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Title:
Bulletin of the National Speleological Society
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Bulletin of the National Speleological Society
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National Speleological Society
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National Speleological Society
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English

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Regional Speleology ( local )
Technical Speleology ( local )
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serial ( sobekcm )
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United States

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Contents: Foreword -- The Hell Hole in the Muota Valley / by Alfred W. H. Bogli -- New Caving Equipment and Techniques / by Daniel Bloxsom, Jr. -- The Leather Man and His Caves / by LeRoy W. Foote -- The St. Michaels Caves, Gibraltar / by T. R. Shaw -- Blind Fishes Found in Cave Pools and Streams / by Loren P. Woods -- Prospecting for Caves / by Cord H. Link, Jr. -- Discovery at the Fontana Chistaina / by John Hooper -- Eagle Lake Lava Caves / by Robert Given -- A Cave Description from the Middle of the 17th Century / by Charles E. Weber -- Seven Principles of Effective Expedition Organization / by Philip M. Smith -- After-Glow of Cave Calcite / by Brian J. O'Brien -- Underground Man / by William Helmer -- Speleological Societies Outside the United States / by Burton S. Faust -- Who's Who in Bulletin Eighteen.
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Open Access - Permission by Publisher
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Vol. 18, no. 1 (1956)
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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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K26-00551 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.551 ( USFLDC Handle )
7529 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0027-7010 ( ISSN )

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PAGE 1

BULLETIN EIGHTEEN OF THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OHicial Associate of the American Aaociation for the Advancement of Science D cember 1956 IN THIS ISSUE, informat ive articles on cayes, includ i ng: THE HELL HOLE IN THE MUOTA VALLEY NEW CAVING EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES BLIND FISHES FOUND I N CAVE POOLS AND STREAMS PROSPECTING FOR CAVES THE LEATHER MAN AND HIS CAVES

PAGE 2

BULLETIN EICHTEEN Published by THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY To stimulate interest in caves and to record the findings of explorers and scientists within and outside the Society IN THIS ISSUE ...... December 1956 FOREWORD .......................................... 1 THE HELL HOLE IN THE MUOTA VALLEY ........................ Alfred W. H. Bogli 3 NEW CAVING EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES .................. Daniel Bloxsom, Jr. 9 THE LEATHER MAN AND HIS CAVES ....... LeRoy W. Foote 13 THE ST. MICHAELS CAVES, GIBRALTAR ......... T. R. Shaw 16 BLIND FISHES FOUND IN CAVE POOLS AND STREAMS ..................... Loren P. Woods 24 PROSPECTING FOR CAVES ....... ....... Cord H. Link, Jr. 30 DISCOVERY AT THE FONTANA CHISTAINA ..... John Hooper 33 EAGLE LAKE LAVA CAVES .................. Robert Given 40 A CAVE DESCRIPTION FROM THE MIDDLE OF THE 17TH CENTURY .... .......... Charles E. Weber 43 SEVEN PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE EXPEDITION ORGANIZATION ... ................. Philip M. Smith 46 AFTER-GLOW OF CAVE CALCITE .......... Brian J. O'Brien 50 UNDERGROUND MAN ................ ... William Helmer 5 1 SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETIES OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES ..................... Burton S. Faust 52 WHO'S' WHO IN BULLETIN EIGHTEEN. . . . . . . . . . .. 55 Published intermittently, at least once a year; Editor: Roge r W. Brucker, 449 W. South College St., Yellow Springs, Ohio. Assistant Editors: George F. Jackson, 104 Lee Ave., Trenton 8, N. J.; William R Halliday, U. S. Naval Hospital, Oakland, Calif. Inquiries relating to the publishing of inanuscripts in the BULLETIN should be addressed to the editor neareSl you. COPYRIGHT 1957 by The National Speleologic a l Society, Inc. PUBLICATIONS include the BULLETIN published at l eas t once a yea r, the NEWS appearing monthly, and the OCCASIONAL PAl'ERS. All members re ceive the BULLETIN and the NEWS. MEMBERSHIP helps to support the publications, special investigations, and the operation of the Society. Office address: THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 125 TAPAWINGO ROAD, S W VIENNA, VIRGINIA Family Associate ... ----S 2 Sustaining .. __ __ __ $14 Associate __ .. __ .. ____ .. __ ----.S 4 Institutiona l ______ .$ 10 Regular .. _____ __ ... ____ ----.S 7 Life .. ... --.------____ .. ____ __ $14 0 THE NATIONAL SrF.LF.OLor.ICAL Soc:n :TY was organized in 1940. It has members throughout th e Un ited Sta t es and many members in foreign countries THE SOCIETY is a non-profit organization of men and women inte re sted in lhe study and expl o r a li o n of caves and a llied phenomena. It is under th e l aw .of the Dis trict of Columbia. Ils energies are devo t ed t o unlocking the lrulh o f lhe world .underground. THE SOCIETY serves as a central age ncy f o r th e c ollec li o n preservation. and pllb licati o n of sc i enliflc. hi s torical and l egendary information relaling to It arouses Int e resl in th e discovery of n(' w caves and encourages th e preservation of lhe nalUral beauty of all caverns. THE AFFAIRS o r th e Society are con trolled by the Board of Governors. The Board appoints national officers. The Board a lso approves committee chairmen who are chose II not only lor their I,ro\ctl ability in a pa rlicular field. bllt a lso ror their aCli v i ty in the work of the Sodety. OFFICERS FOR 19561 957: William E Da vies. John D Parker. Vice Presid ent (Administration); George F. Jackson. Vic e -President (Publications); Brother G. Nicholas. F.S.C.. Vice -P r es i dent (Research); A lbert C. Mueller. Vice President (Public R e lations); J D. Mc Clung. Vic e / Jresident (Organization); Burton S. Faust, Treasurer. DIRECTORS: J oe D. Lawrenc e. Jr.. Chair man. William T. Auslin; Cave City, Ky.; Thomas C. Barr. Jr.. Nashv ill e. Tenn.; Donald F. Black. Chattanooga. Tenn.; C. N. Bruce. Newcaslle. Pa.; Roge r W. Bru cker. Yell ow Springs. Ohio; Donald N Cournoyer. Arlinglon. Va.; Oscar J Gos se tt. Ridgecrest. Calif.; Russell H. Gurnee. Closter. N. J.; Oscar Hawksley. Warrensburg. Mo.; David B J o n es, Yellow Springs. Ohio; J e rome M. Ludlow, Trenton. N. J.; Charles E. Mohr. Greenwich. Conn.; George ,.y. Moore. New H ave n. Conn.; Ida S Mallory. Brooklyn, N. Y.; Thomas F. Pickard, Nashvill e Tenn. ; Miles D. Pillars, Washington. D. C.; Ric hard T. Scott. Austin. Texas; Howard N. S loane. Upper Montcla ir. N. J.; J ohn L. Spence. Brookl yn. N. Y.; William J. Slephenson. Bethesda, Md.; Ralph W Stone, Harrisburg. Pa. OFFICE SECRETARY: Mrs. Frances Cross. LmRARV: A n exce llent spel eo log-ical li brary is owned by the SOClet y and i s be ing enlarged constantly. Items on hand may be borrowed by NSS members a t a nomina l charge to defray shipping and upkeep. PAGE 3 FOREWORD R ain i s p ounding outside m y window as I w rite, and caves a r e getting bi g g e r. C ave ex pl o r e r s are g oing f arther to o -d ow n in U t a h a n d T ennessee, out, in K entuc k y and Wes t Virginia As a result the c h allenges of a f e w yea r s b ac k s u c h as Schoolho u se a r e shuttle d thro u g h in routine f ashio n b y in c r eas in g numbe r s of cave ex plorer s P oints of f arthest p e n etra ti o n b y ea rli e r explore rs, as in Floyd Collins C ryst a l C ave, a r e m e r e l y curios ities v i ewe d quizzi ca ll y b y n ov i ces o n a first tri p T h e climb in and out of Gra p evine is n o t the h a ir-r a iser it used t o be fo r m a n y of our m embe r s In Switzerl and a t ea m i s p reparing f o r a n othe r li ghtning attac k o n sp r a wlin g H 6 ll oc h C ave as soo n as th e wa t e r r ece des from the entra nce. In Cuba m e n a r e adding n ew miles t o the S t T h o mas syst e m and in Flint Ridge the a d va n ce grinds o n wa r d In Virginia p a ti ent s peleologi s t s c h a n ge roll s o n a b a rogr aph, w hil e out \ "'es t cave r s trac k d ow n rumo r s o f a n othe r l o n g lava cave". H ow do we know these things? \I\' e take p art in the m o r we r ea d a b out the m in the p ages of th e News and B u ll e t i n B y s h aring our experi e n ces, findin gs, and inventio n s we add immeasura bl y t o our unde r s t anding of caves and the p eople who ca r e about the m It s h ould n o t h ave to b e n ecessa r y t o urge cave ex pl o r ers t o s h a r e th eir findin gs. But, ve r y f r ankly, it i s The chief r easo n yo u d o n t r ece i ve m o r e B u ll etins i s tha t a rticles a r e diffi cult t o get. F ew a r e submitted vol unta rily; most a r e so li cite d direc tly, again and aga in. The edito rs, h oweve r ca n l earn of o nl y a s m a ll p ortio n of p o t entia l m a t e ri al. T hi s i s a n appeal. R ea d B u ll e tin Eighteen and b ac k issues as we ll the n see if yo u ca n s h a r e the informa ti o n a n d know -h ow you h ave acquire d thro u g h cav ing. Well-writte n tri p accounts of m o r e tha n r outine interes t do ge t p rinted; thorou g h d escriptio n s of individua l o r grou ps of caves a r e used ; reader s want t o kn ow a b o u t n ew equipme n t and techniques; sci e ntifi c r e p orts a r e o n e of the m ain r easo n s f o r h av in g a spe l eo l og i ca l soc i e ty. This i s a n appeal. R ea d h ow t o pre p a r e m anuscripts, ins ide the b ac k cove r o f thi s issu e If yo u h ave a n idea f o r a n a rticle, write o n e of the edito rs, outlin ing you r s ubj ect. B y writing in a d va n ce yo u m ay r ece i ve s u gges ti o n s for r ound ing o u t your treatme nt. Two olel fri e n ds a p pea r o n t h e masthead. T h ey a r e Assi s t ant Edito r s Geor ge J ac k so n a n d \ I V illi a m Halli day, both of who m h ave b ee n contributors to the B u ll e ti n for m a n y yea r s vVe we lc o m e the m t o the publishing s id e a n d thank th e m f o r wo rk already accomplis h ed. '*' '*' '*' '*' '*' W h a t w ill h appe n in s p e l eo l ogy in ]957 ? A unifi e d t h eo r y of limesto n e cave d eve lopm e nt, compa tibl e w i t h o b s e r vat i o n s in m a n y l oca lities, i s l o n g overdue. M u c h of th e ev iden ce, b oth domestic a nel for e i g n i s a t h a n d L eve l co n t ro l i s ev ident in caves of the Potom ac River va ll ey and in K entuc ky. Two s p e l e o lo gi sts working o n a l a r ge in teg rated under g r ound d r a in age n e t work in North west C l a re, Ire l a n d, h ave co nclud e d that d ee p phrea ti c solutio n i s n o t resp o n s ibl e f o r th e m a jor e nl a r ge m ent of p assages. R e d co ll o iclal cl ay, a n ing r edient of o n e h y p o thesi s : appear s to b e l ac kin g in caves w h e r e it was re p o r te d to ex ist as fill. ] 957 i s th e yea r for so m eo n e t o integr a t e the fac ts, a n d t h e r e b y l aunc h a n ew h y p o thesi s.-R.W.B. PAGE 4 --1 "7' t"1 z ;J> -l o Z ;J> r en r-i :-t"1 o r o o r; ;J> r en o n t"1 -l >< Holloch Cave Feldaufnahme SAC-HoIJochforschung Wissenschaftliche Le/lung : Prof. Dr. A Bogli, Hitzkirch Tcchnische Leilung: H. NUniisl, Luzern Pianbearbcilung im Original 1 : 1000 Prof. Dr. A. Bogli N Entrance t Unteres Stockwerk Tilanengang: 1 = SAC-Biw.k 2 = Sphinx 3 = Kiestunnel 4 = H.lleng.ng 5 = Schlil"zg.ng 6 = Galeric rouge 7 = Engelsburg 8 = Isi sslollen Seengang: 1 = Wegschelde 2 = Quelle 3 = Riescnsaal Plan of Holloch Cave in the Muota Valley, Switzerland Himmelsgang: 1 = PII.lusslolien 2 = Couloir Grange 3 Troil d'Unlon 1001 Ralselgang: 1 = Druckslollen 2 = Urner See 3 = Gerollschloss 1 mi Ie Pagodengang: 1 = grosser P(eiler 2 = P.godendom 3 = Pagodensee Vcrslurzgang: 1 = Druckslollen 2 = Abseilw.nd Einsamkeil : 1 = Zwililngssch.chl 2 = Weslminslerhalle Buchergang: 5 = Sandkammcrn H = Hegnaucrhallc Hoffnungsgang: 1 = Fugenslollen 2 = Umbradom 3 = Klellerslollen 4 = Trugh.lle 5 = Schluchlg.ng Donnertai SACWasserschloss Schullunnel: B3 = SACBlw.k III (Schulldom) 1 = Tropfslollen 2 = W.sserl.lle 3 = Banderstollen 4 = Elendslolle:n 5 = Nierenstcin 6 = N i crcnstollen 7 = Teufelsg.bel 8 = Vv'asscrgruft 9 = Unheimlicher Slollen 10 = Emporendom 11 = Rillselsiphon 12 = Druckslollen SAC-Gang : a = Gr. Burkhalterscc b = Slurzg.ng c = W.ndloch B2 = SACBiw.k II (Jegerslollen) d = Schluchlerdom e = Lchmschollcngang ( = Lehml.1 g = Hochburg h = Kiesburg i = Wirbelstollcn k = Kilferslollen J = Dreiecksee m = Kaminslollen n = Pfellerg.ng o = Munster p = Wassergrube PAGE 5 The Hell Hole in the Muota Valley By ALFRED W. H. BOGLI SCIENTIFIC DIRECTOR, Swiss Alpine Club Holloch Research Group Here is the first authoritat i v e r eport published in this country about a cave system whose surveyed length now exceeds that of any Imown cave. Its signifi cance lies partly in the fact that it is the world's l m gest, but more 1-ightfu lly that it is a grand monument to the perse v erance of spe l eo l ogists. Working in a bitteT cold 430 F. maz e for continuous pe1' iods up to 224 hours in length, the Swiss group has surv e yed near ly 38 miles of passageways Even more remarkable is the fact that the period for safe expl oration is limited to the few weeks between D ecember 15 and March 1; before or after those times exploreTS risk being trapped b y high wa te?". The a ccount contains information of Teal v alue for those who attempt to study l arge cave networks. INTRODUCTION Holloch (Hell Hole Cave), in Switzerland, was discovered a t the b ac k of a n ea rl y inaccessi ble gorge in 1 875 by A l ois Ulric h of the Muota Valley. By 1906 three miles had b een surveyed by diff erent expl orers and another mile more had been walke d through. Then Holloc h Cave was forgotten. .-----LlST OF SYMBOLS----, In 1945 the writer placed it on the agenda of a geomorphic study of the M uota Va ll ey and started invest ig a ti o n s of the surface a b ove H ol l oc h; the cavern itself was to be explored l ater. In 1948 a group of spe l eo l og i s t s unde r Andre Grobert v i sited the cave and in 1949 members of the SAC (Swiss Alpine Club) under Hugo N un lis t started independent explorati o ns. The writer j oined this group first as sci e ntifi c advi sor, later b ecoming their sci e ntifi c l eader. The survey tech nique was improved eliminating sources of error and a geomorphic, geo logic, and hydrol ogic in ventory was introduced usin g a keyed table (Fig ure 2). By the end of 1 953, 23 miles were surveyed, a year later 29 miles, and b y March 1955, 34 miles. By March 1 1956 the survey had been extended to 37. 8 miles. T hi s result i s mostly due to team work of the Swiss Alpine Club Holloch Re search Group under the l eadership of Bogli and Nunlist. Member s of the Swiss S p e l eo lo gica l So c i e ty (SSS) h ave achieved good progress in the are a of the Himmelsgang (Heaven Passage) and h ave explored about four miles. BULLETIN NUMBER 1 8 DECEMBER 1956 d LONGITUDINAL FAULT ./ fROSS FAULT '1<; OFFSET OF FAULT 15 CM. , 20 REVERSE FAULT OFFSET 20 CM. SILT 30 CM. THICK SILT WITH WORM CASTINGS SILT COATING WITH WORM CASTINGS J.! SAND GRAVEL o BREAKDOWN AND <>Q ANGULAR BLOCKS 00 0:: i WITH S ILT COATING > SPELEOTHEMS STALACTITE STALAGMITE GYPSUM CRYSTAL CRYSTAL WATERFALL SWALLET SOUND OF RUNNING WATER SOUND NOT ALWAYS HEARD Ii> HOLE I N FLOOR HOLE IN CEIUNG LAKE The physical inventory form, developed by the author, is included in the map with appropriate symbols for faults, fills, formations, a nd water. 3 PAGE 6 LOCATION AND GEOLOGY OF H6LLOCH CAVE H6110ch Cave is situa ted at the foot of a great limesto n e plateau in the heart of Switzerland. The nearby village of Muotatal is reached by traveling 3 0 miles from Lucerne via Schwyz. Geo l ogica ll y dominant are the Alpine nappes or thrust sheets whichw e re carried far from the south over the crystalline rocks of the Aar Mas sif. The surface consists of karstic limestone, dra ined entirely underground and cover e d with large karrenfields, numerous shafts, pits, sink hol es, and k arst v a ll eys. Of the 12 square miles of the valley, eight square miles drain toward H6110ch Cave and about two billion cubic feet of water drain away each year. The water flows through the cave and reappears at an altitude of 2,095 feet in the Schleichend Springs at the foot of a vertical wall of rock. At flood about 1 000 ga llon s per second emerge here; at the sam e time 2,000 ga ll o n s per second more flow from the entrance of th e cave The altitude of the surface ranges from 2,095 f ee t at the springs to 7,59 0 fee t at Silber Peak. H6110ch Cav e lies in the Axen Nappe which is co mpos e d h e r e predominately of lo wer Creta ceous strata. The nappe dips to the north in a series of r e l atively gentl e folds and the rocks are steep l y folded downward at the frontal region of Lhe nappe. Numerous faults, some with considerabl e displacement, cross the region. The r\xcn l\'appe is divided into several thinner s h eets by thrust faults: on top is the Thoralp s ub-nappe, below are th e uppe r and lower Sil b e rn sub-llappes, the Ba c histock sub-nappe, and at Lhe bottom the Axen Nappe in the strict sense. In th e environment of H6110ch Cave, l ayers of Hauterivi a n siliceous limestone and Seewer lime SLOne form th e subn appes. H6110ch Cav e is confine d Lo th e Schratten lim estone (Urgon) wh ich is repeated in each sub-nappe. T h e limestone has a thickncss of about 500 feet, a purity of 95-99 p e r cent CaC03 and corresponds in age approx imately wit h the Potomac series of the At j anLic coasta l plain of the United States. In the frontal region the sub-nappes are so reduce d in thickness that the l ayers of Schratten jimesLone touch each other. In this region H61loch Cave crosses the upper sub-nappes and ex -4 tends into the lo wer Silbern sub-nappe. There[ore in both upper sub-nappes between impermeable rocks there lie thick beds of Schratten limestone. From the l eve l of H6110ch Cave innumerable faults extend upward, but thus far no one has succeeded in ascending through the immense vertical shafts 800 feet into this possible l evel of the ca \ -e. The surface is between 1,000 and 3,000 feet above the cave which is itself be tween 2,115 and 3,4] 0 feet above sea l evel. In spite of the great cover of rock, no increase in tempera ture of the bedrock has been measured. The temperature i s between 50 and 60 C. in a ll parts of the cave. Neither could any facts be determined about the compression of the rocks by the weight of overlying material as some Austrian spe l eo logi sts assume for such depths_ Access to the Ravine Passage in the most remote part of the cave. Below men is pit 10 feet deep. THE NATIONAl. SPELEOl.OGICAL SOCIETY PAGE 7 T H E EXPLO R ATION O F H OLLOCH C AV E T h e va ri o u s p erio d s o f explorati o n of H a ll oc h Cave a r e divide d chro n o logi c all y as foll ows: 1. 1 8 7 5 -1900: A l o i s U l r i c h discove r s the cave and adva n ces with f ri ends pro b a bl y o n e mile in th e m a in p assage. 2 1 900-19 0 4 : S p e l eo logi s t s fro m Switzerland w ork in H a ll oc h Cave. Paul E g li t h e fir s t sc i entis t examines it m o r e ca r efully and survFys three miles. 3. 1904-190 6 : F a m o u s fo r e i g n s p e l eo logi s t s v is it the H a ll oc h Dr. R a hi r of B r u se ll es ex amines th e fauna in p a rti c ular. 4 190 6-19 J 5: H a ll oc h Cave i s fo rgotte n. 5. 1945: Alb-ed ''''. H Bagli examines the sur f ace syst e m a ti cally during the f o ll ow in g yea r s G. 1 9 J8: Andre H G robet starts a r e survey in H o ll oc h Cave. H e wo rk s with a g r oup of th e SSS in th e regi o n o f th e I-limm e l sgang w h e r e h e ex pl o res a p p r ox im a t e l y 4 miles (until 1956). 7. 1 94 9 : Hugo N linli s t v i s its th e H a ll oc h Cave wit! l SAC m embe rs; find s nume r o u s un kn ow n bra n c h e s and d e t ermines th a t th e map o f Dr. Egli ( 1 9 0 4) was i naccura te. 1 95 0: Prof. Bogli j o in e d thi s group as sc i e n tifi c a d v i so r and too k ove r th e sc i e ntifi c l ea d e r ship in 1 95 1 8. 1952: T h e SAC Group b e co mes th e SAC H a ll oc h R esea r c h Group (AS A C H ) and work co n tinues under Bogli and N tinli st. T h ey survey and e x p l o r e 3 1 n ew miles and r e survey j mile s prev i o u s l y ex pl o r e d T h e Hulloc h Cave i s access i b l e o nl y at ce r tain limes o f th e year. Fro m th e b eginning o f the th aw, w hi c h s t arts b e lw ee n th e mi d dl e o f Mar c h o r the middle o f April and continues until July, th e a d va n ce t o b ac k p a r t o f the cavern i s clos e d b y a sypho n a t the c a ve m outh extending 5,900 f ee t inward. Fro m A u g u s t t o Noy embe r eve r y (Tip into th e b ac k parts o f the cave i s ex tre m e l y d a n ge r o u s b eca u se o f th e ri sk of hi g h flo o d Grea t t orre nts o C thunde r s t orm runoff wate r r eac h th e front part o [ th e cave in s ix h o u rs while smalle r flood s tak e s ix tee n h ours. M a n y miles o f p assages a r e totally inunda t e d in a ve r y s h ort time B y th e middle o f D ecembe r th e h as l a r ge l y p asse d ; h oweve r in t h e middle o f D ecembe r 1 955 a wo rk group o [ th e BULLETIN NUMB E R 1 8 DECEMB E R 1 956 ASAC H was trappe d for t we l ve h ours Norma ll y v i sits t o the b ac k r eg i o n s a r e d a n ge r o u s b eca u se of w a t e r e x cept for a s h ort p e ri o d fr o m D ec e m b e r 1 5 t o 1ar c h 1. T h e warm weath e r a t the end o f D ecembe r 19 55, h oweve r brought a n e w hi g h flood and enda n ge red the winte r ex p editio n to s u c h a n extent th a t progr ess was stoppe d o n De cembe r 3 1 a ft e r wa ter h a d trappe d t h e ex pl o r ers for [ our d ays. In March and the b eginning of April condi t i o n s a r e u s u a ll y sa f e; h oweve r a s in g l e flood could bl oc k th e explo r e r s and b y tha t time the f our m onths o f hi g h Hood might h ave s t arte d The ex pl oring time, th e r e fo r e i s ve ry, s h ort and co mes a t a time w h e n m embe r s h ave t o earn th eir li ving at their j o bs. T h e ASACH h as n o sources o f fin a n c i a l h elp; thus, the m embe r s have to p ay their own way unless th e tw o leader s contribute t o th eir ex p e n ses. F o r thi s r easo n ex peditio n s of o nl y 1 0 d ays at th e utmos t ca n b e carrie d out, and o nl y after D ecembe r 26. E ac h ex p e di t i o n i s t h e r efo r e ass i g n e d a n e n ormo u s a m ount of work but ac hi eves r esults whic h mig h t b e a ccomplis h e d b y a n orma l m o r e l e i s ul e l y ex p editio n in 2 0 d ays. EQUIPi\IENT AND OPERATION OF THE E XPEDIT IONS T h e ASA C H p ossesses o nl y a s m a ll stock of equipmen t : t wo ropes, o n e rop e l adde r of 100 feet a rubbe r life r a ft a fixe d l adde r and m eas uring t a p es. Ever ything e l se i s provide d b y the m embe r s the m se l ves s u c h as t h e p e r so n a l equip m ent: l amps, s l eeping b ags rubber m attresses cooking gea r and over a lls. Sing l e individua l s have contribute d : 1 300 f ee t m o r e o f r o p e, r o p e l adde rs. f our b oa ts, altime t e rs, carbide s t ee l m easuring t a p es, thermo m e t e rs, h yg r o m e t e r s ca m e r as, flas hli g h ts, and so o n Communica ti o n with the outs id e world b y r adio i s out o f the questi o n b eca u se o f th e g reat d epth unde r th e surface ; so a r e t e l epho n es b e ca u se s i x miles o f wire w ould not o nl y b e \ e r y expe n s i ve but al so th e ins t a ll a ti o n would t a k e too muc h time. vVarnings would probably n o t reach m embe r s in time as th e r eturn trip i s ve r y tireso m e. Connecti o n with t h e outside w orld i s m aintaine d b y runne r s w h o carry wea th e r r e p orts, for ecas t s for th e n e x t few d ays, and m a il. Runne r se r v i ce b eg in s five day s a ft e r th e start o f t h e l a r ge winte r expe di t i o n. Each expeditio n r equires g r ea t pre p a r a ti o n 5 PAGE 8 since it is not eas y to co llect the equipment. First, a pre limina ry trip is made with an average of 12 men who, with boats, rope ladde rs, and ropes make th e route to Camp II traversabl e On a second trip (o n whic h 3 0 p e rsons went the last t i me) all the equipment is carried to t h e back of th e cave, including carbide, ropes, rope l ad d e rs, b oa ts, camp equipment and rati ons Since 1951 eve ry D ecembe r 26 sees t h e 12 men of t h e main expedition start with their p ersonal equipment on a seven-ho u r trip to Camp II. The r e we s l eep. The expedition does not us e tents although t h e temperature is onl y 5-60 C. and t h e humidity b e tw ee n 9 5 and 99 % The two l ea d e r s appoint four groups of three and delegate th e work to t h e a utonomous groups. Side routes are surveye d and th e lead e rs are tra ined to t a k e inventory of the geo l ogic and morphol ogic f eatures, wind direc tions and vel ocities, and to note all things of inte rest. A ll routes entered are sun' eye d immediate l y Advances w ithout surveying are unknown to the ASACH. T h is means o ccasionally up to 18 hours of strenuous work during o n e d ay. After four such days a day of rest follows and the n the combined advance starts again. This tim e the uninterrupte d ad va n ce and r eturn takes up to 4 0 hours including rest s f o r eatin g The carry ing a long of camp equipment would b e too tiring and. t a k e too muc h time. A ft e r this "forced march" people s l ee p in Camp II for as muc h as 18 hours. De p ending o n circumstances, all or part of the group then l eave s the cave or a n ew pro j ec t IS starte d. The meals a re n orma l and as appetlzlI1g as pos ible beca u se of the great fat i gue. Afte r long marc hes th e m embers still h ave to cook m e als: ail m e m bers of the expedition t a k e part in the work w ithout b e n e fit of h o u se k eeping suppo rt, such a oo k s During the m a r c hes c hoco l ate, dri ed fru it, fres h fr ui t bacon and Rye Crisp ha\'e provcd usef ul. Res Hanggi and the writer have well (ro m a mixture of honey and nuts combined wilh vitamin-choco l a t e and Rye Cri s p limes luring t h e l o n ge r advances The l ongc'>l Slay was endured b y four m e n of the ASACH, i ncludin g the writer, when they ex plored for :::':::', ] hourlj under th e surface Large ex p editions w il h 12 m n o n ce s tayed 2 1 6 h ours; twi ce 202 hours; a nd vcr y ofte n over 100 h ours. 6 Turning back fram the Pagoda Passage after a 28 hour march. P icture taken near the end o f the cave. Note use of hand held carbide Advance in the Main Pass a g e in Holloch Cave. Explor e rs carry bulgi ng knapsacks containing food and equipment for their long stay underground. THE N ATlONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY PAGE 9 RESULTS OF T H E EXPLOR ATION Holloc h Cave i s the l o n ges t integrated cave known in the world to d a t e Of the origina l leng th o nl y the fir s t 2,000 feet a r e missing be cause a t th e original e ntrance the p assage was so n ea r th e surface that the ceiling co ll apsed, c r eat ing a go r ge containing a natura l bridge. So far onl y o n e access ibl e exit i s known; no connection from a bov e has b ee n found as Holloc h Cave lies too far unde r the surface of the earth. The hori zon tal di sta n ce betw ee n the numerou s surface sinks a b ove the ca v e and t h e extremities of s ur veyed p assages i s up t o two and one-half miles and it i s the hope of the ASAC H to pus h for ward into thi s virg in area. Holloch Cave i s comprise d of both a h o rizon t a l and a v ertica l p a rt. T h e surveye d portion of the cave i s hori zo n t a l and it unde rlies a verti ca l cave, see n from the ins id e as hig h chimneys. Un fortunately, they cannot b e explored within th e present m ea n s of th e ASAC H A J 00 x 200 inc h map on a sca l e of 1: 1000 of the whol e surveye d Holl oc h Cave was pre p a r e d b y t h e write r base d o n surveys of the ASACH and th e reports o f t h e SSS (Figure 5.) These r o u tes are well studied geo m orphica lly, h ydro logi ca ll y and meterologic a lly. The biologi cal study is not so importa n t b eca u se the i ce for mation during th e g l ac i a l period a lmost de stroyed anima l life. T h e r esearc h acti vity of the SSS i s d evo t e d to pro bl e m s of physi ca l detail while the ASAC H esp ec i ally the wri ter, ex amines in d e t a il morph o l og i c and c h emica l questions. T h e passages a r e co n trolled fir st b y bedding planes and second b y j oints. The resulting cross sect i o n s have b ee n th e s ubj ect of exten s i ve study. The -uppermost passages which we could n o t r eac h must b e at l eas l 6,500 feet in altitude; the l owe t passages eXl end to 2,060 feet a b ove sea l evel. The water continues its work in lower regi o n s and t h e r e f o r e h as not h a d time to make l a r ge p assage cross-sect i o n s T h e SAC passage h as, h owever, a cross sec li o n 1 3 feet high and 3 0 f ee t wide for over h alf a mile. The passage s h apes n ea rl y a l ways appear very young and h ave the basi c form o f a n e lip se, often for l ong dista n ces BULLETIN NUMBER 18, DECEMBER 1956 The great di ffere n ces in altitude in the cave ca u ses strong air currents, appa r ently dependent o n outside t emperature. In winter, at l ow tem peratures, a stro n g wind bl ows into the m oun tain; in summe r a t high t empe r atures a n i ce co ld draft bl ows out o [ the cave. Of spec i a l in te r est is th e b e h av ior of the w a ter in summe r and winter. On three occas i o ns groups we r e closed in sometimes o nl y for a few h ours, sometimes [or severa l days during w hi c h time t.ley obs e r ved th e b e lla v ior of the high water. This kn ow l e d ge greatl y in c r ease d th e se curity o[ subsequent expeditions The d e p osits o n th e p assages of th e cave are also o [ grea t inte r est. There i s a l a rg e a m ount o f silty soi l of eve r y kind, l oose as well as solid sand and g r a \ el, and brea kdown in the cave Sta l ac tites are present in r e l a tively sma ll numbers due to t h e great depth but found in beautiful co l o rs and in n ea rl y transparent forms. There are cal cite crys tal s and o th e r spe l eo th e m s in innumer able forms. Gypsum c rystal s as l a r ge as a fis t are imbedded in the silty soil. Experiments o n the origin and [ormation of varnis h like l ayers of h ydro u s iron ox id e a r e in progre s. The Grand Pagada in the Pagada Passage. Formatians are scarce, but brilliantly colored. 7 PAGE 10 The human b e in g and hi s b ehavior in the cave is a little explore d field of research. Psychologi ca 1 b e h a vior shmNs a ll d eg rees from a normal t y p e to claustrophobia on one hand and in creased vitality on th e oth e r. From a h ea lth point of v i ew caves prove very good for v i c tims of a llergies and asthma; infections are rare and colds and simi lar sick n esses are lost surpris in g l y fast. Dripstone formation called Medusa in the Medusa Dome. Some stalactites within the cave have vivid orange and red hues, resembling carrots. OUTLOOK The l ength of unexplored passages cannot b e : est imated but i t must be many times the l ength alrea d y surveye d. For geomorphic and tecto ni c r e a so ns o n e must assume th a t th e exploration /las not yet r eac h e d the ,main r eg ion of the S il b ern sub-nappe and that the surveyed p assages approach to within onl y one mil e of this region at th e n ea r e st point. From th e central r egion wate r H ows in g reat st reams unde r th e surface towards th e kn ow n r outes. The ASACH is a b o u t t o advance h e r e on a r oute 20 feet wide and 25 [ e e t high. Altho u g h i t i s closed by severa l g iant b l ocks, water r un s b e tw ee n th e m and t h e wind 8 whist les s h arply through th e gaps. A b y -pass will b e trie d B es ides the many explore d pass ages, about 40 small side routes h ave rema in e d un explore d and will also be attacked in th e wi n ter 1 956-57. Above the Holloch Cave are situated two more thrust sheets, the Upper Silbern subn appe. T h e upper Silbern sub-nappe contains a layer of Schratten limestone 5 00 f ee t t hi c k whi c h muc h r esembles the l ayers in which th e access ibl e por tions of Holloch Cave are d eve loped. It i s con n ec t e d by numerou s chimneys with th e H6110 c h Cave a bov e it. It is very possibl e that a n etwork of passages simi lar to thos e o f Holloc h ex i sts in the uppe r r eg ion, evide nc e d by th e r etardation and retention of rain water. Two explorers safety a third on a pit traverse deep within Holloch Cave in Switzerland. Occasionally fragm e nts of sta lactit e are found in Holloc h Cave w h ose ori g in ca n o nl y b e expi PAGE 11 New Caving Equipment and Techniques By DANIEL BLOXSOM, JR. For mOl"e than a year th e C'lI'mberland Crolla has been llsing unusual boat and rope climbing techniques unique to caving and l'Iwuntaineering, Ingenuity is a requisite in the serious sjJelunker. V Vithout it, men coul d on l y stand in. awe at the bl"ink of l mjJ lumbed l Jits, 01' look longingl y at an Undel"ground riVel" sh"etching into darkness. The au.t hor includes cleal' descl"iptions of tIle l'nethods for tying jJHlsik knots and bowlines, and dis cu.sses a sys tem for ascending and descending a standing rojJe. WATER PASSAGE EQUIPMENT T h e u s u a l equipment u sed b y cav in g e nthu si asts to pass wa ter barriers is a military rubber raft, o f one or two m a n capacity, blown up b y lung powe r or a compr essed gas tank. For h eav ier duty we h ave d eve loped a rubber boat ca lled the Goofah. T h e Goofah i s n a med a fter a prehistoric boat made f rom t h e inflated skins of anima l s It was first buil t about 5000 years ago in the T igrisEuphrates ri ver vall ey. T h e co nstruction i s see n in Figure 1 T h e u ses are seen in Figure 2 This boat w ill carry four men dry and as many as can ge t around the edge, wet. T h e prime reason for the design and constructi o n of t hi s boat was to get additio n a l carryin g capacity than was afforded by the u s u a l military rubber raft. T h e r e are advantages and disadvantages as compar e d with t h e military rubber r aft. <::> ___ -==::-: FIG. 1 NEST TUBES BULLET1N NUMBER 18, DECEMBER 1956 ADVANTAGES ( I ) lower cost:$7 50 as compared w i t h $25 for the sa l vage military rubber raft. (2) h eavie r co nstructi o n (3) two separate c h ambers. (4) yo u ride above the cold wa tel' wi th 1 2 inc hes of a i r insula ti o n. (5) four man ca paci t y instead of o n e or two men. DISADVANTAGES ( I ) greater we ight -many. times that of mili tary o n e man boat. (2) greater vo lume -hard to n egotiate in narrow passages. (3) cannot b e blown up b y lung powertractor pump or a bottl e of compressed gas must b e used "=-E-lUCK HJ SHEET AN D TIE UP SMALL liES CCtllPlETE. JOE Kl:.EP TiJBES fl?OM SI-I\ fnN 6 f/RClPE SO/lONG 1-00 AUTO 0 00 TRACTOR I HNE1?T(}BE: 3 ,Q 0 WATERPROOF SllEIT 0 ,00 PADDLE.) 3.50 .$ NOTE: AUTO TUBES" finED WITH PlAN.K PlYWOOt>, MAKE fOOTRESTS. TI E ll-IEM ON WITH S!10l(T UNE. 1/.ri;K.J" USE DOllBl( (A)..JOE. PAbbLE OR Mfi.K,( YOOR OWN. g:

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Figure 2. Goofah can be paddled by two or more. Auto innertube outriggers stabilize croft. Beware when wear ing spiked boots. Use double paddles. This bo a t w as fir s t d escribe d in the September 1955 iss u e o f the Tmgl o d y te, publis h e d b y the Cumberland Grotto A d escriptio n al so appea r e d in the July 1956 NSS News. This b oa t has b ee n test e d in Shipman's C ree k C ave and in C a rroll C r ee k C ave ( Middle T e n n essee ) These tri a l s indicated tha t s h ort strong p addle s trokes a r e n ecessa r y as a l ong stroke w ould result in turning the G oo f a h a r ound. As a n example of the p ortability o f the Goo fa h it w as carrie d into the L os t Rive r R oom of the Big Roo m Cave through T ombsto n e P ass, one o f th e m os t diffi cult know n cave pass ages in Middle Tennessee T h e boat h as a l so b ee n test e d in Sn a il She ll C ave w hi c h h as a n entra n ce thro u g h 2 000 f ee t o f d eep water. T h e oute r tube was punc tu re d b y dro p p in g it onto breakdo wn d ee p w i thin the cave ; h oweve r i t s till supporte d o n e o f the p arty una id ed, o n t h e s m a ll inne r tube R O P E TECH N I Q U ES USED I N PIT EXPL O RA T ION Man y times cave ex pl o r e r s h ave t o d escend and asc end pits and s l o p es. Us uall y this i s t h e m os t diffi c ul t p art o f th e cave explo r e r 's j o b. T h e r easo n for t hi s diffi c ulty i s traced t o, (a) impro p e r t echniques, and ( b ) l ac k o f training and expe ri e n ce T h ose of u s who climb m o un t a in s know that m e n h ave th e physical ca p acity to climb ea sily m a n y th o u s a n ds of f ee t in a d ay So m e of u s h ave s e e n th e sam e m a n w h o h as col l a p se d at t h e effort require d L a climb a 2 00 foot pit, s h o uld e r t h e rope a ft e r be ing pulle d out and climb a g r ea t e r di s t a n ce up th e m ounta in in less th a n h a lf th e tim e h e r equire d to ge t out o f th e pit. 10 So m e peopl e try t o climb r o pes with their anns. Obv i o u s l y we ca n exh a ust ourse l ves quick l y b y thi s t echnique. B y u s in g the t echnique s s h o wn in the s u cceeding F i gures 3-7, so m e o f us h ave go n e as muc h as 8 00 feet without s t opping and "viLhout getting tire d. B y u sing t h ese prusik kno t s fitte d t o ourse lves individua lly, we can u s e our leg muscles f o r 8 0 % o f the work and our arm s fo r 2 0 % If o n e mus cl e ac hes with f a tigu e f r o m b e in g u se d e xclu s i ve l y t o get out o f a pit, we know our t echnique n ee d s improve m ent. Restin g i s m os t important; eve r y muscle s h ould b e r e l a x e d a n d n o muscle sh ould b e so squeeze d th a t its circ ul a ti o n i s cut off T h e r e i s th e questi o n o f fri ght t o b e co nsid e r e el. Fea r w ill c r amp a m a n 's w h o l e syst e m ; p o w e r dissipati o n o f mus cl e agains t mus cle is e n ormo u s 'I\T e h ave see n b ea d s of p e rspira ti o n brea k out o n the fa ce o f a m a n a t the t o p of a pit, co ll ec t and fa ll off in tric kles. W e h ave see n as muc h as h alf a n inc h o f m ove m ent in his quivering h ands Man canno t b e effic i ent in such a s t a teo Psych o l og i s t s h ave a technica l t erm to denote co ll a p se of a ll n orma l b e h av i our p atterns unde r e x t re m e stress. This i s ca ll e d p an ic, and i s c h ar ac t e rized b y s h oc k p e r spira ti o n and over-controlling o f muscles. P a ni c ends in coll a p se cI u e to ex h a u s ti o n T h e sympto m s a r e due t o subco n sci o u s reac ti o n s aga in st (a) f alling, (b ) d a rk. We a r e n o t a fr aid of f alling o r dar k but our subco n sc i o u s is, and l e t s u s know a b out it b y FRIENO PADTIED CHEST Lo OP WITH SHOULJ/ER STRA,PS Figure 3. Close-up view of auto safety sling showing podding for chest loop, shoulder, thigh. THE NATIONAL SPE L EOLOGICA L SOCIETY

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f1G.4 MAKIN(j PRUSSIC Kt-JOT SWJ6S USE \ .. IJ\ANIL. .... L..BS. T E S i .>l-\ Tie I.,.TO LOOPS WIT'" S QUAR Ii. ...-.,.. C ====:;,= MEA')URE ROPE.S TAILOR C\lEST K"IO" U KEllIls AND TVC'(. 5 -OR SPLI(E. T A l LOR,INC, T O FI" 't F OOl LjTO 1I"J.. ",OJ" 11".3 . WIT H OR F I GURE E.IGHT ,. AILOR FOO l LOOPS "THIS HOSE./' fOR COMFORT, PAD lOOP A N D ADD SH00Lt>ER STRA P S Mf\I:::E THE "fO UKHl A S BUT AS LOt-J6 AS *1. FOOl L..OOPS S/-lO IlLD FIT TI6I1TL\, OVER SHOES. lHE USE. OF SLt f1G 3 IS SHOWN AT RIGHT. AT A, MAN RAPPELUNG AT B I-lE OR WITHOUT SHOCK. AT \-IE STEPS \InO THE fOURTH SLIN6. AT JL STANDS UP IN Ti-ll' AT f., HE RECOVERS THE: RAPfELL AI HE HOLDS THE PPELL WHI L.E Off All WEIGHT FROM ,HE AUTO-SAfElY. BY ALL WEIGHT Ot.llHf RAPP.ll HE IS IN POSITION A FOR NORMAL DESCUn. BY ALTERlJATING MOYES UP ROPE! DON'T LET STEP B USE D 10 REST OR l()().K A ROLIN D. -You ANOHIER fOURHl AllHE ,QP OF PITCHES 10 All> CLlIV\BING PAS1 LW(JE5, FROJECT10NS, ETC. 'iy BULLE T J N NUl\[ B E R 18, DECEMRE R 1956 c. 11

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jamming t h e subco nsci o u s m o t o r circuits. The s e subconsc i o u s b e h av i our p atterns h ave b ee n c o nditio:le d in u s wh e n w e we r e young and co m e o u t o nl y in m o m ents of s u c h stress. Our purpose h e r e i s t o m a k e co nsci ous the subco n sc i ous, how eve r and b y so d o in g obtain contro l over it to a s m all ex t e nt. T h e r e a r e a t l eas t tw o w ays o f d o in g thi s : (a) the milita r y w ay condition our se lves to go thro u g h the m o ti o n s m ec h anica ll y without thinking th e n if the subco nscious p a r a lyzes u s in eithe r war or pit climbing, condi tio n e d r efle x ac ti o n will carry u s thro u g h ; ( b) famili arity with t h e w h o l e p attern -the s ubcon sc i o u s s l ow l y ge t s conditio n e d t o a ccept pit climbing as t h e n orma l s t a t e of affairs. Almos t a ll o f th e a b ove diffi culties, p sychic in n ature, ca n b e m as t e r e d with a little prac ti ce Rig a r o p e in a tree n ea r your h o u se in s u c h a w ay tha t you have 3 0 o r 4 0 f ee t o f pitch. Go u p and d o wn seve r a l tim e s e v e r y d ay for tw o m onths. The t echnique will b eco m e smooth, like t h e easy stro kes of a n expert swimme r. F ea r will disappear, s in ce you a r e conquering ignora n ce and app r e h e n s i o n R o p e climbing i s like s wimming in b e in g o n e o f the best a ll a r ound b o d y d eve l o pi n g exerc i ses. T h e best and quic kest w ay t o d escend a pit i s w ith a r appel. 'I\ fith the b o d y o r h o t sea t r app e l th e r appe ll e r i s committe d t o go t o the b ott o m of th e pit n o m atte r h o w l o n g th e r o p e is. T hi s p roves embarrass in g w h e n th e r o p e i s s h orte r tha n th e pi t D oubts of this sort l ead to f ea r and appre h e n s i o n and in so m e cases, a b a d f all. B y u s in g th e t echniques r ecommende d in t hi s a rticl e we a re n o t committe d t o go in g any farthe r in to t h e pi t t h a n we want to. A t a n y Lime we ca n s t o p l oo k a r ound, and b y putting o n o llr pru s ik foot l oo ps, co m e out o f the pit [ ro m a n y point a l o n g th e rop e T h e r o p e ca n b e a lta c h e d L o a firm support b y m ea n s o f the b ow line, as see n in Fi gure 8 "Ve d o n o t u se o r r ecommend a second r o p e saf ety a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e m a n y a d voca tes o f this m e t h o d ,Ve h ave f ound th a t the second r o p e ] 2 oft e n foul s the r appe l rope. A l t e rn a tively, th e c hest prus ik kno t prov ides a good sa f e t y H the r a p p e ll e r i s sudde nl y in ca p acita t e d the c hest sa f e t y prus ik kn o t will l oc k within a b out s ix in c hes o f fr ee f a ll ( 1 3 0 p ound r appe ll e r % -in c h m anilla o n S-in c h m a nil a), and h e m ay b e pulle d o u t b y mean s o f the m ain r o pe. The manila prusik knots should be replaced twice a year since the wear against the main rope i s heavy. Tak e car e b e f o r e you go clow n t o see th a t the rop e d oes n o t rest aga in s t s h arp l e d ges tha t might c u t. On pi t c hes ove r 5 0 f ee t yo u w ill som e times sp in To prevent this, m ove r a pi d l y up t h e rop e 2 0 o r 3 0 f eet. The eas iest way to rest i s t o sit o n o n e h ee l with the othe r t wo p r u s ik loop s l oose. S in ce so muc h d e p ends o n th e m a in rope, it s h ould b e o f eithe r S-in c h o r Y2-in c h hig h qua l ity man i la. This g i ves a sa f e t y fac t o r o f o v e r 2 0 fo r a ] 3 0 p ound m a n. In additio n t o thi s the m a in r o p e s h ould b e trea ted with care, s t o r e d in a dry place, and test e d fr equently T h e eas iest test m etho d i s t o ins p ec t it fir s t f o r o b v i o u s d e f ec ts, the n ti e it t o a tree and h ave t e n p eople pull steadi l y o n it. One last probl e m n ee d s t o b e cove r e d tha t o f r o p e fri c ti o n o n the r appelling p a d s the we i ght of the rope i s o n th e orde r o f 3 0 pounds or m o re, r appe llin g i s diffi cult due t o thi s fri c t i o n This p ermits easy r appelling f o r a maximum o f a b out 2 00 feet with S-inc h m a nil a a n d a b out 4 00 feet with Y2-in c h m a nil a. 'I\f e u se t wo ropes, o n e S-inc h 1 3 0 fee t l o n g and the o th e r V2-in c h 4 00 f ee t l o ng. S in ce the u s u a l pitc h i s around 100 fee t the S-inc h ro p e ge t s th e great e r wea r whic h it ca n t a k e For d ee per pits, the Y2in c h m a nil a i s u se d S in ce s u c h pits are unco m m o n the Y2-in c h m a nil a ge t s little use. T hi s disc ussi o n i s restri c t e d t o rop e t echniques tha t a n y cave r ca n learn. F o r s p ec i a l applica ti o n s u s in g n y lon rop e it s h ould b e p oss ibl e t o rig pitc hes m a n y tho u sands o f fee t in d epth with g reater sa f e t y tha n i s n o w availabl e with w in c hes. T H E N ATIONAL SPE L EOLOG ICAL SOCIETY

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The leather Man and His Caves By LeROY W. FOOTE For ne[I1' l y a tltiHi o f a. centmy after the C ivil f,Var, residents of Connectic u t and New YO' rk knew t h e Leather Man, an itinerant w h o made h i s home in caves. Dressed in his specia l hind of h.ome-made annor h.e tra.v e led a cil'cuit of 365 mil es in exactly 34 days. Why? Nobody knows. But in s j Jite of h is j Jecu l iari t ies h e found a j J l ace in t h e h ear t s of t h ose who fed h i1l7, immunity from a tramp law, and a /r11'ge number o f o bscure caves in New England w hich now j'eca ll o l d memories. T h e story o f the Leath e r Man in t h e Soc i ety'S rece n t publicati o n Ce lebmted Amel 'ican Caves1 t e ll s of a 365 mile c h a in of caves o n ce occ u p i e d b y this stra n ge i tine r a n t th a t e n compasses o ne h a l( o f wes t ern Connecti c u t and a portio n o f Vestc h este r County, ew York T h ey r e m ain to d ay a s il e n t r eminder of a h a rdy c h a r ac t e r w h o ca n b e called Connec ti cut's p i o n ee r cave m a n. T h e Leather Man s u p p ose dl y ca m e fro m L yo n s Fra n ce and under most unus u a l circ um s t a n ces. T h e so n of a wooel ca r ve r h e f e ll in love with t h e d a u ghter o f a l ea th e r m e r c h a nt. T h e diff e r e n ce in soc i a I l eve l precl ud e d a rna t c h un til a n agr ee m e n t w as r eac h e d w h e r e b y t h e young m a n was g iven employ m e n t in th e l ea th e r firm and promi se d partne r ship and m arriage if h e m a d e good. Failure of th e firm c h a rged t o th e inexperi e n ce d b oy, w r ec k e d hi s lif e His di sa p p ea r a n ce m a t c h e d th e subseque n t arrival o f t h e Leath e r Man in A m e ri ca and presente d a ridd l e t hat b arnes ex pl a nati o n F i rst n otice o f t h e Leath e r Ma n c ame w h e n a m a n dresse d in a patch e d leath e r s ui t app ea r e d at a f armhollse in H a r winto n Connecti c u t and indicated b y s i g n s h e wa n te d food His reappear a n ce at 34-d ay inte rval s starte d a n in vest i gatio n t h a t h as l as t e d a l mos t 1 00 yea r s Eve n t o d ay li ght i s be in g s h e d o n t h e L ea th e r Man s stm' y b y people w h o r e m e m be r e d him and b y t h e di scove r y of his a r t i facts and pi c tu res. C h a un cey H o t chkiss o f Forest v ill e co ul d n o t ove r co m e hi s c u r i os i ty a bou t t h e Lea t h e r i\tfan 's r eg ul a r reappear a n ces He d rove hi s carri age ove r m os t o f th e r o u te b y f ollow in g th e iti n e r ant, ta lk e d with peopl e in the t ow n s thro u g h 1. S i oa n c H owa r d N. a n d Mohr, C harl es E. c ds. Celebrated A II/I'rico'l/ Caves Rlltgcrs Univcrsity Prcss, i'\cw B rll n s wi c k N .J., 19f>5. B ULLETI N NUMLlE R ] 8, DECEMB E R J 95 6 w hi c h h e trave l e d a n d o n r eturning, pub li s hed th e r esult of hi s fin dings T h e L ea th e r Man had r eg ul a r stopping p l aces w h e r e h e obtaine d m ea l s a n d at ni g h t h o led up in a cave H e made his trips wi nter a n d s u m m e r r egardless of weath e r and his arriva l at a n y s p ec ifi e d pl ace va ri e d onl y a f ew minutes fro m t h a t of hi s previou s v i s i t T h e H artfo r d G lobe o n July 1 2 1 885 pub li s h ed a three -year time ta bl e of t h e Leath e r Man 's arrival a t the F orres t v ill e p os t office and s t a t e d: For t wenty-seve n yea r s past h e h as co w e a n d go n e ove r th e sam e route, v i s i ting eac h p l ace with a regul arity and prec i se ness whic h w ould lead o n e t o suppose tha t h e was travelling o n a n exact sch edule of time l aid out b y him, and fro m whic h h e must n eve r va r y Ve r y little i s know n a b o u t him. H e i s ca ll e d th e "Old L ea th e r M a n," a n a m e h e see m s t o accept as a ll t h a t i s n ecessa r y b y w hi c h to desi g nate him, and o n e evidently ve r y appropriate, b eca u se his o nl y v i s i b l e r a im ent i s o f l ea th er. T h e Old Leath e r Man h as b ee n a n o bject of curiosity as h e passed o n his r eg ul a r t ri ps at inte rval s of thirty-four days fo r t h e past twenty-seve n yea rs, a n d o nl y fragm e nts of hi s histor y h ave been written but C h auncey L. Hotchkiss of For estv ill e h as for so m e yea r s b ee n corresp onding w i t h p e r so n s abou t th e o ld m a n 's m yste ri o u s p il grimages t ill h e h as a n account of n ea rl y a ll hi s s t opping pl aces a n d m a n y in t e r est in g f ac t s co n ce rning hi s sing ul a r life and h abits. Man y atte mpts w e r e m a d e to e n gage him in co nversati o n to l earn hi s identity but Stic h efTorts 1 3

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were of no avail. For want of a better designation he was called the "Leather Man" and by others, "Old Leathery." Some thought the leather sui t h e ld the secret of his mysterious actions and he felt sensitive about the subject. Others said he clothed himself with the cause of his ruin and was serving penance for some misdeed. What ev("r the reason, the leather protected him from inclel!lent weather as well as or better than any material he could have chosen. The Lea ther Man's disposition and bearing indicate d a man of quie t nature, preferring solitude. 1 he harbored any wish to be unobtrusive the peculiar leather outfit was a poor choice for it brought him under constant scrutiny. He wore an ill-fitting coat of huge proportions, made by himseJ f of large l ea ther patches held together by wide leather thongs. It hung to his knees. Trouser s of the same material and design reached from his chest and fitted into a pair of buckskins. This footwear weighed ten pounds, had thick wooden soles that turned up at the toes. A flattopped cap of patches had a wide vizor which flapp e d loosely above shaggy brows. An immense leathe r bag carrying all his belongings swung lrom his shoulder, necessitating a stout wooden cane h e used for support. Thus arrayed he struck awe to the hearts of a ll who saw him until they learne d to accept him for what he was: a harmless itinerant. Perhaps the. most concrete evidence of the Leather Man today is the string of caves or rock shelters named for him and presumably used by him Otherwise unnoticed geological upheavals and disfigurem ents, they ring with a fascinating folklore st ill fresh in the memory of many. Hardly a town within the area cannot boast ol at l east one Leather Man cave. Woodbury, Connecticut h as several. So numerous are they in some sections one is bewildered by the pattern o[ c rossing tra ils. Some r eport the Leather ?\IIan stayed several nights in his so-called "preferred" shelters. This is contradicted by well-authenticated state m e nts that his stops were for one night only. To maintain his established rOll tine of covering the circuit in 34 days there was no alternative but to perform constant foot work. Proper se l ect i o n of a suitable cave for overnight lodging was a prereq uisite for comfort. Many [actors were in vo lved. First of all it must 14 be along his established route. It must be dry and its location must be away from habitations yet near enough for solicitation of food. Invariably it providee! an overhang of rock, faced east, south or west and was near a brook. Of necessity he must be secretive but his efforts were useless. Every cave was foune! while he inhabited it; some were disturbed ane! many a location was used as a rendezvous for mischievous boys and as a goal for hikers. The Black Rock Cave in Watertown is the most impressive and perhaps the best known of his shelters. It is located now within the borders of a state park, and has a wide entrance at the base of a cliff which rises 70 feet perpendicularly. Piles of ashes before the entrance are evidence of visitations by campers who, no doubt, recounted tales of the old Leather Man who preceded them. Encroachments of civilization and deforesta tion prompted him to desert certain shelters and to establish new ones. In South Norwalk ane! Plymouth, reservoir construction ousted him from his secluded retreats. The extension of highways in '''' estchester County forced him to vacate a cave occupied for d eca des. Tories' Den in Burlington, that gave refuge to a band of loyalists in Revolutionary days, was THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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The St. Michael's Caves, Gibraltar By T. R. SHAW There m'e two St. Michael's Caves in Gibraltar; they lie so close together as to constitute one system but there is no known connection between the two. One, now called Old St. Micha e l's Cav e has been known tor nearly two thousand yeaTS; the other was discove1'ed only in 1942 when it was broken into by militm'y tunnelling. Many of the travellers who spend a few hours in Gibraltar on their way to the east have seen the apes that roam wild on the upper parts of the Rock. They are the only monkeys to be found in Europe, and closely resemble the Bar bary Apes of North Africa. A colorful legend re lates that the apes arrived by way of a natural tunnel running underneath the Straits of Gi bral tar, and that they used to carry their dead back by the same route. The mouth of this tun nel could be seen by anyone nearly 1000 feet up the Rock, where for many years the uninviting blackness of Old St. Michael's Cave kept people in sufficient awe to prevent their disputing the story. It was popularly said that the monkeys w e re particularly nume rous just round the cave mouth, so what further proof was required? How and when this legend grew up is not known, but it is still repeated, if somewhat skep tically. To a great extent the story has been the ca use of the interest taken in the cave and the many attempts to explore it at a time when caves e lsewhere w e re either ignored or avoided; cer tainly it is responsibl e very l arge l y for some of the later tales told of it. Sir ''''alte r Scott s diary for the year 1831 re cords the tradition "that an adventurous gover nor, who puzz l e d his way to Ceuta and back again, left his go ld watch as a prize to him who had th e courage to s ee k it." Still b e li e v e d today are stori e s of previous ex plorers lost and presumed killed in the cave, but whos e bodi e s hav e nev e r b e en discovered. It is rec o rd e d .that a Colon e l Mitchell and his friend Bre tt lost th eir liv e s th e r e some tim e before 184 0 G a rri s on re c ords appear to i)rove th a t they w e r e in [a c t n e v e r s ee n again; but no bon e s have b ee n found and th e r e have b ee n no signs of re cent rock falls whi c h c o uld have buried them. 16 Perhaps the two officers wished to leave the Rock, and deliberately led people to believe that they were killed in the cave, so as to avoid pur suit. Attractive as the legends are, they must be left for the moment, and the more factual history of the cave recorded. It is often difficult to sepa rate the two, for travellers who describe the cave sometimes repeat quite fictitious tales which have been related to them. The earli est reference to the cave is given by Pomponius Mela, a geographer who, about the year 45 A.D., wrote as follows: They are called the Pillers of Hercules, and both of them (but Calpe more, and in man ner whollie) beare foreward into the Sea. The same being wonderfull hollowe on that part that is toward the Sunne setting, openeth al most his midde side, where into there shut teth a '''' ay, which is almost altogether pass ageable, as fal're as it gaeth, and beyond it is a Cave. The translation is Golding's of 1585. There are a great many descriptions 111 the travel literature of the 18th and 19th centuries, many of them very picturesque. It is worth quot ing one of these at length, as much to enjoy the sty l e of nearly two centuries ago as for any real information it gives on the cave In 1771 Lt. Col. Thomas James published his two-volume history of the Straits of Gibraltar, in which the following account occurs: ''''hen you descend the slope, the ca ve wid ens every way, and th e light of torches discov ers the mouths of several smaller ones. After you arrive at the foot of the slope, still can tin ue forward due east, by the assistance of your lights to the end of the large cave, which THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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i s t wo hund red fee t in a st r aight line fro m the entra n ce, including th e s l o p e, and the width ninety-five_ T h ere are m a n y pill a r s of t wo fee t a n d two and a h a lf in dia m ete r formed b y th e p erpe tu a l droppings of wa t e r tha t pe t r ified in fa llin g and rising. Severa l of these pill a r s a r e of thirty for ty, a n d fifty feet in h e i g ht: and o n the to p of the cave, b e t wee n th e pilla rs, a r c hes a r e f o r m e d so th a t the w h o l e resembles th e i n side of a Gothic cath ed r a l churc h: t here a r e seve r a l s m a ll nic hes o n th e s i des of th e cave, and m a n y s m a ll cove d c hapels; a nd fro m t h e ce n te r of the coves t here a r e ray s of petri fact i o n tha t s hoot so as t o co y e r t h e t o p of th e above c h a p e ls, a ll of p e t r i fie d wa ter: a n d b y the assi sta n ce of man y lig hts, t h e s p ec tator s a r e ve r y agr eea bl y surprised w i t h the n atura l beau ties of the g l oo m y cavern. In m ost of t h e ce lls, the wa ter (whi c h i s copio u s l y impregn a t e d with a s parry matter) p erpetua ll y drips from the irreg ul a r promine n ces o f the r oof, and forms a n infinite multitude o f sta lacti tae o r s t o n ey i c i cles of vari o u s co l ours, some white, so m e g rey, and so m e b row n like s u g a r-candy, and o f a vas t vari e t y of figures. T h ese sta l actitae, sto n ey i c icles, o r drop-st o nes, a r e a ll compose d o f dive r s coa t s of crusts, of ve r y little lus t re or tra n spa r e ncy; and as so m e of t h e m a r e n o big g e r th a n a goose's quill, othe r s a r e imme nsel y l arge, and combining t ogethe r form those l a r ge columns alrea d y m entione d of the Gothi c kin d, t hat see m a t p resent to suppo r t t h e roof of t hi s l arge cave, as they w ill in all lik e lihood fill up its w h o l e s p ace in a t erm of yea r s T h e severa l g r aduati o n s in the progr ess of th ese p e trificati o ns, m ay b e eas il y d i scov erecl. In some p l aces yo u see s m a ll capita l s de scending from t h e roof, m aking the i r way dow n wa r ds, whil e pi: o p o l : tio n a bl e b ases are rising underneath, as t h e s p a r co n c r e tes tha t distil s th ro u g h the r oc k and drop s fro m a b ove. Towar ds t h e so u t h e n d of t hi s cave, t h e r e are p assages b e t wee n th e pilla rs, th a t lead into other a p a rtme nts; a ll a r e s upported b y p ill ars, som e stan ding si n g le, o th e r s thre e or fou r in a cl u s t e r ; a n d the r oofs of these a partme nts h ave t h e a b ov e p e trifi ed rays, whic h r esemble the g l o ri e s of some R o m a n Cath o li c altar. .. I n t h e center of o n e o f th ese c h a p e l s i s a BULLETI N NUMBER 1 8 DECEMBER 1 956 l a r g e d ee p pi t d ow n w hi c h so m e E n g l is h me n h aving l ost th eir way and s li pt, were, b y t h e ass i sta n ce of ropes a n d men ( let dow n ) h ap pil y save d tho u g h muc h b r ui se d D ow n t hi s a byss I d esce nded w i t h till a t l e ngth I arri ved a t a sma ll h o l e of e i g h tee n inche s d i a m eter, w h e n fin ding the a i r too g r oss we t h o u g h it m o r e advi sa bl e n o t to d escend a n y f urth er, h aving suffic i ently sati sfied o u r cu ri osi ty: h oweve r b efore we r eturned ( notwith s t a n ding o u r to r c hes burne d dim, a n d we fetc h e d our b reath muc h s horter tha n i n the o p e n air) we l e t d ow n a rope with a we i ght at t h e end, thro u g h t h e a b ove h o le, fifty fee t b efore it l odged; and w h e ther t h a t was the botto m of the pit, I cannot pre t end to say. Our desce n t to t hi s s m a ll h o l e was four hundred and e i g h ty fee t: as we l e t ourselves d ow n we found little a partme nts o n either side to rest oursel ves; lik ew ise j ettees, o n whic h those t h a t fell we r e s t o p t f r o m falling lower; this l o n g ga ll ery, ( i f I m ay so ca ll it) s l o pes in so m e places, o n w hi c h yo u p u t your feet w h e n yo u lower yourself b y the rope, a n d the n yo u h ang (OLD) SAINT MICHAEL' S CAVE. GIBRALTAR ._ SURV E Y E D BY SW H O RTON ". Figure 1. Plan map of Old St. Michael's Cave. 1 7

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perpendicular for a hundred feet before you can touch the rocks, which are nothing but petrified water, as is likewise the bottom w here we stood, which once was open, and, in time, the hole of e ighteen inches wi ll be en tire l y closed. This is a dome, and on the outside we stood. I was very much s urprised, as was everyone at the entrance of the abyss, occas ioned by the man who went first down, striking his heels against a sheet of petrified water, which hung hollow from the rock; the soune! was like a deep-toned bell, but to those above, it was so confused that they knew not we ll what to make of it. I must observe, that on every jet tee, likew i se in every apartment or resting place, a man was placed with a torch; which being in a straight line with the en trance of the pit, formed a romantic and horrible scene. Man y other descriptions were published, such as Bigelow's of 1831: These spacious caverns are embellished with a profusion of ornaments, which nature, in one of her sportful mooels, has most tastefully supplied .. .. There is not space to quote from many more of these co lorful accounts, but the following extract from Bartlett shows just how wild are t h e exaggera tions repeated by the more credulous writers: It i s the pathway, half beautiful, half hor rible, into unfathomable depths below. . Thi s chasm bears, moreover, somewhat of a sinister character, and it has been supposed that more than one unfortunate has met with foul play, being enticed within the cave by some assassin and after being plundered, pushed into this horrible gulf, as a place that wou l d tell no tales, Shortl y before our visit a gentleman who was desirous of exploring the place, ca u s e d himself to be lowered with ropes, bearing a light in his hand; but what was his horror, so soo n as his foot came into contact with resistance, to find tllat he was treading upon some substance that y i elded to the pressure, while at the same time the pal e g leam of his torch fell upon the ghastly features of a murdered man! To return from fable to fact: it i s known that a ce ntury ago t h e more access ibl e chambers of 18 the cave u sed to be illuminated on spec i a l occa sions for the entertainment of members of the garrison and their fam ilies, Figure 2 is reproduced from a print published about 1846, and the artist's notes describe the ceremony thus: At the time appointed, generall y about two or three o'clock in the day, the party assembles on the terrace at the mou th of the Cave; and when the ladies present have attired s e lves in their shawls and cloaks and every apprehension of damp and fear of danger has been a llayed by their gallant partners (notice having b een given that a ll the preparations in the interior are compl eted), they move s l ow l y (Reproduced by the courtesy of the British Museum) Figure 2. Old St. Michael s Cave; 19th Century illuminations in the Main Chamber. down the tortuous path through the first Cave. ''''hile they are descending, a military band of music, station ed in the inner Cave, plays; its sweet tones rendered doubly impressive by its THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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invisibl e p ositio n r ever b e r a tes through the v aulte d cavern, and salutes the ear o f the v i s itors a s eac h ente rs_ As they procee d the C ave g e t s d arker and d a rk e r o nl y a suffic i ent num b e r o f candles b e in g place d in the way jus t to indica t e the r oad_ T h e p arty h av in g g r o p e d their way throu g h the fir s t Cave, arrive a t th e inne r ; a n d w h e n a ll a r e fairl y se ttled in their resp ec tive pl aces, a s i g n a l i s g i ve n t o the Artil l e r y m e n w h e n lo! as i f b y t h e wave o f a ma gic i a n 's h and, fr o m almost t o t a l d arkness the Cave i s insta n t l y and brilli antly illumina t e d by co l oure d li ghts, alterna t e l y va ri e d T h e imagin a ti o n in its most v i vid and fan ciful dreams, could sca r ce p ortray a m o r e appropri a t e t emple fo r th e e n c h antress_ \ IVha t m ay be calle d the fir s t r ea l s p e l eo logi ca l expl o r a ti o n t oo k pl ace in 1 840, w h e n Capt ain W ebbe r-Smit h m a d e a s k e t c h p l a n and a factua l r e p ort o n all the p assages h e v i site d. N o t l o n g a ft e r t his, b e tw ee n the yea r s 1857 and 1 865, furthe r d e t aile d explo r a ti o n s we r e ca r rie d o u t. S u rveys w e r e m a d e wi th co n s id e r a bl e accuracy, and m a n y h ours o f p ains t a kin g work with h amme r and c hi se l resulte d in so m e s m a ll ext e n s i o n s b e in g e n tere d Lieute n ant A B. Bro wn in 1 865 r eac h e d w h a t i s s till the furthest p oint in t h e cave, so m e 1 700 fee t fr o m th e e n tra n ce For t h e fir s t time it was est a bli s h e d tha t the true d epth f r o m t h e entran ce to the b otto m of the cave was only a b out 265 f eet. Despite the d e finit e figure g iven b y thi s s ur vey, th e d e p t h b ega n t o 'g ro w' aga in in pub li s h e d accounts, and i t i s quo t e d as 62 0 fee t in publica ti o n s o f 1 879 and 1 9 1 5 B e t wee n 1 936 and 1 938, S W H orth s p e n t muc h tim e in th e cave, survey in g it and a t tempt ing to r eco n cile the accounts of p r ev i o u s ex pl ore rs_ His figure o f 253 feet f o r the extre m e d epth agrees quite close l y with Brow n 's result of 7 0 y ears b e f o re. It i s H orto n 's pl a n w hi c h i s r epro duced h e r e f r o m a co p y in th e Gibralta r Mu seum, and it i s almos t identica l with a m o r e de t aile d survey o f the l owe r p art of th e cave m a d e b y the autho r in 1 953. H orto n 's report was not publis h e d a t the time, but i t h as s in ce appea r e d in Cave Sci e n ce ( 1955). Only the brie fest d escriptio n o f t h e cave itse lf will b e g i ve n h e re. The survey conta in s m os t of th e r e l evant informa ti o n and r e f e r e n ce t o more d e t aile d sources i s g iven in the bibliogr aphy. BULLETIN NUMB E R 1 8, D E CEMB E R 1956 First, h oweve r t h e position of the cave mus t b e m e n ti o n e d. T h e main m ass o f th e R oc k o f Gibralta r con s i s t s of a cavebearin g Jurass i c limest o ne. T h e entra n ce t o Old St. M i c hael 's Cave lies o n t h e wes t ern s id e a t 9 3 7 feet, o r a b out t wo-thirds of the way up the R oc k It i s cl ose t o S t M i c h ae l' s Hut, and ca n b e r eac h e d v i a eithe r o f the ga tes l eading t o t h e milita r y a rea of the Uppe r R oc k. T h e \\ho l e syst e m of Old and New St. c hael' s Caves, i s forme d within a n arrow b and parall e l t o the b edding, dipping wes t b e t wee n 5 0 and 7 0 Gen e r a lly, the r e f o re, the p assages a r e hig h e r tha n they a r e broad and th e r e a r e seve r a l n a r row rifts. T h e influ e nce of the in cline d b edding i s o b v i o u s in m a n y o f the passage sec ti o n s (see F i gure 4) Imme di a t e l y ins id e the entra n ce th e cave o p e n s o u t into a vas t c h ambe r so m e 8 0 feet w id e and 4 0 o r 5 0 f ee t hi g h. The Roor s l o pes a wa y gradua ll y and a t eithe r s id e a r e m ass ive columns o f t errace d s t a lagmite, a ll of the m black e ned b y the soo t fr o m the ea rl y 'illumina ti o n s'. A ft e r 1 6 0 feet t h e cave n arrows, and b e t wee n the for m a ti o ns ca n b e see n a s t ee p d escent -the 'prec i pice' o f the ea rl y trave ll e r s On the r i ght thi s ca n b e d escende d eas il y with a h andline, or eve n without, and l ea d s t o the Roor o f the second l a r ge c h ambe r. T h e roof h e i ght i s of the orde r o f 70 fee t and, i f the uppe r cave i s li ghte d th e f orma ti o n s the r e ca n b e see n hig h up in o n e wa ll. Pho t o c o p yrighted b y T. R Shaw Figure 3. Old St. Michael's Cave: Brown's Bath. 19

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Below the second chamber the character of the cave c h anges a ltog e ther. It becomes very constricted and the way down to the lower sections l ies through a boulder ruckl e -the Corkscrew of Horton's p l an. Nowhere is t hi s very tight, but i t lives up to its name, descending in twists and turns l edges and slopes, for a depth of 66 feet. At t h e bottom of it is the Grotto, where many ea rl y ex p lorations stopped. The way on lies a littl e above floor lev e l and directl y opposite the entrance to the Grotto, through a series of three sq ueezes. T h e first is not tight, though a shallow channel in the floor contains enough water to b e uncomforta b le, but the second squeeze, Smith's Hole, i s sti ll troubl esome for a ll but sma ll people. The third is easiel : again and l eads by a descending passage to Brown's Bath (see Figure 3). This is a shallow pool covering the en tire floor of a small chamber, bu t there is fortunatel y a calcite ledge on the wa ll s at water l eve l w h ich makes a dry possib l e. On t h e plan the pass ages .are shown dotted from here on, for they lie vel : tica ll y beneath part of the upper cave. The Prison is a round chamber whose entrance i s almost entirel y barred by a grill e of short NEW ST. MICHAELS CAVE GIBRALTAR ... cc SECT IONS {) /;:::)0 ..
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stout stalagmite columns. The w ay on lies through a n inconspicuous slot on the left hand side and down a slope into H a nson 's Passage and Hanso n 's Grove The final chamber is roughly rectangular with a single l a rg e boulder occupying much of the floor. A slender stalag mite column some 10 feet high joins this boulder to the roof, and the end of the cave is sealed by an irregula r calcite flow. Early in the l as t war it was de cided to utilize the second large c h ambe r 126 feet belo'w the entrance, for storage purposes. To provide easy access and give a fr ee path for n atura l air c ircu lation, an adit was driven inwa rds from th e s ur f ace of the Rock. On July 17th, this tunnel bro ke through into the roof of an unknow n cavi ty, which was ex plore d and found to b e part of a n ew system n ow called New St. Michae l's Cave. This point of penetra tion i s not more than 3 0 feet from the old cave, and in one place their chambers a re proba bly eve n clos e r though the connection has not b ee n surveyed. T h e tunnel i s now the mos t co n venient en trance to the lower series of p assages in the old cave. The present Roor i s of concrete l aid ove r loads of rubble, and a structure of wooden beams and corrugated iron has b ee n e r ec t e d in the centre to protec t the s t ores against rocks and stones falling from the o rigin a l entrance c h a m b e r above. A slot in the southwes t corner of the floor h as b ee n prese rv e d as the way down to the Corkscre w and the lovver passages. The opening in the co n c r ete Roor i s secure, but the support ing rubble is h e ld ba c k o nly by h eavy timbers. After thirtee n years in th e d amp atmosphe r e of the cave, th ese timbers are rapidly b ecoming rot ten and if th ey are not soon r e n ewe d the lower p assages will b eco m e bloc k e d possibl y injuring or trapping m e n b e low The discovery of New St. M i c ha e l 's Cave on July 17th 1942, has b ee n d escribe d in a previous paragr aph. It was k ept a milita r y sec r e t for n ea rl y a year, and th e fir s t publishe d r e ference appea r e d in the Times of London dated March 23, 1943. A m onth la te r illustra tion s w e r e pub lish e d and in Maya photograph o f the Lake appeared as the 'picture o f the m onth' in Life. A preliminary survey was made b y the author in a se ries o f hurrie d visits to the cave in the spring of 1948. In J anuary 1953 h e carrie d out BULLETIN NUMBER 18, DECEMB E R 1956 a m ore d e t ai l ed study with a group of Roy al Air Force office rs, and made the survey reproduced h e r e The cave was lo c k e d up soo n after discove ry t o prevent vandalism, and conducted v i sits to the more access ibl e parts ca n b e arranged with tb e milita r y authorities. Electric cables h av e been rigged for lighting, and h and lines are pro vided in the s t ee per places, so that v i sitors may be t a k e n as far as tb e Lake. The electric syst e m is in b a d r epair, and in some p arts of the cave tbe lights h ave b ee n fused for m a n y years. The artifi cia l tunnel e n tra nce that leads to New St. Michael's Cave i s almos t imme di a tel y b e l ow St. Michael's Hut ami the entra n ce to the old cave, b e in g a little less tha n 900 f ee t a bo ve sea leveL The ( Fi gure 4) shows the deta il s o f the syst e m, 'so "a brief d escriptio n mus t suffice. The pl a n i s somewhat complicated b y the fact that the p assages a t a ll le ve l s are containe d w ith in a narrow band of s t ee pl y dipping stra t a. Some of the l owe r sec ti ons the r e for e li e vertically be n ea t h the upper ones. T h e l owe r p assages are s h ow n dotted in th ei r true po sition o n the main pla n and a r e a l so draw n out in detail close b y th e two being joined b y a double-ended a rrow. The point where th e entrance tunne l bre aks into th e natura l cave i s marked as 'entra nc e' on the plan, a b out tw o hundre d feet from the northern end of th e cave. A Right of wooden ste p s l ea d s d own fr o m the tra p-d oo r into the fir s t chambe r where there a r e se Y e ral s t alagmite col umns up to 4 feet i n di a m eter. Many of these s h ow faulting due t o earth movem ent, and some thi c k broken fragm ents h ave f alle n to the R oo r w h e r e they a r e n ow firml y cemented b y R ow s tone_ ,-\ s m a ll pa ss:lge in th e southwes t cor n e r l ea d s d ow n a s l o p e and thro u gh anothe r squeeze to the Grea t Rift Chamber, o n e of the few places i : 1 th e cave where b a r e r oc k i s v i s ible. Directly b e n ea th th e point of entry to this c h a m ber lie s th e way o n ; a s h ort c rawl o p e ns i n t o the Antec h ambe r and from th e r e i s entered th e first of the great Sta lagmi te Halls. All t h ese H alls a r e thickl y e n crus t e d with ora:1g e drips t o ne. and in the Third H a ll im m e nse fluted columns an d pillars ri se som e 3 0 o r 4 0 f e e t t o th e r oo f (see Figure 5 ) In tl: e Lake C!1 a m be r (F i gure G) th e r e i s h a rdl y a squa;e foot of ba r e limeston e t o b e see n and the forma-21

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Ph o t o copyrighted by T R. Shaw Figure 5. New St. Michael's Cave; Third Stalagmite Hall. ti o n s continue eve n b e l ow th e present wate r s ur f ace w hi c h mus t th e r e fo r e b e fa irl y r ece nt. On th e walls a t water l eve l a r e narrow l edges of s t alagmite lik e i ce frin g in g a pond; they va r y [rom I to 6 in c h es in width and m a k e it p oss ibl e t o pass th e Lake without swimming. On t h e far s id e, th e Southern H all (Figure 7) ex t e nds 170 feet I'arth e r in th e sam e direc tion. It i s p oss ibl e to c lim b u p th e rift a t th e f a r end for 40 f ee t o r so, but a n ex t ens i o n at hi g h l eve l closes a fter a f ew f eel. The B otto mless Pi t was so d escribe d to t h e a u t h o r in b y th e Arm y guide. In [a c t it i s just 54 f'cet d ee p and t h e bottom ca n b e r eac h e d b y a roundabout r oute w i t hout tack l e T h e a ir in th e lower part o[ Prest o n 's Rift i s t h o u g !lt t o conta in an unus u a ll y hi g h proportion o f carbon di ox ide. No m easure m ents w e r e ta k e n but th e surveyo r s ex p e r i e n ce d symptoms of s l eepiness, swea tin g and s h ortness of brea th. The main l e \ e l of pas s a ges continues o n t h e oth e r s id e o f t h e entra n ce c h ambe r as t h e r a th e r dull i'\onh ern Se ries. Not far a l o n g thi s a s lot on the l e ft h and side continues downwards for 53 [eet to some attrac ti ve li ttl e c h ambe r s w h e r e a f orme r pool h as l e ft a numbe r of typica l un d e rw a t el" d e p os i ts. T h e r e are in the cave fou r example s of th e pal ette f ormati o n s d escribe d b y Kundert in N.S.S Bull etin 1 4. Three of th ese a r e simple s hi elds w i th small ribs ami curtains h a n ging b e n ea th. T h e fourth i s s hown in F i gure 7 hi g h in th e roof of th e So u t h ern Hall, w h e r e i t forms th e top of a stout sta lagmite pillar. It lies in th e p l a n e of t h e b edding attach e d to the roof at o n e corne r o nly, and must b e ea rli e r t h a n the im m e n se column w hi c h h as f orme d b e neath it. T h e oth e r specime n s a r c n o t p a r alle l to t h e bedding o r th e j oint pl a n es, a s r equir ecl b y Kundert's theo r y In 195 1 a bro k e n s t a lacti t e in th e e n t r a n ce c hamber was see n t o b e b l ow in g bubbl es As a d ro p o f water was collectin g on th e fra cture d Ph o t o copyrighted by T. R. Shaw Figure 6. New St. Michael's Cave; The Lake. THE N A T IONAL S PELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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surface, a gas bu bble emerged from the central channel and inflated the drop. Eventually the bubble burst when the drop beneath it became too h ea vy, and the wh o l e cycle was repeated over and ove r again, within a p eriod of about a min ute T h e phenome n o n is interesting as a possibl e exampl e of carbon dioxide, dissolved in the wa ter uncl e r pressure in the fissures com in g out of solutio n Alternative l y the r e may be some Ven turi or capillary effect drawing air into the ste m of th e sta l act i te higher up. T h e w h o l e o f New St. Micha e l' s Cave i s n ota ble f o r t h e mag nifi ce n ce of its formations, and the r e are f ew pl aces whe r e t h e b a re limeston e i s yisib l e It is a compl e t e sea lin g of the fissure s b y calcite w hi c h supports t h e water of th e L a k e so far abO\ e t h e water table, although th e r e are dry passa ges actually running a f e w fee t beneath its b e d Thi s sa m e d eposition, h owever, has sea l e d off w h a t eve r openin gs m ay forme rl y h ave l e d to extension s o f th e cave. It i s never safe to pre dic t t ha t further discO\'eries will not b e made, but in thi s case it ca n a t l eas t be said that t h ey a r e unlike l y without tunnelling such as first re y ea lee! th e c a ve Gibra l t a r contains m a n y oth e r caves A ll thos e known at prese n t are smalle r th a n St. TvI i c h ael's, but m a n y h a y e containe d va luable archaeo logical r emains It is p l anne d to d escribe t h ese oth e r caves in a later Bulle tin. SELEC TED BIlILlOG R APHY: (Note: Fll ll bibliographies a r e g iv e n in refe r e n ces (5) and ( 6 ) below. ) I [Banlelt, W. H ] ( 1851): G l e anillgs Pic torial and An tillqllarirl1l on til e Overlalld Route; 8 vo. L ondon. 2 B i ge low, A. ( 1 83 1): Travels in Malta. alld S i cily with S k e t ciles o f GiIJ1'l1ltm' ill MDCCCXXVll; 8vo, Boston. 3Carle r .J. M (c.1846): S e l ec t Views o f til e Roc h and F o rt r es s of Gibral tar ; fol. Londoll. 4James, T. ( 1771): The Histo r y of the H e rculean St rait s '1I0W w il ed. til e S t rai t s of Gibml!.m; 2 vo l s., 4 t o Londo n 5Shaw, T. R. ( 1 9 53) : New Saint Michael's Cave, G ibral lar: Calle Sc i ellce, 111, 22, pp. 249-266. 6 S h aw T. R. ( 1955): Old. Saint M i c ha e l 's Cav e, Gibral Ia.r: Call e Sc i ellce Ill, 23, pp. 29 8-3 1 8 and Ill, 24, pp. 352364 7Sh aw T. R.: N at. S1)e l Soc. News, Fill, 6, 19 5 0 p 5; IX, 5, 1951 p. 4; X l 3, 1 953 p 5; Xl, 6 1 953, p. 7. BULLETIN NU1 'vIBER 18, DECEMBE R 1956 C o p y righted b y T R Show Figure 7 New St. M ichael's Cave; The Southern Hall. Note the polette at the top of the large column on the left. 23

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Blind Fishes Found in Cave Pools and Streams* By LOREN P. WOODS Curator of Fishes, Chicago Natural History Museum Speleologists visiting Midwestern caves find small blindfish swimming in scattered wate? bodies something of a myste?),. ReTe is a cleaT desC1"iption of the types of fishes encounteTed, a glimpse into theiT habits, and obseTvations on thei ? dist1ibution The authoT poses a numbe1' of questions faT fUTtheT investigation; What is the exact nattl1"e of theiT b?'eeding habits? Row can they sUTVive appaTently without food faT as long as nine months? And is cave integration mOTe widespTead than pTeviously thought? The white blind fishes living in the streams in caves and in other subterranean waters, such as springs and wells, have been the subject of in terest and investig ation since they first received public attention and description in the early 1840's. 'What were fishes doing in rivers deep in the earth far from any surface connection? How did they sustain lif e so far removed from the n ecessa ry source of all life, the sun? Why had th e ir eyes degen e r ated? How did they find their way about from cave to cave and how did they l ocate food? Some of th ese questions were read il y a nswer ed by simple observation. The answers to others are still l a rgel y incomplete, chiefly be ca use no sustain e d inv est igation has been m ade of th e habits and habitat of blind fishes. Seventeen kinds of completely blind, exclusive l y subterranean fishes have been discovered in the unde rgr ound freshwa ters of the world. They b e l o ng to eight differ ent families largel y composed of normaleyed fishes with one or two species of eac h family living in total darkness and without eyes. Most blind fis hes are restricted to a fairly sma ll area or to a particular limeston e formation o r cave system. I n North America two kinds of blind catfishes come [rom the artesian we ll s in Texas. Two kinds of blind brotulas are known from the sub t erranean [reshwalers of Cuba and o ne from Yucatan. These are especia ll y inte r esting b ecause all o lh e r m e mbers o[ the brotula family live in th e ocea n .. -\nother kind w ellkn ow n to aquarists R c p rinlc d h y p crmiss i oll [rolll C hi cago Natllra l H istory !\!lISCIlIl1 Bull c till. :\01'., Ike. 1!"J!i4. 24 is the cave tetra from San Luis Potosi, Mexico. This species r evea l s a four-step gradation i n the degeneration of the eyes from perfectly eyed, normally pigmen ted, surface-dwelling indiv idu a l s to tota ll y blind ones with the eye socket co\" ered with tissue and n o ev id e n t eye structure. Three kinds of white eyeless fishes, the northern cave fish, Ozark catfish, and the southern cave fish, live in the underground waters of the Mississippi Valley, particularly in the unglaciated parts of Indiana, K entucky, Tennessee, Missouri, northern Arkansas, and northern Alabama. These fishes are all fairly closely related, b e longing to one ve r y distinct fami ly, the Amblyop sidae. The northern cave fish lives only in the rvfammoth Cave area and in south-central Indiana. The Ozark cave fish, its n ea rest relative, lives in southwestern Missouri and northwestern Arkansas. The sou them cave fish, widely distributed in Kentucky, Tennessee, A labama, and south-central Missouri, superficially resembles the other two blind fishes but actually i s more close l y r elated to the onl y eyed members of the cave -fish fami l y the slightly pigmented spring fish (which lives in caves, wells mouths of springs, or even in surface streams under ro c ks) and the ricefish (which lives in blackw a t e r swamps and in th e shady s luggish parts of streams of the coasta l p l ains from Virginia to so u th-c e n tral Georgia) Superficially all three of these species of blincl fish have the same appearance. '''' hen ali\'e the fishes are trans lucent white, with a flush of pink around the gills. "\The n dead or presen'e d, they are pure opaqu e white. The h ea d is flattened on THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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top, snout broadly rounded, and body heavy near the head, tapering to quite thin near the tail. All the fins are broad and rounded (two of the three kinds do not have a set of paired ventral fins) The vent is not in its normal position but has migrated as far forward as it can to a position under the gill openings. Blind fishes are not the sole habitants of the Mississippi Valley caves. They live in company with several kinds of eyeless invertebrates cray fish, aquatic sow bugs, scuds, worms, flatworms, and mites. All of these are sources of food for the fishes. These invertebrates with their scavenger habits feed on vegetable debris and organic ma terials in mud and water when such substances washed into the underground waters from the surface. Some feed on bat guano. Occasion ally surface-dwelling fishes such as sculpins, min nows, catfish, and even sunfish, are found living in underground streams, but they are normally colored and possess eyes comparable to those of their species living in surface waters. Although sometimes found in considerable numbers in underground waters, these surface species of fishes are probably only temporary residents and wry likely leave the underground habitat to spawn or feed EVIDENTL Y FEEL THEIR WAY Undisturbed blind fishes observed in caves are generally seen just above the bottom of the stream or lake moving about by means of slow oar-like strokes of the pectoral fins. One lazy stroke is followed by a long glide until the momentum is dissipated, and then another stroke follows. They usually come to rest in contact with the stream-bottom or a boulder. ''''hen they Amblyopsis speleus from Spring Mill State Park, Indiana, site of early studies of cave fish. BULLETIN NUMBER 18, DECEMBER 1956 collide with a boulder or other object it is usu ally without much force. If a strong flashlight beam is held on the fishes they slowly move away, but they do not pay attention to a weaker diffuse light. Sometimes they are alarmed and retreat to a hiding place if someone wades in the water near them. They Chologaster agassizi from Union County, Illinois. are also greatly disturbed by the slow approach of a dipnet and, if closely approached or touched they use their tail fins to dart wildly away. toward the surface or under a rock. Occasionall y they escape by hiding in a cloud of muddy wa ter. Although they frequently collide with rocks or gravel shoals they seem to know their neighborhood and the collisions may be deliberateperhaps they ascertain their location by thus "feeling" their way. They do not move inces santly, as does the Mexican blind tetra, but usually remain quietly resting with their tails drooping in order to maintain contact with the bottom. This more or less continuous contact with the solid parts of their home-range must be necessary to prevent their being carried away and "lost". During our cave collecting, if we missed capturing a fish we had only to return to the same locality later sometimes several days later -and there would be our fish resting against the same rock as when we first ob served it. It has been demonstrated that the skin of blind fishes is sensitive to light and small temperature differences. Head, body, and even the tail fin have many short rows of very sensitive dermal papillae each with a nerve fiber exposed at its tip. The eyed species of this family also are well equipped with these organs and probably rely more on them than on their eyes for information about their surroundings. 25

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Fis hes of th e e t erna l dark a r e blind, but they certa inl y a r e n o t obliv i o u s t o their surroundings n o r d o they fumbling l y grope their w a y a b out as d o blinde d surface anima ls. Their se n se s o f t o u c h t as t e, and s m e ll tho u g h p erha p s limite d t o their immedia t e surroundings, a r e so highly devel o ped tha t these fis h es d o n o t appea r t o n ee d s i ght, the se n se o n whic h the Prima t es a r e so dep endent and [ o r whic h a n additio n a l e l e m ent, li ght, i s n ee d e d INSENSITIVE TO SOUl D Blind fis h es d o not appea r t o b e se n sitive to sound, h owever. We could cl atte r our equipm ent o r t alk in l oud vo i ces without disturbing the m. So m e o f t h ese fis hes t h a t we kept in a n aquarium would s t art v i o l ently i f w e suddenly rapp e d hard o n t h e t able o n whic h the aquarium rest e d. This reacti o n t o stro n g low-freque ncy vibrati o n s pro b a bl y was se n se d as muc h b y t o u c h as b y sound.Th e audito r y appa r atus i s n orma ll y d eve l o p e d in t h ese fis h es, a n d t h ey pro b a bl y ca n h ea r as we ll as m os t oth e r fis hes but are jus t indiffer ent t o sound. Vhile so m e c a ves a r e a b so lute l y quie t othe r s a r e ve r y n o isy fr o m water dripping o r s m a ll springs p ouring fro m wa ll o r rooL This n o i se i s amplified b y b eing ec hoed and re-ec hoed Lhro u g h the c a ve, and so metimes it was n ecessa r y f o r u s t o s h out in orde r to carryon co n ve r sa ti o n a bove the n o i se tha t to u s sounded lik e seve r a l people t alking at o n ce jusL a r ound t h e corne r. S u c h n o ise l oses littl e in te n s i ty o n t ra n sm issi o n t hrou g h water or fr o m a i r L O wa ter. Cave fis h es are not g r ega ri o u s but more or l ess so li tary, a n d Lhey pay littl e attentio n t o oLhe r fis hes as th ey mo\ e about. \I\! h e n seve r a l were see n f a irl y close togeLher, presumabl y in a good 1 0caliLY for f eeding, t h e i r p os i L i o n and Lheir m ove m ents we r e independ e nt, never g r o u pe d T h e one excepLio n was i n a l a k e w h e r e we saw a n u n u s u ally large fis h [ ollowe d by a close sc hool o f L we l ve Lo fifteen t in y fish presumabl y iLs young, T h e mosL f a vor a ble condi L i o n s [or ca ve fis hes appear to be reaches a l o n g t h e SLream co mpar abl e L O long, deep, quiet pools o f surface str eams. T h ey we r e most o f l e n f ound w h e r e t h e wa L e r was f a i r l y d e e p (2 feet or m o r e) and w h e r e t h e 2() b otto m was thic kl y cove t:d with a l aye r of fine s il t. T h ey see m e d t o co n g r ega t e around roc k s tha t c ropp e d out thro u g h the s ilt. In a f ew caves solita r y individua l s wer e living in s h a ll o w strea m s with a roc k y o r g ravel b otto m and a f air current. In s u c h p l aces the fis h took a d vantage of ever y s h eltering eddy b ehind rock s and b a r s and eve n m ove d into wa t e r a n inc h o r so in d epth a t the edge of the stream t o avoid the curre n t. T h e m os t favor able t y p e of h abita t judging from the hundreds o f blind fis hes see n in it, was a n unde r g r ound l a k e, 25 to 7 5 (eet broad with wat e r 3 t o 4 fee t d ee p and a b otto m o f soft silt 1 t o 2 f ee t in thickness. A str e t c h 4 00 yards l o n g of this l a k e was examine d b y f our s lowl y s t a lking m e n and m o r e tha n a tho u sand fis h we r e see n scatte r e d ove r the b otto m A l so in this p lace the l arges t individua l s o f the southern cave fis h wer e o b se r ve d t o b e almos t equa l in s ize t o ave r age indiv i d u a l s of the n orthern cave fis h SEEM TO BE HARDY A ll cave fis hes we h ave co ll ec t e d were f a t and appeared t o b e in excell ent conditio n 1 h ey stor e f a t b e tw ee n the l e ngth w i se mus cl e l aye r s a l o n g t h e midline of t h e b ac k a l o n g the midline of t h e sides, and a l so in t h e tissu es surrounding the v isce r a. Ver y like l y they n orma ll y s u rv i ve fa irl y l o n g p e riods of star va ti o n a n d r e m ain in good condit i o n ,Ve have kept the m f o r three m onths in a n aquarium w h e r e t h ey refu se d all foo d and wer e n o t noti cea bl y thinner a t t h e end of this time. T h ey h ave b ee n k ept f o r as l o n g as n i n e m o n t hs, during whic h t im e t h ey n e \ e r ate. A ll are known t o be carnivorous. T h e m a jori ty of s t o mach s examine d we r e empty but a f ew co n ta in e d c r ayfis h and sow bugs. A l t h o u g h we h ave obser ve d t h e fis hes [ o r seve r a l h ours in th e caves, we neve r saw o n e f eeding. T h e eggl ay in g o r spawning be h av i o r of t h e amblyo p s i ds h as n eve r b ee n o b serve d b u t it i s kno wn th a t in o n e s p ec i es, the n o r t h ern cave fis h t h e eggs a r e carried in th e g i II c h a m be r o f t h e fem a l e and t h e n ew l y hatched young are inc ubated t h e r e a l so. Probabl y t h e young stay in Lhe g ill c h amber unt il they a r e abl e to swim and f o ll o w the par ent. T h e r e a r c n o observati o n s o n young r e-e n tering t h e brooding c hamber o n ce th ey have T I I E NATI O tAL SPELEOL OG ICAL SOCIETY

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left it. It has been reported that 60 to 70 eggs are laid by the female into her gill chamber, where they remain for about two months. The opening of the oviduct is located far forward in this group of fishes in a position just under the gill openings. Fishes with ripe eggs in the ovary or with eggs or larvae b eing incubated have been taken from Indiana caves during various times from March to November. It i s quite lik e l y that they spawn throughout the year. Although only this bare outlin e of the reproductiv e habits of the north ern cave fish is known, the displacement of the oviduct opening and the en larged gi ll chamber w i th red uced gi ll s also occur in the other species of this fami l y and indicate that they have s imi l a r habits of caring for their eggs and yo ung. Photo b y Ge orge F. Jackson Eyeless fish are not abundant in easily visited caves. At the base of a breakdown in a large room the author and Robert Inger search a stream. T h e cave environment offers one of the most secure ways o f life there is, provided animal s can adjust to th e absence of light. Dange rs from pre d ators are probabl y at a minimum. Sculpin a r e [ound in caves more frequently than a r e cave fis hes, possibl y b eca u se they a re more eas il y see n s in ce they a r e l a rg er, dark er, and not so s h y as cave fis hes. Sculpins are carnivorous and often BULLETIN Nu 'IBER 18, DECEMBER 1956 two or three times the size of cave fis hes. Although severa l stomachs of sculpins from caves have b ee n examined and on l y invertebra t e re m a in s found, the sculpin i s a pos s ible predator. In most caves we find raccoon tracks in the muddy banks along the stream. The rac coo n s enter the caves to catch c r ayfis h and they may take a n occasiona l fis h but aga in we know of no evidence that they ever do. Another possible mammal predator i s the mink. Its appetite for fish is proverbial and there i s certainly no reaso n that a mink could not enter caves and capture fis h, but here also the evidence is la c king. IVe frequently hear reports in cave r eg ions that cave fishes are washed out of caves in time of flood a phenomenon that "ve have n eve r ob serve d I,f the reports a r e true, then cave fis hes feeling their way a l ong a st re a m to re-enter a spring or cave a r e exposed to the sa m e dangers from birds and other fis he s as small s urface st re a m fis hes Howeve r unde r sllc h circumstances they a r e very likel y so m ewhat protected b y th e turbid condition of th e floodwate rs. S BTERRANEAN TEMPERATURE CONSTANT In addition to co n s t ant d arkness, the underground habitat u s u ally has a n ea rl y co n stant t empe r a ture. This temperature in our midwest e rn subterranea n waters i s from around 52 to 58 d eg r ees F. d epending on the latitude, s in ce tlli s t empe r ature generally r eflec t s the m ea n annua l temperature of the l ocality. The air temperature in Mammoth Cave, for example, va rie s from 52 to 56 d eg r ees F. bu t the wa ter tempe ra ture va rie s sca r cely one d eg r ee in the course of a year or from yea r to yea r. Other condi tions of the ca ve wa tel'S v a r y co n s id era bl y A short time after h eavy s urfa ce rains the underground strea m s b eg in to ri se, and quiet co nfin ed brooks b eco m e r aging torrents Some cave strea ms ma y rise only s lightl y Witll but a s lll all inc r ease in current, and some may exhibit little or no change. H eavy rains, wa hing lifes u staining silt and nutriment into the caves, u s u ally cau se til e unde r g r ound strea m s to b eco m e turbid, and they m ay r erna in so for m a n y days after a r a in. Subterranea n strea m s vary in their condition as much as surface strea m s in s ize, current, bot-27

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l o m a ; l(\ bank. They may cut through solid rock or be broken into many rivulets among large boulders; they may form waterfalls 'or rapids or in their sluggish meanders form broa d sandbars or mudflats ; they may be damned and form a broad deep lake. In some places floods leave iso l a t e d backwater pools, or the stream that is a rushing torreilt in time of high water may at l ow water b e fragmented by mudbanks and boulders into a disconne cted series of ponds. The streams may wander in broad meanders in rooms of great width entering and l eaving a particular cave Springs appear to be numerous in ground water streams but tributaries few Photo by George F. Jackson Robert Inger checks the river in Wildcat Cave, Indiana, looking for the extremely rare Typhlichthys Wyandotte, identified by Eigenmann in 1897. Throughout the range of the Mississippi Val ley b lind fishes th e r e are vast untilted limestone formations lying beneath the surface. Frequently an outcrop occurs at the surface, usually a long valleys of l arge rivers. These formations, which are v e ry thick were deposited on the beds of 28 ancient continental seas. During the long p enod of time that they have been under dry land they have b ecome honeycombed with anastomosing tubes of varying size by the d i sso lving action of ground-water. Some of the tubes are now filled completely or partly with clay, some with water, and some are dry with only occasional springs or clay banks. The drainage of regions underlaid with a network of solution channel s is often l argely underground, with only a few large sur face streams and some of these may originate as a large spring or disappear underground as a lost river." During the 19th century and the early part of the 20th onl y a widely separated caves were known to contain fi,shes. The underlying rock strata of the intervening areas were not we ll known and it was assumed that each cave system contained an iso lated population of anima l s It was believed that cave fishes only rarely made thei r way from cave to cave through surface streams or that they were accidentally dispersed in times of flood by being washed from their caves and carried downstream, subsequently en tering and establishing themselves in n ew caves. APPARENTLY NOT ISOLATED Underground dispersal does not appear to be more difficult for subterranean fishes than sur face dispersal is for surface fishes. The difficulty in demonstrating this belief lies in the lack of ability of collectors to penetrate into under ground waters in enough l ocalities to prove that the populations seen are not geographically iso l a t ed. It is known that the solution channel networks cross under large river b e ds and a l so unde r the ridges forming divides between sur; face drainage systems. The dispersal of aquati c cave animal s would seem to be limited by the extent of particular limestone formations carry i;lg suitabl e streams and the degree of dissection of these formations by surface e rosion. Another factor that would bring about isol ation or pre vent occupation would be for the cave-bearing strata to be buried deeply under rocks of l ater periods or unde r g lacial drift. The arrival of a glaCier tying up the ground w ater under it and shutting off all food, finally burying the habitat under a thick layer of drift, would exterminate any subterranea n vertebrates. THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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No Gl\ e fishes are known to live in the glaciated part of the Mississippi Valley. If they were once living farther north than now, they have for some reason not returned since the retreat of the glacier. There are two or three vague reports of amblyopsids in northern Ohio, northern Indiana, and southern Michigan, and it is not im possible that some may eventually be found in these areas, EXPLORATION IS RIGOROUS Cave exploration is strenuous work and usu ally not \ ery rewarding, During the past three years Dr. Robert F. Inger, Curator of Amphib jans and Reptiles, and the writer have searched the waters of more than fifty caves and springs finding caw fishes in only twelve or fifteen of them, The great majority of caves investigated contained fair-sized streams but not enough headroom, so that we covered as much distance in the caves by crawling or wading as we did by walking. The water ranged from knee-deep to as -deep as it was possible to wade, and sometimes the ceiling would be so close to the water that it would be difficult to keep the light from being extinguished. It was necessary to maintain a grip on the lamp and dipnet while climbing, wriggling, or wading along, alternatel y watching the wa ter for fishes and the ceiling for projecting rocks. Because of conditions in these low wet caves, equipment was kept to a minimum. For light we used miners' acetylene lamps with 8-inch re Rectors. These lamps, which were much more satisfactory than flashlights or gasoline lanterns, could be dropped, submerged, or pushed ahead as we crawled, and they would still function, giving a strong, diffuse light. Fish were collected in large wire strainers lashed to a 3-to-4-foot handle. Cloth dipnets could not stand cave con-BULLETIN NUMBER 18, DECEMBER 1956 ditions and moved too slow l y through the water, warning the fish of their approach. Eight-ounce jars with formalin were used to preserve the fish and a two-quart tin pail was satisfactory as a temporary container for living fishes. Even this small amount of impedimenta on occasion seemed almost too much to be dragging along, Cave fishes may be reduced in numbers in some readily accessib l e caves, but they wi ll never be exterminated by collectors. However, they are in grave danger of extermination in many areas of their range because of various engineering activities of man, The impoundment of large streams for purposes of hydroelectric power, navigation, or recreation raises the ground-water level, flooding the caves completely, ponding the streams that feed them, and no doubt rendering many of the cave-fish habitats sterile and unfit places to live because the food is washed into higher caves or deposited on the bottom of the newly formed lakes, This may cause temporary dis location, but it is not nearly so serious a threat as the development of many oi l fields, particularly through the Ohio River Valley. The salt water and oil from numerous 'wells go down into the underground water and pollute widespread areas. Another important source of pollution in some regions lies in extensive mining and quarrying operations. Silt from stamping and washing operations and sludge from the mines render the nearby waters uninhabitable. A few caves have been utilized as natural sewers by industries or population' cen ters, Fortunately the best areas for caves and cave animals are not yet polluted because they lie in wild or sparsely populated regions. But certainly large sections of their former range are no longer available to these inhabitants of the underworld. 29

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Prospecting for Caves By CORD H. LINK, JR. Topogmphic maps m'e useful adjuncts to field work when they are studied f01 clues to caves. The techniques discussed are useful fOl intel pl eting swJace feat ures in the hunt for limestone cave s in areas of gentle dip. A t best however a topogmphic map semes to isolate those areas which can pTOve most worthy of careful semch. Topogmphic maps can be obtained t01 twenty cents each fTOm the U. S. Geological Slwvey, Washington 25, D. C. or fTOm your state department of geology. State index maps ale fl ee on request. Elsewhece the writer has urged more extensive use of topographic m a ps in the search for caves. The development of underground drainage systems often produces subtle or profound changes in the surface features. When thes e changes are recognized, or when the results of such changes are l arge enough to be mapped, organized search parties are likely to be more efficient at cave finding by making use of the mappe d clues. vVithout doubt, th e method of search-by-map is most applicable in regions similar to the Cumberland Platea u in south central Tennessee, a region of essentially flat limestone beds. In these circumstances, a g i ven combination of map clue and cavern discovery in a particular small area can be expected to recur e lsewhere in the surrounding area. Extrapolation is possible here where it is quite likely to be invalid in areas of l arge and variable dip, or where faulting exists. In any case, map prospecting relies for success upon knowl e dge or what to expect in the way of e ro s i onal features, and this means that the cave prosp ector must observe a lot of country of the kind that h e is prospecting in by map. The maps used by the writer are 71'2 minute quadrangles purchase d from the Tennessee Val l ey Authority which performed the photogrammetric m apping o( the Tennessee Valley in conjunction with th e Geological Survey The ma j o ri ty of th ese maps are less than ]5 years o l d, and n ew o nes are still b e in g compile d. It i s essential to know what the maps w ill and will not show. A ny (eature normally repres ente d b y contour lines w hi c h h appens to have a verti cal dime nsion less than the contour interval ca n co nceivab l y b e l ost if it fall s b e tw ee n contour lines vVhen th e h orizontal dime nsions are less 30 than about fifty feet, the feature may not be contoured. In wooded areas features obscured by trees when the aerial photographs were made m ay be l ost, since the usual procedure is to subtract a fixed correction height from tre etop con tours. C liff s may not be mappe d since the trees grow tall at the bottom and short at the top of the cliff, reducing the apparent relief. Caves are mapped unlinarily only when they have exten sive mouths which may b e contoured or when they are discov e red b y the field-check survey teams who fill in place names. A we ll-known sma ll cave may be mapped while a larger, less famous cave may be ignore d. Most springs are noted but a common failing is to show a blue line stream for a wash that runs only after a cloudburst. Any e rrors which one may find on such a map are compl etely outweighed by the very ex istence of the map itself. The purpose here is to point out thos e fea tures of a topographic map which may be clues to cavern developme nt. The accompanying map is fictional, but the density of clues is b y no means exceptional for the coves of the Cumberland Plateau in ?vliddle Tennessee. Bya change of sca le, this m a p might also be r epresentative of th e Highland Rim of the Nashville Basin in the valleys of th e Duc k and Elk Rivers. The contours are spaced 5 0 f ee t apart in e levation. I\fc ca n assume that we a r e looking at one or two square miles -a fraction of the area s hown on a 7Y2 minute quadrangle. Some of the cl ues are obvious, and are clearly indicate d on th e map. These include large sink h o l e s and springs. The less obvious ones are notice d as exceptions to norma l contours. Nor m a l contours are co n vex, bow e d away from the THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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slope, and they have sharp concavities at streams and washes. Any unusual reversal of normal con tours, especially if accompanied by steep grades, is worth looking at. At the same time, isolated knobs and ridges, seen as circ ular closure or near closure of contour lines, can payoff with a pit. Valley streams such as shown here will normally m eander about; abnormal behavior near a cliff is a l ways interesting. '''' e shall examine the map in some detail. ''''e are looking down into a sma ll valley or cove, with a stream in the bottom, and high land on either side The stream is fed b y springs 0 ) Simulated topographic map of an area suspected of containing caves. Letters refer to text discussion. BULLETIN NUMBER 18, DECEMBER 1956 ''''here do they get their water? At A, a spring is identified. Nearby is a dry wash. Moving up the wash we find a ridge with large sinkhole de ve lopment. At B we have a lost stream, one that vanishes at the bottom of the sink. This kind of country is best exemplified p erhaps by the chain of l ost coves named Cave, Farmer, Wolf and Sinking Cove, each of which is a l arge sink at the bottom, and each cove has a suppl y of caves. One of the l argest l ost coves is Grassy Cove which drains through some seven or eight miles of cave at the head of the Sequatchie Valley At C there is another l arge sink. Tons of earth 31

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have been transported downward and away through some sor t of underground channels . Along the lin e C to D are shallow depressions in what may have been an ancient stream bed. The whole area from the spring at A to the upper depression at D should be examined. Usually there will b e several other features too small to be m apped in areas with this many clues At E is found an indication of an old sunken area, or one too small to be mapped, or not near a contour e l eva tion. Since sinkhole C is nearby, the s lopes between E and C just might produce something of interest. If we happen to get near the little bulge at F, we might look for a pit. It seems that pits are ,"e ry efficient at taking away groundwater after rains, and the good inner dra inage k eeps the soil and rocks fairly dry so that normal erosion is retarded. The eroding forces operate inside the pit rather than on the surface outside. The net rate of remova l of material m ay be the same, but the hillock is worn away from inside out, and the area around the pit does not wear down as fast as th e nearby slopes, thus producing a small out l ying knob. At G we find strong relief, a bluff face over a wash. These cliffs often show remnants of cave formations if they do not actually contain cav e rns An old cave or a phreatic open joint has perhaps first captured the surface stream, and then quarried away the stream bed from beneath so that the stream runs in the bare bones of the cave. Across th e valley at H i s another spring. There s e e m s to b e a n old wash or stream b e d n earby, with its contours rounded b y long inactivity. But three or four hundred feet farther up the hill th e contours are sharp in the stream bed, so that it may b e ac tive in the upper reaches on the sur face and plunge underground half way down to the spri ng l evel. \lVe look now at I. Back across the valley, high on the rim, we noti ce an odd notch at J. From it th e re appears to run as a dry wash. Perh aps a stream spilled over h ere in a 5 0 to 100 foot falls before its sup ply of water was pirated b y a branch of the wash a t G. It we h appen to get near it we might take a look. Down at the valley floor we find a shallow sink 32 at K, such as m ay have be e n found at E. But at K resul ts are likely to be better since K can be larger than E and K seems to be associated with some washes on the slope. K might have an open bottom. At L there is another odd concavity in the contours with a steep side. This is some kind of collapse area whether due to a cave chamber falling in or the remains of a n old sink hole. Nearby, at N, a small stream vanishes. Up the hill at M is a small outstanding bench similar to F where we might h ave a pit. We can hope to get into cave somewhere around K, Land Nand such cave m ay run as far as G -if we can get in. At 0 the valley stream makes a strange p ass along the steep bluff. This may be a condition similar to that at G. We may find that the stream vanishes under, the bluff, to come out around the hill. Sometimes b ypass channels are found here, where flood waters t a ke a short cut. The pres ence of a sunken spot at P further indicates some cavernous conditions. The ridge at Q is likel y to contain a series of pits along or ne a r its crest. As suggested at F, the resistance of the ridge is enhanced by the exist ence of the pits often developed along a common joint running the length of the ridge and serving to keep th e soil so well drained that normal kars tification does not take place -or takes place at a reduced rate. \lVe have now fairly ,veIl covered the valley, as far as map reading i s concerned. A few minutes h ave sufficed to outline enough work to keep field crews bus y for several weekends. However, the field crews will enter the valley with definite objectives and can afford to neglect many hundred acres of hillsid e as not lik e ly to y i eld caves. Of course, just off to the right of the m a p, down the valley, there are farms and farmers. Stop off before beginning the search and chat a while. They may b e able to confirm or deny your interpretation of the clues At times they will not know and you may surprise them -and vice versa. Next Friday, read your maps, and get out there Saturday and find those caves. In this way you m ay contribute to the contents (or the obsoles cence) of the various state cave surveys. And you may have that greatest thrill of all in cavingyou may find virgin cave. THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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Discovery at the Fontana Chistaina By JOHN HOOPER The au t hor's li g h t-hearted account p o rtmys the thi ll of discovery in w h at th e ex p er t thought wa s a small cave H eTein i s t h e ancient l esson th a t a t horoughly explored cave can y i e l d new sec r e t s w hen examined b y t hose unfamil im wit h i t -thos e w h o a j J Pl y keen observat i on, m e ti cu lo us explomt ion Fol klme, associa t ed with many EU1"Opean caves is interwoven thmugh t he s t01),. T h e Fonta n a Chis t aina th e Ebbing and Fl owing we ll -i s a spring hig h up o n the s l opes of the Piz S c h a l ambert, a m ountain in Eastern Sw i tze rl and, only a few miles fro m the triple junc ti o n of the Swiss, A u s tri a n a n d Ita li a n fron ti e rs. The entra n ce, w hi c h i s m arke d o n th e dis t ri c t m a ps and h as in fac t b ee n know n a t l eas t s in ce 1 5 00, lies 6 035 feet a b ove sea l eve l and i s situa t e d in the Va l d 'Assa, a tributa r y va ll ey whic h f ee d s into t h e Rive r Inn (En), a b out 5 miles t o the N .E of the pi cturesque old v ill age of Schuls (Scu ol). In A u g u s t 1 953, m y w ife and I whil e o n a h o lid ay in Switzerl a n d, v i site d Schuls t o meet H err T. F. Anke r a Zuric h edito r and k ee n s p e l eo l og i s t who h a d in vite d u s t o j oin him fo r a f ew d ays caving in tha t dist ri ct. W h e n we arrived in the E n gadine, h e s u ggeste d tha t fo r our fir s t c a ve, we s h ould v i sit th e F onta n a Chis t aina H e t old u s that it was only a s m a ll cave a n d that h e h a d alrea d y v i site d i t and surveye d it a f e w d ays prev i o u s ly. The e n t r a n ce i s a n arrow fissure fr o m whic h a wa t e rfall g u s h es, thi s fa ll taking the ove rfl ow fro m a s m a ll l a k e jus t ins id e and whi c h i s f e d b y a subme r ge d tunnel. The l eve l o f thi s l a k e (a n d h e n ce the flow of water ) rises and fall s d a ily, and Anke r t old u s of the d e li ght ful l eg e n d b ehind thi s occurre n ce Once upo n a time -in t h e a p p r ove d f as hi o n o f a ll l egends a certain Lord, w h o lived in a cas tl e n ea r Schuls, fell in l ove w i t h a f airy w h o li ve d at the cave, and eac h d ay h e l e ft his cas tl e and went up the m ountain t o pay h e r a v i s it. T hi s we n t o n fo r a l o n g time, until the w ife, g r ow in g sllspic i o u s o f h e r hus b and's d a il y e x c ur s i o ns foll owe d him and o n di scovering his guilty secret, m a d e him promise n eve r to v i s i t th e cave B ULLETI N NUMB E R 18, DECEMBER 1 956 and th e fairy a g ain. The fairy, o f course, was a little annoye d a b out t his, and told the unfortu n a t e m a n tha t i f h e d ese r te d h e r his n oble lin e would co m e t o a n e n d T h e L ord hm\'eve r kept his promise t o his w ife and the fairy'S threa t was soo n f ulfill e d. H e was kill e d in b a ttle, and o n t h e ver y sa m e day, w i thin the s hort s p ace o f one h our hi s three so n s a ll die d from the plag ue. The l egend the n r e l a tes tha t the f airy, l o n e l y fo r h e r l over, returne d t o the cave, w h e r e s h e st ill wee p s copio u s l y eac h day, b oth a t the time w h e n h e h a d b ee n acc u s t o m e d t o m ee t her and again a t t h e tim e w h e n h e u se d t o l eave, so tha t twi ce a d ay, o n ce a t 9 a m a n d o n ce a t 6 p m. th e w a t e r s ri se as th e va ll ey i s floo d e d with h e r t ea r s So th e l ege n d goes, but m easurements m a d e within t h e last 100 yea r s s h ow only one d a il y ri se and f all, altho u g h va ri o u s o b se rver s differ over t h e prec i se tim e o f the occurre nce. H err Anke r the n gently bro k e it t o u s th a t \I' e s h ould h ave t o m a k e a n ea rl y s t art, as the climb t o th e cave would t a k e two a n d a half h ours T h e ac tu a l dis t a nc e was s m a ll but the r e was a little matte r of 24 00 fee t d iff e r e n ce in altitude t o b e ove r co me! So ''''in and I w h o we r e ca m p in g n ea r Schuls, r el u ctantly c r aw l e d out of our t e n t at 6 : 00 a .m. the next m orning and went d ow n t o h ave brea k fast with Anke r a t t h e farm w h e r e h e was s t ay ing. Afte r wards w e so m e h ow m a n age d t o fit the three of u s a n d our ruc k sac k s in to our age d but fai t h f ul car and t h e n \I'e drov e o n d own the Inn va ll ey, fo ll ow in g a n a r r ow, corruga ted a p o l ogy fo r a roaci, with a t r eac h e r o us, d u s t y surface. B e l ow u s o n our ri g ht, stee p s l opes fell away t o t h e t'l"is ting, g leamin g wa t e r s of th e Inn, and b eyo n d th e r iver equ a ll y stee p but woo d e d s l opes soa r e d up 33

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the w a t e r ) A crude l y assemble d co ll ec ti o n of p o les jus t h e r e h a d b ee n ins t a ll e d b y so m e un know n philanthropis t and se rved as a l adde r of uncertain vintage and n eg li g ibl e s t ability: it was h o w eve r m o r e of a hindra n ce tha n a h elp, but in spite of the l ac k of fri c ti o n offe r e d b y the d amp and slimy r oc k s we a ll m a n age d to scr a m ble up o y e r the f o r cef ul j e t of wat e r a t the cos t o f littl e more tha n a we t b oot. Once in the rift, Ph o t o c o p y r ighted b y J H. D H ooper Entering the Fontana Chistaina on the occasion of the "discovery" trip in August of 1953. w e f ound t h a t we co uld trave r se a l o n g a n arrow l e d ge o n th e ri ght h and w all a f oo t o r so a b ove the wat er. About 25 fee t from th e d ay li ght, the strea m sec ti o n ende d t h e w a t e r e m e r ging throug h a tunne l b e n eath our feet from a L a k e' chamber o n the ri ght. T hi s L a k e', whic h we co uld look d ow n in t o throug h a second and m o r e convenient a r c hway, was a s h a ll ow p oo l s i x t o e i g h t f ee t in dia m ete r and w as f e d b y a sub m e r ge d c h anne l in the opposite wa ll. Anke r t old u s tha t b y a b out midnight, the water l eve l in thi s lak e w ould h ave ri se n b y eight c m. T h e w a BULLETI N NUM B E R 18, D E CEMB E R )956 ter almos t certainly ca m e from a g l a ci e r thre e tho u sand fee t hig her up the m ounta in the in crease in flow b eing due t o the additio n a l ice w hi c h was m elte d during the h ours o f sunlight. It was n o t know n h oweve r jus t h ow l o n g it took thi s wa ter t o r eac h the Fonta n a C hi s t aina. It could only b e 1 2 h ours or o n the othe r h and, it mig h t b e 36 h ours -in o lh e r words, t h e inc r ease in flo w whic h would s t art f ro m the g l ac i e r in the m orning, might p erha p s r eac h t h e Fonta n a the sa m e night, o r i t mig h t n o t ge t the r e until the f o ll owing ni ght a n intri guing p roble m still to b e so l ved. L eaving the l a ke, we continued up the rift, w h ose damp, co ld wa ll s were barel y a bod y's i l part. T h e r oc k w hi c h in pl aces h a d a rathe r dra b flowsto n e coa ting, was a yell ow T ri ass i c limest o n e A b o u t 60 fee t b eyond th e l a k e, the wa ll s w iden e d s li ghtly, and we ca m e t o a Y -jun c ti o n. To the right, the ri ft continue d of fering r o u tes b oth a t hig h and l ow l eve l s whic h we f o ll owe d according to our indiv i d u a l c h o i ce -but whic h both ended in a s m a ll c h ambe r ,"vith a sandy floor, a b out 140 fee t fro m the e n tra n ce. In fac t the w h o l e cave ende d h e re, a p art fr o m a ti g ht-fittin g tube which, Anke r t old liS, only went in a s h ort d i s t a n ce, and h aving in s p ecte d it, we we r e quite pre p a r e d to t a k e his wo r d o n this p oint. On the floor, the r e was a s m all a m ount of b a t dung and we sat down so as t o b e a bl e to e x amine this m o r e close ly. Since tl1e cave tempera ture was only 39 F, tl1e effec t w as cl ose l y equiva l ent t o tha t of s ittin g o n a pile of s n ow, and I h as til y go t up aga in ''''in h oweve r r e m ained s it tin g and this was t o h ave unex p ec t e d co nse q u e n ces It s h ould b e m entio n e d at thi s s t age th a t s in ce we h a d only ex pected to b e in the cave fo r a few minutes, ''''in and I h a d n o t b othe r e d ver y muc h a b out c10 tllin g and h a d m e r e l y slippe d b o il e r suits o n ove r s h orts. P erha p s b e ca u se of thi s l ac k of cl othing, , \ in r apidly b e ca m e a w a r e o f the fact tha t a n icy dra ft was coming up thro u g h tl1e sandy, but appa r ently solid floo r. TOW drafts in caves, wheth e r icy o r n o t h ave t o co m e fr o m so m ew h e re, and so s h e and Anke r did a little tenta tive excava ti o n To their surpr i se, a h o l e was r evea led almos t imme d i a t e l y and furthe r e nl a r ge m ent of thi s albeit with finge r s numbe d b y the cold sand and the co ld drafts -prove d unexpec t edly easy Unfortu35

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n a t e ly, I mi ssed a ll th e excite m ent of this, fort o save time, as I th o u ght I h a d g o n e b ac k to the Y-jun c ti o n t o t a k e a photogr aph and had b ee n muc h t oo busy w restling with m y ca m era and tripo d in th e co nfin e s o f th e n arrow rift to p ay muc h h eed t o th e ac ti vity a t the end o f the p assage In f ac t b y th e time I was r ea d y t o t a ke the pi cture, th e h o l e was lo o kin g ver y promising indee d and a minute l a t e r whil e Anke r wa s l o n g s uffering l y providing a li t tl e 'huma n intere s t for m y pho togr aph, th e r e was a triumphant sh out from '''Tin th a t h e r "hips we r e through" T h e r ea ft e r the r e was a pro l o n ge d s il e n ce and it w as soo n o b v i o u s n o t o nl y t h a t th e rest o f h e r b o d y h a d duly f ollo wed h e r hips but a l s o tha t sh e was comple t e l y out of h earing range. Pres ently a n e x cite d vo i ce fr o m th e d epths e nc o ur a ge d u s to join it, adding as a slight induce m ent -that there wa s a passag e 'big enough to drive a c a r through' Anker th e r e f o r e climbe d bac k into th e little c h ambe r and tri e d to n egotiate the hole, only to find th a t th e r e wa s not e n o u g h room for the s imulta n eo u s p assage of his body and th e r athe r bulky cylinde r ( w orn a t hi s b e lt) which supplied ace t y l e n e t o his h ea d li g ht. H e ca rri e d out a stra t e gi c r etrea t so th a t h e could sort out hi s aff airs in m o r e comfort and in s o d oing uncorke d th e h o l e and re l ease d a sudde n g a l e which almos t bl ew m e out of th e cave. As Anker see m e d a lit tl e preoccupie d with his various encumbra n ces, I tenta ti ve l y inserte d m y f ee t into the squeeze a n d m a n age d t o insinua t e m yse lf unde r a flak e of r oc k witho u t t oo muc h difficulty, e m e r ging into a l eve l tunne l 1 8 inc h e s to two f eet high, with a sandy floor. A minute o r so later whe n Anke r h a d fina ll y go t himself, hi s h e lm e t and hi s g as cylind e r thro u g h th e h o le, we c r aw l e d on, and a ft e r a b o u t 35 f eet, ente red a surpris ingl y ca p ac i o u s tunnel. '''T in's s t a t e m e n t tha t o n e could drive a ca r thro u g h it was certainly true, th ough I would n o t r ecommend it for a ve hicl e o n which o n e set a n y g r ea t va lue! To th e ri ght, th e r oc k y floo r s l o p e d d ownhill t o end in a s m a ll c h ambe r bu t to th e l ef t th e r e was a broad p assage 10 to 1 5 feet w id e go in g o n into th e d arkness, and w i t h t hi s in f ro n t o f us, we plunged o n into v ir g in t e rri to ry. T h e r e we r e r e lativ e l y few s t a lactites, a p art f ro m a s m all gro u p o f littl e h e li c tites a nd sod a s t raws o n t h e l eft. But th e co ntin uati o n of t h e p assage itsel f was O lll" m a in anxie t y 36 fo r th e m o m e nt, and a ft e r rounding a corne r to the l ef t 20 f ee t f arthe r on, w e w e r e r e li eved to see th a t th e corridor, as l a r g e as eve r continue d f o r at l eas t anothe r 70 f ee t Hurrying o n eve ryo n e anx i o u s t o b e in th e l ea d! -w e r ounde d anothe r corne r this time t o t h e right, and soo n ent e r e d a r oc k y ch ambe r litte r e d with g i ant boulde rs. We h a d b ee n surprised t o find b a t dung in thi s n ew sec ti o n -n o t in bi g p a t c hes -but in a thin and fa irl y uniform sprinkling a ll ove r the floor. Sin ce our own p oint of entry h a d b ee n comple t e l y se al e d it w as o b vious th a t the r e must b e a t l eas t o n e r o u te to th e outs ide world whi c h w as, a t a n y rate, n ego ti a bl e by b ats. At fir s t g l a n ce we f ea r e d th a t the r e was n o w ay o n from the b oulde r c h amber w hi c h we h a d ente r e d, but a scr amble ove r a l a r ge f a ll e n bloc k led into a n arrow tunne l whic h was o nl y f our f ee t hi g h. The way a h ea d was n ow clea r a g ain and we c r aw l e d o n h o p e full y. Prese ntl y th e r oo f h e i ght incre ased once m o re, and 70 f ee t f r o m the boulde r w e emerge d through a n a r c h way into o SO 100 ft. I TH( 00h04( (Jrd Chamber). ': ... . ;;: '/'?, '\. ; E. l;::,t /" ()(V l l S CHAP[L Old ,a ... nd.d h... :}J _NGL ISH PROMtNAOt / lNTRANC( N Outline plan of the Fontana Chistaina, Lawer Engadine, Switzerland. Entrance elevation 6035 feet. c o p yrighte d b y J H D Hoop e r Herr Anker adjusts a depth recorder, set up in 1954 to measure the rise and fall of the water level in the "lake." A float inside the lower tube moves a pen which draws a line on chart fastened on the clack-work driven drum. THE N ATIONAL SPEL EOLOGICAL SOCIET Y

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what, [or e a se o f r e f e r e n ce in this account, m ay b e calle d 'The Se cond Chambe r' This was com pl ex in s h a pe, with highl ev el sections a t b oth ends. F o r the m o m ent how ev er, w e did not worry about these a s a roomy p assage a h ea d s till b eck o n e d u s o n and afte r m arking the entra nce t o t h e chambe r w .ith a n arrow, we continue d our triumphant a d va n ce W e we r e n o w in a tunne l almos t ] 5 f ee t wide: o n ce aga in althoug h s m a ll s t a l actites we r e plentiful, the r e w e r e f ew forma ti o n s o f note, and as in th e previous p assages, the floor w as w e ll sprinkle d with b a t dung Fifty f ee t o n we ca m e t o a Y -junc tion. A n a r c hw ay to th e l e ft ope n e d into a high, cir cular chambe r ( t empora r y name -'The Third Chambe r') but th e m ain route appear e d t o li e along the ri ght h and bra n c h so w e w ent to the right and a ft e r sc r ambling ove r m a n y scatte r e d boulde r s we ll coa t e d with so ft cl ay, we f ound tha t w e h a d to c r a wl through a low se cti o n o nl y a foot o r s o hig h of whic h the l east uncomfortable p ortio n app eare d t o b e a mud b ank o n the rig ht. I was l eading a t the time and was a little p erturbe d to find that thi s appa r ently solid b ank cons i s t e d m e r e l y of a thin l aye r o f cl ay cunningly m as k ing a boulde r ruc kl e b e n eath, with the result th a t almost e v e r y tim e I rest e d a h and o n the mud, it broke throug h and shot d own into a void b e n eath, and I was prevente d f r o m follo wing it thro u g h only b y the buffer ac ti o n o f m y face o n firm e r ground a h ea d. Seve r a l h orizonta l l ea f lik e flak e s about h alf a n inc h thick, protrude d fr o m the wall s o f thi s sect i o n: they looked solid e n o u g h but they w e r e r ea ll y mud with a wafer thin ven ee r o f s talagmite on top. Som etimes the mud ac t e d as a m atrix for a thin b and of peb bles o n the unde r side, but it was the s t a l agmite g l aze o n t o p whic h h eld the brittle structure to gethe r. So m e of these flakes we r e r eminiscent of g rote que fung i growing f r o m the trunk o f a l a r ge tree, and o n e p articula rl y good s p ecime n w hi c h w e w e r e able to c r aw l past without d a m a g ing, wa s a b out 1 2 t o 18 inc h es d ee p and some t w o f ee t long. A ft e r a few yards, we we r e able to g e t to our f ee t again, and to w alk a l ong a dra b p assage wh ose floor w a s a n intima t e mixture of boulde r s a n d mud, the latter o ft e n of treac h erous stability in tha t it was n o t a l ways so solid as it look e d. A s m a ll strea m was n o ti ceable o n the flo o r and Anke r n ow ra i se d a m o m ent's a l arm b y wonde r -B ULLETIN NUMBE R 18, D E CEMB E R 1956 ing i f and w h e n the wa ter fr o m the g l ac i e r was due t o arrive. H oweve r after studying th e mud d e p osits and the b a t dung o n t h e floor, we con vince d ourse lves tha t wa t e r did n o t n orma ll y flow in quantity throug h the tunnel. Thus r eas sure d, w e continued on our way. S eve n ty f eet be yond the mud c r aw l we ca m e to a corne r w h e r e th e r e was a n impress ivel y hig h ave n (dome) go ing straight up a b ove the p assage roof, and a few fee t on we n o ti ce d tha t a b out t e n feet up the l e ft h and wall was a t errace whic h l ooked as i f it might lead to som e uppe r l eve l p ass ages. F o r the m o m ent however, w e s till had a n eas y tunne l a h ea d -a fine rift, 12 feet high and more, whic h soo n bore sharply to the rig ht. For a short w hil e we h a d to c r a wl o ve r a cl ay floor co vered with a thin l aye r of s t a l agmite, whos e unce r tain stre n gth adde d a certain piquancy to our pro gress, as one n ever knew -until to o l a t e w h e n a kne e or a h and was likel y t o brea k through into the soft ,"vet m o r ass b e neath. A h ea d we could h ea r dripping wa t e r and w e s oon saw t h a t thi s ca m e from a numbe r o f s t a lactites to the l e ft o f a s m a ll c h ambe r -little more than a n e n l arge m ent o f the p assa g e which, to our so r r ow, now ende d in a c h o ke, r oughly 700 feet from t h e p oint w h e r e w e h a d fir s t cra wl e d into it. A few fee t b e f o re the c h o ke, the p a s sa g e n a r rowe d t o a fissure with some c ol orful f orma ti o n s o n the w a lls; p artic ularl y n o ti ceable was a d e li cate curtain, almos t o r ange in col o r and n earby w as a cl ean white bos of g leaming s t a l agmite. A b o u t eight feet a b ov e the floor o n the ri ght, the r e wa s a muddy t erra ce, and straight ahead a t the same le vel, the r e wa s a furthe r t errace, a l s o muddy, whic h appear e d t o continue for seve r a l yards 1 m a n age d t o climb up t o this second l e d ge, and w as e n courage d to find a r oc k y pipe co n tinuing upwards a t the e nd. This w as n o n e too l a r ge, but the mud lining lubrica t e d m y progress as I wriggl e d upwards, fo llo wing a r athe r spira l course. Othe r s m a ll e r tube s bra n c hed off a t inte rvals, and o n e a t l eas t mus t h ave connec t e d b ac k to th e m ain p assa g e b e l ow, fo r at the place w h e r e the diminishing c ross sec ti o n o f the tunne l put a n end to m y a d va n ce I could h ea r the vo i ces of t h e othe r t wo dis t inctly. R eve r sing d ownhill a gain, I tri e d to e t i mate the ext e n t of thi s s m a ll addit i o n t o t h e cave, and d e cid e d tha t i t was equiva l ent t o five b o dy-l e n gths'. R egaining th e t errace, I found 3 7

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Eagle Lake Lava Caves By ROBERT GIVEN Tmcking down caves which persist in local legends can be rewa?'ding wO?'k ... IF you. find the caves The au.tho? set out to find one cave, spun-ed on only by the name of an obscure lake on a Califomia map_ His search led to three caves, each an interesting link in the growing chain of known lav a caves which dot the speleological map of the Far West Eagle Lake lies about 70 miles south southwest of Lava Beds National Monument in northem Calif01"'lzia. Eagle Lake Ice Cave appears on many road maps of northern California. However, in pinpointing the cave and actually finding it, little or no information can be found locally. Many apparent caves in the lava flows near the lake are actuall y only fissures and cracks. From them come many tales and stories. Most of them h ave been carefu ll y and painfully followed up by the author, usually with no result other than sore feet. Lava beds are the world's worst places for hikes! Finally, one of the very old residents of the Eagl e Lake region offered a vague bit of information and a few hazy directions to the appare ntl y mythical and certainly elusive Eagle Lake Ice Cave, and to another cave to the north. After more meticulous searching and more defeats than I care to remember, a group of five students from the Chico State Biological Field School at E ag l e Lake Resort found the ice cave in July, 1955. The terrain immediately surrounding Eagle L a ke consists mostly of an extensive l y logged pine forest with much underbrush of sage and mountain mahogany. There are many exposed areas of shall ow cap lava and lava beds which are of recent enough Quaternary origin to be still guite prominent and not severely eroded. The t y pical shrinking and cracking patterns of the se shallow flows accounts for many cracks and fissures, some of which hold winter ice all year long. These fissures are generall y mistaken for ic e caves", since they give the general appearance of a cave due to co ll apse of walls and covering of certain areas by debris. In some of the thicker pahoehoe basalt caps, how e \ er, conditions are similar to those of Lava B e d s National ifonument, where there are many 40 sizes and lengths of l ava tubes, a ll following the same basic horizontal pattern with later modifi cations, largel y due to collapse. On most maps of the Eagle Lake area, there is a "lava bed" shown, but it is actually. only a small part of the vast lava field which covers the greater part of the area surrounding the lake. It is difficult to give specific directions and names to roads and l ocations in this area because it is still being l ogged. Logging roads are con stan tly being changed and landmarks removed. The best way to find the most likely areas for cave discovery is to arrange for a personal escort by someone who has been to the cave, or h ave a good knowledge of the visible features of a lava flow which indicate the presence of tubes. Many of the flows are too sha llo w to have any tubes of m a jor size, and knowledge of the characteristic formation of gullies by complete collapse of tubes saves many hours of fruitless searching in sterile areas. Lava caves are generally inconspic uous, and a whole new concept of search is needed by one accustomed to limestone caves. At present, two distinct caves are known west of Eagle Lake and they are so aligned that it is entirely possible that they may be remnants of one continuous lava tube: -'Farther-to-the' -north lies another cave, ca lled Indian Cave. Ceilings of these tubes are characteristically very thin and co ll apse is usually evident. Complete line col l apse leaves a characteristic gully or trench, and partial collapse often cuts the tube or locally constricts the pass a ge to a crawlway. It is most probable that the larger of these two caves is Eagle Lake Ice Cave which has been placed, probably through hearsay, on many For est Service and road maps. It corresponds to the directions and description given by older natives, THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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may have been a seasona l effect. however. Half way down the tube a s id e passage proved to be a difficult dead end craw l way. The entrance of the Pack Rat Cave is at the lower end of a lava sink probabl y formed through tube co ll apse. The opening is about four by s i x fe et, and a cool draft emerges from it. A ]5 foot crawl begins almost at once, lead ing to a long narrow room. Beyond is a tight 10 foot crawl to a larger chamber, abou t 45 feet long and 12 feet high. It terminates as a dirt slope s uggesting sect i o n a l co ll apse of the lava tube. Small ice slide found in Eagle Lake Ice Cave. The walls and ceiling of the cave are festooned with typical "melted lava drip" sta l actites These d i ffer (rom the fami liar sedimentary spe leothems found in limestone caves, and are actually forme d during coo lin g of molten rock. Some show carbonate precipitation at their tips, due to subsequent deposition, but the main body of the actua l projections are hard, sharp l ava. Earth, fungus and sprouting grass were found in cr e vices along the floor; animal droppings were p lentiful. These were tentativel y identified as thos e of pack or wood rats which suggested a name for th e cave. A few roots protrude through the c eiling, and sifting dirt indicates a thin roof. Indian Cave is fairly well known in the l ocal ity. It is loc a ted abou t 200 yards left of the main Paul Bunyan logging road, approximately 30 miles from Susanvi ll e California, and about s i x mil e s from th e Eagl e Lake Resort. It is the larg-42 est cave now known in the area. T h e name i s attributed to a legend that 200 Indians hid in the cave during the last of the white man's mas sacres. Despite local reports, it is not a g l aciere, but appears to hold seasona l ice. The entrance is located on the side of a large lava sink, l argely filled with rock and debris probably originating from ceiling co ll apse A much larger entrance in the same sink goes back only abou t 20 feet. The large pit could have housed 200 Indians, but the present cave woul d not have been practical for she l ter. Spurred on by stories of buried Indian bon e s and relics, the entire 302 feet of the tube were searched minutely, but nothing was found. The ceiling, however, shows evidence of recent rockfa ll and relics could be covered by l a r g e boulders. The onl y evidence of habitation is that left by porcupines and marmots. The actual entrance of Indian Cave is a small hole from which a 20 foot crawl way leads to a chamber of"moderate size containing washed-in dirt and animal debris. Beyond, the cave is quite typical of lava tubes: l ong, horizontal and of fairly uniform diameter, averaging about s i x feet in height and ten feet in width, except where wall or ceiling co ll apse h as ca u sed constriction. End af the only "room" found in Eagle Lake Ice Cave. \ fVithin the cave are "molten l a va drip" stal actites and other decorations. They are generall y of a uniform reddish-brown to grey co l or. The beauty of the lava cave lies in its unique forma tion from liquid rock by the age n cy of huge bub bles of volcanic gas. THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

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cav ities t o w ard th e wes t and n orth, altho u g h o n e must o ft e n c r aw l thro u g h n arrow h o les in orde r t o ge t from o n e into th e o th er. If o n e h as wa lk e d and c r awled a l o n g fo r m a n y hundre d s of p aces in th e cave, h e co mes upo n a s h arp s t o n e b e tw ee n t w o cliff s calle d the H o r se," ove r whic h o n e mus t s lid e and th e n eve n l owe r himse lf with r o pes a t times. It i s n o t until th e n tha t o n e ge t s into t h e p assages in whic h th e b o nes ( m o r e a b out these l a t e r ) h ave b ee n f ound and large piles o r columns o f n othing but drip-stone a r e e n co u n te r edo B y the ve r y n ature o f things n o day li ght c a n ge t in to this subterra n ea n place, as i s the case with a ll su c h c a ves it is co n s t antly fill e d with mis t s and f ogs and in a d ditio n w a t e r i s a lw ays dripping d ow n from a b ove To t o p it all off thi s pl ace i s quite re n ow n e d b eca u se o f the g h os t s tha t a r e t o b e found in it. Thus, th e r e a r e u s u ally a goo d m a n y p eople w h o w ant to see the place They provide th e m se lves with a numbe r o f t o r c hes o r lig hts, as w e ll as o n e o r two tinder b oxes, so t h a t whe n the li ghts a r e extinguis h e d Copper engravings accompanying the description af Baumann's Cave in Merian's "Topographia" (1654). Above: locale of cave. Buildings labeled A are the 44 b y th e thi c k mis t s o r g h os t s they can b e li ghte d aga in. "\Th e n they do n o t h ave a guide who knows the cave rn s we ll th ese p eo pl e a l so u se the d ev i ce l earne d b y T hese u s f r o m A ri adne and u se d in the L a b yrinth. T hey ti e a corel to th e place whe r e they w a lk o r c r aw l in so th a t th ey ca n find t h eir way out aga in ; n o t a bl y w h e n their w ay i s lost in o n e o f the innume r able p as sages and it i s imposs ibl e t o find th e way o ut. Examples o f thi s diffi culty a r e t o b e found in th e case o f the d ea d b o dies o r s k e l e t o n s th a t h ave b ee n found the r e P eo pl e thus l os t would have t o r e m ain in th e re, die and d ec ay. T h e r e i s n o p e r so n h owev e r w h o could say tha t h e kne w a n end t o these innume r a ble, ee ri e p assages, altho u g h th e r e h ave b ee n m a n y p e o pl e (so m e of w h o m we r e l oca l p eople with a knowl e d ge o f mining) w h o s p ent seve r a l d ays in th e m and offe r e d a numbe r o f p roo f s th a t they n ea rl y r eac h e d uncl e r t h e earth, th e v i cinity o f th e F ree Impe ri a l City of G oslar, whi c h i s [ our l o n g Ger m a n miles [a b out 2 0 mil e s ] fr o m th e e n t r a n ce o f thi s cave iron-works. Cave entrance is marked C Brocken, highest mountain in central Germany, is marked F. Original size is 347 x 231 mm. T H E N A T IONAL S P E L EOLOG ICAL SOC IETY

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So m e p eo pl e w h o have go n e quite a way into thi s G I\ e r e p ort t h a t th ey h ave heard a ver y l a r ge str ea m r oaring as if a bi g ri ve r w e r e f alling from a hi g h cliff. Man y a l so cl aim th a t they we r e c h ase d a r ound b y vario u s g h os t s fo r a l o n g time and fin ally came ac r oss stro n g, l oc k e d iro n c hest s o f unbe li eva bl e siz e that w e r e guarde d b y fie r ce d ogs. W e s h a ll h ave t o t a k e a ll o f th ese cla im s with a g r ain o f salt, h oweve r n o m atte r w h a t th eir intent, b eca u se th ese things a r e illu s i o ns o f th e E vil One. This muc h i s certain and ca n b e attest e d b y r e li a bl e p eo pl e: A b out 65 yea r s ago a young, stro n g cow b oy f r o m the H a r z r e gi o n dar e d t o go in a l o n e, and b eca u se h e l os t hi s way and hi s li g hts w ent out, s p ent a ll of eight d ays the r e with g reat t e rror and anxie t y until h e fin a ll y got out b y G o d 's s p ec ial p alpa bl e provide n ce. T h e re .afte r h e liv e d to a ripe o ld age, but during tha t Above: The entrance to Braumann's Cave overlooking the Bode River The cut below shows severo I men exploring the cave with torches. One of the two men shown in the background is sliding over the "Horse." Original size: 173 x 135 and 171 x 139 mm. B ULLETI N N UMBE R 18, D E CEMB E R 1956 t im e h e b eca m e as p a l e as i ce and was t erro rizea b eyond all m e a sure b y the g h osts, inasmuc h as h e wa s s e ized b y a f e w o f the m acc u se d of b eing a thi ef, condemne d t o th e gall ows, l e d to the m and a n oose place d a r ound hi s n ec k Sca r ce l y h a d he elude d these w h e n h e fell in t o the h ands o f a n o th e r p arty o f th e m b y w h o m h e was co n d emne d t o death as a murde r e r and so o n b y m a n y oth e r s and in m a n y ways was tormente d and t e r rorized to the extre m e .[s]. Besides the m a rvel o u s structure o f this a m az ing cave fo r whic h n o b o d y h as ye t b e e n a bl e t o offe r a plausible expla n a ti o n t h e r e are a numbe r of o th e r r e m arka bl e things in it. T h e r e is, nota bly, a s m a ll spring with ve r y clea r wat e r right in th e fir s t p assage. This wa t e r i s u se d d a il y n o t without effec t b y m a n y p eo pl e fo r the p ains of kidney stones. If this w a t e r i s k ept in a g l ass it k ee p s fo r o n e o r m o r e yea r s fr ee o f a ll corrup t i o ns, and n o t the s li ghtes t a m ount o f fo ul mat te r i s to b e f ound in it. Furthermo r e as alread y m entio n e d th e wa t e r in the cave i s co n s t antly falling dow n fro m a b ove in drops Thus s u c h dro p s h a n g o n the sto nes like i c icl es. These long thin s t o nes a r e o f a n entire l y white co l o r and, b eing prize d a r e bro u ght out in l a rge quantity sold, pulve rized and strew n into the wounds o f injure d ca ttl e with g r e a t effect. In additio n a g r ea t quantity o f a ll sorts of b o n es and b o n e l ets o ft e n n ea rl y d eca y e d a n d fr o m unknown ani m a l s i s f ound b eyond the H o r se in n early a ll p assages These a r e offe r e d t o the commo n p eo pl e as unicorn [ b o nes J. Among s u c h b o n es, teeth a r e often found of a n inc r e dible s i z e s u c h as tluee th a t w e r e brou ght out so m e yea r s ago, of whi c h o n e was m o r e tha n three times as big as a h o r se s tooth Fro m thi s w e rn a e a i I ass ume that huge anima l s u sed u c h te e th. Lik ew i e, a comple t e s k e l e to n of a human b einD" oE unbe lieva bl e s i ze was found so m e ea l a !ro .' LITERAT R E C I T E D '\I'D )/OTES J Pp. 3 1 -33 2 A nlOn Liibke: G e h c illlllisse dl' l:IIII',;rdisc h ell.' B onn, 1 9 53 P. 1 83. In p a s s i n g e Illa y note t hat I h i s r ecent gen e ral w o rk o n s p e l eo l o gy co e r s aimos l e v e r -pha e o f l h e sc i e n c e Il h a s ov e r 1 30 a lllable illu s t r :nions a n d i s a goo d s ource o f informa t i o n abo u t c a v es n o t onl in EII r o p e bllt in oth e r p arts of 1 h e w o rl d. .1' T r a n s ) a li o n ll1in e. 4 Approxima t e l y : Div in e p o w e r plays a ro l e in huma n affairs S O f co u rs e all of this w ould not h a ve h appe n e d 1 0 him i r h e h a d bee n f ollo win g the b as i c safe t y r ul es of the N 5 .5. and n o t h ave g o n e in a l o n e l 4 5

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limits of the unknown have been pushed back to the point where major efforts are necessary for new discovery. Effective planning can make the individual hours within a cave more useful, reduce the time spent in support of a trip, yield more n ew discoveries or scientific data p e r dollar spent, and enabl e exploration teams to push farther into the large cave systems. Organization probl e ms are simi lar in every cave trip, be it a major expedition or a Saturday afternoon jaunt to a n earby mud crawl. Prob l ems include the definition of the mission of the trip, the se l ections or recruiting of personnel, the selections of l eaders, and a decision on the length of stay in the cave. Equipment, sometimes e l aborate, is needed in caves Food is necessar y as an emergency ration or as r egularly scheduled meals if the stay underground is long. Telephone or communications systems may be a valuabl e asset in conveying ideas and plans in a clear, concise way. Finally, all of the gasoline us e d in driving to the cave, the new rope and pitons for the unexplored lead at the top of the waterfall, the flash bulbs shot off on the photo survey, and the carbide in lamps must be paid for. Such organizational considera tions naturally are not limited to exploration underground. High-peak mountain climbing, undersea re search polar expediti ons, and jungle exploration are all activities in which the success of the trip can be dependent on the effectiveness of the planning. In a ll fields of exploration there are many accounts of trips experiencing incomplete success because of improper organizational sUuc ture. Others have failed because equipment did not survive severe environmental conditions. Diet a l o n e has been the downfall of expeditions, especia ll y on the seas and in polar regions. Much applicabl e to spe l eo l ogy can be learned from the successes and fai l ures of others. The ship frozen in t h e polar sea is not like t h e geo lo gical party camped we ll within a cave, but the actions, experiences, and equipment of the floating "laboratory" can contribute suggestions for better management of scientific cave study. Nor is the climbing team within a few feet of a cloud s hrouded summit like a group of spelunkers making an assault on a network of unexplored passages, but the assault progra m of the climbers can yield new ideas us e ful in the methodical exploration of the underground. BULLETIN NUMBER 18, DECEMBER 1956 Truth is stranger than fiction, but not a ll reported as truth is true. "Vhen r ea d criti ca ll y however, the writings of explorers can contribute generali zations pertinent to speleological expe di tions. Ideas on organizational structure can come from our own cave exploring activities, from p eople in other fields, such as the military, or those in th e field of educational theory 'l\Te frequentl y lose sight of the ideas around us, how ever, in our myriad work in grotto or chapter committees, regional organizations, and Society functions. SEVEN PRINCIPLES The writer has abstracted some of those principles which stand the test of exploration organization, in caving, and in other areas None of them are new but they are food for thought. 1. PERSONNEL ORGANIZATION, LEADERSHIP, AND COMMAND SHOULD BE COOPERATIVE, AND SHOULD RESULT FROM, RATHER THAN BE IMPOSED UPON, THE MISSION OF THE EXPEDITION. In speleology, little has be e n \vritten on how the command structure should be evo l ved. In m a n y cases organizational planning starts at the wrong time and place. A roster is made up, an arbitrary organizational structure is blueprinted, and people on the roster are "given jobs" according to the rigid plan. Their functions really may not be needed in the cave. It is far better to anal yze compl etely the goals sought within the cave, th e n plan accordingly. The adopti o n of a singl e pattern such as a mili tary "chain of command" with leade r executive officer, and a multitude of "platoons" is rigid and not suited to most tasks underground. A cave master controlling the enuy and exit of parties may b e a p e r so n wasting a da The logistics officer on a large u ip ma concei\Oably be a "fifth-whee l without a full-time job. The b e t organizational structure i s one that frees surface personnel [or relativel y more important underground work. Experimentation in organizational structure s hould b e encouraged. The thinking of a yea r or a trip may not b e adequate for another, slightly diff erent situation. T h e activity of speleo l ogy is self-impo ed. Few are active in spe l eo l ogy who do not want to b e active cave expl orers. Likewise, direction of ex ploration should for the mos t part b e e lf-im pos e d. The leader should b e a r e ollrce person 47

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rath e r t h a n a commande r. His judgment i s b e t ter d e v o t e d to decisi o n m aking tha n administra ti o n Mos t trips o f a n y worth have their m a j o r d ec i s i o n s unde r g r ound; a n expeditio n lead e r ti e d t o surface resp o n sibilities i s n o t m aking the ma j o r d ec i s i o n s of the t rip. P arties s h ould r e l y o n the t rip lead e r f o r co ordinatio n and advice, n o t fo r s p ec ifi c direc ti o n. T h e minute b y-minute, foot-b y -f oot d ec i s i o n s of cave expl o r a ti o n a r e best arrive d a t through co o p e r a ti ve d ec i s i o n s involving the entire p arty. 2 S IMPLIC ITY I N A L L PHASES O F TRIP ORGANIZATION I S A GOAL T O B E SOUGHT AFTER. C omple x ity in o rganizati o n and equipment is a virtue o nl y as i t b eco mes n ecessa r y to the t a sk a t h a n e l. Complexity and bigness the m se l ve s a r e indica ti ve of n o equa l a m ount o f effe cti veness, and, too frequently s u ccess i s judge d b y s ize ins tead of actua l acomplishment. T o r e p ort tha t 2 0 p eople ente r e d a cave o r tha t tw o miles o f p as s a ges w e r e "cove r e d a r e th e m se l ves n o s t a t e m ents o f a c co m plishme n t. V h e n p l anning a c a ve trip m o r e critical eval u a ti o n of a ll as p ec t s of the endeavor is p ossible w h e n simpl i city i s u se d a s a s t andard of measurem e n t It dem ands ca reful conside r a ti o n o f the r ea l number of p eople n ee d e d the employ m ent o f the best p ossible equipment, and the p aring off o f execesses whic h compound in l o g arithmic fas hi o n t o hinde r m aximum accomplishment w i thin a cave 3. MULTI-PURPOSE E Q U IPMENT I S MOR E DESIRAIlLE THAN SPECI ALIZED EQUIPMENT WHE R E CHOICE I S POSSlllLE To reduce support proble ms, u se equi p m e n t whic h accomplis h es seve r a l ends. Camp m a n age m e n t ca n b e streamline d t o the p oint thilt m a n y m o r e m a n h ours are avail able unde r g r ound. Rigging d ev i ces, esp ec i a lly, ca n b e reduce d w h e n equipment purc h ase d or m a d e ca n ser ve seve r a l func ti o n s in cave rigging U nfortuna t e ly, little multi-purpose equipment is ava il a bl e for s p e l eo logi ca l w o rk A g reat op portunity exi s t s for individua l s and c b apters t o i n vent a n d d es i g n s u c h gear. Cave explorati o n n ee d s b ette r to p side camping and m essing e q uipme n t. E rector Se t t y p e r igging i s entire l y poss ibl e; made in m odules, it co u l d b e u se d fo r climbing d o m es, c r oss in g pits, and r igging drops. B e t te r tra n s p ort dev i ces fo r ca m e r as, foo d car bide, water and othe r supplies w ould facilita t e under g r ound trave l. 48 4. P E RSONNEL SKILLED I N SEV E R A L ASPECT S O F S P E LEOLOGICAL W ORK ARE GREATER ASSETS THAN THOSE CAPABLE OF P ERFORM ING ONE OR TWO J O B S ONLY. As mUlti-purpose equipment promotes effec ti veness, tb e se l ec ti o n o f ve r sa til e p e r sonnel i s even m o r e importa nt. The explo r e r who can survey, calcula t e l atitudes and d e p a 'rtures, t a k e d ocumenta r y pho t ographs, and make geol ogica l and bi o logical o b se r va ti o n s i s f a r m o r e v alua bl e than the p e r so n whose f orte i s ex pl oring and little l ess In r apid explo r a ti o n s u c h as i s ofte n done in areal surveys, a single part y o f p e rs o n s skille d in several disciplines ca n accomplish m o r e than se p a r a t e ex pl o r a ti o n surveying, and pho to p arties Since the r e are n o f orma l school s of s p e l eology, the initia ti ve i s squa r e l y o n the explo r e r to d e ve l o p skills and kno wl edge u seful in unde r ground work. 5 EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION I S I M P E R ATIVE IN A SUCCESSFUL E X PLORATION PROGRAM. Nothing r educes t o t a l accomplishme nt, was t es m o r e hours, confuses individua l p arties and increases the po t ential serious n ess o f a n y accident, tha n poor communication. As the s ize or complexity of a cave inc r eases, the difficult y in m aintaining com municati o n with the surface and othe r p arties and individua l s inc r eases. The write r 's r ecent ex perie n ce, cite d earlie r shows tha t eve n whe n a party i s thoroug hl y acquainte d with. the pro b l e m o f communicati o n it s till m ay arrange a m bi guous m eeting places and times. '\'e still f ail t o communica t e with othe r p arties, and wha t' s wor se, we m ay confuse othe r p arties through un clear m essages Improvem e n t o f communications comes t hrou g h t e l epho n e syst e m s s i g n a l sys t e ms, writ t e n l ogs, n o tes and diari es. The g reat es t resp o n sibility li es with the individua l. Joe L aw r e n ce, J r in discussing communications probl e m s sum m arizes 10 rules whic h mus t b e o b se r ve d b y ex plo r e r s if effecti ve communica ti o ns a r e t o exist.1 I. ",Trite s p ec ifi c n o tes. 2 Identify yo u rself o n notes and in phone call s 3. D a t e all n o t es and include the time. <1. Nam e l andmarks, s u c h as p assa g es and dis tinc ti ve formati o ns. 5. Summarize pho n e call s clearly in a log boo k. 6. Tell othe r s ir i d e t ail w h a t yo u saw. T H E N ATIONAL SPE L EOLOGICAL SOCIET Y

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7. Mak e sc h e m a ti c maps to r efres h your m e mory and to h elp oth e rs unde r stand a new o r un[amilit,lr area. 8 S hare your thoughts, ideas, and proble m s with oth e rs; don't k ee p the m to yourse lf. 9. Write a trip r e p ort or tape r ecord o n e Both are b ette r t h a n one. 10 T alk about the trip w i t h oth e r s to s hare ideas and learn l esso n s 6. THOROUGHNESS AND EXCELLENCE OF PER FORMANCE INCREASE THE TOTAL SUCCESS OF ANY EXPEDITION. S in ce s p e l eo l ogy i s an avocation we seldom co n s id e r it in term s o f the greatest indi vidua l e ffort p oss ibl e. On major ex p editio ns, state or a r ea l cave surveys, and any serious underground trip, hi g h s t andards of p e rforman ce are n eces sary T h e c r aw l way pushe d to its end l eaves n o doubt o f l a r ge caves b eyond. To turn around in s u c h a crawl before the end is r eac hed b eca u se o n e doesn' t like to c r aw l does not t ypify the p er[ormance n ee ded in serious exploratio n. T h e ability to explore at a rapid p ace with a minimum amount o[ r es t a desirabl e attribute, ca n b e obtaine d o nl y through se lf -training with a gradua l inc r e as e of one' s own physical e n d ur a n ce. A r e t entive mind w hi c h l ogs deta il s t hat later form a compre h e n s i ve r eport does not b e co m e r etentive w i t hout practice. Experien ce i s n ecessa r y i f a ke e n judgment or ability t o s izeup th e b ette r of seve ral alterna ti ves i s to b e d e veloped. Like th e acq ui sition o f many speleolog i ca l s kills, th e d eve lopment o f hi g h s t andards of e xc e ll e n ce i s l a r ge l y a m atter of individua l training and initia ti ve 7 P E RSONAL COMFORT I S POSSIBLE WITHOUT SACRIFIC ING INDIVIDUAL P ERFORMANCE AND THE ACCOMPLIS HME,NT OF THE TRIP' S M ISSION. G e n erally, th e greater th e individual comfort, th e grea t e r the individua l' s ability t o withstand e n vironmental conditions that ca u se fat i g u e, hunger, and d e moralizati o n. The present age i s one of technical exploration. T h e r e is little of the h e roi c or dramatic in withstanding hardships endure d b eca u se of a n "expedition" or "explor-I .Joe L awre n ce Jr.. "So m e .Ne w Approac h es to Spel e ology ", a pape r presente d J omtly b y Joe Lawre n ce Jr., Roge r W Bru cke r Philip M. Smith ami Dav id B .Jo nes a t the Ap ril 1 6 1 9:'5 NSS Annual M eeullg. Comple t e t ext available [rom NSS Library. BULLETIN NUMBER 1 8 DECEMBER 1956 atary" attitude Ascetic o r philosophica l experie n ces which mi ght a rise out of s u c h h e r o ics see m a li e n LO th e real n a ture of in t e lli ge n t spel eo l ogy Any t echnique, garme n t o r equipment that makes th e explorer's life eas i e r s h ould b e e m p l oye d so l ong as it does not inc r ease o r ganiza tional or l ogistica l proble ms. Comfor t doe not mean th a t the expl o rer must b e arrayed with gadgets. Comfort co mes thro u g h th e use of we ll fitted clothing that retain s h ea t but i s n o t too warm for strenuous acti vity; it co m es throug h the c h o i ce of flas hli ghts and water bottl e that a ll ow ease of move m ent in ti ght pl aces; it co m es thro ugh use of rati o n s that are appeti z in g, yet produce more e n e r gy th a n t h e carrying of them co n sumes. THINK ABOUT HOW YOU PLA1\ T h ese seve n principles b y n o m ea n s exha ust th e pl anning ideas applicabl e to s p e l eo logi ca l explora ti o n. Principa l s s u c h as t h ese s h o ul d though, b e the b as i s [ o r p l anning both l a r ge and s m a ll cave trips. B y u sing th e m o r ga ni zat i o n a l proble ms, s u c h as the approach to the assault o n the unknown, time to b e s p ent unde rground, th e missi o n se lecti o n of leader s a ll ca n b e implifie d. T h e p robabl e result i s g reater group h ar m o ny, greater group efficie n cy We n ee d to think about how we go ca \ 'ing, then write d ow n what we thought, what w e did, and h ow the p lans worked. R e f e r e n ces o n p l anning are infrequent in s p e l eo logi ca l literature Eq u i pme n t study o n a l oca l and n a tiona I l eye l s h ould b e inc r eased rapidl y and in many direc tions. No sati sfactor y diet for the m a n unde r ground h as co m e t o this writer' s attentio n R esea r c h o n food would produ ce a notabl e addition to present studies of o r ga ni zation and equipme nt. S u c h thinking and acti\ i ty i n eeded if w e are t o survey thoro u g hl y t h e unknown ex isting today. R e ea r c h experimentation, and pl anning n ee d not redu ce the plea ures obtained from spelunking and spe l eo log' nor will more effec ti ve l y o r ganized trips b eco m e dull and busin ess -lik e. Considerati o n of these proble m s and th e discovery of u sefu l solutio n s s h ould m a k e for g r eater enjoy m ent o f th e weekend ca \ 'e trip, th e routine of th e sta t e ca\'e ur\, ey, and th e m a j o r ex p edition. 49

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pun tIes a r e far from rare in natural deposits, and the "aft e r -glow" phenomenon is perhaps not so r a r e as form e rly thought, but it may be of greatl y varying inte nsity ACKNOWLEDG:\1 ENT The auth o r desires to acknowl edge the assistance of Mr. Chris Wall ace in a p o rti o n of the above invesligation. Underground Man / / -\ ------,111,. I -BULLETIN NUMBER 18, DECEMBER 1956 R EFERENCES CITED 1M. Sutherland and E H e lm. Nat. Geog. Mag. ClV, p. 452 ( Oct. '53) 2 H L eve r enz: "Luminesce lic e of So lid s", p 340 (1950). Wil ey & Sons, N. Y. 3.J. H Schulman e t al. J our. Appl. Phys. 1 8, p. 732 ( 1 947 ) 51

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SPELE'OLOGICAL SOCIETIES OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES Compiled by BURTON S. FAUST This compila ti o n is the result of the exp enditure of muc h tim e and e n e rgy over a p eriod of four yea rs. Every available source of information was used in its preparation -foreign speleologi cal pu bli ca ti o ns; personal correspondence 'with friends in m a n y far-flung sections of the world, some of whom furnished complete lists of socie ties in th eir native lands; and much p e rson a lly communicated information from other sources. The mas ter li s t i s b e in g maintaine d in a card file and corrections are k ept as current as pos s ibl e ''''hil e a n e ffort h as b ee n m a d e t o produce a correct and comple t e directory, it i s in ev it a bl e that errors appear b ecause o f th e tim e lag in r e ce i ving information from far p l aces. Errors o r omissions should b e brought to the attentio n of th e compiler. AFRICA I. South A fri ca n Spel eo l ogica l Asso ciation, Ca p e Section, P O Box 3538, Cape Town, Stuart Macph e r so n Secreta ry. 2 South A fri ca n S p e l eo logic a l Asso ciation, Transvaal Section P.O. Box 4 1 3, Springs, T r a n svaa l Da v id Crabtree, Sec r etary AUSTRALIA 3. Sydney U niver s it y Speleo logi ca l Soc i e ty, B ox 35, T h e nion, Syd n ey U ni ver sity, S ydney H F airl i e Cunning h a m e Presi d ent. AUSTR I A 4. Verband Osterreichischer H o hl e n furs c h e r 39, l e u l in ggasse, Vienna nT, Hans Salze r Pres id ent. 5. Landesve r e in fur H o hl enkunde, Ausserland, 20, Fischerndorf, A l taussee, S t eir-1l1ark, J ohn G ai sbe rger ] resid ent. 6. Landes verein fur Hohlenkunde, E b e ns ee, pper A ustria. 8, Gmundne r strasse Franz Falmseder, Pres id e nt. 7. Landesve r e in fur H o h l e nKund e 9, Sal s b e r g, !-Ialls tatt, Uppe r Aus lri a, Dip!. ing O. Sch a u berger, Pres id ent 8 L andesvere in fur H o h l enkunde Kapfenbe r g, 4 1 G raz e d strasse, Schnuderl St eirma rk K onrad W ac k e, Pres id e nt. 9. Landesverein fur H o hl enkunde Lower A u st ri a, 39, Nenlinggasse. Vienna lIT Hans S alzer Pres id ent. J 0. S p e l aeologoisches I n stitut, Bundesd enkmalamt, Schw e itz er h oL Sau l e n s ti ege, V i enna J !-Iofburg. I I. Landesverein fur !-Io hl enkunde, Salzburg, 52 3 S t iege l s tra sse, Sal zburg, Max g l a n G u s ta v -\be l Presid ent. 1 2. Landesverein fur H o h l enkunde, S i erning 17, Hopfengasse, Li nz, Uppe r Austria. 1 3. Landes verein fur Hohlenkunde, Styr i a, 26, L age r gasse, Graz SteirmarK J ohann Gan g l Pres id e n t. 14. Landesverein fur Hohlenkunde, Tirol IS/I Schuberstrasse, Innsbruck, Tirol, lng N. Engelbrec h t Pres id ent. 1 5. L andesve r e in fur H o hl enkunde Trofaic h T r o fai c h, Gasthaus, Schnude rl Steirma rk A lf K ampe r Pres id e n t. 16. Landesverein fur H o hl enkunde, Ober Osterreich, 17, Hopfenga sse, Linz, Uppe r A u stria Hans S i eg l Pres id ent, (6A Goethest rasse). 17. Landesve r e in fur H o hl enkunde, 'Neil, 26, Lagergasse Graz, S t eirmark. B E LGIUM 1 8 A jistes "Cavernico l es", Maison des Jelll1eS, 1 4, Rue d e l a Paille, Brusse l s A G M onmart, Sec retary. 1 9 Cercl e S p e l eo lo gique d es Etndiants Gemblouto i s 7 Rue Ernolte, Namur, Michel Ori o n Secretary. 20 Lombrics" de Bruxelles 99 Rue Vonck Sch aerbeek-Brus se ls, Roger O ethoor Secretary. 2 1 Ce rcl e d e Speleologie d e L Eco l e, Abb a t i a l e de Maredsous, Ecole Abbati a l e d e ] I'[ar edso us, p a r Maredret, G u y d e Bethune, Sec r e t ary. 22. Cercle d e Speleologie d e l U niver site d e Bruxe l les, 68, Avenue d e la Toi so n d 'Or, Bru sse l s, J eanPi erre Gen o n Sec r e t a ry. 23 Equipe Spe leologique "Colonel b PanLOuA e 20, Boul evard Montefiore, Liege, R. Daume r) Secretary. 24 Equipe Spel eo logique "Norbert Casta r e t ", 380, Rue St. G ille s Lie ge. Maurice Paquay Sec retar y 2!i Fed eratio n S p e l eo logique de B e l gique, B e lgique, Ab baye d e Maredsous, Par Mare dvet I k l gique, 3 7 Rue Darchis, Liege, M. P G Li egeo is, Pres id e nt. 2(j. Les "Nuto ns" d e Soi g ni es. 1 27, C h a u ssee d e :-Ie"["ill e, Soi g ni e s O. Tart, Sec r etary. 2i. Les "Cyclo pes" de Seraing 1 3, Rue P a pill o n Se r a in g, Gur O a n e l Sec r e l a ry. 28. GroupeSpeleologique de Charleroi 7 Chau ssee d e P h i lippev ille Love r va l Mme. Y. Bri x h e. Presid e n t. 29 Les A m i s d e I e Nature. Sec ti o n d e Vervi e rs, 40, Rue de l a NOlll elle V e r v i e rs H Co u rtois Leader. 30. Les Naturalistes Bel ges Sec ti o n de N i v illes, 6 Rue de F ontaine I'Eveq u e, L oupo i g n e p a r Gen appe 31. Spel eo-C lub d e l'O lifam, a Bruxelles, 7 4, Rue de Rotterdam, Bru sse l s Edgard Clotuche, President. Soc i e t e a n o n y m e des Grottoes de !-Ia n e t de R oc h e f ort, Chatea u d e e t a Denee, ./u l es d e M ontpe l l i e r Presid ent and Directo r. Societe d e R ese r c hes et d 'Ex p l oi latio ns sOllte rl' a i n es d e Dinant, J os eph D e l oge, Expl os ifs, !V[erl e lIlo n t. 34. Soc i e t e "Les Naturalis t es Ve r vielois" 49, Rue P. Lilllbourg. Verviers, L. R e n ard, Sec r etary THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGIGAL SOCIETY

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ITALY 1 33. Circo l o S p e leo l ogico Campa n o, V i a Mace d o ni a Me ll o ni 94, Nap oli, A lfon so Pic i occ hi Presid ent. 1 41. Se r v i z i o Geol o gi co d 'ltalia L a r go S. S u sanna 1 3, R o m e. R O MANI A J.l9 Ins ti tute d e S p e leo logie Unive r sity din Cluj, Cas uta P os t a la N u 1 58, 142 Soc ieta Alpina d elle Giulie, Via M il a n o 3 Trieste, 50 1 Cluj, 1 34. Circo l o Speleo logi co R o m a n o, Vi a Ulisse A ldrovandi N. 18, R o m e, S t e li o Qua r antotto Librari a n P C h appuis P r es id e n t. 143 D e l Touring Club Ita li a no, Cor so lLa li a 10, Mila n S P A I N 150. Grupo d Explo r ac i o n es Subte r raneas d e l Club M o ntan es B a r ce l o n es, A ld o C. Seg r e, Sec r e t a ry. 1 3 5 Club Alpino Italia n o, Genoa. MARTIN IQUE 1 36. Club Marte l Groupe Spel eo logi que Soc i e t e S p e leo logiq u e d e France, d e la C o t e d'Azur, 1 44. G r o upe Speleo logique d e Antilles Fort d e F r a n ce. Soc i e d a d d e C i e n cias Natural es, Pla z e R ea l 3 10 B arce l o n a A n to ni o Fite F i ssas Sec r e t a ry. MOROCCO L ycee d e Gar co ns, Avenue F elix F aure, N i ce M . V iger o n Pres iden t. 145. Soc iete S p e leo l ogique d e M a r oc. c/o d e l Aviatio n Fra n ca i s Casa bl a n ca. 1 51. Ins ti t u to de Geologia, F ac ultad d e C ie n cias, U ni vers idad de O v iedo, O v i e d o N L10 pi s L1a d o Sec r e t a ry. 137. Gruppo Gro u e Mila n o V ia Fabio F il z i 45 Mil a n, A. C i g n a President. NEW ZEA L AN D SW ITZERLAN D 1 38 Gruppo S p e leo logi co L i gure "Arluro I sse I ", 1 46 e w Zea l and S p e l eo logi ca l Soc i e t y 38 H a rl sto n R oa d M t. A lb ert S.W 2 A u c kl and, .152 Soc i e t e S ui sse d e S p e l eo logie C omite Cen t r a l S i o n. 1 53. Soc i e t e S ui s s e d e S p e leo logi e, Gen ev a Sec t io n Museo C i v i co di S t o ri a atura l e G. Dori a H enry G L ambert, Pres id ent. 1 4 Rue d e I'Arquebuse Geneva. PERU TASMANI A V ia G ri gata Li guria 9, Genoa, Ing. E. E. Codde, Pres id e n t. 1 47 Socie d a d E speleo l o gic a d e l Peru, C u zco 1 54. Tasm a ni a n Caverneering Club, 1 8 E liz a b eth Stree t H o b art, 1 39. Gruppo S p e le o logi co M a r c higi a n o, Vi a M a r sa la 1 2, A n co n a, M i g u e l Suma r P ac h a, Director. K S Ire d a l e Sec r e t a r y VENEZUELA C. Pegorari, Sec r e t a r y PORTUGAL 1 55. Sp e l e ol o g i c a l Sectio n o f t h e Ven zu e l a n Soc i e t y o f Natural Scie n c e s Cara c as. 1 4 0 Rice r c h e sulla Morfo logia e Idregrafia Car sica, C el1lro di Studi per l a Geogr a fia Fis ica, 1 48. D o g rupo es p e loelogi co d e Asso ciac a o d os E studantes, d a Facul d a d a d e C i e n c i as d e Lisbon, YUGOSLAV I A Istiwto di G eografia, L'Univer sita di Stud i B o l ogna Av e Duque d e L o uI e 5 0-10 Li s b on, 1 56 Instiwt z a R a xi s kovanje Krasa, S.A Z U J aime M artins F erreira, L eader. Postojna WHO'S WHO IN BULLETIN EIGHTEEN BRIAN .J. O 'BRIEN h as cave d f o r s i x o f his 22 yea r s in his n ative A u stralia. A fter r ece i ving his B.S. fro m the Unive r s i t y of Sidney in 1953, h e b egan w orking for his Ph. D. in nuclear phys ic s a t the sa m e institutio n H e has explore d cav e s in N e w S outh W a les espec iall y in the Y arra n go billy m ountain r e gi o n. One o f his studies w as o n the o c currence of "foul air" and its effect on s p e le o l o gi s t s in the cav e s a t Bungonia, N S.W. H e h a s a l so inv e stiga t e d the subject of r adio tra n s mission i n c a ves. H e i s a p as t president o f the S ydney Unive r sity Sp e leo logi ca l Soc ie t y, and i s currently editor o f their Journ a l H e organiz e d the initial m eeting of the Australian Speleo logic a l Feder a ti o n at Christmastime, 1956. Othe r inte r es t s are poetr y and mus ic, and his main h obby i s "going bus h DANI E L BLOXSOM, JR. a n enginee r b ecame interes t e d in s p e leo lo gy in 195 2 whe n he moved t o T ull a h o m a Ten n esse e, in the heart o f the middle T ennesse e cave r e gi o n. H e was a c h arte r m embe r of the C umbe rl and G r otto, serving as sec r e t a r y and edito r o f the "Trogl o d y te" in the group' s fir s t year. H e w as b orn in 1 929 in H o u s t on, Tex as, and r ec ei ved his B .A. degr ee in physi cs from Ric e Ins ti tute in tha t city. On graduating, h e j o in e d th e Arno ld Engineering D eve l opme n t Ce nter a t Tulla h oma a s an e n ginee r. H e h as c ontributed articles o n cave subjec t s to the NSS N ews frequently and has lecture d at severa l annua l meetings o f the Socie ty. H e m arrie d Ann D eming of Hous to n in 1 951. His prima y inte r ests in s p e leo l o g y cel1le r around explo r a ti o n o f n e w caverns and d eve l oping the t echniques for effic i ent explo r a ti o n and mapp ing. BULLETIN NUMBER 18, D E C EMBER 1956 ALFRE D \ 'V. H BOGLI, o f Hitz ki rc h Luzerne, Switz e rl and, w as born in 1912 and h as publis h e d wide l y o n speleolo g i ca l subjec t s in continental j ournals. A geo m orpho l o gi s t by training, he i s a n instruc t o r in geograph y in the Hiu kirc h Tea chers C o llege. Unde r his l eade r ship vari o u s w ork groups h av e b ee n es t ablis h e d t o furthe r the scientific study o f H o l oc h C a ve. He i s co f ounde r o f the S wiss G e o m orpho l o gical So ci e ty. H e i s a n accomplis h e d photogra phe r in b oth blac k and white and co l o r as well a s an expe ri e n ce d all-ar ound ca v e explo rer. Dr. Bogli h as a w arm feeling f o r the g r owing e x c h a nge o f s p e leo l o gical information interna ti o n ally ; his anicle m a rk s his firs t publicat i o n in Eng li s h Having been trapped b y hig h w a t e r inside H o l odl C ave h e kno w s w e ll the d a n ge r s in vo l ved in l a r g e -cav e exploratio n as w e ll as the sa ti s f ac ti o n tha t co m es with m apping a cave la rger tha n a n y othe r n o w known. L E Roy W FOOTE, Middlebury, Connec ti cut, r esents the f ac t that New Eng l and wa s s h orldla nged in caves, sinc e h e i s a n ardent s p elunke r. H e j oine d the NSS in 1942 b ecoming the Soc i e t y s second treasure r O n e o f the earl i es t L i fe M embers o f the Soc i e t y h e w a s instrumenta l in e s t a bli shing the Endo wm ent a n d R ese r v e Funds, and, with C lay P erry r eorganize d the New E n g land G r otto in 19 4 6 His wif e and three childre n s h a r e his enthusias m f o r the under g r ound. H e i s a b anke r a n d a n a m a t eur minerol o g i s t. Fro m his h o m e in the h eart o f t h e Leatherma n country h e h as r a nged out t o inte rvi e w o ld r es id e n ts w h o r e m embe r this co l orful figure, and h as vis ited Illa n y of 5 5

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Description
Contents: Foreword --
The Hell Hole in the Muota Valley / by Alfred W. H. Bogli
--
New Caving Equipment and Techniques / by Daniel Bloxsom,
Jr. --
The Leather Man and His Caves / by LeRoy W. Foote --
The St. Michaels Caves, Gibraltar / by T. R. Shaw --
Blind Fishes Found in Cave Pools and Streams / by Loren
P. Woods --
Prospecting for Caves / by Cord H. Link, Jr. --
Discovery at the Fontana Chistaina / by John Hooper --
Eagle Lake Lava Caves / by Robert Given --
A Cave Description from the Middle of the 17th Century /
by Charles E. Weber --
Seven Principles of Effective Expedition Organization /
by Philip M. Smith --
After-Glow of Cave Calcite / by Brian J. O'Brien --
Underground Man / by William Helmer --
Speleological Societies Outside the United States / by
Burton S. Faust --
Who's Who in Bulletin Eighteen.

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