Bulletin of the National Speleological Society

Bulletin of the National Speleological Society

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Bulletin of the National Speleological Society
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Bulletin of the National Speleological Society
National Speleological Society
National Speleological Society
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Regional Speleology ( local )
Technical Speleology ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )
United States


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Contents: Foreword -- Caverns of St. Tomas / by Antonio N. Jimenez and Kenneth Symington -- Saltpetre Mining Tools Used in Caves / by Burton Faust -- Magnetic Cave - The Wonderful Hoax / by William R. Halliday -- Caverns and Related Features of Michigan / by William E. Davies -- A Proposed Classification of Physical Features Found in Caves / by William R. Halliday -- Radio Transmission in Caves / by Fielding McGhee -- Recent Explorations In Floyd Collins' Crystal Cave / by Roger W. Brucker -- Who's Who in Bulletin Seventeen.
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Vol. 17, no. 1 (1955)
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BULLETIN SEVENTEEN Published by THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY To stimulate interest in caves and to record the findings of explorers and scientists within and outside the Society IN THIS ISSUE ...... December, 1955 FOREWORD .. .... .. .... .......................................................... ..... .... .. 1 CAVERNS OF ST. TOMAS .... .. .. Antonio N. Jimenez and Kenneth Symington .................... .. .............. .. .. .. .. .... ......... 2 SALTPETRE MINING TOOLS USED IN CAVES .... .. .. Burton Faust 8 MAGNETIC CAVE-THE WONDERFUL HOAX William R. Halliday 19 CAVERNS AND RELATED FEATURES OF MICHIGAN ............. .. ............................. William E. Davies 23 A PROPOSED CLASSIFICATION OF PHYSICAL FEATURES FOUND IN CAVES ........ .... William R. Halliday 32 RADIO TRANSMISSION IN CAVES .................. Fielding McGhee 34 RECENT EXPLORATIONS IN FLOYD COLLINS' CRYSTAL CAVE .. .. .... .. .......................... Roger W. Brucker 42 WHO'S WHO IN BULLETIN SEVENTEEN .. .................................... 47 PUBLISHED intermittently. at least once a year; EDITOR: Roger W. Brucker. 449 W. South College Sl.. Yellow Springs. Ohio. Inquiries relating to the publication of m anuscripts in the BULLETIN should be addresse d to the Office of the Secretary. The National Speleo. logical Society. 1407 Hickory Court. Broyhill Park. Falls Church. Va. COPYRIGHT, The National Speleological Society. PUBLICATIONS include the BULLETIN published at least once a year. the NEWS appearing monthly. and the OCCASIONAL PAPERS. All members reo ceive the BULLETIN and the NEWS. Membership hel p s to support the publications. special investigations, and the operation of the Society Associate ........................ ... .$ 3 Regular ...... ..... .... ....... .$ 5 Sustaining ............ .. .... $ 10 Institutional .... .......... $ 10 Life ............................. .$100 THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY was organized in 1940. It now has m em bers scattered throughout the United States. and also h as many members in foreign countries. THE SOCIETY is a non.profit organiza tion of men and women interested in the study and exploration of caves and allied phenomena. It is chartere d unde r the law of the District of Columbia. Its energies are d evo ted to unlocking the truth of the world underground. THE SOCIETY serves as a central agency for the collection. preservation. and pub lication of scientific. historical. and leg endary information relating to speleology It arouses interest in the discovery of new caves and encourages the preservation of the natural beauty of all caverns. THE AFFAIRS of the Society are con trolled by a Board of Governors. The Board appoints the national officers. The Board a lso approves committee chairmen, who are chosen not only for their proved ability in a particular field. but a lso for their activity in the work of the Society. OFFICERS FOR 1955: William E. Da vies, Falls Church, Va President; Bur ton S Faust, Washington, D. C.. Vice President (Administrat ion); J. D. McClung, Auburn. Ala . VicePresident (Or ganization); Jerome M. Ludlow. Trenton, N. j.. Vice-President (Publications); Al bert C Mueller, Scotch Pla ins. N. J., Vice President (Public Relations); Brother G. Nicholas, F.S.C . Cumberland. Md.. Vice President (Research) ; Howard N. Sloane. Upper Montclair. N. J . Treasurer. DIRECTORS: William T. Austin. Cave City. Ky.; Thomas C. Barr. Nashville. Tenn.; Roger W. Brucker. Yellow Springs. Ohio; Standiford Gorin. Nashville. Tenn.; Russell Gurnee. Closter. N. J.; William R. Halliday. Salt Lake City. Utah; George F. J ackson. Trenton. N J.; J D. McClung. Auburn. Ala.; Charles E. M ohr. Green wich. Conn.; Miles D Pillars. Washing ton. D. C.; Ida V. S aw telle Brooklyn. N. Y.; Howard A. Shugart. Berkeley. Calif.; Philip M. Smith. Springfield. Ohio; John L. Spence. Brooklyn. N Y.; William J. Stephenson. Bethesda. Md. ; Ralph W. Stone. Harrisburg. Pa.; H alvard Wanger. Sheppardstown. W. Va.; Robert L. Lutz, Elkins. W. Va. OFFIC E SECRJ::TARY: Mrs. Mary McKenzie LOCAL SECTIONS of the Society are c alled Groltos. They stimula te and coordinate ac tivity and increase the interes t enjoy and productiveness of cave explormg. LIBRARY: An excellent spel eo lo gical li brary i s ow n e d by the Society and is be ing constantly enlarged. Items on h and may be borrowed by NSS members. Ex tensive collections of cave maps. photo graphs. and slides are being gathered and are available on a loan basis at a nominal charge.


FOREWORD ''''ith thi s issu e o f the Bulletin, The Nati onal S pel eo l o gi ca l S o c i e t y rounds out 1 5 yea r s of publica ti o ns. As I write, I h ave the Soc i e t y's publica ti o n s around m e and pagin g thro u g h th e m i s a r ev i e w o f the evolutio n and g rowth of T h e Nati o n a l S p e l eo l og i ca l Soc i e t y Bulle tin One appeare d in 1940 ( n o w av lil a bl e in a r eprint publis h e d in 1 955 ) and it s m a in f eature was the C o n stitutio n o f the Dis tri c t o f Columbia S p e leologi ca l Soc i e ty, whi c h a yea r l ater b eca m e The Nati o n a l S p e leologi ca l Soc i e t y T hi s co n stitutio n with o nl y mino r c h a n ges with r es p ec t t o subdiv i s i o n o f executive duties, i s the one tha t guides the Soc i e t y in its ac ti o n to d ay It i s o f inte r es t th a t th e purpose o f th e Soc i e t y i s t o a dvan ce in a n y and a ll ways p os sible the Sci e n ce of S p e l eo l ogy The B oard o f G overno r s thro u g h o u t th e 1 5 years h as r ea liz e d that s p e l eo l ogy attrac t s th ree di s ti nc t g r oups-those w h o \ i s it caves m a inl y f o r th e thrill o [ it; th ose w h ose inte rest in ca \"es i s that o f a h obby i s t wit h a s p ecific subjec t t o b e purs u e d; a n d th ose w h o a r e sci entis t s w h o, eithe r a s a p art o f t h eir pro f ess i o n o r as a s id e lin e, h a \"e turne d t o c a ver n in vesti ga tio ns. With th e Soc i e t y Illembe r ship divide d in to three g r oups, th e B oard o f G ov erno r s has interpre t e d th e phrase "ad va n ce in a n y and a ll w ays p oss ible" t o m ea n th e integ r a ti o n o f all th ree groups in a commo n effort. This integ r atio n a l ways has presente d probl e ms, and th e solutio n i s reflec t e d in t h e sco p e and fo rm a t of t h e Bulle ti n. T h e fir s t four issues o [ th e B ull etin presente d a rticles o n G l\ e d escriptio ns, prima ril y o f caves in Virginia, "Vest Virg ini a, a n d i v f a r yhnc L T hi s l ocalizati o n o f inte r e s t directly r eflec t e d th e s m all, close l y-knit as p ec t o f th e Soc i e t y a t th a t time. ,,,rith B ulletin Fi ve, issu e d in O c t o b e r 1 943, a rticles o f ge n e r a l inte rest w e r e introduce d and individua l cave d escriptio n s and Soc i e t y n e w s were r e l ega t e d t o th e n e wl y establis h e d "New s l e t ter." In 19-18 the fir s t Bulletin o [ a r eg i o n a l nature was issu e d co \ ering Texas. At thi s time, l oca l units o f the Soc i e t y began the ir publicatio n s T hi s r es ul te d in a tra n s iti o n in the "News" as th e d escriptio n s of individua l G I\"eS o r ca vin g trips we r e tra n s f erre d t o th e G rotto publica ti o ns, fr ee in g th e "News" to se r ve as a prima r y source o f info rm atio n o n the Soc i e t y s acti v iti es, p olic i es, and probl e m s Fro m 1948 until 1952 th e Bulletin trende d t oward th e sci e ntific, culminat in g in Bulle tin 14, publis h e d in 1 952. In that yea r th e O ccas i o nal P a p e r s" w e r e e stablis h e d to h andle the sci e ntifi c as p ec t s o f s p e l eo l ogy. The s u b se q u ent Bu lleti n s h a v e b ee n e i th e r ge n e ral o r r eg i o n a l in n ature. Bulletin 17, a s th e contents indica t e, i s o n e o [ a ge n e r a l n ature and i s in k eeping with th e current p o licy o f m aintaining a b a l a n ce comme n surate with Illembe r ship inte rest s in th e Soc i e ty. The office r s o f th e Soc i e ty, th e direc t o rs, and the Bulletin edito r h o p e that thi s w ill b e th e l as t annua l Bulle tin Pl a n s ca ll fo r m aking the Bulletin a se miannua l o r it quarte rl y publica ti o n in 1 956, o [ w hi c h o n e issu e would b e r egio n a l and the o th e r s gen e r a l in n ature. T h e fr eque ncy o [ publicati o n w ill d e p end prima ril y upo n th e r eceipt o f articles s uit a bl e [ o r publica ti o n. Pl a n s f o r th e "New s" :lnd O ccas i o n a l P a p e r s" al so call [ o r in c r ease in size or fr eque ncy. I extend Illy co n gratula ti o ns to R oge r Bruc k e r [ o r a j o b w e ll d o n e o n thi s issu e, hi s fir s t editorial ass i gnme n t o [ th e Bulle tin. E DAV IES. P residellt The Natio n a l S p e l eo l og ical Soc i e t y


Caverns of St. Tomas By ANTONIO NUNEZ JIMENEZ and KENNETH A. SYMINGTON Members Cuban Spel eological So ciety Of all the 1000 01' more c a ves of Cuba } the Cavems of St. Tomas constitute the largest integra t e d system. Eight named caves interconnected w ith at l east fouT actively fanning stream passages p e n e trate the Quema dos Sierra} locate d in the count1y's weste' rnmost pTovince The Cuban Speleological Soc i e ty's syste mati c sU1vey and exploTing e ff or ts ha v e pla ced th e system among the longest known cave systems i n the w01ld. F01beauty} th e cave nmks with the finest to b e found anywhe1e. "The wh o l e i s l and of Cuba appears to be a labyrinth o f caves b e neaLh th e surface, and it s soil to rest upon all extensi ve vault."-M. Rodriguez F erre1"e r J 8.fi. The above description, written b y a noted Spanish traveller and explorer of the nine t eenth century is not simply another opinion. It i s a ge Ological f ac t tha t the calcareous formations of Cuba, extending throughout most of the coun try, contain impressiv e caverns which have bee n studied silice the eighteenth century, but in a systematic man ner only since 1940, when the Cuban Speleological Soci e t y was founded. Since tha t tim e, more than 1000 caves and grottoes h ave been explored, spread over the archipelago of islands which forms Cuba. Innumerabl e In dian artifacts h ave b ee n found in their r ec esses, as well as species of eyeless fish and shrimp living in underground l a kes and streams. Secondary cave form ations of impressive beauty, such as the hel ictites of B ella m a r Cave, and fossil r emains of the Cuban ple i stoce nic fauna are among othe r mate ri a l so far collected. SOME INTERESTING CUBAN CAVERN S In the Maisi region lo ca t e d in th e eastern end of the isl and, the P atana Cav e is w e ll known for the abundant fauna in its subterranean room s Dark corridors, wh e re a temperature of 104 F is found the yea r round, a r e lite rally covered with strange spiders scorpions, and l a rg e worms. To complete this picture, the cave's roof sustains thousa nds of oals which disb and as soon as they see the light from the explore r' s l amps, creating an absolute chaos in that hot inferno. In Guantana mo, Oriente Prov in ce, the great Rio Guas o Caverns are found; in Mayari, the Seboruco Cav e containing a r c h aeo l ogicall y val u a b l e s ilex tool s fabricated by primitive i s l and h abita nts ; further west in Banes, the Cave of the Four Hundre d Roses has more than one-half mil e of passages The Provinc e of Camaguey is Vie w of the Quemados S ie rra i n weste rn Cuba. Entrance to low est passage of St. Tomas cavern. All photos b y A. N Jimenez The party advances along an underground r i v e r 2 THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY


SHALE FANIA VALLEY (POLJE) I MESOZOIC LIMESTONE OF THE QUEMADOS SIERRA /CAVERNS SHALE Geological section of the Quemados Sierra showing the contact of the shale (where the river runs superficially) and the limestone, where the river flows underground, forming the St. Tomas cave system. Three levels are shown here; other cave levels actually exist. a lso rich in caves, th e b est know n of which i s the Cubitas Cave, with approxima tel y one and one h a lf miles of b eautifully d ecorated galleries. The Gagua ne s Cavern, in the northern coas t of Las Villas Province, i s unexpl o r e d be yond the one and o ne-h a lf mile s we h ave visited. The b est known cave o f Cuba, the Bellamar Cave in Ma t a nz as Prov in ce, h as bee n ca r ef ull y studied by the Cuban Speleo logi ca l Society. Surveys show that it i s 6850 feet in l ength, with four super pose d galleries following a fault in a b e d of Mi oce ne limestone. The crys t alline form a tions of the Bellamar Cave h ave been r ecog nized as some of the mos t b eautiful examples in the world b y Europea n mine ral ogis ts, l a rg e l y because of their dazzl i ng tra nspar e ncy. Not f a r from Bella m a r the Society has carried out ex pl o r ations in the Carbonera Cave, where an India n burial co n s istin g of 'three skulls ar ranged in a triangle, with a fourth one in the middle, has b ee n found. The corresponding skel etons were completely separa t e d from the skulls. an extre mely unus u a l occurrence whic h h as b ee n studie d b y anthropolog i s t s from the University of H ava n a. A l o n g the southern plateau of the western provinces of the i s l and, hundreds of sinkholes s imilar to th e famed "cenotes" of Yu cata n a r e loca t e d. T h ese formations u s u ally h ave a poo l of clear water in th e b ottom with spec ie s of eyeless fis h found occasionally. The ranges of th e S ierra d e los Organos, in Pina r d e l Rio Province, a r e noted for the pe-BULLETI N NUMBE R 17, DECEMBER] 955 culiar "Mogote" forma tions, l ow rounded hills with vertical slopes, lite r ally honeycombe d by underground passages and river c h anne ls, most of which h ave remained unv i s it e d b y sc i entis t s up to the present d ay These, the n are so m e of the major a r eas of cave bearing k a r st topography in Cuba. L o n ges t know n cave in the country i s St. Tomas Cavern, n a med for its proximity to the St. Tomas River which i s clos e l y connec ted with the o ri gi n of the a r ea's l a rge caves 1\IIore tha n five miles of pas sages h ave b ee n mapp e d m aking it the longes t in the "Vest Indies, Central and South America U p to the present, the l o n ges t known cave in this a r ea of th e world was the Lapa de Brej o Cave in Brazil, m easuring three and three-fourths miles. LOCATION AN D GEOLOGY T h e St. T o m as Cavern i s lo cate d in the Pina r del Rio county near the western reaches of the S ierr a d e lo s Organos, perha p s the oldest moun t a in s in Cuba, whose d e po sits date b ac k t o the Jurassi c and Cretaceous P e ri o ds. The strati graphic structure clearly re vea l s th a t the old c r e t aceo us strata in which lie the p assages of the cave a re of the overthrust t y pe; i.e., where the olde r rocks h ave b ee n cove r e d b y younger stra ta unde r v iolen t tectonic pressures. T he se forces ca u se d multiple crac ks, joints, and faults which later facilitated the passage of the subterra n ea n waters and th e supe rfi c ial rivers across the Si erra, giving ri se to the imposin g ga lleries of t h e cavern syst e m. In genera l th e t. Tomas Caverns a r e syst e ms 3


of paralle l p assages and channe ls, oriented from north to SOLI th and perpendicular to the Quemados S i erra (one of the divisions of the l arger Sierra de l os Orga nos.) There are a l so severa l superposed ga ll eries, ancient r iver b e ds whic h h ave now b ee n abandoned b y th e fluvi a l waters. These are much older tha n those through which the St Tomas River i s actua ll y flowing. It is important to point out tha t the Quemados Sierra is surrounded by s h a l e deposits, a rock whic h i s more vulnerable to erosion than the h arder calcareous rock in wh i c h the caver n s a re found. The Quemados Sierra itself rest s on a base of s h a l e As suc h it i s terme d a "klippe" or root l ess" m o untain b y Germa n geo l og i s ts. ORIGIN OF THE CAVE S ince th e publication of the studies made by Grund in 1903, and Davis in 193 0 many h y p o theses on cave formations h ave emphasized the importance of the water tabl e and its fluc tu a ti o ns. Such factors h ave, in ollr OpInIOn no strong b earing o n the origin of the St. Tomas Caverns. How the n did t h e syste m ori g in ate? Here i s a t entative explanation. T h e mountain on whic h th e caves a r e l ocated consists of hard limestone rock with numerous f aults and ex ten sive joint crac ks. These h ave fat;ilita t e d the e n try and circ ul a tion of surface waters from th e rivers in the adjoining va ll ey, which flow generally in the sa me direction as t hat of th e faults and di aclases of the mounta in. Before reaching th e lim esto n e Q u e m a do s S i erra, how eve r th e rivers flow over soft b eds of s hal e, which a r e more eas il y eroded than the h arder m o untain limeston e As a result, the softer, sup erfic i a l s hal e river bed is worn faster th a n the subterra ne a n limes ton e b e d. T h e difference in l eve l b etwee n these two bed s forces th e river to f orm a new subterranean passage, l owe r than the origin a l one, f ollowing th e openings affor d e d by the crac k s and fau lts in th e mounta in s ide. The work of so lutioneros i o n wi ll r e n ew th e forma tion of a cave rn at a lower l evel. The above process repeatedl y taking p l ace has produced a ser ies of superpose d caves ex t ending across the width of the S ierr a and co nn ecting the tw o vall eys o n either side. The e l evation of th e Que m a dos S ierra due to t ectonic forces a l so, of co u rse, i nfluenced th e formati o n process out lin e d above 4 The higher caves, s u c h as the Salon Cave, T able Cave, and Candle C ave a r e the older membe rs of the system, whil e the l ow e r ones serve as channel s through which the riv ers are now flowing. B e tw ee n these two l eve ls, there a re severa l intermediate caverns which a re inund a ted only in times of flood, when the wa t e r l evel reaches them. ONE OF THE WORLD'S G REAT CAVES ,,, T h e n we began to explore the Quemados S i erra in 1954, onl y the Salon C ave was known to the l oca l residents, since they held pic nics and outings a t the cave entra nce. The subterra n ea n river was known to ex i s t but no one had ventured to follow it into the S ierra. Many other entrances of caves which are interconnec t e d in side the Sierra h ave s ince b ee n di scovere d. In the five miles of mappe d passages so far explore d, many side ga lleries and connections h ave yet to b e explored. In a n y case, the import ance of the St. Tomas Cavern rests on the fact that it i s the longest known integ r a ted cave system south of Florida. Dammed pools interrupt navigation by rubber boot. THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY


A TRIP TO T H E CAVER N T he trip from Hava n a is made l e i surely until we r eac h Ponce, a small vill age in the midst of the verti ca l cliff s of the Sierra d e los Organos. A je e p waits for us and in a few minutes, we are driving through the lower re ac hes of the Sierra; verdant tobacco p l anta tion s and exotic tropical vegetation surround us everywhere. Soon we reach a spot near the Quemados Sierra its e lf from where we see the dark cave entra n ces in the cliff side. The unloading of the p acks, rubbe r r afts, h ea d gea r, compasses, lamps, instruments, and other equipment takes only a few minutes and we are soo n s tartin g the climb to the e n tra n ces Upon re aching th e m ain opening, we find ourselves in a l a rge, soft l y lighte d room with a steep 50-foo t precipice near the b ac k wall, at the bottom of which the river flows quietly in its course Ropes and ladders are ti e d to projecting sta l agmites and we descend into th e hole, find 'ing th a t the water i s coo l and crystal-clear and only knee -d eep. As we start to walk into the mountain agains t th e current the d epth increases so we infl a t e the rubber rafts. The rive r runs over a series of pool dams, formed of pink cal cium carbonate, which contrast with uazzling ,white stalac tites, pal e ttes, and the dark blue w a lls of marble with white calcite veins. NAVIGATING UNDER THE MOUNTAIN vVe need the rubber raft where we can see no botto m Great l ongitudina l c r ac k s in the cave cei l in g revea l the geo logi c conditions which p er mitte d the rive r to carve out such g igantic pas sages. eve r a l hundre d feet from the entrance, a tributary joins the main strea m increasing the volume of water. "We cannot avoid thinking what a tragi c end would await u s if we were to be trapped here in a floo d. Every few minutes we stop to raise the raft ove r th e irregular d ams b locking the p assage. TOP-Stalactit e s adorn the ceiling of Incredible Cave. CENTER-A. N J i m e n e z inspects cave pearls on a dry pool floor BOTTOM-Flowstone formations are toppe d by palette s, on the right. BULLETIN NUMBER 17, DECEMBER 1955 5


Kenneth Symington climbs one of the huge columns found throughout the cave. The clamm e d pools, sta l actites, and flowstone formations are soon l eft behind. The scenery now consists of huge piles of roc k s and debris through whi c h the wate r trick l es. '''I e l eave the rafts and mos t of th e equipment b ehind at an improvised doc k in order to climb over the mas s ive falle n boulde r s and s l abs of rock. P ass i n g over the c hasms, pools, and break down, we ca n see a n opening to o u r right w hi c h l ets so m e d aylight fil t e r in T h e li ght, w e soo n l ea rn co mes hom a s ma II k a rst valley open in the heart of th e m ountain torming a perfect p o l j e, roughly 5 00 teet in diame t e r. The lux uriant vegetat i o n i s dre n ched in rain. A cyclon e i s approaching Cuba and, r earing a f l ood, ,,"e quickly retrace our s t e p s ba c k to th e main e n tra n ce, po stponing a n y turther n av ig a tion a l o n g lhe St. Tomas Riv e r [ o r the da y 6 Unusual stone "cacti". Exploration continued on Decembe r 25, ot 1 954, w hen w e repeat e d our prev ious ex plora tion and then continue d a long a passag e which branched out to th e right a short distance from t h e valley T hi s n e w galle ry led up to a point where th e surface of the w a t e r and th e cave root approached to within two f ee t of eac h other. After several uns u ccessf ul attempts to p ass be yond this point, the p arty fina ll y manage d to swim throug h onl y to r eturn shortl y afterward, s ince l ong h o urs in overcoming obstacles had a lm ost exhau s ted our gasoline supply A third attempt to complete l y trave r se the cavern was made on the 1 s t of J anuary in 1955, when we were b ette r equipped with r a tions an ampl e suppl y of waterproofed f-1ashlights, and seve r a l cans of gaso l ine for o u r l a mps. A camp was est a blished after a bou t one and one-half miles of s t ea d y advance, w h e r e we d ec id e d that a f ew members of the party s houl d r e m a in as a safe t y m easure whi l e the oth e r s would advance and try to rea c h th e end of th e cave. Prog ress n ow becam e difficult. T h e main pas s age was o n l y abou t seve n feet hi g h while a maze of s id e p a ssage s endlessl y co nfu se d us, leading us to c ui -de-sacs and n arrowing down to m e re cracks. At certain spots the river w as s h allow; we had to carry the rubber raft on our s h o ul d e rs. T hi s operation becam e so tiring th a t we THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY


One of the most beautiful of the many palettes found in the St. Tomas system. d ecide d to d eflate th e bo a t a ltogether and proceed eithe r o n foot or swimming across the occas ional pool s w hi c h barred the w ay. Ca 'e for m ations in thi s sect i o n were f e w but extre m e l y b eautiful. '''' e saw cave flow e r s" and extreme l y thin sta l actites, and we collec t e d seve r a l s pe c ies of eye less shrimp. T h e river b e d w as covered with p ebbles and boulde r s whi c h when hurle d against each other in t h e spring floods gradu ally assume their rounde d appearance w hil e p erha p s contributing to the en l a rgement of th e cave pas sages. At a point tw o miles from the entrance, the aspect of the cave again c hanged r a dically T h e n arrow flooded pass ages gave w ay t o a hig h smooth cave, with a H oo r so eve n and uniform BULLETI N NUMBER j 7 DECEMBE R j 955 that a car co ul d be easily driven a long it. "Ve advanced in that seem in g l y e ndless corridor afte r a bri ef stop for lunc h s ince i t had b ee n more th a n five hours s ince we had a n ything to eat. Suddenly, in a w i de opening t o our r i ght, we saw the bra n c hes and l eaves of so m e trees by the g l ow of our flas hli ghts! "Ve had co m e o u t o n the oth e r side of the S i erra after trave r s in g more than tw o and o ne h a l f miles of unde r ground passages The moon was shining and a g r ea t quie t preva iled over the pine forests w hi c h cover th e valley on th e eastern s ide of the Quemados S i erra. Four h o u rs later w e r eac h e d camp, after r eturning b y a mountain tra il whi c h crosse d t h e Sierra over the huge dark caverns be l ow. Here we joined the rest of the party which we h a d s i g n alled to return. SUMMAR Y OF LENGTH S Since space does not permi t a description of t h e many oth e r explora tions carrie d o u t in the lateral cave rns inte r connec ted with the o ne jus t describ e d a summary of the lengths of the ca es form in g the St. Tomas syst e m i s g i ven b e l ow. I V a'l"n e I. Candl e Cave 2. G u a n o Cave .... ..... ..... . Length (feet) 1900 2 1 4 0 3 Dacal Cav e . 4. Sa lon Cave 5. Fernando Cave ............ 6. Tabl e Cav e .......... ........... ... ... .. .. .. 7. Pal ette Cave ........ ....... .... ........... 8. Incredibl e Cave ........................... 9. Subterra n ea n Stream No. I ... 10. No. 2 11. No.3 12. o 4 1 3 Con n ec tion b etwee n streams 1 and 3 328 3 1 00 147 2950 1 4 7 5 164 0 2200 5650 22 90 246 0 164 Total ........... .................. ..... 26,444 Editor' s Note: Jus t b e fore press time, the a uthors announce d that 1 2 additional caves have b ee n connecte d with the St. Tomas system, raising the total l ength of su r veyed p assages to seve n and o n e-half miles. 7


Saltpetre Mining Tools Used in Caves By BURTON FAUST Most stJeleologists ?'eali ze that caves aided th e cause of the Unit e d States in the War o f 1 8 1 2 by p roviding saltpetre, a vital ing?'edient of explosives of the time, But the ear liest recorded uses of saltpetre date back mOTe than 4000 years. In the course o f his cave studies, th e author has fitted tog ether a comprehensive jJicture of th e to o l s and methods by which the compound was extmc ted fTOm cave ear th. In geneml, fOTm follow ed function, consis tent with tool material avai l a bl e and e x is tin g t ec hnology. The mate?'ial pre sent e d clearly shows the d evelopment of th e indust?) up to a time when i t vanished as a fonn of human ac tivit y, l eaving little behind but the tools themse l ves a s one measw'e of man's jJrogress. The r ecove ry of saltpetre from th e earth of caves i s a simple operation although standardi zed procedures d eve lop e d only over a long period of time, as the result of much investigation. The study of the so urces formation, recov e ry, purification, and uses of saltpetre occupied the attention of a numbe r of the ea rly chemists and eve n some alchemists, among whom were :Nlar ccllin Pi erre Eugene Bertholet1 Antoi ne Laur ent L avo i sier2 Roger Baco n3 Georgius Agri cola4, John BateS, 'l\1illiam Cl arke6 and H enry Stubbe?, to name a few The b eginnings o f the utijization of saltpe tre a re shrouded in antiquity. The earliest uses ap p ea r to b e as a diure tic, a carminative, a r e frig erative, a meat prese rv a tiv e, and an antiputrifactive or embalming material. These date to around 2 100 B.c. and are re corded on ancient clay t a bl e t s r ecently unearthe d in the country of the Sumarians8 They tell the story of the production, r ecov ery, and of these uses of saltpetre. In the r ec overy operations, the basic physical c h emica l theory invol ve d follows clos e l y the law of differ ential solution. In eff ect, this i s the recognition and utilization of the different solubility factors of diff erent sa lts in diff e r ent temperatures. In its simpl est form the method of recov ering saltpetre from the cave earth and refining it for use comprises the following steps: 8 1. Plac in g the cave earth in tubs, barrels, or vats and cover in g th e m a teri a l with wat e r. 2. Allowing the mud, thus formed, to stand for one to thre e d ays during which time the calcium nitra te i s l eached and dis solved by the wa ter. 3. Draining the solution from the container. 4 Treating the l each-brine, thus obtained, with potash that was usually procured by leaching wood-ashes in a similar manner: (This operation changed the calcium nitrate to potash nitrate and caused the precipitation of the calcium as an hydroxide). 5 Boiling the solution of potash nitrate to increase the concentration by evaporating part of the water. 6. Separating by partial crystallization the common salt and other minerals that are less so luble in water. 7 Decanting the hot supernatent liquid which contains the greater percent of pot ash nitrate. S. Allowing the hot liquid to cool which will cause much of the potash nitrate in solution to precipitate. 9 Redissol ving the recovered crysta l s in a sma ller vo lume and recrystallizing the potash nitrate after which the c rysta l s are w ashed with cold water; or, (9). Mel tin g the crystal in a pot ov e r a fire and removing the scum th a t forms on the m e l t e d material; the n 10. Pouring the m elte d material into a container in which it will coo l into a hardened partly-crystallized chunk. This last step provided a material known as grough-saltpetre which was generally shipped to THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY


the powder factory for further treatment. Man uses too l s to produce any substance. The m a t e rial avai lable of which such implements are constructed and the us e for which they are employe d will condition th eir form Since saltpetre miners and refin e rs were no exception to this general statement, l e t us consider some of the tools and equipment utilized to produce a usable sal tpe tre from the earth of caves. One general observation can b e made at th e outset: Most of the tool s and other equipment us e d were made of wood. There was limited use of metal tools, evide nced b y existing pick-marks and what appear to be scraper-tracks and spade or shovel-traces. Howeve r very few m e tal tools have b ee n found in any of the caves. Probably at l east two reasons account [or this situation. First, metal was scarce, hard to obtain, and the r efo re expensive. Second, the few metal tools available were precious, s inc e they could b e used [or m a ny jobs for which wood tools we r e not sati sfac tory. Therefore it i s re asonable to assume that the miners took their m eta l too l s with the m when they left the cave. There is possibl y a third, although minor, r easo n. Metal too l s make a h arsh, gra ting, and dis co n certi ng racket when scraped along rough rocks and stones. Before any digging or mining in a cave was pos s ible, it was n ecessa r y to have light. Extant evidence indicates that th e most commonly used light-source was flaming fat-pine faggots; how ever, it seems safe to assume that Aambeau or some other forms of torc he s were us e d. It was known practice to soak drie d cat-tail h ea d s in animal fat or pine pitc h [or us e as torches. It was known procedure, by the Indians at l east, to cut sections of hollow p lant s talk s or reeds fill the hollow portions with melted animal fat which h ardened upon cooling, and thus pro\"ide a combined wick and source of fuel. So m e times bound bundles of oat-suaw were u sed. Spectro scopic study of certain black depos it s from sa ltpetre sections o[ C l a rk 's Cave indica t e that these deposits a r e organi c in nature It i s l ogica l to conclude that soot [rom torc hes and other lights constitutes a t l east a part of th e samples that have been analyzed. "Vhile ex i sting condition in a parti cular cave were determining [actors in the equipment the mine rs used, the ba s i c tools remained similar and rather uniform 111 t ype throughout the BULLETIN NUMBER 17, DECEMBER] 955 whole industry 1 the passag e s in which the de posits were loc a ted w e re large in compari so n with the size and h e i ght of a man, and the petredirt was friable and loose a shovel was abou t all that was nece ssa ry in th e mining operation. However, if the p assages were small, low, and narrow, the mine rs were forced to use other tools. In such cases, wooden paddles ranging from the size of a m a n 's h and, h aving a handle portion t e n to twelve inc hes long to some of approxima tely t e n b y 1 2 in c hes in size with a handle portion about two feet long, were commonly used. Many collected sa mples show con siderable d eviation from thes e dime n s ions. Such differ e nces appear to have b ee n l argely the result of personal taste. Observations indica t e that paddles of va rious sizes and s h apes were used to scr ape th e p e tredirt from l e dge s and cracks in which the ma t e ri a l was lodge d. 1 available paddles were too l arge [or particular spo ts, it was not uncommon for the miners to u se l o ngshanke d chiselpointed scraping and diggin g st i cks, a n inch to an inch and a h a lf in diame ter and from s ix to 30 inches in l ength. Occasiona ll y it was n ecessa r y to split a rock from the cave wall either to a llow easier access to a d eposit of petre-dirt or to permit a man to move forward along a deposit sea m For this purpos e a glut was u s u a ll y emplo yed. This tool i s a large r ather blunt-nosed wedge of wood as large as five inches in thi cknes and from 12 to 16 inc hes in l ength, cut from a log To u se this tool it was nec essa r y to ha\ e a large mallet or a small m a ul with which to drive it. Both these tools Photo by Marie Hansen Piles of leoched cove earth. The vats were located near the bonks of the stream. 9


w e r e m a d e o f hi ckory, osa g e ora nge dogwood or some other t o u g h split-resi s t ant wood. The m al l e t h ea d s w e r e g e n e r ally cylindrical in s h a p e, about four in c he s in di a m e t e r and from six to ei ght inches in l e n g th A short handle, e i ght to t e n inches l o ng, was u s u a ll y wedge d in a dia inetrica ll y -au ge r e d hole that passed throug h the cente r o f g r avity of th e h ea d E ven with the best of minnig tool s available the p etre-dir t was o f n o u s e until it reached the process in g equipment. T hi s invo l ved a gre a t va r i e t y of tra n s p orta ti o n m ea n s and th e ex i sting situa ti o n s in a p artic ul a r cave conditione d t h e metho d s and m ea n s employe d If the cave was suffic i ently large and access ibl e, o xen -dra wn carts were u se d as f o r example, in Mamm oth C ave and th e Grea t Cave o n Croo k e d Creek in th e R oc k cas tl e r eg i o n in K entuc kyA. In o th e rs, s u c h as Sauta, in A l a b a m a, a tra m way or r a il roa d w as co n struc t e d over w hi c h a mule could pull a trac k-guide d car of petre-dirt to the cav e e n tra n ce. A m o n g th e uncommo nl y f ound tool s a re m e t a l pic ks, m e t a l scrape rs, pus h-pull boxes, wood en s ti c k g r apples, and s i eves. E v id e n c e presented b y pic k m a rk s indica tes tha t bl a d e s o f diff e r ent widths were u se d. T h ose o bserved in T o n y's C ave m easure n ea rl y three in c hes in width. S u c h mark s seen in C lark 's Cave a r e about t wo inc hes in width. T h ose found in Burnsvill e Saltpe t re C ave ( B reathing) a r e n o t m ore th a n in in c h ac r oss. S h ove l -trac e s th e writer h as s e e n measure fou r t o five in c hes in s pan. One m e t a l pi c k th a t has b ee n found i s a t wo bl a d e d m attoc k t y p e im p l e m e nt. T h e h ea d i s approxim a t e l y 1 2 in c hes l o n g and a b out t wo inc hes t h ic k with o n e bl a d e per pendic ular to t h e l o n g ax i s of t h e h ea d and th e second bl a d e tra n sve r ses t o t h e same ax is. fid way b etwee n the bl a des, an eye is for m ed thro u g h wh ic h a 30in c h handl e is passed and ""e d ge d in p os iti o n T hu s a dual -p u rpose tool i s provide d One bl a d e serve d as a di gg in g a nd dirt l oosening too l and th e o th e r w hi c h i s blunt-ed ge d was ava il a bl e a s a we d g in g a n d liftin g t ool. T hi s blunt-ed ge d we d gi n g-b l a d e wo ul d a l so serve as a s l e d ge to brea k roc k s so t h ey cou l d b e move d more easily At l east two scrapers h ave bee n foun d, b oth of w hi c h prese n t ev idence of great use. O n e, in t h e possess ion of the wr i ler, i s about [o u r in c hes 1 0 broa d and thre e inc hes high with an oval open ing about an inc h and a half wide formin g a n e y e a t the top of the bl a d e, in whi c h a 24-inc h h andle i s moun t e d The bl a de of this tool i s about one-fourth inc h in thickness and appea r s t o h ave b ee n m a d e b y heating a flat piec e of wro u ght-iron in a f orge folding it in h alf, and uniting the h a l ves into a sing l e piece b y mea n s of a h ammer weld, then working the pla t e into a the eye for the h andle was punched. h oe-s h a pel piece. B y m ea n s o f a swe d g in g tool A noth e r ra r e piec e o f equipment i s a pus h pull box The one in th e write r 's p ossess i o n i s a r ec t a n g ul a r box with inside dimens ion s of 1 2 inches long, ei ght inc he s wide, and four to five inc hes de e p It i s form e d of r o u g h split b oards fas t e n e d with soca ll e d cutn ails a va il a bl e during the 1 86 0 's Near the top a t o n e end i s a h o l e thro u g h w hi c h a fiber tho n g w a s threaded w h e n the box was found. App a r e n t l y this b o x was used t o haul p e tre-dirt through a n opening t oo s m a ll f o r a m a n to n ego ti a t e eas ily. E vide n ce in dica te s tha t on e m a n pushed th e box throug h s u c h a n o p ening with a lon g s ti ck. A second m a n would fill the box a t th e petre-dirt deposit, the n b y pulling the tho ng, the box could b e bro u ght to a more access ibl e s p o t w h e r e it could b e e mp ti e d into a container tha t was carried t o t h e surface The box w as th e n r eturne d for a n o th e r load A n o th e r differ ent and a lso uncommo n pi ece of equipment i s a f orm o f g r apple T h e sample the writer has i s s h a p e d lik e a w i shbo n e with o n e l eg about s i x in c hes l o n g and th e o the r l eg about fiv e fee t l o ng. Appa r ently this imple m ent was used b y l owering t h e s hort end th r ou g h a s m a ll h o l e in th e cave floor t o a low e r l ev el. A n oth e r m a n workin g th e r e would ho o k a bag of petre-dirt b etwee n the l egs and the top m a n would h a ul the l oa d t o a m o r e access i b l e s p o t after w hi c h t h e p et re -dirt would b e t a k e n f r o m t h e cav e S in ce the l a bor r equire d t o re m ove the p e t re dirt fr o m t h e ca v e was arduous and t edio u s and the roc k s w ere o f n o value, it w as a commo n practi ce to sort th e l oose ro c k s fr o m the dirt. Larger r oc k s we r e r e m ove d b y h and pic king. Ev id e n c e of thi s i s f ound in th e m a n y wa ll s l aid a dj acent t o the di gg ings and the rubble piles in t h e ge n e r a l a r eas o f th e p etre-dirt d e po sits, s u c h as a r e found in g r ea t abunda n ce in Cl ark's Cav e. T H E NATIONAL SPELEOLOG ICAL SOC IETY


Sieves constructed in a variety of forms were used to remove th e smaller rocks. Some were rectangular, ranging in size from one to two feet in width and two to four feet long and three to six inches in depth. Others were roughly cylindrical or bucket-shape d in form, four to s ix in ches d ee p and 16 to 24 inc hes across the top, and had hand-holds ad jace n t to the top. The bottom, or the screen portion, was made b y interlacing wires across th e opening or by punching holes in a flat piece of sheet metal, thus making a collander-like bottom. Either form would retain the rocks and allow th e finer material to pass. There is much evidence of extensive us e of s ieves in Clark's Cave. ''''hen it was not possible to us e animal-drawn carts or cars to move the petre-dirt to the proces sing point, it was n ecessary to use other means. From all evid e nce observed, the miners carried the dirt in bags slung across a shoulder, or dragge d them through the crawlw ays These bags were generally s imil a r to the present day burlap, jute, or gunny sac k. Another extremely interesting and unusual piece of equipment u se d by th e "Petre-monkeys", in th e possession of th e writer, i s what may b e called a bag-holder. This particular sample re sembles a stirrup in form. It is made of a flat sided, rounded-edged piece of wood nine inches long, one and one-fourth inc hes wide, and three fourths of an in c h thi ck .. In eac h end and in the bottom, metal prongs have been driven. Over the top, a U s h a p e d rounded, and smoothed piece of wood has been arched. Adjacent to the ends of the fla t-sid e d piece, holes have be e n bore d. Into eac h one of these holes one end of the U-shaped a r c h has be e n inserted and fast ene d Thus a triangular isosceles-shaped struc ture i s obtained with the crotch angle rounded. Apparently this tool was u sed by plac in g a bag on the ground; inserting the tool within the mouth of the bag; hooking the prongs into the meshes of the bag adjacent to its mouth; stretching the bag over and around the a r c h e d top; holding the bag and tool in one h and; thu holding open the mouth of th e bag into which the p etre-dirt could be pushed. Now and the n it was n ecessa r y to lift th e petre dirt fr0111 pits. Under such conditions, it was a practice to provide a winch. Sometimes thi was BULLETIN NUMBER 17, DECEMBER 1955 done by constructing a log frame, similar to a saw-buck, over the mouth of the pit. A smoothed wood cylinder, of uniform diameter and longer than the distance betwee n the side frames, was mounte d horizontally betwee n the support legs and above their intersect ions. The cylinder was supported on bearing blocks and h eld directly over the pit. Crank-handles were fixed on each end of the horizontal log A rope fastened to the cylinder would wind in a spiral around its circumference as the cylinder was rotated, thus lifting a load to the surface. Occ asionally, the s upport frame was modified and the horizontal cylinder was supported on vertical bearing blocks which were held in a n upright position by angle braces. Tally-marks records a re found in many petredirt pits. In the case of deep excavations, differ ent sets of m a rks may be see n at different e l eva tions above the ex i sti n g floor apparently because these marks were made as the excavation pro gressed The significance of s uch records is not clear, but they probably represent units, possibly bags, of petre-dirt remove d from the particular pit. Since muc h p etre-dirt was found in pits and consequently not readil y accessible, steps or lad ders were built to reach the d epos its. In case the s lope along the work route was not over 45 flat stones were used for s teps An excellent example of stone s t eps i s found in Buchanan Cave. If the pit walls were to o steep for steps, the n various forms of ladders were us e d Probably the simplest form was made by tak ing a log t e n to 12 in c hes in diameter and notching s t eps into one side. The steps were cut at s u c h a n a n g le tha t when the log was placed in position, the step-treads would be approximately l evel. Thi log-t y p e of ladder generally was the most practical to u se in ascending or descending steep, smal l openings. One use of this form is found in the Big Bone and Arch Caves system. nother form of single-pole ladde r was made b augering holes through a log along a longitudinal line and driving pegs into the holes so they extended on both sides of the log. Thus a tre e-like ladder was formed up which the men could climb b y stepping from one peg to the next on opposite sides of the support pole. A ladder of this type was found in Sinnet Cave. 11


Photo by Burton Faust One form of ladder found in Trout Cave. A slightly diff erent form was shaped very sim ilarly to a wish-bone. This t ype was made by splitting a sapling, about four to five inches in diameter, from one end to within a foot of the other, and spreading the split end apart. Cross pieces were fastened betwe e n the split portion to provide steps. Thus a ladder with a sing l e pole at the top and a substantial double support at the bottom was available. This t y p e served admirably to provide an access to a narrow crac k in an uppe r part of a passage. A ladder of this type was found in Madison's Cave. Other ladders w e re similar to present day forms. These l adders comprised straight, strong uprights through which matching hol e s were auge red. A number of smaller pieces of wood, equal in number to th e number of pairs of holes in the uprights were prepared b y whittlin g their ends so they would giv e a tight fit when driven into the holes. Thus by means of a pair of up rights and a numbe r of crossp i eces for rungs, a ladder was readily made There wa s co nsiderable range in the l e n ghts of the se l adders. The writer has s een some as s hort as five feet and as long as 20 f eet. These wer e generall y co n structed so they 12 could be easily dismantled into their component parts and moved through narrow passag e s and reassembled at a new location. Probably the most elaborate form of ladder and one of the best examples of workmanship is illustrated in a specimen found in Great Salt Petre Pits in Tennessee. This particular type was made by squaring one side of eac h of two logs about ten inches in diameter and approximately 35 feet long; cutting slots abollt two in ches wide and at a predetermined angle in the squared faces (in the example mentioned, the slots measure 13 and one-half inches on ce nters) ; providing pieces of planks about two feet long that would slide into the notches ; augered t woinch holes completel y through the logs about every ten feet of their lengths; moving the dis assembled logs and planks to the desired location in the cave; assembling the ladder by spac ing the l ogs in an upright position the necessary distance apart with the slots approximately lev e l; sliding the plank-ends into their matching s l ots; inserting the round crosspieces into the augered holes; and pinning them in p l ace to prevent the log s from spreading and to hold the component parts in assembled relation. Thus a form of step-ladder was made for places where a permanent installation was needed for heavy traffic. These were the typical forms of ladde rs. Com binations of the b as ic forms were used and lo ca l conditions necessitated considerable variation in installations. One inte r est in g general observation may be made as evidenced by inspection of many differ ent ladde rs and installations in many different caves: the more e labroate the design, the better the workmanshi p, and the bette r the state of preservation. Ph o t o by Burto n Faust More elaborate ladder in Clark' s Cave. THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY


Photo by Burton Faust Plank foot-bridge showing use of cross cleats to aid traction. Often it was necessary to traverse pits or chasms to reach the petre-dirt deposits. If it wer e ,not possible or practical to fill the pit w ith rocks and provide a wa l kway, it was a common prac tice to construct bridges. In some instances. a bridge was built by the use of one or more logs to form a stringer construction to support a plank over which the miners could wa l k Some times, if the plank were laid on an angl e, cleats were fastened to the top surface to provide foot holds to keep the men from slipping. On occa sions it was necessary to build an elaborate trestle-work structure to provide support for walkways In a discussion of wa l kways as well as ladders, few general statements can be made since t l e means employed and the practices fol l owed were governed by local conditions. All extant evidence indicates that everything possi-ble was done to ease the lot of the miners in the salt-petre caves In some instances, the cave entrances were suf ficiently close to the depos its that the men could carry the petre-dirt directl y to the processing point. In o ther instances, the caves were too high BULLETIN NUMBER 17, DECEMBER 1955 in the mountains and the approach slopes too steep to make such a means of transportation practical. At l ocations such as Clark's Cave and Trout Cave, another expedient was utilized A chute or trough extending from the cave en trance down the steep slope to a lower elevation was constructed. The petre-dirt was dumped in to the trough at the cave entrance, where it ro lled or slid down the hill to a supply heap for the pwcessors. Sometimes it was necessary to push or drag the dirt to keep it movingB Photo by Burton Faust Slab rock steps along a miner's path in Buckhannon Cave. After the petre-dirt had been m ined and transported to the recovery plant, entirely dif ferent types of equipment were used. Major Raines, in his "Notes", lists t h e "Arti cles wanted to make saltpetre on a sma ll scale." One ordinary imn pot for boiling; three or fowtubs, pails or ban'els cut off; two m thee small tmughs; some coane bags or a wheel ban-ow to b1'ing the earth fmm the cave and four stmng barrels with one head in each-empty vinegar whiskey, or pork ban' els m'e very good-are about all the arti cles required fOl' a small saltpet1 e manufac tmy. To these, however, must be added some ash ban' els to make potash lye as it is bette)' that this should be made at the same time and place, the ashes f1'Om the fire un del' the pot fm' boiling assisting in the pm duction. 13


Let u s follow Major Raines' in struc tions in the s t eps for r ecovering saltpetre from the caveearth and then consider some of the variations in operation tha t were introduced into the procedures a t different caves. Fi1"St bore a hole about th e size of the finger thmugh the head or end of each ballel neal one side, and fit a wood plug to eac h hole-then set the banels on some jJieces of ti m bel near each other the heads down, and th e h o l e of eac h p1'Ojecting over the timbe1"-Put some twigs into the bolto ln of eac h banel, and on these place stmw aT hay about half a f oo t thick when pressed down; th e n having bmught some of the earth f1'Om the cave, and b1'Oken up all the lumjJs, fill each barrel full without pressing it down. Put the plugs into th e holes tightly, and fill up each banel with as much water (hot watel is best in winter) as it will hold; allow the whole t o remain until next day, then pull out the plugs, having placed a t u b aT pa i l under each, and pour a ll the watel f1'Om the first barr e l into the second banel, and a ll the wateT or l iqu01 which drains f1'O'I'n th is bane I must be poured on top of th e e(n th o f the third barrel, and finally the liquor which dm. ins f1'Om this last banel m ust be pow'ed into a tub 01' other vesse l Now having prev iously made some st1'Ong l ye f1'Om wood a shes, pow' a small s tream of it int o th e tub and stir it well ; imme diately th e clea r liquor will becom e muddy, and as lon g as tlt e lye continues to cunlle or cloud tlte liqu01', it must be poured in; o f cow'se you will h ave to wait now and then for the liquor to sellle to see if it requires mOl'e l ye, No more m ust be used than is n ecessa r y, for it not on l y wastes the l ye, but is an impw'ity whi c h th e l'efine1,), must afte nval'ds ge t rid of. We will su.ppose that the p1'Ope r quantity o f l ye has be en used, and the l i q uol' allowed to s ettle or drain thmugh clo th until it be cn'l'nes clear; i t is then jJOtl1'ed into the pot and boil e d away until a d1'Op taken up by til e en d of a stick b eco mes h al'd 0 1 so.lid w h en let fall u pon cold metal 0 1 upon a plat e Til e liquor is n ow t o b e dippe d ou t o f the pot and poure d int o a cloth placed over a tllb or bane l and allowed to stmin thmugh 1 4 into th e tub b e low and b ecome cold. As soon as the liquor b egins to coo l Clystal s o f salt p e tl'e will commence fanning, and w hen cold th e liqU01' left-called mothel' liqU01' must b e pow'ed off f1'Om th e saltpetre ba c k into the pot with the fTesh liqU01' for boil ing, as it still has consi d erable saltpetre in it. ... The saltpetl'e fanned by the [ol' egoing p1'Ocess must be fil'st allowed to dmin well, and then placed on cloths stl'et c h e d befoTe th e fij'e 01' out in the sun t o dry ; w hen the drying is comple t e d it is to be put into sacks 01' b a n els, and is ready to b e tmnspol't e d to the Government Agent a t Nashville, Lieut. M. H. Wright, C,S.A ol'dnance officer who will pay for the same on l'ece i ving t h e bills of it s shipment on til e mill-oad. The abov e instruc tions pre p a r e d b y Major Raines \-"e r e for production on a s m a ll scale. This procedure had b ee n followed for many yea rs by small producer s and planta ti o n owners. One such note d producer was N i cholas Cress w e IP a who, even though a Tory, u se d almost exactly this method to m a ke saltpetre in Alex andria, Virginia, for sale to the Colonists during the R evolutiona r y '''Tar. However, Major Raines a lso prescribed procedures to follow for production o n a large sca l e H e suggested the us e of l a rge vats rather tha n barrels in which to leach the ca ve-earth. There are several gene ral t y pes of l eaching va ts. The mos t commonl y u se d was of a ge ner a ll y V-shaped form co nstructed in a manne r sim ilar to the following d escription: Four posts about s ix f ee t l o n g were pre p ared b y squaring one end and augering a l ongitudin a l hole about eight inches d ee p in the center of the same end. About two f ee t bel ow the square d or topend, a slotted eye abou t two in c hes wide and four i c he s l ong was a u ge r e d and c hi selle d through the post. Two logs about four to five in c hes in di a meter and a little ov e r seven feet long were squared and shaped on each end to fit th e eyes of the posts. Holes were dug in the ground on eac h corner of a r ec t a n g le in which the pos t s were to b e set. After one post was se t and t ampe d solidly in position with the eye opening across the shorter side of the recta ngl e, a second post w as positioned at th e adj acent corn e r of the THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY


D rawing by Car o l y n Bartlett Restorati on of a doubl e l eachi ng vat. Nate th e t w o types o f spouts w h i ch c onduct t h e l e a c hbri n e t o th e sto rage vat. shorte r s id e of th e r ecta n g l e However, before the second post was tamped, o n e end of the pre v i o u s l y s haped l ogs was in ser t e d into the eye of the set post and a h o l e a u ge red through it on the o u t e r side of th e post through which a wood peg was driven to h old this log and the post in ti ght contact. T h e other end of this crossl og 'was placed in pos iti o n in the ey e of the untamped p ost, a u ge r e d and pinne d in place. This set the distance b e tw ee n th e posts before the second post was tampe d In a like manner the two posts at the opposite end of the r ecta n g l e were posi ti o n e d Next, four l ogs were prepared to b e p l aced atop the posts T hi s was d o n e b y cutting logs of appropriate l e ngth squaring the ends, and augering h o les in the squared portio ns, p lacing them in pos iti o n on top of the posts, and driving wood pegs throug h the holes in th e l ogs and into the h o les in th e tops of the posts Thus a sol id three -dimen sional, rectangular frame was f orme d A stra i gh t-grained log about ten inches in di a meter was sp lit l e ngthways and two se mi-circ u nULLETI N NUMBE R 17, Dr:CEMBER 1955 lar pieces obtained. The halfl og was grooved and hollowed along its center [rom one end to about a foo t from the other, thus forming a trough with one end open. This trough was centered parallel to the l o n g ax i s of the rec ta n g l e and h eld b y flat rocks abou t a foot above the ground with the closed end a f ew in ches hig h e r than th e open endc Next boardsD were placed with their lower ends resting within the groove of the trou g h and their upper ends l eaning against the top rail of the l o nger side of the r ectangular frame. Thus, a l a r ge open-ended V-shaped tro u g h was forme d A log a b out three to four in c hes in diarneter was place d l e ngthways through th e frame and rested atop the c ross-r a il s th a t s p anned th e short ends of the frame. This -Jog was pus h e d close to the outs id e portio n s of the s l anted b oards and (ast e n e d in place b y lashing or wood-pegs. In a like manner a nother log was l ocated ad j acent t o the opposite side of the V-shaped trough. These l ogs provided additional support and stiffening of the trough. The ends were closed b y p l aEing other 15


boards across th e openings. T his l ast step gave a l arge V-shaped vat w ith a drain in the bottom. A l ayer of twig s with a covering of straw was re a dy to use Other forms of leachingvats were used, only one of which is d escribed here. This type was constructed in a manner similar to the follow ing: A proper foundation was prepared on wh ich was p l aced a series of parallel strong l ogs about a foot above t h e ground. From front to back, th ese parallel l ogs were successively higher. Halflogs with rounded troughl ike grooves cut in their plane surfaces in a longitudinal direc tion were l aid in close parallel ism across the tops of the support l ogs A second l ayer of half-logs grooved in a like manner, was laid with the grooved faces down, spanning the edges of the lower layer. The two l ayers of grooved half-logs formed a s loping, tight, rectangular platform or bottom in which t h e lower layer served as drai ns and the top l ayer as closures and guides for fluid. Sides which were usually from three to five feet high were constructed above and within the confines of this platform or bottom. This pro d u ced a l arge capac i ty leaching vat such as was us ed in Mammoth Cave and the Big Bone-Arch C aves system. Photo by Roy Davis Collecting trough mode by hollowing log Since iajor Raines recommended that the amount of water us e d to leach the cave-earth be k ept to a minimum "otherwise there will be much time and fu e l lo s t in useless boiling of a weak liquor; this is a common error at the caves, and causes the saltpet re to cost more than is neces sary in time, l abor and fuel,"9 the leach-brine was made to p ercolate through three or four l eac h-vats so it could become more thoroughly saturated with the calcium nitrate, before fur ther treatment. This was accomplished in vari-16 ous ways. Someti mes, the leach-brine that had b ee n collected in watertight troughs, vats, or tubs was transferred to the next leaching-v a t in buckets. Sometimes th e vats were located in a cascade pla n and the leach-brine that draine d from the bottom of one vat would flow to the top of the next vat. An installation of this type was used in Buchana n Cave Evidence has bee n discover e d that pumps similar to the Co lonial fire pump were used Photo by Russell T .Nevilie TOP-One hollowed log pipe line brought water into cove; the oth e r conducted leach-brine from the cove. BOTTOM-Joint i n wood pipe line. Note metal bond reinforcement. On occasions it was more convenient to locate the leaching-vats in the cave in close proximity to the petre-dirt deposits. When that was done, the water was often brought into the cave through a pipe line and the leach-brine pumped to the surface to the boi ling kettles. The r emains of such installa tions can be seen in Mammoth Cav e and in the Big Bone-Arch Caves systems When water was ava ilable in the cave, it was carried to the leaching vats Occasiona ll y a dam was constructed across a cave stream and suffi cient h ea d produced that the water could be car ried to the l ea ching-vats in a flume. The ruins of such an installation a re found in Tony's C ave. THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY


E va p o r a tin g equipment u s u a ll y comprise d a h e mi sphe ri cally-sh a p e d iro n k e ttl e o r a squa r e s id e d lIa t b otto m e d s h a ll o w p a n similar to a s u gar o r m olasses b oiler. In eithe r event th e eva p o r a tin g vesse l w as supporte d b y a fla n ge a r ound it s top in a furnace or fire-b ox w hi c h ge n e r ally wa s co n struc t e d o [ rIa t ro c k s l aid in th e form o f a cylinde r or b ox, A n access o p ening was prov id e d in o n e s id e o f th e furnace th ro u g h whic h th e fu el w as f e d to th e fir e; a flow f lu e o r s ta c k o n th e oppos it e s id e o [ th e fir e b ox s e n-cd t o prov id e draft [ o r th e fir e and t o conduc t th e s m o k e a b ove th e h e a d s o f th e workme n A[te r th e l e ac h -brine h as b ee n co n centrate d to th e p oint th a t th e c ryst a l s o f sa lt p etre h a v e f o rm e d Majo r R a in es a d v ised : If tIle c r y s lal s of saltpe t r e a r e w e t and b row n and w ill n()t l < ee j J d 1)1, i t is b ecau s e 1 00 II1l1cll l ye fro m til e wo o d aslle s l/{is IJee n us e d ; tllI : S can b e 1'elrl01led v y n e a r l y filli n g a t u b 0 1 vane lwitll til e salljJ e tr e and pall rin g cold w at e r 017 it (I S 1I111c11 as tli e lub wi ll IlOl d and aft e r 1'ei naillin g ab o llt o n e II01Ir, tli e w at e r C(l1I b e dmille d off f1"O//1 tli e bOIt Oll1, wllell i t w ill c alT)' wi lli i t most o f tli e l y e ; tlli s w a sIl w al er 1rIIIS t b e jJu'Ln e d i llt o til e l y e o f til e woo d a slle s so a s n o t t o lose the saltjJ e tr e w liiell it contains8 'While th e abo v e pro c edures will r eco v e r th e sa lt.-p etre [ro m th e caveearth, th e r e s till r e m a in s the ve r y important s t e p o f r efining it b efo r e it i s r ea d y to b e u se d to make gunpo wd e r. ;\' I a j o r R a ines su gges t e d that th e article s r equire d o n a s m a ll sc al e a r e: T wo evapo ratin g liellie s o r sligar p ails co/Jabl e of con lainill g a/JolIl -10 g all o n s e a c h : o n e k ettle o r b oi l e r h o ld illg IIO t l ess th all t we llt),-five g all ons; o n e b arr e l arrallge d with a lio l e alld plll g at b o tt oll1, a lld rOlJ e r e d l oos e l y w itli t wo llii cknesse s of ba gg in g, o r c o ar se cl o tll at it s o j J eli e lld f orll1illg a va g f o r straillin g ; olle slwllow worn / e n I mllgll six f e e t l o n g 1III'ee f ee l broad alld lIi n e ill c h e s d ee p f o r roo lin g : aile w o o d ell mil e : oll e s pad e or sl/Ove l liav in g a 1 0llg liall d l e : o n e woo d e n slmilli n g bo x o r lrollgll, tli r ee f e e t tI,r ee ill c h e s I Ollg I w e nl y in rlle s broad and si x ill clle s d ee p witll selJem l slIia ll IlOle s ill il s b O ll o m -lhis b o x i s pla ce d Oil tI, e 1 0 j ) o f til e I Ollg trou g h al aile elld : aile B ULLETIN N Ui\lBE R 17, DECEMB E R 195 5 was h b a rr e l h av in g a seco n d bot toll1 j J ie rced with h o les a bout th r e e inell e s a bove tli, e true b o ttom, this secon d botto m is t o b e c o vere d with coarse clot h-be t wee n til e b otto m s a Iio l e an d p lu g are ma d e ; o n e cosk t o 1 'ece i ve wasIl wa t e r ; o n e c a sf< o r barr e l n e a r l y fill e d with wa t e r t o 1'ece i v e a ll tli e r e f u se SaltjJetr e, an d in w liiell t h e o l d {t/ter i n g clot h s a re tlirown t o d i sso l v e out tlieir Sait j J e l r e ; on e casf< or hlTge barr e l to 1 'eceive 1I10lh er liqll or; o n e platform sc a l e o r se t of s t ee lyards; 1 0 ge lh e r witll so m e bu clie l d r y in g c/ollis e t c 9 In u s in g thi s equipment in th e r e finin g proc ess ;\l a j o r R a ines dire c t e d th e o p e rator s t o: l V e i gli ou t Iwo hunche d an d t w e nl y-fiv e j Jounds o f Salt jJel r e and j Jllt i l into ti, e k ettle or b oi l er, w i th s ix t ee n g a ll o n s o f wa t er : li g lit (f fir e unde r Ille I

ing th e time o f coo li ng, Zcl1"ge quanti t ie s of fine needl e s h a p e d crys t a l s o f nitl' e will f o r m i n the liqu01', w h ich ( n e t o b e t a ken out b y means o f t h e l ongh andled s p a d e an d tJnown int o th e draining trough on th e end o f the coo ling trough W h e n th e liqU01' has suf]ic i ently cooled down, Ttl. n i t of] int o a cas k sunk into t h e ecnt h fa T th a t pw"jJose, by means of a h o l e and p lu g i n one o f th e l owe l e nds o f t h e coo ling t r o u g h. The crys t a l s o f n i t r e in th e d 'rainiTig trough will now commence l ooking w h ite as s n ow, and are t o b e left t o dwin u n t i l next d ay, wI,en t h e nitr e is removed t o th e wash in g banel w h icll s houl d b e cu t of] at suc h a h eig h t a s s h a ll b e about h alf filled w i t h ayst a l s This banel is then gentl y filled w i t h col d wa teT t o the top, an d a ll owe d t o l 'ema i n one h our, w h en the plug is t a ken out, and the liqu01" w h ic h is nea r l y sat ura t e d with nit re fwlding i n sol u tion a ll tha t l 'emaine d o f th e mothe r li quor-is a llowed t o dmin o ff int o the cask k ept f01' t h a t j Jw p o s e The nitl'e th us made is neaTly j Jw'e, suff ic ientl y so f o r neaTl y a ll jJw'poses, an d can b e made into gunlJowdeT T o m a k e th e finest qualit y o f P o w de l', h oweveT, the C1),st a l s must b e TWICE W AS H E D be/01'e being t a ken from t h e wash ing b a)Te l col d watel' being p oure d i n eac h time unt i l th e b a r re l is full and a ft er T e maining one how' each time, is t o b e dmwn of] as before, and tIle nit re we ll dmined and t h en (hied; t h e cl),s t a s n ow are entil'ely p ure, and can be u sed f01" th e best qual i t y of gunpowde?". The for egoing is t h e jJrGcess, on a much lCl1gel' s c ale IJll1"sued at t he Government R e fin el)', under th e dire c tion o f t h e write?". ... 9 1 8 REFERENCES C ITED I. B ertho l et, Mar ce llin P. E. Chilllie au Nfoyen Age. Paris, 1 893. E xjJl os ive M at e rials. Va n Nostrand, 1 883 2. L avoi s i e r Anto in e L. Studies while se r v in g as r e gis seur des poudres in France. Publis h e d b y Minis t e r o f Public J n struc ti o n P a ri s 1 8 6 4-1893. Vari o u s bib li og r aphies. 3 B aco n R oge r. Hime, Co l. H W L. Roge1' Bacon and G llnlJOwd er. A. G. Little, 1 9 1 4. 4. Ag ri co l a, GeOlgius D e R e Mel a lli ca. T r a n s lated by H erbert and L o u H enry H oove r D ove r Publica ti o n s, New Y o rk 1950 O ri g in a l publis h e d in Latin b y F ro b e n at B ase l in 1 556. 5 B a t e, J ohn. The N [ ys l e ries of Nat m'e and A rl 2nd Eel., T. H arpe r f o r R Mab., L ondo n 1 635. 6 Clarke, Willia m T h e Na t ural His t01), o f N i t r e aT, a Phi l oso j ) hiCIII D iscourse o f the Natll.1e, Generation, Pl ace, a n d Exl ractioll of Nitre with its Virtues and Uses E. Okes f o r Nath a ni e l B r oo k Londo n 1670. 7. SlLIbbe, H enry. Legellds no His tori es. Anim.adver s i o n s II/Jon t h e H istory o f !/la ilill g SAL TPE TRE which was P e rm e d liy I V [r. H ells haw. L o ndon 1 670. 8 Levey Martin. Iln cie n t C hemi ca l T ec hnology i n a SUllle r i all P h a rlllaco l og ical T able t J o ur. C h eI1l. E d., J a n., 1 955. 9. R a in es, Maj o r Geo rge W Not es all Making Salt .1Jet1e fr OIll til e Earth o f th e Ca ves. Stea m Pow e r P r ess C h ro ni cle & SenLin e l A u g u sta, Ga., 1 861. 10. T h ornley, Samuel. Ti,e .Journal o f N i c h o l as Cressw e ll. Di a l Pre : is, Ne w Y o rk. NOTES A T hi s c a ve h as b ee n r e p o n e d b y Dr. Samue l Bro wn o f T r a nsylva ni a Medi ca l Sch oo l t o b e o f s u c h s ize tha t a t eam of oxen w ould pull a cart e n tire l y throu g h the cave without a driver in attendance B A certa in amount o f ev id e n ce h as b ee n discove red tha t a buc k e t lin e o n a circulat in g r o p e w a s u se d o n occa s i ons, to trans port materi al. H o w eve r it i s n o t p os s ibl e, a t t hi s writi n g, to suppo r t this co nj ecture. C Sometimes the l o w e r end of t h e draining tro u g h was le ft close d and a h o l e a uger e d thro u g h tha t porti o n T hi s hole se rved as a d r a in for the liquid as i t ac cumulated i n the t r o u g h. O th e r m in o r vari atio n s in this point of stru cture have been o b se r ve d. H o w eve r th e b as i c idea i s th e sam e. D. T h e te rm board" gener ally w as limite d to a n a t pi ece of woo d recta n g ul a r in c r oss-sec ti o n and u s u ally not m o r e th a n [ our fee t l o n g. B oa r ds we r e made b y s pli t ting s hort stra i ght-g r a in e d l ogs u si n g a fro w and a mallet. L.o n ge r and l a r ge r pi eces of simila r s h a p e w e r e called pl a nk s a n d w e r e ge n e r ally sa w e d. Som e of the simple t ests for authentic it y of s u c h m a teri a l a r e as follows . If the board w as split, the r e will b e n o saw m a rks. In pl a nks, cut about this p e riod, t h e saw k e r f will b e subs t antially p erpendic ul a r t o t h e l o n g e dg-es o f the pl a nk. Gen e r ally, su c h a pl ank will h ave a s h o r t p o r t i o n al. o n e end tha t h as n o t b ee n saw e d but will s h oll' t h e effects of spreading the pl ank f r o m th e log and s plittin g i t to separate i t. Foo t in C lark's Cave a n d Trou t C a ve s h o w s u c h mark s THE NATIONAL SPE L EOLOGICA L SOCI ETY


Magnetic Cave---the Wonderful Hoax By WILLIAM R. HALLIDAY, M.D. Ca ve folkloT e can se ldom b e tra ce d to its ongzn, much l ess b e "explained away" to penons who accept it as fact. The cave that goes "all th e way t o .......... ..... . . . ....... ........ (sup1) l y the name of any d is ta n t ci t y)", OT the cave that goes "unde1' th e 1 ive1" can neveT compare with th e fabrication o f Magnetic Cave, pm duc t of in ge n io us gray matte?". The autholis well known as an exploTer of C alifornia caves and is intimatel y acquainted with th e l oca l e of the supposed "cave". H e sets fm -th a pmbable account of th e ciTcum.s tan ces b ehind th e hoax, thus i lluminating th e d cnk 1-ecesses of one of the most il1te1-esting pieces of all cave folklor e To a nyon e engaged in re search in the n e w s papers of the l as t century it soo n b ecomes p a in full y ev id ent that j ournalist i c veracity was the n judged by s t andard s w hi c h were entirely differ ent from those of th e prese nt. Esp ec i ally outs id e the l arges t c ities, it was apparentl y the c u stom when n ews was s h ort, to invent it. Ev e n t oday this practice is n o t unknown, but in t hose days it was so r.ommon that the r eader i s forc e d to consider eac h cave item with co n s id erable s u s picion. W h e n s killfull y done, th ese hoaxes m ay be exceed ingl y effec tive. The now-f a mous C y clo p ea n Cave hoax of Colora do for example, was reprinte d in good faith in a reputa bl e guide book, and eventually in N.S.S B u ll etin Nine. Very r a r e ly, instead of attempting to make th e story seem comple tely pl a u sible, th e r eporter adopte d a tongu e -in-ch ee k attitude, and produced a story whic h must h ave see m e d hilari o u s to the loc a l re a ders. Ev e n today, some of the m are con vulsiv e l y am u s in g to tho e fami li a r with the caves of the a r ea and l oca l hi story and tradition. The Gold Rus h time s of the Moth e r Lode country of California w e r e partic ul a rl y lik e l y field s for the d e v e l opment of s u c h stories. It wa full of real caves to prompt t h e imagination of the desperate r e porter. Lite r ary qua li ty wa r e latively hig h with s u c h wri t e rs as Samuel L. Clem ens (Mark Twain ) Bre t H arte, and "\ illi a m Wright ( D a n D eQuille) at l ea t briefl y empl oyed in n ewspape r work in thi s ge n e r a l area Prac ti ca l jokes and g e n eral lightheartednes w e r e the k ey -BULLETI N NUM B E R 17, DECEMBER] 955 note of the p eriod, and even the best-known write rs were not a b ove occas ionall y pulling the public's l eg The mos t popular local organiza tion was E Clampus Vitus, a semi secre t fra ter n a l organization, whic h aside from its serious charita bl e funct i ons, wa s devot e d to horseplay. One of its a im s was to take in" ever yone. This was appli e d in two ways. The uns u spec tin g pub li c was "took in" b y a ll kinds of hoaxes, and n e w members w e re took in" to the organization with a ll kinds of horse-pl ay. The great advantage of b e in g "took in" as a m ember, in fact, was that the new m embe r never h a d to b e "took in" aga in Such were th e circumstances unde r which t wo articles describing a r e m arka ble cave appeare d in t h e Sutte r Cree k Independent (Amador Co., Cal if. ) on : May 6 and 13, 1 874, and were re printed in the acra m ento Union on May 8 and 14, r e pectiy e ly. They are here reproduced in t ac t with e xpl a n a t o r y n o te s for the b e n e fit of tho e n o t farn iliar with th e geography caves, or tradi tion s of th e a rea. DISCOVERY In th e g r e at limestone range ( 1. LIMETONE OCCURS LOCALLY I N FAIRLY WIDE, ISO LATED STRIPS I N THE W ES T ERN FOOTHILLS OF THE STE RR A EVADA_) whic h Tuns thmugh t h e northern pm-t of this county theTe have been found at di[Je1ent time s a few caven1. ous f01"1nations of but little extent and no 19


particular interest to the tOto'ist or the scientific m, an. These cavem. s (lj'e generally nothing more than cracks or fissw'es in the eal,th, and easi ly and quickly explO1'ed even by the smallest boys (2. THIS IS THE KEY TO THE ARTICLE. THE EXTENSIVE, BEAUTIFUL AND DANGF.ROUSLY DEEP BLACK CHASM OF VOLCANO, STILL NOT FULLY EXPLORED, HAD BEEN KNOWN IN THI S EXACT AREA FOR ALMOST 20 YEARS, AND MANY OTHER NEARBY MAJOR CAVES SUCH AS jVIOANI' NG AND CRYSTAL CAVES WERE OFTEN VISITED, OR AT LEAST WELL PUBLICIZED') We lIJcre infonne d by Linkit, a well-known fanne' r na/.1' Pine G1'Ove (3. NOTE THAT LINKIT'S INITI ALS ARE NEVER GIVEN'), of a discov every upon his ran c h which completely eclipses anything of th e kind hithe Tto known upon the whole Pacific Coast Linkit's house is supplied w ith water f1'Om a spring which flows f1'Om the side of a lal 'ge hill di lUtly west of his bam. A few days ago the water ceased flowing, and aftel' digging a sh01't time with a pick and shovel to asce 'rtain the cause at the tmuble, Linkit sud denly loosened a larg e mass of soil which, in falling, disclosed a vas t After retuTn ing to the house fOl' light and assistance he ventured into the cave, followed by his two sons young men eighteen and twent)i-lwo yeal'S at age. Pm' fouT how's they wandered th.m1l.gli the different apa1'tments completely lost to all sense of dangel' by the novelty of the situation and the rna1lJelous beauty of th e sta lactitic (lnd othn cl)1stalline forma tions, with wh ich nature had upon every side adorned the walls and 1'Oof of the numemus chambers (4. THE DESCRIPTION OF THE SPELEOTHE"'lS IS APPARENTLY BAS E D ON THOSE OF THE BLACK CHASM, BUT NO LENGTHY, HORIZONTAL LIMESTONE CAVE E XISTS IN CALI FORNIA.) /n one place, which they named the D ev il's H o le", a stl'eam of bright green watel' l ea/Jed fmm a ci l 'culaT ajJerture in the ceiling of tlt e l argest mom, into a chasm of irregular s /wpe, and appm'ently at immense de/Jth, I m'ge me/Is drojJjJ e d into it l'etu1'11ing 1'10 sound afte r jJassin g over til e edge of the awful avyss U/Jo n til e west side of a cham ber 'IIe(nly tl'iangular in shajJe, jJel-Jta/JS one mile from th e e1'ltmnce wel'e found several 20 square yards of neatly chiseled charactel'S which must poss ess an almost fas cinating in tel'est faT the scientologist, and may when decpihered, thmw some light ulJon the Sl.ljJ jJosed form, el' occupation of this county by the A z tecs and their pl edecessol'S. OW' lim its will not admit a m01'e extended descrijJ tion of this great natural wonder, but those who wish to visit the cave can get dil'e c tions by calling at this office. Apparentl y a horselaugh was pl anned for anyone actuall y calling for direct ions, but it is probable that lhe reporter did not anticipate the state-wide interest aroused when the ite m was reprinted in the Union. ''''hen it became appar ent that thousa nds of p e rsons had fallen for the joke, it seems probable that the l ocal residents, who were almost certainly we ll aware of the actual situation, saw a wonderful opportunity to pull the collective leg of the rest of the state. Consequently, the second account appeared a week later. THAT 'WONDERFUL CAVERN When on Wednesday morning last we publishe d an account of the discovel'y of an extraordina1)' cave on the H/,nch of Linkit, near Pine Gmve, we were tmuble d with some doubts as to whethel' th e account given us by that gentleman wel e strictly tm,e. Our duty to the public, however cO'Inpelled us to l'ecite the particulal'S as they were given us, and to trust to future nvestigation faT a corroboration or a dispmof of th e il' con'ect ness. (5. As I N THE FIRST ACCOUNT, THE TONGUE-IN-CHEEK ATrITUDE I S APPARENT IN THE OPENING LINES.). Since the publication was made we have l'eceived nU117el'OUS l e tt e n and telegTCuns from va' rious IJo1,tions of the state, asking for further jJartiwlan of the discovel)I, and such was the in tel'est aroused in the matter that we f e lt called ulJon to ascertain beyond a do ubt the tnltlt or falsity of the ma1'1)eious account of Linl

allt ee of an y r e l Jort tll ey migllt see fit to 1I1ake. These ge llt/ clllell were ./ T V J r l/n ei so n o f Fiddl e towlI fiV. I-l. Sto l !es of / o n e C it y, alld D. W. I f ;Vlason o f ./ac/ !son, a ll o f w h olll llOjJIJelle d 1 0 ve ill J a c kson attending to COli rt vusiness (6. IT WOU LD 131:: N IOST I N TERESTI NG TO KNOW lORE OF THESE GENTLEi\II::N, ESPECIALLY THI:: NAT URI:: OF THEIR COURT I IUS I N I :SS, OR ANY P OSSIBLE CONNECTION WITH E. CLAi\II'US V I T US.). TIley all cons ented t o "/Iut/!e til e in ves ti gat ion and we received from tI,elll yeste rda y til e followin g r e jJort of tI, e ir d i scoller i es: Pill e Grove, N[ay 10, 1874 Editor, In d e jJelld e n t: At YOllr 1equest J r l/n ei so n I Has o n alld 1I1ysel f d e t erlllille d on Fri day last to cOlrle 1 0 ill i s jJlace and 1I1al !e a. t/lOrollgll eXjJl ora l ion of th e wOlld er ful cave lat e l y dis covered on ti, e HIn c h of Lillkit, ({bollt a lI1ile alld a llOlf n ort h e a s t of t his I J l ace (7. T I II S I S THI:: APPROXIMATE D I S TA:'\'CE A1\D D I RE CTION ON A :\rAP OF THE BLAC K CHASi\ [ FROM PI1\E GROVL) T'Ve star t ed f rom Jac ksoll 011 Frida y evellillg accoll1l Janied b y Alfre d 11'. T oollls of 120-1-S t oc l

hack of the neck and extending to the very tips of our fingen and toes. As we advanced i n this chamber we found these singular sen .wtions to increase in intensity until it be ,came almost unbeamble. We ventw'ed on still farthel', howevel', though it became evi dent that we cou ld not long remain in this mysterious place. I omitted to mention that the wa lls and flo01' of this chamber, espe cially TOcks thel'ein contained, were highly magnetic, and became 11Wl'e so the further we advanced towm'd the north; one of the party who calTied a hatchet had it suddenly wl ested from him by a magnetic TOch near which he passed, and the combined stl 'ength of four of us was insufficient to detach it. A pocket-knife, which accidentally dTOpped to th e flo01', had to remain there, none of the party having suffic ient stl'ength in his fingers to pick it up. Mason, who had jJUt on for the occasion a pail' of miners' boots, the soles of which we1' e filled with nails, could walk with difficulty, and hajJPening to s tep upon a pm'tion of the floor unusually mag netic, found himself suddenly affixed there to, a.nd unable to move. He was compelled to wilhdmw his feet fmm his boots and leave them thel'e (15. No SUCH ORE EXISTS, AND UNTIL RECENT YEARS, EVEN ELECTRO-MAGNETS OF SUCH STRENGTH DID NOT EXIST) tem 'ing up his coat and wrapping the pieces aTOund his feet to protec t them fTOm being cut by the TOcks. Jl'e had 1'emained in this chamber about ten minutes w hen suddenly the chill ing sensation began to increase, the feeling b eing as if a cold and jJie1'cing wind was blowing upon us and becoming each mo22 ment 1 / w r e intensel y cold. We hastily re tl'eated and soon reached, feeling 17W1'e dead than alive, the larg e chamber containing the hot sp1'ing. We then l'etmced our steps along the twine, and in a coupl e of hours emerge d fTOm the cave. J;T1 e examined the sujJIJosed hieTOglyphic chamcters mentioned in your paper of the 6th inst., and (/.1'e of the opinion that they are not artificial but have been formed by the action of water trichling over the face of the roch. The description of the magnetic chambel' given you above is true in every jJal, ticular and each one of the party will vouch for it. We we1'e none of us ex cited 01' frightened until just before our exit fTOm the c hamber, notwithstanding the stul11ge and myste1'ious phenomena we ll cal culated to make us so. Those who wish to visit this part of the cav e may do so, but none of this pm' ty e ve1' will. We hav e had enough of it. Respectfully yours W. H. Stohes. It i s indeed unfortunate that a ll cave hoaxes are n o t in s u c h m emorably sprightl y form. Spe leologic a l bibliographic research would be a happier as well as a simpler task were it so. As to the possibility t hat this might be a lurid tale based upon a n actual discovre)', it can onl)' be said that field investigation and local inquiry have revealed no trace of a n)' s u c h cave in the area pinpointed so closely. Those w h o are op timists are invited to searc h for it, but to most California spe l eo logi sts, Magn etic Cave remains The ''''onderful Hoax. THE NATlONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY


Caves and Related Features of Michigan By WI LLiAM E. DA VI ES lvliclti g an, l o n g n o t e d f or i ts g ? 'ea t ar ea u nderl a.in by limest ones is an examtJle o f th e e ff ec t s o f t o t a l g l acia t i o n on an an cient kant area. Th. e few s olution caves tI la t d o exist are i n m a r l of comjJamtivel y ?'ecent origi n. The d esc ?'ijJtion of th e g i ant sinks in the Thun der B ay area revea l s a jJTOCeSS of rejuvenation b y wlti elt tlt e c a ves o f tomana w are b ei n g fanned. S o m e times t h e in c id enta l n o tes and o bser va tion s m a d e during field w ork see m t o po ssess littl e v a lu e and o n e i s o rt e n t empte d to clear th e b oo k s b y r e m ov in g a ll d a t a n o t p ertinent t o a sp ec ific subjec t-so i t see m e d w h e n scanning thro u g h som e o ld n O Les mad e during a college fie l d trip in M i c hi ga n in 1940. T h ey mer e l y n o t e d R a i n y L a k e as a l a r ge sink tha t occas i on a ll y d r i e d up and th a t a few l a r ge s i nks l ay wes t of t h e lake. A t th e t im e inte rest was in lim e s tones r a th e r th a n in caves th ey co n ta in e d. Since the war ende d th e t a t e m ent th a t th e r e we r e n o caves in M i c h i ga n as ge n e rally vo iced b y mos t spe1e o l og i s Ls, see m e d t o m a k e th e rando m n o tes of m o r e in t e rest. D u r i n g the summe r of 1950 the chance cam e during a vaca ti o n t o u r to co nvert those bri ef sente n ces o n s ink s into something of u se. B y r ev i in g the o l d h aunts, thi s tim e with a n eye m o r e ( o r caves Lha n limest o ne, a d ifferen t pic ture o [ cav e rn s in a caver n l ess" S t a t e d eve l o p e d. Geo l ogic Setting-Fr o m a geo l og i c sta ndpoin t Michiga n i s a huge basin with the roc k s s loping ge ntl y [rom th e e d ges of t h e Sta t e to wards the cente r. Roc k s of all t y pes fo r m the b ed rock s u r f ace and include a thic k ser ies of lime to n e The o l dest ro c k s in the Sta t e a r e g r a ni tes and related m e t amorphi c compl exe found in the \I'e tern p art of the Upper P enins ul a To the east a n d the south these r oc k s a r e ove rl ain b y a n d tone oE C ambria n age th a t in turn a r e u cceeded b I a vast series of li m esto nes o f Ordov i c i a n ilurian, and D e von i a n age c r opping o u t a l o n g t h e Lak e M i c hi gan and L a k e Huron s id e o r the pper and Lowe r P enins ul a and in t h e ollt h ea tern c orner of t h e S t a t e n ear D etro it. It i in these li meston e s th a t caves a n d r e l a t e d [ ea tllr e -are d eve loped. I n addi t i o n l arge sea ca yes a r c i n the Cambria n s ands to nes a l on g L a k e lIp c rior in the Upper Penins u l a. ( F i g 1) BULLETIN NUMBER 17, D E CEMB E R 1955 The center p art of t h e b asin conta in s b e d s tha t a r e younger tha n D evo ni a n and are mainly sands t o ne. Som e gyp s um and li mes t o n e are p resent and s h ow s u rface effects of solutio n in the S ag in aw B ay a r ea Outcrops of roc k s in ?\Ii c hi ga n are compar a tivel y rar e A ll of th e Sta t e i s co vered b y a m a ntl e of cl ay, sand or g r ave l-a p rodu c t of Ple i s t oce n e g l ac i a ti on. T h ro ughout most of the L ower P enins ul a t h e g l ac i a l materi a l s cover b e d r oc k t o g r ea t d epth and n o rm a l t o p og r aphic ex pressi o n o f b e d roc k i mas k ed. In the n orthern p art o f the L owe r P e ni n s ul a and a d j ace n t p arts o f the Uppe r P enins ul a limest o nes li e close to th e surface and, tho u gl l m o difi e d th e effec t s of solutio n s h ow surface expressi on. CA\E Thirteen ca \ 'e s most of w hi c h a r e sea caves, a r e k now n i n Michi ga n Solut i o n caves a r e r ela t i vely r are, onl y th re e h av in g bee n record e d in the sta t e B ear Ca ve-Michigan' on l y com merci a l cave lie on the west shore of the St. J o eph r i ver 3.5 mile north of Buchanan, Berrien County in the outhwe t ern part of the t ate. T h e e n tra n c e t o the ca\ e i i n a mall wooden b uil d in g l ocate d in a p icnic meadow. The fir t -:10 feet of t h e cav e i a teep winding stairway t h a t h as bee n co n -tructed to connect with the n atura l caver n. ( Fig. 2) At th e ba e of th e s t a irs a p assage, 4 to 6 feet w ide and 1 0 t o I S feet high, trends N 6 0 0 E fo r 5 feet to a ma ll room 2 0 f ee t wide and 3 0 feet lo n g ( Fig. 3) A d oo r a t the n orth end of the room i s th e ex it w hi c h o p e n s o n th e b ank of a m a ll arm o f the t. J oseph river. A b eautiful waterfa ll dro p s fr o m a m a rl t errace jus t Horth o[ th e exit. 23


/ L u W t t'( x Cave SInks III Fig. 1 Areas af solution terrane in Michigan. A s m all p assage l eads northwest from th e end o f the r oo m a nd curves to the sou t h eas t parall e l t o t h e ma in passage with w hi c h it connects at lhe sOllth end of th e r oo m. The southeast trend o f t h e passage i s d eve l o p e d a l o n g a prominent fracture i n the marl. Formations line the wa ll s and ce ilin g of t h e p assage. F lowstone i s abund ant in nic hes a n d h ollows in the walls whil e a few sta l act ites are on th e ce ilin g o f the short paralle l passage. T h e cave is deve loped i n a marl d eposit of \ V i sco n s i n (Ple i s t oce ne) age -lha t forms a terrace 1 5 to 25 feet a b ove the ri ver. T h e o ri g in a l pas sages wer e 2 to 4 f ee t high bu t h ave b ee n e n l arge d by excava tin g th e floor. T h e mo s t interes tin g f eatures in th e cave are the imprints of fossil l eaves, l ogs and anima l b o nes t hat a r e [ou n d in th e wa ll s and ceiling o f th e passages. A lso of sci entific interest i s the st ratifie d g l ac i a l drift, co n s i s tin g o f sands and g r ave l s that are interbedded with the marl. A t t h e base o[ t h e e n tra n ce sta i rs the drift form s t h e l ower fOllr feet of th e cave and conta in s 24 boulders up t o three fee t in m aximum dime n sio n. S i mi l a r d e posits but with sma ll e r boulders form the lower part of the walls in the end room. The cave i s of f a irl y recent origin si n ce forma tion of the marl d eposit as we ll as the ex cavation of the caver n has tak e n place s in ce th e r etreat of the \"'i scons in ice from southern M i ch igan. Bear cave is app a r ently the o nl y comme r c i a l cave that i s d eve loped in m a rl. Howeve r s imil a r wild caves a r e a t \ \i iIli amsport, \ Vest Virginia. Bear Cave, owned b y G eo rge Holmes, Buchan an, Michi gan, was commerciali zed in 1 936. The second passage was opened in 1 940 Entrance Fig. 2. Map of Bear Cave, Barrien County. Fig. 3. View of Bear Cave, Barrien County. THE NATIONAL SPE L EOLOGICAL SOCIETY


Mackinac Island Caves-The caves on Mac ki nac Island probably boast of more "swanky" vis itors than any other cave Being easy of access, with good paths leading to them, the caves are ,inspected by many summer vacation i s t s and cas u a l tourists. Mackinac Island i s formed of a breccia limestone-an. old limestone undermined by g iant caverns that ultimatel y collapsed form ,ing huge masses of broken rock (breccia) which in turn was recemented as a lim estone The caves are not true solution caves but were de veloped by wave action of g l ac i a l l akes that were predecessors of our present Great Lakes. Scotts cave is on the northeast side of the island near St. Clair Point. It is 145 feet above Lake Huron and is a result of wave erosion of Lake Nipissing. The cave is 15 feet l ong, 8 to 10 feet wide, and 9 feet high. Sku ll cave, located at the south end of the island, 2000 feet north of Fort Mackinac, is s im ilar to Scotts cave It is 226 feet above Lake Hu ron and was developed on the former shore of Lake A lgonquin. The cave received its name in co lonial days when Mackinac Island was an im portant Bri tish ou tpost. A lexander Henry, I a fur trader, fled to Mackinac Island during Pon tiac's Conspiracy and was hidden in the cave for the night by friendly Indians. Henry awoke the 'next morning -to find his bed had been of human bones. The second night he chose to sleep in a nearby bush. On the return of friendl y Indians he questioned them concerning the bones but a ll professed ignorance of them. It is possible the bones may be from a ncient people w h o inhab ited the area before the time of Indians.' Other sma ll sea caves on the island are Echo Grotto, Cave of the 'Winds, and Eagle Point Cave Numerous sea arches, of which Arch Rock with a span of 80 feet is the most spec tacular, a re a result of cavern development by wave action followed by intensive erosion l eav ing onl y the arch. Sl. Ignace Cav e-A small solution caye lies in the bluff above Graham Street in St. Ignace. It is a sma ll opening in breccia limestone that requires stooping and extends 30 feet to a pinch IHenry A lexander; Travels and adve1ltllr es ill Callada and the Indian T e rritori e s B e t wee n th e Y e ars 1760 aud 1776 : New York 1809. 2Stanl ey, George M.; Pre-histode JUae hi'/lae I sland: Mich. Geol. Surv. Publ. 43, 1 945 pg. 29 BULLETIN NUMBER 17, DECEMBER 1955 down. The cave s lope s down 30 feet 111 its length. Two caves have been reported near Trout Junctio n in the Upper Peninsula' One of these was reported to be a natural bridge a t Trout .J unction. A road crossed the bridge and on each side were deep sinks with passages leading off. T h e passages were high enough to wa lk in, were 20 feet wide and a stream flowed in. A few hundred feet in the water was waist deep. The other cave was a l ow, stream cut channel 5 to 8 feet high with a Y shaped plan. At the end of the passage the stream plunged to a pool at the base of a shaft. Inquiry in 1 955 at Trout Lake revea led that residen ts of the town have no kn ow l edge of these caves and it is doubtful that they are now accessible. Fig. 4. The Grand Portal, Pictured Rocks, Lake Superior. Sea Caves-At numerous points a lon g Lakes Huron, Mic higan, and Superior sea caves have been excavated by wave act ion In th e Lower Peninsula the l argest are at Pointe aux Barques on the south shore of Sag in aw Bay at its junct ion with Lake Huron. Here, in the Marshall sandstone, passages up to 20 feet wide and 6 to 8 feet high, form a maze extending several hundred feet. The caves are at l ake l eve l and a boat is necessary to explore them. Caves of exquisite beauty are developed in Lake Superior sandstone (Cambrian ) a t Pictur ed Rocks a long the shore of Lake Superior five mil e s Northeast of Munising. The Pictured Rocks are sandstone cliffs 50 to 300 feet high that drop shear to the l ake's edge The cliffs ex3 :\nol1. Caves Fo/wel il/ Uppe r P e l/in s lIla: Michigan 'liner, Vol. 3 No. 10, Sept. 1901, p. 21. 25


t ending t e n miles northeas t from near Munising to Cha p e l Rock, are co lored by bands of red, yellow, green and g ray rocks ,that are very b ea u tiful. T h e waves of L a k e Superior h ave undermine d the cliffs at many places to produce caves of vary in g size. Fiv e miles northeas t of Munising i s Miners Cast l e, a l arge sea cave cut at the ba se of a rock res embling a cast le. Northeast of t hi s area a r e several oth ers-Colored Caves, Rainbow Cave, and the Indian Drum. Near the northeast end of the cliffs 9 miles from Munisin g i s Grand Portal, th e largest of the Lake Superior sea caves. ( Fig. 4 ) It i s cut into a p eninsula that exte nds 600 feet into the lake. T h e Grand Porta l opens into the front of the P eninsula as a vaulteel passage 100 f ee t high and 169 f eet wide ex t ending t o a n interior ga ll ery 4 00 f ee t l ong. Three hundred feet from the front f ace a pass age ex tends through the p enins ul a T h e p assages a r e a t L a k e level and a boat i s neces sa r y to traverse the m. Va ter is s holl ow at the r ea r of th e Grand Portal but quickly deepe n s to 5 0 f ee t at th e entrance and drops to over 100 f ee t jus t b eyond: In 1906 a pill a r at th e entrance to Grand Portal co llapsed and a l a rge portion of the entrance archway f e ll forming a shallow, roc k y re e f across the entra nce. At the northeast end of the cliffs is C hapel R oc k a form e r sea cave now e l eva t e d 4 0 f ee t a b ove t h e l ak e It was a rotunda 4 0 f ee t in dia m e t e r with a cap r oc k supporte d b y four massive columns. Howeve r in July, 1955 the arch s p anning th e eas t side of th e rotunda co llapsed and muc h o f the beauty h as been destroy e d T h e caves along Pi cture d R oc k s are accessible b y b oa t cruises from M uni s in g during the s um m er. H owever, t o se e th e m in th e i r fu llest b eauty t hey s hould b e yisite d in winter for in addition to th e norm a l a rra y o f ro c k co l o rs, ice and fro s t add to the s p ec tacle. Surface water seeping through the ce ilin g cove r s th e roof and walls wilh a myra id of transparent sta lactites. Spray from l a ke waves fr eezes into fantastic form s insid e th e entrance. The frozen l a k e floor 4 For a d e t ailed d escriptio n of Pi ctllre d Roc k s see: t el', J \\T and Whi tney, J D Repon 011 the geo l ogy of the L a k e Supe ri o r Land Di s tri c t : Part II: Executive D oc. 4, U S Senate, S p ec i a l Sess ion, Marc h 1851. The c aves are b eautifully illu st r a ted by pho to g r aphs in: Buci .J. W. Am e rica's W onderlands: "V. L. Ric h ardso n s a nd Compa ny, B os t o n 1 8 93, pp. 333 336 26 p ermits easy and clos e inspection. Caves sim ilar but less spectacular th a n those of Pictured Rocks lie on the s h ores of nearby Grand Island. Burnt Blu.ff Cave-Burnt Bluff is a prominent p eninsu l a that juts into Big Bay de Noc on the west side of Garde n P eninsula in the Upper P eninsula. The west s id e of the bluff, facing the bay, is a cliff 200 to 3 00 feet high. Twenty fee t above the base of th e cliff is a small passage l arge enough to p ermit w alking, that extends about 100 f eet. The cave is difficult of access as a ladder, formerly connecting it with the b eac h is no longer servicebale. Faye tte Ca.ves-Five miles northeast of Burnt Bluff on Garde n P enins ul a is the ghost town of F ay ette. In the limestone cliffs a l ong the l ake, both north and south of the town, are a number of sea caves now e l eva t e d w e ll a bov e the present lake l evel. The caves are openings ranging up to 20 feet square and extending 20 to 4 0 feet into the cliffs OTHE R SOLU T ION FEATURES '' hil e Michigan caves are limited in number and s ize, r elated solutio n features are d e v eloped to a s p ectacular d eg ree. Sinkho les, di sappearing lakes, and solution fissures of giant sca l e more than make up for th e l ack of interesting caves. Sinkh o les-Though relativel y few in number sinkholes are of s p ec t ac ular size. They are best developed in two wid e l y separated areas. In the so u t h ea st corner o f the State a belt of s inks in Uppe r Siluria n lim esto nes ex tends from near the Ohio lin e at Ottawa L a k e north and curving to the east to Lulu in central Monroe County. The sinks are l arge, broad d e pressions up to a half mile long and a quarte r of a mile broa d. In w e t seasons they fi II wi th water to a d epth of 18 or 20 feet but drain rapidl y through small fissures. Ottawa Lake i s a l a rge sink two miles long and a half mil e wide th a t forme rly filled with w a ter 50 fee t d ee p in sprin g and s lowly dra in e d through sublerranean fissures until late summer when the waters w e r e only 2 5 f ee t d ee p with much of the l a k e a bare mud flat. Today most of the l a ke bottom has b ee n r eclaimed [or u se as p asture and d ee p standing water i s un common. \ IVells in southeastern M i c higan h ave tapped subterranean lim esto n e fissures and eye less fish THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY


h a ve b ee n pu m p e d fr o m s eve r a I of th e m. Ap p a r ently l a r ge cave rn s and subterra n ea n dra in age syst e m s unde rli e muc h o f th e southwes t ern and centra l Monroe County but the m a ntl e o f g l ac i a l drift o b scures most s u rface connect i o n s t o the p assages. In Huron C ounty n ea r Cassv ill e and I osco County o n the D etroit and Mackinac R ailroa d due w est o f A l a b as t e r seve r a l sllla ll sinks 10 t o 1 5 feet wid e and 10 f ee t dee p a r e d eve l o p e d in gyp sum beds o f M ississi p pi a n age T h e l arges t d e v e lopm ent o f sinks ex t ends [ro m Thunde r B ay n orthwes t tow ards Bl ac k L a k e in Alpe n a and Presque I s l e Counties. ( Fi g 5) The sinks a r e in lim estone o f D evon i a n age. L o n g L a k e in n ortheas t ern Alpe n a County i s p oss ibl y a result of sinkho l e act i o n o n a g i ant sca l e In spring wh e n th e ove rfl ow fr o m th e l a k e i s l a r ge th e l a r ge r p art o f the dra i nage r eac hes Lak e Huro n v i a Devils L a k e and L o n g Lak e C r ee k. In dry seaso n s th e ove rfl ow ceases and D evils L a k e i s dry T h e flo w fro m L o n g L a k e i s th e n unde rground t h ro u g h a d e p ress i o n in the south arm o f th e l a k e 32 31 30 29 N um e r o u s sinks a r e d eve l o p e d in th e n orthern a 12 Fig 5. Solution terrane, Alpena County. Modified from VerWiebe. 5Sh e rzer W H. Geologi ca l R e p o r t 011 M o n roe COUIl t y M i c hi gan: lVfic h Geol. Surv. Vol. 'I, P t. I 1 900 pp. 114-117. 6 P oindexte r O Fl oy d Sillhho l l's ill t h e III dian L ah e R eg i o n Sc h oo l cra ft COllllt y (llId Othe r lHichig all S illk s : Mi c h Aca d Sci., Arls, and Lelle rs, P a p e rs, Vol. 2 1 1 935, pp. BULLETIN NUM B E R 17, DECEMBER 1955 p art o f Alpe n a County. ( Fig. 5). Mos t o f the m a r e s m a ll s h a ll o w d e p ress i o n s three and one f ourth miles n orth o f L o n g R apids i s a g r oup of l a r ge sinkho les. ( Fig. 6) The sinks ex t end south eas t from th e county road and a r e in a h eav il y woo d e d a r ea H oweve r fr equent v i s its by s i g ht see r s h ave k ept open t ra il s tha t l ea d through the woo d s t o th e sinks In thi s area t h e r e a r e six l a r ge sinks and seve r a l s m alle r o nes. The 7Ver W i e b e, W a ll e r A Stratigraphy of AI/leila County: M i c h Aca d S ci., Arts and Lelle r s, Vol. 7, 1 926, pp. 1 83. 29 28 Lak e 33 . f 0 mile 211 2 miles to Long Rapids ,::a::. Valley Sink o Sink Fig. 6. Solution terrane in R6E, T32N, Alpena and Presque Isle Counties. 27


large sinks are ]00 to 300 f ee t in diame t e r and 90 to ] 50 f ee t d ee p (Fig. 7) Walls are vertical and expose bare limestone (Alpena Limestone) In so m e s inks large log s that f e ll in during lumbering operations 5 0 yea rs ago cover the b o ttom. Small fissures open into the walls of th e s inks but no caves were observed. In addi tion to th e vertical sinks th e r e are a long sink valley and seve ral s t ee p sided sinkholes in th e a r ea Fig 7 Vertical side sink north of Long Rapids. Sink is 300 feet in diameter, 125 feet deep. At Sunke n Lake in P resq u e I s l e County a mil e north eas t of Leer a l a r ge rock sink opens. T h e sin k i s in the western s id e of a large d epres s i o n that i s ove r 7000 f eet l o n g and 1 5 00 fee t wide (Fig. 8) During wet seaso n s it fill e d with wate r to a d epth of 90 f ee t and th e over flow was car ri e d by a stream to T hunclr e d B ay. During the summer water escaped v ia crevices in the south 28 end of the large d e pression and the l ake b eca me dry. In the latte r part of the 19th Century lum b ermen threw brush and trees in the fissures to ke e p water in the l a ke. This was a temporary ex p edient as the fissures soon were cleared by escaping water. s The large d epression is now dry year round as lumbermen later blocked the surface drainage to th e sink to form Sunken Lake. Fig. 9. Solution terranes are so rare in Michi gan that even sinkholes rate a sign. -' . >Sinkholes continue northwest to a point south of Mille rsburg, Presque Isl e County where they attain maximum d evelopme nt. (Fig. ] 0) R ainy Lake, s i x miles south of Mille r sburg, i s formed by three giant sinkholes The lake i s over a mile l o ng and a h a lf mile wide. The easte rn m ost sink i s 500 f ee t l o ng and 5 0 feet d eep The cente r sinkhole is 2000 f ee t in diameter and over 120 f ee t d ee p The north b ank slopes gently but the south s lop e is almost verti ca l in th e sink. The western sink i s similar t o the center o n e 8 R ominge r, C.: G e o l ogy of Lower P enius ula.: Geo!. Surv. of Mi c h. Vol. 3, pt. 1 1 876, pp. 46. THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY


Fig. 8. Valley sink west of Sunken Lake. bu t is onl y 80 feet d ee p. Normally the lake is full of water. Howeve r, it has dra in e d dry twice (ca. 1 926) expos in g the giant mud-cov e r e d sinks. (Fig. I I) The water escapes rapidly .through fissures at th e ba se of the two l arge sinks. In 1 936 the l a k e was full. In 1 940 it was down 30 f ee t and in ] 950 it was down 60 feet (F i g ]2). W hen v i sited in 1 95 ] and 1955 it was full (Fig 1 3). A mil e to the east of Rainy Lake (s Rainbow L a ke a water filled, funnelshaped sink about 600 feet in diame t e r and over 100 feet d ee p. The water i s clear, gree n blue and l a rge trees dropped in the lake during lumbering ca n be see n far below the surface. A line of sinks l ea d s west from R a in L a k e to Shoepac Lake in southwestern Presq ue I Ie. S hoepac Lake is a water-f illed sink abou t 2000 fe e t in diameter. In ea rly 1950 a large sec tion of the so utheast s hore colla p se d due breakdown of the l a k e b e d. T h e colla psed area i s 200 feet long and the d ee p h o l e into w hi c h l arge trees and muc h of the bea c h slumpe d ca n b e see n dee p below the surface of the clear blue lake wate r. 200 yards east of S hoepac L a k e f ive giant, dry sinks string out to th e e ast. T h e sinks r a nge BULLETIN NUMBER 17, DECEMBER 1955 from 90 to 120 feet d ee p with a lmost vertica l walls They a re about 600 fee t in diameter and are surfaced with fine bllff g l acia l sands. Grass and tree s cover the s l opes and bottom. A long va ll ey ex t e nds east of the s inks towards R ainy L a k e and its hummocky, rolling bottom indicate s it m ay b e a giant valle y sink. Glac i a l drift, howe ve r, hides muc h of the ev id e n ce. Sinkholp. topography continues into northern Montmorf: nc y and Otsego Counties adjacent to S hoepac Lake area and severa l spectacular water filled sinks up to 600 f ee t in diame ter are in the Pig eoll Rive r State Forest. A mile north of Mi ll e r s bUlg in Presque I s l e County i s a re cently developed k a rst phenomenon. The eas t bra n c h of O cquellC Creek dis appears underground a t the north end of a l a rge swamp. Numero u s s m a ll openings and l arge areas of broken lim e sto n e blo c k give ev id e nce of a former ex t e n s ive network of cavern p assag e s in the area. The wate r ca n be heard flowing b e n eath the wreck age of limestone bloc ks, tangled vines, and fallen trees. It resurge s as a s m all stream 500 f ee t north of th e swa mp. On Mackinac I s l and seve r a l m a ll sinks li e in t h e upland area but a re hardly worth of 29


To Onawoy 8 miles II Ho c kelt 5 chool To Miller.burg 4 mllu I I I f I '1---------I LA:E __ ,./",,_ "0;J ----" ____ J Collapse I -'" I 0 I SHOEPAC "nil S 0-' ..... 00 .::.: ... \ ..... '" 00 ;:. :;:.. ,00000 0' .... _-Water CI) ( "nk, RAINBOW -_...... ..' .... I I C) / I / I I 1,/-_.,,_ ...,"' .... ...... __ / / / G Sinkhole C0 Lake LAKE ,I-...

Photo by Will B. Gregg, On a wa y, Mic h Fig. 11. Rainy Lake 1926. Fig. 12. Rainy Lake 1950. Fig. 13. Rainy Lake 1951. referred to as "Pavement", are the work of s olution although in som e patches glacial action has modified the blocks b y p laning. A unique karst feature is found on Mackinac I s land. Three large so lution cracks lie in the northern half of the island. Known as the "Northwest Crack", "Crack in t h e Island", and "Northeast Crack", they are a result of so lution a long join t or fra cture planes. T h e cr a cks are u p to five feet wide and range to 20 or more feet deep. The l ongest "Crack in the Is land" is BULLETIN NUMBER 17, DECEMBER 1955 r / oy e r 1000 feet long. StanleyJ 2 cites evidence that indicates the cracks are post-g l acial in origin. Similar solution features are deve loped on !vlanitoulin Island (Canada) to the east where the limestone in upland is cut into large blocks 20 to 4 0 feet square, separated by fissures two to five feet wide and u p to 20 feet deep. H e r e the fissures are clearly of recent origin as the y are free of glacial and l ake deposits. 1 20p. cit. p 69. 31


A Proposed Classifiuation of Physiual Features Found in Caves By WILLIAM R. HALLIDAY Sil1ce speleology is a compamtivel-y ) lotl11g science, it a cquires a g1"OWi17g vocabula1y of terms unique to it. Some of the terms cany ove1' f1"Om the j)(ISt, but (l1"e 1'endered inefficient f01' cornmunicating exact ideas when they imply mUltijJle meanings, The wonl SPELEOTHEM, for exam.jJle is now genem.lly accepted as a classification noun f01' all second(1)1 m i neHll dejJosits fonned in caves. The authm' p1"Oposes adding two mm'e classification nouns (and adjective forms) for f eatures obse11Jed in caves Their acceptance 01' rejection b y speleol o gis ts dejJends enti1'ely on their usefulness over the COU1'Se of time The l ac k of a unified classifi cation and stand ard d e finitions o[ physical phenomena of caves h as long led to confusion and inaccuracy in dis cussion of many of their geological and minera logi ca l aspects, The term cave formation has been equally applicabl e to stal actites and stalag mites or to the strata of the cave's b e drock. Box work is not uncommonly grouped with secon dary spe l ea n d epos its whereas it is of entirely diff e r ent origin and significance ( I ) Many other examples immediately spring to th e mind of the spe l eo logist. An excellent b eginning in improving this sit uation was made in 1952 by George ,,,T Moore (2) who proposed the su bsti tu tion of the term spel eothem [or cave fonnation in its sense of secondary mineral deposit. Today, this is widel y accepted in speleological usage A second step was th e introduc tion, in 1 953, of the term sjJeleogen (3) to d escribe phenom ena cause d by removal o[ mate rial by solution or co nasion in lim esto ne caves \ Vhi l e a notable co n cept, the initia l definition of the t erm has apparently not proven satisfactori l y oriented for general accepta n ce, In this paper, it is proposed that the following bas i c classification of physic a l cave phenomena be co n s id ere d [or general u se : 32 I. Spe leoth emic . (Speleothems) 2. Speleogenic .... ," (Speleogens) 3 Petromorphic .... (Petromorphs) To b e excluded temporarily are m echanica l cave fills, such as breakdown, clays, sand, gravel, and the like, These a r e currently under survey by William E. Davies and others, and a classifi cation of thes e forms should b e soon forthcom lIlg, The proposed definition of speleothem em ployed in this classification i s essentially that proposed by Moore: A second(1), 1'I1ineml de posit f01'n1.ed in caves, In addition to stalactites, crysta ls, and other ordinary forms of calcite, aragonite, and ice it a l so applies to "true" lava sta l actites and to sublimates. Speleogen is here d efi ned as an individual, specific modification of the swIace of a cave's bed1"Ock 01' a speleothem, othe1' than a seconda1'y mineHlI deposit, '' Thile pertaining prima rily to forms originating by solution or con'asion, this definition appl ies equally to lim esto n e, lava t u be, sea, gypsum pock e t and other types of caves, In limesto n e caverns, it includes such forms as joint cav iti es, ceiling pendants, and meander niches. In l ava tubes, it includes con traction fissur es and cupolas, In sea caves, it in : c1udes joint widenings and breakdown sites, In aeo li a n caves, it includes b edding pl a n e cavities. Another distinction from the original des c rip-THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY


tion lies in its exclusion of o verall cave patterns. 'l\Thile s p eleothe ms s p e l e ogens, and m ec h a ni cal fills make up the vas t majority of ca v e fea tures one small but important group yet re mains. It includes boxwork, mineral veins, vugs, and per h a p s shields (palettes) These are formed within the bedl'Ock and a r e only ac cid entally exposed during spel e o g enesis Neverthe less, they m ay assume g rea t promine n c e especially in the Blac k Hills and in some U t a h caves It is pro pos e d tha t the term p e tmmo rph be applied to this group. Its membe r s may be d e fined as s econda r y min e ral depos its formed within the bed TOc k and i nci d entally ex p o s e d within a cav e :iVIodific a tions of this classification or its definitions m ay w ell be required b y the te s t of time. BULLETIN NUMBER 17, DECEMB E R 1955 Combined forms o ccur with s o m e freque ncy, but should ca use little or no confus ion. Borderline f orms o c cur, but this i s basic a ll y due to our imperfec t know l edge r athe r than to the class ifi ca tion its e lf. It is not proposed as a n y e asy guide to the innume r able unsolved problems of ca v e feature s but r ather a s a n aid to discussion o f these proble m s REFERENCES I. T ullis, E L. & G r ies, J. P. Blac k H i ll s C aves Bl ac k Hills E n g in ee r, 24 (4) :254 2 M oo r e G W S f Je!eot h em-A New Cav e T enn. Nat. S p e \ eol. Soc N ews, 10 (4) : 2 June, 1 952. 3. M o w a t G L a n g e A., and d eSa ussure, R R eport o f t h e C a lifornia-Ne v ada Spe l eolog ical Survey. T e ch R e p ort No 2 West S p e l eol. Il1st., 1953. 33


Radio Transmission in Caves By FIELDING McGEHEE Radio c01nmunica tion between expI01'el s w01-/(ing in caves and pm t ies on th, e swIace or in a differ ent aTca of the cave will p robab l y become standm'd jJrocedtLl'e in yC[/1'S to come. Success in l 'ece iving a signal through rock depends on many factors-distance, the wetness of the rock, antenna loading-all [ n e imjJ01tant HeTe is th e l 'esult of two expel'iments conducted by lIle authoT on the subject He descl ibes successes with the method, and point s out aTe as in which theTe is much to leanI. R adio, indeed, would b e a use f u l t oo l faT th e spe l eo l ogist t o acquil'e, not only faT communicat io ns but faT survey in g and cntmnce finding. Communications b etwee n explorers in caves and b e t wee n explorati o n and surface parties h as b ee n a problem t o s p e le o logi s t s for some t i me. There has b ee n co n s iderabl e s p ec ul ation about the u se o f radio and some sporadi c ex p erimenta tion in this field, but th e complexities of the s ub ject h ave limite d th e u sef u lness of the resu l t s The author h as conduc ted so m e experime nts on r a di o transmission thro u g h the earth ; some of hi s results are of immedi a te appl i cability and oth ers indicate areas open for further inves tigati o n T h e possibi l ity o f u s in g r adio as a prospecting t oo l f o r l oca tin g o i l has inte rest e d geo -ph ysic i s t s s ince th e ea rl y 1920's This interest is evidenced by th e fact that a good bibliography on th e s ub j ec t l i s t s m ore th a n 3 00 titl es, in German, Fre nch, Russi a n and E n g l i s h "Vhi l e it i s not within the scope of thi s a rticl e to go into thi s mate rial a few comments o n the ge n e r a l prin c iples invol ved w ill p erhaps allow a cleare r un d e rstandin g of th e obj ectives of th e experim ents to be discussed. To secure info rmation co ncerning earth structure o r th e presence of oil, radio frequency ene rgy mus t penetra t e to a depth w h e re the struc ture or o il m anifests itse lf and th e n must return. T h e di s l ances in vo l ved h e r e may be fr o m hundre ds of feet to severa l miles. (I n additi o n the stru cture or o il must r eflect or re-radiate the radio frequ e ncy e n ergy "Ve s h all not comment on t h ese matters h ere.) T h e radi o wave s uff e r s 34 attenuatio n in passing throug h earth m a teri a ls; that is, it b eco mes wea ker as it progesses due to loss o f e n ergy to the m a teri a l through which it moves. The more hig h l y conductive the transmission medium ( th e wetter the rock) the higher t hi s attenuation i s One m ay write the simple equation E = ke-,R/ R as a n approximation to th e r eceive d s i g n a l fr o m a tra n smitter, where E is the rar! i o h eir! strength k i s a co nstant R is the di sta nce from transmitter to receiver e i s th e natura l logari thm base, 2.7128 a i s the attenuation co n stant T hi s equati o n i s sufficientl y goo d fo r our pur pose when R i s muc h larger than a wave l ength o f th e r a d i ation in the medium. In air "a" is n eg l igible ; in the earth its val u e depends on the type of rock and its wetness. One notes th e effec t o n a ca r radio when go in g throug h a tunnel or o n a portable r adio when o n e carries it into a metal building or a car. It i s easily s h ow n o n th e basi s of theoretical ca lculati ons that o n e cannot possib l y ex p lore the earth at depths greater th a n a thousand feet or so with radio fr eque n c ies in th e broa dca s t range. The re is some circumstantial evidence to the contrary, h oweve r the existence of which has l e d to muc h interest i n g experim entatio n. "Ve s h a ll now di sc uss briefly one of these ex p e r i m e n ts which y i e l ded rather clear-cut r esults. T h e experim ent was b ase d o n the proposition THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY


TICKET OfFICE O N SURFACE., .' ............ -: .. J a L EFT Hto N O CARLSBAO CAVERNS C I!VRNS NATIONAL PARK FIGURE I CC _::-0 SC:'I,[ .. r[(f Fig 1. Map of Carlsbad Caverns. th a t s in ce it i s ver y hard to t e ll whethe r wha t onc observes o n the surface of th c earth i s due to radio signal s rcflect e d from unde r g r ound, one s h ould go undcrground and see whethe r s ignal s arrive from th e surfacc. (It h as b ee n found t o b e rather diffi cult to a n s w e r thi s question by putting r ece i ve r s d ow n in a we ll. ) Othe r work e r s have done r o u g hl y th e same thing but with th e e m phas i s on o ther phases of th e questio n. EXPERI i\ IENTS AT CARLSBAD CAVERNS Aftcr m a n y inquiries and muc h discu ssio n Carlsbad Caverns was scl ected as a promi s in g s it e for work, a decis i o n bas c d o n th e rcsults of so m c preliminary o b se rvati o n s m a d e in J anua ry, 1 953. At that tim e it was r ound to bc possib l c to r e o ce ive programs [ro m a s t atio n in Carlsbad, N M., on a Hallicra[te r s portabl e communica ti o ns r cce i ve r unde r conditio n s w hi c h r equired that the s i g n a l s co m e throug h th e earth. (Th e s tati o n wa s abollt 20 Illilcs n orth o r th e Ca\'crns. B ULLETIN NUMBER 1 7 D ECEiVI13E R 1955 I n a n east ,, est passag c, th e Left Hand Tunnel, th e rccei \ 'er, whic h had di rect i o n a l r cce i ving charac t e ri s tics, pointed n orthsouth; see Figure I.) It i s 1110 t improba b l e th a t this energy trav e l e d a ll the w ay [ rom the station to the r ece iver through th e earth, It a lmost certa inl y trave l e d only the 750 fee t [rom th e surface to th e r ece iver underground, but it most certainl y did not come in through th e tunne l o p ening, This sta ti o n operated at about 700 ke., 'ith a po\l' c r of 1000 ,,'atts, -\t the sa m e timc a n amateur radi o oper ator i n the Park a rea \, 'as transmitting at 7,2 me. The s ignal ,, 'as r ecei \ 'ed at o n c p oint in the cave. T h e Left H and Tunne l \I'hi c h i s not n o rm a ll y open to \ i s i to r s wa s chose n as thc "'ork a r ea T h e r e ,, as n o wiring or piping ,,' hi c h mi ght in terfere wi th t h e e lcctr o n ics eq u i pment, it was easy t o get in to, and it had b ee n w e ll mapped b y th c Nati o n a l Geographic Socicty, The urface l errain permitted easy a cccss, 35


Experimental PmceduTe The objectives of the "vork were kept simple, to find out whether radio frequency energy (just above the broadcast band) would penetrate the earth deeply enough with sufficient strength to be useful for prospecting, and to secure any other information possible. The knowledge that radio energy would pene trate to the Left Hand Tunnel aided the plan ning. The general plan was to set up transmit ters on the surface and to measure the signal strength underground. No effort was made to g e t absolute values; that is, the primary concern was in the relative values of the signals a t vari ous points on each run. Anything done to a transmitte r on the surface might change the sig nal at any point underground, but all the other signa l s would be expected to change propor tionally. Two transmitters were available: number 1, which had about 15 watts output, and number TI .... S .OTT[II '05,TlO L OOYII) 2, which had less th a n y! watt output, operating at 1700 and 1614 kc. respectively. (An ordinary 2-cell flashlight uses about % watt of electrical energy.) The antennas were insulated wires laid on the ground. These antennas were directional in the air; it was planned to change orien tations of the an tennas and to note the effects under ground. The associated receivers had loop anten nas, by use of which the transmitter direction could be determined. The receivers were equipped with meters for showing the numerical signal strength, and with headphone s for the very weak signals which did not register on the meter. Six surface and one underground transmitter locations were used, with one 'Or both transmit ters at each location, and with different antenna orientations, for a total of 18 runs. The locations are shown on Figure 2, a map of the Left Hand Tunnel. \1\1' w a s the underground location, 'Of which more will be said later. The receiv e rs were set up on tripods on the cave floor at locations 1 l FIGURE 2 Fig. 2. Map af Left Hand Tunnel, showing surface and subterranean transmitter locations. 36 THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY


N O Z TRANSMITTER (0 Z5 wolll ON SUR F ACE AT J F I GURE 3 Fig 3 Vector plot of data for numbe r 2 transmitte r at J. identified by the National Geographic Society map. The antennas were rotated to the point of maximum signal strength; both the antenna orientations and the signal strength were then recorded. Results and Analysis* The data niay be presented in a number of ways. Tabulated numbers are not adequate for a proper visualization of the results. Two graph. ical plots are more suitable for the major part of the analysis. One of these graphical presentations is shown in Figure 3. The symbolism indicates that the smaller transmitter was set up at station J on the surface with the antenna oriented east-west for Since the specific dcta ils of the data-are not of interest to the gener a l reade r they are omitte d h e r e. For furthe r information the rcader i s referred t o an article which appears in the July 1954 issu e of Geop hysics, pp. 459 477, "Propagation of Radio Freque n cy Energy Through the Earth." BULLETIN NUMBER 17, DECEMBER 1955 one run, north-south for the second run. The arrows indicate the magnitude of the signal re ceived underground at an indicated location and the apparent direction from which they came. A detailed analysis of these and other data l eads to certain conclusions vital to the event under investigation. The radiation is polarized in th e sense of the antenna, and the transmitter appears to radiate equally well in all directions investigate d; neither of these statements is true for the radiation on the surface of the earth. Othe r data not shown h e re indicates that beyond a distance of about 1200 feet, the character of the radiation changed, as is discu sse d below None of these effects were predicted. Another method 'of pre entation i b a ed on the equation E = ke-aRjR. If one Tite this expression as E x R = ke-aR and plot E x R as a function of R on emi-lo !!arithmic paper, a straight line result, with a lope of -3. o[ the d a ta were computed in thi fashion. normal ized and plotted to'" ther on on eel, 3 own


100 I 00 I-..L FIGURE 4 -7 70 o 5 ... 50 o .. CONSOLIDATED DATA FOR -;;-30 <.> - ATTENUATION CALCULATION 3 o c: o +2 o en III E 0::1-x 0' c: III .... (/) o c: 0> (/) ;.. ... o 0 7 5 3 2 ':-, "'-" Il-'L JL" 2 o I o - \. : I\. --. :, r\ r:. ''1''':' T .I. I I 700 900 1100 1300 1500 -17 0 o 1900 2100 2300 2500 2700 2900 3 100 33 00 R ( D istance F r am Tra ns mitter T a Rec eiver, In F ee t ) Fig 4 S ignal strengt h times d istanc e as a function o f d istance. in Figure 4. Three symbols are used A circular dot indicates a high-confidence value; a square dot indicates a value which fell in or near the range at which the r e ceiver response b e came non-linear; a n arrow indicates a non-re adable but audibl e signal, or the first no-signal point, in a run. It i s at once apparent that the line drawn repre s ents the major portion of th e data fairly well. There h a s b ee n much discussion concerning the points which lie betwe e n 1100 and 3 000 feet. It may b e d emonstrate d qualita tively with a high d e gree of certainty that these s ignals rived in the Left Hand Tunne l from almost d I r ec tly overhead, that is, the radio signal moving over the surface of th e earth los t energy downward to give these e ffects. It i s this which p e r mits one to receive a dist ant r adio station in a cave These more t echni ca l aspects of the work have been treate d a t l ength e l sewhere. For the present 38 article it is of more interest to comment on other features of the work. The question has been asked, why not use a more pow erful transmitter and hence get greate r range? It is easily shown from the working equation that to obtain the same signal at 2000 feet as was received at 1000 f ee t would require 6000 -times as much power as was us e d. This was not feasible. It was anticipated t hat the objection might be raised that the radio signals which were receiv e d had "leaked in" through the cave mouth or by way of wiring. To forestall such criticism, tra verses were made through -the atural Entrance and in the Lunch Room, and the wiring was carefully checked, with the result that no signal leakage was found. To make doubly sure, the number 2 transmitter was set up at \iV, underground, and a regular traverse was made down the Left Hand Tunnel. The signal went from saturation value at station 58 to essenti a lly zero THE NATIO TAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY


at station 68, as shown in Figure 5. This constituted proof that there was not enough leakage to affect the results in the middle part of the Left Hand Tunnel, since its presence would have been evidenced by the high values near W. This point is of particular interest to speleo logists. It demonstrates that communications might be established between explorers separated 1500 feet or more in a cave. At the same time it should be stressed that more distance might have been obtained had the antenna been rotated 90 (The properties of this antenna are apparently not the same underground that they are on the surface of the earth.) It was found to be possible to maintain sur facecave two-way code communication s at horizontal distances in excess of 1500 feet, using the low powered transmitter in the cave. The best transmission point tried was station 64, where there was a pool of water. The underground transmitter was operated into various antennas; the simplest bu t most inefficient arrangement was connection to two ground sta kes five feet apart. Under conditions such as ex ist at Carlsbad Caverns, a transmitter and receiver the size of a cigar box could be used by exploration parties to maintain comumnications with the surface. No special radio circuits would be required, except that there should be adequate provision in the final stage of the transmi tter to match into whatever antenna system is used. An antenna laid on the ground is quite different, electrically, from the same antenna in the air. A good ground is a primary requirement. Either long-wire or loop antennas may be used on the receiver. The progress of exploration parties could be follo wed on the surface by simpl e triangulation means. As a guess, it is estimated that positions might be plotted with an accuracy of 10% of the depth. It was found that the signals received in the cave increased in strength markedly toward the end of the Left Hand Tunnel. -"Vith the number 1 transmitter at K, the signa l at 90B (Straddle Alley) was 5 to 10 times greater than expected. This region was w e t, which should have weakNO Z TRANSMITTER (025 wolf) AT W IN LEFT HANO TUNNEL FIGURE 5 Fig. 5. Vector plot of data for number 2 transmitter at W. BULLETIN NUMBER 17, DECEMBER 1955 39


MAMMOTH CAVE eo I 2 TO SNOWBALL DINING ROOM . \I O 100' 400' FIGURE 6 Fig. 6. Map of Mammoth Cave. e ned the s ign al. No wholly satisfactory explanation has ye t be e n advanced to clarify this phe nome non. This anoma ly was not fully appreciated until th e data had b ee n analyzed. An access difficulty at Straddle A ll ey unfortunate ly made this the end of the experime n t a l area. Future work of this nature at Carlsbad Cav erns should include an investigation of this effect at and b eyond Straddle Alley. It would b e well to work a lso in the very ex tensive pass ages north of th e L ef t Hand Tunnel, unde r Bat Cave. These passages a r e not now m appe d but might easi l y b e mapped with suffic i ent accuracy for the purpose of locating other anomalo us r eceiving areas T h e use of other freque n c ies should be consid e red. T h e efTect, if a ny, of various anten n as has yet L O b e in vest i ga t e d Finally, it would be of considerable inte r e st to work in Bat Cave, whic h lies a t a d epth of 1 3 0 f eet, to extend the data obtained to date into the 1 3 0 to 750 foot r eg ion. 40 EXPERIMENTS AT MAMMOTH CAVE The investigation was continued by a similar experiment at Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. The procedure was much the same as -that employed at Carlsba d Caverns but the results were not so spectacular. Tra nsmissions through a minimum earth cover of 3 0 to 50 feet were effec ted in th e vicinity of Olives' Bower (where cedar tree roots were note d hanging among some stalactites) and the Mush room Beds in Audubon Avenue, which branches from Little Bat Avenue. (See Figure 6.) Signals were receiv e d for some hundreds of f eet along these passag es, bu t were confused in nature. vVith the two transmitte rs on th e surfac e above Silliman's Avenue and Ole Bull' s Concert Hall, tra ver ses were made through Carmichael En tra nce to th e Dining Room and as far as the Stern of the Great Eastern. No signals were re ceived excep t l eakage into the cave on the elec trica l wiring. The numbe r one transmitter was THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY


the n s e t up ov e r Thorpe' s Pit, tuned ve ry ca refully, and a tra v e r se w as m a d e unde r it, 270 f eet below th e surface Suffi c i ent s i gnal wa s obtained to jus tif y a rough ca lcul ation a s t o the attemlation in this loc a tion. The result wa s what theory predic t e d co n siderably highe r tha n the value obta in e d a t C arls b a d C averns, due t o th e ge neral w ette r c h a r ac ter of the ro c k ove r t h e cave Ge n eml C o n sidera t ions The work whic h has b ee n r e p orte d was di r ec t e d t o w ards obtaining a n a n s w e r to a sp ec ific t echnica l questi o n. It was ori g in a ll y intended tha t the C arls b a d C averns ex p eriment w ould b e BULLETIN NUMBER 17, D E CEMB E R 1955 anI y a prelimina r y trip, and tha t a second ex p eriment w ould b e conduc t e d a f te r the first d a t a h a d b ee n digest e d The unex p ec t e d results d e scribed l e d t o cal c ulati o n s suffic i ently goo d fo r g e n e r a l purposes. (As a n example o f th e goo d fortu n e a tt ending the w o rk, a tra n smission was r ece i ve d the fir s t time a r e c eive r was turne d o n in C a rl s b a d. The r ece i ve r was the n m ove d three f ee t to get it out of the way, and the s i g n a l d is appeared. The t rouble w as fin a ll y trace d t o a wire whic h broke o n the m ove; d ays o f work could eas il y h ave b ee n l os t here h a d th e init i a l s i g n a l n o t b ee n r ece i ve d.) 41


Recent Explorations in Floyd By ROGER W. BRUCKER When The National SjJel eo logical Socie t y's expedition left C1ystal Cave in F e bnta1Y 1954, the1'e we1' e many unanswered questions. THE CAVES BEYOND sets down the findings of that even tfuL w ee k but nothing has been M'itten in detail about w01'k that has con tinued there for nea.?l y two yeaTS. He1'e is the story of a trip made into the system a lmost a )lea1' ago. F01' the most pa rt it is a t a l e of adventtl1'e in an area ex pedition memben never saw. vVe sat in Bill A ustin 's sn u g li vi n g room and glanced out thro u g h t h e window now and the n to see clouds scuddin g over a gray K entuc k y s ky. It was cold this F ebruary 18th, almost one year after the Soc i ety's ex p edition to Crystal Cave, and t o th e s m a ll group gathered there excitement was a t the sam e hi g h pitch. B esides Bill and his wife, J acq ue, Dave Jones was th e re, having driven all ni ght from Ohio to join us. Only a few months b efore h e h a d bee n initiated into cave explorin g and had lik e d it. Co les Phinizy was there, a s t aff writer with Sports illustrated. H e and Bob Halmi had come from ew York t o go o n a trip with us into Crystal, to a point beyond th e expedition' s farthest penetra tion. Hal mi h a d no illus i o n s a b o llt the triph e kn ew Crystal w as a rough cave from the wee k h e h a d s p ent in s ide it a year ago, and th e f act that h e h a d streamlined hi s p hotographi c gear was proof -that h e had fin a ll y l earned th e l esso n about "tr ave lin g light". "Phin" had never explored caves, but in hi s ca l m way h e spoke of hi s aqu a lung work and a r id e in a free balloon w h e n the rip panel let l oose; h e seemed thoroughl y capabl e of standing th e wo rst Crysta l could offer. vVe l a id out the maps, covering a floor area a b out the s i z e of a ping-pong t able, and care fully traced with our f in gers the route we would take to r eac h Eye less F i s h Trail a newly dis covered stream passage d ee p within the syst e m Phin h a d some background; h e had read the m anuscript of The Caves Beyond and h a d t a lk e d 42 w i t h H a lmi. Our aim was to survey downstream in Eye less Fish Trail a nd hopefully, find another entrance there. '''' e a l so wanted to dye the stream and h ave some of o u r p arty c h ec k Pike Spring for g r een water; see in g it would be proof tha t a n entra nce was clos e by. ""e h a d p lanned th e trip severa l month s ago, when a p arty l ed b y Phil Smith had surveye d from t h e O ver lo o k Pit compl ex to Eye l ess Fis h Trail through Storm Sewer, a h alf mi l e long semi-wa l king passage. On plottin g their survey, they di scove r e d tha t its end was not far from Pike Spring, and the downstream end of Eye l ess Fish Trail should b e closer yet! ''''e h a d p l anne d a diving attempt with aqua lu ngs for this week end, but a s i x foot rise in th e water level of G r ee n River had dimme d a n y hope o f s u ccess "Vorking at it from th e other end see m e d the next best thing. Around n oo n we moved down th e ste ps and into the cave, foll ow in g th e trai l to Scotchman's Trap. Phinizy was carry in g more t h a n he s h ould h ave, but w e learned l o n g ago th a t no one li s t e n s to s u c h l ectures. Halmi was his old self swear in g outrageousl y a t eve r y turn and k eeping up a li g ht-hearted banter. He could handl e himself in any cave, but not his camera gear; w e bore most o f th e burde n. '''e traveled the Crawl way in a n hour and r eached the Lost Passage in t wo. At the site of Camp One the s l eeping bags st ill d a n g led on wires from th e ce iling, but th ey were fat with dripping moisture. A n assort m ent of mold THE NATlOl A L SPE LEOLOGICA L SOCIET Y


Sports I llustrated Fast moving exploration and survey parties have re placed the mass approach of the 1954 expedition. cover e d them. Oleo m argerine l e ft b ehind showed no s ign s of deterioration but eve r ything else was crumbling unde r the onslaught of moisture, r a ts, and time. I thought bac k to til e d ays of the expedition w h e n this p l ace was the cave's cente r of warmth and companionship; now it was a litter of unattractive m e m entos. "Vithout eating, we m ove d out B Trail pas t the hol e in the Aoor leading to th e Bo gardus '''T a terfall Trai I. A l ong ou r rou te w as a n ew plas ti c cove r e d t e l epho n e wire, l aid there Thanksgiving wee k end, 1954 on our first m ajor assault a ft e r the exp editio n '''T e stoo p ed, sq u a t t e d, c rawl e d cro u c h e d and occasiona ll y w a lk e d to survey s t a tion B-53, w h e r e we a te. Phin was tired. Swea t rolled d o wn his angula r f ace, and wet p a t c hes m arked hi s clothing. "V e h a d told him that it would take six or e i ght hours t o reac h th e place where our survey would s t art, but h e h a d counte d on a more lei sure l y p ace. H e said h e didn't know w h ether h e could m a ke it at t h e p ace we had b ee n se tting. BULLETIN NUMBE R 17, DECEMBER 1955 Up we went through the L ehrbe rger Link to the top of the Bogardus Formatio n w here we chimneye d d ow n into a l ow room fill e d with formations. "V e were n ow at the farthest p oint of penetration b y the exp editio n "Beyond Bo gardus th ere's n o t enough room to spread a s leepin g b ag," someone h a d said, but that was a year ago The follow in g July we discovered that n o o n e o n the ex p editio n h a d reached Bogardu s' ''''at e rfall, which actu ally lies o n out the L e hrberger Link b eyond the Bogardus For mation. The water we could hear n ow cam e from a noth e r wa t erfa ll subsequently n a m e d Bogus Bogardus. A draft of air blew [rom under a l edge in our faces I led in, crawling beside the t e lephon e wire thr o u g h a grapestudde d passage, the n the crawling be ca m e easier as the passag e b ecame higher and wide r. About 50 feet past a room big enough to s t and in, we s tarted into Fishhook Crawl, a muddy, K ey h o l e s ize passage with n o dules of calc ite jutting out of wa lls, floors and ceiling. To those of u s w h o wer e fam iliar with Crys t a l Cave, it was the most unpleasant pas sage in the syst e m and it extende d o nl y 20 0 feet. Phinizy's face was b ee t-red w h e n h e emerged through the hole in the wall of Black Onyx Pit and slithere d down the e i g ht-fo o t flowstone wall to the bottom. ''''e h a d b ee n mov in g for a lm os t f ive h ours. "\ hil e H almi m a d e a few pictures, Phi n d is carded hi s wool swea ter on a l e dge He an n ounce d th a t this dubio u s act i vity could hardl b e calle d "sport", and we agreed. Bill ustin p ointe d out that we explored Cr tal Cave primarily as a data gath ering project, but that we enjoyed d o in g it a l so. D ave Jones added that the enjoyment part of cave explorinu miuht be co n s id e red sport but that the work wa pure sc i e nce. H a lmi end e d the d ebate by announc ing that cave exploring as the port of low s ui c id e, purs u e d only b I fa natics. Crossing 60 foot hi g h Black On). Pit im' ol\"e" squeez in g tlu-ough a sma ll tube, kirtinu a pit the n climbing 1 6 feet dow n a precipitou mud b a nk. The price for a slip i a fa t ride to j agge d rock s 20 feet below the ba e o[ the mud b a nk. A u stin and Phiniz led the w a with Phin t aking ne a rl y 1 0 minll t to m a k e the d esce nt. "Thi s," h e proclaim d i the m t dangerous place in the ('a\ e." : \ I tarted 43


over the route, Phin yelled that he could see light through a small hole and that I ought to investigate it. The hole proved to eliminate handily the 16 foot climb, so we named it Phinizy's Relief in honor of its discoverer. "\IVe traveled in the top of a muddy canyon and arrived at Camp Pit, our advance base for explorations in this new area. The telephone wire terminated h ere, and a stockpi le of food lay against the wall. The pit itself was about 60 f ee t high and 30 feet in diameter, with a pool of drinking water in one corner. Although Phil Smith had left his Primus stove there on one trip, we used disposable propane blow torches for cook i ng; fuel for the Primus was too dangerous to carry Sports IIlustroted Austin enters Black Onyx Pit from Fishhook Crawl. Note new phone line under Austin's left arm. Austin, Jones, Halmi, and I joked back and forth as our coffee heated. Phinizy, sprawl ed full length on a mud bank, said he didn't see anything so funny about cave exploring in general nor about Camp Pit in particular. The man who would explain "cave humor" to a novice has no chance of b eing understood, as we soon discov ere d. 44 ''''e didn't tell Phin what was around the next bend; Bill told Halmi to bring flash powder for "something big", but Bob had scorned the idea. Now we stood at the Over look a balcony opening into an enormous pit. The balcony is about 70 feet from the bottom and probably 100 feet from the top. The pit is a perfect cylinder, about 40 feet in diameter, with smooth gray walls marred only by prominent bedding pla nes. A waterfall cascaded in visib l y from its gloomy top, and sp lashed below sti ll unseen. Rocks thrown into the abyss plunged into a deep body of water below, and sounds of waves lapping a rocky beach continued for a few seconds afterward. Phinizy whistled in awe. Halmi muttered an epithet, admitting the pit was too big to be photographed with his e lectronic flash equipment. Austin and Phil Smith had discovered it and the wonders that lay b eyond on Thanksgiving, 1954. T h e route l ay through a muddy passage on the opposite side of the balcony. One by one we climbed down into Storm Sewer, a canyon passag e that l e d onward. The floor was firm mud for the most part, but while we could walk most of the time, we had to drop on hands and knees near the end of the passage where it entered Eyeless F ish Trail in much the same manner as B Trail enters the Lost Passage. It had taken us seven hours to reach this poin-t, and now work could begin. Bill suggested that we dye the stream first, so we moved down a mud slope and turned a corner. Pools of deep, green water bracketed the route, and s li ck mud underfoot made travel treacherous. I hoisted the surplus 30 caliber ammunition box to the othe r shoulder. Bill had given it to me at the head of Storm Sewer; it contained our survey equipment and his camera. The others moved down a steep slope, over a mud bridge a foot wide between the pools, and up a mud slope on the other side It didn't look difficult, but it did look dan gerous, and with the heavy ammunition box on my shoulder I thought it would be safer to cross the bridge on hands and knees rather than risk standing up. I moved out, eyeing the bridge and the two pools; the one to niy left was abou t four feet in diameter, the one on my right was a kidney-shaped pool about THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY


three feet long and 18 inches wide. I must have moved two f e et, and then ... My hands were s lipping! I was s liding head first into the k i dney-shaped pool and I couldn't stop myself. These are the moments in which one's l ife is supposed to flash through one's mind. As I plu nged into the pool I had visions of it being on l y a few fee t d eep, and t hat it woul d be too sma ll to turn around in. But no. B l ackness fi rst, the n the coolness of water penetrating my clothing, and the terribl e f eeling of sinking down without touching bottom. I rolled ov e r underwate r and struggled to r each the surface How long can I hol d my breath? My hard hat struc k som ething, the chin strap wr enched. .. I was trapped by an underwate r l e dge. Already I knew -that th e pool exposed to th e passage bell e d out underwater, but how cou l d I f ind tha t small hole? I struggl e d and ki c k e d and th e n it was over . I sucked in a i r to ease the pounding of m y h eart, then h e l d on to the b ank for a f e w seconds. H e lp!" I yel l ed. Someone f a r away sa id '!\Th a t was that?" but in stantl y I h eard the thud of Bi ll Austin's boots as he r a n tow a rds m e His lamp appeared o ver t h e lip of the mud s lope, and in an instant h e h a d l eaped down beside me. '''' hen h e saw I was out of danger h e grinned, "S'v" imming?" Spo r t s Illustrated Austi n comes to Brucker's re scue. "I shoul d h ave spikes on m y g l oves," I said T h e re l ief of tension was welcome. Phinizy b linked incredulous l y as I told the grou p what had happe n e d. Austin wondered where th e ammunition box had go n e I said it must be at the bottom, w h e r e ver that might be BULLETIN NUMBER 17, DECEMBER 1955 '''T e moved clo se r to the pool and look e d in. The contents of the box were worth about $ 200, and Austin said he d voluntee r to dive for it; it wasn't the principl e of -th e thing, he sa id, it was the money involved. Jus t as I s u gges t e d going after it s ince I a l r ea d y knew th e l ayout of the pool, we were amazed to see th e box flo a tin g bottom up. The camera and equipment ins id e we r e dry, thanks to a ti ght-fitting lid with rubber gasket. The next surprise occurred when m y lamp fai led to operate, eve n afte r a fresh c h a nge of carbide. Strange l y enough, it was out of wa t er! It was ridiculous to consider surveying; the trip in i s enough to exhaust mos t p eo ple, let a lone s urve ying and trying to l eave the cave in soa k e d clothing. I apol ogiz e d to Phinizy for ruining his story, bu t he said h e was ready to leave anytime-the soo n e r the b e tter. In fact, he said, h e had b een r ea d y to ca ll it a d ay bac k a t the Los t Passag e D avid Jones and I made a non-stop dash to Carnp Pit, whe re Dave h eld a blowtorc h against me. Grea t clouds of steam boi led off, and when he kept the flam e moving, the h ea t felt com fortable. vVe ate a grea t quantity of meat, and started for th e entra nce s i x hours away, jus t as Austin and Phinizy came in. Phinizy l oo ked exhausted; mud ca k e d his face. H almi wa s still swea r ing; w e kne w he would surv ive. J ones and I r eac h e d the surface a t s ix in the morning, with the others two hours b ehind. I was staggering from fatigue ca u se d p ro b ably, b y the increase d weight of wet cove r a ll s A warm s l eeping bag fel t goo d. That afternoon Phinizy, looking like a n old man with r e d eyes announced t h a t h ereafter he would cover the "outside phase" of any cave exploring story to whicl1 he was assigne d. NOTE: Sinc e tha t trip, in whi c h littl e was accom p l ished but muc h learned, Eyeless Fi s h Tra il has b ee n explore d both d ow n tream and upstream. Downst re a m it ends about 600 feet from Pike Spring in a sand fill. U p tream, it has prove d to b e the k ey to the Flint Ridge Cave System, with its 32 known mile of p assao 'es (23 of the m mapped). It appea r s to b e the largest known cave system about which r e li able data is avai lable. 45


REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CHAPTERS OF THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY A labama Polytechnic Institute Gmtto (Student grotto) Secretary: Erin Moody Faculty Sponsor: J. D. {cClung, P. O. Box 322, Auburn, Ala Huntsville Gmtto Secretary-Treasurer: Paul Kane, ] 209 Brandon St., Hun tsville A la. San .Joa.quin Valley Gmtto Secretary: Darrel Tomer, Rt. 5, Box 254, Hanford, Cal. Southem Califomia Gmtto Secretary: Carroll S Slemaker, ] 735 Orchid, Hollywood, Cal. Colorado Gmtto Secretary : John Streich, 1132 Lima, Aurora, Col. DistTi ct of Columbia Gmtto Secretary: Carol yn L. Bartlett, 1426 21st St N.''''., Wesley Hall, 'Washington 6, D. C. Atlanta Gmtto Chairman: J. Roy Chapman, Box 70 I Atlan ta, Ga. CentTa l Indiana Gmtto Secretary -Treasurer: K athryn McCartney, 5342 E. Tenth, Indianapolis, Ind. Scotto Gmllo Secretary: Philip Jones President: Jack ,,,r Dorsey, RFD 3, Scottsburgh, Ind. T aTevac Gmtto Acting Chairman: T. L. Carr, ]0]2 15th St., Tell City, Ind. Kentucky-Indiana GTOttO Secretary: Charles B. Fort, 1426 S. 3r d St., Louisville, Ky. BallimoTe Gmtto Secretary: Adaline Glaser Publicity Director: Jim Holche k 2903 Louise Ave., Baltimore 14, i\Id. Boston Gmtto Chairman: Thomas Richardson, 53 Appleton St., Arlington, Mass. Secretary-Treasurer: Donald L. Peters. 46 Twin City Gmtto Secretary : David S. Gebhard, ]665 Montreal Ave., St. Paul 5, Minn. Missou 'ri School of Mines Gmtto (Student Grotto) Secretary: Jack ''''eber Faculty Advisor: J. P. Roston, Mining D e pt., MSM, Rolla, Mo. T /Vestenl j \t[issow i Gmtto Secretary: Oscar Hawksl ey, Cen tral Missouri State College, ''''arrensburg, Mo. Entel' pTise D ilettante SPeleology Gi'otto Co-ordinating Comm. : Alfred Hulstrunk; \'" ill i a m Hul strunk, 139 Halste d St., East Orange, N J. NOTtheTn New .Jelsey GTOttO Secretary -Treasurer: Peg g y !vI ueller, 549 Jerusale m Rd., Scotch Plains, N. J. Comell Gmtto Treasurer: T. L. Poulson, 216 Park Ave., Manhassett, N. Y. M etmjJolitan New Y oTk Gmtto Secretary: Miss Catherine Keane, 645 E. 232nd St., New York 66, I Y. Piedmont Gmtto Chairman: Samuel Phifer, Box 258, !vIonroe, N. C. Central Ohio Gmtto Secretary: Bruce Schneider, 41 West B l ake, Columbus 2, O. Cl eve land Gmtto Secretary: Julius K e rby, 12528 Griffing Ave., Cleveland, O. Tulsa Gmtto Secretary: Dick T e nney, 1 3 04 S. Yale, Tulsa, Okla. Nittany Gmtto Faculty Advisor: Dr. S. '''T Frost, '165 E. Foster Ave., State Col leg e, Pa. Philadelphia Gmtto Secretary: Audrey Welsh, 161 Lakeside Blvd., Tren ton 10, N.J. PittsbuTgh Gmtto Secretary: A ll e n McCrady, 304 Ross St., Pittsburgh, Pa. ShippensbuTg State Teachen College Gmtto (Student Grotto) Presiden t: Jack E. Harclerode, No. 126 SSTC., Shippensburg, Pa. Standing Stone Gmtto Secretary: Maurice A. Henry, Apt. 5, The Village, Hunting don, Pa. Bla ck Hills Gmtto Secretary: Lilace Taylor, 309 N 4 th St., Hot Springs, S. D CumbeTland Gmtto Secretary: Daniel E. Bloxsom Oak Park, Tullahoma, Tenn. Nashville Gmtto Secretary: Standiford Gorin, General Shoe Corp., Nashville, Tenn. Balcones Gmtto Secretary: Joe C. P ea rce, 5713 Ave. G, Austin, Texas. University of T exas Gmlto (Student Grotto) Sponsor: Dr. Austin Phe lps, 3115 Tom Green, Austin, T exas Salt Lake GTOttO Secretary-Treasurer: J. Robert K e nnedy, 5762 Linden St., Sal t Lake City, Utah. Univenity of ViTginia GTOttO (Student Grotto) Secretary: John A. B a rnes 6 Echols House, The Universi ty, Charlottesville, Va. VP! Gmtto (Student Grotto) Faculty Advisor : Dr. John ''''. Murray, Dept of Chemistry, VPI, Blacksburg, Va. Wytheville Gmtto Secretary: B e tty Sabatinos, 102 Faculty St., B l acksburg, Va. Chal-leston Gmtto Secretary: Mrs. Elizabeth Snowden,708 Clin ton Ave. Charles ton, W. Va. l VfoTganiown Gmlto Secretary: \ I Villiam D. Conner, P O. Box 72, Morgantown, W. Va. THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY


WHO'S WHO IN BULLETIN SEVENTEEN . ROGER W. BRUCKER, born in Shelby, Ohio in 1929, received his A.B. in fine arts from Oberlin Co ll ege in 1951. Until June, 1955 he was a member of the United States Air Force, serving as a documentary and technical film writer, stationed in Alexandria, Virginia; New York City, and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio. He joined the NSS in December, 1952 and explored caves with the Met Grotto, EDS Grotto, and the Central Ohio Grotto. He served as an explorer and surveyor with the Society's 1954 Crysta l Cave expedition, and subsequentl y co-authored, with Joe D. Lawrence, Jr., The Caves Beyond. Brucker i s serving his second term on the Board of Governors and a l so directing the Society's F lint Ridge p 'roject to coJ1linue the wo r k started at Crysta l Cave. H i s fam i l y consists of his wif e, Joan, and two childre n Tom and Ellen. \\'ILLIMI E. DAVIES, PresideJ1l of the National Speleo l ogi cal Society is a geologist for the United States Geological Survey. He became illlerested in caves in 1939 40 wh e n he explored many caves while engaged in field work for the Pennsy lvania Geologic and Topographic Survey. At the present time hi s basement laboratory i s filled with bottles and boxes cOlll ainnig cave earth fills one of his present speleological interests. He has authored two important contributions to spe l eologica l literature; Caverns ot T Vest Virginia publ i shed by the W Va Geol ogica l Survey, and Tile Caves of Maryland, published b y the Maryland De partment of Geol ogy, Mines, and Water Resources. A project of current interest is to in crease the financial re sources of the Society, to find a building to house the national headquarters, and to increase the efficiency of NSS operation and government. B URTON S. FAUST, Vice-president for administration of the NSS i s a Patent Examiner in the United States Patent Office in 'Washington, D. C. His s pecial speleo logica l in terest is the histo rica l procedura l chemical and archaeo logical aspects of salt petre mining in caves from the earliest recorded in sta n ce up to 1 865. His past writings on the subject h ave appeared in Bulletin. Eleven and in the D. C. Speleograp h As founder of the Society's annual Illlernatio n a l Salon, he m ainta in s a keen inte rest in color photography. In 1955 he was instrumental in obtaining for the NSS Library a collection of photographs and doc uments [rom the esta t e of Russe ll T Neville, a pioneer cave explorer active in the .l920s and 30s. Faust began exploring caves in 1922. WILL IAM R. I -iALLIllAY received hi s B .A. at Swarthmore College and his M.D at George Washington University. He has explored many caves in Virginia and Vest Vir ginia, as well as all the western states. He was r ounder and former chairman of the oUlhern Cali[ornia, Cascade, Col orado and Salt Lake Grottoes of th e N He i a BULLET! NUMBE R 17, DECEMBER 1955 m ember of the Society's Board of Governors and has served on many committees. On completion of his train ing in ches t surge r y h e entered the nited States l avy for the second time, and when last heard from, his ship was in the Japan area. His favorite caving areas are nonh eastern evada and Sequoia Tational Park in California. ANTONIO NUfiEZ JIMENEZ was born in Cuba in J 923, reo ce ived his Bachelor o( Letters and Sciences from the In stitute of Havana, and hi s Ph.D. [rom the University of H ava na. His studies in geolog y and archeology took him to hal f a dozen (ore ign countries. Currentl y he teaches h istorical geography and geomorphology in hi s native country. Founder of the Speleological Society of Cuba, he has written extensively on Cuban speleo lo gica l subjects, and h as studied caves e l sewhere in South America and France as well. Aside from cave exploring, he i s an ac com plished photographer as the piclllres in his article indicate. H e is a member of the NSS and four other scie ntifi c societies. Among his more important writings is a book The B e llamar Cav e F IELDING MCGE HEE w as born and reared on a plantation near Natchez, Mississippi. He attended Mississippi State Co ll ege one se m es te r spen t n ea rly four years in the Army, then returned. H e transferred to the University of Ala b ama, whe re he received B.S. and M.S. degrees in physics. At the University of Virginia he completed his Ph. D., specia l izing in electrical discharges in rarified gases. He i s married and has three children. For a while he worked in the research laboratory of the United Gas Corporation, and currently i s the Deputy Chief of the Operations Analysis section for the 2nd Air Force at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana. He i s a member of four pro[es s i o n a l soc i e ties and does woodworking, teaching, and con sulting in hi s spare time. His inte r est in caves has an in direct conneciton with his work in the u e of radio to prospect for oil. KENNETH A. resides in Havana, Cuba, where h e w as born in 1 932. After recei ving his early education in Havana, he attended Mid-li ga n State College and Rens se l ae r Pol y l echnic Institute where he recei,'ed his B .S. in chemical e ng i n eering in 1 953. At present he is associated with the Proctor and Gamble Company of Cuba. He joined the Society in 1949 and a t R P .I. served variou s l y as c h airman and vice -chairman of Lhat Grotto while ex p l oring th e area's caves. H e i s now recording secretary of the Cuban Speleological ociety and too k part in explora tions of caves in eastern Cuba. He has explored caves in Mexico, France and Italy, and i a member of the Italian Alpine Club, the AAA and several other scie ntifi c soci eties. He i s the Assi sting Training Commissioner for the Cuban Boy SCOut organi zation. 47

Contents: Foreword --
Caverns of St. Tomas / by Antonio N. Jimenez and Kenneth
Symington --
Saltpetre Mining Tools Used in Caves / by Burton Faust --
Magnetic Cave The Wonderful Hoax / by William R.
Halliday --
Caverns and Related Features of Michigan / by William E.
Davies --
A Proposed Classification of Physical Features Found in
Caves / by William R. Halliday --
Radio Transmission in Caves / by Fielding McGhee --
Recent Explorations In Floyd Collins' Crystal Cave / by
Roger W. Brucker --
Who's Who in Bulletin Seventeen.


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