm m e r months was n o t e d, th e temperatur e being higher in late summer than in ea rl y spring when it was at its l owe t. Vater temperatures in th e pool in the Big Room varied about 2 F. from spring to sum mer. T h e average or normal water temperature i s 50 F. bUl in th e sprin g a fter h eavy rains and after co n s id e rabl e wate r had percol a ted into the cave, wate r temperalu res w e re s lightly l ower. Ai r t empera lure also could b e influen ced by th e dripping water after h eavy rains in the spring. In other sect i o n s of th e G l\ 'e, t emperatures w e re slightl y differ el1l; at Jacobs '''' ells for in sta n ce, ai r t emperature severa l feet above the water surface was 5 1 F. and in th e cave entrance passageway it droppe d as l ow as 48 F eve n during the warmest sUl11me r month. T h ese flu c tu a tions [1'0111 th e norm a l of 50 F. in lhe Big Room probably w e r e due lo the effects o[ air currents and to proximilY to th e surface At J acobs \ I V e ll s th e air temperature a v er aged 1 F. highe r than air l emperature in th e Big Room. This wa s probably due to the fact that the form e r slation is in a drie r highe r l ocation, and thal ev id ently it connects with th e sur [ace. T h e ske leton of a n opossum was found h e r e I t is quile unlike l y that th e anim a l could h ave ga ined access to th e cave thro u g h the main entrance, through th e wate r filled room, to th e rear portion of the cave. NUls and other food found near the ske l eton gave furthe r evidence of a connection with th e surface. BULLET1 N NUMBER 14, SEPTEMBER) 1952 When a th ermograph was left inside, aboul t o n y feet fr o m th e ca \ 'e entrance, the temperatures fluctualed in the same paltern as outs id e t emp'erawres, bUl at muc h s mall e r magnitude. DUI ing a s in g l e lest of thirty-six hour duration the inslrument on th e surface fluctualed from a high of 38 F. lO a l ow of 32F., and th e o n e ins id e th e cave from a hi g h o[ 46 F. to a l ow of 45 F. The farthe r one goes inlo the cave the less the magnitude of the fluc lLlation becomes. A time l ag in lemperature e ffect was no l ed, bLll b eca use o[ th e small sca l e o[ the c hart and the s light change in lemperatures recorded on thermographs in th e cave it was difficu lt to r ea d thi s li m e l ag accurate ly. It took from forty-five minules to an hour for a peak outside t emperalure lo show up o n the thermograph fort y feet ins id e the ca \e. Sma ll changes in outside a n t emperature s o[ course, did not s how up on the thermograph in th e ca \ e passag e way. During five trips to the cave, air temperature g radients [rolll th e entra n ce to the Bi g Room \I'e r e d e t ermined. Thermometers w e r e p l aced at 5-foot in t e rval s for the first fift y feet and then abou l e \'er y ten f ee t [or the r emaining distance. Thermometers were p laced on wire r ac k s and l e ft [or several hours. During two u'ips outside air temperature was hi g h e r than 50 F., and on two olh e r u ips 1 0\l'er tha n 50 F., and on o n e lrip just about 50 F. (See Fig. I.) No definite t empe r ature gradienl could b e d etermine d. The l empe r alure approache d 47 F. to 48 F. in the rear o[ the entrance passageway. \ Vhil e it rose in some locations and fell in oth e r s it did not [ollow a uniform rise or d e clin e D ev ia tion [rom a s mooth h ea t u 'a n s[er curve m ay be due LO th e m a n y l a r ge blocks o[ roof breakclO\\'I1 \I' hi ch e xpose more su rfa ce area to a ir currents i.e. th e a ir in p assing through lhe Gl\ C mUSl circ ul : ll e a grealer distance than would ol h e r\, 'ise b e n eces a.ry and it therefore co m e in contaCl \I' ith more r oc k surface, so m e of \I' hi c h i s co vered \I'ith moi ture. This condi li o n t end lo coo l the air m o r e rapidly if it is \I'anll \I'h e n it comcs in. o r to r etard heating it i[ the s llr[a ce a ir t emperalure i 10\l'er than cave ro c k l cmperalllre. On eac h trip lemperatures w e re taken at a spring \I'hi c h is beli e v e d to b e fcd b cave 53

PAGE 56

54 30 4 ..... 51 '--"\ .... -.. ---. -.. --------1l;;;.S.i95i p-. -' '-7 .... .,---.".,,--, ...-Co /q'sO_-V V 1---F -IQ&9.-o /0 cO 30 40 50 70 f);smNC. FeOM {',
PAGE 57

wate r. N in e o u t of tw e lve readings we r e exactl y 5 0 F. Three d ev iation s of 0.5 m ay h ave b ee n due to the obse r ver or the th ermo m e t e r b e i n g in error. Humidity R e lativ e humid ity in the Bi g R oom has vari e d fr o m 95% to 100%, the n orma l humidity b e in g f a irl y clos e to 100 % The var iati o ns ma y b e due to dis c r e pancies in th ermo m ete r r eadings since a 1 F. error in the wet bul b temperature will m a k e 5% diff e r e n ce in calc ul a t e d r e l a tivc humidity at th e n orma l cave t cmperature. T Vate?' Level s A threefoot sectio n o f stee l staff gage was installe d on Septem b e r 23, 1 950 a nd for a few weeks gave a r ecord o f water l eve l fluctuati o ns. On March 11, 1951 h oweve r thc wa t e r h a d risen to s u c h an ex t e n t th a t this gage was com ple t e l y submerge d. Its val ue, therefore, was p ar ti ally nullifi c d b y our in ability t o estimate the probable ris e in water I cve l prior to its installa ti on. On :March 1 8, a water-stage r ecorde r was in s tall e d o n t h e pool in thc B i g Roo m. T h e instrument co n s i s t s o [ a float a tta c hed t o a t a p e so tha t a ris c or fall in water l eve l rotates a drum t o whi c h a c hart i s a tta c h e d. A cloc k drive n tim e m ec h a ni s m m oves a recording p e n ac r oss t h e c h a r t so that a continuo u s c h a n ge o f wate r l eve l i s r ecor d e d and a n accura te g r aph results. This instrume n t was o f a week l y" type and it t h erefore b eca m c n ecessa r y to v i sit thc cave eve r y seve n o r e i ght days in order to c h a n ge the c hart th c r co n if a continuo u s r ecord was to b e obtained. A brea k in th e r ecord oc curre d unfortuna t e ly, b eca use of the in ability of th e ava il a bl e p c r sonne l to v i sit the caw w ee kly. As s hown by th e c hart s [ o r four consecu tive wecks, howcve r t h e r e was a maxImum Huc tuation in w a t e r l eve l s of 1.21 fee t fr o m Marc h 18, 1951 throug h April 1 5, 1 951. A n e ffort was n13de t o corre late thi s c h a n ge in water l eve l with U. S. '''Teath e r Burea u r ccords o f prccipitation fro m the n ca r es t vVea th e r Bureau s t atio n l oca t c d at V ir g in v ille, P ennsyl va ni a, a di s tan ce o f appr ox im a tel y three miles from th e c a \e. On .Jun e 10, 195 1 a six-foot gradua t c d s t ce l staff gage was place d 111 th e pool in the Bi g BULLETI N NUMBER 14, SEPTEMBER) 1952 R oo m A quantity of postal cards was left for ex pl o r e r s to send in water-lev c l data read from the s taff gage. Cards ca m e in quite r egula rl y at a b out two -wee k interva l s until the gage was kn oc ked over. From w a ter-Ie \'el r ecorder c harts and staff gage r eadings a h ydrograph [or th e period of r ecord was drawn. (See Fig. 2.) Precipitation at Virg in v ill e was pl otte d on t h e sam e di agra m Maximum hig h wate r of 4.7 8 f ee t occurred o n I\hy 2 1951 after a period of seve ral heavy r a ins. At that t i m e springs appear e d in the m eadow a l o n g th e r oa d a dj acent to Umbre ll a Hill and w a t e r l eve l in t h e spring a t the camp s it e was 0,2 foot above normal. After thi s date, howeve r \Va tel' l ev els droppe d qui t e rapi dl y and rainfa ll h a d littl e e ffect on pool l eve l in th e cave. This undoubtedly r efiec t s th e inc r ease d a b sorbtio n o f water by r apidly growin g v ege ta ti o n o n the hill s id e above the ca v e and a l so r apid runoff of rains of hi g h inte n s it y After h e av y rains a co n s id e r able quantity of w a t e r drips [rom the ceiling of the Big Roo m but so m e wate r i s [ o und p e r co lating thro u g h the cavc roof cven afte r p e ri ods of prolo nged dro u g h t. On eac h visit to the cave a tape m easure m ent from th e e d ge of a r a ilin g o n the up strea m s id e of a bridge ove r Saco n y Creek was made to the water s u rface. No direc t r e l a ti on ship between fluc tu atio n s i n c r ee k l eve l a n d the w a t e r l e vel in t h e ca \ 'e pool was apparent. Both r ose afte r h ea \ y r ai n s b u t Saco n y Creek rose more quickly and a l so fell quite rapidly. The cave poo l l e vel app a r ently ri scs m o r e s l owly and a l so dro p s a t a muc h s l o w e r r a t e so m e times re quiring sev e r a l m o n ths t o [ a ll a f e w f eet. Heavy rains o n July 28 and 29, 1951 ca u sed n earby Sacony Creek to o \ T rfl ow its b a nks, and the c r ee k J e v c r ose severa l fee t a b ove normal. The ca v c wa tc r l e \ 'e l ro e o nl y abou t o n e foot, not a n a pprcci a bl e a mou n t. T h e o bsen ccl re cord 10\\[or 1951 occurre d o n Octobe r 2 1 \\ 'i th a r eading of 0,85 foot. This diff c r e d b y 3,93 [ect from th e obse lT c d high of 4 .78 [ect, o n M ay 2nd, Vat c r le v els in three n earby obse rv atio n w e ll s measured b y S. G eo l ogica l lll'vey p ersonne l wer e compared with th e watc r l e \ 'e ls in Sc h o[ e r Cavc_ T h e ge n e ra! tr end o[ b o th w as found to be the sa me 55

PAGE 58

TABLE 1 C h emic al -\na lysi s o f \Vate r 111 SchoLer Cal'e (SII III / J/cs collef"/ed illl glls/ I 1951 j Loc ali o n Sample pH \'c rsc!lat c TOlal CO HCO Cl Sp. Cond. \ N lImb c r 1 1 ;lJ"(ll1ess C dciliin 1'11111 ppm pplll C arb onate ppm Drip fr o m roo f ) II 1.\ 8. 1 0 116 9.8 I J 0 2.0 286 o f H i,, b Room ( l1lR 8 2 J H 9.8 j 1 2 2 0 270 Pool Biu '" Roolll lIB 7.8 85 0 8 0 2.2 1 85 Spring 1.\ 7A 82 () 86 2.2 199 Spring lB 7 1 SG 0 85 2.2 194 'Spcciflc contitu c nts examine d. C h l orides however inc r e a se slightly 56 Tot a l Bac t eria ColifOl m TvI.P N. p e r cc. p e r I 00 cc. 5000 210 5000 240 50 0 2000 0 SlImcying A map o f the GII'e and its surrounding area \\'a s drawn and l e l e l s w e r e run [1' 0111 the pool in lhe cave 1.0 the b r idge ol'er Sacony Creek so that comparative wate r-]cl 'e l data could be o b t aine d At the time the Sllrl' ey wa s lll a d e th e wa t el' l e l 'e l i n the (;1 I 'e was G .80 feet highe r th a n that in the sprillg and 1 1.0 5 feet hig h e r than that a l the bridge o l' e r Sacon y Creek These comparison s were base d o n f igures f o r Aug ust 5, 19 5 1 when the wa t e r l e l 'e! reading o n the G foot s taff gage in the pool in th e cave's Big Roolll wa s 2.05 [eel and the d Cplh t o wat e r froll! the b ridge wa s 1 3 : )7 leet. EI'c n if s li ght erro r s \\'er e made in surl'e ying clue to disc r epan c i es i n readi n g ang l es the erro rs woul d not b e g r eat ello u g h t o change t.he relationshi p o f the surface or th e G Il' e pool to t h c spring o r c reek su rLl ce NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 59

An Abney l eve l and F o re s t e r s compass w e r e used f o r surveying in th e c av e and all a n g les w e r e c h ec k e d Dis t a n ces w e r e m easure d with a n enginee r s t ape gradua t e d t o 1 / IOOth o f a fool. On th e surface a n e n g in ee r s tra n s it and l eve l w e r e u se d fo r survey ing. It ca n b e s t a t e d d e finit e l y that th e r e i s n o direct connectio n b e t wee n Saco n y C r ee k and th e p oo l in th e Bi g R oo m o f Sch o f e r C ave o ther th a n th e f ac t th a t th e wa t e r fr o m th e c av e u lti mate l y find s its w a y into th e c r eek. SII711111a1'Y In Sc h o f e r cave a ir t empe r atures a t a p ar ti c ul a r l ocatio n r e m a in f a irl y co n s t ant thro u gh out the year. T emperatllres v a r y fr o m pl ace t o p l ace in th e ca v e b eca use o f a ir currents and proximity to th e surface ,,, T a t e r t emperatures of th e p oo l in th e Bi g R oo m vary sli ghtly im m e di a t e l y afte r h e av y r ain and h a v e so m e effec t on air t empe r ature. The t empe r ature of w a t e r fr o m a spri n g b e l i eve d t o b e f e d b y w a t e r s in th e ca v e r e m a in e d co n stant fo r th e p e ri o d o f r ecord. R e l ative humid it y w as a lw ays o bserv e d a s 100 p e r cent in th e Bi g R oo m but v a ri e d as one approac h e d th e entra nce o r othe r all p ass a ge w ays D e finit e air currents h a v e b ee n n o ted with th e currents o bsen e d t o b e coming in g u s t s at times. Baro m e tri c pressure in th e ca v e ge n e r a ll y varies direc t l y as b a r o metri c pressure o n th e surface wilh n o p e r ceptib l e tim e lag n o t e d o n the instruments used. F o r s h ort p e ri o d s diff er e n ces in th e m agnitude o f c h a n ge in b a r o m e tri c pressures w e r e n o t e d. T h e t empe r ature g r a di e n t [r o m the entra n ce t o th e Bi g Room 'as studied duri n g seve ral p eriods. No d e finit e p attern wa s o bsen e d The vari atio n fr o m th e th eo r etic al pattern \ n l S prob a bl y due t o a ir currents in th e c ave b e in g diverte d aro u n d l a r ge f alle n bl ocks 'it11 o nl y small s p aces b e tw ee n h e n ce exposin g m o re s ur face to th e a ir than w ould o th en"ise b e th e case in it s n ormal tra\'el thro u g h a s trai ght pa ssage w ay 'Wa t e r l eve l in a laJ'ge pool o f w a t e r in th e c a ve Ouctuatecl with th e seaso n s and th e r a in B ULLETI N NUMBE R 1 4, SEPTE1\lBE R ) 1952 f all pattern. A lm os t immedi a t e r ise was noted in wate r l eve l s during spring and w inte r m onths w h e n littl e prec ipi tatio n i s a b sorbed by soil and plal1l s During th e summer mon t h s r ainfall has o nl y s li g h t effect. T h e r e w as n o a ppa r e n t co n n ection be tw ee n th e w a ter in Sc h o r e r Ca v e and that in Saco n y C r eek. T h e "'ater surface in t h e G I "e pool was sev e r a l f ee t hi g h e r th a n c r ee k l e v el. A eli l1owl e d gmcl1ls r-,-ra n y p e r so n s and o r ga ni zat i o n s contrib u t e d, b o th directly and indirectly, LO th e Sch ofe r Cave Proj ect. S p ec i a l r ecognitio n m u st go t o O sca r J. C ossett wh o co n cei e d t h e pro j ec t a n d to J erome M. Ludlo w for a r o u sing th e autho r 's in te rest in ca e h ydro l ogy, for acting as com-d i n a t o r o f th e pro j ec t fo r wri t in g th e pre li m in a r y r e p ort, and fo r edit in g this fina l m anuscr i pt. in getting the pro j ec t under way a n d fo r th e p erlimina r y m apping of th e cave b y Os car .J. Cossett a n d R o b ert P Lipma n i s ac k n owle d ge d. Rudolph F. G auJl1 p articipa ted i n m os t o f th e trips H enry H erpe r s wrote a brief r e p ort o n th e geol ogy of th e a r ea. Mr. and i\Irs Ric h ard S l amm, n ea r w h ose h o m e Schofe r Cave i s l ocate d w e r e m os t coo p e rati"e in ass i s tin g with informatio n. T h e foll o win g p e r sons par ti cipa t e d on sev e r a l trips f o r th e co ll ec ti o n of d a t a : Ric h ard B ooz, Ric h ard Brillantine, Eliza b e th S C aum, Ev e H erpe r s ( n ee K e ll e r ), J erry H. Li e b erma n M ay Ludlo w Norma Lip m a n and '''a lt e r T. Sittne r. T h e Ofli ce of Na" a l R esea r c h furnis h ed b a r 0 g r a p h s th ermogr aphs, psychro meters, ane m o m e t e rs, and o th e r equipment [o r lise in th e \l"Ork. Coop e r atio n of th e P ennsylvani a Game Commissi o n o n whose l ands the cave is l ocate d and o f the P ennsyil a ni a D e p artment of H ea l th [ o r b ac t e ri o l og i ca l a n a lysi s of th e "'ater in the ca,'e and fr o m n earby a r eas i s a l so ac k nowl e d ge d. Advice and r ecords \, 'e r e fr ee l y fur nis h e d b y th e field p e r sonne l of t h e United Slates C eo log-i e d Sun'ey in b oth l'\ e ,, J e r sey ;lIld P ennsylv a nia. 57

PAGE 60

General The Eggs of TYPHLOTRITON SPELAEUS Ste jneger Obtained by Pituitary Gland Implantation Mittleman (Mittleman, M. B. 1950. Cavern dwelling salamande r s of the Ozark plateau. Bull. of t h e Nat. Speleologi cal Soc ., No. Twe lve, p. 1 3 ) saY 8 t hat the eggs of Typhlotriton spelaeus have never been described. A s a matter of fact, the eggs of t hi s r emarkable s a lamander w e r e d e scribed b:,' Barden and Kezer (1944) from materia l obtaine d by pituitary induce d ovulation. It i s true that the eggs of T yphlotriton have neve r been collected from the can's in w h ic h this s a lamander lives but there i s no reason to bel iev e that the eggs obtaine d by Barden and m e in t h e laboratory differ in their from t hose d e po sited by t hi s species in its natural habitat. However, it i s quite poss ibl e that the attachment and grouping of the eggs that we secu r e d b y induced ovulation may be decidedly atypical. We collected t h e s pecimens that were u sed in the experim ent from River Cave, Camdenton, Mi s sOUl'i, during the last week of March 1942. In our collection w ere four females which showe d large ovarian eggs through the partially trans p a r ent body wall. Three of thes e f emales were implanted in the subcutaneous space beneath the tongue muscula ture with pituitary g land s that h a d been taken from vari o u s spec i es of s a lamanders and from the l eopard frog Rana pipiens. The implants were made at interval s over a period of 15 days. W e kept the impianted animal s in co vered g lass di shes containing a la y e r of wate r and several rocks at a temperature of 18-22 d egrees C. Two of our ex p erimenta l anima l s failed to ovulate but the third d e po s ited a total of thirtee n eggs. The fir s t four egg's w e r e d epos ited in the wate r, singly and un attached, seve n days afte r t h e original implanta tion. Six salamander pituitary g lands and one from Rana pipiens h a d been r equire d to induce the lay in g of these four eggs. E leven days later, following t h e implantation of two more anterior lobes from R a n a pipiens donors n in e more eggs wer e depo site d b y thi s f emal e. Dr. Barden and I had the good furtune to observe t hi s Typhlotriton a s s h e mov e d (jvel" t h e surfac e of t h e moi s t rock, lay in g these eggs jus t above the level of t h e water. The accompanying phot o graph s hows the eggs as they were d e po site d b y thi s female It i s inte resting to note t hat s h e continue d with the layin g of these nine eggs regardless of the di s turb a n c e of phot o graphy. The accompanyin g photo-58 Plwl u I'." Ii. fl. /larr/f 'll EGG of Typhlotriton spelaeus, photogr a phed c hiefly by ref lected light. X4.S. This egg VIas removed fr o m the r o ck t o wh ich it had been attached; consequently the third (outer) envelo p e i s t o rn and somewhat misshapen. T he slightly el ip. tical boundary between the second (middle) envelope, and th e ver y thick third (outer) envelop e a l so can be seen. I I I I \ I I I , / / -----'-, , -----,-VITELLUS ../ ---+--V ITELLINE MEMBRANE ._-J--FiRST ENVELOPE (FLUID) \ @ --SECOND ENVELOPE (JELLY) ..J--THIRD ENVELOPE (JELLyJ,SURF"ACE \ , , ------/ INDIST J NeT AND IRREGULAR T y phlotriton spelaeus Iha
PAGE 61

Pho t o b y R. Ii. liardI'll EGGS o f Typhlotriton spelaeus attached t o the m o ist upper s urface o f a r ock sh own w i t h m illimete r s cale. T he e g g s we r e o b t a ine d by induced ov u lation . The r e i s no doubt tha t life -hi story information obtaine d in the l aboratory b y experimenta l procedures mus t b e evaluate d with co n s id e r able c a u tion. However, wh e n the r eproduc tive processe s of a c a v e sal amande r c on s i stently e s cape the eye of the inquiring s p e l e obiolo g i s t, it i s a g ood idea t o get a start on the solution of the proble m by bring in g the animal into' the l aboratory. V e r y s imple ex perimenta l t echnics s uch a s the one de scribe d h e r e, can s om e times prov id e valuable information r e garding the fas c in ating animals tha t the s p e l e o lo g i s t l earns to know during hi s unde r ground ex plorations ,l,u.n: s K E ZER U lli v enity o f Mis s ouri, C o lulI/bia Mo. B ULLETI.'l N UMBER 1 4 SEPTEMBER. 1952 The Eggs of the Zig-Zag Salamander, PLETHODON CINE REUS DORSALIS The red-backe d s al a m ander, Plethodon c. cinereus, i s the mo s t abundant t erre strial sal amander in e a stern North America, s out.hward to Georg ia. To the southwe s t of its range, s p e cifi cally from southern Ohio to southe a s t ern Illinois and from cent r a l K entuc k y to Al a b a m a i t i s r e pl a c e d b y i t s ne a r r e l a ti ve P. c. dorsalis. The l atte r subs p e ci es has a noticeabl y zi g -zag dors a l stripe r athe r tha n a uni' form b a nd. It a l s o occurs in a lead-back e d pha s e like P. c. cine reus but c a n be reco g n ize d b y its more s l ender form. The z i g -zag s al a m ander has b e e n found unde r log s and stone s in the woods but in cave country it often o ccurs in and about the mouths of caves In M a mmoth Onyx Cave, n ear Hors e Cave K entucky a regul a r seas on a l migration of this salamande r has been noted, and t h e egg s have been di s c over ed. The eggs we r e fir s t calle d to m y attention in 19 3 7 b y Dr. E R. Pohl, ope rator of the c a v e and w e r e illu s trat e d a nd m entione d b y m e in a popula r a r t i c l e (Natura l Hii'tory, voL 4 3 pp. 1 99 -2 0 0 Apri l 1939). A more detaile d d e scription of the eggs and the h abita t i s now given During three v i s i t s June 29 19 3 7 June 28, 1938, and July 5 1946, a tota l of a t leas t 1 2 n e s t s were f OUlld, eaeh w i t h a n a dul t s a l a m ande r in a t tenda n ce. All t h e n e s t s were found in s m a ll cavi ties in fluted cave formations The site mo s t frequ e n t l y occupie d in t h e s id e of s uch a column, 5 feet abo ve t h e floor, c on s i sted of three tria n g ul a r grottoes 3 0 t o 4 5 mm. wid e and abo u t 60 mm. d ee p The three cavi t i e s lay s id e b y s id e, measuring 6 in c h es acros s Each year two of t h e three cavities conta in e d nes t s. I n 1937, on e s a l a m a nd e r h a d the zig -zag pattern; in 1938 n e i t h e r ; in 1 9 46 both. In 19 3 7 a tota l of 4 scatter e d n e s t s we r e found, each w i t h 3 eggs; in 1938 eggs w e r e found onl y a t t hi s s ite, bo t h b e in g c lu ster s of 4; while in 1946, the nests t otall e d 6 a nd conta in e d from 2 to 5 eggs Unlike t h e eggs of P c cinereus, whi c h numbe r up t o 1 3 and h a n g from a gelatinous stalk attach e d to the roc k or wood roof of the nest c a v ity, the eggs of P c. dorsalis h a v e no stalk or p e d ice l and a dh e r e to the floor or wall of t he little grotto due to the a dh e s i ve n e ss of t h e oute r e nvelope. The body of the a ttenda n t s a l a m ande r encircles the eggs, or t h e tail may b e curle d around t hem. The indi vidua l egg i s i ndi s t in g ui s h a bl e from t hat of P c. cinereus. It measure s 4 to 4 5 mm. i n d ia meter and i s surrounde d b y t h e vitellin e m embrane and by two tra n s p a r e n t but distinct e nvelope s The in dividual eggs a dh e r e t o each othe r 5 9

PAGE 62

The eggs ob served on July 5, 1946, appeared to be in the neural groove stage of development. Two eggs collected on Augus t 21, 1946, s howed well developed embryoes both exhibiting the strong zigzag pattern c haracteristic of the red-backed phas e. Dr. Pohl e stimated the period of incubation to' be about 12 w ee k s Since the uniform cave temperature i s about 580 F., it i s not surprising that incubation of P. c. dorsalis may take 3 or 4 weeks longer than P. c. cine reus who se incubation i s in fluenced by warmer surface temperatures. CHARLES E. MOHR, Audubon Center, Gr eenwich, Conn. EM BRYO salamanders, Plethodon c. dorsalis, show ing well de veloped structur e and characteristic zig-zag pattern on back. The externa l gills c an be seen o n o ne embryo. Part o f outer envelope o f lef t egg i s t o rn. T he outer envelopes fuse t o form a com mon layer between the two eggs. August 21, 1946. 60 Photo by Charl es E. l\!lohr EGGS in a cavity in a flow-s t o n e f o rmation in M ammoth Onyx Cave, K e n tucky, attended b y the adult zig -za g sala mande r J u ne 29, 1937 Photo b y Charl e s E. MainNATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 63

The Eggs of PLETHODON DIXI Plethodon dixi was described from Dixie Caverns and New Dixie Caverns near Salem, Roanoke County, Virginia by Pope and Fowler (1949 Nat. Hist. Misc., Chicago Acad. Sci., No. 47, pp. 1-4). On August 19, 1948 the writer, accompanied by Robert Sutcliffe, vi sited Dixie Caverns. On this occasion a female P. dixi with a clutch of s ix eggs was discovered in a cavity at the bas e of the mas sive flow stone formation on which thes e s a lamanders are particularly abundant. The eggs were attached about two inche s from the bottom of a perpendicular wall which formed one side of this cavity. The cavity was three and one-half inche s long, one inch wide, ,and three inches deep. The eggs of P. dixi are quite similar to t ho s e of P. cinereus a s d escribed by Bishop (1941, The Salamanders of New York, p. 207) a s far a s the envel ope s surrounding the yo lk are concerned. Thus in addition to the c u stomary vitelline membrane, two other envelopes are present. Of thes e, the inner (first) i s more rigid and hyaline in appearance. The outer ( second) envelope i s rather membranous and irregular in shape. This oute r envelope forms a common envelope with adjacent eggs by m eans of which the individual eggs are held together in. a bunch. Unl ik e the eggs of P. cinereus, however, t hi s common enve lope doe s not form a stalk by which the eggs are s u s p ende d The eggs of P. dixi are con sidera bly larger tha n thos e of P. cinereus, approaching the size of P. glutinosus eggs a s de scribed by Noble and Mars hall (1929, ArneI'. Mus Novit., No 3 47, pp. 6-9). An a v erag e egg of P. dixi i s 5 0 mm. in diameter. THe di ameter of the vite lline m embrane surrounding the egg i s on l y slightly l arger. The inne r (first) e n ve lop e measures 5.5 mm. in diam eter. The oute r ( second) envelope averages 6.0 mm. but i s quite variable e specially where it fus e s with the outer envelope of adjacent eggs to form a common en velope. Here the outer envelope i s drawn out into a tubular extens ion which fuses with a similar ex tens ion from an adjacent egg. In this respect the eggs of P dixi are much lik e thos e figured for P. glutinosus by Noble and Marshall (Joc. cit., p. 7, Fig 3). The eggs of P. dixi are al s o like thos e of P. glutinosus in that they a r e unpigmented creamy white in color. The s m a ll embryos in each of the e g g s are al s o without pi g m ent. J A M ES A. FOWLE R Academy of Natural S c i e n ces, Philade ljJhia Pa. An indi vidual egg of Phethodon dixi sh o wing the vitel lus and i t s e nvelop es, and an embryo X 14. T he dotted l ines i ndio cate the vitel line m embrane and inn e r (f irst) enve l o p e re s pecti vely T he ou t e r (secon d ) envelope forms the outer surface o f the egg and fuses with the o uter s urface o f adjacent eggs t o pro duce a common envelope hol d ing the e ggs together. Grace L. Orton, del. BULLETIN NUMBER 14, SEPTEMBER, 1952 61

PAGE 64

A Cave Record the Red Bat, LASIURUS B. BOREALIS From time to time visitors to caves during winter have r eported seeing what they consider to be "red bats", and one or two such r eports, unsupported by specimens, h a ve been published. Without exception, however, investigation has proved that the reports were based on the pipi strelle or Georgian bat, Pipistrellus subflavus. On the other hand, two find s of bones and other skeletal reniains po sitively identified as Lasiurus borealis have b ee n reported. Bailey (Animal Life of the Carlsbad Cavern, p 123, 1928) di scovered two s kull s "on the floor of the deepest room in Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico. They were old and fragile and had been there many years". Hahn (Biological Bulletin, pp. 141-147, Aug. 1908) found more than 200 s kull s of L. borealis and two of L. cinereus scattered among the rocks on the floor of the large room of Shawnee Cave, Mitchell, Photo b y Cha rl e s E M ohr RED BAT hanging dead as it appeared when foun d in Nick aiad Cave. F ox r e d in color, it is brighter, larger, and more f e rr y than the pipistrelle and has quite inc o n spicuous ears. I t belong s t o the socal le d tree b a t s 62 Indiana. They were scattered "in a manne r indicatin g that the animal s had probably died where they hung s u spended f1; om the roof of the cave and that they had not reached the place by accident nor been killed a ll at one time by a single catastrophe." Hahn reported that t.h e bones were covered by a deposit of calcium carbonate more than a millimeter in thickness He speculated that the remains "may that the red bat i s a decadent s p e cies, represented by fewe r individuals at present t.han in the past, or they may indicate that it has abandoned the cave dwelling habit in recent times. The fir s t "complete" specimen taken in a cave was found by the author in Nickajack Cave, Shell mound, T ennessee, on Decemb'er 14, 1950. While searching for Myotis only three s peci mens of which were seen, a strange-looking bat Photo by Charles E. Mohr PIPISTRELLE wh i c h so metimes i s mistakenly identifi e d as a r e d b at. T h e p ointed nose and conspicuous ears are char acteristic o f the cave bats Pipistrellus s. subflavus. NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PAGE 65

was observed hanging from a perpendicular wall a few feet back from the main stream and perhaps 900 feet from the entrance. It was hanging about 15 feet up on a sheer limestone wall. When di slodged it' proved to be a dead, female, red bat, Lasiurus b. borealis. The specimen was in an excellent state of preservation but may well have been dead for many months It seem s likely that it entered the cave during the summe r or early fall for a short stay and died there. Both the Carl sbad and Shawnee Cave skull s als o may represent the remains of bats which ventured into the caves during summer, or during migratory flights, and not during the hibernation period. CIf..\RLES E. MOHR, A lid II bOil C ell tel', C; r eell1vicl" Conn. A West Virginia Cave Record for the Silver-Haired Bat On April 12, 1952, a Silver-haired' bat, Lasionycteris noctivagans, was found in Greenville Saltpeter Cave, Greenvill e, Monroe County, "Ve s t Virginia, by Christy A. W eiland, Jr. while h e was 'collecting b a t s for banding. The animal was a n adult male and was hang in g by itself approximatel y 1000 feet from the cave entrance and was hroug h t to me by W eiland. The specimen was sent alive to W. G ene Frum and i s now No. 1848 in hi s co lle c tion. Nearby \vere found Pipistrellus s. subflavus and the only colonies of Myotis I. lucifugus and Myotis sodalis which w ere seen in the cave. The Silver-haired bat i s one of the so-called tree bats and it i s unus u a l to find it in a cave. 'WAYNE H. DAVIS 307 Dllqlle slle A ve., J\!l o r galllowlI, T IV. V a. Two Silver-Haired Bats, LASIONYCTERIS NOCTIVAGANS, Found In a Virginia Cave In November 1951, a co llectin g party sent out by the Divi s ion of P arasitology, Army Medical Service Research and Graduate School, found two male silver haired bats Lasionycteris noctivagans, in Rumbolt Cave, n ear Covington, Virginia. Since this bat has no t previous l y bee n r eported from a cave, this find i s of considerabl e interest. Ide ntification was confirmed at the U. S. National Museum. The bats were turned ov e r alive to Ernes t P. Walker, of the National Zoological Park. NAl\CY ROGERS, 18-11 R. Str ee t N.W., Washillgtoll, D. C. BULLETIN NUMBER 14, SEPTEMBER, 1952 Additional Notes On the Sternberg Belding Dry-Peel Technique1 This technique of making plastic impress ion s of bryozoans and cross sections of foss ils, mineral s and cave formations has proven very satis factory. For bryozoans and similar textures acetone i s applied to the specimen. A piece of celluloid i s then pressed agains t it w hile the di ssolved plastic forms a mold of the specimen and hardens After drying, the celluloid i s pulled free. Before making impress ion s or peels of cross sections t h e flat surface of the specimen should be poli shed with #600 carborundum abra5 ive and water, then lightly etched with dilute acid and dried. (Carbonates can be etche d with h ydrochloric acid.) To make impres s ion s of etched surfaces of cross sections a piece of celluloid i s place d on a firm flat surface (Le. a piece of plate glass). After applying acetone to di ss olve the top s id e of the cellul oid, the etched surface i s pressed agains t the plastic and held firm l y a few minutes while the impression sets These are called "dry-peels s inc e a thin sheet of celluloid i s u sed in stead of several applications of liquid col lodion. The latter method would produce "wetpeels which would be dry when the collodion h ardened. Dry-peels a r e preferred to wet ones when either c a n be made. The thickness of the celluloid sheet lJel'mit s dry-peels to be made in a matter of a few minutes Several applications of liquid collod ion (often requiring hours to dry) are u s u ally needed to produce a film of substantial thickness Als o of advantage are the extended edges of the celluloid s heet (Fig. 1). Thes e can be eas ily held when the peel i s to be removed. Edges of wet-peels often shred or tea r when stripped from the specimen. Apparently Sternberg and Belding restricted the dry-peel technique to small surfaces and cross section s With a little experimentation, I have been able to u s e their technique for making dry-peels of cave pearl cross sections 35 mm. in diameter. This saves much time and effort over that required for making wet-peels of the same s ize and quality. Althoug h the latte r can be made of surfaces having any deg ree of deformity, the dl'y-peel do es not prove too satisfactor y when inegularities are highe r tha n about 0.5 lllm. Very few materials and tool s are ne eded for making thes e l arger dry-peels Celluloid and acetone compris e the materials, and a "C" clamp and a piece of plate g lass the tools. The procedure, althoug h simple, mus t b e carried throug h with care and patience. For making a large dry-peel, lay a piece of celluloid on the plate g l a ss If the celluloid i s s li ghtly curved, it i s bes t to have the edges curl upward (Fig. 1). Acetone should be applied with great care; if too much is u s ed, there is a tendency for it to flow between the celluloid and glass This i s to b e avoided since all 63

PAGE 66

of the irregularities in the surface of the glass would be reproJiuced, and the back side of the peel would have a frosted appear;lTIce; this area should be clear if one plans to photograph the peel.2 The acetone should covel' an area equal to, or greater than, that of the' spec im e n When a thin film of plastic has been di sso lved, press the .specimen against it with a firm steady pressure. A slight rotation often helps force the air from between it and the plas tic. Apply a "C" clamp to hold the pressure (Fig. 1) until the acetone dries (sometimes a matter of a few hours for large peels). The contacting ends of the clamp should be covered with about four layer s of adhesive tape. Although any smooth surface can be u se d to support the celluloid against the specimen, plate glass is best since it permits observation of the impressi on. If undesira ble bubbles have formed, the plastic can be re moved immediately and a new peel made. It is very important to have bubble-free impressions if they are to be photographed. When the plastic is diy, remove the peel with a steady, continuous pull. Any he sitation during the removal will leave a mark across the impression. (These marks will also s how on a photoKraph.) The las t and very important step i s to mount the peel between glass plates. If the excess cellu loid around the edges of the impress ion is thick or curled, it should be .trimed with a razor blade. Mounting must b e done before the peel becomes brittle or warped. Dry-peels offer many opportunities. They are inexpensive; duplicates can be sent to interested 64 Fig. I people; micro-details can often 'be seen that w.ere not noticed on the original specimen, and they can often be projected as slides for lectures and dis cussions. DONALD M. BLACK, Box 144, Gmnd Canyon, Ariz LITERATURE CITED 1 STERNBERG, R. M., and fiELDING, II. F. 1942. Drypcel technique: JOlir. P a le o ntology, Jan., pp. 135, 136. 2 EASTON, W. H. 1942. Improved technique for photo graphing peel sections from corals: J.our. Paleontology, March, pp. 261. NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY


Description
Contents: Preface --
Frontispiece --
A Survey of Bat Banding in North America, 1932-1951 / by
Charles E. Mohr --
The Guacharo Cave / by Eugenio de Bellard Pietri --
The Orca Goes Underground / by Phil C. Orr --
The Occurrence of Quartz Stalactites in the Rock Creek
District of Douglas County, Oregon / by Robert Housley --
List of Grottoes --
The Origin of the Palettes, Lehman Caves National
Monument, Baker, Nevada / by Charles J. Kundert --
The Caves of Malta / by T. R. Shaw --
The Kuh-I-Shuh Caves / by John H. D. Hooper --
Lava Caves of Central Oregon / by William R. Halliday,
B.A., M.D. --
Hydrologic and Atmospheric Studies in Schofer Cave / by
Carl H. Gaum --
General Notes --
Who's Who in Bulletin Fourteen.


printinsert_linkshareget_appmore_horiz

Download Options

close
Choose Size
Choose file type
Cite this item close

APA

Cras ut cursus ante, a fringilla nunc. Mauris lorem nunc, cursus sit amet enim ac, vehicula vestibulum mi. Mauris viverra nisl vel enim faucibus porta. Praesent sit amet ornare diam, non finibus nulla.

MLA

Cras efficitur magna et sapien varius, luctus ullamcorper dolor convallis. Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Fusce sit amet justo ut erat laoreet congue sed a ante.

CHICAGO

Phasellus ornare in augue eu imperdiet. Donec malesuada sapien ante, at vehicula orci tempor molestie. Proin vitae urna elit. Pellentesque vitae nisi et diam euismod malesuada aliquet non erat.

WIKIPEDIA

Nunc fringilla dolor ut dictum placerat. Proin ac neque rutrum, consectetur ligula id, laoreet ligula. Nulla lorem massa, consectetur vitae consequat in, lobortis at dolor. Nunc sed leo odio.