Citation
Bulletin of the National Speleological Society

Material Information

Title:
Bulletin of the National Speleological Society
Series Title:
Bulletin of the National Speleological Society
Creator:
National Speleological Society
Publisher:
National Speleological Society
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Regional Speleology ( local )
Technical Speleology ( local )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
Location:
United States

Notes

General Note:
Contents: Notes on Undeveloped Caves of Virginia / by Wm. M. McGill -- Extract from Biographical Notes of W. L. McAtee -- Caves of the British Isles / by Robert E. Morgan and Frank Solari -- Caves of the Sewanee Area / by Henry T. Kirby-Smith, M.D. -- Cave Formations in the Sewanee Area / by Harry M. Templeton, Jr. -- Annual Report of the President (1945) -- Report of Annual Meeting (1946) -- Membership Data -- POTHOLE -- Caverse Corner -- What We Know About Caves / by W. J. Stephenson -- As We Remember Him / by Edwin W. Beardsley -- Preview of a Cave Book / by Clay Perry -- Frankly Stated -- Diorama in Florida -- Where "Numbers" Idea Began -- Note on Grotto Formation -- Caves Are Not Dumps -- SOciety Loses Valuable Member -- D.S. Reichard Drowned -- More on Speleology -- Legislative Committee Set Up -- Handbook on Caves -- More Theory on Origin of Cave Species -- Report on Charter Awaited, etc -- Crystal Cave - Wisconsin / by T. C. Vanasse -- A Forgotten Freak of Nature / by Fra Elbertus -- Caves in Virginia / by Wm. Guthrie, Esq -- Grand Party to Explore a Cave / by Bayard Rush Hall -- Unexplored Regions of Wyandotte / by George F. Jackson -- Random Notes -- Committee Reports -- Cave Log -- Letters to and from Society Members -- Index to First Six Numbers of the Bulletin -- Progress Report as We Spread Abroad.
Restriction:
Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Version:
Vol. 8, no. 1 (1946)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
K26-00557 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.557 ( USFLDC Handle )
8065 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0027-7010 ( ISSN )

USFLDC Membership

Aggregations:
Karst Information Portal

Postcard Information

Format:
Serial

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

BU.LLETIN. Number Eight NOTEY ON UNDEVELOPED CAVES OF VIRGINIA 1!Y CAVES OF nm AREA By HENRY T. KIRBy..sMITB. M.D. ? CAVE FORMATIONS IN THE SEWANEE AREA By HARVEY M. TEMPLETON. PORTFQL rO OP "CARLSBAD CAVERN PHOTOGRAPHS "" CAVES OF 11jE BRITISH ISLES

PAGE 2

' B 'ULLE'TIN ., of the NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY lsI!ue Number Eight 1000 Copies. 129 Pages Published by The National 510 Star Building Washington, D. c., at $1.50 per copy. b y Th; National Speleological Society. WM. J STEPHENSON PresIdent 4825 North Lane Bethesda 3, Md . E DITOR: Dot* BLOCH f! 654 Enrersoh St., 3, Colorado ASSOCIATE EDITORS:..-"", .' DR. R. W. STONE, I1R. MAR'PN H. MUMA . OFFICERS AND COMMITTEE CHAIRMEN CHARLES E. MOHR Vice-President Academy of N a tural Sc;ie n ces. Philadelp llia. Pa. LE ROY W FOOTE Treasurer R. D. 1. M i ddlebury. Conn. .J. S PETRIE Secretary 400 S. Glebe Road Arlington, Va. MRS. CHRISSY W. S. HILL Edi to r The Newsletter : W.o04bucy. N J. BETfY YOE MANSFILD Secretary to the Boara 4421 (38th St .... N. -t Associate The Newsletter .' ; 2618 E. 89th St. Arlingto!l Va. Cleveland 4. O. Archaeology FLOYD BARLOGA 114 N. Linden Ave. Palatine, Ill. Bibliography & IJbrary ROBERT BRAY 4820 N. 9th St. Arlington, Va. . Publications DON BLOCH 654 Emerson St. Denver 3. Colo. Commercial Caves GORDON CURRY Hoover Co. N Canton. O. Equipment & Safety ELTON BROWN 5909 Chillum Gate Rd Hyattsville, Md. Exploration. E. W. BISCHOFF 538 Weldon Ave Oakland. Cal. Board of Governors Fauna JAMES FOWLER 29 W. Irving St. Ghevy. Chase 15. Md. Finance LERoy W FOOTll R. D. I Conn. Flora DR. CARROL E. Cox 7501 Hopkins Ave. College Park. Md. Folklore CLAY PERRY E ast Acres Pittsfield. Mass. Formations 8i Mineralogy Mapphlg WM. E. DAVIES 2311 N. 9th St. Arlington. Va. Membership' SAM ALLEN 1226 Wellesley Ave. Steubenville O. , Paleontology .. DR. ALFRED BURRILL 1 .24'1 Elmerine Ave. C:ity. Mo. Photography G ALEXANDER ROBERTSON 3718 Brookside Rd Richmond 24 Va J AMES H. BENN Program & Activities U S Nat. Museum BURTON FAUST ,. Washington. D C. . "so7 South Davis St. Hydrology Richmond. Va. DR. A. C SWIm1ERTON 1 4 5 L i mestone St. Yellow Springs 0 _. Legislation VmGIL CLYMER 1009 H a rrison St. S y racu s e 10. N Y Publicity CAPT. JACK PREBLE 1409 Oak Grove Ave Ste ubenville O. Records on Board during absence of Dr. Morri s on . ROBERT E MORGA N 9803 Dallas Ave. Silver Spring Md. CONTENTS LISTED ON OUTSIDE BACK COVER Other Board Members ACKERLY 243 Dearing S t . Apt. B Athens. Ga WM. G BLAHA 3687 E 140th St. 0 . FRA N K DURR 22 E. 38th St. New York 16 ; N. Y DR: HERBERT JACKSON Box 527 Blacksburg. Va DR. WALTER JONES State Geologist, UniverSity. Ala. DR. JOE MORRISON U S Nat. Museum Washington. D C. DR. MARTIN MUMA 618 S. 33rd St. Lincoln 8. Nebr. DR. R. W. STONE 3115 N. Front St. Harrisb .urg. Pa. .:... IN THE NEXT ISSUE: ThrQugh Chasm s a nd Gulfs Profound, by John Hooper; An Unusual Phenom enon by Burton Faust; C a ve Log 1941-46, by' H'Irvey Templeton Jr.; Caves of Texas by Vic tor S. Craun ; Saltpeter Ca ve s b y Georg e F J ackson; Portfolio of Crystal Cave (Ky.), IJhotographs by O etc. I PRINTED B Y SMITH-BROOK S PaINTING COMPANY, DENVER. COLORADO

PAGE 3

BULLETKN of the NUMBER E I GHT JULY, 1 946 NOTES ON UNDEVELOPED CAVES OF VIRGINIA B y WM. M. McGILL ( ASSI STANT STA T E G EO LOGI ST-VIRG I NIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY) The following brief des c riptions an d notes o n the l oca tion of undeveloped, and m a n y of the m unexpl ored, caves in the Appal ac hian Valley region of Virginia we r e com piled by the writer pri o r t o 1935 some from personal ob servations an d others from reports to him. S evera l o f the caves herein referred to have s in ce been expl o r ed, mapped, or studi e d in some detai l by members o f the Society, (mel oth ers, h e r e t ofore unreco rded, have been reported or locate d. This partia l listing, though somewhat out-of-d ate and pr epa red origina ll y for the writer's sa l e use i s here o ff e r e d as a gui de and ince lltive to the cont,;nued study and m o r e compl e t e listing o f caves (wherever they mtly be ) b y the SOciety alld its members. The caves h ere listed a r e arranged by counties. As is well known to members of the SOciety, caves sinks, sink-hol es, and disappearing st reams are o f widesp r ead occurrence throughout. the limestone tlnd d olomite areas o f the Appal achian Valley region; and it woul d not be surprising if some caves of con sid erab l e extent a lld inte r est, possib l y worth y of commer c i a l development, were found (/s ( / result o f further investi ga tions (lnd continuo us expl ora tions A Ileghany County NATURAL rVELL CAF'A l arge sink and cave ar c f ound along the southwest s tr ike of the H e ld er b e rg l i mestone, ju s t cas t of the Callison-Fa llin g Spring road ab o: l t o n e and thrcef ourths miles n ortheast of Natural Well, in Allegh a n y county This c av e has not b ee n expl o r ed but probabl y i s cx t e n s i ve alon g prominent joints in the limc stone Other Caves.-No othc r important caves ar e now k nown i n Alleg h a n y county. Severa l l a rg e s ink h o l es, a few small s ll1k-h ole cavcs, and s udd enly disappear in g s tr ea m s occur a l o n g J ackso n River n orth of Covington as far as the Bath coumy l ine The numbe r of s inks, sinkh o les, and s inking strcam s indicat e that underground drainage c h a n ne l s extend northea s t -southwest a l o n g solubl e b e ds of lim esto n e in the centra l a nd n ortheastcrn parts of the COlInt y. So m c of t h csc c hannel s l ead possibl y to typical caves as for exa mple from the l arge sinkh o l c ha l f a mil e southe ast of J cnkin' s Ford. Augusta County BurketowlI C(lUes. V/est of the L ee Highway (U. S. II ) and o n the s l ope o f a small hill ncar Burkctown occ ur s a s mall cave whi c h according to l oca l residcnts is very Interestll1g. Another cave ha s b ee n r ecc ntl y rcported from a hill o n t h e cas t side of the hi g hwa y n car Burk etow n Gib son s Hole Four a nd a half miles southwest of Wayncsboro, and about h a l f a mil e cas t o f State High wa y 12, from whic h it is access ibl e by a goo d dirt road, i s Gibson s H ole. I t i s an irrcgularly s h apcd sink-hole, ranging from 30 to 50 feet across at the top a nd h av in g a dcpth of from 6 0 to 75 f eet. I twas formcd b y the collapse of part of thc r oof of a n underground c h a nnel thro u g h w hi c h a st ream still flows The stream in the expose d parr of the channc l i s abo llt 1 0 feet wide and i s said b y l oca l parries who h ave m easure d it to be 25 fcet d eep. Pcrsons who h ave ex pl o r e d the unde r ground B U L LETI N E I GHT, N. S. S. [I )

PAGE 4

Page 2 c hannel claim that one can go 300 feet in it in a boat, and that the stream is deeper at the rear end of the channel where it ranges from 10 to 30 feet in width. An abandoned passage l eads from the west side into the sink h o l e at a height of about 12 to 15 fe e t above the stream. This o ld channel is choke d or fille d with broken blocks of lime sto n e and trav e rtIne A few slender stalactites arc o n the ce iling and small s talagmites occur in portions o f the fille d channel. It is claimed that a moderately thick a nd picturesque growth o f s talactites is found along thl: roof and portions of the wall of the occupied stream chan nel, at a slight di sta nc e back from the sink-hole. IVi(ul ison's Cave. The entrance to this ca v e is about 1 ,500 feet south of the entrance to Grand Caverns, on the east side of Cave Hill about 110 feet above South Fork of Shenandoah Riv er. It is approximately 20 feet higher than the entrance to Grand C ave rns It is one of the o ldest known caves in Virginia and is reported to h ave be e n the first opened to visitors. It is claimed that this cave was worked for saltp eter during the war of 1812. This cave is said to contall1 severa l spacious rOOIllS, Illany c hasm lik e ope nll1gs, and a number of narrow g all er ies, bey o nd which the main corridor l e ads down to a deep unde r ground l ake or stream. It is in the same belt of Conococheague lim esto ne in which Grand Caverns occur. There i s another cave known as Niadison's C ( IVe, the entrance to which is a f ew hundre d f ee t north of the e n trance to Grand Caverns. It appears to be conn ecte d with Grand Caverns; a nd although not ge n e rall y accessible possesses som e inte resting featur es, among which is an unde r ground lak e This cave is report e d to h ave been fr equente d b y Bishop Madison after who m it i s nal1Je d. It also i s in the Cono coc heague lim esto ne. NatHrai Chimney Caves.-Ab out a mile n orth o f Mount Solon on the east side of North Rive r and in the same lime sto n e hill from which the C y clopean Towers rise to impressi ve h e i ghts are two small caves These caves were most probably excavate d b y the sam e waters which carved out the massive pillars o f sto ne The r e i s a natura l tunnel throu g h the base of o n e of the "chimneys" opposit e thl: present hill s id e entran ce to the p artly explored cave, and it i s probable that the cave rn c hannel once ex t e nded thro u g h this tunnelled tower. B eca us e o f the s mall size of it s ope nin g, the othe r cave, which i s ab out 100 fel:t eas t of the lar ger ope nin g, has not been e xplored. It is p ossib l e that these two openings are from the same cave. Several lar ge s ink s and sink-holes OCCllr in 't h e vicinity of Natural Chimneys and Mount 501011. The Sapphire Blue Pool at Mount Solon i s f e d b y a n und erground str eam from a larg e sink-hole a s hort di sta n ce across the Mount So l o n H a rrisonburg hig hwa y (Route 43 ) BULLETIN NUMBER EIGHT Nininger's Cave.-This cave i s about three miles west ot Waynesboro and is on the Nininger esta te, a short distanc e north of the Waynesboro-Staunton highway (U. s. 250). A small narrow opening l each tllEough a partl y ex pos ed ledg e of lim esto n e to an underground channel of unknown extent. This cave has n ever b ee n ex plored About a quarre r of a mil e southeast of the cave entrance, jUH across the highway in an apple orc h a rd, is a s m all sink-hole which ma y b e connected with a n underground channel fr o m the cave on the hill. The s ink-hole has been plugged so tha t it is n ow a c up-sh aped depression about 30 feet in diame ter and about 10 feet de e p. Other Caves.-Small caves and s ink-holes are of common occurrence in most of Augusta county. Two small caves are reported to occur at the bas e of Mary Gray and B e ts y B ell mountains n ear Staunton, and oth ers a r e said to occur within short distances of them. Ba th C o14nty Blowing Cave.-The entr a nce to this cave o p ens directly on to the Goshen-Millboro hi g hw ay (Route 39), about 18 f ee t above Cowpasture River and about 10 miles north west o f Gosh e n. The cave is in the H e ld er b erg limestone and was named from the blowing or whistling pheno m e n o n whi c h it has l ong exhibited. As far as ex pl o r ed, it co nsist s of a small single passage free from sta l act i tic growths. A small underground spring of coo l clear water occ ur s about 100 f eet from the entran ce. The bl ow in g phenomenon is attribute d to the change in air c urr e nts in t h e cave In th e summer, the air in the cave i s coo l er and d e n ser than that o l\tsid e and h e n ce ru s hes out through the entrance; In cool w eather, the coo l e r o llt side air ru s hes into the cave displacing the warmer air. Bratton's Cave. In the sprin g of 1 929 a s ink h o l e was accidently dis cove r e d o n the Bratton farm a b out midwa y between Goshen a nd Millboro. A youth who was let down into the h ole a few days after its discovery r epo r te d that three s mall passages l e d from it into the s urrounding lim esto ne. This s ink h o l e ha s sin ce be e n filled b y the ow ners. Clark s C(lve. A n un exp l o r ed c ave of unknown s i ze uccurs ncar McClung o n the farm of Mr. W. G. C l a rk I t is said that this cave is very inte r esti n g and contains .lOllle pretty tra ve rtin e deposit s It is in Helde rb e r g lime sto n e Healin g S prin gs Ctlve. A cave of undetermine d extent occ ur s Oil the prop erty of Mr. R ee d near Healin g Springs Recl"1lt attelllpts to exp l ore t hi s cave were abandoned b e cause of it s b e in g fille d with water. Indi cat ions s u ggest, h owever, that it i s a cave rn of mod e r ate s i ze.

PAGE 5

NATIONA L SPELEOLOG ICAL SOCIETY Hot S prin gs Cave.-This cave n e ar Hot Sprin gs is re p orte d to co n sist o f five branching cor rid o rs, e a c h ha v in g a l arge room at its e nd It i s s aid that from eac h of these large r qo m s o p e nin gs l e ad to d eepe r channe l s and othe r lar ge r oo m s This ca v e was d esc ribed by H ovey in 1882, :1I1d was said by him to hav e b ee n previously d esc rib e d by Nicklin ("P erig rin e Prolix") in hi s L ette r s o n V ir gi ni a ," i n 1834. 1Vithrow' s Cave. A n un ex plor ed cav e occurs o n the farm of l'v1r. Free \ Vithrow, about fou r miles from Mill boro o n the Gos h en\ Va rm Sprin gs H ig hw ay ( Route 39). I t i s c l aimed that thi s cave ha s bee n known l ocally for a l o n g tim e and that m a n y peop l e hav e visited it. I t is said to h a v e three separate entrances, to conta in seve ral r ooms, and to b e v ery inte restin g. Other C ( / ves AboLit t h ree mile s west of Healin g S prin gs and b e twe e n one and o ne a n d one hal f mile s south of Callison a r c two un ex plor e d caves, o n e o n either side of the Callison -F allin g Sprin g road ( Route 268). Entrance to both caves is through small ink h o les whi c h l ead into solution clunne l s along j oints i n the H elderberg lim esto ne. Con side rable s urfa ce drainage at times enters the,e caves, a s i s s h o wn b y the debris at t h e cav e m ouths. It i s probabl e t ha t t hi s be l t of solu b l e lim esto n e con ta ins exten s i ve unde r around c h anne ls. The re i s a s mall cave on the southwest ::> e nd of Piney Mountain, about o n e a nd onehal f miles cast of Warm Springs. T wo small c ave s are report e d to occur i n the H e ld e rberg lim esto n e c ast of lv f cClung Ridg e a long Thompson Creek a s hort dista n ce c ast of Bath A lu m Sp rin gs A noth e r is reported n ear Dunns o n the Warm $ prin gsHot Springs road (U. S 220), and two m ore ullexp l o red c a ves ar c said to occur a l o n g Back Creek about two a nd three mile s southwest and n o r t hw est, respective l y of Cowa rdin o n e b e in g on B o l er Mountain and t h e oth er 011 Back C reek }', 'fountain l3ot e t ourt COllllty lVlllrr/er H ole Cave. -Abou t five miles northeas t o f Ca tawba Sanatorium, o n the c a st side of t h e CatawbaFin c astl e road ( R o u te 114), n c ar the crest of Little R idge is iVfurd e r H o l e Cave. I t i s a sinkh o l e cave appr ox im ate l y 50 f ee t in diameter a nd m ore than 2 50 fe e t deep. I t is re p orte d that seve ral channels lead from the s haftlik e h o l e to passages of unkno wn extent under Littl e Rid ge, and t hat t h e partl y explo re d roo m s co ntai n interest in g g r oups of sta l actites. T his cave i s in t h e Con ococ h e a g u e forma t i o n according to Woodward, 1 w h o states that the belt of the E l brook a nd Con ococ h eagu e formations n orth of Roa n oke is marke d b y numero u s s inks. T h e huge vertica l \Velllik..: entry to this underground \ Voodward. H p .. T h e geo logy a lld 111illeral rcsOllrceS of the Ruallok e area Vi r g illia: Virgillia Geol. Survev Bull. 34. p. 1 50. 1932. P age 3 passage i s o n the cres t of Littl e Rid ge, and the suddennes s with which o n e finds himself a t thi s gaping hol e is awe i n spi r i n g. Consi d erable l ege nd is associated wit h thi s cave and severa l weird stories of its di sco v ery and hi story are re l ated b y the o l d e r resid e nts of the area I t i s c laim e d that m a n y people visit thi s cave annually. Ot, her Caves.-A few smaller sink-hol e caves and other caverno u s channels of un exp l ored ex tent have been r e ported to occur in the vicinity of Tinker, Haymakertown, and at other places to t h e north along Catawba Creek. Clark e COlll1t y Thl1rm an s Cave.-An unex plor ed cave claimed to be of l oca l hi storic inte r est, is reported on the property of E. R. Thurman. No oth e r data are avai l ab l e on this cave a nd n o others h ave as yet b ee n r eported from this county. Floyd COllnty Thompson's Cave. This cave is ab out four miles southeast of Snowvill e and about 1 2 miles southwest of Christiansburg, n ear t h e Pul askiFloyd-Montgomery county boundary. The re are two e n trances, o ne on either side o f Littl e Riv er about two miles from the mouth of Indian Creek. It is a s m all cave known on l y bv l oca l reside nts. It is said to be wort h visit in g. Frer/erick County l3ean's C(/ve.-This cave i s about 1 2 miles directl y west of Winc h ester on the farm of Mr. J osep h F Bean This property has be e n in the Bean famil y for m ore than 125 vears. I t is o n e o f the oldest known caves in Virgi ni a and o n e rega rd i n g which seve ral inte resting leg ends are told. I t is c l aimed t hat Thomas J effe rson visited this cave in 1780. Acco rdin g to l oca l repo rts, thi s cave has nev e r been f ull y explored. It i s said to co nsi s t of sev era l room s connected by a series of picturesque passag es. Stalac titi c and sta lag miti c deposits of muc h beauty are said. to b e found in sev era l roo m s of this cave and a mineral spring i s reported to occur near It. j V/cLeod s C(/ve A cave rn was accidently dis cove recl 011 the M c L eod Farm near Stephens City, by Mr. E J H iser w hil e plowing for co rn o n January 23, 1932. The t\Vo h orses with w hich Mr. Hiser was plowin g suddenly sank a nd disappeared through a s ink h ole One horse was recov e re d I t was planne d to f ull y exp l o r e the unde r g r o tln d passages thus discovered to d e t e rmin e if a cave of comme r c ial possibilities e xist s Gi les Coullty Sinkillg Creek Cave.-A b out a quarter of a mile north of the P e arisburg-Blacksburg H ig hw ay ( R oute 8), and a s hort distance from t h e road l eadi n g fro m L o n e Eagle store to 1\.'f oul1ta in Lake, i s a s m all cave. The cave exte nd s through a spur ridge of J ohns C r ee k Mountain northeast of Sinking Cree k. It is in Stones Riv er lim es tone.

PAGE 6

P age 4 Other Caves A few s mall sink-ho l e caves h ave b ee n r e ported from the limest o n e hill s a l ong New Riv e r and Sinkin g C ree k from Narrows to P embroke, but n o ne of them h ave been ex pl o re d except b y a few l oca l p eo ple. Sink-h o les ar e o f fr equent occ urre n ce throug h out Sinkin g C ree k a nd J ohns C ree k valleys from P earisburg and P e m broke, Gi les county, t o Newcastle, Crai g county. Highland County Pinckney Cave. -The r e i s a s m all cave on the west s l ope of a s m all hill about a mile south of Pinckney, a long J ackson Rive r east of the road from Pinckney to Wilsonville. This cave has n o t b ee n full y ex pl o re d but is re p orte d to co n s ist of a channe l exc avat e d along the strike of the H e l d erberg limeston e in a n ortheasterly dir ec t i on. Other Caves. -Two s mall unex plor e d caves occur o n t h e southwest s l ope o f Bullpasture Mountain a l ong Bullpasture River a b o u t two miles south o f Pov e rty. These are a lso in Helde rb e r g lim esto n e L ee CO/4nty Sal/d Cave -Near the c rest of t h e southeast end of Cum b erland N f ountain, n o r t h eas t of Cumberland Gap, and west o f Rose Hill i s a s m all cave whi c h i s said to b e vis i ted a n nuall y by numero u s tourists. A l arge numbe r of diff e r ent col ored sand s arc reported to occur in the cave from w hi c h the ca v e d e r i ves it s name. The cave i s in Mississip pian lim e sto n e (pr ob abl y St. L o uis?). lVlontgornery County Erht/l"t's Cave -Within a s hort di sta nce of Radf o rd a s mall c av e occurs o n the Erhart property. It i s known to sev e ra l l oca l reside n ts. Other C t l ves Seve ral sn13ll caves hav e been re p o rt e d to occur a l o n g Ne": Rive r in the v i cinity of East Radf o rd. One o f unexpl o re d extent, known l ocally a s Adams Cave, is o n McConncl s Run o n the A cbms pbce, c ast o f New River. P age COl4nt y Hitt's Cave. This i s a s mall c a ve know n l ocally to the few p eople w h o luv e partl y ex p l ore d it. It I S n c ar Newport, in t h e C ub Run dis tri ct. Kai ser's C t l ve Thi s s mall cave a b out e i g h t miles n orth of Lura y c onsi s t s of a narro w l ow p assage not m o r e than 25 f ee t l o n g, w hi c h l e ad s into a roo m abo u t 35 feet long. It i s reporte d t hat in t h e brge roo m was f ound a n Indian graye containin g 1 2 Seve ral of the s kull s a nd bones w e re sai d to b e c overed with drip s tone. L a lli e r 's al/d COltllt 's Caves.L a ul er's Cave i s abo u t h a lf a mil e l on g a nd ha s two e n tran ces. One entrance i s a b out two mi les n orth of Lura y, ncar South Fork of S h e n a nd oa h R iver. Abollt half a m i l e to t h e north i s Count's Cave, a n othe r s mall c av e H o v ey. H c., Celebrated American C av e rn s cinnati: R C larke a nd Co., 1882 and 1 886. p 1 6 1 C in -B U L LET I 1': N U Il ERE I G H T R o bert s C ave. -This i s a s mall c av e ab out e i ght miles north o f Lura y. It i s n c ar Kaiser 's Cave and its ex istence has b ee n kno wn for many yea rs. It was d escribe d by H o v ey when h e vis it e d Lura y Caverns in 1 882 Patrick CO/4nty Sheep H ouse Cave.-The re i s a s mall cave o n S im 's Summit, within a mil e or so of Burs t e d R oc k and about t\>,IO miles from t h e "Saw Teeth" b ends of Dan River. I ts name was d erive d from the fact that s h eephe rd e r s o n ce u sed it to protec t t h e ir floc k s fr o m d ee p s n ows. P"'/ t lski County Bullard's Cave. -The entrance to t hi s cave I S approxI m a t e l y 25 feet ab"ove Littl e Riv er, about h alf, a mil e south eas t of S nowville. The cave has n eve r been full y explo r e d and know l edge of it s ex i ste n ce i s c hi ef l y to l oca l resi dents. It i s in the S h ad y d o l omite Pulaski C ave. In the face of a bluff overlook in g a branc h of C ree k a tributary to New Riv e r a s hort dista n ce east of Pulas ki is a s mall cave whi c h extendin g throllg h a s mall hill ha s tw o entra n ces. The n arrow entra n ces o p e n into a fair-si ze d r oo m conta inin g seve r a l pr etty groups of sta lactites and a s mall c rystal -clear s prin g. I t i s claim e d that t hi s c av e was use d a s a retreat for soldi e r s and oth e r s during the War b e tween t h e Stat es. Many o f t h e names and initial s car ve d and burnt o n the walls ar c sai d t o hav e b ee n ins c rib e d b efo re "war d ays It i s repo n e d t hat an inte restin g ebbing and flow in g sp rin g occurs within h a l f a mil e of t h e cave. Roanoke County BMshong s Cave.-A s mall un expl ore d c a ve i s r eported to occur o n the B u s h o n g property alo n g t h e H o llin s-Sa l e m Hig hwa y (Route I 17), three mil e s west o f H ollins. Goodwi n s Cave. The re i s a s mall cav e o n t h e o l d Goo dwin prope ty ncar G l envar (U. S. II), abo u t three miles northeast of Dixie Cav e rn s I t i s said to contain s tala c titi c and s tala g mi t i c f o rmati ons of muc h bea u ty. M oorna w's Cave.This cave i s o n the prop erty o f Mr. John Moomaw, o n the south side of Lick Cree k Valley a s h ort d i stance wes t of Moomaw Sprin gs. I t i s just outs ide the Roan o k e c it y limit s near t h e inte r sect i o n of L afayette B oulevar d and the County roa d. [ t i s in the E l brook do l omite. Other C t l ves.Seve r a l s mall caves hav e been re p o rt e d to occur a l o n g R o anok e Riv e r in t h e v i c inity o f Dixi e C ave rns. One a l o n g the Vi r g inian Railwa y and n car the rive r is s aid b y the l oca l residents w h o ha v e vis it c d it t o con ta i n n o trav e rtin e d e posits. A noth e r cave occ ur s at Cave Sprin gs ab o u t seven mi les s Ollthe;lst of Sale m.

PAGE 7

N ilTIONAL S P ELEOLOG I CAL SOC I ETY Ro c kbrid ge County C ave S pri ng Hill Ca ve."The entra nc e to this cav e i s about o n e mil e n orthwest of L exington, n e ar the crest of Cave Sprin g Hill and about 170 f ee t abov e N orth Riv er. The c ave con s i s t s o f two c o nv e rgin g channels whi c h ex t end in a g e n e ra l northe a s t erly dir e ction to the point of uni o n. The shorte r channe l i s about 4 6 0 f ee t lon g has sev e r a l sid e passage s alcoves a l ong its s inuou s cour se and s l o pes stee p l y fr ol11 the entrance to its juncti on with the longe r passage The l onger tunnellik e pas s ag e i s on a low e r l e vel than the shorter one and follow s a straight course f o r about 1 ,500 f eet. A small stream flo w s through thi s channe l from the small rece s s e d l ak e at the far (southwest) end to the c onv erge n ce of the tw o channe l s The total l e n gth o f the expl or e d clunnels i s ab out 2 300 f ee t. The channe l s ar e g e n e rall y v e r y narr o w l o w in plac es, and w e t and muddy throughout. The floor in p l aces i s cov e re d with fairl y thick d e posits of c h ert fra g m e nts p e bbles, and boulde r s The wall s ar e smooth and, in pla ces p o lish e d. At o n e pla ce in the l ar ge r channe l a s m all side s tr ea m flo w s o v e r a lar ge trav ertine cas c ad e Saltp e t e r C ave -About 6 0 f ee t north o f atural Bridg e on the west side o f Cedar Cree k a nd abollt 30 f ee t abov e it, reach e d b y a rusti c f ootbridge, is Sa ltpe t e r C av e This ca v e is an abandone d unde r cut channe l whi c h was carv e d out of the wall of the limeston e g orge b y C edar Cree k whe n it flo w e d s o m e 30 f ee t highe r than its present b e d. The orig ina l o p e nin g ha s b ee n lar gely b l oc k e d b y huge fra g m ents of l im esto n e whi c h l on g a go f ell fr o m an o v erhang in g l e d ge. This c av e has a v e r y inte restin g hi story It containe d a d e posit o f c av e-earth whi c h w a s mine d f o r s a ltpe t e r during the \Var of 1 8 1 2 and a g ain during the \ V ar b e tw ee n the States. This c av e I13S b ee n d esc rib e d b y F ee ds.' R ock ingh am C oun t y St i/tp e t e r Cave The re i s a s mall c a ve i ] the Stones Riv e r f ornutio n ( L e n o ir and Mosh e im limest o nes), ab o llt 45 to 50 f ee t s ollthwest o f the entra n ce to 'NIa ssanlltte n C av erns and b e tw ee n t h i s entrance and the o l d quarry in the south west e nd o f C av e Hill. This c av e ha s lon g b ee n kno wn a s S a ltpe t e r C ave, pr obably b ec au se it ha s b ee n reporte d that at on e tim e s a ltpe t e r was obtaine d from it. The entrance i s n o w clo g ge d b y fall e n roc k and inwa s h e d s urfa ce d e bris, and the unde r ground p ass a ges ar e the re for e ina ccess ib le. Othe r C av es.A f e w s mall c;v e rn o u s op e nin gs and a numbe r o f s ink h o les ha ve been re p orte d to occur 111 a n orthe a s t dir ecti o n b e tw ee n K eeze l town and Endless C av e rn s F ro m an IInpubli s h e d r e p o r t o n Cave Hill S prin gs Cave, ncar L e xillgtoll, Virg ini a b y M H Sto w \.I,Ia s hing t o n and L ee Uni v e r s it y L ex in g t o n Virg inia 1 928. 4Rcc d s C A I Th e Natu ral Bridge o f \ !irg ini a and it s e n viro ns, PI" 293 0 N e w Y o rk N o m a d Publi shing Co. I n c .. 1 927 P age 5 Scott C O / lI1ty N a turai T 1411ne i Caves.-S e v e r a l ca ves, m a n y of the m small but som e r e p orte d to b e ex t e nsiv e and to p oss e s s histori c and sce ni c inte rest, occur in t h e v i c inity of Natura l Tunne l on the Big Stone G a p G a t e City hi g h way ( U S 23), 1 2 miles somh o f Big S to n e G a p a nd 45 mil e s n orth west o f Bri s tol. S e v e r a l o f these caves are said to conta in pi cturesque groups of sta l actites. M a n y inte restin g stories of pi o n ee r days" in southwest Virg inia relate to the use o f these cav e s as r etre ats from m a raudin g Indi ans Shenandoah C o unty Bu.rner's Cave.-S e v e ral sink-ho les and a s m all cave oc cur o n the property o f Mr. C. O. Burn e r a b out five m i l es west of Strasburg. The e xpl o re d p assages a r e nar ro w a nd do not appear v e r y ex t e n s i ve The floo r s o f t h e examine d pa ssages ar e cov e r e d b y mud and f e w t r a v ertine for mati o n s ex i s t. Se v e r a l s h ort cr ev i ces trend in the d i r e c tion o f som e o f the sinkh o les and m ay lead to m o r e exte n s i v e passage s Edi n bfl.Yg C a ve.-This cave i s ab out a quarte r of a m i l e west of the Lee Hig h way (u. S. 11) in the s outh s l ope of a hill b e l o w the h ig h sc h oo l in Edinburg Entra nc e i s throug h ;] s m all cleft in the lim esto n e hill fr o m w hi c h a narrow muddy passa ge lead s a b out 15 f e e t to a n unde r ground chasm b eyond whi c h f ew p eo pl e h a v e e xpl o r e d Those who h a v e g on e farthe r cla im that a lar g e sinkhol e OCClll'S ac ross thi s g or ge and r e p ort unco nfirm e d s i g n s o f the form e r occupa n c y o f thi s c a ve b y Indians The r e a re but f e w tra ve rtin e d e posit s in the c av e which i s in the Beekmantown form atio n. H enkel's Cave -An unex pl o re d cave and a l a r g e b oil in g s prin g occur o n the H e n kel est a t e n e a r Quic k sburg. It i s tho u ght that the cav e i s connected wit h o n e o f the subte rran e an channels of S h enandoah Cave rn s a l t h o u g h the o wn e r s of t h e pro p e r t y o n which i t o c curs h a v e m a d e n o attempt to e xpl o re it. Quic k s B oiliJAg S prin g as the s prin g i s calle d ha s b ee n o f local inte re s t f o r many y ea r s Both t h e c a v e and the s prin g ar c i n the Con oco h eagu e limestone. Smyth COHn t .)' Rye Va ll e y Cave In R y e V alley alo n g t h e South F o rk o f Hol s ton Rive r n ear S u g ar Gro v e the re is a c av e whi c h i s reporte d b y l ocal resid ents to con s i s t o f a numbe r of inte r sec tin g passa ges and large r oo ms. It i s said that the ce ilin g s o f some o f the r ooms ;re v e r y hi g h a nd tha t porti o n s o f the c av e ar e profusel y d eco r a t e d with s tala ctites A n umbe r o f othe r s mall e r cave s a re r e p orte d to occur in t hi s area, mostly in the Shad y do l omite. W olf Hill s C ave N e a r Abing d o n origi nall y calle d V i olf Hills i s a s mall une xpl ore d c av e whi c h a cco rdin g to traditi o n i s intimately connecte d w ith the pio n eer hi s tory. o f south west Virg inia. i s s aid tha t during the e arly

PAGE 8

Page 6 settlement of Abingdon, wolves w e r e rathe r plentiful and dut t h ey often annoye d travel e r s through this sec tion. It has l o n g b ee n r eporte d that w o l ves occ upi ed the cave whi c h n o w b e ar s t h e name of the hill o n which they w e re once nume rou s Ta zewell C ounty Lib e rty Hill C a ve.N e ar Lib erty Hill ( Route 9 1), oc curs a cav e in which according to l oca l re sid ents, human footprints ma y be seen in the trav e rtine-coat e d floor. S eve r a l other ca ves a re r epone d in t h e vicinit y and it i s claim e d that in some of the m human bones of unusual s i ze have b ee n found. L ost j l,!Jili Cave. -About nin e miles southwest of T a ze w ell, a s h o n d i scance from State Hig hwa y 9 1 is a v e ry inte resting cave or sinkh o l e form e d by the panial co l lap se o f the r oof of an underground stre am channel. It is 80 to 100 fee t long, about 60 f ee t wide, and ab out 70 f ee t deep. The walls around three sides ar c nearly perp e ndi c ular. A strea m of co nsid e rabl e vo lume flows through the bottom of the sink-hol e e m erging from a c h annel on o n e side and disapp earing into a s m alle r passage on the othe r s ide. Many yea r s a go a mill at the edge of the sink-hole was operate d b y p o wer obtai n e d from the s tr e am below through an ingenious l y desi g n e d s t ee p l y inclin e d wooden shaft. Por tion s of t h e two dams con structe d in the underground s tream channe l near its entry into t h e sink-ho l e s till re main. The old mill ha s long s ince disappeare d but a part of t h e f oundations and fragm ents of the old turbine and bo x wh eels ma y still b e see n il/ J a ide/J S pri ngs Cave. -About 1 2 miles south o f Taze well and within 50 y ard s o f U. S Highway 1 9 the waters of i\l Llickn Creek issu e sudde nl y from a n unde r ground channel in the s teep s l ope of a limestone hill. A few miles to t h e cast, in Thompson 's Vall ey, Maiden Creek sinks s ud d e nl y into an underground channel through whi c h it cour ses to e m e rg e a s a l ar ge spring at the ba se of a spur rid ge of C lin c h M ountain. The r e is a l arge rollin g mill o n Maiden C ree k n c ar the cave mouth Rich Valley C aves ln Ric h Valley ab out seven miles from Tazewell ar c several s m ;lll caves fr o m which it is claimed, saltpe t e r was ex tra cte d for the manufacture o f gun powder during the War betw ee n the States Se v e ral in teresting l ege nd s ar c connec ted with t h ese c aves. A c av e of co n siderabk s i ze, o nl y pardy exp l o re d b y l oca l resid ents, i s re p orte d to occ ur in Ric h i\I[ountain a f e w miles from Tazewell. I t i s said that a stream flo w s throug h thi s c av e and t ha t fish ar e f ound in the stream Ste e l e s C t lve. -About two miles northeas t of Tazewell and about h alf a mil e from State Highway 6 1 o n a tract n ow o wn e d b y the P oo r Farm, i s a cave known l ocally a s B ULLETIN EIGHT Steele s Cave. The entran ce to the cave is narrow but l eads into a fair-si ze d room. This cave has b ee n on l y pardy ex p l ored but i s said b y l oca l reside nts who know it, to b e w ell worth v i siting. It i s in the Beekmantown lim e sto ne. Hug h Young' s Cave.-Some 1 2 miles southwest of Taze w ell, in Bow en's Cove, a few miles from Maide n Sprin g, occurs a cav e of l oca l hi storic imponance This cave, known as Hug h Young's Cave, i s said to be quite extensive and to contain se v e r a l s pa c i o u s room s Severa l larg e sinkh o les and a f e w s mall e r caves occur in the immediate ar ea. N c ar h ere occurs a l so the "Boi ling Wate rs" w h e re, for a distanc e of severa l hundre d f ee t in a s mall m ca dow the wate r s of a large spring appear to boi l and rise severa l in c h es. The sce n e r y in this genera l ar ea is v e r y picturesque Many l egends of hi s tori c and l ocal inte re .st associate d with t h e caves and mountai ns, and accounts of e arly e ncounter s wit h Indians arc relat e d b y resid ents of thi s sec tion o f T az e w e!l County. Washing ton R obert' s Ca ve. A s mall cave, but pardy e xplor e d by l oca l residents, i s r e p orte d to occur o n the H enry R o b ert' s place, about e ight mi les nonh of Abingdon and about three mile s from H o l sto n o n N orth F o rk o f H o l ston Riv e r Nlcfl!Jl1l1cn' s Cave. -Near Ebbing Springs, on the o ld Fayette M ci\l full e n farm and o n Middl e Fork of H o l sto n Riv e r i s a cave whi c h i s reported to have bee n the heacl quarte r s for a band of o utlaws and desp e radoes in the early settlement of southwest Virginia. It i s said to h av e b ee n Ilsed also as a re nd ezvo u s b y soldi e r s during the R evo lu tionary War. Other C t l ves. Severa l caves of unknown extent and but partl y expl o red have been reporte d to occur in H o l sto n Valley a long South Fork of H o l sto n Riv e r b e tw ee n Abingcio n and Bristol. l Vise C ounty C t l ves o f Horror. -Within tw o mile s of High Kno b at the h e ad of Pow ell Valley, about five mile s south of Nor ton ar c several c aves which it i s claim e d, w e re u se d for t h e manufacture of gunpo wd e r during the War b e tw ee n the States. Two of these caves ar e said to be quite ex t e n sive and many l egends of l ocal hi storic interest arc ass ociated wi th t h e m. W y th e Cou.nty Speedwe ll Ctl ve. -The re i s a s mall u n ex p l ored c av e 1I1 ; 1 spur rid ge of Ir on Mountain at Sp ee dwell. Other C aves A s mall e r c av e is r eporte d to OCCllr north of Crippl e Creek in Sand Mountain, a s hort distance north o f Speedwell. A f ew caves of unknown ex t ent ar c reporte d to occur south o f N e w Riv e r in the vicinity of Jac kson's F e rr y.

PAGE 9

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY RELATED NATURAL WONDERS Natura l Bridg e and Natura l Tunnel Other remarkabl e natural wonders of Virginia which, like the c av e rns, owe their origin l ar gely t o the geologic action of g r ound wate r are Natural Brid ge in R ockbridge County, 1 5 mi les southwest o f Lexington and Natural Tunne l in Scott County 4 5 mile s n orthwest of Br isto l and 1 2 miles southeast of Big Ston e Gap. Natural Bridge is a remnant of the r oo f of a form e r elongate nar row cave rn whereas Natural Tunnel i s a natural pa ssageway thro u g h a hi g h spur rid ge of a picturesque m ounta in. Both f eatures have be e n erode d from thi c k masses of a lmost h orizontal lim esto ne. The stream s which form e d these remarkabl e natural m onuments still A o w thro u g h the m Natural Brid ge c arries the L ee Highway (U. S I I ) across it s top. Natural Tunnel carries through a m ounta in ridge a standard gage rai l road the Brist o l-Appala c hia division o f the Southern Railwa y. Beca u se of its sci e ntifi c and p o pu l ar interest severa l articles h ave b ee n written about Natural Br idge, d escribing its c haracteristi c features and orig in in som e detail. r, ; Natura l T u nnel has been d escri b e d by Woodward.s 'R eeds. C. A. The Natural Bridge of Virginia and it s env i rons, Nomad PlIbli s hin g Co., In c., N e w York 62 pp 1 927. G ilm e r F. W., On th e geo logical formation of the Natural Bridge of Virginia : Trans Amer. Phil. Soc. vol. I pp. 1 8 7-192 1 8 1 8 W alcott, C. D., The Natural Brid ge of Virginia : Nat. Gcog Mag., vol. 5, pp. 5 962 1 893. Mal ott. C. A. and Schrock. R R., Ori g in a lld development of Natural Bridge Virginia : Am. J OIlr. Sci. 5th ser., vol. 1 9 pp. 257-2 7 3, 1 930 'Woodward H P., Natural Bridge and N a tural Tunnel, Virginia; J OIlr. Geology v ol. 44 n o 5 pp. 604-616, Jul y-A ugu st, 1 936. Page 7 MOUNT A I N LAKE Jvf o llntain Lak e about seven mile s northeast of P embroke, in the picturesque Valley Rid ge section of t h e Appalachian Valley regi o n i n Giles County is a n o t ab l e exa mpl e of a n aturally f o rm ed inland l a k e I t s or i gi n which is clos e l y re l ated to the geo logy a nd geo l ogic hi story of the are a in which it occurs has be e n ascribed to the clogging of a large sinkh ole, and to the damming of a n or mal s u rface strea m The l a k e occ upies a basin about h a l f a mile west o f the c rest of Sal t P ond Mountain. I t is a b out threequarters of a mi l e l o n g an d about a quarter of a mil e wide with the surface h avi n g a n a ltitude of 3 ,874 feet. The maximum d epth report e d is 75 feet. Surrounded b y m ounta in s except at the northwest end, and b o rd e re d b y a d e nse growth of trees this "Sil ver Gem of the Alleghenies has a n id ea l locati o n from which grand scen i c views are obtai n e d. About h a l f a mil e to the south Bal d Knob towers to an altitude o f 4,368 feet ; about the sam e distance to the east Salt P o nd Mountain attains an a ltitude o f 4,3 27 feet ; whereas D oe Mountain, about o n e and three-fourths miles to the southwest reac hes a maximum elevation above sea l eve l of 3 ,996 feet. Fro m the summit of B a l d Knob, it i s claimed that o n a clear da y landmarks in five diff erent states are visible A summe r r esort, con s i st in g o f a m o d e rn hotel and cottages, is s itu a t e d at the lak e and offers p l easant accommodations at this in v itin g s ite. The lak e and resor t are acc ess ible by picturesque winding m ountain roads about four m i les l o n g, from the P embro ke-Black sburg highway ( R oute 8), at H oges Store, a b out tw o and o ne-half mi les e a s t of P embroke, o r L o n e Eagl e Store about o n e and o n e-ha l f m i les eas t o f Maybrook. "S h arp, H S .. The Origin of M O lln tai n L a k e Virgin i a : Virginia Geol. Surve y BIIII. 46 PI' 79-84 1 936. EXTRACT FROM BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES OF W. L. McATEE IN T H E zoo logi c a l lab o ratories o f Indiana Unive rsit y (B loomington), the re were at that tim e ( 1 9 001 904) aquaria and vivaria in number, most o f which r equire d attention b y the "Curator." A l wa ys o n hand w e re som e of the pallid, b l ind fishes (A mblyopsis spe laeus) that h ad b ee n the subject of so muc h of Dr. Carl H Eigenmann's e arli e r work H e was engage d with othe r thi n gs the n but just l ik e d to have so m e of the m ar o und. T o rep l e n ish these and other cave anima l s n ee d e d f o r the collection or laboratory trips t o som e o f the numero u s caverns access i b l e in the regi o n were require d The so-called Twin near Mitc h ell w e re visited when blind fis hes were n ee d e d The uppe r o n e of these caves was accessible be cause l ong ago a sect ion o f the r oo f had cave d in forming a s h ort open valley. The stream was n o t large but had deep p oo l s in the c ave, and in ge n e ral handicapped o p era tio n s e n o u g h so that a b oat was n ee d ed for practi c a l a n d esp ec i ally for the car r y in g and safeg uardin g of equip m ent. A rathe r brge and cumbe rsome, folding can vas craft was us e d a nd 1 recall that carrying this to the strea m "Mr. McAtee, naturali s t of i nternationa l r e plltati o n and pro l ific contribu to r t o sci entific j o urn a l i s c urr e ntl y engaged i n completing the manuscript of a Dictionfl r y of \1 ernacu l ar Names o f Nortb A meric an B irds, to be published bv the U n ive r s it y o f C hi cago Press This work. for which h e ha s b ee n c ollec tin g m a ter ial f o r 35 year s i s being don e in accordance with an agreem ent, to run three years b e twe e n the Univers it y and the U. S. Fis h and Wil dlife Service for which federal a ge n cv Mr. M cA te e has bee n edi t oria l advisor f or ma n v yea rs. H e a lso will continue to condu c t the 'Nildlite Revi ew. Ed.

PAGE 10

Page 8 putting it in c rui s in g o rd e r and l iftin g it over o b s tru c tion s in the c a ve were 3 ccompanic d b y g r o an s and lamenta tIOn s o n o ur part. Within was 3noth e r wo r l d. A lthough w c lab o r e d with the b oat, slipped o n s l im y rocks, f ell into pools, 3nd got thoroughly wet and bedraggled, w e S3W things that co uld b e sem o n l y the re. Near the entrance, daddy l ongl egs a nd cave s pid e r s wer c in evide nc e; a l ittl e fart h e r in cavc cric k ets w e re see n B eetles, sow -bugs and othe r s mall fr y we re fr eque nt. a cav e salamander or some fish or frog wa if from t h e outside would b e f o u nd. But the main o bject s o f our q uest the white ( in da y l i g h t pink i s h ) b l i nd fis hes and crawfis hes ga v e a g r eate r thrill a s t h e gic; lm s o f o ur lights re v e aled the m. [n the d ee p e r poo ls, the b l ind fis hes swa m about unhurrie d and s tatel y, dominating a world unknown to the multitude but there for us to e nj o) a nd to catc h Y e t it s ee:lled a saCl'i1eO'e t:> to disturb t h em. The entra n ce to the l owe r Twin C a ves was filled b y the s tream which e m erge d "for goo d thro u g h a s pa c i o u s dry cave a short di s tan ce be l ow. One kne w it was the sam e stre am and scra p s of pape r thro wn in cam e out to prov e it. Y e t t h e que stions as to wh ethe r it filled t h e chan n e l whether t h e re w e r e any detou r s o r man traps, d e terr e d all but the hardi est from try in g to go throll g h it. T h e r e was a talc to the e ffect that som e earlie r s t udent had made the pas sage and in o ur tim e [ think J ohn D. H aseman did. H e was of p o werful physiql;e, co u l d sw im l ike a fis h and had the n ecessary dare devi ltry H e was r eporte d ta hav e s aid t h e trip didn t am ount to anything." The dry cave was re adil y expl orable a l most b y light coming in the l arge entrance On its c cilinO' l a rO'e num00 bns o f bats hung u p to slee p and pre s umabl y a lso to hibel'll
PAGE 11

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOC I ETY P age 9 CAVES OF THE BRITISH ISLES By ROBE RT E. MORGAN AND FRANK SOLARI As A SCIENCE, sp e l eo logy had it s beginnin g in E n g land For that r e ason the caves of the Briti s h I s les have b ee n a m o n g the most ex t e nsivel y ex p l ored and describ e d. A lthoug h caves had b ee n known and use d in oth e r co untries, ge n eral inte rest was d e v e l ope d III E n g l a nd throu g h a controversy whic h arose b e tw ee n the Churc h and the l eading sci e nti s t s of a century ago ove r t h e question o f the l e n gth o f tim e man h a d been o n the eart h and w h ethe r the grea t d e lu ge o f th e Bibl e was univ ersal. The Churc h of E n g l a nd acco rdin g l y, se t out to p r ove that t h e floo d of Noah's tim e had ind ee d cov e r e d the entire earth. Dr. Willia m Buckla nd who was both a min i ste r of the Churc h and a geo logist o f n ote, was co mmiss i o n e d to co nfirm thi s beli e f b y geo l ogica l investiga ti o n s Dr. Buc kland sys t e m atically insp ec t e d the best -know n caves o f the Brit i s h I s les and North e rn Europe and in 1 822, publi s h e d hi s resu lt s in R e liq uiae Dilu viantle His state m ents t e nd e d to confirm those in the Bibl e concernin g the Deluge and the inte rpr e t atio n s plac e d up o n the m b y hi s colleagues in the Churc h.l In t hi s vo lume, in cidentally, Dr. Bu c kland t ells of the origina l investigation s in some of the m ost famo u s caves of the British I s l es, a nd inclu des the firs t d esc ripti o n of the R e d Lad y of Paviland. It i s said that in 1 8 40 Dr. Buckland stoo d up a t a m eeting of the Geol ogica l Soc i e t y of L o nd o n a nd took ba c k all tha t h e had sai d about the Deluge.2 In the yea r s that f ollowed Dr. Buc kland 's fir s t cave wor k m a n y imp ortant questi o n s hav e b ee n answered b y the ex pl o rati o n and study of Briti s h c aves includin g proof of man's great antiquity. The first d e finite e v id e nc e of the age of man was discovered b y R ev. J. McEne r y in K ent's Cavern at Torquay H e r e flint impl e m e nts w e r e found buri e d in association with the bones of ex tinct anima ls, b e n eath a thick la yer of sta l agmite The continue d inte r est and r esea rch in spe l e o logy is n ow b e in g carrie d o n b y nume rous s p e leologi ca l societies and hikin g club s in t h e British I s les. As a result of thi s inte n siv e work hundreds o f caves hav e been l ocated, e xp l o r e d a nd descr i b e d. The followi n g list contain s the names, a pproximate locat i o ns, a nd bibli ogra phi ca l data o n a p ortio n of these cav e s." The caves ar e l ist e d b y co unties in a lph a b etical o rd er. As an aid in vis u alizing the distributi o n of caves in the Briti s h I s les and as a guid e to the r e lati ve l oc ations of the co unties, a map s h o win g only those co unties whe r e c aves ar e known to exis t i s includ e d with this list. The r efe r e n ce numbe r s r efer to the bibliographical ma t e rial give n at the e nd of the list. The numbe r s in p a r e n 'Fifty years l ater, in 1874, W. B oy d Dawki ns, a lso a geo l ogis t w r o te hi s book Caue Hllnting, to prove ex a c tl y the op posite. "Tbis Pllzzling Planet-Br e wst e r Edwin T enney A steris k indi cates cave from Sol ar i 's lis t wh e r e n o oth e r inf orma tion than indi cated, was ava ilabl e. Info rmati o n on caves in Derbys hire, S o m e rset, Yorkshire, and \Val es not o therwise credite d, was obtained from fil es of The British Cauer, thro u g h the p e rmissi o n o f Gera rd Platten, Editor. thesi s r efe r to t h e pa ge or pages in t h e pu bli catio n wh ere the c av e und e r consid e rati o n i s discu sse d. R. E. MORGAN, Richmo nd Va. (6/ 20 / 44 ) England Caue Nam e Cllmberland Tutman's H ole D erbyshire A n c h urc h (Al1c bo r church) As h woo d D a l e B ags h awe Cavei'll B alleye Cav e B a mfortl1 H o l e Baules Cave Baw l ee B eesto n T or Bird Mine Cave Blu e J ohn Boat House Cave B ode n Quarry Ca ve B o n Dog H o l e Mine B osse n H o l e Boson s Cave Bull Pit Ca ve Ca l es Dale Cave CarIs wark Cave D a l e Cave C h alle nge L ow H o les C h elmorton Dale Churn H o l e Cliffe Climbin g Tree Coa l Pit H o l e C r ee p H o le C ress Brook Cave C r esswell Cave Cross L o w Mine C u ck l ett Churc h Ca v e Cumbe rland Cave Cummi n s Dale D arb Swallo w Deepda l e Devil 's Hall C ave Devon s hir e Cave D evo n s hire Da l e Swallets Location Gilderd:tle ncar Alsto n \.Virksworth 'Nirks wort h Manifold Valle y P eak Castleto n P eak Middl eto n da l e Castleton B uxto n Pc:!k Peak P eak P eak M atlock P eak R e ference No. 18(4 3 ) 7 (61) 15(30) 1 9 2 4 20 (128) 20 (128) 24 Donkey H o l e M a n ifold Valley D ovc h o les C h apcl-E n L e-Fri th 1 0(285); 19 Dove Pit D owe l D a l e Sws. Drake Mine Orean1 Cav e Dust Pit E l d e rbu s h Cave E ld o n Hol e Fau ce t Cave Fern Cave Fern ey Cave Finney H olli", Cave Fissure C a vc Flour Cave F ox h o l e Cave Franki'tl1 R ocks Frog H o l e Galltries H o l e G iant s Cave G i ant's H o l e G l ebe Mine God frey H o l e \ Vir k s w or th M a nif old Valle,' Peak Peak P eak Manifo l d Vallev H ig h Wheeldo n 7(61 ) ; 20(128q4) 1 9 1 5 ( 1 9) 1 9 near E:trl Ste rnd ale B e r esfo rd D:ll e 19(89\ 1 9 Pe:lk Peak Pe:lk Peak 24 P e ak

PAGE 12

Page 10 Cflve Name Godf rey H o l e Cave Golco nd a Mine Grassda l e Sws. Great R ocks D ale Sws. Gree n L a n e FissLlre H am Dale Sw Locat i on Peak H amps Dale Sws. Hang in g H o les Hann a h 's Cave H a rborougb Cave Hartl e Dale Caves Hawth o rn e Edge Hay D a l e Sws. H e rmi t Cave Brassi ngton (4) Bradw ell Cave P ea k Hig h Top Cave Hi g h T o r Hill Car Sou g h Hill oc k s Cave H oc Grange Cave J acobs Cave Jllg H o l es Kind e r L ow Cave Knowell s Mine L a ngwith Cave L a thkill Liner Dal e Caves L o n g Cliff L a ngrid ge Wharf Cave Llld 's Churc h Peak P eak Monyas h Ne
PAGE 13

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOC I E T Y PIiIlUI POr OF GOYDEN POT NIDDERDALE A Bullerlield PI{ H1!lI,n.J 8 Ne13/1"'f' H Yd ltUJ SCALe. ...L '000 /n 4rr: 41 h/ghl!r I.wl u-n ;, I77d,c.ns w.kr. NVl'nh eJ'3 S38 ItJ 710 h"ghlIDoW-'-. I pprOJl lm6"" Page II JECTION,

PAGE 14

Page 1 2 Caue Name Crookes P ca k Cave ( D en ny's Hol e) Cross Swalle t Den ny' s H o l e Dinder Wood S helter Dulc o t e Hill F i ssure s Durnh am D ow n Cave East Twin Brook Swalle t Eastwa ter Swallet Ebbo r Gorge S h e l ter No. I Ebbor Gorge She lt e r No.2 Ebbor G o rg e S h e lter No.3 Fair y Cave Flint J acks Cave Fox s H o l e Goatchurc h Cave Ga l ga rth Ca v e (Co w H o l e) Go l got h a Cave Gough 's Cave G r ee n Ore Sw. G uy's Rift Cave H ollowfie l d Sw. H o lwell Cave Hutto n Cave H ye na Den Lamb Leer Lherm Cavern Lon g H o l e L o n g w ood Sw. L ox ton Cave Mi l t o n Hill S wall e t Nancy Ca mel 's H o l e N e d ge Hill N et tlebrid ge Fissure Oc h re Cave Oones H o l e O utl ook Cave Penny S l e i g h Cave Pluml ey's D e n Prid e Evan s H o l c R ead's Cavern Read 's Gro tto Rick l ow Ris in g Cave R o dn cy Stoke Cavc Roman Cave R owbe rr ow Cavern Sandf ord Hill Cave Sand pit Hol e Sol dier 's Hol e Stoke Lan e Swalle t St. Suthbert's Swalle t St Vi ncent's Cave (Quarried) Sngar L oaf R ock Sun Hol e Swil don's H o l e Thru pe Swallet Ti c ken h am Cave Twin Bro o k Sw. T ynnings No. I T y nni ngs N o 2 Uphill Cave Wal d e rgrave Sw. Wal ton B o n c Cavc Whitcombe's Cave White Spot Willie' s H o l e W ilt s Q C av e Windsor Hill Cave W ookev H o l c Y o r k H o L oc ation Burrington Co mb c B urrin gto n Combe Nordrach-on-Mendip S i a u ghte rf o rd (Wilt s hir e) R efe r ence No. 1 8 1 8 19(90) 2; 1 8 114 1 8 1 8 7(59-60); 19(91) C heddar Near Well s N ea r W ells Banwell Ebbor Gorge Burrington Combe C h eddar B urrin gto n Combe C heddar C h e ddar C h e ddar 4 ; 1 2 10 (3 1 6) 19(92) 1 8 1 8 32 3 1 30 19(91 ) 1 8 18(50) 3 1 8 (50) Near Westo n -Super -Marc 10(194,294); 1 9 Ncar C l cvedon Bllfrington Combe S h epto n Mallct C hed dar 19(92) 10( 1 40) 1 3 17(20) BULLETIN NUMBER EIGHT Caue Nam e Yorkshire A lbert Cave A l u m POt Angl e H o lm POt A s h Tree Sin k Ashberry Wind pits Attermire Cave Aygill Cave Barbon Fell POtS Batt y Cave Birk s Fell Ca ve Birkwith Moor Cave Bis h opda l e Gavel Pot Black B cc k Hol e Blayshaw Gill No. I Blayshaw Gill N o 2 Blind Beck B lu e J ohn H o le, Lamps Moss Boggart H ole Boggat's Roaring H o l e No. I B ogga t's Roa ring H ole N o.2 Bornns Moor Cave Bracken Gill Brad y Garth Cave Lo cat i on Swa l eda l e Wha rfedale Ribble Kid sto n e Pass Swa l eda l e \ V h e rn side Braithwa i te Wife Cave [n g l eto n Braithwaite W if e Sink Brow Gill Cave B r owside Cave Bruntscar Cave Whern sidc Bucken Pike Cave Buckhaw Brow Cave Bull Pot Cave No. I Kings dale Bull Pot Cave No.2 Leck Bull Pot of the Witches Barbo n Fell Butte rtubs Ca l f H o l e or E iland Cave Ca l f H o l es Ca l f POt Capnut Cave Car Pot Cave H a Cellar Pot Churn Mill Hol e C lapham Cave Coates' Cave rn Cove H o l e Cow Dub H oles Cow P o t Co w-Skull Pot C rack POt Crad l e H o l e C ros s POt C udd y Gill D a ngerou s Cave D e ad M an's Cave Death' s Head Pot Dicca n P o t D i cko n Dis m a l Hill H o l e Dissapointment Cav e Doubl e 3 Hole Do u k Cave No. I Douk Cave No. 2 Dow Cave Kid sto n e Pas< Sk y rethorn s Giggl csw i c k Fountain s Fell Easegill For ce Leck Fell Ribble Leck Fell Ribbl e C hapel-Ie-da l e Graven R eference No. 10(82) 20 ( 1 29 ) 20 ( 1 28) 2 0(1 29) D ow kerb o n o m Cave Nr. Kilnsey, Wharfedalc 10 ( 1 95) ; 20 ( 1 28) D nn combc Park F i ssure H clms l e\, 7 (54) East Gill Cave Swa l eda l e E l bolton Cave Thorpe ncar Skipto n 20 ( 1 28) E l ga n s Hol e E y e h o l es Leck Fell Far Douk 'Fair y H o l e

PAGE 15

N j\TIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY Clive Name Fai ry Thron e Faries Works h op F ell Beck Sw. F l : llnb oro u g h Cave F l ats ton e P o t (Sca l es M oo r P ot) Footnaw's H o l e Foss Gill Cave Fox H o les Gab l e Pot Ga pin g G h yll Gate Kirk Cave Gavel Pot G i ant's G r ave Giggl cswick Sca r Gill Hea d P o t Ging lin g Cave G in g lin g H o l e G ip sey H o l e Goyde n P o t G r ave l P o t G reater K e lco Cave G r eygarth End Pot G rey Gill Gritstone Pot Gunncr F leet Cave Hagfo rm Pot Hardraw Kin H ell H o l e Hidde n P o t Hi g h Birkwith Cave Hi g h Douk H ig h Hull Pot Hi g h Lat h e H o d ge Hol e H o l e Bottom Cave H ollow Mill P o t s H o m e Hill Cave H 0111Csh aw Cave H orses h oe Cave Hull o r T hirl Pot Hunt Pot Huntcr's H o l e Hurtle Pot Ingl e b o r o u g h Cave In g l eto n Cave I reby Fell Cave J ackdaw H o l e J effrey Pot J e rr y P o t Jin g l e P o t Jin g lin g Cave No. Jin g lin g Cave No.2 J oc k ey H o l e J o hn-i s-Co min g H o l e Jubilee C ave Juni per G ulf Cave Kail Pot Karnot Cave Kcl B ank Spr in g C av e K elco Cave Kin gs Sca r Kin sey C av e Kirb y M oo r side Caves Kirk Gill C av e Kirkdal e Cave Kilar csborollg h Cave Kna ve Kn oll Cave Lesse r K elco Cave Littl e Hull H o l e Littl e Pot L oc key Cave L o n g Churn Cave L ong D r op Cave L o n g Kin C ave L o n g Kin East L o c ation Referen c e No. In g l eb. Whe rn side L eck Fell P cnnygh cnt, Littonda l e G ragreth Ribbl e Crave n Swa l eda l e R ibble Ribbl e Ribbl e C r aven Ribble Hubbe rh o lm e Wharfedal e Kin gs dal e 7(36) G iggleswic k 20 ( 1 29) G iggl esw i c k Scar 20 ( 1 29) 7(52) 7(1); 17 Ribbl e Ribbl e Caul! /Vame Lon g Kin H oles L o n g Kin Wes t Lord s T op H o l e Lost J ohn Lost J ohn's Lost Pot L ow B irkw ith L ow M oo r Cave Location G ragrth L ec k F ell Ribble L ower Douk Gragrth L owe r Dry L a ith e Cave M a lh am Cave Malham T a rn Sink Manch este r H ole Marbl e Pot Mar b l e Steps Mer e Gh yll Middlc Pasture Cave Mough ton Fell Ca v e Mud Foot P o t Nanny Ca rr H o l e Navel Pot Nether Lodge Cave New Cave New Pot 'ew Year Pot N i ck Pot No. Nick Pot No.2 O l d In g Cave O usd H o l e Penny P. H o l e Craven Crave n Sim on Fell G ragrth C h apel-Ie-da l e Ribble Ribble Fountain s Fell Simon F ell Ribble Pennygh ent H o use Cave Pcnn\'gh e n t Littondale P ennygh ent Long C hurn Ribble Philpin H o l e Pillar Pot Pin H o l e Pinnacle Pot R ainsca r Cave Ray Gill F i ssure Ribbl e Swalle t Ribb l e h ead Cave Ribbl e head H o l e Rift Pot Rin g l e Mill Cave Ripp o n Swallets Robin H ood's Mill R oc k v Pot R osebus h Pot R o w a n Tree H o les Rowde n P o t R owte n Pot R owting Pot Rumblin g Hol e Cave Sca les Moor ( N ew?) Pot Sch oo l B oy Ca ve Scoska Cave Scots H o l e P o t Sell G h yll H o l e Sell Gill H o le S h atte r Pot Sheepfo l d Cave Shor t Drop Cave Silva P o t S kir at h Cave Sk irwith C a ve Slee t s G h yll South B ank Pot Spectacle P o t S taircase Cave Strangl e P o t Stump Cross Cavern S ulb e r P o t Sunset H o l e Swinda l e Pot s Sw inn e r gill Kirk Cave S winst o Hol e Ribble Ribble In g l ebo r o u g h Gree n Cave Fountains Fell Swaledale Demdale L eck Fell \ V h ernside L i tto n dale Cotter E n d Wensl c vd l e FOllnta in s Fell I nglcto n Stockdale \ V h crnside FOllmains Fell Greenhow Hill Ribb le King sda l e Page 1 3 Re f erence No. 20 ( 129) 11 18(48)

PAGE 16

Page 14 Location Cave Name Tatham's W ife Tay l o r 's Cave Thirl Pot Thompsons H o l e Thoms Gill Cave Th ree Trees Pot Tot L ords Cave Treller Hole Tral ers Cave Turn Dub Cave Unnamed No. I U nn amed No.2 Unnamed No. 3 L eek Fell Upper Dry Laith e Cave \OST JOHNS '''CAVE LEeK FELL ( I nnes foley) N OTE S PASSAGES FROM ENTRANCE LEVEL TO 2 0 0 FT. LEVEL SHOWN B L ACK FROM 200 FT TO 350 GPE EN 350 DOWNWARDS' RED MAP DIVIDED INTO, IOO FT. SQUARES NOTE THAT COURSE F M A IN STREAM FROM 3RD PilOt TO POINT MARKEO : X : IS NOT KNO N TO PARTY CARRYING UT THIS SURVEY ALSO THAT S TREAM CAN NO BE FOLLOWED FROM .. SINK" TO STlll Poc I Cave Name Loclition North Ir e /and COllnty F ermflY/agb Cat's Hol e Crad l e H o l e Upper Cavern Marble Arch Cavern M o na s tir Sink Noon's H o l e Polla s umera P o llaw a dd), Pollbwc e P o llna ga ppl e S kreen Hill River Cave rn Eire Cavan Co. Maghcrry Cave Bcltllrbct COllnty C l ar e Ballyeas h ccn Cave Coolagh River Cave M" TER oolag h Rive r Swallet ( P o lld o n ollgh) Faunarooska Cave BULLETI N NUMBER EIGHT Referen ce No. Cave Name Upper H es l edo n Caves Victoria Cave Walled Cave Warm H o l e Washfold Cave W ate rfall Cave Watersea l e Cave Weathereot Cave Whernside C has. White Scar Cave rn s Windy Pits Witches Yockenthwaite Pot Yordas Cave Y ordas Wood Cave Ireland Referen ce No. Cave Name Fisherstrect Pot G Ullm a n's Cave Pollapouka Ballyell), Poll Ballin )' P oll Binn (Upper Poullnagollum) P oll Dubh L ower P oll Dubh Upper P oll n a Pooka P oll Lis maur a haull (Upper P o ulnaelva ) P o ulliam ( P o ulwillin) PoulnaeJva Poullna gollul11 St. Cath e r i n e's Well 10 (335) Caves Tipperary Co. 5(40) Mitehelstown Caves Waterford Co. 5(39) S h andon Cave 5(39) Whiteehurc h Cave Lo cnt ion Pennyghcnt, Lit to nd a l e I n glcto n H awnby, Near Riding Wharfedale Demdale Locl ltion DUl1 garva n R eferen c e No. 1 6 Refer ence NQ. 5(38) 5(39) 5(39) 5(39) 5(39) 5(38) 5(38) 10(335) 10 (335)

PAGE 17

NATIONA I. S PELEOLOG Cnue Nnme Loclltion Scot land Argyl/ shire Oban Cave Oban Srtther/nnd Inclmfldnmph Uamh all U i sge (C1VC of W ater) Uamh Caillich e Pea ra g Stnff{/ Cla m s hell (Scallop) cave Fin ga l s Cave Skye Nllrs ling Cave (S l ochd Altrimen) liVales Nort. b DCl1bigbshire Perrhi-Ch ware u Caves Cor wen Hhos Di g r e Cave (a l so Rh y d I so p ) Ncar L1ana rmon \ Vo rld 's E n d Cave Ncar Li:lngollen Flintsbi rc Allegcic Ogo (also G llr yc h & L1andlllai s) B a rn cwell Cave Ncar H o l y wcll Br y n Bella (al so Cae Gwyn & Ffigmon Blle n o) Cae Gw y n Cave Cdn Cave Ffynnon B euno Cave G e l p Cave G l y n Ceirog Caves Gop Cave Goy Cave G r ; ln gc F:UI11 C av e G llrych Cave GW3cn ysgo r Cave Plas Heaton Cave Pontnewydd Cave T rl"mc r c hi o n Caves B C IIIl C Cave H a l k y n Mrs. Cave H o l w a y Cavc L1a nrlllla s Ogo O!{O C a ve Sontb Brenocksbire Craig y N os N o. C r a i g y Nos No. 2 CWI11 Calla n Sw. Dan v r Ogof Ffynn o n 011 L1anga rr ock Ca, c P c n w y llt No. I P e n wyllt No.2 Pwll B y frce Pwll P ant M aw r Sin k y G i edd Upper L a d y Cave Weigh B ridge Cave Lad v Cave Cflrmflrtb c:nsb i l'c C arrc g Ccnnc ll L1andebi e G l n morgnnsbir e Baco n H o l e Bis h opsto n Ca vc No. Ris h opsto n Ca ,c No.2 B osco's Den Bridge Cave C as r ell Coch Sr. A sap h Newrnarkct Newmarket Ncar H o l ywcl l Ncar Presta r y n Vale of C1wvd Ncar Cdn N ca r Sr. A saph Miscella n eous Breco n Brecon Breco n Br eco n Br eco n Brecon Brecon Brec o n Br eco n Brecon B reeDll Br eco n B rcco n Go w er Gower Go w er Gow e r G ower V Il L Ial SOCI ETY Refercnrc No. 10(195) 1 (15) 22 10 ( 149) ; 1 8 10(156) ; 1 8 1 8 17 10(159) ; 17 1 7 (2 1 ) 18(51 ) 1 8 1 7 1 0 (287 ) ; 17 1 0 (21':7); 1 7 1 7 (2 1 ) 1 8 1 8 6(97) ; 2 1 ; 37( 43 ) 1 8 7 ( 166) ; 1 0 ( 1 94 ) 1 0 (288) 10(21':8) ; 20(130) Cnuc Name LOCtll.i o n Cat h ed ral Cavc Gower Cat H o l e Cave Crawley R ocks Cave 5 "':: 1I15C:1 C lliver H o l e Ll a n gcnnir h Deborah 's D e n Gowcr Dcco y P o n d Sw. Gower D ih o n ow Fissur e Dunr;lvcn H o l e D yff r y n Ho.Sw. Fairy Hill Sw. G o wer Freedown Sw. No. Gower Frecdown Sw. o. 2 G o wer Garrh W oods Goat' s H ole ( P av iland No. 2) P n rr In o n Kitrl c Sw. Gower L esser Garth Cave R advr L1w)' n y B wch Go\;'cr Mumbles Cave Gower North Hill T o r Cavern G::>wer Park \ Vood Cave No. I Gower Park \ Vood Cave No.2 Gower P avila n d Cavc o. I Port I non P av i land Cave o. 2 Port I non P avi land Cave o. 3 Port I non Porrh vr Ogof Raven s Cliff C",c Spiritsai l Tor Cave G::>wcr Gower C",c Gower ppcr W hi te Ladv \ V h ite H orse Will's H o l e C,VC Wind H o l e Sech n a llt Vallev \ V h ile Lad y Cave }lI/0I1rt10Iftb K ing Arthur Cave Merlin's Cave Pemurokesbire Black R oc k Cave Ca l d\, Cave Coyga n C:1VC H ov l e's Mourh Cave Priory Farm Cave T enbv B o ne W\,C Vallev Vallcv Tcnbv Tenbv Pendinc Tcnb, Monkton Miscella n eolls (Coullty Locatio n ncerraill ) Arcade Ca ve Bard sev Is. Caves B l acn-S irh owv S\\"s. Brvnir u Ca\ c Br ; sgill Cave Fa wr Sws. Cal d y Cave Carna u Gwvs Swa. Cas tlc Carl ; D ochan Cefn Cadl"n S\\"o Cdn C i l Sanws Sws. Cdn Esgair Carnall 5\\"5. Cefn Sw. Cefn-v.Gar;, Fadog S\\'o Cocc l\ ; rmstwr Crai g y Din:1s C r ow H o l e CWIll Owr Q uarr" Cave CWIllP\\,II-y r .Rh,'-d Cwm y Porrh \ Vo od Caves Devil 's H o l e Druids Moor S\\"o Fan Fraith Par Ffrvdiau T wrc h Ga lr faena n Cave Great B edding Cave Gwacn Ccfn Carc('r Pot H epste Briel)!c Sw. Galdacnan Page 15 R e f e ren ce No. 10(145) 7 (80) 20( 130 ) 7 (.2) 18 19(92) 7(82) 7 (96) 6 10 (288 ) 10(288) 10 (290 ) ; 1 8 1 8; 25 10(68) 10(62) 10(62) 18 10 ( 1 60 ) 10(62) 1 0 (21':8) : 20 ( 130 ) 6(96) 10(288) 10(287) 6(94)

PAGE 18

Page 1 6 BULLETIN NUM B E R E IGHT BRITISH ISLES

PAGE 19

NATIONAL,SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY (County L ocat i o n U n ce r tai n ) H ywell's Gr o t to (Ca f ell H ywell) Kittle Hill Cave L1a n elly Q u a rr y Cave L1yga d L1wch w r C a v e L1wchr Cave L1y n -llec h Owe n S w L1y n -y-Ba b a n L o n g H o l e L o n gbury Bank Cave L ydste p Cave M onkton Cave N anna's Cave N e ttl e T o r Odyn fach Swallow Ogof Faw r Ogof Liad r o n Ogo f P wll y Rh y d Ogof Y s t wffw l g las Ogo r Dinas Ogo r Du P ant M awe P o t P ant-y-L1y n P u l p i t H o l e P wll Du Silver B og S in k St. D o nat Cave Sout h e rn Down Cave Sto n ey Ford Sw. T o wn Drain Cav e T wy m S h on Ca t tis Twyn D r a in age Wae n F i g n e n Fe l e n W alnut T r ee Br i d ge Cave Wogan Cave U nn amed Cave No.1 U nn a m e d Ca v e N o. 2 Unn a m ed Cave No.3 Unn a m ed Cave No.4 U nn a m e d Ca v e No.5 U nn a m ed Cave No.6 Bowe n 's P arlour Cave Careg C. Castle Ca reg y r Ogof Ca r weley R ock Ca v e Ce i rog Cave Cw m Go r e d Gob Cave Goga f a n Cave H a l k y n Mine L1a n a rm o n Cave L1a n dula i s Cave L1a nm adoc Cave Minc hin H o l e Ogof Diban Ogof y Gaseg R am T o r R ave n s T o r S l i de Pit S t a r C l iff T y N ewy d d Varte)! S w Y n ys Rock ( L o c a ti ons Unknown ) Ch anne l I s land s T e r sey L a Cotte de St. Brelade La Corte d e S t O u e n Sar k I s land 6(95) 10(288) 6(97) 6(95) 6 ( 97) H C. H ovey in C e l e b rated A m er ican Cauerns" s t a tes t h a t som e o f t h e finest sea caves in the w o rld a r e a l o n g t h e three-mil e coast l i n e of Sar k I s l a nd in the E n glis h C h annel. Page 1 7 CAVE BIBtIOGRAPHY I. Ada ms, W H D avenpo rt F a m ou s Caverns and Grot t oes. L o n do n T. N elso n & Sons, 1 886 2. B ake r L. Y.-Prel i m ina r y Repo r t on Investigatio ns at Goa t c h urch Ca ue rn Pro c eed in gs of the Speleo l ogical Soc i ety, Univer s ity of Bristo l Vol. 2 No. I 1 922-3 p. 6 0 3. B alco m be, F G and J A. S h ep pa r d Di vi n g at Swildon 's H o l e Cau e s an d Caving, Vol. I No. I p. 24-26 4. B aldw i n N. V Engineering Und erground, a Des c ription o f Lamb L ee r Cab l eway Ca ves and Caving, Vol. I No.5 p. 1 8 0 1 83. 5 Bartlett, P N.-Discov eries in County C l are, I r e land Caun and Caving, Vol. I No. I p 38.40. 6. Br a ithwaite, T A. J.-Porth.Yr-Ogof and Its N e ighbors. Caues and Caving, Vol. I N o 3 p. 93-8. 7. B uck l and William-R e liquiae D i luvianae L on d on J M ur r ay, 1 823 8. C h antr y, M H.-Nettl e Pot D erbys bire Caves and Cauing, V ol. I No. I p. 34 7. 9. Davies, J A.-Tbird Report on Avel in e's Hole. Pro cee din gs of the Spe l eo l ogica l Society. Univ e r s ity of Bristo l Vol. 2 N o I 1 922 3 p. 5 10. D awkins W. Boyd-Caue Hunting, Macmill a n & Co L o n do n 1 87 4 11. D o u g las, E J.-Nick P o t, Ingleborough. Ca ves and Ca uing, Vol. I No. I p. 32 -3. 12. Duck, J W.-Lamb L eer Cavern C aues and Ca Ving, Vol. I No.2, p. 70.2. 1 3. D u c k J. W .-Windsor Hill Ca ue; S h epto n M allet, Some rset Caves and Ca ving, Vol. I No. I p 2 2 -3 1 4. H arr is, C. W. a n d J W. Duc k T b e Discove r y of Cow H o l e Som e rset. Ca ves and Catling, Vol. I No. 4 p. 1 52-4 1 5. H ovey, H o r ace C. Cel e brated Ame rican Caverns, Robert C l ar k e & Co. C i n c innat i 1 882 1 6 J ackson J Wil f red-Cente nary Account of Victoria Cave, Settle. Caues and Cau i ng, Vol. I No.5, p. 1 691 74. 17. Jackson J Wilf red--Scbedule of Cave Finds Ca tles an d Ca uing, Vol. I No. I p. 1 8-21. 1 8. J ackso n J Wilfr e d--Sc b edule of Cave Finds, Caves and Caving, Vol. I No. 2 p 48-51. 1 9. J ack s o n J Wilfred--Sc h edule of Cave Fin d s, Ca ve s and C llUing, Vol. I N o .3, p. 8 9 92. 20. J ackso n J Wil f red--Sc b e dtde of Ca ue Finds, Caues and Ca ving, Vol. I No.4, p 1 271 30. 21. L u mb ard, D T h e 1937 Expl oration of DanY r-Ogof, Ca ues and Ca ving, Vol. I No.4, p 1 3 1 -3 22. M acleay, K e n neth-Description of the Spar Ca ue Lately Dis couered in tbe lsl e of Skye. Edinb ur g h T. Bry ce & Co., 1 8 11. 23 24. 26 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. Mi tc h ell, A l bert-Yorksbir e Ca ves and Potboles. Skipton The C r ave n Her a l d L td 1 93 7 P a lm e r L. S. a n d E. K T ratma n--So m e D erbysbire Caues. Pr ocee dings of the Spe leological So ciety, U n ive r sity of Bris t o l Vol. 2, No. I 1 922-3, p. 90 Ph illips, C. W.-Final R e port on tbe Exc a v ation s of 1I1erii n's Caue, Symonds Yat. Proceeding s of tbe Spe leol og ica l So c iety, U niver s i t y of Bristo l Vol. 4 N o I M a y 193 1 p. 11-33. Procto r H G.-T ack's S car Ca ve, j \ifi d d leton-in-T eesdale. Caves an Ca u ing, Vol. I No.5, p 1 7 5 -6. Pu t trell, j W.-T o the T o p of t b e "Bottomless Pit (Spee d we ll Caue), Caues and Cauing, Vol. I No. 4 p 1 25-6 R u cksack Cl ub j ourna l Rucksack C lub, Man c hest er. S im pson E.-Gaping Gby ll H o l e Ca ue s and Ca v ing, Vol. I No. I. p 27-3 1 ; No. 3 p. 112-116; No.4, p. 1 40-1. Taylor, H.-T b i rd R e port o n Rowb e rro w Cau e rn. P roceedi n gs o f tbe Speleologi cal So ciety, University of Bris t o l Vol. 2 No. I 1 922-3, p. 4 0 Tra t ma n E K.-Reads C auern-Final Repo rt-Exc auat i on of the Exte r i or. Pro cee d ings of tbe Spele ologica l Society, Univer sity of Bris t o l Vol. 4 N o I M ay 1 931, p 8. Wadswor t h A. a nd E. W. S h a rpe-Tbe O cbre Ca ve, B a nwell. Som e r set. Cau e s an d CIlv ing, Vol. I No.4. p 134 -6. Wel s h R euiew, Septe mber 1 939, p 84-90.

PAGE 20

Page 1 8 34 Wil son Geo r ge H.-Cave Work in tbe Manifold Vall ey. Cave s (md Caving, Vol. I No.2, p. 61-9. 35. Yeldham D.-Pridbamsl eigb Caves Near Asbblfrt on D evon Caves and Caving, Vol. I No.2, p 73-75 36. Yorksbire Ramblers Club T ournai, Y orkshire Rambler s C lub L eeds 37. New Expl orations. Caves and Caving, Vol. 1 No.2, p. 43. h ave h a d a fairly intimate acquaintance with the D e rb ys hir e a nd Yorks hir e caves, ove r a period of six year s o r so ending 1 942, but I hav e not v i sited the South Wales o r Irish caves If it i s o f inte rest, how eve r I h e r ewith submit a muc h m ore co mpl e t e list o f Briti s h caves than tha t given in the Bull e tin issues Numbe r Fiv e and Six. Exploration in South Wales and Mendip had b ee n pro ceeding at a ve r y high r a t e durin g the past f ew years ( befor e the war I m ean), and publication ha s not k ept pa ce with the exp l oration I think, therefore, that there must b e many m ore caves in those tw o regions than I hav e shown in m y lis t. The other regions hav e b ee n fairly well ex plor e d f o r m a n y years, and n early eve r ything has b ee n r eporte d You will note the p ec uli ar ities o f Welsh, Gaelic, and Celtic names-in Welsh Ogof (so m e times Got) means BULLETI N NUMBER EIGHT "cave"; in Gaelic Uamh; in Celtic Poll or Poul. Welsh, I'm familiar with; Ga e lic slightly; Celtic not a t a ll. I b elieve that the names are the phonetic English translit era ti o n of the Celti c which uses a diff e r ent alphabet, anyhow. I h ave omitted from the lis t the D eve Holes and Chislehurst caves as these are, unquestionabl y, manmad e excav ation s in the c halk and contain no natural cavities. (There i s a story going around that the roof of Chislehurst caves show the marks of the d ee r-antl e r s which were u se d b y primitiv e man as too ls! About similar to the Roman coins found in the same caves with Julius Caesar's h ea d and the date 55 B C.) I h a d the good fortune t o make a busin ess trip to K entucky r ece ntl y, and visit e d Mammoth Cave-the fir s t cave I had ente r e d s in ce arriving i n the U. S. A. som e time ago N ormally I h a v e littl e l e isur e tim e; but I was inte r este d to note the list of caves, h oweve r as there see m ed t o be some within a w ee k end exc ursi o n of N e w York. My int eres t in caves is mor e s portin g and explorator y, than a rcheologi cal or bio logical. Frank Solari New York, N. Y ( 1 944) CAVES OF THE SEWANEE AREA By HENRY T. KIRBy-SMITH, M D. HARVEY TEMPLETON o f Winchester, Dr. Ed ward McCrady of Sewanee, and I h ave explored during the last four year s 51 caves loc a t e d in Franklin, Grundy, Marion, Lincoln Warre n Cannon, a nd D e Kalb counties, T ennesse 'e, and in Jackson county, Ala bama. There are m a n y diff erent t y pes of cave s in this ar ea; but thos e in the imme diate vicinity of Sewanee belon g to a distinct gro up. It i s caves of thi s one l atte r type onl y wh i c h are discussed h ere. Sew an ee i s loca t ed o n top of the Cumberland Platea u, a range of m ountains compose d of lim estone with a sand sto n e cap. The Plateau is about 2,00 0 f ee t hi g h break ing off s harpl y about 1 000 f ee t t o the hi g hl and rim bel ow. Both the top of the m ountain and the valley floor ar e r elative l y Rat broken into s mall hill s a nd t : avines b y stream s but w ith out peaks or hi g h hills. The sides of the m ounta in are quite ste e p and co ntain n o l evel areas of a ppreciab l e extent. The sand sto n e ca p of the m o un tain is comparativel y thin and below thi s nothing but lim esto n e is found. This co ndition i s associa t e d with the formati o n of m a n y caves. T h e r e arc numero u s valleys and coves in this r egio n which have b ee n formed b y eros i o n In the long and nar row valleys o f Crow Creek and Battl e Cree k on the East w e have found m ost of o ur caves. Our lar ges t o n es are found at the foot of the m ountain, although the whole side of the m ountain is prob a bl y honeycombe d with small ones. As water flow s through these small caves, like streams o n the s urface, they to ul1lte into a drain age patte rn until a cave is formed which I S larg e enough to b e trav erse d b y man. The s andston e cap i s relatively imperv iou s to water and caves are not, the ref ore, under the cap. They do not extend unde r the cap but rath er a r e found running under the s ides o f the mounta in onl y. The ir entrances are found, not at the h eads of the rav in es, but at the e nds of sp urs wh ich proj ec t into the valley. W o nd e r Cave, ne a r Monteagl e illustrates thi s point. The tru e mouth of the cave is n o t the bre ak into the cave through which visitors are taken, but i s an o p e nin g at the very end of the ridge a b out 20 0 ya rd s further d ow n. The l ocatio n of the m outh of the ca v e at the e nd of a rid ge rather tllan at the head o f a ravin e ma y b e ex plained in this way. Water which Rows down the s id es of the always flow s thro u g h unde r ground passages rather than o n the s urfa ce. These passages a r e formed a t first b y water seepi n g throu g h cracks which are e nlar ge d into caves b y the acti on o f carbonic ac id o n limestone. A cave so formed f ollows the ge n era l dir ec tion o f the ravin e, but under the side of the m o untain, a variab l e dis tan ce

PAGE 21

N \ T ION II L S PEL E 0 I. 0 G I CAL SOC lET Y from the s u rface b ecoming brger towa rd the botton, of the ravine. \-Vh e n t h e re i s an inte r sectio n of two lar ge raVll1es, a spur of the m o un tai n i s formed and a cave IS CLlt across and ope n e d at the e nd o f the s pur. The caves of the Sewanee area ar e numero u s and their most di s tin c tiv e c haracteristi c is that they arc n ew l ive caves in the process of f o rmati o n. Thirty or 40 miles n orth of Sew an ee in the Collins Riv e r B ee rsh eb a area the caves a r c altogethe r diff e re nt. They a re o ld dry, d ead c aves the mouths of which a re not :It the f oot, but sev eral hundre d f ee t up o n the sides of t h e m ounta in. South of Se wan ee in Jac k so n county, Abbama, the caves a r c not n early as nume r o u s or ex t e n s i ve. Northwest, in DeKalb county wh e re the caves a r c found bel ow the Chat tanooga bla c k s h a le, w e aga in find d e ad, dry c a ves on the sides of the hill s Our caves as I h ave said, arc lik e strea m s o n the s urfa ce. They hav e numerous side pa ssages through whi c h s mall e r stream s enter the main passage The side pa ssages ar c u s uall y quite s mall and not traversib l e for an y distanc e Often the o nl y ev id e n ce of their ex i ste n ce i s a tri c kl e of water. Our caves appear to b e soluti o n channe l s f or m e d b y A ow in g s tream s of water. Some geo logi sts have postula ted ; 1 two-cycle theo r y of the formation of caves. It is b elieved that at o ne time the cave was complete l y unde r the water table and e rosi o n too k p l ace only b y the action of c arb o ni c acid. Late r the w ater was l owe re d and the cave b eca m e open. (See \ V M. Davis, for exa mple, in Bulletin o f t h e Geo logical Society of America, 1 930.) Apparently both theories ente r into a compre h e n s i ve ex planati o n of all the diff e rent c haracteristics o f cave pa ssage. The l e n gth and s i ze of c aves a re, of course, varied. \ Ve hav e found o nl y two caves which arc passabl e f o r a dist a n ce of a s much a s a mil e and a h a lf. [may d:gress h e r e to s a y that n o s ubject unl ess it i s snakes, inspires so muc h popul a r mi sco nc e pti o n a s the questio n of the l e ngth o f a c ave. P eo pl e living n e ar a c a ve will repo rt it to b e six o r e i ght mile s long o r will maintain that a n e i ghbo r walk e d in it for a da y and a ni ght wit h out sto ppin g and without r eaching the e nd. A c a ve that i s three-quarte r s of a mil e long i s a l o n g c a ve The h e i ght and width o f c av e passages varies fr o m crac k s dut o n e c an b a re l y squeeze thro u g h to chambe r s 200 feet wid e and 70 feet hi g h. \ Ve hav e m e a s ur e d severa l rooms and found f e w to e x cee d 70 feet. Anothe r II1te restin g aspect o f t h ese c aves i s the r e l a tiv e l y slight c hange in a ltitude o f the cave A oo r fr o m t h e mouth to e nd. The streams ha ve swift A o win g rapid s but the re are also many lar ge, s till p oo ls. The r e ar c n o P ag e 1 9 lar ge waterfalls. An exceptio n to this i s found in a few caves which terminate in a hi g h chimney thro u g h which a stre am of wate r p o urs. [n our brgest cave, known as Boat Cave a nd l oca t e d in Battle C ree k valley, the c hange in elevatio n is so s l ig h t that i t is pos s ibl e to go the who l e d ista n ce of approxima t e l y a mil e a n d a h a lf in a boat. Except in a f e w pl aces there is no p e rc e ptibl e current. In one place the water is found to b e 24 feet d eep and quite.> clear. The caves a re solution c h anne l s a n d in pla ces t h e pas sages are a lm ost p e rf ectly ova l in s h ape. [ n other p l aces there h ave been falls of rock fro m the roof, and t h e Aoor i s a mass of broke n rocks of all s i<;es up to 20 o r 30 feet ac r oss. Often s u c h a rock fall se als off a cave, b u t it is som e times p oss ibl e to c rawl around or through t h e fall a n d re-ente r the m a in passage o f the cave be yo nd. \Ve hav e not see n evidence of re cent changes of position s in the rocks o f s u c h falls The caves with e ntrances f urth e r up o n the sides of the m ounta in a r c n o t very l o n g, but the r e is o n e typ e w hich s h o uld b e m e nti o n e d-th e so-calle d chimney or H ell h o le." These a r e vertica l s h afts found at a lmost a n y l eve l o n the side of the m ounta in. They are u s u ally s m all at the to p and o p e n out into a singl e l arge room The A oor i s a jumbl e of l oose roc k l eaves a nd sticks. A s a rule, n o s id e passages ar e found. N fr. T e mpl eto n has b ee n our for e most explorer and in one cave we l e t h i m 1 65 feet straight d ow n b efo r e h e hit bottom. H e found deer s antl ers, a b ear's jaw and othe r s m alle r bones. Fro m o n e of t h ese h o les which ha s a connec tion with a large cave o n a cle ar col d m o rnin g a larg e column of m ist can b e see n rising into the air and visib l e f o r a mile o r m ore. A nna/s of Philadelphia ... in the O l den Time, b y J ohn F. \ Vatson ( 1855) contai n s a bl-ie f section o n 'The Caves" ( p. 1 7 1-2), which exp lain s wh y present-day de scendants of severa l first-families of Philade lphia are to this day called "Cave Dwelle r s." Philade l phians says Watson, in a n excerpt from the sect i o n ha ve som e vagu e co ncepti o n s of the caves anc! cabins in whi c h t h e primitiv e se ttl ers made t h e ir temporary residen ce. The caves w e re generally form ed b y diggin g into the ground, near the verge of t h e riv e r fr ont bank, about three feet in d epth; t hus making h a l f t h e ir chambe r unde r g r ound; and the r e maining h alf above ground was formed of sods of earth, or earth and brush combined. The r oofs we re formed of laye r s of limb s or s plit pi eces o f trees overlaid with sod or bark river rushes etc. The chimneys w ere of sto nes a nd r iver pebbles m o rtar e d togeth e r with clay a nd grass, o r riv er ree ds." This was ill the latte r quarrer o f the 17th century There were seve ral of t h ese c a ves u sed as balT oo ms. The last famil y cave disappeare d in 1 830.

PAGE 22

Page 2 0 BULLETIN NUMBER E IGHT CAVE FORMATIONS IN THE SEW ANEE AREA By HARRY M. TEMPLETON, JR. MOST, if not all, of the water found in caves carries a certain amount of dissolv ed mineral m atter, u s u ally ca l c ium ca rb onate, but calcium sulphate, mag nesium carbonate a nd sulphate, iron manganese, and nitroge n co;npounds a r e a lso found. Rain water from the s urfa ce picks up these mi nerals in its pas sage downward to the cave, there u s uall y being a preva l e n ce of calcium ca rb onate derived from the act i o n of the weakly acid water o n the calcium limeston e of the Sewanee Cave area T e n n essee Since the calc ium carbonate is r es ponsibl e for the m ost inte resting f o rmations we will discus s that alone. The r e ar e a wide vari e t y of conditi o ns l eading to the deposit o f the carbonate so that the s i ze and type of form a tion i s d e t ermine d b y the co n centratio n of the so luti on, its press ure, t emperature, and carbonic ac id content, and b y the quantity o f the solution together with .the s p ee d and continuity with which it ente r s the cave. After the water ente r s the actua l cavity the phys i ca l po s ition of the water, the tempe rature, and the de g r ee of saturation of the air with w a t e r vapor and carbon dioxide exert the ir influ e n ce. Movement o f the air other compounds in the so luti on and possibl y othe r c ircumstances ente r into the pIcture. The refor e w e may e xp ec t a great variety of d e posits. As the water drip s from the ce ilin g sta l actites, stala g mites and capillary tubes ar e form ed. These are o bvi o u s and better-known c av e deposits and so w ell unde r stoo d that we n ee d not discuss the m An Interesting formation, w hi c h ha ve n ever see n d esc rib e d how ever, i s som eti mes f o rm e d on the sur fac e o f a f e w s talactites which from unknown causes exhibit many d ee p hairlin e cracks. A s low flow of ca r b onate so luti o n passes down through the sta l actite and iss ues fr o m the c racks so that b oth their edges receiv e a ca lcit e deposit which, in time, proj ects for an inch or so. Since t h e tw o d e posit s n eve r quite touch, the resulting Form atio n s ve r y closely resemble an unope n e d oys t er. Water drippin g to the floo r does not always f or m stala gmitesseve ral other deposits so m e time s result, the most inte restin g of whi c h ar e Cave Pearls. Cave pearls h ave t h e shape and structure of a tru e p e arl and ar c the result of the d eposit o f co nc e ntri c film s of calcite around a n y nucl e u s s u c h as a grai n of sand They may reach the size o f a marble. In eac h d e posi t there may b e sev e r a l d oze n all contained in a small, c ircular basin lin e d with a slic k s lim y calcit e d e posi t. They a r e extre mely rare, sll1ce both the d eg r ee of agitation b y the dropping w,ner and the r a t e of ca lcit e d e posit mus t be prec i se l y right for the ir formati o n too slight a m ove m ent allow ing the m to adhe r e to the basin 7 and too vio l ent a move m ent throwing them out. Movement without sufficient d eposit will sink a p e bbl e; a nd to o g r ea t a rate of deposit will form irregular-shap e d bodi es, o r cause all to coa l esce Many cave surfaces ar e constantly wet with a very thin film of carbonate-bearing so lution of question e d origin whi c h gives ris e to all the form s of knobstone and ca v e coral. This film see ms to evaporate more quickl y from and the refor e d e posit calcite on, any s mall proj ec tion s so that the proj ec tion i s built furthe r outward and eventually assumes the shape of a rounde d knob attached to the origina l surface b y a s t e m o f somewhat smaller diam e t er. In places t h ese proj ect ions are so very numerous that the s mall er types resemb l e moss. They sometimes g row to b e a foot lon g, studde d with knobs the s i ze of an egg; but they arc the n usu ally inte ns e l y compoundi e., younge r formations arisin g from the bod y of the older d e posit. Whe n eve r there i s enough carbonate solution present to form pool s on the floor and the solution is conc entrated e n ough, a r im of calcite i s d e po s ited around the edges of the pool which b eco mes pro gressivel y d ee p e r as the rim IS built up Whe r e well d ev elop e d these rIm s reach a h e i ght of two or three f ee t and co nfin e a body of crysta l clea r wate r with an area of severa l hundre d square fe et. On the insid e s urfa ces of the resulting ba s in the r e is com monly found a heav y d e posit o f lar ge, g list ening calcite crysta ls. Eva porti o n from the s urfa ce often c au ses the forma ti o n o f a thin film of calcite which floats on the water, and thi s film sometimes r eac h es s u c h a thickness that sect ions of it ca n b e pick e d up with case. Afte r r e ach ing a ce rtain thickness, the ca lcit e flakes usuall y sink

PAGE 23

NATIONAL SPEL.EOLOG ICAL SOC I ETY and ma y ac cumulate to the extent that quantities of the delicate s heet s of sto n e m ay b e scoo p e d up from the bo t tom. In one instance w e hav e found in s uch a pool numerous examples of v e ry p e rf ec t h e mi sphe res about a quarte r of an in ch in diam e t e r and composed of a thin s h ee t of Cllc it e whi c h w e b elie ve to hav e o nc e Roa t e d on the water ;1S little sto n e boats. In thi s pool w e a lso found ex amples of complete sp h e res, h ollow, and con s i sting of a thin c alcit e s hell whi c h we assume to h ave formed around bubbles of air o r othe r gas b e l ow the surface. In a numbe r of the c aves the re ar e excellent examples of formations o f obscure origin about which v e r y littl e is d e finitel y known. These ar e g r oupe d unde r the term "helictite," which at present includ e s all cav e formations d e posit e d in apparent d efia n ce of gravity. Of the forma tion s confo rmin g to thi s descript i on the re are a numbe r sufficient l y div erse to suggest separate modes of d e posit bur all are commonl y r e f e rred to as heli ctites. One of the more inte restin g i s a d e po s it o f c alc i te, or aragonite of a cy lindrical s h a p e with a diame t e r o f up to a quarte r of an in c h. This t y p e g row s outward from the walls, ce ilin gs and floor of t h e c av e in an y direction 111 complete d e fiance of gravity and may re ach a l ength of five or six in c hes. A s t h ey g row they twi s t and turn to a marke d d eg ree; and s in ce usuall y many a re f ound aris in g from a common base and a re grouped clos e togeth e r they form somewhat the sam e picture as t h e gorgonians of tropical wate rs. They present a rathe r striki n g appear anc e becaus e of the ir numbers and b ec aus e many ar e white or transluc e n t. The re are oth e r formati o ns of som ewhat the same co n formation but usuall y of larg e r size, up to an in c h o r so in diameter. These a re usuall y more n e arl y straight, gray or brown on the surface, and resemb l e porc elain within. The), may extend nearl y h orizo ntall y fr o m a wall for two o r three f ee t ; or verticall y downward from the roof ( a s would a stalactite) for p erhaps a foot at whi c h point they abruptly change to the h or izontal. W e hav e found a group of d elicate sort which consists of a n ee dle-like d e posit growing almost v e rticall y upw ard to a h eight of five or s ix in c hes. At an y point branc hes ma y d e velop which, afte r grow in g out n e arl y h o rizontall y for an in c h or so, turn s harpl y upwa l : d producing som ewhat the effec t of a tree without t h e s mall e r bran c h es. All the extre mities ar e n ee dl e-sharp, and ar e interesting be cause almost no oth er formations exhibit this feature. One cave o n the edge of the Sewanee ar e a ha s fairl y good e xamples of a t y p e which i s b etter d e velop e d in som e Virginia Caves. These resemble long, thin crysta l s white o r tran slucent. whi c h begin to form c los e togeth er and Page 2 1 diverg e a s they extend outwa rd g ivin g a sunburst effect. This type, a s w e find it i s closel y associated w ith a well d eve l oped knobsto n e so that the l o n g crysta l s radiat e fr o m points between the knobs. Asso c iat e d with ca pillar y t ubes, the re are sometimes found d elicat e water-clear formations which usually a r ow b nearly h o rizontall y from the wall and sometimes re ac h two inches in l e n g th. M ost of these are nearly s trai ght. and ma y b e simple crysta l s ; btl( some s h o w a pron ounced co rk sc rew s h a p e which wou l d seem t o e liminate the idea of a singl e crystal. H elictites in ge n e ral ar e lISually Inte resti n g ; partl y b ec au s e of the ir r arity and their var i ed s h ap e s and partl y becau se It i s so diffi cult to f or m an y r easo nable theo r v as to the ir formation. w e have found h elictites, w e have found evide nce o f gyp sum formation which may hav e som e b e arin g on til e question ; a s far as we know, how ever, gypsum does n o t ente r into the ir co mposition. Many of the formations d esc rib ed ma y b e eithe r cal cite, aragonite, or dolomite ; and pos s ibl y som e consi s t of both calcite and aragonite s in ce both of these form s seen to b e som e times d e posit e d under the sam e co:lditions Othe r mine ral s sometimes form t y pical deposits of tll e ir own and so m e times see m to contribute to and som ewhat alt e r ril e formations d esc rib e d. As w e continue to investigate the Sewanee c av e area more forma tions co m e p e riodicall y to our attenti on ; and w e have n o re aso n to think that w e h ave as yet f ound all of the t y pes. A nig h t club, 500 f ee t unde r the O za rk Mountains at Bella Vista, Ark., will b e ope n thro u g hout the summe r the Ame rican Express Company re p orts. \ Vo nd e rland Cave, whe re 2,500 p eo pl e can dine and dance, is air con ditioned b y natlli' e and ha s a unifo rm t emperature of 62 d e grees. The ce ntral cave co ntains a co nv ention hall wirll confer e n ce s ide r oo ms, a mammoth banque t r oo m with the atrical lighting effects and ha s served unofficially as the Arkan sas S enate Chamber.

PAGE 24

A NNUAL REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT (1945) F ebruary 2 7 1 946 The l ast ye:l r has s h o wn a generall y satisf acto r y g r owth and devc:lop:nent in our Societ y The annual m eeting of 1 945, whic h offic iall y opened t h e yea r was w ithout doubt t h e biggest event to date in Ollr Society s history. Our m embe r ship ha s incr ease d b y 47 n e w m embers during the past year, though this growth will of cours e, b e offse t b y so m e l oss b ec aus e of d eaths, r es ignations, and fur othe r ca u ses Dur:ng the ye ar w e instituted the prac tice o f ass i gning m embe r ship numbe rs. This should serve as an incentive to r e tain low-numbered membe rships in full force These numbe r s s h o uld b e on the 1 946 m e m b ership ca rds. It i s expected that a full fledged m e m b e rship driv e will b e condu c t e d during 1946, n ow that the war i s ove r a nd p eace-time field trip s can be r esume d Our long-awaited Brochure has b ee n co :nple t e d in pre para tion f o r the cO:lling member ship cltive. Under the capabl e editorship of Bill Hill and the co uper:nion o f the Cl eve land Grotto the Newsletter has b ee n d evc:lope d so that it now is a perfect supplement for uur B ULLETIN Through the Newslett e r members now ha ve a medium for publishing the ir p e r s onal noti ces and keepin g up with the various current activ iti es of the Socie t y B UI.I. ETIN 7 w hich wa s rc:lease d late in the yea r was indeed w orth waitin g for. Our B ULLETIN ha s constantl y improve d wit h eve ry issu e If this improve d hi g h standard i s to b e m aintaine d, w e all mus t do our b est this coming ,Year to in c r e a se the Soc i e ty's income, as our pres ent membership I S in sufficient to support a BULLETIN of quality in view of rising printing cos ts. Ear l y las t summer t h e Society wa s called upon b y the War Department for informatio n on Virginia and W es t Virginia c aves. Y o m Presid ent, togeth e r with m embe r vVilliam McGill, s pent seve ral da ys in the fie l d with their r e pr esentatives, hc:lpin g the m l ocate ca v es for sea lin g and d e m o lition e xp e rim ents It i s h o p e d that a co -nplet e r e p ort o f the s e ex p e rim ents will appear in B UI.LETIN No.9. Value of the Soc i e ty's hc:lp in this pro j ec t wa s acknowl edged b y seve ral l ette rs, all n ow in o ur official files. This emergency call b y the War D epart: n ent clearl y ju s tifi e d t h e efforts of the Society to continue it s fie ld wo rk dur ing the war. The Soc i e t y will continue i t s e fforts to in terest the gov ernment in caves f o r s torage. e mergency s h e lt e r and other plll'p oses. B U L L E T I N N U B ERE I G H T Some pro g r ess was made dl11'ing the last year toward the organization and fu ncti o nin g of the Society 's co m mittees. A n ew committee o n legi slation was auth orized whos e duty will b e to s pons o r l oca l and nati o nal legisla tion dea lin g with the protection of caves and for maintaining sta nda r d s o f comme rcial c aves. The State o f Vir g inia ha s alr ea d y p asse d s u c h legis l ation. A specia l com mittee wa s appointed to attempt to obtain a n a tional c h ar ter for om organization. Under the l ea d e r ship of Dr. Walte r Jon es, a threeda y nati o nal field tr:p was h eld in northe rn Alabama. Sev e ral new c av es w e r e investigate d and co n siderab l e buna collected All who attende d this trip profitd from Dr. J ones instructions o n collecting meth ods and from the field co nt;1Ct with oth e r m embe r s from diver s sections of the country. Anothe r s u c h trip is planned for September of n e x t year. With the r eturn of p e a cetime conditions and of many uf our m embers from the armed for ces, it i s e xp ecte d the coming yea r will b e a bright o n e for our Soc i e t y Resp ec tfull y submitte d Wm. J Stephenson, Pres id ent (2/ 27 / 46) Report of Annual Meeting (1946 ) The three -da y annual m eeting o f the National Spe leological Soci ety in Washingto n, D c., was perhaps the l a rgest and m os t enthusia stic get-togeth e r of am m e mbers s in ce the formation of t h e Society. The morning of Friday, F ebruary 22nel, wa s d evo t e d to registrati on and spelunke r s f rom all parts of the country m e t at the U S. National N [u seum to r e new o l d a c quaintances and make n ew o n es. Many were re ce ntl), ba c k from the far corne r s of the world on the business o f war, and ex pressed gbdness at the prosp ects and promises o f postwar c avlllg The afternoon s ession co nv e n ed at I: 30, and N[r. S t ephe n so n intro du ce d C harle s E. Mohr of the Phila delphia Academy of atllral Science5. N[r. N [ ohr treated the a ssembled cavemen to a highl), instructive lec tme complete with movi e s and co l o r s lid es o n "Hunting Cave A nimals" and "Thirtee n Y ears o f Banding Cave Bats." Afte r finishing the l ecture, N [r. Mohr was c alled on to answ e r specific queries b y v ari o us members of the a udi e n ce. This done the meetin g tlll'n e d to business, and the elec tion of memb e r s for the n e w Board of Gov e1'11ors follow e d R esults of t hi s e l ec t :o n ;,re r e p orte d else wh ere in the B ULI.ETIN. At 4: 30 the m eeting wa s adjou1'11ed and the m embe r s w ent t h e ir way until time for the annual dinne r and socia l h elel ar Joppa T e mpl e at 7: 30. More than 7 0 p e r -

PAGE 25

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY sons turned out for this excellent dinne r at the close of w hi c h m embers of the n ew board who were present wer e introd u ced. This done, the evening's entertainmnt was comm e nc e d with a lecture and movies b y Dr. W F Foshag of the DivisIOn of Mineralogy, U. S. National Museum. These movies we re in co l or and enti tl e d "Volcano Pari c utin. This i s the volcano t hat was born in M ex ico just four yeJrs ago ; Dr. Foshag h d b ee: l sent the r e to i n vestigate and report on i t, an d h a d spent four yea r s watching the volcano g r ow and capturing its progress these s p e c tacular pictures. At t h e e nd of t h e lecture and m ov i es, t h e banquet t a bles were c lear e d away and the room made available f or dancing. The i ce was brok e n b y a "Paul J o n es, wit h Dr. Benn c alling t h e s h ots, and from there on in it was a live l y e v e nin g. Saturday's progra m provid e d for l a t e regi s trati o n of members and a morning dis c u ssio n of g rotto probl e m s with E l to n H Brown rep r esenting the D. C. Grotto; B etty Vau ght the V. P. 1. Grotto; Barton Faust r e p r esenting Richmo nd ; and Bill Blaha f or Cl eve l a nd. A Board of Gove rn o r s m eeting took lip most of rh e after noon, but the day's acti v ities were hi g h -lighte d b y a v i sit of approximately 40 m embe r s to the U. S. Army Map S e rv i ce a rran ge d for by Capt. W. E. Davies. The eve nin g was left ope n a nd a numbe r of m e mbers con g regate d at Bill Steph e nson s h o m e in B ethes d a; another party of ab o u t II p e rsons g uid e d by J ohn P e tri e v i site d the Neptune Room. The big e v ent for Sunday, February 24th, was the vis it t o Luray Caverns, Va. Forty e : ght perso n s m ade the tr l p b y private c ars and w e r e tr eated to dinne r b y the manage m ent o f the cave rn s re pres ente d b y the gracio u s Rob ert H a rn s b e r ger. F ollowlllg dinne r they w e re taken thro u g h the cave a nd gi v e n op p ortunity to examine it s f ormation s and features to the ir hear ts' CO!ltent. On l eav in g the cave, a n invitation was extend ed to visit the Lap idary S h op or "Ston e H o u se, w h e re orname ntal o bj ects costume j e welr y, e tc. ar e made from cav e f o rmati o n s A number of thos e pres ent too k this opportuni t y to learn somethlll g of t h e unus u a l art, w hil e othe r s pr epa re d to l eave for V IS!t s to oth er c ave s in t h e ar ea. Befor e reaching Lura y Caverns, two c ar s III the party stopped at \ Voods Cave, n c ar Rileyville, Va .. a n d did a littl e explo r i n g. They found the b o trl e left t h e re the ye ar befor e b y A I l ew i s Dr. }.I[orrison, and oth e r s and pllSh e d it back a noth e r 100 y ards. Afte r go in g through Luray seve r a l c ars h e aded for Skyline Cavern s which ha ve been closed throughout the war but ar e about to b e re opened, a nd too k opportunity to go through and exami n e this cave s peculiar h elictites. Anothe r car, co n Page 13 tainin g Chuc k \ Vood L eroy Foote B o b H all, John M e ene h an, and J ack Wil son, went exp l or in g south of the town of Lura y an d spent some tim e examini n g rocks a l ong a stream but wit hout findin g any cave entran c e s large e n o u g h to enter. Later they visit ed property known as Willow Grov e Mill, l ocated o n U. S. 1 2 just a few hundred y ard s south of the town limi t of Luray, and wer e giv e n dir e cti o ns to a Fo x Ca' ve n ea rb y. This cave was easily l ocated and, alt h o u g h it was alrea d y late, the party ente r e d and e x plor e d i t. The results of t hi s expl oration a re r e ported e lsewh ere in the BULLETIN J ack Wilson Membership Data During the yea r since }.I[arch 1 5 1 945 when the last membe r s h i p l ist was issued 52 names have been add e d bri nging the tota l fro:ll 320 to 372 as shown on the n ew list s upplied to all m embers Death has c lai: ll e d four more of our m embers and eleve n oth ers h ave either re signed or been dropped for n o n -payment of dues These brin g our tota l l osses s ince the b eginning of 1 9 3 9 to 98 l eaving 274 active m embers, including 3 1 lif e membe r s and two H o n or a r y M e mbers Dr. Swinnerton and Dr. vVetmore not lll cluded in the annual and lif e m embe r ship ranks. Fifteen l ife m embers were obtained during 1 943 when t hi s clas s of m embers hip was in stitute d, 10 more in 1 9 44 and six duri n g 1 9 45. The Alabama Geo l ogical Survey remains o nl y Institutio na l m e : n b er, but M essrs. Curr y and \ Va r d of the Co:nmercia l Cav e Co;nmitte e h ave of l!lcreasing this numbe r nnterially from the r anks of the commercial caves. University or }.1[LI5eu m L ibrari e s in N ew York, Indiana Oklahoma a nd T exas comprise fOG sub s criber s to ou r publications. P ersonne l at our V. P. I. Student Grotto in Bla c ksburg, Va. shift from quarter to quarter w:t h voting in the recent elect i on. During t!le p a st year t h e m embers hip applicatio n s from t h e beginning h ave b ee n caref ull y checked a nd eva lu at e d and seria l nU:llbers i n c h ro nological o rd e r to the best of our a bilit y fr o m existi n g recor d $ assigned to all mc:nbers of t h e Nati ona l Society. umbe r s vacate d by memb er s dmppin g Ollt are not t h e r eafter reass i g n ed to oth ers thus i t p ossi ble for an )' member who has resigned or b ee n dropped for non-payment of dues to regain h i s or i gi nal n u mb e,' by pa y m ent of du es. During the past year two m embers thus r e inst a t ed the:nsel v es. Othe r s h aving a brge ba cklog" of dues i n a rrears may pref er to add eno u g h to th: s amount to eq u a l the current year life m embership rate and thus simultaneo u s l y rega in the i r or i gi n a l l ow m e :nbersh : p numbe r a nd for eve r free the mselves of the

PAGE 26

P age 2 4 bu g b e ar of annual du es. Sin ce only half of s uch funds are availab l e for current e xpe n ses ( prim a ril y the BULLETIN), the r emainde r b e in g pla ced i n a p e rm a n ent fund, the Society a nd the m embe r both b e n e fit thro u g h out the yea r s M e mbers acq uainted wit h an y of t h ese "exm e m b ers" ma y d o all co n ce rn e d a good turn b y h e l p in g or e n co ur agi n g t h em to "get ba c k into t h e f old. Vlith mall Y membe r s s till in t h e service a n d those r eturni n g shifting around co n side r a bl y, m aintaining an entir e l y accurate a nd con sta ntl y up to-date m a ilin g list ha s prov e d impossibl e A break down of m embe r ship b y sta tes as fo rm e r l y presente d see ms t h e r efo r e unde r these conditi o n s to b e of litt l e va l ue. Suffice it to say that at thi s tim e 30 states and D. C. ar e r epresente d in our m embership, besides seve n E n glis h, two V e n ez u e lan and o n e Fre n c h m e m b e r About 34 wom e n a nd 36 d octo r s a r e inclu ded, a s well a s r epresentatives o f a large numbe r of our comme r cial caves. J o inin g t h e V P. l. student grotto, a n d t h e Richmond a n d C l eve l and Grottoes, a new D. C. Grotto has been o r ganize d. It i s unde r stopd t ha t plan s are unde r way f o r r eorganizing t h e New E n g l a nd Grotto, and for o r ganizi n g grottoes c enter in g in Arthurdal e and C harleston, W. Va. a nd Evansville, Ind. U n o r ganize d g r oups in Ste ub e nville and Tol e do, Ohio, Pittsburgh, Pa. t h e S h e n andoa h Valley a nd pe rha p s e l sew h e r e may well ta k e notic e The simpl e applic ati o n r equire m ents for a grotto compri s in g adoption of a bri e f co nstitu tio n a nd e l ect ion o f office r s co n stituting an exec utiv e committee a r e relati ve l y easily m e t, and the resulti n g o r g ani za tion see ms stimulate m embe rship in c r e ase a nd effect i ve ness in t h e gro up. With a goa l o f 1 ,000 m embe r s b y t h e e nd of th e yea r as has b ee n s uggeste d b y o ur Presid ent, e xpa n s i o n of o ur grotto sys t e m may w ell pla y an important r o le. As o ur M embe rship Committee C h airman s u ggests, every m embe r s h ou ld constitute him se l f a prod u c t ive m embe r of the l\If embersh i p Committee a nd then watc h u s grow. J. S. P e trie, S e c retary. N i ce Words to Hear This off i ce acknow l e d ges t h e valuab l e assi sta n ce rend ere d b y yo u in c on n ect ion wit h l ocati n g a n d sel e c tin g caves i n t h e western part of V ir ginia fo r use b y t h e War Department in imp ortant ex p e rim e ntal wo rk You r t echnical know l e dge and ex p ert advi ce contribute d g reatly to th e s u ccess of these expe rim ents. Yo ur compl e te coope rati o n I S appreci ated c. J B lair Jr., Lr. Col on e l Corp s of Engin eers, C hi ef, Real Etate Divi s i o n (6/ 1 2 /45) B ULLETI N NUldBE R E IGHT POTHOLE So m e w h e r e insid e of u s i s a compl aint wanting to worm out: e g. "What Do YOU Think Spe l eo logy S h ou l d be?" We querie d m embers at large ( in side b ac k cover, B ULLETIN No.7). R e plies-or eve n comment: O. In POTHOLE fo r sam e No. 7 we p osed hal f a d oz el: ques tio n s begged fo r sundry aids, s ugges ted as m a n y to pics for a r t icles, e t c., e tc. R ep1ies, o r eve n comme n t s : O. (Ed. comme nt: 0 ) The Ed. crows a bit: h e bo u ght r ece ntl y in D e n v e r a n excellent co p y of H C. H o vey's Cele brat e d A merican C avern s,' inscribed to "Dr. S. V. L eec h with the frate rnal r e gards o f the author. A lbany N Y., June 2, 1890." Nice? 1!:7 Seve r a l p eo pl e have wr itten : w h y publish letters writte n so l o n g ago as yo u fr eque ntl y do ? Ans. B eca use, in som e c a ses The Ed. just r ece i v e d the m ; in som e cases ju s t not room in prev iou s issues. A n yhow, if unda t e d yo u d se ldom noti ce the diff e r e n ce for m ost o f t h e m. W hi c h rem i nd s u s : Do not b e impatient or despair that your m a t eria l l ette r artic le, n ote, etc.,-writ t e n pe rh aps y e a r s ago, is destro ye d or r e j ec t e d. If it had va lu e o r inte rest it will e ventually b e u se d. 1!:7 For the a rm c h a ir s p e l eo l ogist (s u c h as The Ed. has p e rf orce b e come), brow s in g in The Archaeo logy and P rehistori c An na l s o f Scot l tlnd b y Danie l Wilson (Edinburgh: 1 8 5 1 ) i s very produc tiv e On p. 25. e. g. one finds data o n tige r s ( F elis spe l aea) a nd hyaena s ( H yaena sp e l aea) i n oss if e rou s cave rns ; p. 88-90, o n "natura l and a r tific i a l caves w hi c h ... ha ve s uppli e d hiding-places ... and e ve n p ermane n t nati ve dw e llings;" and, p. 183-86, o n Kent's Hole! Cave This latte r sect ion contains a most inte restin g three-page fin e print quotation from Cavern Resear c h es, or Discoveries of Org ani c R e m ains, and of British and Roman R e lIques in t h e Caves of K ent's H ole A n s ti 's Cove (s i c), a nd b y the R ev. J MacE n e r y Bu c k land ( Reliq l titie Dilu v i al1ae) owed muc h to MacEn e r y f or data; and Owe n in hi s His to r y of British Foss il IVlammal s r e f e r s t o Kent' s H o l e as per h aps the rich est cave deposito r y o f b e ars hithe r to found in E n g l and. 1!:7 Vic C raun (see Textls C a ves) writes that h e's r ecove r e d from tropical f e v e r ca u ght on hi S fir s t t rip so u t h and i s off aga in to Central A m erica to l oo k ove r t h e l\Ifan atee Cave in British Honduras ... ( near) Beli ze. 1!:7 Bretz' Phreatic and Vadose Feat14res of Lime stone Caves i s som ething enlighte nin g to t h ose w h o w i h to learn o f c av e f o rmati on. Copies ar e $1.25 e ac h. (Appl y to L e R oy W. F oote ) 1!:7 John H oo p e r ( m embe r from Great B ritain ) writes s uggestin g the Soc i e t y desi g n and bring a lit f o r sal e s tiff binde r s w i t h s uitabl y prInte d or e ngra ve d l ette rin g o n the cove r to h old b ack Issues o f BULL ETIN. Any comments? 1!:7 In Wide World, for Jan u a r y, 1928: "Crawlin g Cave rn s," by Mark H oward, p 225, t ells of l and crabs in c aves in Mindanao, Phil ip pines. 1!:7 From D cpartmento D e Expl oraclOnes Y EstudlOs G e o l ogicos lnstitll to Geo logi co D e M e x i co: R ece ntl y e xplor e d Xoxaf i (So-s a fe) Cavernas, at O cto pan Hidal go, will soo n b e commercially d e vel o p e d This i s a fine gro u p of caves n e ar the hi a h way from Lar e do to Nfcx i c o D. F ." 10' ( I ) Cave 38 from Gunnison o n hi g hw ay from D e nv e r: 26 m o n r., 1 2 miles off Supposed to go down, s h aftlik e, o p ening into l a r ge room .fille d with artifa c t s

PAGE 27

N \ T ION A L S PEL E 0 LOG I CAL SOC I 1." T Y Pag e 25 ---------------------------------------------(2) "Another cave" ( in a r ea). See Art Ebert, Gunnison. 11:7 "The world s l a rgest natural storage refrigerator was sc h e dul e d to beCO:lle comple tely ope r ab l e l ate in Jul y after three 250-to n r efrige ratin g compresso r s h ad gone in to action at th e Atchison Kan cave rn c h ose n by th e Gov ernment for stori n g r eserves of perishable f o od. The tem p e ratur e was expecte d to go d ow n to 30 degr ees at the en d of about 30 da ys the tim e r equire d for t h e 48 bla s t -tvpe uni ts t o coo l below fr eez in g the g reat stone vault t hat r eac hes back into the h ig h h ills o n t h e banks of t h e Mis souri River and has a capacity of 3,000 car l oads of food. (Fro m A u g., 1 945 A merican C at tl e Produ.cer. ) 11:7 T wo caves o n C h affee Mountain in Verm ont are five feet apart and l ea d to two un co nn ecte d caves. Car e fu l ex amination r eve a led n o explo rabl e passages b etwee n t hem. 11:7 Clay Perry lists 58 caves, mines, n otc hes, natur a l bridges, gorges a nd i ce b e ds in Verm o nr. But we h ave n o m embe r s t h ere to tell u s of all t h e wonderful s i ghts to b e found A So c iety G r o t to in the Green Mountain state wo uld not add o n e iota to die n atura l wonders the r e but wo uld t ell the world of t h e sights in one of o ur m ost pictur esq u e New E n g land sta tes. e w E n g l a nd i s old and wri nkl e d ge o logically, a n d if flarrened out m ight be twice its present size a nd could b e see n on the m ap but a map co uld n eve r paint its a l pine scene r y and verdant valleys. 11:7 A c a ve at the ba se of a cliff in Cold Riv e r ( v e r y co ld), Vr.. can be r eac h e d only b y sw immin g unde r wat er. Gol d is som eti mes panned in t h e river b ed but not in the cave. Its brd to h o ld the p a n l evel w hil e swimming. 11:7 At North C l are nd o n Vr.. a co mpl ete Fre n c h t e leph o n e set with n o wires arrached was foun d rece ntl y. Find e r wa s unabl e to get t h e o p erator. but clay sto n e rag d olls were at e ac h e nd of the phone. A noth er collecti o n of cla y sto nes has b ee n picked up h av in g been found m a n y years ago in a N e w Hamps h ir e c av e 11:7 Ic e ska t i n g ca n b e enjoye d in Jul y in a limite d area a t the Pittsford. Vr.. I cc Cave. No r esc u e equipment n ee d e d. I ce i s a foot thic k in mid summr. B e sure to take war m clothing. 11:7 Sci e n ce, F e b 8. 1 9 46 : "Al gae in Carls b a d Caverns, N M p. 1 75 11:7 Fro m L o n don papers. Capt. T. T. PeIT Y sends u s a sco r e of inte restin g clippin gs indicating the valu e of caves in wartime. D over's famous c halk cliffs. h o n ey combe d with bombshel ter caves. wer e providing an "unde r ground" for muc h of the h o m e life of Dove r' s b lit ze d peoples in O cto b e r l ast year. Oth e r clippings t ell o f the caves o f Aach e n turned in to forts b y t h e e n e m y from which they had to b e o ut. The m ountain cave" ( near Maastricht, H olla nd ) w h e r e t h e Dutc h vill agers cas t hor se manure in whi c h to g r ow mushroo m s "wh e r e were hidd e n 800 o f the world s finest p aintings of the 16th a n d 17th century masters and t h e b st battle for Ali Baba 's Cave ( in n orthe rn Fra n ce) . r epute d to cpntain sec r e t German app a ratu s." All tll ese and oth e r clippi n gs of s p eleo logi ca l inte r est, incid e ntall y are now kept b y o ur k ee p e r of t h e scrapb oo ks, Mrs. Francis Snell, 2750 V.i. 1 6th Stree t, Chicago, Ill. 11:7 Life and Adventures o f R obe rt the H ermit o f A1assachHSetts, who has live d 14 yea r s in a cave, se clud e d fr o m human soc i e t y \ Vood e n graved p ortrait. 1 2 m o 36 pp. vVrapper s ''Tak e n from hi s ow n mouth a nd publi s h e d for hi s b e n e fit ." A mularro w h o turne d h ermit to esca p e from unju s t and c ruel b ondage." Provid e n ce, H. Trumbull, 1 829. 11:7 C h arles E. Moh r pbotograpb in P opular Photo graph F e b. 1 9 46, p. 55: In c hing hi s way througb a t i ght squeeze this cave ex p l orer ma y encounte r sud d e n danger. So l ita r y ex p e ditions are frow n ed u pon a n d hunt ers n eve r ente r a cave a l o ne." Text: "Volu m e s co uld be wrirren abo u t nature pho tograp h ers You may find tbem a nywbe r e One gro up haunts caves, craw l lllg on their sto m ac h s through nalTOW crac k s to ta k e flash g un s h ots of bats rats salam anders blind fish, a n d owls . 11:7 See The Phe a sant lunglc, b y \ Villia m Beeb e p 1 70 for data on B atu Caves in P e h a n g Malasia full o f b ats roaches and serpents; Uncle Tom and Andy Bill by Charles Major, for cba p ters o n adventures in Wyandotte Cave a nd Blu e Rive r district; Anna and the King of Si,1m, b y Margaret Landon, p. 355 for ho t springs caves a nd grottoes" n ear P etc b a buri o n riv er of sam e name, 90 m s w of Ban g kok. ". . very bea utiful. Sta l actites like carved pillars and t h e wond e rfu l colors of t h e roofs a nd walls made them see m l ike temples. One was, in fact, u sed as a temple The others had been left as they were except tbat steps had been cut into tbem so they cou ld b e entered easi ly." 11:7 early 2,000 years ago, Plin y the E l der described the famo u s cave out of which the northeast wind was saId to issue, a nd which p lace-be ca use it was a lso a gold mine call t h e cloister or key to tbe eartb." In dlis cave dwelt the Arim aspians and tbe Griffins The Anmas pian s were "known for h aving o n e eye only the midst of t h e ir for e h eads," and for b eing e n gaged in perpetual wa r with the Griffins a kind of w ild b eas t that flies a nd filches o-ol d o u t of the veins of t h ose mines." 11:7 During tbe o p e r atio n s at Gibra ltar, said a sto r y in the Washi n(Jton (D. C.) Star (5 /10/ 43 ) a senes of five cave wer e di scove r e d. The main features were their tr e m e nd o u s s i ze, a prof u s i on of calcite formatio ns, and a l ake of about 70 000 gallons of water." A n acco m p a n ying photograph s h o w s a man. o n a r af t and on an outcro pplll g of s talagmite III the l ake, exa mllllllg the cat h ed r a l lik e beauty of the 'salt formatlOns .''' IC7 Fro m Jun e 1130 the U. S Nation a l Museum in \ Vashi n g to n D C h e l d an exhibit of r e productions of IndIan Cave Mural s and paintinos of Indi a today by Katacha d o uri a n. o P 11:7 On Jun e 25 l ast yea r a s m all m o untalll n ea r L a az, L owe r Cal ifornia ( M ex ico) disappeared o n e d ay. When investio-ated t h e c alIse was r eve a l e d as a n underground riv e r had swallowe d til e m OLlntai n 11:7 A Ripley cartoo n sent us depicts the C r ysta l Cross o f G ra nd R oc Cave, in France R e markabl e h elicote formations ," says t h e caption: "The arm s of me cross were formed by wate r drippin g s id ew ise!" 11:7 Gunn' s Pl allls, n orthern Tas mania ( n e ar Hobart), A u stralia, is ove r a "hon ey comb of l im esto n e caves," says a clipping (11/ 4 /44). R ece ntl y a resi d ent wa lk e d out of hi s h ouse and almost s tepped into a h o l e t hat h ad s wall o w e d u p a pile of l ogs a 20f oot tree, and a c r eek! 11:7 From God is 1 11y Co-pilot, b y Col. R obert L. Scott, Jr. A ir Corps, U. S. Army (with a for e word b y Maj. G en. C L. Chenn ault). N e w York; Scr ibn e r 's, 1 9 44. C h ap. 2 1 ( p 162): Some Good, H o n est L e ad P o isoning." "As the tra n s p ort got away a nd the dust settl e d d o wn I climb ed o u t of m y fighter and look e d aro un d the count!"y. I could but marvel at t h e geographi ca l s ituati o n Col.

PAGE 28

P age 26 Coopcr and I Coopc r h ad b ce n in thc m ov i e produc tio n bus1l1css uscd to discuss thc pcc uli a r b eauty of the a nd h e'd s a y that i t wo uld make the g r eatest l ocation 111 the world for a m ov in g picture. I t was a f l at, tab l eland country, and ove r the ages i t must hav e b ee n unde r wat er. F rom the leve l plain rose vertica l rocky hills, lik e sta l agmites. These w e r e h o n eycombe d w ith caves where water, when t h ey w e r e sub m erged must ha ve di sso l ved the lim esto n e that had b ee n i n th e p ocke ts. Ev id e ntl y the g l ac i e r period h a d pla n e d the \ i alley Aat as the g l acie r m oved South, but the jao-o-ed rock s h ad w ith stood the pressure. The n as the m e l tcd the caves had f or m e d unde r water. Now the gray p1l1nacles of l ava-Idee rock pointed strai ght toward the h eave ns. These 1 ,00 0 to 2,000-foo t sentine l s gave the valley an eerie appear a n ce that a l ways subdue d m y gen era l feeling of c h ee rfulness. As long as I went to Kw e ilin I dreaded t h e extra n e rvous t ens i o n tha t I knew it wou ld prod u ce Add to this a summe r t emperature o f ove r 100 degrees, a humidity o f a lmost 1 00 perc ent, a nd a fin e powd ery dust that gagged yo u and you can realize that Kweilin was n o t a summe r r eso rt. 'The r e was just the s in g l e runway f o r the planes, cut therc betwee n r h ose silent n ee d les of sto ne. We h ad op e rati ons office 111 o n e o f the natura l caves, a nd the r a di o se t in another. As I climb ed out of m y PAO, I could sec n c ith er. 117 Industry in C hin a thri ves in countless caves desr.it e m o r e than seve n yea r s o f attacks b y Jap a n ese armies. Plants seve ral acres in extent have bee n b uilt underground in s ites far from norma l prod u ctio n centers. Educat i o n too as well as n or mal living, has go n e unde r g r o und. W h o l e c ities, a lmost, and many co l l eges, vocat i ona l t rainin g a nd teaching cente r s ar e now a nd l o n g ha vc been entire l y unde r ground in natural c aves, and natur a l c a ves further cnlarged b y excavat i on. o Ac know l c d g in g the Britis h Spcleo logical Association' s "Pro gramme of M eets, Yorkshire and D e rby s hir e Sections." Runnin g in twoto fiveda y sessio ns, at inte rvals, from lVfar c h 30 to Jul y I partie s v i s it e d a sco r e of cave rns, h o les, and pots. ( Possi b l y this n o t e will draw a report of some sort from o n e of the m embe r s ... i t will b e wel co mc.) 117 Acknowl edging, fro m the British Sp e leo logi ca l ASSOCi atio n, at Settle, Yorkshire a most inte restin g and valuab l e packet of SCi entific d ata o n arc h aeo l og i cally-fa m o u s Victoria Cave, at Settle, Yorkshire. A lar ge map o f the cave, a serIes of five p hotograph s m ade during the famou s 1 87 0 -78 exca vations of t h e cave, and s i x excee dino-l y b scarce rep rInts of a nnual r e ports o n Victoria Cave from the B. A. A. S. publi c ation 1 874-78. These hav e been sent to t h e Soc iety Librar y for r efc r e nce. 117 The A tia 11 t a olfrnal Magtl z in e for 7 / 8 / 45 ha s a nice fu llpag e illustr ate d a rti cle, "Dan gling o n a R o p e Under Georg i a ," b y Caro l y n Carter. It t ells about E rnest Ackerly ("Georo-ia's cave auth ority ) with hi s party of five ( incl udin g b Dr. E. P. Odum, zoo logy pr ofesso r U. o f Ga.) who ex plo r ed Case Cave, n e ar Trenton, Ga. 10" After The E d visited Fra nk and Grace Ivf o rse' s R ock h ound Colony," ncar Bayfi e l d Colo., h e said h e wou l d m e nti o n it in the BULLETI N I t s a fascinating project and min era logi s t s will do well to writ e the owne r s for d e tails. 10" National Geographi c N l aga z in e for February, 1 936, c arries all Eve r read y advertisem ent about "S am s P oint Caves in the B U L LET I N N U B E R E I G H T Catskill s"-but, ar e the re s u c h ? And o n p.lg e 1 77 of thi s sam e issu e a r e menti o n e d a nd dlu s tra ted t h e Waitomo Caves (three of the m ) in N e w Zealand famou s for the Glow \i\1orm Grotto. (We h ave it listed ... ) 10 Trai l ways Magtlzine, Vol. 9, No.4, f or Summer, 1 9 4 5, con ta i ns C l ay P e rr y s "Unde r g r ound Trails." It g i ves luray and. S h e n a ndoah Caverns another gOin g over for t h e public, I11ce l y iliustrat e d goo d P e rry." The Soc i ety and members get a bo ost. Thumbnail of auth or a lso g i ves Society a goo d noel. Thanks, C lay .... 10" Recrea tiona l B ooklet No. I of Missouri State D epartment of R e sour ces a nd Deve lopment, White R iver COlmtry of 1 l1is souri, conta1l1s beautiful co l or and bla c k a nd w hi te pictures of Brown 's, Sma llin's A s h Marvel, Fair y, and R oar-1I1g River SprIn g Caves; a lso Devi l s D e n "great l ime sto n e s ink ," n c ar Fordland Mo. Of the latte r the leo-end n otes that "At time s a l o ud roa rin g sound ap parentl y caused b y the esc ap e of wate r from the s ink .... 10 Atlan t ic Nlonthly, f o r October, 1 945, ha s "Cav e Hunt in g a n articl e by Toh omas Barbour of great inte r est to s p e l eo logi sts It i s a sect i o n from the l ate N.S.S. lif e m embe r's book Naturtl/ist il1 CM-btl, and t ells of h i s b lin d fish finds on the island. Most interesting, I think, is hiS reference to the "group of yo un g m e n affilia t ed with the Geogr a phi cal Society of C ub a in Havana ( who ) h ave form e d the msel ves into a uni o n ca l led t h e 'Spe l eo logi sts These wis e and fortun ate yo un g peop l e ha ve starte d a sys t e m atic stud y of t h e caves of the entire island ; they h ave a lr ea d y ente r e d and studi ed more than 1 000 caves o f which we h ave hitherto known littl e a nd they a r e only beginnin g. (No m ention i s mad e of the "Sp ele o logi sts" o f the U S., a lth o u g h Barbour was o n e of us before hi s recent death. And w hat contact h ave we h a d with the m if a n y, or with the A m erican Cavers As soc iati o n of-wh e r e (Oregon i s it?)? 10 Photography, f or J anuary, 1 9 46 (p. 55), has a picture i llu stratin g the article "Combatin g the H ar d Water M enace, by R. W H enn and J I. Crabtree. The l ege nd unde r the pictu r e a cave interio r r e ad s "Calcium carbonate d e posits as found in n ature in scenic underground caverns." Can anyone Identl[ y the cave? 10 For goo d readin g a n y h ow, w e can r ecomme nd Blu e Ridge Country, b y J e an Thomas (Du e ll, Sloan & Pear ce 1 9 42). But th e r e o n p age 300, it sta r ed u s 111 t h e face: "Th e r e s Gandy S ink s wh e r e m y fri ends o f the Speleo l ogica l Soc i e t y were trappe d b y a cloudburst o n Augus t I 1 940; and Seneca Caverns, in Monongahela National Forest o n ce th e r ef uge o f Seneca Ind ians about 2 0 m i les west of Frankl in o n U S. R oute 33 a n d six miles from Spruce Knob ... A nd m ore ab out luray Cav e rns, etc. A l so, o n pages 235-39, th e two best ballads we know about Fl oyd Collin s o n e by t h e famous Jilson S ette rs, t h e oth e r by Adam Crisp. Both a r e s i x-stanza eff u s i o ns, butgood! in the traditional m e l odra mati c styl e. Wish we cou l d h ave space to r eprint 'e m -but they will ha ve to wait until yo u r Editor' s project e d anthol ogy, A VOICe fr o m th e Cave. In cidentally, h e h e r eby throws out the Help! H elp! s i gna l for any and all citati o ns, quota ti o ns, and r e ferences to poems d e a lin g in whol e o r i n part with c av es, cave rns, mines, s in kholes, pothol es, and oth er 1es speleo l og icae. Thanks, in advance .... 10" Tn Stewa r t H o l brook 's Murder Out Yonde1 (no t a d e t ective ya rn ; s tudies of outland cr imes-but good!) m e nti o n s

PAGE 29

NATIONAL SPE L EO LO GIC. AL SOCIETY Rog er Johnson of Spr i ngfi eld, Mass. New England' s note d ex p ert on caves." Note, p l e a se that Clay P e rr y's new book will b e heavily ind ebte d to thi s same R. J., since the latter is turning over his files to C l ay. iO" In an un dated tear-sh ee t from Amazing Stories sent in b y Martin H Muma, appears a l ette r to the Editor" signed b y Betty A. Yoe Sec., C l eve l a nd Grotto, N.S.S anent a story in that ma g a zine b y a Mr. Shaver with refer e nc e to l arge caves, etc." It p l ug s the n a m e o f the Society-Betty's l e tter that i s .... IC'" Acknow l e d ging, from Victor S Craun, October, 1 9 44 i ssu e o f Outdoor I n di ana, with hi s sple n did illu strate d article, "Underground Wonderla nd. (On Post e r D o na l dson Mare n go, and Wyandotte caves) ; from Dr. R. W. Stone the Septemb er, 1 9 44, iss u e of the Commonwealth o f P ennsylvan i a's Department of Interna l A [Jairs, in which appear s his article about N.S.S., Cav e Ex p l ore r s F o rm Organization. C raun a l s o send s u s hi s portrait illu strated prospectus which, o n a broadside, read s as follow s: Vi cto r S. Craun, 30 yea r s ex plorin g caves throughout t h e world, m embe r Wisconsin Geological Society, W iscons in Archaeol ogica l National Spe leol og ical Society, presents an illu st rat e d travelogue through the celebrated cave rns o f the world adventure, m yste r y, romance trag e d y i n Adventures in Cave L ore. New Zeal and A ustr alia, Tasmania Engl and, Germany, South Africa Czecho s l ova kia Cuba, Mexico, Ca n a d a B e rm u d a and United States. S hrines uf beauLy alld gurgeu u s Lell1ples carved b y nature. The habitation o f Oracles, Siby l s and Nymphs in ancient m ythol ogy, a nd were the dw elling p l aces of the fairies, g n o mes and drago n s Now b e in g converted into m o d e rn a r c hives for the storing of val u a ble art a nd mu se um material h osp ita ls, bomb s h e lt e r s and sto r age d epo ts, for the duration. IU In volum e o n Shenandoah, in R ive r s of America Series b y Ju l i a D avis, is a sec ti o n on the caves and cave rns of the ar ea. It's a goo d bo o k w i thou.t this, h owever. CAVERSE CORNER WORSE VERSE (This punning e pitaph i s e n g r ave d o n the sto n e t ha t m a rk s the buria l s it e of a man n a m ed C a ve o n Bar row o n -Soa r L e i ces t ers hire, Engl and. ) H e r e in thi s grave, there lie s a Cave. T IVe c all a cave a Crave; If Cave be Crave and Cra .ve be Ca ve, Then reader, jl4tlge, I crave vV hethe r dot h C ave here li e in Crt/ve, Or Crt/ ve h ere l ies in Ca ve; 'If Crave in C t lve her e buried lie, Then Cra v e where is thy v i cto ry? Co, reader and r e p ort h e r e lies a C t iVe, T V h o conquers d eat h. and buries his own Crtl v e T h e potato crops o f Co l or a do and e bra s b ar e b eing sent to a huge cave in Atchison Kan. The cav e m a kes an ideal place to sto r e the lar ge p otato c r op, a nn 1 000 carloads ar e n ow o n their way t h e re. Rocky llIIt. Union Farm e r ( Aug. 45) LINES TO A PIPISTRE LL E B y J ay Espy Caving's a sc ience of such f acete d mien T h a t to b e c h e rished n ee ds but to b e seen, And seen quite oft, as its paths we trace, Our cm'es depart a .nd our troub les erase He liveth best w ho loveth best A ll caves both great and small, For the dear Cod who loveth us, H e ma. d e and loveth all. H e w hom from dome to dome Pag e 27 C/otides thmugh the endl ess night thy certain flight, I n t h e long way that 1 must tread ere home, Will l ead my steps aright. --Adapted from P ope Coleridge alld Bryanc. THE TROGLODYTES' SO G (Contributed, but not by, L e R oy W. Foot e) W e trog lodytes are bold and bra .ve; W e' r e not a fr aid of any cave; T ho wet or dry, tho larg e or small C aves never fright en us at a ll We start o u t early 01'1 the trail And i n our purpos e never fail. We'll cross a brook! or climb a fence; Or plow thmMgh underbrush that's dense. We only stop to eat and rest, A nd then continue on our quest. T ,Ve g ladl y g ive our time and skill To find a cave in any hill. T V e take it all In c h eer ful mien A nd reap enjoyment deep and keen We know the va l ue to b e fOHnd Explori n g n ature undergroM nd. Chorus: H o! Ho! H o! Troglodytes we llI Iodem caveme n bo l d and fr ee T V e find our fun in nature grand, Expl oring caves thrt
PAGE 30

Page 28 WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT CAVES B y William 1. Stephenson CA VES* are suppose d to h ave b ee n u sed b y man from t h e ea rli est time. Markings h ave b ee n found in caves in E u rope i ndi cati n g that pre hi s toric man u se d t h e m for his habitat and hi s t emple Evid e n ce in America s h ows that t h e pre-Columbian Indi an used caves in Kentuc k y and Indiana a s a source of e psom salts, and also p robabl y h am m e re d out pi eces of calcite for us e as a m edium of barter with othe r tribes. Caves also h ave b ee n o f consid e r a bl e eco n o mIC Imp or tanc e t o our country. During the War of 1 8 1 2 Mammoth Cave f urni s h e d saltp ete r for practically the enti re powder output of the country; and during the C i vil War, the South obtain ed n early all of it s saltpe t e r output f rom it s caves. The re is hardl y a cave of any s i ze in V ir g inia or West Virginia which does not s h ow e vidence of h aving b ee n mine d a t som e time for thi s mineral. In spite of thi s long association of man with cav es, littl e i s yet known sci entifically co n cern in g the m. The know ledge of the average geo logist (w h o s h o uld b e an authority o n caves) is u s ually limi ted ro t h e phrase, A cave i s 'a h o l e in t h e g r ound' which was form e d b y w a t er whose CO" di sso lv e d t h e contents out of the limeston e." Such a statement, whi l e accu' rate, sen 'es to empha size h ow l ittle we know co nc erning or apprec iat e the unde r ground m ys t eries. Many Unanswered Questions About S I X yea r s ago, the Nati o n a l Spe l eo logical Soc iety cam e into b e in g primarily becaus e a group, the m e mbers of w hi c h kne w n ex t to nothing a bout caves, b ega n aski n g questions to w hi ch t h ey co uld get no satisfactory r esponse. Peculi arly e n o u g h the first questions which started the formation of t h e Nati ona l Sp e l eo logi cal Soc i e t y rel ated to fauna; s u c h as H ow far in t h e caves do bats go?", "Are they a l ways found near a n entra n ce?" If so, "Does the prese nc e of bats in a n y pas sage indi cate the proximinity of a n entrance?" At t h e tim e t h ese questi ons w e r e asked, there appeared to be n o o n e who cou l d author ita t i vely an s wer the m. Now t h e Spe l eo l ogica l Society has amon g its m embers som e of t h e country's for e m ost autho rities on bats, s uch as Dr. C h arles M ohr of Philadelphi a A cade m y of Sci e n ces, and Dr. Donal d Griffin of Harvard, w h o is famou s for having rece ntl y co -conducted ex p er im e nts aimed at discover in g h ow bats can A y in t h e dark. T h ese m e n can now a n swer the quest i o n s w hich started t h e Nation a l Spe l eo l ogica l Soci e ty. H oweve r one q uestion ha s led to a noth er and -Text s llb sta ntiall y t h e same as t hat of a ta l k delive r ed by Mr. Step h e nson before office r s a nd m embers of th e Section of Geo logv of the Virgini a Academy of Sciences, Richm o nd Va. May, 1 944 BULLETIN NUMBER E I G H T the list of questions relating to caves that ar e still unsol ved appe:n s to b e co nstantl y grow in g. Prior to t h e yea r 1930, it was assume d by all geo logi sts that caves we re all forme d by vadose w a ter. In that year, Dr. William Morris D av i s Ceo. Soc Am., Vol X LI 1930, pp. 475-628) advanced the theo r y that caves may b e formed b y phreatic solution. It i s unnecessa r y at t hi s t im e to d e l ve in to thi s theory. I t i s p ertinent, h owever, to point out that Dr. Davis himself stated that hi s actua l unde rground experi e nce was meager, and was primaril y d e rived from the unde r ground observat i o n s and from the writte n wo rk s of oth e r s H e in vited younger and m ore a c tiv e peopl e to ge t underground and m ake the obse r va t i o n s wh i c h wou l d p r ove hi s new theory to b e either wro n g o r right. In response to t hi s p lea for furthe r work, Dr. J Harlen Br etz publish e d in the fall of 1 9 4 2 (Journ a l of Ceo. Aug. Sept., 1 9 42, Vol. L pp. 675-811) his wo rk o n "Vadose and Preatic Features o f Lim esto n e Caves." The pre se n t div ersity of op ini on co n cerning Brc;t z s work s h ows that the geo logist i s at l east awak ening to the fact t hat there i s much still to b e l ea rn e d undergr ound. Age of Clives l1100t Qllestion As t h e question s of how caves ar e formed I S still unsol ved, so arc those re l ati n g to t h e age of caves. Most p eo ple tak e i t for granted that c aves ar c thousands or milli ons of yea r s old. From the work of the N a ti o n a l Speleo logi ca l Soc i e t y to date, it i s b elie v e d that it ca n d e finitely b e s t ated t hat many caves are n ow h e re n early as old a s people think the m to be. On t h e oth er hand, som e caves m ay b e older. Ernest Bak e r in "The Neth er World of Mendi p ," se ts fort h rather concl u sive evid e n c e w hi c h t ends to s h ow that certa in caves in England w e re in ex isten ce prior to the Triassic P e riod. S u c h a n age f or a cave i s probabl y b eyo nd t h e accepte d beliefs of any ge ntl eman prese nt. The r e i s much ev i de n ce t ha t many of our caves were formed prior to the last g lacial IIlVaSlOn but we do not know h ow muc h before. The estimati o n of c av e age i s bafHin g because t h e t im e w hi c h i t takes to form a cave has nothin g to d o with the actual age of t h e c av e Once a cave i s form e d it m ; 1 y r emain d o rmant for unto ld ages, until the earth' s s urf ace wears down to the p oint where the cave is comple t e l y d estroye d. How to tell the ex act age of a cave i s still ont: o f our unans w ere d quest i ons. The actua l time r e q uired for f o rmin g of c aves ma y b e less than a nyon e has s u spected. Outside of L ex ington Va., the re i s a s m all c av e calle d Tolley's Cave. This cave appe ars to b e of vadose origi n and i s typicall y of unde r ground cutoffs as describ e d by Mallott. As the drainage a rea of the st ream which formed thi s c a ve i s bOlind e J

PAGE 31

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCI E T Y b y sem i p ermanent hill c rests (that is, hill s w h ose stream s arc on opposite sides, so 110 pronounced t ending toward "piracy", it may b e assum e d that thi s drain age area in the last sev e ral thousand year s has rema in e d pra c tically consta nt. B y .o bs erving the flow o f the strea m it s per centage of di ssolve d solids, and co:npuring the present s i ze ( v o lume) of the cave it i s p oss ibl e to compute the minimum time in whi c h thi s cave could b e f o rm e d. This turns out to b e l ess than 700 years. Eve n if the actual tim e of forming thi s c av e w ere five times thi s minimum time for computati o n w e h ave on l y 3,500 years for its f or ma tion A muc h diff e rent proble m i s presente d b y Trour Cave in West V ir g inia This cave i s a dry ca ve, high on the side of a m ountain. The str e am which form e d thi s c av e ha s l ong sin ce b ee n drain e d awa y. At present we can make no assumptions as to the s i ze of the stream or an y oth e r fact relatin g to it. \ Ve therefore h ave at present n o knowl e d ge upo n whi c h to bas e an y assumption as to h ow long thi s cave was forming, or h ow long it has b ee n sin ce it s formin g stream was drain e d awa y W e only know thar the c av e ha s probabl y b ee n on the sid e of the mountain s in ce the date whe n the valley wa s form e d below its mouth. I bring our these fac ts to s h ow tha t the r e is a great deal m o r e field wo rk and study to b e done before w e can a cc uratel y d e t e rmin e the age of a n y g i ven cave. Formation Growtb Unsolved Anothe r question arises a s to t h e exact rate of g r owth of cave formati o ns. It i s commonl y assum e d that it takes over 1 000 year s to f orm o n e c ubi c inch of ca v e d e posit. W e n ow know from positiv e o bservati o n that unde r good co nditions suc h a d e posit can gro w a s fas t a s an in c h .1 year. W e now know that the rate of formation d e p e nd s upon many factors: the con ce lltration of solid s in solution the rate of e vap or ati o n and the amount and consiste n cy of flow etc. H oweve r all of these fac tor s ar e variable. Many c av es, in times of drought, h ave long p eriods of' inactivity whe n the re i s no d e po s iti o n taking place. At our present state of know l edge, it i s the re for e still im possible to estimate ac c uratel y the age of any formation. Clive Fauna and T emperatu r e V I e still, as yet, know relatively littl e about the vanous forms of life found within the c aves. Within the last f ew years, the membe r s of the Natio nal Sp e l eo logical So c i e t y ha ve discover e d n e w species of c av e lif e and prob abl y will di scove r many m o re. In this field w e have, t o date, made the m ost h e adwa y s in ce w e hav e m a n y abl e men n ow a c tivel y working o n the zoo logi cal pro blem s pr esente d b y the caves. It i s presumed ge n e rall y that c ave temperatures ar e co n stant. Cavern literature usuall y emphasizes the co n Page 29 stancy of cave t empe r atures. R ecent readin gs tak e n in Virg ini a and West V i r g inia caves h owever, s h ow consid e rabl e variations of cave t emperatures, esp ec iall y in t h e winte r time. These t em pera t ur e diff e r e n ces ar e not hard to ex pl a in bur they a re a fact which h ad apparentl y esc aped prev i o u s observation Ca v e H y drolog y DifJiCltIt Hydr o logy presents som e of our greatest unsol ved prob l ems. W e still h av e the important question of w h ere wate r f ound in certai n caves act u ally goes This question is specifically raised b y s tudies on Blowing Cave ncar Milboro Sprin gs. The entra n ce to t hi s cave lies in a quarry right besid e the r oad a !ld not ove r 200 feet from the Cow Pa sture Riv er. A s far a s one can easily go into the cave it appea r s to b e nearly l e v e l and l e ad s to the offhand conclusion that the cave was f o rm e d by a s tream which n o doubt flowed into the riv er. H owever, w e h av e rece ntl y been abl e to p e n etrate ba c k into t hi s cav e for a co n side rabl e distance About 1 ,000 f ee t from the entrance a stream ha s been found whi c h as a result of a ccurate survey is f ound to b e 13 f ee t b e l ow the l eve l of the Cow Pa sture R iver. As t h e Cow Pasture Riv er is the main draina ge stream o f the area, it is n o t at present unde r stoo d where this st ream c an go T o make matte r s worse the s t rea m has been fol l o w e d d ow n s rr e am for 750 f ee t and ro u g h r eadings s h o w that it fall s o n an average o f three to f our in c hes in 100 feet. Al so, it flow s away from the riv er. \ V h ere this stream comes from and where it goes i s a m ys t ery which I h o p e to r eport on in d e tail at som e future date. This i s a goo d example of many s imilar problems that hav e recentl y arisen from observations o n cav e s treams. Cf/:;e !1I!yst e ries Yet Unexplained \ Ve h a v e e v e r y re aso n to beli e v e that thos e caves which w e c an now ente r rep resent but a s mall porti o n of the c avit :es that ex i s t unde r ground. Exactly wh e re these unde r g r ound cave rn s a re the ir s i ze, and p atte rn s are m ysteries of t h e first o rd er. Some work is sai d to h a ve been don e o n l ocat in g suc h c avitie s from t h e s urfa ce b y a sounding or sonic procedure, but witham much s u ccess. P e rhaps now som e procedure inv o lvin g the u se o f radar ma y b e d ev ised to chart our undi scovered caves. Perhaps som e t echnique wit h small floatin g radios ma y b e a lso d evelope d to chart the unde r ground courses o f streams. Preliminary stu, d y b y Profe sso r Showa l ter of V.M.I. at Blowing Caves, with the standard army walki e -talki e a nd hand i talkie, te nd s to s h ow tha t radi o waves ar e c h an neli ze d in the c ave passages, and s u gges t s the n ee d for furthe r rese ar c h alon g these lin es. Some oth e r prohl e m s that our studies h ave rais e d ar e : \ V hat i s the effec t of selectiv e soil concentrati o n in cav es? \ i Vhat i s t h e compositio n of cav e soils a s compare d t o

PAGE 32

P age 30 tha t o n th e s urfa ce? What i s the result wh e n cav e soils a r e r e di stribute d b y the d estruc ti o n o f the c aves? What i s t h e r eal orig in o f the nitrates f ound in cave e arth? What eco n o mi c importance c an c av e s still have other than the ir sig hts ee in g comme r cial value? What s ignificance i s to b e a t tac h e d to the gen e ral lack of ar c ha e ological materia l in the c aves o f Virg ini a and W est Virginia ? What is the m ilit ar y imp ortance o f c av es? (Present war d e vel opments ma y e ventually make our ca ves m o r e important in thi s field th a n w e wish t o imagin e a t pre s ent.) The preceding r emarks, though bri e f should b e a mpl e to g i ve som e insight into the m a n y un a nsw e r e d prob l e m s awaitin g sci e ntifi c investigati o n B efo r e an y s p eleo logi cal study c an b e undertake n equip m ent and t echnique for g etting into a nd out o f c aves. s afel y mus t b e d evise d. The ational Spel e ol o gical S o c i e t y ha s h a d to d e v e l o p v a riou s m etho d s and equipment for getting into c a ves, sec urin g data, r eturning s afel y, but still much r emains to b e don e alo n g these lines I hav e s u gges t e d N ate on Grotto Formation The M organtown-Arrhttrdale Grotto was or g aniz e d las t night in the h o m e of R ev. Alfre d L ee Kla er, Univers it y pastor of the First .Presbyte rian Church, M o rg anto wn W V a Fifte e n p eople w e r e prese nt. It wa s a l o n g but inte resting m ee tin g The n ext e vent will b e Frida y March 10, wh e n Dr. James M o r e land will b e our h ost in his home in Morg an to wn H e will ente rtain with local folklor e It i s a t thi s m ee tin g that o ur g r o t to will assume m o r e t a n g ibl e f o rm. T o d a te, w e ca n count o n ab out a d oze n m embe rs. I think t h a t b y th e n ext m ee tin g se v e r a l more will join. The office r s ar e a s f ollo w s : F e lix G. Robinson c hair man; Pro f J aco b Saposn e k o w Vice Chairma n ( h e is pro f essor o f soc i o l ogy, U o f W Va.); Prof. J oe Gluck sec r era r y, S i g m a u H o u se, U of W Va. (pro f esso r in D e p t. o f A griculture); D anie l Houghto n Arthurda l e (handc raft arti s t), Tre a surer. Of the 15 present, three w e r e w o m e n ; and Dr. R eese, wh o atte nd e d the r ecent Sym pos ium was a lso there I o utl i n e d t h e hi sto r y o f t h e soc i e t y; pa sse d a r ound BULLETI N 2, 3 4 5 ; the article in Saturday Evening P ost by C l ay P e rr y; pi ctures that P e tri e had sent m e; and the la t Newsl etter. I also r e ad the C o n stitutio n o f the Ric h m o nd Gro t to. The r e was a l o n g discussi o n in whi c h all parti c i pate d Felix R o binson Arthurdale, W V a (2 / 5 / 4 4 ) F rankly Stated Our experie n ce wit h the BULL ETIN l ea d s u s to believe t hat it will b e a ve r y s l ow sales ite m We a r e o f the o pini o n B U L L E T I N N U ERE I G H T that pra ctic all y e v e r y p e r so n who vis it s Lura y, o r an y othe r comme rcial cav e, do e s so from an e ntirel y differ ent point of view than those who b elong to the Spel e olo g i ca l Soci e t y Our cu stome r s how s v e r y littl e inte r est in the scientifi c sid e and it i s a ple a sure trip s o far as h e is con cern e d We have o n sal e and for fr ee di stribution, plenty of lit erature p ertaining to Lura y C a v e rn s whi c h the vis itor takes in large volum e W e hav e b ee n una bl e to s ell the B ULLETIN b ec au se h e i s unwillin g to buy a publi c a tion whi c h d esc ribes the ca ves h e n eve r ha s see n and may n e ve r in the future see. This i s n o t a n e w experie n ce with u s W e h a ve h a d on sal e c ountl ess publi ca ti o ns that did not d eal entire l y with Luray Cave rns. All hav e h a d the sa m e sad e x p erie n ce a s our B ULLETI.. Travel e r s will buy pra ctic all y a n ything that d eals with the attractio n they ar e the n vis itin g; but unl ess the it e m i s lar gely r epresentative o f that particular place the sales appeal i s lost. W e hav e a g oo d publi c atIOn o n e that i s a cr edit to the So c i e t y. Sorr y w e hav e n o t b ee n abl e to make som e sales, but w e beli e v e the ab o v e ex plan a ti o n s h o w s the t r u e co n diti o ns. Rob ert C. Harnsbe r ger, Lura y, Va. ( 3 / 4 / 44 ) Diorama in Florida A. R Janson u s a progr a m o f the 270th anniv e r s ar y o f the Fir s t Chris tian Service h eld (6/ 1 2 / 44 ) in the M aria nna ( Fla.) ar ea. O f inte rest to us, esp ec iall y, a s i t was conduc t e d in the South Ame rican rOO:1l o f o n e o f the c av e rn s o f the a r e a Ove r 150 p eo pl e o f f our n o n s atte nd e d. Janson b e s i d e s deli ve rin g the w elco m e addresss, h a d se t up In o n e cave a lighte d di o r ama s h o w in g 40 fig ures in colo r s o f o ld Friar Barr e d a ( wh o firs t conduc t e d Chris tian servi ces in thi s region pro babl y in R a ttlesnak e H ollo w n orthwest of M aria nn a in 1 6 74), S pani s h so ldi e rs, Indians e t c., a s at t h e 17th century gathe rin g.

PAGE 33

NATIONAL S P ELEOLOG I CA L SOCI ETY Cave Life Envisioned America' s o nl y defe n se against the da y whe n the secre t o f a to mi c destructi o n will "certainly" b eco m e the property of all nati o n s i s to pre p a re imme diate l y for a n e w era o f unde rground c ivilization whi c h will b e marke d b y vast indus tria l and h o u s in g a reas built b e n eath mountain ran ges and s uppli e d b y extende d syste m s o f s ub t e rranean rail roads, according to L o ui s Bruchiss, aerial armame nts ex p e r t. Mr. Bru c hi ss, who at 3 8 i s an associat e editor o f A ero sphere. internati o nal av i ation and a s p ec iali s t o n automatic e n g in e contro l s for air craft, warne d thJt politi cal and eco n o mi c co n s id e rati o n s must n o t b lind thi s country to the fact that the atomi c age will brin g n o t only n e w b e n e fit s but n e w d a n gers and resp o n s ibilities and a radically diff e rent way of livin g Throug h out hi s inte r v i e w MI: Bru c hiss emphasi zed that the present m ys t e riousn ess of t h e atom b omb's m ec h a ni s m and functi o nin g co uld n o t last l o n g L o nO' befor e Presid e n t Truma n 's announce m e n t of t h e first of the b omb, h e s aid, many co untries w e r e ex plor in g the sec r e t of the atom It i s o nl y a matter of time, h e s aid, befor e so m e oth e r n atio n i s s u ccess ful. Granting e v e n the p oss i bilit y t ha t any oth e r country i s ab l e to use the atom f o r war Mr. Bru c hlss s;ud the Ul1Ite d States cannot affor d t o l e av e i tself d efensel ess to attack H e d ecla re d that g reat pro g ress can b e e xp e c t e d in t h e d eve l opment of radar a nd r a di o-co ntroll e d pro t ectiv e d e vices designe d to ward off a b omb attac k Bu t h e s a id that e v e n the b est of t h ese m e asures co uld b e only partly s u ccessful and t ha t som e a to m b ombs wo uld ge t through "The re i s n o u se hiding from that fact," h e said e m phaticall y "So m e will get t h ro u g h. W e've alr e ad y see n what d e v astati o n t h e pre s ent ato m bomb ca n do, unde velope d as it i s The effect of a few really p o w e rful atom bombs o n our major indus tria l cente r s would b e c atastrophic. GoinO' und e rcrround in a hi t h e r to undre am e d -of sca l e b b f would afford protectio n beca u se the ato m b omb, e v e n I it i s carrie d b y a r oc k e t cannot p e n e t ra t e the e arth's sur fac e v e r y far Mr. Bru c hiss said. Without waitin g e v e n : l S muc h as a ye ar o r two h e we n t o n we must begin the tas k o f co n s tructll1 g t h e under ground c ities o n a sca l e t hat wo uld make t h e subte rrane:1Il factories o f G ermany and E n g land look picayune. The best wa y to build the m h e s aid wo uld b e to t ak e advan t age of t h e pro t ec tion affo rd e d b y our m o untall1 ran ges and start burrow in g b e n eath t h e m T o maintain our produ ctio n sys t e m in e v ent of ato :11war Mr. Bru c hiss estimate d at least 2 0 to 30 p e rcent of o m industry wou l d have to b e unde r ground: T h e co n s tructi o n j ob wou l d las t about 20 years h e said, and a s a side -be n efit would provide w o r k f o r milli o n s of m e n a nd wom e n Mr. Bru c hiss admitte d re adil y that the p lan w o uld entail a n e w way of lif e for t h e country -industry wo uld h av e to b e d ece ntrali ze d great c i t ies lik e N e w Y ork a nd C hi c aO'o miO'h t l ose t h e ir importa n ce and p eo p l e would h ave get p syc h o l ogically to livin g unde r g round for l o n g p e riod s o f t im e "It's drasti c a n d the cost wou l d b e imme n se," h e co n clud e d "bu t it's t h e onlv way w e c an b e sure of surv ivin g. -New York Times (8/ 2 1 /45) P age 3 1 S anitary Code Violated! Four campe r s a nd t h e ir couns elor w h o h ad d a bbled in arc h aeo logy during the ir two weeks 111 New H udson N. Y. di scove re d yes terda y in Grand Central T e rmll1 a l ju s t what a rumpus can b e raised b y a "genull1 e I ndian relic." D escendi n g from the i r t ra in wit h l 8 4 youngsters, afte r a two-hour rid e from the Children s Aid SocIety Camp Bowd o in t hey w e r e carr y in g a m o n g o t h e r thing s a hi g hl y poli s h e d human skull. Ove r to them rus h e d P atro lman E u ge n e Muhl:'neyer of the State Railway P o l ice. "Whe r e did you ge t that thing?" h e gas p ed. D o vo u h a v e a p ermit?" A circl e of c h i ld re n pare nts a nd p hotograph ers, t h e l atte r n o tifi e d b y the society tha t som e arrowheads b o n es, a p e ace pipe, etc." h a d b ee n uncovered b y t h e campers -quic kl y gath e r e d round J ohn Pav e se, I1Ine yea r s o ld ; Danny R osselli, nin e; P e t er MarroccellI, 1 0 a nd J a mes Naoum e ight. J oseph D e CeglIa 1 / of 82 Hudson stree t t h e b oys co uns e l or ex pl a in ed: "We found the s tuff in a cav e n e ar a cliff about a h a l f mil e from camp. H e pointe d anxiou s l y to t h e rest of t h e y oungste r s booty F o r a m o m ent, P atro lman Muhlmeyer' s attenti o n wa s div e rt e d to the p ea c e pipe, with its two-foot l o n g dark wood ste m and tin y m eta l bowl. "If I eve r saw o ne, that' s a n opium pip e," h e mutte r ed . . After handling the s kull gll1g e r g l y, a fin e ltn e that h e said d enote d a "bad fracture," h e deCid e d that h e h ad no authority to confi scate The g r oup g raduall y di sso l ved the archae o logi s t s r etmng With t h e I r trophie s to s h ow it to the famili e s b efor e d o n a tlll g It to the camp mus eum. . Late r in the da y, Margare t Iv L Fell ows r e l atlOI1S directo r of the soc i ety, sai d dut it was a mI s d e m e an o r .of v i o lat i n g Se c ti o n 37 of t h e Sanitary Code-whi c h pro hibItS t h e brinO'inO' of "an y part of a huma n body" II1to the Cit)' b b . I wid10ut a p e rmitwas compl e t e l y ul1ln t e ntl o na. The camp dir ecto r h a d told h e r n otl111lg of t h e fin dll1g of a complete skull, s h e dechred. The camp m us eum, s h e adde d has rece i ve d inte resting a n d va lu ab l e g Ifts ove r tl1e p ast se v eral yea r s probabl y includin g som e hi g hl v po l i s h e d human s kull s -New York Times (8/ 1 7 / 4 5 ) Caves Are NOT Dumps The Soci e t y wou l d b e p e rf orming a va lu ab l e service 111 t h e prese rvati o n of caves and for t h e h e ald1 of t h e co m munit ies in whi c h t h ese c a ves ar e l oca t ed if it d i scouraged t h e i r use as a dU111ping g r ound f o r d e ad animals. Norbe r t Cas t e r e t in hi s b ook Ten Years Under th e E a r th, to l d of the dumping o f d e ad cattle in crevices in France H e a lso prove d that unde rground s tr e ams m ay t a k e unpre di c tabl e courses. In B ULLETI N No. 6 a n articl e b y J L. 'Wi n gfie l d t ells of hi s findin g t h e d ec a y in g car c ass of a cow in a s haft in \ Vest Vi r g inia The bodv had been throw n t h e re b y the

PAGE 34

Pa.ge 32 ow ner p resuma bl y to save the work of digging a grave. The sten c h from a large d ec a y in g anima l i s conside rabl e and wo uld prove a n unpleasant h a ndi cap in the e xpl o ra t i o n of a G i ve. The entry o f s u c h a cave would b e so m e thing to be p ost pon e d for a l o n g time. Another articl e 111 BULLETI No. 6 b y C h arles J\lfatc h ett t ells of a simil ar ex p erie n ce If this were commo n practi ce the entrances to many valu ab l e and b eautiful c av es wo uld b e obstructe d ex p lorati o n an d study o f the m prevented and if continue d mi ght m ea n the closi n g and l oss o f so m e good caves. S h o uld s u c h dumping b e p ermitte d it i s p oss ib l e so m e undergr ound str eams wo uld b e p ollute d These strea m s mi g h t b e s uppl y in g to w ells and reservoirs. Cas t e r e t 's ex p e rim ent s h owe d that without d e finit e knowle dge o f the courses of strea ms, p o lluti o n of the m mi ght b e ha za rd o us. The r e i s a law in Connecticut whi c h lays a p e n a lt y upo n a person co n v ict e d of placing o r l eaving a d ead a nim a l o r ca r cass in a pond, spring or r ese rvoir or a n y wate r o f the state. Quite lik e l y the r e are s imilar l a w s in othe r s t a t es. The o n e r efer r e d to see m s inad equate as a d ea d b o d y thrown in to a cave may b e plac e d in s u c h a p os iti o n a s n o t to fall into water but the e xcretion drain into water s uppl y in g a community. Unless the course of a stream so p o llu t e d i s known, it wo uld b e difficult to s a y wheth e r o r not it was b eing u sed as a source of supply. Needl ess to say it i s a detestabl e habit and s h o uld b e disco uraged. Members s h ou ld r eport to the Soci e t y co n ditions lik e these that co m e to the ir attention o r a n y s ituati o n whe r e h ea lth and d estruc ti o n of cav es a r e in vol ved. Unless thi s fall s into the field of som e commi t t ee set up, p erhaps w e s h o uld establi s h o n e for the purposc of prese rvin g c ave s and the prevention of p o lluti o n S h o uld the Soc i e t y tak e acti o n to correct the mi s u se of caves our purpose might b e a cco mpli s h e d with good grace b y appealing to t h e ow n e r t o r e frain from u s in g a c av e for this purpose. A letter fro m t h e Society to cave ow n ers, partic ularl y t h ose w h o h ave acquired t h e h ab it stati n g the r e a so n s w h y it s h o uld b e di scontinue d would in most cases, be com pli e d wit h. The obstru cting o r closing of an y c ave i s a matte r t ha t s h o uld b e d ecide d by com p e t ent authorities. A t horough knowle dge of c av es, t h e ir in t rinsi c value a n d t h e safe t y factors invol ved are of co urse n ecessa r y. I wou l d lik e to see it o n reco rd t hat the Soc iety disapprove d of the foulin g of c aves and p o l lu t i o n of c a ve streams In sco pe, I S 111 a POSi t i o n e ven b eyo nd sta t e b o rd e r s O u r Soc i e t y, b e in g nati o na l to co rrect m artel's of t hi s kind Perha ps i t is a duty L e R oy W. Foote, Middl eb ur y, Conn. (9/ 6 / 4 4) B ULLETI N NUMBER E I GHT Society Loses Valuable Member Dr. Thomas Barb o ur, directo r of the Harv ard U ni v e r sity J\lfu seum and t h e M u seum of Comparati v e Z oo logy, who was recogn i zed as o n e of the wo rld 's outstanding na turalis ts, di e d o n Janua r y a t Phillips H o u se of t h e Massachusetts General H osp ital. His age wa s 6 1 D eath was ca u se d b y a cere bral h e m orrhage. H e a l so wa s Agassiz Professo r of Z oo logy at H a rvard c u stodia n o f the Atkins In stitution of t h e A rn o ld Arb o r etum at So l edad, C uba, h o n ora r y curator o f books relating to the Pacific in the H arvard Library a nd pres id ent o f the New E n g l a nd J\lfu seum of Natural History. Dr. Barb our's fir s t p ape r s o n zoo logy w e r e p ubli s h e d during hi s fr eshman da ys a t H a r vard. S in ce t h e n h e had l e d ex p e diti o ns to all sect i ons o f t h e world and obtain ed a n international emine n ce in hi s fie l d. The e xp editions ca rr ied him to India China Burma, J apan, South a nd Centra l A m e rica and won f o r him recogni t i o n a s an a u thority o n the geographi cal distr ibution of r e ptil es a nd amphibians B o rn at Martha's Vineya rd so n of William and Julia Sprague Barb our, Dr. Barbour prepare d at Browning'S Sc h oo l in N e w York and wa s graduate d fro:n H arva rd in 1 9 06 H e r eceive d a Master's Degr ee two years l a t e r and a Ph.D. 111 1 910. H e held honorar y d octorates from Harvard a nd Dartmouth. Dr. Barbour wa s the autho r of seve ral boo ks in c lud in g "That Vanishing Eden," a naturalist' s acidu l ous vie w of Flo rida N a turali s t at Large" and "A Naturalist in C uba. D S. Reichard Drowned D o nald S. R e i c h a rd o n e of the e arl y m embe r s of the Nati o nal Speleo logi ca l Society, drowne d while swimming n c ar an i s l a nd whic h h e had rece ntl y purc ha se d in B elmont Lak e n e a r Have l oc k, Ontario, o n September 6, 1 9 45 Mr. R e i chard, age 37 wa s a hi ghway enginee r e m ployed b y the Public Works Administratio n in Was h ington, D. C. H e h ad r ecently s p ent two yea r s in the Yuko n T er:ito r y of Canada h e lpin g in the co nstructi o n of t h e Ala s ka Hig h way. D o n was an acco mpli s h e d draftsman, and dre w m a n y fin e maps f o r our Soc i e t y. H e attended Carnegie, Mary land and G eo rge Washington uni vers i ti es A lways a g reat l ove r of nature, D o n had o rganiz e d a n d parti c ipated in many trips i n the United States, Canad a and J\lfex i co, and all w h o came in contact with him will remembe r hi s friend l in ess, gen e ro sity and h e l pf uln ess o n all occas i o ns. Mr. R e i c h ard i s s urvived b y hi s moth e r Mrs. J\lf a r y C. R eic h a rd and two S i ste rs, Nfl'S. Burrow s and Mrs. Brow n of \Vashington a n d a broth er, of Philade l phia

PAGE 35

NATION. \ I. SPEI. E O I.OGICAI. SOCI ETY A s We Remember Him Nfl'. E dwin \ V Beard s l ey of West Cheshire Conn . a m embe r of t h e Soc i e ty. di e d Marc h 8. 1 9 45. at the ag e of 72. Ivfl'. Be;lrdsley was known to very few m cmbe r s but to thosc f cw h e endcarec1 himself strongl y. H avi n g retire d a few years ago from the Ame rican Brass Compan y wh e re h e w o rk e d f o r 30 years as m ec hanic a l e ngineer h e devote d hi s time. as all of u s would like to "doin g the things he always wanted to do. H e was of extr cme l y fri e ndl y natlir e and c h eris h ed companionship with all. both young and o ld. It was hi s c u sto m to ke e p close contact with thos e h e kne w by frequ ent visitation in corres p onde nce. His most tim e-consuming hobby in late years was a c tin g as a "ch ee rio f o r the old and infirm with whom h e was acquainte d. A continual strea m of o n e-s id ed co rr esponde n ce was carri ed o n b y him with elderly p e rsons who wer e una bl e to write but who l ooked forward to his c h eery l e tters. Fond of everything in the great outdoo rs. h e was familiar with the geology of Connecticut and knew the locatio n of many caves in New England. Whe n John Meenehan of the Photography Committee s how e d hi s kodachromes in Waterbury September. 1 9 44. Ml'. Beardsl ey wa s present and was so pl e ased with the lecture that h e immediate ly j o i n ed the Society. In the s i x months that Ml'. B eards l ey was a m ember h e furnished valuable informati o n to the Soci e t y about c aves in Connecticut. The w ee k prior to hi s death h e forwarded the Soci ety a voluminous fold e r on Connecticut caves. This includ e d co rrection s of a recent publication on the identity of caves at Salisbury Conn . known as Twin Lakes Caves; a report on three Connecticut caves two of which wer e n e w to the Society; a map of the l ocatio n of Twin Lakes Caves; and the f ollowi n g letter wntten b y him to an in va lid in Delaware: A V isit to Twin Lakes C aves, S a lisbury, Con n. w r ote this for a belpless partdyzcd man in D e l a w are i n / an f rary H e was shot w hil e bunting w b en 17 an d tbat must been around 35 or 40 VetlrS a',:o. 1 think I first saw bim well toward 20 year s ago. E W B We re ad som e times about the possibl e far reaching res u lts of our words and acts lik e the eve r -w id e nin g rin gs on the pond when w e t hrow a sto n e onto its placid sur bce. I t b ec omes more and m o re impressive as we obse rv e its truth through life. The following i s an account of occurre n ces that wen:: years apart and c aus e d n o thought of t h e s u ccee din g e v e nts with w hi c h they w e re relat e d They see m worthy of more than passin g thought in that connecti o n when s u c h littl e t hin gs as rem ember in g an inte resting account in a n e wspaper. and the telling of an experi e n ce to fri ends can bring about s tich utterly untho u ght-of e v ents. About 50 yea r s a go (pro babl y as e arly as 1895). I re ad in the Hartford Courant all a ccount of a Yale College prof e ssor, or instru ctor. e xplorin g a c av c ill thc limeston e Ilcar Twin Lak es. Sali sbury. Conn. I t n o w secms t o m e t hat it m entione d som ethi n g about his havin g traveled a b:Jut a h alfmil e unde r ground. and I think there was a sketc h map. indicating a long narr ow pas sage. About 40 yea r s lat er m y s o n-in law a s k ed m e i f e ver h e ard of a cave n e ar Twin L a k es. I told him what of the n e w spape r account. Som eo n e h a d told h im something a b out the cave. H e was quite in sis t e n t tha t we go to see i t. I think it was in the month of F ebrua r y. 1 9 35 that w e made the trip. It was n o t too cold the n in spite of s n ow 011 the ground. becaus e of the re l ative l y uniform t emperature underground. I procur e d som e photo-flash bulbs. h opi n g to find som ething worth taking a picture of. We provided ourselves with h and flashlights and spare bat t eries to illuminate our wa y I kne w the wa y to the l akes but nothing about the relative location of the cave. We h ad to inquire a time o r two. When we reached the plac e to park and l eave the a u tomobi le. w e had probabl y trav e l ed about 60 m i les from h o me. W e had a l o n g walk up a trail running southward from the l akes and upgrade through the woods befor e w e saw a n y indication of caves. Then I discovered a gree n Spot o n the l owe r s urfac e of a rock where the warm e r air from the cave rn had k ept the vegeta ti on from dying. We k ept our eyes pe e led after that and soon di scove re d a depres sion at the bottom of which were unmis takabl e signs of an entrance. B esides footmarks there were seve ral strings left from what visitors h a d us ed to b e sure of finding their way back to the entrance. W e ad d e d our cord to the coll ectio n the re tie d and wim eage r anticipation began our d escent with ca re It was but a s hort distance to horizontal passages. which w e r e so narrow that we w ent "Indian file." We saw the stumps of s t alactites and stalagmites which ruthless visitors had broken off. The o nl y undisturbe d o ne s I saw w e re v c r )' tin y o nes in a h o rizontal crevice too s mall for hands to reac h memo Afte r prowling along and around. c hiefl y southward. w e cam e to a w ell" which n ee d e d a ladd er to safel y go down to the low e r l e v el. Trail strin gs show e d that oth ers had b ee n down there. W e had consumed about an h our in our ramblings and seemed to h ave see n about all that w e mought was worthwhil e with our limitati o n s so w e returne d to t h e surface. W e l oo k ed farthe r around and discover e d another entrance not many rod s away. farthe r upgrade. It was farthe r east and p erha ps l e d tinde r our pre viou s route or at a l owe r lev el. F o r a "white co llar worker." I h ad u sed up a pl enty of m y muscular e n e rgy. but I had an appetite for m o r e c av e sce n e r y. This o p e nin g was entere d e asil y no climbing. A little stream of wate r flo w e d along the b ottom of the pas s a ge. \AI e c am e to a sec tion seve ral f ee t wid e but so l ow that w e had to lie down a nd roll a l o n g beside the brook whi c h left dry s pace f o r that. If this was what the w ell" w e h ad see n con n ecte d with. w e did not dis co v e r it. B eyo nd ou r "farthest n orth" w e co uld h e ar t h e w ate r falling as t h e brook pr ocee d ed toward the lake.

PAGE 36

P age 3 4 B y the tim e we r eturne d fr o m this s eco nd e xpl o ration, was so tir e d that I prefe rr e d to for ego the s ati s fa c tion o f t a kin g the pho tograph s whi c h w o uld have r equire d m y taking a r oundtrip to the automobil e for the equip m e n t. Vlre all agr ee d tha t w e h a d had e nou g h f o r o n e da y and w e s impl y r eturne d to the auto and started h o me-ti red, but happy "S p elunke r s," altho u g h that w o rd was the n unkno wn to a n y o f us I to ld m y fri e nd s S arah and L e Ro y F oote, about this expe diti o n It arouse d the ir inte r es t. They too visite d the ca ves. It resulte d in the ir l ea rnin g o f the Natio nal Spe l eo logi cal S oc i e t y, o f whi c h h e has b ee n the tre asur e r f o r som e ye ar s now. A f e w m onths ago L e R oy tel ephone d m e tha t the r e w o u l d b e a n illu stra t e d l ecture in Waterbury o n a c e rtain e ve nin g b y the S oc i e ty's offic i a l pho to g raph e r Mr. M ee n e han. S o n in law Fr ank too k m e to tha t inte r e stin g l ecture The r e L e R oy r e m a rk e d tha t I was, in a se n se, resp o n s ibl e for that l ecture It w o uld n o t h a v e b ee n o-ive n if I had n o t told him a bout the Twin Lakes Cave; Soo n a ft e r t hat, L e R oy and S arah w e r e s u ccess ful in the ir se ar c h f o r a co p y o f Clay P e rry's Underg r o u n d New Engl an d w hi c h they presente d to m e I a m n o w a m embe r o f the Natio n a l S oc i e t y too. I h a ve l e arn e d thi s winte r tha t Twin Lakes Caves a re co n side r e d to b e the most b e autiful in N ew E n g land. I ha ve see n the H o w e C av e rn s in N e w Y o rk s t a t e; the C r ys tal C a ve rn s in Virg ini a, and the w o nd e rfull y b ea u tiful Shenandoah Cave rn s in Virg ini a, but the Twin L a ke s Caves h old a unique pbce in m y pl easant m e m ories. Edwin W B e ardsl ey, West Cheshire C o nn. (2/14/45) ( I d o n t lik e t o wa s t e s pa ce. ) In the She nandoah Cav e rn s w e had a s a g uid e a middle-a ge d man who m I inf e rr e d w a s n o w o n e of the o wn e r s o f the ca ve, but h a d in eadie r ye ar s b ee n a g uid e One yo un g m a n wa s co mplainin g that h e "co uld n o t unde r s t a nd som ething The w ise g uid e resp o nd e d \ V h y d o yo u t r y to unde r stand it?you c an t T w in L akes C aves LOCtnion: T o wn s hip of Sa l i sbury, Conn o n s l o p e o f hill sou t h o f th e w este rn o n e o f the Twin Lak es; and n orth o f hig h way U. S. 44. Appro a c hin g from t h e village o f C an a an f ollow U. S 44 t o to p o f "Smith Hill ," ( f o ur and o ne-half mil es) whi c h rises 300 feet i n less tha n three-quarte r s mil e ( N o t e w o nd e rful v i e w o f m o untain s to the n orth fr o m to p o f hill. ) T a k e rig h t -hand r oad ; d ow n-grad e f o r ab out o n e mile, to h o u se o n l ef t. (Park auto south o f h o use. ) Follow trail to south, o r sou t hwest. Approac hin g fro m N. Y. f ollo w U. S 44 e:1st (e i g h t a nd o ne-h a l f mil es) throu g h L a k eville and SalisbllrY, to to p of "Sm ith Hill," d esc rib e d a b ove Turn left ( north ) before startin g d ow n hill. Procee d as a b ove. B uLLETIN NUMB E R E I GHT The entrance to on e c av e ( probabl y J ac k in -the-Pulpit") i s in a d epressi o n seve ral f ee t d o wn fr o m the sur r ounding s urfa ce, and continue s down se v eral f ee t farth er. The e n t ran ce to the othe r c av e ( probabl y "The Bash ful Lady") i s onl y a f e w rods southe a s tward fr o m a l o w e r l e vel and i s m o r e e a sily ente r e d b es id e a s mall stre am ( p e rh a p s dry in summer). F o r ma ti o n : Lim e ston e ca ve rn s wit h flo w s to n e a nd t h e s tubs o f stalactites and s tala gmites whi c h hav e b ee n bro k e n off. S ee U n d e r g r ound New Eng lan d b y Clay P e rr y p ages 8 4 and 85, and illustrati ons opp. page 15; seco nd p age ba c k from p 129; a nd o pp. p 2 08. Remark s : The b o ok U n d e r grou.n d New E n g lt/l1d is con fu s in g with r e f e r e n ce to these tw o cav e rns. The illu s tra tio n s r efe rr e d to in the pre c e din g p arag raph and the T win Lak e C o n the fronti s pi ece map, all appare ntl y r efe r to the s e 'Twin Lak e C a ves" o n pa ges 8 4 and 8 5 A p e rson a l v i sit. D a t e : F ebruary, 1 935. W e had pro b abl y g on e a half mil e o r m o r e a l o n g the trail, whe n a bri ght-g r ee n s p o t o n the l o w e r p o rti o n o f a r oc k a t the r ight, s u gges t e d tha t we w e r e ove r a c ave. Soo n w e s aw the entrance and began our d escent. It wa s quite a c limb d o wnward the n a l o n g narr o w passa ge s h orizo ntall y. W e saw so m e tin y s tala ctites in a c r evice too narr o w f o r h a nd s to r eac h in. \ V h e n w e r e a c h e d a w ell" whi c h n ee d e d a ladd er f o r its d escent, w e r etrea t e d t o the s urfa ce. W e tho u ght w e had s ee n all that app eare d w orthwhile with out a ladd er. M y so n-in law tri e d a diff e r ent route ba c k and appare ntl y pa sse d thro u g h t h e "marvelo u s m a rbl e h all" describ e d b y Mr. P e rr y o n pa ge 85. W e had b ee n d o wn a b out a n h o ur. W e the n di scove r e d what I suppose wa s "The Cave of the Bas hful L a d y This wa s muc h m o r e e a sily ente r e d. W e came to a sec ti o n o f se ve ral f ee t wid e but so l o w w e had t o lie d o wn a nd r oll throug h besid e t h e broo k VIr e did n o t di sco v e r an y conn ectio n to the othe r c ave. Afte r a n other h o ur o r so w e w e r e tir e d e n o u g h to give up go in g ba c k to the au to f o r the c am e r a and pho to flash bul bs. W e w e r e w e ary but happy "Sp elunke r s altho u g h that nam e was the n unkno wn to us. It was m y d esc ripti o n o f thi s ex p erie n ce that ar ollsed L e R oy Fo o t e's inte r est in the c av e s and fin ally resulte d in hi s b eco min g the Tre a s ur e r o f the N atio n a l S p eleo logical Soc i ety. Bill lVarren's D en Loca t ion : T ow n o f F a rmington Conn., a b o u t t w o miles sOllt h o f F a rmington villa ge, n c ar the to p o f the south e nd o f Rattlesnak e M ountain. Goin g south fr o m Farmin g t o n o n R oute 10, opposit e t h e m ountain, k ee p s trai ght o n l e ft -hand r o ad a t f o r k o f

PAGE 37

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGI C A L SOCI ETY co n c r e t e r oa d s If go in g from Pla in ville, p rocee d eas t to w a rd N e w Brit a in about a mil e o n R oute 72, t o White O a k Corn e r ( b y J ohn Cook R estaurant"), a n d turn north. Approaching from eit h e r n orth or south, ta ke t h e d ea d e nd r oa d e a s tw a rd from the co n c r e t e roa d up the s l o p e to ''The Pinnacle" d a ir y f arm, w hi c h i s in pl a in s i ght. W h en I w a s t ha t n ear to i t a f ew yea r s ago, the r e was a good p a rk in g p l ace n e a r the end o f the roa d w h e r e o n e could l e a ve a n a u to a nd wa l k the ( p erhaps) h a lf mil e t o t h e d en. Formation: S p aces b etwee n g l ac i a l boulde r s o n to p of t h e t rap rock o f w hi c h the m ounta in i s composed I t i s the weste rn e d ge o f the Connec ti c u t Rive r V alley s h ee t o f t r a p r oc k Fol k l ore: I t I S sai d to h ave b ee n the hidin g place of Bill" W arr e n a bandit in R evo luti o n ary t im es. Remar ks: In 1891 o r '92 Mr. Ric h a rd R. P orter, o f New Br i ta in Conn., to ld m e of v i s i ti n g hi s uncle w h o co n d u c t e d the tave rn at "Whi te Oak Corn er," a mil e or so to the sou t h H e v i s i te d the cave a nd di d a l i ttl e expl or II1g H e foun d a n ope n i n g w hi c h h e en l arged e n o ugh to c r awl throu g h into a second roo m ." The r e h e found a n o ld cantee n a t in c up a rusty b ayo n et. I p resume this in t h e 1 860's The ow n er fea r e d t h e g r eate r da n ger from r a ttlesnakes to b oys go in g the r e a n d h e fille d u p t hat entra n ce to t h e seco n d roo m. I d o not know w hat i ts conditi on m ay be n ow. I ha ve n o t been the r e in a b out 4 0 yea rs. In th ose yea r s we h ad n o poc ket flashli g h ts a n d I n eve r had a goo d v i ew of eve n t h e first roo m I t h i n k I neve r fOlln d an y oth e r p e rson w h o h ad know n o f the seco nd roo m See r elat i o n of t hi s l oca ti o n to P a p oose Cave o n a n oth er s h eet This d escr ip t i o n I S wntten fr o m m e m o r y, largely fro m obse rvatio n a n d rea din g fro m 40 to 50 yea r s ago. The writer h ope s to s ubstitute for t hi s s h eet, a better desc rip tio n w h en h e m ay, i n warm e r weat h e r b e ab l e to find t h e box whic h conta in s a n old-tim e h a l f-to n e nugazll1e P iC ture aile! d escriptio n of t h e cave. P apoose Cave L oct/t i on: Town ship of So u thington Conn., o n the west s h ore of L a k e Com p o un ce (oneh a lf m i l e l o ng), a n amuse m ent r esort, o n e mile eas t an d t wo a lld onehaH miles so u t h fro m Br i sto l Conn (This i s s i x a nd o n eh a l f miles southwest across t h e sandy pl a in from Bill W a rr e n's D e n ," else wh ere d e scribed. This o n e i s at t h e foot o f t h e easte rn edge of t h e g r anite hill s west of t h e t r a p roc k for m atio n t h ere d e scribed. ) P age 3 5 Formation: This i s a b o uld e r cave a t t h e foot o f C omp ounce Mounta in It is f or m e d b y a l arge s l a b w h ic h tumble d f r o m the m ountain back of i t a n d l an d e d o n othe r roc k s w hi c h h o ld it severa l feet from t h e rocks a n d ground at i t s front, w hi c h faces the l ake a few rods away. The ce ilin g o f the cave presents a stri king contrast, in i ts r eddish tint, from the weathere d gray of its outer surface w hi c h has b ee n ex p ose d to t h e sto rm s of t h o usand s of years. Fol k l ore: This cave was t h e h o m e of t h e In dian C hi ef Com pounce. H e i s said to h ave b ee n to Fm-mington (o r to H artford), w h e r e h e bo u g h t a n e w b rass kettle. Com i n g out o f t h e for est o n t h e eas t sid e of the l a ke, h e under too k to swim across t h e few rod s in stea d of wal k in g around the e nd o f t h e l ake. H e hung t h e kettle by i ts bail, a r o un d his n eck. The ke ttl e filled wit h water and h e was drow n e d Remarks: Geo l ogists will be intereste d 111 t h e immense boulder proba bl y a d ozen rods south of t h e cave, w hich a lso fell fro m t h e m ountai n a p parently. So m e m ay be interested i n following t b e h ig h way sou t h two miles, to a roa d co ming o n to it from t he e ast. On t h e ut h er sid e uf L il e rua d (wesL), a pa tl ) follows R oari n g B rook a s hort di sta n ce to t h e Grea t U n co nf o rm i t y H e r e T r i ass i c san dsto ne, resti n g on upturn e d a n d e r oded gra n ite w hi c h i s pro b a bl y t h e r e main s o f a forme r mountain s h ows tl l e stages o f a process of the formation of the earth w hich too k p l ace duri n g a p e r iod of about 325 000,000 years." (The writ er can t vo u c h for tllat. H e was not t11ere then.) The q uotatio n is fro m t h e WPA guide to Con n ecticut, page 493. T his descriptio n I S f urni s h ed from m e m ory, l argely 1 5 to 40 years ago. The writer h o pes to rep l ace it with a better o n e i f h e ca n find m a t eria l whic h has e lu ded him at the p r esent wr itin g Edwin \V. B eards l ey Legislativ e Committee S e t Up T o J :lck Wilson : At t h e las t Board m eet in g a committee o n l eg i s lati o n was author i zed It s h ould b e the d u ty of t hi s co mmi ttee to p r epare an d spo nsor unifor m s t a t e leg i slat i o n o n all matter s relat in g to caves. I t is o ur aim to h ave thi s a perma n ent commi ttee The co mmittee s h ould a lso work in close h a rm o n y witl l t h e spec i a l co mmittee headed b y Dr. J ones, w hich is n ow attempt in g to obtai n a n ationa l c h a r ter, a n d s h ould work in close h a rm o n y wit h the Ame ri can Cave Men Associatio n a m e n closi n g a cop y of a bill* whic h IS n ow before 'Inserted at page 36.

PAGE 38

Page 36 the Misso uri State Legislature This bill should b e a s tartll1 g p Oint f o r the work o f our committee The r e are many things about the bill which might b e slightly change d o r improv e d F o r e xampl e : where a sta t e has a s mall Geolog i cal Surv ey ( Bur ea u o f Mines), the bill s h o uld provide f or inspect i o n b y a trained sp e l eo l ogist a ppointe d b y the State G eo logi cal Surve y for this purpose. The bill should also includ e a pro v i s i o n (o r an other bill s h o uld b e drawn up ) to afford protectio n to unde v e l oped caves a s for example, b y making it a misd e m e anor or f e l o n y with s uitabl e p e na lties to ente r a nd d e fac e an d evelope d cave unless thi s was for som e scientific purpose b y an approved sci e ntifi c o r ga ni za tion for the purposes of sci e ntifi c study (It mi g h t b e wel l to m ention a few typical o r ga ni z ations, such a s the State Geol og i cal, U. S. Geo logical Surv ey, National Spe l eo l ogica l Society Na tiona l Museum, e tc.) I b elieve that the re i s a real n ee d f o r constructive cave legi s lati o n a nd our Soci e t y should b e a lead e r in this ficld Will you b e willin g to t a k e chairmans hip of this committee? It n o doubt will involv e co nsid e rabl e w ork o n your part, but I f ee l that y ou should r e ceive enthusias ti c h e lp from many of our mC"mbe r s You' re a t lib erty to c h oose your ow n committee; how ever, the follow in g ar e suggeste d for your co n s id e r ation: Dr. Burrill who has b ee n ur glllg t hat so m e m easures be take n b y the Societ y for cave co nservation a nd to whom we ar c ind ebte d for the Missouri bil l ; Capt. Wm. E. Dav i es, 2311 North Ninth s treet A rlington, Va., w h o has work e d with Dr. Stone o n P ennsy l va nia c a ves and i s muc h inte rested in thi s matte r ; GOI'du n C. C urr y, Hoove r Company, North Canto n Ohio, chairma n of our committee o n Comme r cial c av es; Virgil C l y m e r of H o w e Caverns and a law ye r ; and Dr. o f the Alabama Geo logi cal S urv ey I rely lIp o n yo u to acc ept thi s j ob : lIld go to it. Will YOll kl:e p u s info rm e d a s to your progress ? W. J. Steph e ns o n (11/28/45) I n Newslett er ( 2 / 45 ) : In September, 1 945, the 63rd Ge n e ral A sse mbl y of the State of Misso uri p assed wha t i s pro b a bl y the fir s t s t at e law ever e n acte d requirin g all cave own e r s of commerc ial caves to submit to annual in s pecti on. A n insp ecto r o f the State Burea u of Mines must inspect eac h c av e and pass o n the ad equacy or it s guard r ails platforms, barri e rs, etc. before it ca n b e ope n e d to t h e pu blic. F o r thi s an a 11111", 1 fcc o f $3 5 i s to b e charged Any v i s it o r to a cave may make a w ritt e n complaint to t h e Bur ea u of Mines i f h e find s a n y co n d iti o n h e d eems dangerou s to the p u blic h ea l t h or safety a nd this complaint must b e in vest i gated b y the B u r ea u w i thin 3 0 da ys." (Communicati o n fr o m A. C. Burrill. Jdfer s o n C ir v, M o.) Handbook on Caves I am esp ec iall y intl:restl:d in the ;lI"ticle by \ V J. Steph e n "The Spelo l ogist D e fin e d, in B UI.LE T I N Fiv e I t a s thou g h thl: Soc iety and caves n ee d to do a g reat dl:a l m o re nati o nal adv e rti5in g than they ar e doin g B uLLETIN NUMBER EIGHT As a thought, p erhaps some company, such as Standard or Shell, whi c h sells gas and oil all over the country, co uld u se c aves a n e w wrink l e in adv e rtisin g their products to tourists. The oil and g a s will b e the thing wh i ch will take the touri s ts thro u ghout the country This would undoubte dl y hav e to b e after the war. The Standard Oil Company of C alif o rnia for example, w ent in for co l ored sce nes and the public r e all y w ent for it. The Continental seems to have made quite a thing out of the ir trave l bureau. The parks, m onuments freak s o f nature and the like, hav e receive d t h e ir share o f adv e rti s ino, o In regard s to the program of the Comme rcial Caves Committee a pocket-si ze d g e n e ral handboo k o n ca ves wou ld b e the thing, I think. Many oth e r sciences hav e handboo ks. In m y case, wh e n eve r I go into the field I take alo n g a handboo k for the particu l ar job I have to do, s u c h as a handboo k o n s urv e y in g, c ul v erts and drainage, or eve n a Bla s t e r's Handboo k. B y taking a chapte r of the c av e data known b y eac h commi(;t ee a pretty goo d t ex t in itself could b e made, May b e thi s cave handbook ide a i s a lr eady in the minds of the Board o f Governors The h andboo k would b e o n c av e facts, a sp elunke r 's ref e re n ce What I am thinking about is a book about five and o ne-half b y sev e n and o ne-half in c h es, 700 or 800 pages, flexibl e cove r to sell for about $ 6 .00. I am sure an y m embe r of the Soc iety would pay that f o r it. I wo uld say that 1 000 cop ies at thi s pric e wou ld y i e ld som e profi t for the Soci e t y Of course it would tak e a y ear to ge t it out, and t h e n about eve r y three o r five years put out a r evised e dition In your r ecent l ette r you m e nti o n e d a g uid e to com m e r c i a l c aves. This i s really ne e d e d. The handboo k would serv e o n e purpose, and the g uid e to comme r c i a l c aves would serv e another. Brun o P e tsch Vermilion S. D. ( 1 2 / 2 4 /43) I ha v e brou ght the matter o f the handbook to the at tention of t h e Board but in view o f the present world situation, the matte r was t a bled.'" Cav e o p erators I t was felt, are n t likely to b e finan c iall y able to support s u c h a project until b etter times, and som e f elt our m e m b e r s ar e n t either. This doesn t m e an we s h o uldn t d o som e o f the s pad e work n ecess ar y, and I will b e g l ad to push befor e the B o ard a n ything you ma y s uggest a long thi s lin e O llr ex p erie n ce with the Jac kson b oo k ha s made Mall), or-he r m C Jnb crs have made s imila r SlI1!gcstiollS r e lative to a Handbook for the Spcleo l ogisr. This ide a ha s been defi nitcl v tabl e d b y the B o ard of Gove rn o rs, h oweve r IIntil aftcr t h e war. The r e a c tion o f our r e ad e r s t o t hi s proposed proj ect i s solic it ed

PAGE 39

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY Page 37 the B oa rd pretty sk it t i s h about any publications o lit side of our BULLETIN, at the pres ent. J S. Petrie, Sec. More Theory on Origin of Cave Species I write solely to c re ate a n inte rest in i:11e most inter est in g a nd important e nvironmental factor dealin g with t h e origin and dispersal of spec i es. I t is now definitely known t hat the e n e rgy freed from radi o-act i ve mate rials, a s well a s t h e e n ergies of act i vation of at l east m ateria l s containing activated carb on and s ilicon do affect o rgani sms. T hi s type of e n ergy was a l ways more or less con centrated in valleys during the m ajor geo l og ical changes. There see m s to b e a direct relation betwee n the e n viro n m enta l co ncentrati ons of radio-act i ve and -activated silico n and carb o n-containin g materia ls, and the maj o r s u c ce ssions of fossils as well as the major geo l ogic transformati ons of our earth' s surface. So the e n e rgies o f acti vation of acti vatce l ca rb onand silico n-containing mate ria l s and the e n e rgies of radio-active materia l s doubtless h ave muc h to do wit h the origi n of cave spec i es. As so far I a lone hav e worked on thi s p l a n dea lin g with t h e changes produced in the e n e rgy leve l s of the active hydr oge n s b y acti vated e nergy-yi e lding ma teria ls, I h ope that som e of t h e youn g cave work ers m ay be induced to gather data a long t hi s line. The great naturalist Carl H Eigenmann has been seve r a l years, and his l ibrary and collections were sold to the Cal iforn i a Academy of Sciences. H e publis h e d a large volume o n the origin of t h e b lin d fishes of Cuba and North A m e rica that is n ow probabl y obtainable o nl y fro m seco nd -hand book d e a l ers. If you want Prof. R. R. Ram sey's paper o n radio active gases of the St. Genevieve lim esto n e of Missouri, the Richmond l ime sto nes of Ohio, and c ave spri n gs n ca r B loomington, Ind., I fee l sure h e will send t h e m as I rece ntl y got two pape r s o n radio-active gases from him, a nd h e h ad a f ew of t h ese oth e r papers to spare. They d ea l strictly wit h t h e p h ysical nature of the gases I ha ve a set of b e autiful c av e pictures f rom the I peranga regi o n of Sao Paulo, Brazil taken b y t h e lat e R icardo Krone of I g u ape Bra zil. You mi g h t lik e to get co pie s of these som eti me. The sole c ave t h ere havin g blind fish is ente re d through a huge mountain s ink h ole. The da y I was collec tin g in i t, t h e r c cam e up a storm as I l earned b y placing m y car to a reef. Two Indian s a nd I left for t h e exit six miles aw ay and got o u t just ;1.< an I g u apea n torrent d escended. The next da y t hi s s ink h ole entra n ce co n t ain ed water m ore than 40 feet in depth above t h e entrance to t h e cave. So t hi s c ave s h o uld be v i sited o nl y during the dry seaso n All of t h e caves of Cuba arc jug or cistern shaped except t h e Alacarenes cave ncar A l fonso Dec e north of Pinar del Rio into w hi c h I slipped and l ost m y light. I s uggest, in case you arc inte rest ed, t hat you ge t m y good friend Dr. Norman Mcindoo, form erl y with the f e d e ral Bur e au of E ntomology and Plant Quarantine. to give yo u a talk on these Cub an caves as h e a ccompanied me on m y bst expedi tion t h ere You rece ntl y had a meetin g at which Dr. L eonard P. Sc hultz spo k e on Blind Fish and Their Origin." woul d l ik e to get a co p y of Dr. L eo nard's ta lk if po ssib l e as I worked on thi s sam e problem with Pro f esso r Eigenmann i n t h e caves of C u ba and i n t h ose near B loomington and Mitc h ell, Ind. I a lso did wo r k o n blind fish n car I pera n ga, Sao Paulo, B r azil, on T yphlebagrus kroneii lir anda, w hich rev ealed i t the first true l iving an cestor of a blind fish The blind fish was, in all respects except for its degenerate eyes, pal e co l or, a n d more se nsitiv e s kin l ike a common, wide ly-d ispersed catfis h t hat lives in t h e open a long sand bars and does n o t avoid l ight. It was found on l y in one o f t h ese many Ip erangaregion caves which h ad its mouth stoppe d up b y a huge land s l ide. H e nce at that time, I gave up Eigenmann's a s to gradual adaptation to cave habitat in favor of o n e associated with accidental ongll1. But m y recent experimenta l work has l ed me to b elieve t hat more than accident is necessar y, and that certain caves h ave also a far greatcr amount of radio-activit v and activated GlI"bon-and silicon -containing m ate r ial s w hi c h emit energies that arc known to change organisms Ram sey at Illin ois University, ye ars ago, s h owe d that the sp rin g waters from caves in both the St. Genevieve a n d Richmond lim esto n es, var y i n amount of radium gases o r e missiol1S, both regionall y and 10Gllly wit h the amo unt of Row. H e n ce w h en tI apped i n a cave for vast periods. t hi s e n e rg y-yie ldin g material could degenerate the eyes as Morgan a n d oth e r s demonstrated with Drosophi"-, IIsin g stro n g X ravs radium. H oweve r a s Hofrath Stei nda chne r told m e in hi s privJte stlldy in the K K AustriJ, t h e origin a nd evo lu tion of species n o rmall y did not proceed with degen eratio n of J l re ad y-orig i nated c har Jcters b u t wit h the add i tio n of n ew c h ; lra cters or e nrir e loss o r c h a n ge of o l d H e n ce, the b lin d fish in CubJ, bom w i t h good eyes which d ege n cratc, llIa y be representativ e of a process radi c allv difl erenr from that whic h obtains i n spec ies where n o eyes at all ar c inherited. I aIII certa i n that the activJted carb o n and silicon conta ining e n e rgy-vi e l di n g m ater i als play a m ajor part.

PAGE 40

Page 38 / As, so far, c av e workers h ave not made any atrempt to lIw estigate t hi s s u bject r ha ve writte n so that contact ma y perhaps be made with Dr. Schultz or others with a view a lso of l ooki n g into thi s s ubject and gathering samples t hat c an be teste d readily in regard to the ir ene rgyyie ldin g properties and t h e ir re lation to the amount of degelleratio n a n d oth er c av erclatt:d changes in species they a ltec L I would a l so lik e to get in to u c h with the insect expert, Dr. Valentin e who publis h ed an article las t year in regard to b eetles found in two W e st Virgini a caves ;lIld having t h e ir nearest and o nl y re l atives in caves of E ur ope. ( I collec t e d conside rabl e cave lif e throughout South Americ a and I doubt if the in sects hav e been worked yet at l east in full; they ar e in Carneg i e Museulll, Pittsburg h, Pa. ) He m ight desire to l ook up that ma t er ial som e time. I wou l d als o lik e to ha ve him send m e som e lit erature and drawings or photos of these beetles i f an y arc available and I would try to ge t a search made for the m in both Chester a!ld Mississippian lime sto nes of Monroe and Green co unti es, Indiana. I work ed for years following t h e o l d bio l ogica l v I ew point of H. F. O s b o rn Gregory, Grabau (based o n fos sils) a nd Ortma n Eigenmann, Von [her in g, Steindachne r and Pillsbury (on r ecent s p ecies). I the n shifte d to J ohann sell' s theor y a s modified by ivforgan and Huxley and fin ally left t hat for the physico-ch e mical viewpoint in wh i c h the e n e rgy l eve l s of the active h ydroge ns prod u ced b y germ-plasmic and semaplasmic-activated carbon-contain in g
PAGE 41

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCI ETY o wn e r s to p ermit a ccess of the State Geo logical Survey to a n y prop erty within the sta t e f o r purposes of t h e ir s tudies. So m ething the eCJuivalent o f thi s i s wh a t I a m think in g of. \ Ve s h o uld ha v e pl enty of m aterial o n h a nd to support a r guments rebtive to granting o f the c ha rter. \ V hil c yo u will probabl y hav e t o d o most o f t h e wor k assemb lin g s u c h mate rial, I w o uld lik e to point out t h e follow in g f o r your co n s id e rati o n I The Society i s doi n g work w hich yea r s ago s h o uld h ave b ee n done b y some government age n cy. 2. I t is c h eaper to h ave the government f oste r a n ind e p endent socie t y than to assume all the re s p o n s ibilit y them s elves for speleo logical wor k. An orga ni zatio n of two or three t h o usand h obby i sts s h o uld b e ab l e to d o as much field wor k in a yea r a s 100 pa id m e n. All t h a t I S n ece sar y i s to g i ve t h c m the too ls. 3. Speleo logy i s and will b ecome m o re important eve r y year to our nati o n (a t l east until w e can b e assured of n o more wars). The n ew atomic bomb, to m y mind, d e m a n d s t hat e very cavity in our country b e f ull y expl ored and mappe d so as to b e ready for any p oss ibl e e m erge n cy. 4. The sci e n ce of spe l eo logy i s so broa d that it d oes not fit into a n y p resent govern m ent age n cy The Geo logical S urv ey, Museum, Publi c Health S e rvi ce, Nati o nal Park Se r v i ce, a nd the army a r e a parti a l list of age n c ies which s h o uld h ave dir ec t intere s t in caves. A soc i e t y d e voted to s p eleo logy as a se parate s ubject i s in a pos iti o n to in vestiga t e the whol e fie l d an d i s n o t limit e d to t h e inte rest s of a sin g l e governme ntal bure au. 5. The science of s p e l eo logy is practically un to u c h ed. M a n y dis coveries in t h e field o f hydr o logy (wate r s upply), sanitation, mine ralogy, zoo logy and c h e m i s tr y await s p e l eo logical investiga ti o n. \Ve d efinite l y need rese ar c h on cave soil, fun g us, and bacteria 6 S pel eo logy has uniCJl.Ie rec re ati o nal valu e whi c h s h o uld pro ve o f parti c u lar importance in t h e post -w ar p eriod. This r ecreatio n i s both h e lpful and h e althful. 7 There i s alread y a decided unde r current aga in s t too m uch government a nd bure aucr acy. If our work i s as important a s you a n d I b elie ve it is, i t s h o uld b e easy to find favo r for a pa te rnal s u ppo r t b y the government rather tha n the government settin g up a n ew burea u to t a k e care o f this matter. (This a r g u m ent s h o uld b e pa rti cubrly p e r s u asi v e to Con g ress ) Besides the ab ove, I b elie v e t hat yo u ar e awar e that w e we re calle d upon to produc e o n a minute s n otice caves s uitabl e f o r ex p e rim entation in c a ve d e m olit i o n a nd seal in g. This i s o n e in sta n ce whi c h illustrates the pra c ti c abilit y of our w o rk The re was n o t a government or state agency whi c h had the info rma t i o n w hich was desi r e d. I can go into g reater d e tail about this if yo u find it n ecessa r y. \ V. J Stephel150n (8/ 1 3 /45) Page 39 Where "Numbers" Idea B ega n a m pas s in g on to yo u m y suggestion of assigning numbers to m embers of the Society. Other orga n izations use t hi s idea, the m embe r ship cards u sually being num ber e d in t h e order in which the m embers are accepted. P e rh aps a general discussion may bring out so m e other ide a s s u c h as reserving special numbe r brackets to identify h o n ora r y or life m embers In o n e organizati on (orga niz e d about 1 890) the m em b ersh ip numbe r s run to the order of 10,000. Of co urs e t h e first 9,000 or m ore of these numbers a re extinct be cause of death or di sconti nu ance of m embership for an y r easo n yet the cu rrent numbers assigned to new members do co nv ey some idea of t h e strength o f the orga ni za tio n. T h e Spe leo l ogica l Society is stil l too young for the membership numbers to h ave significant valu e in this regard, but it i s f e l t that as the years go on, the published lis t s o f members (eac h name followe d by membership numbe r ) woul d ser ve to identify more completelv the l o ng-tim e m embe r s Also the sec re tary-tr easurer o f t h e organization above referre d to tells m e that it is CJuite s urprising how many peop l e w h o becom c (lclinCJuent in dues or wh o have been out of the o r ga nization for o n e r easo n or other, will pa y up bac k dues for the privileg e of retaining their origina l l ower numbers Anoth e r use of the number syste m i s to est ab l ish sen iori t y CJui ck l y w h e rever it m ay be of inte rest. Sometimes the by-l aws of an organiza ti o n state t hat in t h e a bsenc e of committee c hairman t h e m e:nber present with the lowest number s h all act in hi s p l ace, etc. I f this syste m w ere u sed, encouragement s h o uld b e given to m em b e r s to s i g n offic i a l co rr espo nd e n ce followed by the ir number. Als o at cenve n tio n s o r w h ereve r a regis ter i s u sed, the number s h ou ld be append ed An assignment of numbers to the existi n g membership s h o uld n o t prov e difficult even t h o u g h there shou l d b e n o co mpl e t e recor d of the ol: der in whi c h t h e m e mbers wer e accepted into the Socierv. R e lativel y spe:Jkin g, t h e num b e r s w o uld b e o f a l ow orde r wh e n co mpa red to the l o n gt im e m embe r s hi p of t h e Soeietv. H crn1ie, Washington, D. C. ( 7 /23/45) PREVIEW OF A CAVE BOOK By CLAY PERRY This i s o n e tim e wh e n an amhor gets the jump o n t h e crit ics and the a u t h or of t h e soo n to be p ubli s h ed b oo k New Enaland' s Buried Treasu re, whie! l received t h e hearty endorseme n t of the N.S.S. at it s re cent a nnual m eeti n g in \Vash:ngton. I a :11 p r ; vileg e d b y re to write a preview, if not a review of the b oo k

PAGE 42

In the fir s t pla ce, it will b e the first book in a propos e d "Am e ric a n Cave Series," and why not? W e have the American Riv e r Series, and the American L a kes S e ries, e t c.; and, goodness knows, the re ar e more caves and tales about the m than there are rivers and lakes in the country -and their stories have not b ee n told over and over aga in either. They are brand n ew, just waiting to b e dug up and relat e d, Some of the m have b ee n told h e r e ,m d there, in n ewspa p e r articles magazines, pamphle ts, folders and othe r scatte r e d publi ca tions; in a f e w r ea l b oo ks s u c h as Hov e y s famo u s o ld v o lume, "Famo u s American Caverns," and one o r two others, And III the B ULLETIN of co urse, But the first "stor), bo o k about Ameri ca n caves I b elieve, and will sta nd co rrect e d if it i s not so, was m )' bo o k Underg r ound N e w E n g land -Tall Tales o f S m all Caves," p ubli shed in 1 939, That book fr o m the Stephe n D aye Press of Brattl e b oro, Ye., who issu e d anI), b oo k s about New E n g l and, had to b e so ld b y hi g h pressure salesmanship, b eca u s e the s ubject was so n ovel and s tran ge to the editors, An outline, c h apte r b y chapte r h o w ever a bi g batch o f c av e photos, and a lot o f enthusiasm o n t h e p a rt of the salesman m yse l f co n v inced the editors that the re was as muc h in tcr est in the c a v e s o f New England, as for instance, in book s the), had publi s h e d ab out the lighthouses on the Maine cO:Jst and the co v e re d brid ges o f N ew Engl an d, e tc. The pro of was in t h e complete sell-a lit of the e dition, B 1I l. l. E TIN N U B ERE I G H T and in the astonishing ex p erie nce of severa l people, in c ludin g the autho r in fruitl ess effo rts to find at least o n e or two co pies l ying ar ound l oose and for sale. Not a singl e u se d copy could b e obtained. Indee d, it was dis cove r e d that a batc h of 10 co pi es, o n the inventory of the publishe r who had bought out the Stephe n Daye Pre ss, w ere gone from the shelv es, go n e with the wind! F ollow in g this di scover), and re p eate d inquiries of the n e w publish e r it was p ro p ose d las t year that I p ermit a reprint o f the b oo k a seco nd e dition My reacti o n was an emphatic Yes-bm why not a completel y r evise d and e nlar ge d e diti o n a n ew book, bigger fatter with many more illu s trations an ind ex b y states in alphabe ti cal order of all c av es, s ites, p e rsons, pla ces, with refe re n ce to pa ges whereon these w er e d esc rib e d o r m e nti o n e d so as Clay Perry (the gent witb b a t ,on) find c r e w in ( I cozy corner in Tin Cave of Beauty or Crystal Pool Ca v e SOllth Egre -mont, "'tass, to make it a real g uid e b ook to N ew England caverns and s it es?" So that i s ju s t what the b oo k will b e unde r the n e w title, with at l east 100 m o re pages, to a tota l of 400 pages or m o re, and with 40 to 50 illustrati o n s a majority of the m n ew. The b oo k will b e printe d b )' the offse t process, whi c h reproduces photograph s splendid l y, will be of larger format, and i s sch e dul e d for issu e in l ate Mayor ea rly June by the Stephen Da)'c Press o f 105 E. 24th St., N. Y. c.; Frederic k Ung ar, editor, als o a sllccessful publish e r unde r his o wn name,

PAGE 43

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY I have also signed contract to produce a book o n New York State Cave rns, n ex t planned for issue in 1 947and if thes e two prove popular and successful enoug h will continu e with oth er books o n caves o f the more in terest in g areas in t h e Unite d States. I t is a long l a n e with many a turning! The American Cave Series pro ject has b ee n approved b y and will be s p o nsor e d b y the National S p eleo l og ical Society. The author ha s sold the idea to t h e publisher, and t h ey will tak e all the risks b etwee n them. The book will b e pri ce d at $3.50. I t will conta in all t h e mater ial in the orig inal "Unde rgroun d New England," with cor rections additi ons, n ew chapters, a nd an Appe ndi x cov e ring: Equipm ent for Spelunke rs, The Geology of ew E n g land Caves, Underground Wil dlife, and A Cave Index and G u ide. Of the contents of the book the publisher ha s this to say : In respon se to a wid e d e m a nd for a compl e t e r e lati on of t h e 'tall tales,' l ege nds, hi storica l reco rds, and other curiou s and thrillin g storie s t ha t cluste r about the caves. old mines and q u arries purgatories and g ulches o f the northe a s t e rn states, th.e au t h o r o f Underg round New Eng land-T a li T a les o f Small Ca ves, orig inall y publi s h e d in 1 929 h as, in t hi s vo lume, aher seve n m o r e yea r s of re searc h a nd exp l oration added a very complete co l lection of n e w and s trikin g sto r y materi a l to the oriainal bo o k making i t muc h m o re than a n ew e diti o n o r I t d ocs contain all of t h e m ate rial t hat was includ e d in Under groun d New Engl alld, a book that ha s l o n g s in ce ,old o u t eve r y co p y a nd w hi c h i s so valu ed b y t h ose w h o sec ured copies, t hat none can b e found for sale eve n in the second-hand markets. Bm Buried Treasure, i n fact and fig urativel y, ha s b ee n t urn e d u p b y the a u t h or wit h n e w c h apters, rev i s ions, and co rr ectio ns and many m o re pictures, to m a k e a fresh and fascinating book for w h ich t h e re i s a l rea d y an e ager d emand. 'This bo o k is s ponsore d b y the National Spele o logical Soc i ety, a n org:lI1izati o n wit h h eadquarte r s at \IVashin g ton. D C., and whi c h was lar gely sti mul ate d to organize b y ] Vfr. P e rry's first book. to o p e rate as a sci c ntifi c and ve r y athleti c and s p o rtin g o u tfit. with ambiti o n to ex pl o re :lI1d m ap a nd photograph evrry possib l e cave rn in America -within t h e next 100 yea r s or so-for the re ar c probab l y at l e ast a million mile s of c rawlabl e pas sages unde r t h e earth of this continent. "Clay Perry ha s a l re ad y begun his e xp l o rati o n and resear c h for a f ollowing volum e o n t h e Caverns of New Yor k State as the seco nd of a prop ose d series of b oo ks o n the Ca vel'lls of America. H e i s bmiliar with the cav e country of the E ast from Maine down throug h Virginia and is k ee pin g o n c rawlin g. with companio ns well equipped to h e l p him captur e the buri e d treaure' of beauty and myster y and sto r y i n t h e m ost wond e r ful cave rn s in the world ... Note th:lt the a u t h o r ha s a job a head o f hilll -and ail speleo l ogists, s pe lun k e r s and a nyon e inte r ested III c a ves and the ir stories. pleas e copy-and s e nd co p y to Clay P age 41 P e rry at East Acres, Pitts field Mass.; esp ec iall y at o n cc. about N e w York state caves. C l ay P e rr y has publi s h ed half a dozen illustrated m ag az in e articles o n caves, in s u c h n atio nall y know n media as the Saturday Eveninf!, P ost, Travel, Nature, Tra il ways, Short Stories, ( fiction and fact t h e re), a nd hi s l atest, in Holiday, the n ew Curtis Publishi n g Co. ma gazi ne, with k o da chrome illustrations. H e i s a m ember of the Board of Governors C h airman of t h e Folklor e Committee of the N.S.S., organized the fir s t grotto of the N.S.S., as the New Enaland Spelunkers' Grotto, o I in a cave in hi s h o m eland, the B e rkshire H ills-and has recentlv di rected the reorganizati o n of the grotto unde r the' new nati o na l co n stitution and by-laws. T V A Promi ses D ata appreciate ver y muc h your letter with enclosures and BULLETIN No.6 Frolll thi s information I hav e been able to obtain an idea of the data which you hav e on under ground h y drol ogy. Undoub ted l y you must h ave a lar ge volume of thi s in your files, and it will b e a valuable con tributio n to sci e ntific knowledge if you arc ab l e to assemble andpublish it som e time. You a r c co rrect in your understanding t ha t t h e xplora tions for l ocati n g a numbe r of our dal1ls ill tile Tcnn ssee Valley found o p e nin gs at con side rab l e d epths. Where our dam sites hav e b een in the lim esto n e country w e ha ve, as wo uld be expected, e ncounte re d m a n y of these open in gs. It ha s been n ecessary in our foundation excavatio n s so t h oro u g hl y to treat s u c h ope nin gs a s to in s ur e water tightness of structures as well as secur ity. Our data with re s pect to inform atio n that mi ght b e of value to yo ur Soc iety i s som ew hat lik e that of your unde r g r o un d h y drology at the pres ent tim e It is sepa r ated thro u g h a number of files pertaining to eac h parti cula r job. I f it is possib l e som e tim e to collect s u c h info rm ation t hat would b e of value to you. we will b e glad to h:lve this don e a n d send it to you. A. S. Fry, Chid, Hydrauli c Data Divisioll Tennessee Valley Auth o rity (8/ 8 /45) Engineering News R ecord, D ec. 27. 1 945, pp. 6 1-65, describes h ow t h e avy b u i lt unde rground oil sto ra ge in H awaii. They built 20 tanks, 100 feet in diameter to 25 0 f ee t in h eight, eac h sp a ced at least 200 feet from the oth e r with the top of eac h tank about 200 feet bel o w the stu-face. Of co urse, t h e l arger r oo m s at this particular pla ce had t o b e carved Out of so lid rock This illu strates to what expense a nd tr o ubl e the Government goes to pu t t h e resour ces unde rgr ound. Navy c aves co u l d b e lin e d with con c re t e to serve a s oil storage with out t hi s great c xp e nse of diaain a t h e m out of r oc k F cw caves t hat we kno w 00 0 . ? of have so large a vo lum e Ima gll1e a c av e With _0 r oo m s eac h 1 00 feet i n diame t e r a nd 250 feet l o ng!\,I/. J S t ephe nson.

PAGE 44

Page 42 BULLETI N NUl'vlBER E IGHT CRYSTAL CAVE-WISCONSIN B y T. c. VANASSE CRYSTAL Cave was di scove r e d in the yea r 1 88 1 b y W. R Vanasse a l oca l farm er a nd lifel o n g resident of the Spring Valley a r ea. The di scove r y was pure l y acci d ental. As h e wa lk e d throug h the heav y wood s a half mil e from hi s h o me, h e came upo n a small sink partly fille d wit h dead l eaves. His curiosity prompted him to find a l o n g po l e and pus h it into the leaves at the b ottom of the sink. T o hi s astonishment, the pol e esca p e d from his gra sp a nd disappear e d into the g r ound. Thus, as the result of a boyish whim, Crystal Cave b eca m e know n to l oca l residents. The first ex pl o rati o n of Crystal Cave to o k place the d ay following it s dis cove r y. The 1 6 y e ar-old W. R. V a n asse and hi s yo unger brother, George, now a resident of S prin g Valley, visited the cave together pre par e d to l ower the msel ves through t h e vertica l entrance. Crystal Cave a t that time was not the cave it has now b eco me. The two bo ys d esce nd e d into only the upper 20 f ee t of the c1ayand d e bris-fill e d dome. From this "room" th ey d esce nd e d a short distanc e into the uppe r part o f what i s now a 30-foot, arch e d galle ry. In other dir ect i o n s the b oys saw on l y s hall ow entrances to c1ayfil led galler ies o n the uppe r l evel. The ex i s t e nc e of other leve l s and othe r galleries was u nsuspected; and onl y a geo l ogist or o n e ve rsed in the structure of caves, wou ld hav e see n the e vidence of s u c h othe r lev e l s and galle rie s in t h e c r ev i ce at the bottom. C r ys tal C av e r e main e d in thi s sem i -fille d condition for seve ral decades. A slight amount of was hin g and cavi n g from the sink o n the s urf ace w a s the on l y alte ration v i s ibl e to the s u ccess i o n of ge n e rations o f s mall bo ys who vis it e d it. And so the c av e r e main ed, visit e d but rar e l y, and kno wn on l y to a f e w in the l ocal community, until 1 9 41. The entrance to C r ysta l Ca v e to d ay i s l oca t e d in the center o f an a lfalfa field on the upland s one mil e west of Spring Valley. I t i s less tha n o ne-quarter mil e fr o m the hard-surfaced State Hig hwa y 29, and i s clearly visib l e from tha t r o ad. His knowledge of caves, o f topograph y a nd o f geo logy l ed the pr esent ow n er Mr. H. A. Fri e de, to b e l ieve at o n ce t hat h e r e was a cave worth in vestigating. The sink i s l ocate d in the w eathe r e d r emnants o f the very old Kansan g l acial cla y, and ente r s a d o m e in the upper l ayers of nearly 1 00 feet of the l o w er Magnesian limestone, or Oneo ta dol omite The cave, o f co ur se, i s o f pre-g l acial origin. Sinc e its location i s upon the upl ands the r e v e ry littl e drainage into the sinkh e n ce, the interio r of the cave i s p e rfectly dry The cave, m o r eove r i s l ocated so n ea r to the e dge of the driftless area that the r e l atively thin supe rin cumbent i ce wa s unabl e eithe r to r e m ove the rock or to c rush in the ca v e roof. Such b e in g t h e co ndi tions Mr. Fri e d e was sure that if the fillin g of clay and debri s co uld b e removed a large cave havin g nume r o u s galler ies and all the beauties and wond e r s of ca ve forma tions would b e ex po se d His s ubs equent activities have prov e d that h e wa s right, for hi s di scoveries hav e e normous l y excee d e d his ex p ec tations Muc h o f the d e bri s ha s now b ee n r e m ove d from many o f the galleries and from the dome. Although furthe r and probabl y continuous cleaning and e nla rging will b e done, Mr. Fri e d e i s now e r ecting a building over the e n trance.l This building, for the present t ime, will m eas ure 5 2 f ee t b y 30 f ee t will b e built a lm ost entire l y fr o m the l oose fra g m ents of dolomit e r e moved from the c ave, and will b e of one sto r y with a full ba se m e nt. An easy serie s of s tairwa ys will l e ad from the ba se m ent to the first and to the second and third l eve l s b e l ow. The ba se m ent will b e u sed to di s pla y the nume rous mine rals, roc k s and fossils found at t h e c av e s it e and at n e i ghboring p arts of the sta te In size Cryswl Cave compares f a vorabl y with the larg est caves in Wisco n s in is the d ee pest a nd the only threel eve l ca ve in the state At present, with muc h of the work unfini s h e d 1 ,101 lin ea r feet o f rooms and pas s ageway s hav e been op e n e d for the public. Know n but un o p e n e d a nd littl e-ex plor e d galle ries will s urel y raise the l ength to 1 500 or 2,000 feet o r m o re. The width var ies from three f ee t to 75 f eet. The h eight of pa ssage ways varies from fiv e f ee t to pro babl y 1 8 fee t ; of the 20 to 25 rooms from fiv e f ee t to 30 f ee t ; of the d o m e from 30 f eet to 6 0 f ee t. At prese nt, the greatest d epth att ain e d i s about 8 1 feet below the s urf ace. The nume rous rooms a r e divid e d among the galleries leadin g away fr o m t h e main d o m e on three l e vel s At present on l y o n e s mall room has b ee n clear e d on the first l e ve l ab out 32 f ee t b e l ow the s urfa ce The lar gest r oo ms, 'Crys tal Cave ",a s to h ave be e n opelle d to t h e p ubli c early in June, 1 94 I.

PAGE 45

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY on the second level about 40 f eet below the surf ace, ar e lacking in sta lactites and stala gmites, but are beautifull y v a ric o lor e d and ar e aw e-i nspirin g in height. These room s res e mble the vaulte d n a v e and a i s l e s of a church. Also they contain a natura l fir e pla ce, the Chape l the B rida l Chamber, the s kull o f the C a v e m a n and the H e ad of the Iri shman ("s h anty" Iri s h o r clay-pipe" Iri s h a s yet un d e t ermined). From the entrance t o an othe r galle r y o n the seco nd l evel the d epths o f the d o m e m ay b e see n fallin g a way d i r ec tl y b e l o w This galle r y and the galleries o n the third l evel c onta in t11e ro o m s and p assageways w hi c h exhibit the g r ea t v ari e t y o f c a v e f o rmati o ns-st a lactites, s t alagmites, hel i ctites, 'cr ys t a llin e e n c ru s tations, a nd diff e r e ntial weat h e r in g The l o w e r l e v e l too, conta in s t11e wonder o f C rys t a l C a ve-The Lost Riv e r r e veal e d in sw irlin g ro c k co n tours, in wate r-sm oothe d kno b s a n d pill ars, a nd in intri ca t e h o n eycomb s u u cture. Unexp l o r e d o p e nin gs o n eve r y h a nd a nd o n every l eve l will undoubtedly r eveal m ore roo m s a nd unknown w o n d e r s l a t er. W o rk i s n o w go in g o n in so m e of these un ex pl o r e d s pots but a g r ea t e r effort i s go in g into the o p e n i n g o f a f ourth and l o w e r l e v el. The geolo g y of Crys t a l C ave i s also o n e of i ts inte r est in g f eatures. The entra n ce p asses thro u g h a clay mi x ture compose d o f top so il, weathe r e d Kansan g lacial drift, and a s mall a m ount o f resi du a l soil. The cave itse l f lies e n tir e l y withi n the Oneo t a d o l omite, or L o w e r Magnesi a n limestone. The ba se, which has n o t ye t b ee n reac h ed, will lie o n the Jord a n s and s t o n e b e l o w This c ontact b e tw ee n the J o rdan sandsto n e and the Oneot a d o l omite i s a lso the c ontact b e tw ee n the an c i ent C a mbri a n and Ordovic i a n rocks. Limest o n e a nd d o lomite, o f course, ar e se dim enta r y r oc k s w hi c h a ccumulate d a s ooze upo n an c i ent ocea n b o t toms. Simpl e shell fis h-sn ails, f o r exa mple-wer e t11e hi g hest form o f lif e in those anc i ent seas, and w e find t heir f ossilize d r e m ains embe dd ed in the r oc k A large numbe r o f s u c h f ossils ha ve alr e ady b ee n r e m ove d from the Oneo t a d o l o m ite at C r ys tal Cave A few o f the many f ound b y Mr. Fri e d e h ave rather d iscon ce rtin g n a m es: G asconad i a putill a, O p h i l eta owen i H e licotoma ttnia17gf,l l a t e and Wal cottoceras sha17no1'lense. A numbe r o f commo n min e r a l s a r e present in con sid e r a bl e quantity in C rystal Cave. They co l o r the c a ve rn walls; they are the s u bsta n ces fr o m whi c h a number o f the var i o u s s t r u ctures arc form e d ; and in the ir c r ys t a llin e f o rms, a f ew o f t11e m a r c t h e sources o f b ea uty in t h e cave's for mati o n s a nd in the w alls of the buildin g n ow b e in g bui l t ove r t h e e nu a n ce P age 4 3 Limonite the brown oxide of iron is p erha p s m e fir s t mine ral that a ttracts atte nti o n. This o r e in a soft, e artl1 Y form colors the uppe r w alls in a g r ea t diver s it y of p a t t ern. W a v y s tratifi c ations join and a lternate with nu m e rou s l e nses of the o r e. In spots large irr e gular m asses o f lim o nite may b e see n near the to p l aye r s o f the dol omite. Also lim onite has ofte n sta in e d p o rti o n s of the cave s tru ctures. Anothe r f orm o f lim o n i t e occurs a s an altera t ion p ro du c t o f f oo l 's go ld ," or m a r casite This f orm m ay b e see n i n s m all p oc k ets, o r as p ro jectin g kno b s lin ed or covere d wit h s m all oc t a h e d ra l crys t a l s Gl a u conite, a g r ee n clayl ike s ub s t a n ce, a l s o occ ur s a s se am s b e t\ vee n stra t a and as a co lor in g m a t eria l in the s and sto n e s and lim esto n es. Sof t s ti c k y m asse s of the sub stance als o lin e and fill s m all p oc k e ts, o r proj ec t fr o m t h e w alls. A n inte restin g f or m o f kao l i n a lso occurs i n poc k ets in t11e r oc k This very s m oot h sticky clay is a prod u c t of weatl1e r e d and disin tegrated feldspar. In Cryst a l Cave it i s s tain e d b y lim o n i te to t h e exact color an d co nsist e n cy o f bitte r c h oco l ate. The upp e r l aye r s o f t h e O n eora do l omite a r c c h a r ac t eristic all y fille d wi th sea ms, n o dules, and ir regular co n c r etio ns o f c h ert, a n impure form o f flint In co lo r t h e c h er t i n C rystal C a v e varies fro m black a nd g ra y t o pure white C h ert i s a n o nc r y s talli n e f or m o f quartz. The cr ystalli n e form a lso occ ur s abunda ntl y i n cav i t ies all throu g h m e roc k S u c h ca vi t i es, so m e of w hich are calle d v u gs, f o rm e d by the l eac hin g o f lim esto ne, h ave their inne r s u r f ace lin e d with s m all s i x-si d e d crysta l s of qua r tz. The crysta l cove r e d s urf aces are know n as d r u ses, and will a dd m u c h to the b eauty o f the m aso n ry a t t h e cave e na-an ce. F i nall y, c alcite, the crysta llin e form of c alcium ca rb onate occ ur s most abunda ntl y i n Crystal C a ve. It i s p resent a s s t alactites, s t alag mi tes, a n d helictit es; and also areas of m e floors as trave r ti ne, and for m s crysta llin e e n c ru s tatio n s o n walls a nd pro j ect i o n s o f s t o n e. Stalact i tes ar e pr esent in the l o w er l evels of Crys t a l Cave lite r ally b y t h e hundreds. In m a n y roo m s t h ey h a n g thi c kl y ove rh ea d and a lso exte nd lik e in ver t e d f o r ests i n to l o w uno p e n e d c h ambers as f a r as light c an p e n ea-a t e They ar e n o t lar ge, p e rh a p s seldo m excee din g a f oo t i n l e ngth and a n in c h in cli a m ete r ; yet t his a dd s to r athe r t h a n d e tra c t s fr o m t h e to t a l beauty. They v a r y i n co lor. So m e a r e c l ay-s t a in e d som e arc yel l ow fro m i nclud ed i r o n o r e a nd otl1ers ( p er h aps te n percent) a r e o f a m i lkyblu e t r a n s lu cency h avi n g a sof t g l itter in g, opa l escent luster. M an y of t h e stalacti tes are alive, havin g drops of water clingin g t o t h e ir ope n e nds. Most of these are col orless and tra n sparent, see m i n g to be for m e d fro m thin,

PAGE 46

Page 44 A FORGOTTEN FREAK OF NATURE B y FRA' ELBERTUS* TI N I E was whe n the M ammoth Cave of K entucky was o n e of the wonde r s of the world The Cave i s the r e yet but o nl y co l ored pl c m c parnes go there now or possibl y an occasional p e rson wande rs thithe r b ecallSe h e r e m cmbers how, in d ays ago ne, his fathe r and mothe r made the ir w edding j ourney h e r e and the n came h o m e and talke d of it for the rest of the ir lives. R eco rd s ca n b e see n at the Mammoth Cave h otel s h ow in g the exac t numbe r of p e rson s who h ave v i s it e d the Cave s in ce this hotel was ope n e d in 1 837 It i s worth whil e to note that in t h e yea r 1 844 an of nine ty-three p e r so ns a da y w e r e shown the wo nd e r s o f thc Mammoth Cave, w hil e in 1 9 05 the ave r age, not counting l oca l picni c parties, wa s less than a doze n. In 1 8 44 t h c popu lati o n of t h e Unite d States was l ess than twcnty milli o ns, and the r e was not a railroad in the s t a t e of K e ntll c k y A nd yet pcop l e came h e r c from all the N e w E n g land and Middle States by the hundred. Edwa rd E v e r ett g uid c d a p arty of New England sc h oo l t e a c h ers h cre in thc summe r of 1 8 47. They came b y way o f Pittsburg, taking a s t c amer the nc c to Owe n sboro, K cntuc k y, a n d the n b y s tage a two days' ridc-ei ghty mil cs to thc Cav e The hotcl i s h e r c n ow practi cally as it was the n and o n e c an e a s i l y b e l i e v e that n o n e w furniture ha s b ee n adde d. A r t i cle by E lb ert Hubba r d, reprinte d from The Philistine, Vol. 25. No. I Jllnc, 1 907, PI'. 1 -22. CRYSTAL CAVE-Continued Autecl, n ce dl e -lik e c r ys ta l s o f c alcit e Othe r for m s h avc j o in ecl t h e s ta lagmi tes to f orm columns; oth e r s g r o win g from c r ack s ar c l ik e A owi n g ribbons And occasio nall y h ave assumc d the f o rm of a glis t ening fro ze n wate r fall. Twis t e d and di storte d s ta l actites, known as heli ctites, occur in unus ual numbe r s a nd b ea uty in C r ys ta l Cave. Usu ally t h e h cl ictites ar c small, but they a r e so easily accessib l e a nd of s u c h quee r f o rm s that t hey ar e o n c of the outstanding f e atllr es of the cave Some curve awa y from walls kno bs, and ce ilin gs lik e the c law s a nd fan gs of an :111 i m;] I ; so m e h!I v e ta k e n thc form o f s ma II cloth es h ooks; othe r s project fr o m s h ort, bul bou s s tala c t i t es lik e b ent pipes fr o m a ba g pip e; and, m ost llllUS llal of all, are B ULLETIN N UMBER E I GHT Fro m 1840 t o 1870 sca r cely a p e rson of note the n living but visit e d the Cavcit was a sort of finishing touch to o n c's ed u cation, and p e ople who co uld not talk inte lligently of Niagara Falls a n d the Mammoth Cave had n o standing in polite soc icty. Eve r ett gave l ectures at Harvard o n the Nfammoth Cave. \\!ebster gave a g r eat speec h at the Cave in 1 854, and Emc r so n in hi s ess a ys, s c vera l times ref e r s to hi s v i s it h e r e, t e llin g of the fish that have n o eyes to see. Barnum brought J enny Lind h e re, and s h e sat in a s ta lagmite c h air t hat i s n o w proudl y pointe d out b y the g uid es From the yca r 1 850 to the breaking out o f t h e war in 1861 the r e w e r e h e ld ov e r three hundre d co nv entions of l earne d soc i c ti cs, college alumni, and gathc rin gs of promi n ent p eo pl e from all over the w o r l d. It is worth whil e to note the s t ern fact that eve n the wonde r s of crca tion do not a c tuall y attrac t any s p ecial atte nti o n unless so m e adv e rti s in g man get s busy. The railro ads r e all y make Niagara Fall s go. They ar e adverti sing i t continu ally as a continuous p e r forma n ce, and fillin g p eo ple with a d es ir e to go the re, t h e n t ran sporting the m for a co nsiderati o n. In 1869 the man w h o ow n ed t h e Mammoth Cave di e d and s in ce the n the Cave ha s b ee n an orphan. The r e we r e thirtee n h e ir s scatter e d in diff e r ent c iti es throughout the United St:1t es, all valiant b ooze fighte rs, intent on spending the b e autiful in co m e t hat was for ce d upo n them from this magnificent, pa y in g property. Every p e r son who w ent in to the Cave paid two dollar s for the privilegeit was a monopol y P eople w o u l d co m c o f co llr sc; therc wa s n o othe r Cave to go to. Bm soo n the p eo ple cc a se d to co m e The a dv e rti sing man was d ea d those that r ese mbl e the o f an extend e d clutching hand. C r ys tallin e e ncru s tati o n s lIpon the walls and roc ks, and e v e n u pon s talactit es as an additi o nal secondary d e po sit, often exhibit a soft s h ee n of satin. A l so It i s o n s u c h e n c ru st; lti ollS that we see b etter than e l sew h crc, b eca u se of t h e larger a r e a that luminous milky-b l ue, opa l escent lus t e r T hi s b e autiful phe n o m e non has n o t yet b ee n f ull y in vest igated in C rystal Cave. It may b e due s impl y to t h e arrangement of t h c m yri: lds of c r ys tal faces o n the d e po s it, it may b e t ha t t h e c r ys lal s are of dolomite. whi c h o ften hav e curve d facC's; o r it may b e due to a simpl e in clu s i o n of a s mall quantity of fin e clay in the ca lcit e f o rma tion. v Vhateve r the ex p l anati o n thc phc nomen o n i s o n e that will add o n e m o r e bit of charm to t h e ;llr e ad y at tra c tiv c Lost Riv e r in C r yst;ll Cave

PAGE 47

NAT ION "L S PEL E 0 LOG I C : \ I. SOC I E T Y Humanity s lip ped back into indiff e r e n ce They forgot to think of cave s o r gently p ou h pooh e d t h em. Caves ar e n o t n ecess ar y to human happi n ess Caves are not n ecess ar y until som e man b y astute adv e rti s in g fills US with the de s ir e to sec them. Fie on you Uncl e G eo r ge, with your Whirlpoo l Rapid ; and H orses h oe Falls! Of co ur se the water fall s--what's to hinder it ? But to drink it in i s an lI1noc u o u s supe r Auit y. You g i v e us t h e it c h and then c h a rge u s for scr atc hing. Presid ent Pi e r ce and four m embers o f hi s Cabinet v i sited t h e Mammoth Cave, and for a we e k it was t h e capital o f the United States. But ha s T ed d y eve r bee n the re? Not exactly, nor have an y of hi s Cabine t, and I doubt m e muc h if Grover Clev e land eve r h ea rd of t h e pla ce. The advertising m a n is dead That man w h o m a na ge d t h e Mammoth Cave in the goo d o l d da ys was a n o rni t h o logi cal s p ec im e n worth whil e H u sed to ha ve folks lost in the Cave, and searc hing parties w o uld go to find t h e m. To prop er l y impress hi s p atro ns-f o r h e was a psych o logisth e had the m all put o n s p ec i a l s ui ts wh e n a b o u t to ente r t h e CaVe -WO:l1e n in trouser s and s h ort skirts and around t h e edges of the skirt w e r e tin y b ells that t inkl e d as the fair o nes walk e d Th:s was so you could find h e r if s h e got lost o r didn't. The cap s h e provide d were ver y f e t c hin g. And a s for the m e n s g arb it was sufficie ntl y hid eo u s to b e inte restin g. The n for a t i m e the plan was ad opte d o f t ying the entire party togethe r with r o p es, lest som e b e l ost o r fall in to da n ge r o u s p l aces F o r the u se of t h e compul sory suit one d o llar was charged, and besides thi s t h e regular fee f or t h e services o f t h e guid e was two dollars. Ge:)l ogica l speci m e ns, gath ered b y y ourself we re figured accor din g to your p ocketbook. Statist ics say t hat fort y milli o n pounds of s p ec im e n s h ave b ee n carr i ed fr ? m Mammoth C a ve; t hi s i s not counting those impo rt e d to the S p o t fr o m distant points in d efia n ce of t h e Interstate Comme r ce ru l i n g J:; t o the long haul clause. As f or the Cave itself let it be known that it i s for the most part p erfectly dry; t h ere ar c n o d a n gero u s pla ces in it wh e re t h e casua l sig h t -seer is e xp ected to tak e ris ks, and Mark Twa in i n a white duc k suit could m ake til e trip and cOl11e out with hi s attire l oo k i n g a s immac ulate a s i t did wh e n h e mad e that l ittle jo urn ey in company wit h P h oe b e Snow. I s aid t ha t the manage r of t h e Mammoth Cave was 1 lulu the pro of of whi c h lies in the faC t that h e attracted P T. Barnum to t h i s h o l e in t h e ground, and J e nn y L i n d s an g t h e re, miles from claylig h t at t en p er; and t h e m o n e), was gi"en to p oo r p eople w h o crawl o n t h e earth's c ru st, so thell co uld aA: o rd to visit t hi s wo n d e r of the w o rld Page 45 P eople ca m e from M emphis, L ouisville, C in c innati an d L exington to h e ar J enny warb l e bel o w the s urfa ce. B eec h er o n ce p reac h e d in t h e same place fr o m a s tala g mi te pulpit, built b y Provide n ce The manage r was quite reli gio u s and so h ad sel vices in t h e C av e every Sunday for the s pir i tua l benefit of his g uests, w h ere in the p reJc h er used a s tri ctly underground vocabu l ary. The communi cants wal k e d into the bowe l s of t he earth eac h carrying a lighted candle, and there had the unique sati sfactio n of l ifting up their voices in prayer and pra ise to G od, who, ha v i n g m ade the Cave, was doubtless pleased with its u se One innocent l ittle piece of pleasantry that good m an age r of the olden tim e used to practice w a s in giv in g eac h p e rson a lighte d ca ndl e w h e n the assem ble d pilgrim s s to od o n the s tep s of the ve ran da cloth e d in o v eralls a nd their right m inds, read y to descend to pu rgatory. D ow n the hill they walk e d in solemn p rocessiona l a nd as t11ey filed into the moutb of h ell, the stro n g draft that always blows outward in summer fr o m the c a ve rn put out eve r y light. About this time a man with a can dle would mysteriou I y appear farther ahead w h e re the air was still, a nd the wis e virgin s wo uld g r o p e o n a little way into the ebony g l oo : n and there re n ew the ir lIghts. And eve rybod y for a tim e cease d introspect :o!l and got a No. Six Thrill! At t he. fammoth Cave h otel i s a l a r ge Newfou!lCl bnd dog that ha s a g ra vity of d e mean or like unto tha t of William o f Albany, o r Bill W alke r of F argo. This dog accompanies eac h party down the h ill to tbe moutb of the Cave; and as t h ey ente r tl1e g loamin g the dog l oses hi s ne rve, and t ur ning about, still pr eserv in g his dignity, alth o with tai l at halfm ast, walk s delib erate l y b ac k to the h otel. Not l o n g ago a humoro u s swain thinking to am u se the l ad i es, a nd f e eling sorr y for the dog that was so n ea!' Mammoth Cave, yet h a d n eve r been i n it, seized the beast brute b y the colla r an d attempted to drag hi m into tl1e ya wnin g entrance that l ured a nd i n vit e d. I t cos t the humo rist five d ollars f o r cauterizi n g the region of hi s g lutiu s m aximum, thi s am ount being paid to a local \ V ir e Grass do cto r wh o refu sed to g uarantee against rabies until the patient h a d invested as muc h m o re 111 the K en tuc k y s p ec ialt y for everybody. \ Ve all drank to the h e a lth of the d og. This true story s h o uld b e pri ze d b y the youn g, s in ce it t e .lChes two things: Fir st, t hat some d ogs h ave wills of their ow n And s eco nd t hat occas i o nall v the S mart A l ec k gets what is coming to him As yotl go down the hill to the m outh of the Cave you trav e r se a hundred y ard s or so of the finest w oo dland scene r y in the w orld. It looks l i k e a virgin forest wh e re the hand of man h a s n e ver trocl, to lise the phrase of

PAGE 48

Page 4 6 my Hibernian-Ame rican fri end, Colonel William Marion R e edy. Great g narl e d w alnut tree s stretch out friendly branch e s over y o u; tall sycamores tower to the sky as if on guard; clump s of pawpaw and tangles of blackberries abound, whil e below a wild e rness of ferns and moss e s revel in Linnaean w e alth. And thru the branches ybu se e that the great trees ar e held tog ether in common brotherhood by giant grap e vines that wind in and out in haw se r-like coils. The b eauty of all this verdur e impresses itself on one ju s t as w e ar e told that a man on the way to the gallows b e hold s a charm in nature that befor e h e wist n o t of. Down bel o w u s y a w ns the e ntranc e to the Cave ; all around it thi s b eaute ous mas s of v erdure. Across the en tranc e to the c av e rn fall s a Minnehaha v eil of water. You dod ge the c ascade, and lookin g down ar e surprised to find tha t t hi s falling w a t e r does not flow on in a stream it ju s t disappear s right into the ground as it falls. W e pass on into the C a v e that narrows 'as we walk. Fift y feet or so and w e c om e to a narrow barr e d ir o n gate lock e d with a padlock. The guid e hands hi s lante rn to on e of the visitors and fumbles at the lock Tilru tilt: gaLes we pe e r into impen e trabl e night; back b e hind c an s till b e see n a tin y glimpse of the blue sk y. "Oh, r f eel so faint! cries a l ady of our party. Flasks ar e produced fo r w e ar e all K entuc k y Colonels. Also there i s a priest with us we hav e dubbe d the K entucky Cardinal a nd h e off e r s .consolations. Sh e is not faint sh e only thinks s h e feel s faint s a y s h e r brute husb a nd who has been c onv e r s in g with a di s cipl e of Mary Bak e r Eddy. "Oh, dear o h dear, I'll hav e to go back mo a ns the lad y. "The d og will s h o w h e r the w ay," s u g g e st s the g uid e in pr e t e nd e d The d og with hi s bi s hopric dig n i t y ha s ju s t sol e mnl y turne d ba c k and the lad y follows. W e pass o n into the narrow s wh e r e that bear hunte r Hutc h i ns, In 1 8 02, c rawl e d f earlessl y aft e r on e thing and disco v e r e d a g reat e r Jus t a s did Columbus-and as w e all d o W e look back a nd see only blackest .night; the sam e i n fr ont. The w : y wid e n s -but night s till h olds u s in his arm s Sile nce has give n place to t a lk and the most p e r s i s t ent c h atte r e r i s s t ill. The only book read in the Cav e i s the Essay o n S ilen ce. The a wfulness of solitud e s ubdues. W e think o f the Newf o undl a nd dog and inw a rdly com m e nd hi s judgment. The g uid e sto p s From the p o u c h w hi c h han gs o v e r hi s s h o uld e r h e takes som ething, faste n s it in t h e s harp e nd o f hi s can e lights t his :It his Ia' mem, and R i n gs i t burni n g, a l o ft. B U L L E T J N N U B ERE J G H T The rocket hisses thru the air and to our astonishment we are standing in the famed Rotunda :1 natural theater hewn by natural forc e s out of the solid s t o ne. This theater is sixty fee t high, eighty feet wide and over a hundred feet long The B e ngal lights illumin e every crevice with a strange wondrous light, and reveal trac e ries of stalactite spun as fine as silken curtains and b e autiful as a dream. "It seem s just lik e a pla y whisp e r e d a ten year-old girl to me. A flaring torch is lighted and our s pirits r e vive. Everybody draws heavily on his stock of adj ec tiv es. The Mammoth C a ve is no fake. Nobody who ever se e s it is disappoint e d no matte r how bla se his tempe r am ent or curdl e d his heart. H nothing more tha n this Rotunda w e r e s hown, it would still b e one of the wond ers of cre a tion But b ey ond tbe Rotunda you follow mile a ft e r mil e tbru this n e v e r ending night. Sev e n miles are w a lk e d we had be e n gon e three hours. Not o n ce did I h e at a n y one speak of being tired The re a r e lon ge r routes, and many o f the m. Stay a week and hire a guid e b y the da y if yo u ar e a genuine d escendant of the c a v e m e n One man I m e t at the Mammoth C ave hotel h a d been the r e two weeks, had hired two guid e s b y the day, and trav erse d o n e hundre d and fifty miles of tortuous passag es. In Egypt, in tbe pre sence of the p y ramids Napole on b egan tbat famou s s p eec h by s a ying: Soldi ers: Twenty c e nturies look down up o n you ," but in the Mammotb Cav e on e can say on e bundred c e nturies look down upon y ou. The Cav e i s the re, but to mankind at larg e It I S no lon g er on e of the wond ers o f the world This is becaus e the advertising man is d e ad. N o matte r how g ood a thing is-h o w g reat, h o w excel l e nt, how magnificentit must b e prop erly presente d, rightly adv e rti se d. Humanity, s o far a s m e ntality and s piritualit y go, s till lin gers in the a ge o f the c av e m a n, a nd s wim s lik e eyeless fis h in the dark wat e r s o f Ec ho River. V..; e pref e r vaud e vill e to geology, and Coney I s land c a tc hes u s wh e n knowle d ge o f the w o rld w e live in and of whi c h w e ar e parr and particl e pass u s b y. A c urious comm ent on the qualit y o f the g enu s h o mo that vis it s the Mammoth C a v e i s the fac t tha t in vari o u s a nd sundry places alon g the way v i s itor s l e a ve the ir c ards One g r eat R a t roc k i s calle d the dead l etter office, and h e r e yo u leav e the e nv e l o p e .of som e l ette r tha t has been direct e d to y o urs e lf Bus h e l s of these e nvel o pes and vis iting card s ar e to b e seen l eft b y w orthy nin compo ops wh o h :1Ve a desir e f o r immorta lity with out the wis h or ability

PAGE 49

NATIONAl. SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY A d e tail o f the f a m e d P t lrt/d is e L ost 1Jortioll ill the Oregon Caves. ( Pi rt llres taken b y George Grant U S. D e pt. of tbe I nteri or.) Page 47

PAGE 50

P age 48 B U L LET I N N U 13 E I t E I G I-l T "Age before beauty" W e give YOII the hoar and well -know n P i llm's in / oatjMin i'vfilLer's Chapel, Oregoll C ave s (National NJo/lument, /lear Grtmt' s Pass)-bb.t we can't iden.tify the "beaMty p t lr t, (Can the C t lve M en o f Grant's P ass help MS?)

PAGE 51

ATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY to do anything commendable. B elie ve r s who hav e n eve r done anything e ith e r goo d or ill-said a good thing or did a wise one-wis h and ex pect a s r e wards for being n e utral salts a lif e of e t e rnal id l e ness a nd eve rlasting b l i ss. Thousands of nam e s ar e on the walls, mottoes, v e r ses of dogge r e l and other sweet e mbl e ms so that at t i mes o n e ima gi nes h e i s in an adjunct of a bucolic h ostelry sacred to n ecessity whi c h the g uest s have in error mistake n for the r e gistry office. M o unds o f rocks wi th flags stuck in the top attest to Iri s h Briti s h, or Yankee patriot i s m. Buggy Build e r s' Conv e nti o n s and Barb e r s' Conclave s ar e immortalize d b y dinky monuments pi l e d up in fifte en minutes whi l e the g u ide smokes hi s pipe. A C hri stmas tree fitt e d Ollt with tawdry ribbons and popcorn in 1 888, b y a dame with a strange lust for doin g som ething un natural still p ollutes the path of t h e pilgrim. The g uid es, who from long servic e have grown to accom modate the msel ves to the law of suppl y and d emand, and give t h e ir g uests what will pl ease the m most, point you s trange r esemblances o n the sombe r cei lin g as, for instance a lion at pla y a n ant-eate r a giant fathe r a nd m other tossing the ir baby ac r oss thm s pac e a h e n a nd c hi ckens, Martha Washington's statue, e tc e tc. Just as if the miracl e of the Cave was not enoughwe d emand a h e n and chic k e ns on the wall scu lpture d by mys t e riou s agents. In stor i e d \i\1estmins ter Abbe y, in P oet's Corner, is a bust of L o n gfe llow. On the p edes tal of this bus t p a triotic Ame ricans daily l e av e the ir c ards, a wil ted flow e r or so m ething to express m a udlin sentiment they do not f ee l but which they think is prop er. One gentleman from Arizona, who seemed full of the id e a that lif e i s r e al, lif e i s e arnest I s aw s urr eptitious l y l ea v e hi s quid of tobacco am id the c alling cards. I think the Arizona gent was a humoris t but hi s a c tion wa s quite as r e levant a s that of the p ert miss from th e Lake S h o r e drive, Chicago wh o l e aves h er callin g c ard at a po e t s bust, or in lie u o f this, the e nv e l o p e o f a lette r addre ssed to h e r s elf postma rk e d "Kal arna zoo." I think now I ha ve a clu e to wh y that big Newfound land dog refu ses to e n ter the Cave, e v e n tho h e ha s live d abov e it s in ce puppy h oo d s happy days now go ne, alas, forev e r H e eve n d ec l ines to act a s Cerberu s f o r n o sop will sec ur e his services to g uard the entrance to this K e n tu c k y Ave rn u s The dog i s p syc h o m e tri c h e r ealizes the spi ritu a l p o lltlt i o n of t h e p l ace thru t h e multi t udes who hav e visit e d the Cave, left the ir c a llin g c ard s writte n the ir names, mad e mounds, d e posit e d bad ges and r e ach e d our for a ch e ap and transi ent fa me. As the Buddhists b elieve that a p l ac e o nc e visite d by a p e rson i s for e ver after a different pla ce, s o thi s clain'oyant, selfr e sp ecting kioodl e Page 4 9 r e fuses to mi x his a ura with that o f the m o b million l est', m ayhap, h e l ose hi s id entity. To r eac h t h e Mammoth Cave y ou take the -Louisville & Nashville railroad to Gla sgow Jun ctio n. There you change car s a nd take the Mammoth Cave railroad an in stitution ha s a n equipment of o n e pa sse n ger coac h and a dummy engine. I was inter e sted in see in g a Kaffir cutting the grass b e n vee n the t w o stre aks of rust, and was to ld thi s had to b e don e three times a yea r and is tbe thing that k ee p s down the di vide nds. It seems that the manage m ent ask e d the conductor to cut the g r ass but hi s answer wa s as h e himsel f to l d m e D amn m e if r mow! The conductor-th e r e is only o n e o n the r oad-cam e for m y fare a nd s aid, "Two dollar s pl ease I hande d out the money. "Well, say it! h e ex claim ed. Say what?" r asked. "What is in your h ea d. Out with it! "What do yo u want m e to say or do ? I asked. "Why kick protes t, rail b a lk o r goddam a t being charged two dollars for riding nin e miles and b ac k. " I n eve r ki c k on any railroad that ha s less tha n t e n miles o f mil eage," I said. When t his m e rr y conducto r wante d the tram to sto p or go ah ea d h e went to the front door and yelle d to the e n g1l1e er. The lvfammoth Cave Railr oa d b e l ongs to the Mammo t h Cave est a te, and the est ate i s so l a nd poor and the h e irs so greedy that the e n g in ee r to l d m e h e h ad hard work to get grease for hi s cy lind ers. It took u s ju s t o n e h our to make the nin e miles. Y o u noti ce, said the conducto r "that we h ave our CowGlt c h e r o n the rear e nd so as to k ee p til e cows out of the ladi e s coac h. H e the n e xpl ained "Why, a got afte r u s las t week and would h ave k e t c h e d u s if w e h ad n't b ee n o n til e d own grade Rea ching Mammoth Cave on e is let d o wn n ear the hotel which witll its barns and rambling outbui ldin gs, is all the r e is of the t erminus This g reat wid e stretching h o tel wit h it s six hundre d feet of piazza is w orth the trip a l o ne. r t tells of stage -coac h times and da ys when s l aves were so ld at auction fro m it s broad pIa zzas and two hundred h o r ses w e r e in the stables. I t i s Southe rn luxury in ruin s The r e is the ancient bar, fift y fee t l o n g, wh e r e the thirsty co l onels befo' d e wah nam e d their pize n and argu e d p o l itics in def e r e ntial phrases. The R oo r s of t h e h ote l l ook lik e the ge ntl e billows o f a summe r sea. The driv e wa ys are o ve r g r o wn with

PAGE 52

Page 50 grass and there are three colored persons to wait on every guest. B ac k of the hotel is a picketed garden that supplies the hotel tables. And a charming garden it is, with its semi-tropical wealth of yams, butter-beans, melons squash, potatoes, berries, radishes, tomatoes, cabbages, and climb ing gourds. Down on the flat we saw a herd of milch cows, and the old spring-house, with its crocks of cream half submerged in the running water r eminded me of boyhood days when churning was paid for in promises of picnics and circuses to come. The landlord of the Mammoth Cave hotel is a gentleman of the old school, a nd no pains are spared to put the guest at his ease. The prices are very reaso nable, and the r e is fried chicken morning, noon and night; and if you wish you can go out into the garden and get the vegetables you like best, and a good old m ammy will cook them as yo ur mother used to do. The marvel is, that such a retired restful hostelry is not full of boarders the year round But the estate is in chancery, and the cas e of Jarnd yce vs. Jarndyce saps the landlord's aspirations a nd keeps ambition at low ebb. The heirs grabbing at everything get handfuls of empty air-just what they deserve. But death is the great ben e factor and tim e the adjuster, r eg ulates all things. The Mammoth Cave will soon go unde r the auctioneer's hammer, and I proph esy that the L. & N. will buy it in and put the Mammoth Cave engin e and pass enge r coach in a museum. Proper railway facilities will be provid e d the hotel will be rejuvenated, and C. S. Stone, G. P. A., will name an a dvertising m a n and the bats of the Cave will wing their way in panic and whir in wild alarm to the eyeless fish the news, echoed b y the American Indians when they saw the ships of Columbus, "Alas, we are discovered." The advertising man will ye t appear and give this wonder back to the world. That wild region of Kentuck y fifty miles square, of which Mammoth Cave i s the geographical center, is a country of caves. The marvel is that an e ntrance is eve r found to them, since sto n e and silt and vegetation are forev er working with the law of gravitation to cover up and fill every s ur face crevasse In 1809, the year that Lincoln was born, it was dis covered that the Mammoth Cave contained valuable deposits of peter dirt ," o r nitr e from which saltpetre was made. And it is an actual fact that withoat the Mam moth Cave deposits the Americans could never have fought BULLETIN NUMBER EIGHT the war of 1812, as up to that time all of our gunpowder was brought across the sea. The cumbrous wooden pipes the leaches, vats, and troughs used by the saltpetre miners from 1809 to 1814, can still be seen in the Cave. And, in fact, a part of the Mammoth Cave hotel is the identical log house where lived the enterprising foreman who worked slave l a bor in the Cave to a purpose and made for his employers the snug sum of tl1ree hundred thousand dollars in five years out of an original real estate investment of forty dollars But the man who built the hotel, advertised, and started the human tide thitl1erward in 1837, made more than did the man who mined the villainous saltpetre. Geologists and prospectors have now discovered that the whole of Edmonson and Warren counties is honey combed with caves. And over two thousand distinct sur face openings to tl1ese caves have been and mapped. Indeed, the farmer in Edmonson county who hasn't a cave on his land is poor indeed These caves have a uniform temperature winter and summer of fifty-four degrees and so are use ful for storing vegetables fruits and various other perishable things They are dry because the water all drops to a lower level -Mammoth Cave itself having three distinct levels, the lowest one only reachable by boring, showing a river or lake that rests b e neath the entire Cave. On the surface you see as you ride along various dips or "bowls," which are merely places where the Cave has caved in and let the roof drop These bowls often fill with water, which shows n e ith er inflow nor outlet, but which from the temperat ure and quality of the water must hav e both. One honest farmer I met had such a miniature lake on his farm that he had stocked with carp. It seems that certain colored gentry in the n e ighborhood who had tired of chicken and God knows had asked for fish, planned to get these carp. They timed the farmer wh e n he had gone away to town with his family, and putting down a pipe in the pond, exp loded a few sticks of dynamite. Result: The water bl ew up, subsided, and disappeared, finny tribe, aqua pura and all. A hol e had been blown in the bottom of the pond. So amazed and terror-stricken were the Negroes at what they had done that they confessed, w ere duly punished and have since joined the Methodist church and are walk ing now in the fear of the Lord. The formation of these caves is purely a geo logical accident on the part of nature, just as is the formation of Niagara Falls. At Niagara Falls the r e i s a hard stratum of limestone, covering a bed of shale. The s h a l e wears away below, and the hard lim esto ne proj ect in g abov e gives a perpendicular

PAGE 53

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY fall. If th e s hal e was above and the hard stone below th e waters of Lak e Eri e and Lak e Ontatio would hav e r eac h e d an unde r s tandin g ce nturies ago. The pr evai ling outcrop of M ammoth Cave is a car bonif erous limestone. Great geo l ogic uph e ava l s hav e c racked and fiss ured the strata so that th e drippin g a nd runnin g wat er could easily find a way thru. But there a r e two dis tin c t kinds of limes ton e h ere: one i s hard solid a nd compact ; and the o th er i s soft and gives s mall resistance to it s e n e m y, the carb o n dioxid e whi c h eats and gnaws ju s t as oxyge n attacks iron and dissolves it into ru s t. So the hard Chester lim esto n e a b ove and the soft St. L ouis lim esto n e b e l o w mad e it possible for wat er a nd the carbon di o xid e to work together and do the ir deadly work. The dioxid e crumbl e d the roc k a nd the wat e r carried away th e debris. For Mammoth Cave is but the dried up water way o f som e mi g hty subte rranean riv e r a nd all the thousand LittIe caves that are t o b e see n along its sides were o nce tI, e b e d a nd pathw ay of s treams tha t e mptied th e ir wat ers into it s mi g h ty mass. CAVES IN VIRGINIA-1795 From an o ld "geog raphy"*-one volume of maps and one voh,me of d escript ive matter covering each country ( both had detailed treatment of the U S. A. b y states a .nd u.nd e r Virginia)-l f oun d the enclose d i nteresting re port on the caves as they were known i n 1 79 5 : In the lim esto n e country, there a r e man y caverns o f v e ry considerable ex t e nt. The mo s t n o t e d is calle d M a d ison 's Cave, and i s o n tI, e north side o f the blu e ridge, n ear the intersect i o n of the R oc kin g h a m a nd Augusta lin e with the south f o rk of t h e southern river of She nando a h It is in a hill o f about 2 00 fe e t p e rpendicular h eight, the ascent o f which, o n o n e side, i s so stee p that yo u m ay pitch a biscuit from its summit into the river which washes its base. The e ntran ce of the cave is, in thi s side, two thi r ds of the way up. It exte nd s into the earth a b out 300 feet, ., b ran c h i n g into s ub or dinat e caverns, 'som e times asce ndin g a little but m o r e ge n e rall y d esce ndin g, a nd at length ter minates in two d iffe r ent p l aces, as ba s ins of water of unknow n extent, and which appea r to be nearly o n a level w ith the water of the river. It i s probably one of tI,e many reservoirs with which th e interior parts of t h e eart h are s upp osed to a b o und, y i e ldin g s upplies to the fountains of water, and i s di stinguis h e d from oth ers only b y it s bein g accessi ble. The vault of this cave i s of solid lim esto ne, from 2 0 to 40 or 50 feet h igh through which water is con tinually ex ud ati n g. This, trickling down th e sides of the c ave has incrust ed t h e m over in t h e form of e l egant drap *Extroct f rom: J ) New System of i \!fod e rn G eograpby, b y Vim. Guth ric, Esq (Vol. 2 of the First Amcricon Edition printe d for Mathcw Corey Philo April 27 1 795). Page 490: "State of Virg ini a: Cascades, Cur i osities, a nd Caverns.") Page 51 ery; a nd dripping from th e top of the vault, ge n era tes 011 that, a nd 011 the base bel ow, s t a lactites of a conical form som e o f which h ave m e t and formed m assive columns. Another of these caves i s near the North Mountain, in th e county of Fre d eric. The entra nc e into this is 011 the top of an ex t e n sive ridge. You descend 30 to 40 feet, as into a well, from whence the cave the n exte nd s almest h orizontally, 400 f eet into the earth, preserving a breadm o f from 20 to 50 fee t, a nd a h eight of from five to 1 2 feet. Afte r e ntering this cave a few feet, the m e rcur y, which in th e o p e n air, was 50 0 rose to 57 0 of Far enheit 's ther m o m e t er. At th e P anther gap, in the rid ge which divides me waters o f the Cow a nd Calf Pasture, is what is called the Blowing-cave It i s in the side of a hill is of about 100 feet diameter, a nd emits con s t a ntl y a current o f air o f s u c h for ce, as to keep the weeds pro stra t e t o the distance o f 20 yards befor e it. This current is strongest in dty, frosty w e ather, an d weakes t in l o n g spells of rain Regu l a r ins p iratio ns a nd expiratio n s of air by caverns and fis s ures, h ave be e n probably e nou g h accounted for b y s up posin g them combined with inte rmittin g fountains, as they must of course inhale the air, w hil e the r ese rvoirs are emptying themselves, a nd again emit it whil e they a r e filling But a con s t an t issue of air, only varying in force as th e weath e r is drier or d ampe r will require a new h ypothesi s The r e is anothe r blowing cave in the Cumber land mounta in about a mile from where it crosses the Carolina line. All we know o f this is, tha t it i s not con s t ant, a nd that a fountain of water issues from it. The Natural Brid ge is the most s ublime of nature's works. It is o n the ascent of a hill, which see m s t o have been cleft through it s length by som e grea t con vulsion. The fissure, just a t the bridge, i s b y som e measur e m e nts 270 feet deep by oth ers only 205. It is a bout 45 feet wide at t h e bottom, and 90 feet at the top ; this of course determines the length of tI,e bridge and its height from th e water. Its breadth in the middle is 60 feet but mort' at the e n ds a n d the thickness of the mass a t the summit of t h e a r c h about 40 feet. A part of this t h ick ness i s con stituted by a coat of earth, which gives growth to m any l a r ge trees. The residue, witI, the hill o n both sides, is solid rock of limestone. The arch approac hes the semi elliptica l form ; but the larger axis of the ellipsis, which would be the c h ord of the arc h is man y ti mes l onger than the tranverse Though the sides of this bridg e are provided in some parts witI1 a parapet of fixed roc ks, yet few men have resoluti on to walk to them and l ook over into d,e ab yss. You involuntari l y fall on yo u r hands and feet, creep to the parapet, and peep over it. If the view from t h e top b e painful and intolerable d,at from below is de l i g htful in an e qual e;xtr e me. It i s impossible for the emo t i o n s arisi n g from the sub l ime, to b e felt be yond what the y are h ere: so b eautiful a n arch so e l eva t e d, so light, and springing as it were u p to h eave n exci tes in d,e spectator a rapture really i ndescrib a ble! The fissure continuing nar row d eep and straight for a considerab l e distanc e above and b e low the bridge, opens a s hort but very p l easing view of t h e North mounta in on o n e side, and the Blue Ridg e o n the oth er, at the di tance eac h of them or about five miles. This bridge is in the coun ty of R ockbridge to

PAGE 54

Page 5 2 w hi c h canno t b e crossed e l sew h e re, for a considerab l e dis tance The str ea m passin g unde r it is c alled C e dar Cree k It is a water of James Riv e r and suffic i ent, in the driest seaso ns, t o turn a gri s t mill though i ts f ountain is not more than rwo miles above'"'. W Van B. Cla ussen Was hin g t o n D. C. ( 1 0 / 23 /43) GRAND PARTY TO EXPLORE A CAVE Abstracted f rom The N e w Purchase, by B ayard RHsh H a ll Print e d in 1 843; reprint e d in 1916 I ndiana Centennia l Edition W e . encounte red Bill . and r eceive d directions (a nd ) that plac e was r eac h e d ... Our ex pl or in g party b eca m e small if not sel ect Som e t en feet d ow n after scratch ing through briers and bushe s we espied a rat h o le, or to make the most o f it, an op ening thirty in c hes long b y e i ghtee n wid e ; excep tin g where sharp points of rock proj ec t e d and m ade the apert ur e an inc h or two l ess And thi s h o l e wa s the vertiable d oor of the c avern! This was manifest from t h e worn trac e o f some kind of b eas t s; but mainl y from Damore's r e port, who craw l e d in backward, and in five minutes craw l e d ou t head for e most say ing-"H e back e d in a rit e smart chance, yet arte r a whi l e h e finded h e co uld a k ind er sorter stand up -and t h e n h e kim out to sart if y the kumpine." Imme diate l y commenced a m etaphorica l backing out; most of the l adies declared at o n ce they never would crawl into s u c h a place! So m e also refu sed out of cowa rdic e ; and som e wer e bOlmd to r e fus e by tight corselettes and oth e r bandages. Yet som e h a l f do zen, and a m o n g the m Mrs. C l a r e n ce a nd Mrs Carlton (who usuall y k ept together), defying natural and co n ve nti o nal objections said they would foll o w the preacher as h e co uld exorc i se foul s pirits; a nd as to oth er inhabitants, they woul d l eave the m to Damore and the other bra ve hunte r s with us. Some ge ntl e m e n that wish e d to go in, h a d to r e main with the recusant l adi es: and som e h a rd y b u cks, with rifl es, prefe rr e d hunting an hour o r two "to c rawlin g on all fours under the a irth like darn'cl b rute critturs!" But this was "pos sum" -these latter f e ared to b e c u t out, and intende d to s tay a b ove gro un d a nd improve the tim e in s p ark in g ... At length all was ready. The n we formed in Indian file, faces o utw ard a nd backs toward the entrance, and began s lowl y to r e trograd e from the s unli g h t. Damore l ed the rear ; the n cam e the bra ves; the n back e d in Pro fessor H arwood the n Mr. C a rlton hi s w i fe following b e f ore him and the n Principa l C l arenc e with wif e ditto. *Don Ui l oa m cnti o n s a b reak s imilar to this, in the province of Angarnez, in South Amer ica. I t is fr o m s i x t ce n to twenty-two f e e t wide, one hundre d and ele ven d eep, and one and three-fourths mi les c ontinllance. E n g lish m eas ure. I ts breadth a t top i s n o t s ens ibl y g r eate r t h an at b otto m BULLETI N NUIVIBER EIGHT D o ubtless all backed in judiciou s l y, as w e heard no com plaints, although the r e was in cessant l aughter, scr eeching. squea lin g, and the lik e; and a n occasiona l ex plan a tion as You Joe!"-"Awh now Sam, l e t m e be"-"Go awayI don' t want non e of your h e lp!"-"Take that now!" which l ast was followe d b y a hard s l ap on som e b o dy's face, and instantl y answe r e d by-"D a rn it P eg! if y ou ain't a bustur!" The entrance was the grand diffi c ul ty; for on squ eezing down a few ya rds the rock s went down lik e irregular s t e ps, and o ur h ea d s b ega n gradually to rise, till by our torc hes w e r e seen the rocks a b ove ascending in a similar wa y; and i n a b out fifty f ee t from the aperture we co uld stand e r ec t and look round on a vast cave rn, wid ening in eve r y direction H ere the r ear awaite d the center and then both, the van; and the n all the t orc hes being lighted, w e co uld s ee more distinctl y .... D eep fissures were app a r ent in the rock s bel ow, into w hich o n e might h ave fallen in the dark; but we met no acc id ent, and continued now our advance to the Gra n d Saloon, o r as Bill had calle d it "the biggerest cave whare h e couldn t see the top like." On r eaching the entry of thi s room, w e clam b e r e d down some rough proj ec tin g rocks ; and the n ce p ass in g alo n g two abreast for fifteen y ards we all stood safe in the Sa loon it s elf H ere nothing was remarkable but the size. It was an apartment about e i ghty f ee t lo n g a nd from fifte e n t o forty wide, the h eight vary in g fr o m tw enty to s i x t y f ee t-althou g h in some p l aces w e co uld not dis cern an y roof. N ea r o n e e nd h owever, was a rock not unlik e a pulpit, a b o u t f o u r f ee t hi g h and ascended b y natur a l steps and e n c ircl e d b y a stony balustrade .. .. I proposed to try the effect o f a una nim ous and vigo rous hurraw! "-and to ascertain if the party outside co uld hear o u r shouting. This was agreed; and then at the s i g nal we let it out!-and o h the uproar! inconceivable before, ind escribab l e now! And the effec t so diff eren t fr o m noises in the world-in a f ew m o m ents hundreds o f b a ts, h it herto pertinaciousl y adhesi ve to the rocks took wing, and fly in g with n o di sc retion they dash ed in panic agai n s t our very faces a nd open mouths, and speedily extinguished more than h a lf our torches ... The bats soon withdrew to their clin g in g, a nd o ur torches wer e relighted ; and H ark what's that! ?" "What?" "Lis ten! W e did and heard an indi s tin c t and p ec uliar noise n ow lik e whining -now grow ling-and the n it see m e d a pit-pat sound l ike padde d f eet! and it then died away, and w e w e r e left to our specu l ations. . The ladies all in una ffec t ed a l ar m proposed an immedi a te retreat Y e t D amore and J esse and half a dozen other chaps, said "they did mo s t p o werful bad jist want to see

PAGE 55

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCI ETY in to t h e next r oo m a littl e down like, afor e gain ba c k ; ... The t h e n set off; a nd for a tim e were h e ard their footstep s and m e rr y vo i ces, till all were hus h e d in the distance ; a nd we in sil e n ce re mained strivin g to cat c h som e faint soundw h e n forth o n a suddcn came the burst of ter rifi c screa m s and o u tcr ies from t h e ex ploring party. And t h ; l t soo n followed by the n oise of fect comin g back quicker by far than t h ey h ad go n e awayl A nd the n into the Sa l oon jumped and tumble d t h e w h o l e party, a few lau g hin g and jeering, but most bawlin g out"a Ba'rl a Ba'r! !" ... T h e accollnt from Dam ore ... "Whare I wa s gain' to s t ep, . darn my l eggin s if t h e h o l e didn' t see m a movinin and a movinin, till all of a quick up spro u ted a bar's head! and hi s eyes a sort of s tarin so ( imita t ing)r it e s lam smack on minel ... It was voted to retir e immediate l y into t h e world and our lin e of retreat was as follow s ( I ) N e arly all males headed by J esse, who w ishing to s h ow hi s spunk, and retr i eve the di sgrace of his "screech e r ," l e d t h e van, now in front. (2) All the f e mal es. (3) the Faculty and Mr. Carlto n (4) And lastly, Damore as rear guard. Without m e morabl e accident our van in due time ga in ed the cave d oo r and craw led o u t h ead foremost; the n aided b y the uppe r party, collecte d around at the unex pected egress, t h ey help e d out the female i n cumbents; and the n among uni ted congratula t iollS a n d deris i o n s we the last divisi o n were u s h ered s l ow l y o nce more into ordina r y life. Late r Mr. Carl ton was r e ally N fr. Hall the author. I t was "Truit's Cave," lat e r c a l led "Mayfiel d s Cave," S I X mi les west of B l oom ington Ind. Both names ar e g i ven i n the N.S. S In dex to c aves, B ULLETI N No.5. Edwin W. B eards ley \ Vest C hesh ire, Conn. Ashland, Mo., Nov. 6 ( 1 9 45 ) -Thc will of H oward Turne r 85-year -o l d Negro resident of this com mul1lty b equeathed an acre and a ha l f of land, t h e site of tw o Iarae caves in t hi s a re a to the county for t h e us c of t:> .. Boon e countians as a PICI1lC resort. Turner died several we e k s ago. His farm was the site of the caves and a iarae spri,1O'. Prior to t h e advent of the t:> t:> I I automobi l e residents of this commul1lt y usee t h e pace often for picnics and o utin gs ar e still h e ld there. One of t h e caves was form ed to provIde a larg e room w h ere ba s k e t dinners could b e served. Turne r s will was made In March, 1941 after the death of hi s wife In making the gift to t h e county h e stated that the land i s n eve r to b e so ld but to b e h eld in t rus t a nd alwa ys op e n to the publi c so that not on l y those of thi s ge n e ration but those of oth ers may e nj o y its u se." UNEXPLORED REGIONS OF WYANDOTTE By GEORGE F JACKSON The r e i s a fascination in sol ving t h e m ys t e r y of what has lall1 for untold ages b eyond human k e n ; in v entur in g w h ere no man h a s e v e r trod. The Unknown ha s ever beckon e d. The urge to sec w hat i s b eyo nd t h e n ex t hil l lures a dventurous s piri t s This fascinat i o n caused a g r o up of lIS to start illto the so-calle d Unexpl ored R eg i ons of \Vyandotte Cave on the night of Jul y Ilth.* This part of \ Vya ndotte i s not un e xp l ored, but v e ry few peop l e have e v e r mad e the l alla, dangerous tiresome trip. t:> In our party were Mr. and Mrs Gordon C. Curry of North Can ton, O hi o; Graham Roth of Louisville; Bill Rothrock son of one of the owners of the c ave, a n d m ys elf. Mrs. Curry i s t h e fir s t woman to attempt the trip. H ow eve r s h e proved h e r self to b e a daring cave-ex pl orer, goi n g in to narrow c revies and d ow n pit s w h e re most m e n b e g to b e exc u sed We l eft the hotel:lt 8:45 at ni g h t takin g plenty of ca ndles, lunc h and 2 00 f ee t of rope, for the r e wer e pits to be exp l or e d. This r ope proved to b e the most difficu l t t hin g to carr y I h av e eve r see n. W e divid e d it into three sec tions and wrapped it around Olll' bod ies. There ar e many to wbom the bare thought of ex plor II1g vas t n a tural cav i tie s in the earth i s h or ribl e and mad. \Vho so ventures into s uch p l a ces wit h o u t a g uide, must b e s ubject. they think, to som e strange p e rv e r s i o n that makes him vall1 of f e arsom e and foo lh ardy experie n ces. T o a sens itiv e mind un fortifi e d with sci e ntifi c train i n g an un exp l ored cave rn i s c har ge d with fanta stic perils B u t on t h e contrary, an)/ o n e w ho i s k ee n to ubserve natlira l phe n o m e na will s mi 'le at s u ch fea r s A nd vet, h e i s a lert to r e a l dan gers that will test 1115 f ortitude' to the l imit. The abruptness of the change from world to under wor l d the sudden d escent from s un s hin e or starlight into a void b l a c ker than an y g l oo m o n earth is a s t r a i n u pon o n e's self pos sess i o n. O n e s v e r y lif e hangs o n the prop e r functionin g of hIS light. The r e i s no m e ans o f for ecast in g whith e r hi s steps ma y l e ad nor h ow s hocking ma y b e the n ext m in u te s ad venture The rays of hi s light cannot p e netrate 1 00 f ee t ; for t h e c ave atmosphe r e b eing o ptically as wel l as c h e mically pure, does not t ran smit the rays a s w ell a s our oute r air. The r e ma y b e pitfal l s ah e ad s l ip p e r y l e d ges, h azardou s passages ove r g ulf s that n o to r c h can fath o m rotten r oc k cru mblin g in one's grasp. Y o u ma y wedge fa st in a crac k. The light ma v fail. You m al b e lost in the bowel s of the earth! All t h ese risk s w ere re a l e n ollg h but all of liS w e r e well versed i n c l ve work a nd were re ad y to ta c kle a lm ost a n ything. To get to the sta rt of the "Une xpl o re d we trav erse d the L ong R oute to the Ball Room, and h ere branche d off. At t h e ve r y start we had to drop to hands an d knees and c rawl som e distance. The n the passag e way b ecame even s m alle r a nd we were forc e d to lie on our stomachs and wriggl e for 35 fe e t over h ard mud. This required som e time, for thos e of u s who had knapsac k s a nd the rop e h ad to pllSh them a h e ad Our o nl y lig h t s w e re candles, From new s paper clipping date d 71 1 -29.

PAGE 56

AL.PHA"rICAL I N 1 -"", TO CNT 5.-LITTLi WV'ANDOTTE' CAVe 'LOTS w,'C .JANIMAL. .... NT!: .OOM 5 -A.'" CMAI. .-AUeC'l HOLe 7 ..... LL eOOM 8-8 ... HOln ...... LL L.ODeC ,-
PAGE 57

NATIONAL S PELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY a s it wou l d b e almost imposs ible to ge t o n e of t h e cave lante rn s through som e o f the places we wer e to go. Arriving at l ast in the R ound R oo m ," we took stoc k and prepared to fac e the a lm ost unknown. Starting o n we climb e d a wall for 1 2 feet and scra mbl ed through a small ope nin g, and were in a roo m not unlike the o n e w e had ju st l eft. It was 50 feet hi g h and a lmost p erfectly round, and on one side was a hol e 15 f ee t deep. The route o n, was up the a lmo s t s h ee r w e t wall ju s t ab ove this h o le. Sinc e I was the on l y one who h ad made the trip b efo re I started up fir st, and after seve r a l s lip s and some pushin g from bel ow, I finall y made it. The rest f ollowe d and we were in the famous L a ni ga n 's P ass," a passage four f ee t wide and 30 to 50 d ee p. The e asiest way was along the top of this c ra c k to the "Jump." H ere we must jump across a deep h ole to a s mall op e nin g on t h e oppos it e side. This was our first rea l dangerous pla ce, a 'nd we manage d it much lik e m ounta in climbers ho l ding o n t o eac h oth er, so in case one s lipp e d the oth e r s could k eep him from fa llin g to the floor, 50 f ee t below. Amid s i g h s of reli ef, we safe l y crosse d and started o n over r o u g h rocks and through some wonderful forma tions for a lmost a qua r ter of a mile, w h ere we found \ V ild cat Avenue." This was a l ow, ver y l o n g muddy r oom where an e arl y e xplor e r c laim e d to h ave see n the tracks of the cat for w hi c h it was named. R ece ntl y there h ad been a s tream R ow in g through this r oo m p e rhaps to run "Thro u g h cave rn s m easure l ess to man, Down to a s unl ess sea." Goi n g on we toiled ove r a jumble o f s h arp edged rocks that skinned a m h an d s and knees, and cam e to "Li ttle Giant Avenue." This was anoth e r narrow very high passage. At o n e p l ac e the walls wer e o nl y three feet ap:l r t, and I clim b e d up easily by bracing m y f ee t and ba c k a cross the crac k. At the very top I found a small passagewa y filled with som e of the most b ea utiful s t a lactites I h ave ever see n in any cave. So m e of them were s l ender as a pencil and were from three to 30 in c hes l o n g. All wer e pure white. I called to "Doc" Curry and soon, h e and Roth scramb l ed up; and w e took severa l pictures the first ever to be take n in thi s part of Wyandotte. Moving o n w e found we must cross severa l pits that see m ed to have n o bottom. The limestone h ere was what i s know n as rotten som e ledges crumbling easily in one's g r asp. And we n e ver had more than a three-i nch l eclge to h o l d to at any time! Some had water o n the floor, oth e r s wer e dry. Few of them h ave been ex pl ored, but we did not take tim e to examine m a n y. We had m o r e things to see beyond. It would b e tedious to d escr ib e our wande rin gs in d e t ail. W e went up, down, l e ft right. At times w e w e r e in a maze of passage s Again the re was o nl y o n e way to go But, at n o tim e did any of our party falter. 1vl"rs Curry in parti c ular prov e d to b e a daring exp l orer, n ever hesitat in g at an y place the rest of us l ed. We saw many beautiful formations som e more wond e r ful than in a n y part of \Vyandotte. One i n particu l ar wa s called "Th e Himalayas," a nd l ooked like a miniature. mountain chain. We managed to tak e pictures of som e o f t h ese l ovely spots. Finall y w e a rri ved at what som e early explor e r had n a m ed "Dinner Table R ock. The r e was a s mall spri n g Page 55 nearb y, a nd much to "Hung r y Bill 's" delight we decided to eat lun c h. W e had been in t h e cave just six hours w h e n the knapsack contai ning the sandwiches was ope n ed. A l t h o u g h we were tired, v e ry muddy, a nd somewhat bat t e re d I am sure everyone e njoyed very muc h that lun ch Roth had bee n wearing a muc h battered hat which h e see m e d to value m o re than his life. B y now it was hardl v becoming or usef ul. I t h ad b een droppe d in pits in mud and water, bee n s t epped on and in general had h ad a hard tim e of it. His re lu cta n ce to dis c ard hi s headgear h ad caused t h e rest of LIS to "razz" Roth eve r sin ce we ente red the cave. Now h e tri ed to get revenge by wash in g it in the spring befor e we could stop him. The plac e where w e lunch e d was long thought to be t h e end of thi s part of the cave, but one da y a v enturesom e exp l orer di scovered a s mall h ole that l ed to many more miles of cavern. This s mall passag eway ve r y unIque. It is from 1 2 to 24 inches high, and seve ral hundred feet l o n g, and the walls, cei lin g and Roar, are covered with a r e d cla y t hat gives eve r ything a reddi s h hue. Even the lights seemed re d. In o n e plac e the floor was cove r e d with small sto nes. These did not add to our comfort a nd progress was s l ow. Roth 's suggestion t hat we call the tunnel "Wh e n .1 m a n sees re d met with a ge n eral laugh and we took t h e l o n gest rest since we ente red the cave. Since we were a lm ost to t h e "Double Pit" that we must descend to co mpl e t e t h e trip, we b ega n to plan as h ow best to use the rope. On pr ev i o u s occasions parties h ad a l ways climbed down h a nd over h a n d, but as the top of the pit i s w e t, this was vetoed a s too dangerou s Finall y w e arrive d at a workab l e p l an and moved on. Afte r much grunting, wriggling, and exclamations of pa i n, we reac hed a r oo m where we co ul d stand upright. Thirty minutes m ore and w e we re at the top of the pits t h e most dan gero u s part o f the entire journ ey. The first pit i s 50 feet d eep but we were ab l e to climb down without the aid of t h e rope. In one corner of lar ge pit is anothe r 30 feet in diam e t e r with sheer wet walls 50 feet high. This was the p l ace mo st of us h ad bee n dreading. Earli e r ex p l ore r s h ad a lways tiec! their rope to a sta lag m ite about four feet hi g h and severa l back from the edge of the h o le. \Ve plann e d to usc this formation but not to ti e our rope to it. T y in g all the pieces together we made a continuo u s l oop and droppe d o n e e nd of it over the stalagmite, a nd the re s t of it ove r the pr ec ipice The n we tied a co upl e of knots for h a nd and foot h o ld s n ear the top of our loop The plan was for one perso n to hang o n the rope whi l e the rest of us pull e d o r h e ld back o n it. Thus e ven thos e who descended first could help l ower t h e oth e r s fro m the bottom. The pas sage above continu e d for mil es, but we did not h ave time to exp l ore it, a l t hough it co ntains many wonder f ul formati o n s A great many branches of it hav e n ever bee n full y ex plored, and some fllture exp lor er ma y find wonderf ul things in the m. As "Doc" Curry pr epared to tr y o u r "sys t e m there was a ge n era l air of n ervo u sness. H e g rabb e d the knots a nd we s l ow l y l owered him down into the dark. l"fuch ( C o ntinll ed o n P ag e 56 )

PAGE 58

P age 5 6 Scientific F a un a l Note In an a rticl e publi s h e d in The Americall M idl(/n d Natl m tli s t V ol. 34, N o .2, pp. 475-4 8 4 S ept. 1 9 45, b y Dr. Libbie H H y m a n e ntitl e d "Nor t h A m erican Tricl a d Turbella r i a XI. New C hiefl y C a ve rni co l o us, Pl a nari a ns f o ur n ew s p ecies and o n e n e w s ub s pecies arc describ e d A m o n g the new fo rm s describe d o n e Sph( i// op /(ma v irg i nian(/, was co l lec t e d b y the atio n a l Sp e l eo loo-i cal So. b c l e t y f r o m Showw a lt e r 's Cav e n c ar L exington, V a., O ct. 3 0 1 943 Wit h the a dditi o n o f the n e w f o rm s d e scrib e d in thi s pa p e r there a r c thus II s pecies o f cave planarians kn ow n f o r the Unite d S ta tes, alth o u g h o n e o f these ha s ac w ally b ee n f o un d only in a s prin g. J. A. F owle r UNEXPLORED WYAND OTTE-Continued to o ur reli e f hi s vo i ce soo n c am e up to u s s a vin g h e h a d l a nd e d s af e l y. / Graha m lea nin g o ve r the h o l e t o t a lk to D oc droppe d 1115 h a t and hi s hurry d o wn to ge t it g av e rise to hi s alias, Kin g o f th e Pit." Mrs. C urr y did n o t see m to b e a s excite d a s o n e would imagin e w e beg an to l o w e r h er. She was f o r ce d t o hang 111 (md alr f o r som e tIIn e as o n e o f the kno t s b eca m e fas t e n e d in a crack Bill and I o n to p m a na ge d to g e t it l oose and bef o r e ve r y l o n g s he, too, was standing on the muddy A oor. Bill n ex t w e n t d o wn a nd I s t arte d to follow but m y w eight w e d ge d the rop e in a c r evice after I had swun g o u t ove r t h e h o l e a nd I w a s fo r ce d to climb a nd s lid e d o wn muc h to the amu se m ent o f those below m e B eyo n d the D o ubl e Pit" w a s a regula r l a b yrinth. Pas s a ges branc h e d off in eve r y dir ectio n like h o les in a wo rm eat e n w oo d I had som e diffi culty in findin g the c orrect o p el1ln!?: a nd D oc" s u gges t e d that "whe n in d oubt l ea d trumps would b e a goo d rul e to f ollow. But I playe d 3 trump, a nd finally pic k e d the right tunnel. F or 1 0 0 0 f ee t w e wriggl e d ove r the hardest o-oinoin I I "A' T I k b b t 1 e c a ve, t 1e Ir a rr e nt. t too u s e x ac tl y o n e h o ur a nd 30 minutes to m a k e it. Ju s t a few f eet m o r e, and w e w e r e in t h e M ain Cave, o n the L o n g R oute, a f e w hundre d feet t r a m wh e r e w e had ente r e d the Une xpl o r e d. A n o th er h o ur a nd we a rri ve d in t h e outer w o rld a lm ost ex h a u sted, jllSt 1 2 h o ur s afte r startin g. \ Ve had made o n e o f the qui c kest trips kn o wn throu g h the R ound Trip." All in all, o ur trip was n o t t h e m ost' diffi cult o n e eve r m a d e in Wyan dotte, yet i s proba bl y o n e of the most inte r est in g a n y of o ur g r o up will e ve r m a k e Afte r all, it i s n o t the m agnitude o f results but the un certainty a b out t h e m tha t m a kes a ga m e w orth play in g. B ULLETIN N UMBE R EIGHT Proposed Classification b y Proc e s s of Formation (Whe n within the sam e c ave, othe r f o rm a tiv e process e s h ave t a k e n pla ce, it will b e n ecess ary to d e t e rmin e which process pla ye d the m ost important part in the c r e ation of the c av e a s a who l e.) I. The S o luti oll Cro up. (Comprises all those cav es formed by the solvent a ctio n o f wate r passin g thro u g h r oc k stra ta ) A Limestone. B G y p sum. C. Chalk. Etc. II. The L(/v(/ Cro Mp. (Comprises all those c aves f o rm e d b y the so lidifi c ati o n o f lav a o r alli e d v o lcani c phe n o m e na.) A. Tubes. B Bubbl es. C. V ents E tc. I II. T h e Wet,thering C roup. (Compri ses all those caves f o rm e d b y the w o rk o l the e lem ents o n ex t erio r r oc k s urfa ces, a s b y diff e r e ntial w eathe rin g, o r corrosi o n and corrosi o n b y wind a nd r a in.) A. Sa nd s ton e B Granite Etc. IV. The liVave Actio.'1 Croup (Compri ses all those c a ves f o rm e d b y th e a ctIo n o f wa ves o n t h e r oc k o f s h o r e lines. ) A. Wate r fille d B Dry V. T he l\tfi sce l/ (lIIeOIiS Croup. (Compri ses all those c a ves of a n u s u a l nature t h a t ( I ) ar c t oo f e w to b e co n side r e d a s a g r oup, o r (2) ar c the result o f unkno wn f o rm a ti ve p rocesses o r o f processe s tha t def y satisfacto r y c lassificatio n ) A. M arin e (sea Aoor a nd t o t ally s u b m e r ge d t y p es) B. Ic e ( p er i odic o r nearly p e rm a n ent cave e n t irel y form e d o f i cc.) E tc. E rwin V Bisch off, S an B r un o Cal. ( 1 9 45) N o t e o n Bre athin g C ave Fossils The fossils from Breathing Cave r ece ntl y submitte d b y W. J S t ephe nson to Dr. Bassler w ere ref e rr e d to Dr. G Arthur Coop e r C ura to r o f Inv ertebra t e P a l eo n to logy anc!

PAGE 59

N ATIONAL SPE LEOLOG I CAL SOCI ETY Pal eobotany for examination and Dr. Coope r r e ports on them a s follows : "Mr. Stephe n s on i s corr ec t in believing that the s p eCImens submitted are of Helderberg age Three diffi e r ent animals ar e r e pres ente d in the coll e ction. The larg est on e is a s nail, known as Platy ceras. The ribb e d s h ell i s a bra chiopod known as Eospirifer and the small, coni cal sp eci m e n i s a cup cor a l b e lon ging to the g e nus Stereo lasma In ac c ordanc e with the instru c tions in y our l ette r the Museum is keeping the specim ens and will r eco rd them a s a gift from Mr. G e org e A R o b e rts o n who will be dul y notifi e d. A W etmore, S e cr etary, U S N a tional Museum, Washing ton, D C. (1945) ---Sabre-tooth Tig e r Find! I kno w y ou will b e inte r este d in a di s c o v e r y w e m a d e in the s ame S e w a n ee ar e a with h elictite s blind fis h and the n e w salamand e r alr ea d y n o t ed. This tim e w e found the nearly compl e t e s k e leton o f a sabre-tooth tige r The b o nes a r e o n the s urfa ce but e n cas e d in flo w s t o n e and mud, and w e r e so littl e dis arrange d tha t w e could e a sily t ell the ex a c t position o f the ti ge r at the m o m ent of d e ath. The ro o m was s o l o w ab out 1 8 in c hes high-that w e could sec ur e no photog raphs ; but w e s u ccee d e d in r e m ov in g almost the entire s k e l eton in pretty goo d shape Pl e ase d o n t consid e r LIS vand a l s f o r di sturbing thi s find b eca use w e h a d competent authorities w ith us. The r e is n o d oubt a s to t h e ide ntifi c ati o n a nd this find i s e speciall y inte r e stin g in tha t it see m s t o b e onl y the seco nd r eco rd from T ennessee W e will lat e r id entify the exac t sp ecies o f sabre to oth and I will probabl y writ e yo u m o r e ab out thi s Som e GiVe, wh a t H arvey M. T e mpl e ton Jr. Winc hest e r T e nn. ( 1 944) Cave Fossil Describe d I was r e adin g an articl e the othe r d ay tha t r eminde d m e of cave fossils, w hi c h prompts m e to writ e yo u co n ce rnin g a r ece ntl y di sco ve r e d cave rn -The C ave o f the Mounds l o cated near the to wn of Mount H o r e b Wis a s d e s c rib e d in The Hig h way T rave l e r publi s h e d b y the Greyhound Corpo ration in connectio n with the ir bus trav e l bure au In d esc ribin g on e o f the r oo m s t h e autho r B ert Studebake r s t ate s that in th e ce ilin g i s the f o s sil o f a "ce phalopod," a s h e llfi s h n o w e xtin c t. but whi c h live d in the sea millions o f yea r s ago. The fossil i s six f ee t lon g t a p ers to a POlllt at on e e nd bur IS in c h e s broad at th(" See p arag r ap h 5 col. I 1'. 116. P age 57 other. This cr ea ture o f the anCIent sea liv e d 111 a s hell. A s it g r ew, n e w sh ell wa s f or m e d III front and w h e n r e ad y the cr eature m o v e d into it s n e w house. But the o ld sh ell mus t b e c arri e d a l o n g so Nature prov id e d a tube thru whi c h the anim a l pumpe d air b ac k into the o l d s h ell, cau sing it to float Stra n ge to say, the c e phal o pod r e v e r se d the u s ual manne r o f travel. It m ove d a b out b y f o r c in g w a t e r out of its m outh, the r efo r e alway s t ra v e led ba c kward This a nim a l was f a r m o r e a n c i ent tha n the din osa ur ; it live d in the Ordovica n sea 411 milli o n yea r s ago. L. E Ward T o l e do, O ( 1944 ) "Joints in Cudjo's Cave E xplaine d F o r years I h a v e wonde r e d wh e n I saw differ ent f o rm a ti o n s in cav es, if the r e wo uld b e a n y tha t had n o ex pl a nation I b elie ve I h a v e n ow f o un d o n e In n ea rby C a ve, "The P i p e Orga n has j oints w hi c h protude f r o m eac h side.;; I h ave h eard var i o u s e xp l a n a tion s but n o ne h ave satisfie d me. I would be very g l a d to ge t y our e xpla n atio n E ddi e Sa l ye r s Cumbe rland G a p T e nn ( 1 944) H e r e i s o n e an swer to yo u r r eguest for an expl a n a tion o f "enlar ge d joints : Afte r the c olumns w e r e for m e d t h e support b e l o w m ay h ave g i ve n a w ay allo win g t h e column to crac k and lat e r r efill o r heal." Or, dur in g or i g in a l f o rm a ti o n the r e m ay h ave been som e fo r e i g n matter a t this poin t occasio n e d b y hi g hwat e r o r som e accide nr a l flood a nd the n l a t e r built o ver. W e w o uld b e inte rest e d i n hearin g othe r s u gges t e d e x pl a na t i o ns. J S P etrie, S ec. Recent v s Fossil R emains M y n o t e i s inte nd e d to k ee p i n to u c h with yo u a nd s u gges t p e opl e I run in to who a r e d o in g fossil w o rk. I h ave h a d a g oo d l ette r f r o m the M ammotl1 c a ve s u p e rin te nd ent ab out t11e b o nes o f a nimal s f ound in M a m m oth C a ve, and hav e writte n Mr. Dear o lf ab out it. Also, I am getting Dr. Ston e s a r ticle and h a v e a sk e d him som e guestio n s ab out the P ort K e nn e d y Cave and o t h e r fo rma t i o ns. I a lso h a v e the fina l summary o f the Nati o n a l Museum work near Cumberla nd 'Mary lan d I w a s g l a d yo u calle d 111y atte nti o n to the fossil b a t a s I m ight have tak e n it f o r a r ecent s pecies. A p ictur e su b mitted was n o t of suc h q u a l it y as to allo w reprod u ctio n I t can be f ound in t h e S o ciety S p h oto c ollec ti o n, h oweve r

PAGE 60

Page 58 There is so m e difficulty in d eciding when I am trespassin g on the wo rk of the F a un a Committee when I list Pl e i stocence bones o f animals that a r e n o t yet extinct. If the accounts say it is I ce A ge, or befo re, I take the m as fossil eve n though the same s p ecies cont1l1ue to exist. When they take bones out o f a cave and do not think they are a n y o ld e r than Indian bones, I figur e that they mus t b e recent. Only a few Indian bones hav e b ee n prov e d ba c k to the I ce Age, so that I am considering all Indian b o nes as r ecent, and in Barlog a s province I gave a ta lk recently to a bi o logy class a t lincoln Uni versity in which I covered b oth r ecent and fossil. I think I s h all asse mbl e m y notes on thi s and submit them in a pape r to the Editor, and let him ref e r it to yo u if neces sary as to the co rr ect ness o f the r ecent forms It will b e WrItten to popularize rather tha n to k ee p t ec hnical the s ubj ect of cave fossil f a una Alfred C. Burrill Jeff e rson City, Mo. (1944) Caves Yield Fossil Remains R ece ntl y I saw an abstract of Sinclair's work on the fossil r e m a in s in "Potte r Creek Cave" in the Unive rsit y of Cali fornia publications, V 2, No.1, 1904 pp. 1-27. I had hesitate d buying this, as Sinclair 's lists ar e rep eated in B. Brown 's Conard Fissure pap e r (Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., V 9, Pt. 4 1908) I think yo ur id ea of keeping the members interested and working i s a fin e one. It is really needed in thes e times. W o uld it pa y to say tha t this cave exploration and exca vation t e nds to y ield m o r e concentrated sci e ntific re sults than digg in g at random through whole river valleys, or 111 every Indian mound? A. C. Burrill Jefferson City, Mo. (1944) I f ee l d e finit e l y that it would pa y both archaeologically and pal eonto l ogically t o excava t e caves and cave entra nces rather than to dig anywhere at r andom. Archaeo logic a l and p a l eonto logical m a t e rial in caves is bound to be more or less l ocally concentrated; a nd digging at such places once ev id ence s how s its prese nc e might be fruitful should y i e ld results f a r b ette r than casual digging in the country e ve n in the so-called Indian }.tfo unds. Wm. J. Stephe nson R ecent W y andotte Resea rch You ma y b e inte rest ed 111 m y recent investigations 111 W ya ndott e Cavern As yo u know this i s the lar ges t cave rn syste m 111 Indiana. I b ecame c uriou s where the waters cam e from which d eve l ope d the g r eat cave rn with BULLETIN NUMBE R EIGHT ItS senes of n early p a rallel runwa ys, and also what happene d to cause the waters to vacate the well-developed graded routes of the cave rn Not impresse d with the c urr ent theo r y, advocated b y Davi s and recently advocated b y Br e tz tha t cave rns are d ev elop e d by phreati c wate r s of vagu e o r una ccounte d origin and still more unce rtain in flow I hav e give n con sideration only to d e ve lopm ent o f the w elld e fined routes of the Wyandotte system to inflow of l arge quantltles of w a t ers from the s urface A sufficient supply could come from the storm waters of sinking tributaries to the d eep l y intre n c h e d Blu e Riv e r or the suppl y could co m e from the div e r s ion of a part of the w a t ers of Blu e Riv e r itself. The position and course o f the sys t e m have rul e d out a sufficient infl ow from the small s urfa ce tributari es, and at the same tim e give e x cellent support to the id ea that Wyandotte' s w e ll d e fin e d runways were form e d b y wat ers from the d eep l y intrenche d Blu e Riv er a cross the n ec k of a great compound lo o p of this valley. It is 10 o r 1 2 miles about the great eas tward exte ndin g loo p, and only three mile s o bliqu e l y down the rock-dip across the n ec k. The underground c hannels hav e been traced half wa y across the neck s till r e tainin g the sam e characteristics and size. },;[oreover, the c hannels contain s ilts and g r a vels of the same c hara c t e r as those c arri e d b y the Blu e Riv er itself. The floor s of the great channels rise t o the north eas tward towards the plac e whe r e the entrance of the waters very likel y took place. The di scharge of t h e wate r s from the sys t e m t oo k pla ce into Blu e Riv e r at the lower e nd of the sys t e m n ear Wyandotte Inn, wh ere the present silt-covered floor s now l a r gely obscured b y fallen r oc k are 65 f ee t above the present Blu e Riv er. It is a p ertinent a nd inte r esting quest i o n to co n s id er why this proposed div e r s i o n o f part of the wate r s of Blu e Riv e r b e neath the grea t meande r n ec k ce a sed to flow through s u c h a well-developed underground c h anne l sys t e m That quest ion has an a nsw e r in the late history of the e pisodes o f Blu e Riv e r it self, indicatin g a marve lous connection b e tw ee n the Wyandotte Cavern d e v e lopm ent and the physiographic relations of the outside terrain. In the m eantime, I continue to see k for more and more ev id e nc e from the far-r eaching cavern system itse lf. The hi s t o r y of cavern developm ent i s e lu sive, a s we s eldom hav e lar ge p arts o f any bi g cave rn in the ir entire t y. H e nc e the div e r ge n ce of inte rpr e t atio n of the phe nom e na see n 111 our c av e rns. I trust that yo u ha ve n o t been b ore d by m y d ive r s ion and interes t in Wyandotte C av e rn, but c av e rns d o have an inte r est b eyo nd the phe n o m e na o f themselves eve n

PAGE 61

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY though these things in the mselves form cavern scenery so unlik e that of any exterior l a nds ca p e C lyde A. Malott, Bloomington Ind. ( 1 945) Bat Feeding Habits H a ve you any inform a tion concerning the distance that bats tra vel from the high point of s l eeping to their f eeding ground? The r easo n I ask thi s i s that a party o f m embe r s w e r e traveling the other week -e nd b e tw een Franklin and Uppe r Tract, Va., just about du s k for a four or five-mil e stre tch Just about midwa y b e tw ee n thes e two towns the r e w e re a good numbe r of bats a long the road indulging in the ir evening m eal. The n ex t da y we inv e stigated the cave on Cave Mountain a few miles north of Upper Tract. In this cave was a larg e co lony of longea r e d bats. A f e w miles south of Franklin in Trout Rock Cave co l onies of both long-eared bats and M yotis bats h ave b ee n r eporte d but usually in the early spring The bats which w e saw on the road did not appear to b e larg e enough to be the lon g-eared vari ety. Would it be possibl e that these b a ts which w ere midw ay b e twe e n Franklin and Uppe r Tract wer e Jiving in a cave some wh e r e in that vicin it y? We have no r e ports of an y cav e in this area, but maybe the pres e nc e o f these bats would warrant a search h e re. Of course I kno w that the bats ma y hav e been Wood B ats, in which case they would h ave no r e l ation to the pr ese nc e of a cave. This inquiry, to my mind, m ay b e o f genera l interest to our m embe rship, and I beli e v e that your answer to this question might possibl y prov e good mate rial for our BULLETIN. W. J. Stephenson I was much inte rest e d in your l ette r t e llin g about the bats you had seen around Franklin and Uppe r Tract, Va. Your main lluesLioll, tllUugh, abuut wheLher a guod num b e r of bats ar e a sign that a cave i s n ea rby I am afraid I cannot an s w e r very h e lpfull y. In summer the littl e brown and big brown bats often congregate into lar ge col o nie s in o ld buildings or hollow trees. These co l onies in my ex p erie nce ar e a lmost alwa ys composed of females and the ir young. In fact the German naturalist s call simi lar co lo ni es "W ochenstube or maternity wards Now the concentration of bats you saw might have be e n coming from one of these summer colonies or eve n hav e b ee n a gathering about some particul arly rich source of their insect food or it cou ld hav e b ee n the bats which had ju s t left some c ave in the imme diate vicinity. I think that the habits of the loca l bats would d e termine whether Page 59 or not yo u could u se the m a s a sig n of caves. For ins tance in New Engl a nd the bats ar e not in caves at all during the summer, except o n rare occasio ns, so that they would b e o f no use at all. In many areas though, they do use caves as summe r retr ea ts a nd com e o u t eac h eve nin g and r eturn in the early m o rnin g. The ba ts at Carlsbad are of course the classi c exampl e of b a t s as a g uid e to caves. Just wh e r e Virginia falls in this r ega rd I do not know, but I s usp ect that the situation is m ore lik e that in New E ngland. Of course the bats which yo u have found in caves in summer mus t co m e out every ni ght, but they probabl y scatter quickl y. In s h ort, I doubt if a lot of bats, unl ess definitel y see n coming fr o m one spo t in early eve ning, c an be tak e n as very goo d s i gns of a cave If the place where yo u saw them was not n ca r a water co u rse or other goo d insect t e rritory and if no signs of a summer colony could be found, then I would begin looking f o r a cave. The way to look for summer co l onies in m y ex p erie n ce is to in s pect all o ld buildin gs for dirty s m ea r s f ro m bat droppings on the walls and t o liste n o n a h o t summer da y for the b a t s squeaking--esp ec i ally in the a ttic or under the eaves. W a r work I S keeping m e quite far from c aves or bats just now but I certainly am glad to hear from yo u and r ea d the BULLETI a nd get such reports of bats in caves as w ere contained in your l etter. Members of the N.S.S. could be very helpful t o biologi sts inte rest e d in bats if they k ept notes and records of their visits to caves, noting wh e n they did and w h en they did not see bats and if possibl e the species. Such n otes mi ght b e s impl y k ep t on file b y tl1e f auna committee, a nd som e of the m would ce rtainl y b e very h e lpful to stud ents o f b a t s at so m e l a ter date when many s uch observations had accumulated The mov e ments of bats in and out of caves are not at all understoo d as ye t and such r ecor ds might w ell h e lp cle a r up so m e of the m ys teri es. D o nald R. Griffin Phenomenon of Blowing" Cav e (The followin g exc h ange of l e tters con stitutes a n 111teresting exp lan ation of tl1e curio u s phenomenon o f blow-ing," noted for centuries in connection \vith caves .) William McGill from R a lph W. Stone A fri end in milit a r y service in England writes: "One of m y colleagues, an elderly prof esso r of e ngineer in g at one of the English univ e rsities, m e ntion e d at supper the other evening the curious ph e nom e non of the Blowing Cave describ e d b y Jefferson in his notes on Virginia. I cou ld offer no exp l anation but suggested that he have the passage copied and I promised to pass it a long to y ou

PAGE 62

Page 60 If it is not too much trouble, I am sure w e both s h o uld lik e to h ear your ex planati o n ." The q uotati o n i s as follows, f rom The Life and Selected Letters of Thomas J efferson (Ed. by A. Ko c h a nd \ V. P e d e n):'" "At the Panther Gap, in the ridg e which divides the waters of Crow (Cow?) and Calf pasture, i s what i s called B l ow in g Cave. It i s in the s ide of a hill i s o f about 100 f eet diam e t er, a nd emits co n s t a ntl y a current of air of s u c h forc e as to keep the weeds prostrat e to the distance o f 20 yards befor e it. This current i s stro n gest in dry, frosty weather, and in l o n g s p ells of rain weakest. Regu l a r in s pirati ons and ex pirations o f air, b y cave rns and fis s ures, h ave been probabl y enough accounted for by sup posing them combine d with intermitting fountains, as they must of co ur se inhale air while the i r r ese rvoir s are emptyi n g the m selves, a nd again emit it whil e they a r e filling. But a cons t ant issu e of air only varying in its force as the weather i s drier o r dampe r will r equire a n ew h y pothesis. The r e i s another bl owing cave in the Cumberland M ounta in, about a mil e from where it crosses the Carolina line. AlI we know of this is tha t it is not co n sta nt, and that a fountain o f water iss ues from it." The Speleological Society BULLETIN No. I June, 1940, p 41, has t hi s: "Bl owi n g Cave. This c av e is l oca t e d on the hi ghway running b etwee n Goshen and Warm Springs Va. The entra nce to the c av e i s about 50 f ee t off the highway a b out o n ehaH mil e west o f Millboro Springs Bath county, Va. The present entra n ce of the cave is in the fac e of a quarry which was used by the state f or l oca l road build ing but which i s n ow abandoned. The cave is o f interest primaril y b eca u se of the fact that prior to the establish m ent of t h e quarry the c a ve was entere d thro u g h a very s mall entrance in a smaIl cliff besid e the road through whi c h entrance air would blow with considerab l e forc e It i s from thi s phe n o m e n o n that the cave obtained its n a me. The m outh of the cave used to b e a regu l a r stop ping point f or the o ld s t age coac hes where the women folk wer e amazed b y the abi lit y of the air drafts to susp end their handke r c hi efs in mid-air. The quarrying o p e ration s have n ow so e nl arged the entrance that this bl ow in g phe nomen o n is n o l o n ge r n o tic e ab l y present. This c av e i s further clcsc:rih e d in National Speleologica l Soc iety BULLETIN No.3, pp. 10-11. Its p assage i s s mall except for a r oom 50 b y 150 feet far ba ck. No m e ntion made of the drau ght of air. I think t h e cave m e nti o n ed b y J effe rson i s not the one e xplored b y J ohn P e trie et aI. and described in the Society B ULLETIN. One i s in a hiIl s id e at a g ap in a rid ge that separates two st reams, the r efore, possibl y at the h e ad waters. The othe r i s only a few feet above "a goo d s i ze d cree k," also spo k e n of as "the broad Cow Pastur e Riv er." One i s said to h av e an o p e nin g 100 f ee t in diam ete r and the oth e r is mostly s m aIl passages or craw l ways To m e a constant air c urrent fr o m a h o l e 100 f ee t in diam ete r and stro n g e n o u g h to keep w eeds prostrate at a BIIt see footnote, p. 51, refer e nce! B ULLETI N NUMBER EIGHT distance of 20 ya rd s see m s improba ble. I wonder if Thomas J effe rson was "taken in" b y som e t elle r of tall tales. Blo w ing Cave in Bath county was 70 miles fro m hi s h o m e and across the m ounta ins. H e may not ha ve vis it ed It. Furthe rm o re, un de r som e geo logi c conditions, air would R ow into a cave in dry, frost y weather and in wet weather it wou ld R ow out s t ro n gest. Can yo u ex plain the c uri ous phe n o m e non to t h e s atisfact i o n o f a professor of e n g in ee rin g? McGill to SI one The Blowin g Cave which I know, and which I visited o n ce, a b out eight o r 10 years ago, i s in a s maIl anticlinal hill o n t h e north s id e of Cow pastur e Riv er, in Helde rb erg lim estolle, ab out thre e -f ourths to one mile west o f Mill boro Springs. I hav e pa sse d b y the cave severa l times in the past six t o seve n years but hav e not furthe r inv est i gate d it. This i s the cave ex pl o r e d b y Petri e and hi s party and described in two bull e tins of the Speleo logi ca l Society. These descriptions diff er co n side rabl y from the accounts o f J effe rson, Harlan, Walton, and M oo rman whi c h I hav e read, but I am inclin e d to beli eve that t h e cave de scr ib e d b y P e tri e et a ls. is the sam e a s J efferso n s "Blow ing Cave. The cave I know i s l ocate d in the second (wes t erly) narrow s trip of Helde rb e r g, west o f Millboro Springs, c rossin g o r north o f the Goshen-Millboro Springs-Warm Springs highway, s h ow n o n the Geologic m a p o f the Ap palachian Valley in Virginia (Butts, 1933). Cow pastur e Riv e r R ows in a n e arl y eas t erly direct i o n about o ppo s it e (south) of the entrance to Blowing Cave Stuart Run a southward Rowin g tributary to the Cowpasture discharges i nto that riv e r a s h ort di s tance from Cowpastll r e This m ay be "the good-sized cree k yo u refer to. H owe sta t ed that "the m outh of the c av e was r epo rt ed to b e about 20 to 30 feet above the road, semi -ci r c ular in s hape, and about fou r fee t hi g h." The Old Stage road has l o n g s inc e disapp e ared the l oca l road ha s b ee n r e l oca t e d twi ce in m y m emory and a quarry was ope n e d in the sout h fac e o f the hill durin g the l ast rel oca ti o n to obtain sto n e for the hi g hw ay. Thus a part of the hill the o ld entra n ce to the cave itself, and former roadbeds hav e been r e mov e d or d est r oye d Now the r e i s a r oa d s id e p a rkin g area o n the n orth ( f or m e r hill s l ope) s id e of the road between it and the (present) entrance to the ca ve. r would estimate that the s ur face of the highway, the parkin g s pa ce and the R oor of the entrance, are n o w a bout 15 feet above the water level of Cow pasture Riv er and that the present entrance to the cave is about 150 to 1 6 0 f eet n orth of th e riv e r

PAGE 63

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY M y r ecollect i o n i s that the c ave, o r as muc h o f it as saw consi ste d m a inl y o f a n arro w cor rid o r ab out f o ur to fiv e fee t wide, sev e n to II feet hi g h a nd 100 to 1 2 5 f ee t l o n g tre ndin g n o rthward fr o m the entra nce, w ith a s m all s prin g occ up y in g a small s hall o w basin-lik e d ep ressi o n at the rear o f the s in g l e passa ge. I d o n o t now r ecall wh ether wat e r the s prin g flowe d al o n g a nd out o f the pas sage (entra nce) o r n ot, but I d o r e m embe r that Hig hw ay D e pa rtment w o rk e r s told m e tha t durin g the las t reloca ti o n o f the r o ad they obtaine d drinkin g wat e r from a s prin g in the rear o f t h e cave I h a v e n o t f ound an y e xplan atio n o f t h e Blowin g phe nom e n o n in an y thin g tha t I hav e read o n Blo w in g Cav e o r oth e r caves, a nd I am unabl e to offe r o n e rilys elf It is m y unde r s tandin g or recollect i o n tha t t h e m ove m ent o f a ir i s influ e n ce d or controll e d b y variati o n s in atmo sph e ric pressure, d e n s it y tempe r ature a nd m o i sture conte nt, but I am n o t as well v e r se d in m e t eo rology as I o n ce tho u ght I was P e tri e et a l s hav e d esc rib e d silt a nd mudcove r e d pa s s a ge s and "a n unde r g r o und l a k e 13 feet d ee p in o n e lar ge room ." P e rhap s durin g Mr. J effe rson 's tim e a nd lat e r all o r p arts o f the p assages o r roo m s d esc rib e d b y P etrie e t a ls. w ere (seaso n ally o r p e riodi cally a t l eas t ) fille d w ith w ate r a nd p e rh a p s the s prin g a t the rear of the orig in a l single passage (100 f eet l o n g inst e ad of in diam e t e r ) ;v a s f e d b y som e sy ph o nin g o r o v erflo w acti o n fr o m the w a t er-fille d chambe rs. W o uld n o t s uch c o n diti o n s influ e nc e o r affect the m ove m ent of a i r out of o r int o the orig inal entrance corrid o r and p e rh a p s cau se the Blo win g o r "Whis tling" phe n o m e n o n a t the entra nce? I unde r s t a nd tha t the "Blo win g phe n o m e n o n i s scarcel y p e rcepti bl e to d ay I s t hi s du e t o a lt e r a tion o f the ori g in al (s ize, s h a pe, e tc. of the) entra n ce as to draina ge o f w a t e r from the n ewly (? ) discove r e d pa ssages o f P e tri e e t al s., o r to othe r causes? rNotes by McGilll Blowil1f!. C ave B ath County M ease James (17711 8 46). A A ccount of t h e Unite d S ta tes ... Philad e lphia. Bir c h and S mall 4 96 pp. 1 8 07 J effe rson Tho mas (1743-1826). N o tes o n the S t ate o f Virg-inia ," 1 s t e d. 178 4 -85 ; 2 nd cd. 1 79 4 ; 3r d e d 1 825 ( 344 pp ) See bel ow. The W r itin gs o f Tho mas J effe rson W a s hin gto n The Tho mas J effe rson M e m o rial Associatio n e d o f 2 0 vo ls. b ound into 10 v o! s., 1 9 0 5; Vol. 2 pp H a rlan Ric hard (1796-1843: M D .) ''Tour to t h e C aves of Virg inia": M o nthl y Amer. J o ur. Geol.. V o l t pp 5 8 6 7 1 8 31. Page 6 1 Hinton, J. H. ( 1 79 1 1 873), "The History a nd T o p ography o f the Unite d S t a t es," L ondo n J D o wn i n g, 3rd e d vo ls. I and 2, Geol. m a p o f the Unite d S t a tes, Vol. 2, p. 44 1 8 42; Bost o n Samuel Walke r 2 nd e d 2 vols, 1 9 45. H o w e H enry, "Histor ical Collecti o n s o f V irgini a Charle s to n S. C Babcoc k & Co., 544 pp., 1 9 4 5 (pp. 1 8 5 -86) W a l to n Geor ge ( : M. D.), "The Minera l S p r ings o f the Unite d Sta tes a nd Can a d a . ", N e w Yor k D Ap pl eto n a nd Co.; 2nd e d. 414 pp., 1 87 4 p 323. "On the road fro m Millb oro to t h e spri n gs ( W a rm Spring s ) the B LOWing C ave i s p asse d I t was thus d esc rib e d b y Tho ma s J efferso n : 'It i s in the s i de of a h ill, i s o f a b out 100 feet in dia m e t e r and emits c o ns ta ntl y a c u rrent o f air of suc h f o r ce as t o keep t h e w ee d s p rostra t e to the dis t r a nce o f 2 0 y ard s b efore i t. This c u r r ent i s stro n ges t in dry, fro s t y w eathe r a nd i n l o n g s p ells o f r ain, weakest .' At the tim e I passed (Aug ust 1 871) the o utward cur r ent was e x cee din g l y s tron g a nd of a coldness to r e nd e r o n e c hill y if h e r e m a i ns in it f o r a n y tim e." Howe, H enry, "His tori cal C ollect i ons of Virg inia ," Charlesto n S. C, Bab coc k & Co. 54 4 pp., 1 945. pp. 1 8 5I 86--"One m i l e west of the little village o f Mill b o r o Sp ring, and 1 2 miles eas t o f Warm S prin gs, o n the ro ad b e t wee n the two places, in a hi g h l e d ge o n th e banks o f Cowpasture River, i s the cel e brat e d b lowing cave, describ e d in J e ff e rson s N o tes. The m outh o f the c a ve is 20 o r 30 feet a b ove the road in s h a p e se mi-circular and in h e i ght a b out f o ur feet. It ha s bee n exp l o r e d for a consid e r a bl e dis tan ce It i s said that a s m all d og who en t e r e d f ound hi s way out throu g h som e unknown p assag e s Whe n the inte rn a l a nd ex t e rn a l atmosph e r e are the s ame. the r e i s n o p e rcep t ibl e curr ent issu i n g fr om it. In inte nsel y h o t weathe r the a i r comes out w ith so muc h f orce as t o prostrate the weed s a t the entra nce. In a warm day in June, in 1 8 43 as Dr. J ohn B rock e nbrou g h the prin c ipal propri e to r o f the Warm Sp rin g s was passin g in his car riage, h e sent a littl e c hild to t h e m outh o f the c ave, who l e t go b efore it a h andke r c h ief, whi c h was bl own b y the curr ent ove r the h o r ses' h eads in the roa d a di s tanc e of 30 or 40 f ee t. In inte ns e cold weather the a ir draws in The r e i s a flow in g and ebbi n g s p ring o n the sam e stream with the bl o win g cave, w hich s upplies wat e r-p owe r for a gris t mill a dis till e r y, a nd a ta n -ya rd It flows irr eg ularl y. Whe n it comme n ces the wat e r bursts out in a b o d y a s if let l oose f ro m a d a m Moorm a n, J ohn J ( 1 8 0 2-188 5), "The V ir g inia Sprin gs ... Richmo nd 1 s t e d 1 8 3 9; 2 nd e d 319 pp. 1 8 55 Dr. Moo rm a n f o r m a n y yea r s resid ent phys i c i a n a t White Sulphur S prin gs ( now in West V ir g inia), d evo tes most of t h e text to the m edic inal prop e rties o f the s prin gs. H e names a g reat m a n y s p r in gs a nd compiles man y kno wn fac t s a b out the m especiall y o f a c h e mic a l natu re The s p r in gs treat ed in til e t ex t i nclud e S alt Sulphur, Red Sulphur, Blu e Sulphur, Sweet B ath Alum, B e rkel ey's C a p o n Hug u e n o t H o t Warm, Healin g R e d S wee t J o r d a n 's \ hite Sulphur Orrick's Sulphur All eghany New L o nd o n Dibbrill's, Rawl ey 's, Fauqui er White Sulphur, Rockbrid ge Al u m Sh anno nd a le, Grayso n Sulphur a nd Pula s ki Alum.

PAGE 64

P age 62 Various na tural curiosltles mention e d are Weyer's Cave Madison 's Cave, Blowing Cave, Natural Bridge, Peaks of Otte r H a wk s Nest, Ice Mountain, Candy' s Castle, Tea T able, Hanging Rocks Salt Pond, and Old Point Com fort. VSL, USGS, LC Hinton, J. H. (1791-1873), "The History and Topography of the United States of North America," Boston, Samuel Walker, printer, 2nd. 2 vols., 1945. In Volume II the author has brief notes on Virginia, as the Natural Bridge, region around Harpers Ferry, Weirs (now Grand), Madison, and Blowing caves and other points of unusual scenery. USGS, LC Stone to S j Sgt. Philip S. Brown Inquiry of the president of the National Speleological Society and of the assistant state geologist of Virginia, both residents of Virginia and familiar with Blowing Cave, resulted in questions, not explanation of the phenomenon So today I asked the U. S. Weather Bureau at Harrisburg Airport, and was told to consider the Washington Monument. You know that masonry shaft 550 feet high with a door at the base and small windows near the top. Remem ber the thick walls and how cool it is inside? Well, de scribe it to your colleague the elderly professor of en gineering Warm air rises, cold air settles. Mr. Rock, of the Weather Bureau, says that on a hot day with outside air rising, the cool air inside the monument settles and comes out the door at the base. The temperature differen tial makes a current. He believes that on a cold day with outside t e mperature lower tha n that inside the monument the current would be reversed and blowout of the windows at the top So on a warm day in Virginia, rising air curr e nts would cause the cool air in a cave to pour out. Likewise, on a frosty day the temperature would be 30 lower than the cave temperature of 56 to 60 F., so the warmer air in the cav e would t end to escape and be replaced by cold air entering the main opening. Henry Howe, in his Historical Collections of Virginia, Charleston, S. C, 1845, page 186, says of this c a ve, "In intense cold weather the air draws in." It is a common e xperience on approaching a coal mme drift on a warm day to feel cool air blowing out, and on entering the drift to find warm air moving in over the cold outgoing air Long rainy spells would tend to r e duc e th e temp e rature differential and w e aken the air currents. So, Thomas Jefferson seems to be right on that point, but wrong about the air current being "strongest in dry, frosty weather if he meant blowing out from the cave. 1:1 U L LET 1 N N U 1.1 B E J{ E 1 G H T Also we ar e skeptical about the weeds b e ing kept prostrate for 20 y ards by the current of air coming from the cave. It has been proposed that in a period of heavy precipita tion or flood, a cave or the lower passages in a cave might b e filled with water, thus forcing the air out; and when the water r e c e ded, air would rush in J effe rson spoke of intermitting fountains, or syphoning, as the cause of regu lar inspir a tion and expiration. In the former case it is doubtful if there would b e a noticeable current of air, and in the latter case, the air current would be intermittent. Blowing Cave on Cow pasture River is one mile west of the village of Millboro Spring, in Bath county, Va. Quarrying has removed the original mouth and the opening now exposed in the quarry face is about four by six feet Wm. H. McGill, assistant state geologist of Virginia, writes that he visited the cave several years ago, and traversed a narrow passage four to five feet wide seven to II feet high, and 100 to 125 feet long. Other explor ers hav e penetrated farther and found a room 50 by 150 feet with a "lake" 13 feet deep and evidence tha t m wet seasons water probably fills the lower passages. McGill has not been in the cave recently but under stands that the blowing phenomenon is scarcely perceptible today. This may be because those reporting the observa tion were at the cave when the temperature differential was least, or because part of the cave has been quarried away. P e rhaps under favorable atmospheric conditions, Blowing Cave could even now blow a child's handkerchief "ove r the horses' heads in the road a distance of 30 or 40 fee t," as reported by Henry Howe in 1845 W. /. Stephenson to Stone I now have some positive ide a s backed, I by many observations in field and in literature references on Blowing Cave These caves (blowing) are not un common I believe they are all caused by two entrances at different levels In all, or at least most instances the process should be r eversed in winter and summer. Note these facts : 1. Blow Hole, W Va., known to have two entrances on different levels. In summer the draft from the cave blows violently the foliage over 10 feet from its mouth. In winte r dry leaves are sucked into its mouth and spread over the floor 100 feet or more into the first chamber. 2. Blowing Cave, Va., still blows, but the in crease in the size of the entrance makes it not so noticeable now. At the K ey hole, 300 feet or so in the cave, it is somtimes nearly impossible to retain a lighted candle either summer or winter In winter, cold air taken in chills the cave as far as the big room nearly 400 feet in. A second

PAGE 65

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOC I ETY entrance to Blowing Cave ha s not yet been discov e r e d but it must ex i st. (The r e i s a rumor that daylight was once visibl e from the ceilin g of the big r oom.) It may b e that the highe r entrance i s m erely a numbe r of small c r e vice s l eadinO' to the s urfa ce 3. S c hoolhouse Cave shows this ::> blowing within the cave in winter only. Air c urr ents in the uppe r passage will blowout candles in winte r at the entra n ce. A t empe r ature of 32 has b ee n observed at a drop more than 800 f ee t from the entrance, in J a nuar y In summer, coo l air in the cave do e s not ris e out of the entrance so the r e i s practically n o c irculati on in the cave whe n the outside air t emperature is above 58 4 At Rumbling Bald Mountain Caves (see B ULLETIN 2, p. 19), N. C. (a mas s of s plit g r anite rock), this blowing is illu s t;'at e d in a s mall cave calle d "the Refri ge rator, with e n tran ces about 30 f ee t v e rticall y apart, and the pa ssagew a y of the cave about two to three f ee t in diam e t er. Intensity of blowing d e p e nds upon many factors, such as ( I ) diff e r e nc e of e levati on of opening; (2) diff e rence in temperature o f c av e and outside air; (3) s i ze of cave and shape of p assages, e tc The to m y mind, I S pra ctically the sol e cause of c av e blowing. The fillin g o f a cave w ith w ater a n d thus displacing the air while possibl e as a c au se, i s highly improbab l e a nd s h o uld b e i g nor e d unless prov ed. Such a blowin g, if it shou l d exis t w o uld be ind e pend ent of s eason and would d e p e nd up o n r a inf all and drou ght. N o such relationship o f wate r co ndition to o utside rai nf all has yet b ee n establi s h e d at Blowing Cave, Va. Blowing shou ld n o t b e co nfused with "breathing." Breathing i s d e p e nd ent upon many m o r e comp l ex factors, appar e ntl y, than blowing and n ee d s much stud y. It i s a f airly w idel y obs erve d pheno m e non and has b ee n reported at M ammoth Cave b y Marte l and Eigmann Saltp e ter Cave No.3, Burnsville, Va., i s the m ost cla ssic" e xample yet to com e to the attention o f the Soc i e t y. Faust of the Richmond Grotto has. writte n a s hort pap e r o n breathing in this cave. W e plan more work a nd inve stiga tion h ere. I believ e that w e can not yet d e finitely prov e that breath in g i s m e r e l y an attempt at adju stment of the barom e tric pressure of a cav e to tha t of the ex t e rior atm osphere.] Longhorn Cave rn State park of T exas, contains the largest g raphite d e po sits in the world, The American E x press reports. In the eight miles that ha ve be e n ex plored five giant rooms a r e perf ectly form e d b y trans parent crys tal s Othe r b ea utiful f eatures are the p e trified clouds of billow y co l ors and the waterf alls of solid stone. The time approac hes for hous e cleanin g as it ha s eve r y sp rin g s in ce the wif e l ooked around the cave and asked: "Don' t yo u think tha t rock would l ook bette r o ver h e r e?" -Chicago News Page 63 Cave Vast Room in T e n n essee Cave Some m onths ago Dr. Kirb y-S m :th, Dr. McCrady, and ex plor e d H iggenboth am Cave which i s m e nti o n e d in Bail ey's b ook on Tennessee Caves. H ere we f ound a r oo m the m easlll'emenrs of whic h are a littl e over 1 ,800 feet lon g, average of over I (){) feet wide! The room see ms to b e practicall y stra ight, so that I believe yo u co uld see from one e nd to the othe r if yo u co uld see that far. The cei lin g, which is about 10 feet high, is perfectl y Aat from w all to w all and e nd to e nd a nd of uniform h eight, and the Aoor i s a lm ost p erfectly Aat except f o r a few banks o f clay This m a kes it a very interesting as well as a ver y l arge roo m. This room is only a s mall part of thi s cave there being another t er r ific roo m parallel to and conside rabl y h ig h er than th e first, a nd mallY l arge passages som e of w hi ch we arc certa in have n ever been entered. H arvey M. T e mpleton J r., Win c h ester T enn. ( 1 2 / 3 1 /44) C:lVes of Flori da A number of caves i n t h e state of Florida hav e been di sco v ere d and brou g h t to the attentio n of p e rson s inter este d in a dditi o n to the Florida Cave rns in t h e State P a rk a rea near Marianna. Three oth e r ar e a s arc kn own in the state w h e re caves e xist a nd the r e ar c Illan y oth e r suspected l ocations due to to th e lar ge numbe r of sinkholes in differ ent sections. Pro b a bl y the m ost pro lifi c a rea is in the vicinit y of L ecanto, west o f In ve rness. The writer has p erso nall y investigate d three c aves and has been inf o rm e d b y the residents of the ar ea that 10 to 1 2 other caves are know n A t hird a r ea i s in til e vicinity of High Springs on prop erty n ear Camp O'Le na o f t h e Flo rida F ores t and Park Servic e William F. J aco bs, Assi stant State F o rest e r of Flo rida r e p o rted the ex i ste n ce o f caves h ere to the w rit er. A cav e in a f ourth area near Gains ville know n as War r e n 's Cave has b ee n reported b y a number o f p ersons. The writ e r whil e n e ver having b ee n in thi s parti c ular cave has talk ed with several p erso n s who ha ve. Any p e r so n who ca n pr ovide information of any other caves at a n y other location or ca n give m o r e d e tail e d in formation concerl1lng an y kn ow n cave in the state of Flo rid a i s r e g uest ed to d o so. Burt o n F aust contlIl u e t o find n ew cave rn s in this area. R ece ntl y, ex plored a hill with a c a vedin d o m e ( which u se d to h o use a still in the pr o hibiti o n a rea). The ceiling had falle n through with a yo un g tree o n top above g round ;

PAGE 66

Page 64 It now grows right through the open roof, a nd i s about 14 in ches i n diameter. A convenient wild grapevine from this tre e makes a handy "rope" for descent-and there is no other way in There are smaller caves about the hill. I found two buzzard eggs ( black vulture?) unde r a l e dge in one. R ecently accompanied by Mr. Novak, a geo l ogist for o ne of the severa l oil companies investigating Florida we visited severa l caves. All were in Ocala l i m esto ne. Sev era l wit h fine formations. None seemed to ha ve bee n visited i n recent years. Some were "well" entra nc es; others narrow s lit inclines. A few had fairly larg e rooms Two hav e water areas. In the dim light of one we were startled by what seemed to be.; a b i g black snake, but which exam in ation s h owed to be a dark root. In a depressio n along the wall we dis ce rned the thighs of a body appare ntl y stu ffed into the pla ce, lik e a mummy, which on clos e r scrutin y b ecame thick wet tap roots of a big tre e grow in g n e ar the cente r of the domed roof. Other roots were f ound d ee p unde r f l oor openings. Off in the distance there appeared over a water area, the ridg e of a jagged mountain range. We wanted to cx plor e further, but no onc knew our where abouts W c plan to se e its ex tend e d m ys teries o n anoth e r trip. There must be miles and miles of cavcrns in this regI on. The extcnsive Ocala beds are unde rmin e d with t h em Andrew R. J anson, S up t. of Caverns State Park, Marianna, F la. (5/ 3 / 44) (Janson s upplies thi s bri ef note about hims e lf: As an artist formerl y with the America n Museum of Natural History and l istcd ;n W h o's Who in American A r t, I offer m y scrv i ces as art ed itor of the BULLETI N a n d con sultant for display, exhibit, presentation, etc., of spe leo logi c a l materia l havin g served w ith sci e ntifi c institution s at various times for m o r e t h a n 25 yea rs. If yo u w e r e at the N Y \Norld' s Fair yo u saw m y work for states of New York, ew J crsey, North Carolina, P e nns y l vania ; F e dera l and Industrial cxhibits of oil mines, copper, etc., f rom mi c r o copic d etails to l arge mura ls. I am starting a series of paintings that t h e outsid e wor l d may sce the g l orics of our amazingl y beauti fu l subtcr ran e an vistas.) Not e on Porcupine (Ice) C3ve About 1 38 mi les sou t h wcst of Den vcr ( Route Col. 285) throu g h Fairplay and into the So u th Park prairie co un try (no mountains over 4-5 000 feet) lics Porcupin e Cave, known both to Hayden (SUl-vey, 1872) and Ban c roft as B U L L E T INN U BElt E I G H T I ce Cave, from the fair abundance of gypsum incrusta ti ons o n the wa lls and ce ilings of a few rooms. A dry, dead cave s itu ated approximately one-third mile up the s id e of a rugged hill from an o ld arroyo, Porcupine Cave once asp ir e d to comme rci alism The first 40 f ee t h ave be e n somewhat excava ted and s h o r e d, and inside the cave at two l evels a r e ladders of a n c ient v inta ge. No one 'round about ha s knowledge of the entrepreneurs, but it is rumored that they thought go ld might be mined from the cave. It is a Withero in miniature, la cking an y formations o r rea l l abyrinthine passageways; however all main and sid e passages wo uld perhaps tota l one-fo ur t h mile in extent. Two l evels are present, fill e d with brokcn lim estone blocks. In a small, calc in ed dep r ession in the cei lin g of one room were found a gro up of perf cctly transparent rectangular crysta l s of gypsum, p l anc formation. To the writ e r t h ese were a new format i on. Don Bloch, Denve r Col. (9/ 23 /45) Devil's Den Not So Big Just got a r eport on a cave up in New Hampshire that had bee n previousl y r eported to me and it seems that i t n eeds some ex ploring so metime. In fact, severa l caves. I h ad the m in m y ind ex i n my book but nothing about them, and to add to my prev ious r e p ort of a cave "pro b ab l y the l a rgest in New E n g lan d ," I h ave to shade it down somc. The fina l r eport to date co mes from Hans Sc h eer, Gen. Sec y of the rvr anchester, N. H., Y. M. C. A., to whom m y friend formerly of Pittsfield had appeal e d for a find mg. It's calle d Devil's Den," on the east side of the front pond rcached going t hrough from Manchester to Auburn toward Chester ... "of fair size and at o n e time it held a l adder on which small bo ys could enter at the bottom of the cavc and sq u ecze up through an opening in the roof." In forlllJnt says h e docs not know t h e exac t s i ze of thi s cave "Thcn t h c r e is anoth e r set of smal l cave rn s or passag e wa ys (know n as The Caves [I hav e it 'Sulphur Caves in m y book]) among t h e roc ks o n the south side of the back pond at Lak e Massabcsic. I h ave bcen at thi s par ticu l ar place, and it see m s to b c a mass o f bou ld e r s ( jungl e d ) where bo ys can go i n one way and o u t another. Thi s can be r cac h e d in normal t imes c ith er from the Lake Massabcsic side on t h e road to Londonde rr y, o r from the rvr anc hest er side from the road that l eads o u t of Valley Street. I undcrstand that both of thesc road s are now closed to t h c publi c as a war prccaution.

PAGE 67

NAT ION A L S PEL E 0 LOG I CAL SOC lET Y Page 6 5 As N. H. i s all granite, we cannot ex pect to find anyNote on Castle Rock Cave, Wis. thing but "jungled" rock caves (jumbled must be the Castle Rock Cave is l ocated about 14 mil e s southwest of word) and not any great size 111 this vicinity. As is usual Muscoda, Wis., and ha s n e v e r been full y e xpl o red, but things get exaggerate d. Clay Perry, Pitts field Mass. (1945) Data on Illinois Caves As an ex ampl e of the servi ce frequentl y r e nd ered b y the Society Wrote H A. Friede, ow n er-ma nager of Crystal Cave (s ee pp. 42-44, this issue): "Please send us all the info rmation y ou hav e on: I. Council Cave at Ottawa, Ill. Ref e ren ce No. 26. "2 Devil's Cave n ear Aurora, Ill. Ref e rence No. 26. Both b y Erwin Bisc h off. W e appreciat e the fin e work the So c i e t y is doin g and hav e sent y ou a write up o n Crystal Cave for wh e n e v e r you can u se it to an advantage." A n s wer e d the R ecor ds Committee ( F l orence \ ,vhitley C hairman) : "Cou nci l Cave is l ocated in S tarved Roc k State Park n ear Ottawa. It is a high s hall ow c av e produced b y the o v erhang in g sandstone. I t i s pro babl y not w orthy of b eing calle d a c av e but a s t h e Illin o i s state geo logist has l i ste d it a s a cave w e hav e in c lud e d i t in our r eco rds. \ ,ve hav e no r eco rd of its l ocat i o n wit hin the park or of it s m easure m e n ts. Devil 's Cave I S supposed to b e l ocated in a state park alon g the Fox Riv e r n e ar Aurora. It is not reporte d to ha ve b ee n d e v e l o p e d. Our info rm a tion on thi s cave was furnish e d by Mr. J ohn N feen ehan who i s now overseas with the a rm y It is beli e v e d that thi s ma y b e Council Cave o r Cave in Roc k re p orte d unde r a differ ent name. W e hav e no m o re d e finit e information a s to the l oca tion alth o u g h l ocal inquiry would no d oubt e nable o n e to find it. Burksvill e Cave n e ar Burksvill e i s said to b e threeq u arters of a mil e l o n g ( probabl y 300 to 400 f ee t). It was o p e n e d to the public during t h e St. Loui s \ ,v a rid s Fair and i s also calle d New Des ign and Mammoth Cave. P erh aps y ou would be inte rest e d in thi s o n e Pleas e send u s any additi o na l informati o n whi c h YOll ar e abl e to gathe r on these or othe r c ave s in Illin ois. Data o n an y oth er caves is also w elco m e s lllc e the usefuln ess o f o ur reco rds d e p e nd s greatly upon the ir compl e t e n ess may offe r possibilities of great interest. It i s l ocated o n a high hill in a beautiful sce nic country, d e rivin g its name from the high cliff s surrounding it. People who hav e be e n in the c ave claim it has l arge rooms, also som e o nyx formations, and have see n white bats in it. About one-fourth mil e fr o m the e n t ran ce at the foot of a hill is an icc-co ld stream o f water gushing o u t o f the ground at an enormous s peed. This ma y com e from the c av e This cave has n ever b ee n full y explo re d b eca u se of its small tr e ach e rous opening. Blasting would b e n eces sary to e nlarge the e ntrance Mrs S. H. Gill ette, Musco d a Viis Note on B enny's Cave, Va. This c ave, so name d for the b oy who g uid e d the exp l oring party composed of Sil s b y, Foster H enry a nd Fau s t to the entrance, is l ocate d approximately .4 o f a mi l e abov e the juncture of t h e Cow Pasture Riv er with the nearest hi g hwa y .5 of a mil e south of the entrance to the prop e rt y on whi c h C lark's Cave i s located in Bath county, Virgi nia. This is a craw l hole, l ocate d 50 feet up the face o f the cliff above the road parallel to t h e Cow Pastur e R ive r and 9 0 feet n orth of riv e r bank. The ge n e ral dir ectio n o f the cliff fac e i s 1 25 The entra n ce to the cave is 25 The entrance to the o p e nin g i s ro ugh Iv semi -el liptical wit h the semi maj o r axi s in a verti ca l plane, five to six feet in h e i g h t and three to f our feet in width. Entering the cave the first c rawl is 15 to 20 feet l o ng, with an u pwardlv rising m ound three to four feet hi g h to a point 2 5 feet from t h e entr a n ce. T h e craw l then. o p e ns au[ into a s l o t passage e i g h t to 10 feet hi g h and 1 2 to 1 8 in c hes wid e At the end of 50 feet t h e lead I wcomes too narro w for furthe r progress. Nothin g o f interes t i s contai n e d in this c rawl h ole. The cave is drY, co ntains n o formations and presents evi d e nce o f h a vin g b ee n used as :111 ani m a l den, probably f ox. Burton Fau st ( 1944) Note on Eastville ewe, Pa. Eastville Cave i s l ocated n e ar the southe rn b oundary of Clinton county in Greene tow n ship, on t h e property of Nfr. T. O. ?\/fille r o n e-fourth mile n ortheas t o f a s mall village named Eastville. I t i s o n \ ,v illiam s p ort Quad ran g l e at 41" 2 24" N. bt., 77 13' IS" \ ,v. l o n g The entrance is a s mall trian g ular ope nin g o n the side of a lim esto n e hill JUSt l arge e n o u g h for a p e rson to enter. The re i s a 50 foot descent t o the floo r o f t h e c ave. The

PAGE 68

Page 66 course o f this d escent i s very crooked, with a f e w vertica l pla ces where a rope is n ecessa r y. The Roar is on a l e vel with Big Fishing Creek which R ows a l o n g the ba se of the hill. This strea m sinks during dry weat h e r o n e-eighth mil e east of the cave, and Rows throu<>h an unde r<>round b b channe l a di s t a n ce o f 1 2 miles. It i s durin g these Sllmm e l m onths wh e n the c a ve can b e entere d. At the foot o f the ve rti cal d escent i s a nalTOW windin<> '" c revi ce r a ngin g from tw o to three f ee t wide and IS f ee t hi g h. This pas s a ge ha s a lmost vertica l walls. Following this pa ssage a di s tan ce of 27 f eet one ente r s a l arger o p e n ing 2 0 to IS feet b y 5. A numbe r of c r evices l ea d from thi s room in diff e r ent dir ect i o ns. Some are too s mall for a person to enter. O t h ers l e ad to large o p e nin gs and other c r ev i ces The writ e r ex plor e d six o f these open ings In som e of these the roof ranges from 2 0 t o 30 feet in h e i ght. The farthest p oint r eac h e d was 1 60 feet from th e m O llth of the c ave. This c av e has f ew formation s One room co ntains a few stalacti tes, the l a r gest of which i s a b out 10 in c hes l o n g; in earlier ye ar s the cave was ente r e d quite fr eqlle ntl y, and m ost o f the nice r ones were t a k e n as souve nir s The small s i ze a nd diffi culty of access make thi s cave unattracti ve for comme rci a l purpo ses; h owever, som e c r e v i ces m ay l ea d to the unde r g round c hannel of the mall1 stream w h ich may well r e pa y one's efforts. Ernest H. Geisewite, F o rest R a n gel', Loganton, Pa. ( 1 943) Some Data on Marble Cave, Col. W e d o not hav e any d e tail e d inform a tion 111 this office regardin g Marble Caves. These facts ma y b e o f valu e however. Carl Blaurock, a m embe r of the Colorado M ountain C lub a nd severa l other m embers ex plor e d this cave in 1 92 5 again in 1 93 1 and l ater in m o r e t1eLail in 1 932. On the last date the exp l o rati o n was the result o f seve ral a rticles which appeared in the Rocky l'vl oMntain News, Denve r r ega rdin g this cave, in w hich a n o ld ya rn was m e nti o n e d to the effec t that the cave had been in ves tigated in the Spanish explo rati o n s in t h e eighteenth ce ntury; a lso that it i s supposed to h a v e y i e ld e d a l arge quantity of go ld and other valuabl e min e rals. Mr. Blau rock told m e thi s m o rnin g that this group went down into thi s cave a di s tanc e of 500 f ee t or more v e rtically and 2,500 f ee t h orizontally. It i s of lim esto n e formation and the r e are no signs of an y mine ral. The r e was evide nce of early visitation, includin g names carve d o n rocks but these d ate mostly b ac k a b out 50 ye ar s ago. The party found o l d worn -out and ru ste d s h o v e ls, a s in g le-jack and rope BULLETIN NUMBER E IGHT which f ell to pieces whe n touched So far as Mr. Blaurock 's party could t ell, there is no e vid e n ce in the cave of any visitation of Spanish e xpl o r ers severa l hundre d years I am sending a copy of this l etter, togethe r with your inquiry, to the Supe rvisor of the S a n I s abel National For est at Pue bl o and to Range r Paul Gi lb ert with the r equest that, if either has any additional inf o rmation r egarding thi s cave it b e made ava ilabl e to you. Fre d R. Johnson, Chi ef, Informati on and Education, U S. Forest S e rvi ce, D e nv e r Col o. (10/4/ 44 ) Fulford (Yeoman Park) Cav e From Eagle, Colo., on the D e nv e r & Rio Grande Rail r o ad, a IS-mil e automobile rid e through a w elld eve l oped and prosper o u s stock-ranching country brillg s o n e to the silve r mines at Fulford. Fro m h ere it i s but a two mil e walk to the natural caves n e ar the Yeoman Park Ranger Station o f the U. S. F o rest Service, on the Hol y C r oss Nation a l Forest. The entrance to these c aves I S s mall and gIves but littl e promise of what is III s tore. In side, h owe ver, IS a series of rooms of varying sizes, c m off from e a c h other b y r oc k walls with open in gs so s m all that one ca n barel y squeeze thro ugh, and ex t ending ba c k into the hill s id e f o r unknown hunclr e ds of f eet. H ere and the r e in the cave Roars ar e narrow crevasses d ee p d o wn in which can b e h e ard the ru shing waters o f some unknown stream. About, on eve r y hand, are w o nd e rful s t alactites and s talag mites o f a w e ird b eauty that i s b eyo nd description. The thrill that o n e ca rries aw a y from a visit to these unde r ground pala ces las t s for a l o n g, long time. (Files of U. S For est S erv i ce, "Histo r y o f Holy Cross National Forest ) Fulford, all old mining camp s ilUat e d on Nolan Creek, a tributary of Brush Creek was name d for A. H Fulf o rd who, with A C. Rin g, was the first l oc ator. Other early prosp ec tor s were; B. S. Morgan, A. McLouth, Joe Good John Bauman, and S. N. A c kle y Nolan C r ee k was name d f o r William Nol a n an othe r early se ttl e r who acci d e ntall y shot and kill e d himself the r e in June, 1887. B. S. (Dick) Morga n, locat e d the Adelaid e gro up of mines th e re, whi c h h e n a m ed f o r hi s wife who was Adelaid e Fulf o rd. The sto r y o f the ir fir s t m ee tin g, when Dick r esc u e d Adelaid e from a bear a nd the ir lives t ogethe r throughout the mountains, furni s hes o n e o f the most remarkabl e and t ende r romances of e arl y Colorado hi story Morgan nam e d not only hi s mines for h e r but a lso Adelaide Park and Ade l aide Lake On the lar ge r e gl s t, r

PAGE 69

NATIONAL S PELEOI.OGICAL SOCIETY tab let" in the Fulford Cave, for year s co uld b e see n t h e names "Di ck-Addaide," with the heart symbo l between. This c av e was f ound b y Morg an whil e h e was prosp ect in g the bas e of C raig M ounta in. H e returne d the n ex t da y with Art F ulf o rd and ente r e d and ex plored the c ave. It ha s nev e r b ee n fully explo re d but i s imm e nse in s i ze and w onde rful in con s tructi o n. The "regi s ter i s about three miles from the entra n ce. Othe r l ocally n a m ed wond ers arc t h e Pipe Org an a s teep inclin e w hich re verb e rates mus i c ally whe n a p e bbl e i s dro pp e d d ow n it ; the Cathe dra l ; the Winding Staircase-out of the Cath e dral 100 f ee t up; the Bridal C hamber; the Pullman Car; the Fat r.1an 's P a radise-a 12-14inch pa s sage, 30 fee t in l e ngth ; and the Man and the B e ar where tw o o bject s r ese mbl e a b e ar r eclining and a man sitting. The re i s a lso a p as s age wh e re it i s ne cessa r y to follow a running s tream. Who Were [h e Four"? \ V h i l e the sw irlin g sto rm o f Sunday night raaed over h e ad four m e n battled wind pe bbles and in the \Vyandotte Cave, n c ar E n g l ish Ind. "The four three g uides and a frie nd w e re sitting i n Jvfonum ent Hall o n the s h o rt route They wer e bear in g c andl es. A whirring sounde d afar g re w in volum e and the n whipped IIlto the cave rn chambe r dou s in g candl e lights and w lmkll1g t h e m e n from the ir f eet. They struggl e d to galll a wall, a ssaile d b y stin g in g sand a nd tin y sto n e fra g m e nts. A ga in and again they wer e buff e t e d fr eque ntl y thrown to the R oor. The n the gale re a c h e d it s climax to die awa y as s wiftl y as it h ad arisen "One of the g uides had experie nced a s imilar storm 20 yea r s ago. It was h e who led the party outside. I t i s re p o rred that they w e r e s urprised to find trees and h o uses standing when they e m e r ge d. "Vet e ran guides expresse d the op ini o n that the wind ente re d the ca v e throug h some unknow n pa ssage I ndianapolis Star ( 3 /11/ 23) N e w Penn sy l v:lni ; l Cav e N o [ed On m y las t week-end h o m e I w ent up to near-b y I s land Ford Cave, in Alleghany county M y brothe r o n ce ex p l o re d part of thi s c a ve a nd w hat h e to ld m e of it ha s made m e c uri o u s for som e tim e to go in. W ell, h ere's the d ope o n s aid cave whi c h I d o n t think y ou hav e n oted. T o r eac h this cave, o n e l eaves Clifton F o r ge o n Rt. 6 0 and trav e l s w est about seve n and on ehalf miles until r eac hin g w hat i s c alled I s land F or d Bridge. This i s a large s t ee l span over w hi c h the r oad passes. The car s must b e park e d along the roadside at any availab l e place. The n o n e pro cee d s downs tream o n the n o rrh side of the river for about three-quarter mil e ( thi s i s the unpleasant part of the trip ) The cave entrance i s lar ge, about 30 feet in diame ter, but thi s funnels d o wn inside. I 'age 67 --------Thne ar c sev e ral l evels, with a s mall stream un t h e l o west o n e B ec ause o f lac k of time w e ju st followe d the stream c hannel for a goo d way, maybe 300 feet and t h e re was ever y indication t h : Jt it went ba c k muc h f ur t h er. A s br a s the uppe r levels go, we ar e s ur e o f o n e lar ge o n e so I f eel sure that o n e could map 1 000 feet of passage s without trouble. A s far as fauna, m y inte rest, goes, we saw n o bats o r the u s ual c r o wd of cric k e t s and s pid e r s ( probab l y would h ave on the upper level ) ; but in t h e strea m w e go t a ve r y b ig c r ayfis h w hich I am sendin g to the National M u seum -and a c re w of c av e salam a nd e r s Of t h ese l atter we s aw about 20 an d got 10. I t hink t h ere are tw o s pecies in the l o t -the r eal C a v e Salamander, a nd the l ong-taile d sal a m a nd er. I am sendin g two to F ow l er. \ Ve saw n o archeologi c a l o bj ects bllt quite a f ew lar ge b o nes and bone fragm ents, and q u ite a few formations but non e lar ge. The sides of t h e s tr e am c h annel h ave qui te a "scallo p e d e ffect as if lar ge Rakes were chipped off. Richard L. H offman. C h arlo[[Csville, Va ( 1 9 45 ) A Que r y and [h e No[es I n J a mes Snell' s H ist ory of S u ssex and l"lalTen Coun t ies (N. J.) 1 88 1 there is brief m ention of a cave calle d T h e D evil' s H o le, o n l a nd t h e n known a s the Babb it far m ncar the Andove r -Hampton line. At that tim e it see m s to h ave b ec n a s pot of co n siderab l e l ocal n ote alt h o u g h eve n thc n a lm ost inaccessible Can you g i ve m e any info rmati o n a b out this cave? I'd lik e to know t h e n am e a nd address of the O\\'ner of the property, a n d the n am e of anyon e who has exp l o red it and c an g i ve a re asonabl y ac curate d esc ripti o n. P er h aps b y n ow it has been compl e t e l y f o rgotten for I can find n o re f e re n ce to it in an y m o re r ecent w or k and eve n the above-m e n t i o n e d hi sto r y restri c ts itself on l y to the m e re m e nti o n. P v t. T o m Goeller, c / o P ost m aster, San Francisco (8 / 26 (45) The re i s a c av e calle d the Devil' s H o l e on farm n ow owned b y F. J. Fran c i sco and So n s of Andover. W h e n I was ab out 10 year s old I w ent as far in a s anyo n e I kno w of \ Vith five or s i x oth e r s we took a S unda y to get sou ve nir s off the walls and roof. The u s u a l limi t s were rat h e r clo se, but b e in g the s mall est o f the group, tw o of u s wiggl e d thro u g h a s mall c revice into a brge r room and found what we too k to b e a p oo l of water a l t h o u g h our only l ight wa s a p oo r lantern. Fla s hli ghts w ere n o t f o r bo ys to play with 45 yea r s ago. M y recollect i o n o f the room ar c n o n e too goo d but I will :1clmit I was r athe r

PAGE 70

Page 68 worried about the crawl to get back o ut. doubt if very many people remember it n ow; but it was s till ope n enough to get in about five years ago, although I did not try It then. It is about onehal f mile from R ou t e No. 3 1 111 Andover. E. M. See l y Andove r N. J. (9 / 4 / 45) This e nclos e d rep l y to m y lett er just reached me. thou g h t som e of you mi ght be interested. I won't be able to use t h e information for quite aw hil e ... Tom Goeller, Mae bashi J apa n (10/29/45) Newly Exp l o red Branch of Blowing Cave, W. Va. This s urv ey was made September 3 last year 111 an apparently un ex plor e d branch of Blowing Cave. Our parr y of six m e n entered t h e cave at 10 a. m and proce ede d dir ectly to t h e stre am room. Additional equipm ent includin g s h ovels a manock, a short-handle d hoe, an inAatcd inner tube, and a gaso lin e lantern, we re brought in to facilitate trave l over such expected o b stacles as mud and water. A lmost diametrically across the stream room from the main entrance there was a s mall opening entering into a bran c h that from all indications, h ad o nl y bee n exp l ored a s hort distan ce. The first 10 to 12' necessitated "snaking" because of low ceiling and close s ide walls combined with a slanting mud bottom. About 20' in from t h e stream room m o tlth, the r oc k formed across t h e n arrow passag e l ike the c r oss-bar in the l etter H. Immediate l y beyond was a l ow arch w hich togeth er wit h the H formatio n made a difficu l t obstac l e and req uir ed a bit of bone bending to slip through. Some distanc e farther t h e passage opened into a pit of about 15' in d iameter wit h mud at the base formin g a co n ica l h o le. From this po in t o n there were no indication s of an y former ex plorations. The mud was p l e ntiful and bore n o signs of ever havin g be e n dIS turbe d. The re was a second pit about 190' f rom t h e stream room mouth that was very much like the first pit in appearance. T h e passage was narrow and relatively stra i ght to thi s second pit. Near the end of this branch the passage Aare d outwardl y into a room parts of w hi c h h ad l owhanging ceilin gs. The gen e r a l direction of the passage from t h e stream room m o u t h to t h e second pit was about 30 E. of N.; and from t h e second pit to t h e end room, about 50 E. of N. On the southerly side of t hi s e nd room a la rge crack be tween the rock s formed a wide c h im n ey; on the easterly side the r e was a short passage that ended in resemb l ance B u L LET INN U BEll E I G H T of a small chimney; and o n the northerly side there was a s hort pas sage that graduated upward until it was cut off b y the cei lin g. This end r oo m or chambe r m easure d 308' from the stream Mud and clay were plentiful throug hout the l e ngth of this pa ssage. Without t h e digging tools, littl e or n o progress would have b e en made. Each o f the three m e n who expl ore d the n ew passage carrie d o n e of the digging too ls, and eac h man u sed the implements many times in cuning footholds, clearing mud off the sidewalls of nar row passages, l eve lin g the bonoms of narrow passages, and ditching where necessary or h e lp f ul. The digging tools also proved helpful as stabilize r s o n the ve r y slanted walls of the coni ca l mud pits. The gaso lin e lantern was not taken through the n ew branch, but it was unanimo u s l y con s i de re d quite an asset to the cavema n s equipm e n t H. H. Losche ( 1 944) N o tes on Knox Cave 'N. Y. Caverns h ave been m y h ob b y s in ce childhoo d w hen the first pla y h o u se I r emember was in a cave w h ere we boys cooked c hi cke n e tc. and where I learned to burn lim e b y u se of pine knots and forced draftkid ex peri m ents. I have s tudi ed many caves from t h e commercia l a n g l e as w ell as geo logical. This is something that m ay inte rest yo u My w if e a nd I retir ed in 1925. In 1927, b ec ause of work unde r J ohn Cook, on New York unde r ground water survey and my map of H owe Cave, m ade about 1 905, I was empl oyed as gene ral manage r to reope n H owe Caverns. I left that company after 41 weeks beca use I could not approve of p l ans. In 1 933, to do our part in creating n ew job s t h en so badl y n ee d e d, we bought and began d eve l opi n g Knox Cave. In 1 0 yea rs, it paid $ 1 ,000.00 in taxes inst ea d o f consum in g t h em; it provided many thousands of d ays' work. L odge on p r op e rt y has 1 / I 0 mil e track for rolle r skating and i s also us ed for danc ing. It is air condi tioned from t h e caverns. Aver age number of visitor s p e r yea r (ove r 10 years) about 60,000 to the property. Knox Cave has a two-by three-foot "tablet" of c har act e r writing. The Latte r Day Saints say that it is one o f their ancient writings. An ex p ert Egyptol og i s t stlldied t h e writing and in a written opinion, says that b eca us e of rec urrence of c h aracters it must b e a written language alt h o u g h h e cou l d not read it. He copied from it a lllllTIb e r of hi e rati c s ign s to prov e its source. My stlldy of it proves to m e t hat someone abo u t 400 A. D. wrot e with resll1 o n the rock s urfa ce and so protected that part of the rock from soluti on and the result i s the raised c h a r acters.

PAGE 71

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCI ETY In one a n g l e of rock is a fa ce, including ca r and l oop ealTlI1g. It is natural enough to calISe many people to examine it to sec i f i t is artifi cial. In a quarte r circle buri e d in the cla y floor were three pine tor ches with the ir c h arre d ends pointing to t h e f ace. In plac es, the rimstone or flowstone on this clay was two in c hes thick over the torch es. This proves age probabl y b efo r e 1 600 A. D. A human skeleton in the cla y floo r of a narrow pas sage between r ooms is of a man with a l arger bod y than mine. I flav e a rib whi c h proves this and I weigh 270 pounds. H e ev idently stuck and di ed there v ery long ago as in the sam e a rea was found a prehistoric tooth a verte brae with s pin e ridge, and a fr ee bone l ike the wrist or a nkl e b o nes but as l arge a s a baseba ll. At another pla ce i s a rock carving-the I roquois sign for lightning and a story about the lightning. Another p l ace s h ows a group of broke n stalactites that cou ld h av e been brok e n o nly by human agency. N ew growth o n the o l d breaks puts d a t e of breaka ge over 500 years ago. Small bones in and unde r formati on h ave an age fixe d at over 2,00 0 yea rs. Museum at New York says t hat they arc b o nes of t h e littl e brow n bat, and that there i s n o physical c hange in the bat from t h e n t o now T h ese arc t h e thi n gs t hat interest m e m ost All hav e b ee n r epo r ted to the State, some have been sent or carri ed in for e xamination. If a spec im e n i s sent, it may b e damaged or l ost. In all t hi s tim e I h ave not been ab l e to get the State to study the cave or give a quotabl e op inion o n anything. B lin d fish were found in 33, but a l t hough found or re p orted b y n ews p eo ple, the State wou ld not c h ec k reports. These arc the on l y o nes o f w hi ch I know in t hi s State. In 32 I tri ed to give ove r 30,000 feet of the cave to t h e State as a sel f -liquidating work project. It was re f u sed. My idea is t hat State employes can not g i ve a true scientific r easo n o r proof. The few m el! of sc ienc e are inte rest e d in their work and do not k n ow of requests lik e mine. My ambition i s to continu e to crea t e n ew j obs whe n these j o b s arc n eeded. A new factory o r a n ew process di s pla ces oth e r workers; a n ew c av ern develop m ent d ocs n o t compl e t e but on l y increases genera l inter-est. D. C. R o bins o n Altamont, N. Y. (11/ 20 / 44 ) Caves in Florida Next Saturday I p l an o n making a tnp to som e caves about 10 o r 1 5 mile s from h e re t h at, according to the o wn er, have just b ee n dis cove re d afte r a particu l arly h eavy r a in we rece ntl y h ad. T h e e n trance was probab l y covere d w i t h cla y o r mud, then when the rain came a l ong it was h e d Page 69 it out, and ex pos e d the e ntrance. If this is a vlrgll1 cave, w e are lik e l y to find som e very interesting things in it. If i t turns out n otable, I s h all send you a compl ete report on the explorati o n. A few w eeks a go, I went t h ro u g h som e caves n ea r h ere t ha t were very b ea u tiful, ind ee d In o n e of them, there was a w h o l e s id e of a room cove re d by a pure white '.'wa t e rf all" formation, no l ess than 50 feet long and 30 f ee t high. I t was very uni form in its constr ucti o n and that alon e was worth the trip into the caves. W e went as far back as we could and cam e to an underground stream t hat was impossibl e for u s to cross, as we were lacking the right equipment. Soo n I hope to re-visit it and c r oss the strea m b eca u se we cou l d see that t h e passage extended o n an d o n as far as the light wo uld reac h on the other side of the s tream. The roo m s 111 that cave, in h eight, w e re from two feet to at l e ast 60 feet from the floor. On that sam e da y, we vis it ed a noth er c ave known as Stone's Cave. The entra n ce is a h ole about s ix feet across, and you h ave to climb down on a rope h and over h and, about 40 fee t to get inside t h e cave. On the wa y down, I age d about 1 0 years, as I spotte d a four and o n e halffoot diamond-back rattler p e rc h e d o n a s mall ledge about tw o f ee t from me. I ju st let go and slid the rest of the way down. T h e rooms in t his cave were of abo u t the same dimer, s i ons a s the oth er, except they w e re a l ittle low er in h eig h t. After going back into them about one and one h a l f mil e s the passage came to what seemed a deadend. After closer examination, found that t h e re was a pa ssage n e ar t h e ceiling, about 25 f ee t from t h e Aoor. After much p e rspiring we made it, a nd were v e r y much s urpri sed to find that the passage l ed back t h e way we h ad come. In oth e r words it was what you might call a two-story" cave. In o n e of the "ups tair s" rooms we found som e of the mo s t beauti ful a nd od d est cei lin g formations I h ave e v er seen. It i s very h ard to describe them to y ou but they we r e fro m crysta l clear to white a nd red in co l or, and the w h ole cei lin g l ooked l i k e the top of on e of t h ose fuzzy cocoanut pie s They were more o n t h e order of h elictites t ha n e l se, but t h e h abit of growth t h ey followed was complete l y adverse to the norma l h e l ictites. Thev see m to def y all l aws of g r av it y Some of them have ra zo r s h arp edges, w h ile oth ers hav e very sha rp p oints; s h arp e n o u g h to p enetrate a pith sun-he lmet without breaking. H ope yo u 'll b e abl e to see t hi s speleo logical freak i f yo u ever get to F l or ida. C. Sid Morse, Tallahassee Fla ( 4 / 1 2 / 45 )

PAGE 72

P age 70 B lJ L L E T I 1-: N U II E I( E I G H T ----ma u .. Portfolio of PLotograpLs Mecca for Cave:m.en (All photographs courtesy of National P ark S ervice, U. S. D epartment of the I nterior. ) PAGE 1. A s we go to pr ess th e news comes of th e PAGE 3. A l one wo r s hipp e r in t h e T e mpl e of th e Sun, d ea th of J a m es L. Whi te, 63, in a Carl s b a d hospit al, on April Big R oom; a n o th e r angl e o f th e T e mpl e of th e Sun; th e 28 of t hi s year. Known as t h e {ir s t white m a n to expl o r e th L C hin ese P agoda, in th e Bi g R oo m ; and a lu s h g rowth of natura l wond e r whi c h h e ente r e d in 1901, Jim tirel essly pub {Iow s t o n e a nd s t a l agm it e f o rm atio n s in th e Quee n' s Cham ber lici=e d t h e cavernS. The y b ecame a Nati o n a l P a rk in 1 923. H e r e Jim i s s ta ndin g b es id e th e bucket h o ist w hi c h l e t th e {irs t i ntrep id vi s it o r s down t o see th e subte rran ea n world o f th e Ca rl s b a d Caverns P AGE 1:. The Roc k o f A ges, in the Big Room; vast s ta lagmit e w ith s t a l ac tit e dr a pe r y a b o v e it--one o f th e p r inc ip al feat ur es in th e Kin g' s P a l ace; onyx dr a p es at th e PAGE 2. ( L e ft to right) H a n ging drap es in th e e ntr a n ce to t h e H a ll o f th e Giants in th e Big Room; and Quee n 's Cha mb e r ; f estoo n e d jewe l s tala c tit es d e pending from th e C r y s tal Spring D o me; sta l agmitic wonde r s ri se to c hi sele d ce ilin g in part o f th e Big R oo m ; alon g th e f a nta s t:c trail in t h e Big Room b e y ond th e T emple of th e Sun; andby way of co ntrast-part o f the present surface layout, s howin g th e parking a rea and Cavern Entra n ce. v ault in g g r otes qu e ri es in agesf o rm e d s t o n e at t h e entr an ce to the H a ll of th e G i a nts. PAGE 5 F anci ful formations a l ong th e trail n ea r th e e ntran ce to th e H a ll o f th e G i ants

PAGE 78

Page 7 6 f
PAGE 79

N ATIONAL SPELEOLOG ICAL SOC I ETY Washington, it was 'made most pl easant and wond e rful by the coop e ration ho spita lit y and assi s t a nc e of the man a g e r s and owners of se veral b e autiful comme rcial c averns the official s of Virg inia T railways bus lin es, and som e of the membe r s of the N.S, S who n o t onl y mad e a sort of previe w pion ee rin g trip in advanc e of m y ex p e diti o n, but ass ist e d m e in sel ecting the b ette r c av e rn s to visit a nd guiding m e to s om e sp ec ial o nes, in p e r s on. The re is such a o f folklor e to b e c oll ec t e d ab out the c ave s of this country tha t it will prob a bl y nev e r all b e d o ne, any more than all the c aves will b e found and e xplored I think that some tim e s o o n the r e will b e a book o r two pub lish e d that will b e of imme ns e aid and ass istanc e to the Folk l or e Committee and the entire S oc i e ty-but I wis h to implore all m embe r s to b e on the lookout f o r huma n folklor e about the ca ves they visit or h ear about a nd to r eport them to the Folklor e C ommittee in wrltl!1 g or 111 p e r s on. BACKGROUND ON YOAC HUM DOLt.AR l'vle mories o f the da y wh e n the Y o a chum d o llar w a s in cir c ulati o n w e r e r ecalle d r ece ntl y whe n a n o ld log cabin formerly a bunk house of a s awmill cr e w wa s raze d a nd a Y o achum doll a r found buri e d b e ne ath h e ap s o f trash unde r the flo or. The c abin s tood on the banks o f Indian C r ee k a b out three miles fro m N o t c h Ston e county M isso uri E v e n the early se ttl e r s in thi s sectio n canno t r e m embe r wh e n it was built, but it ha s been r e p a ir e d from tim e to tim e and was use d a b out 25 yea r s a go a s a bunkhouse for a sawmill c r ew whi c h w a s workin g i n that vi cinity F o r a numbe r o f years pri o r to the establi shing of t h e sawmill on Indi a n Cree k 'the c abin had b ee n un occ upi e d e x cept f o r an o cc a s i o nal hunte r or h e rd snun wh o tarri e d the r e f o r the night o r a travel e r w h o sou ght It s s h elte r during a winte r bliz z ard o r sprin g d o wnp o ur, Whe r e Did H e G et S i l ve r ? The r e ar e many s tories regard i n g the Y o a chum d o llar. and fr o m the m have ari se n numero u s ta les o f l ost silver mines and buri e d tre a s ures in the O za rk r eg i on. The Y o a chum d olla r really co ntain e d a ce rtain a m o un t o f s ilv e r a l tho u g h thi s a m ount wa s far bel o w the pro p o r t i o n s c arri e d by the r egula r coin o f th e r e alm The m ys t e r y ha s and probabl y alw ays will b e cente r e d a round the silver. N o o n e see ms to know wh e r e Jim Y o a chum obtain e d the m e t a l whi c h h e u se d in th e co ins, :lI1d this has g i ve n birth to the nume r o u s buri e d tr e a s ur e stories. Y o a chum was o n e o f the pi o neer residents o f Ston e county. H e c am e into the hill country befo r e t h e d e par 'Fro m n ews pap e r clip fr o m Missouri Museum o f Sta t e Resour ces a nd D e v e l opment D e pt. J efferso n C i ty M o Kindn ess of A C. Burrill, Dire ctor. P age 77 ture of th e D elawar e Indian s fr o m southwest Mis souri and se ttl e d n o t f a r f r o m whe r e R ee d Sprin gs n o w s t a nds. The Indian s w e r e fri e ndly" and Yoachum, a ft e r hi s m a rria ge to o n e o f the D e l a w a r e maid e ns, wa s a d opte d Q Y the m H e h e ard the stories o f the ex pl o r ations b y t h e Spani a rd s wh e n a band o f D e So to s m e n se,\ r c h e d the',hill s of the White Riv e r country f o r g old and silve l : The Indians show e d him the sites o f seve r a l mines whi c h w ere work e d b y the Sp ania rds, w h o f o r som e tim e held m embers of the Delawar e trib e in v irtu a l s l a v e r y At l e a s t o n e of these mines, a c co rdin g to th e f o lkl o r e o f the hills, carri e d a ric h d e posit o f silver. Late r wh e n the D e l a wares l ef t th e country, Yoachum and his wif e w e r e suppose d to b e t h e only p e rson s w h o kne w the l ocatio n of the S panish mine W ithin a few ye ar s a ft e r the d e p arture of h e r tribe, Y oachum' s Indian wif e di e d and h e a l o n e was i n p ossess i o n of the secr e t. Mad e 'His 'O wn B y t hi s tim e the r e we r e numero u s white m e n 111 th e O z ark country and villages had begun t o m a k e t h e i r appe ar a n ce. Y oachum m a d e fr equent a nd prol o n ge d trip s bac k i ;lto the hills; w h e n h e r eturned, h e always h a d a new s uppl y o f silve r coin s M ost o f these co i ns we r e ca'st t o r ese mbl e the o rdin a r y sil ve r d olla r but they beca m e kn ow n thro u g h out the h ill co un t r y as the Y oachum d o l lar and w e r e readil y accepte d by tra d ers thro u g h out thi s sect i o n of southwes t Misso uri. Yoa chum did n o t attempt to con cea l the fac t tha t h e w a s m a kin g the m o n ey him s elf, but h e 'n e v e r di vulge d the l ocatio n o f the mine eve n to hi s closes t fri e nds. Se ve ral m e n w h o we r e fa miliar with Y o a chum's h abit o f m a kin g l o n g trip s b ack into the hills o n ce m a d e a n effort to f ollow him to the mine. They f ollo w e d him twO da ys and the n l ost the trail. About tw o w ee k s lat e r Y oachum return e d to his ca b i n and within a f ew d ays a n e w s uppl y of Y o a chum d olla r s wer e c ir c ulatin g This, so f a r as i s kno wn was the only attempt e ve r m a d e b y t o follow Yoachum to the mine . Y oachum' n e v e r was a rrest e d f o r counte rf e itin g, an d after hi s death his coin s soo n p a sse d out o f cir c ulati o n A few yea r s ago, a boo k g i v in g the prop ortion s of n:et a l s use d in making m o n ey, was found ly ing on a l e dg e i n an Imfr e q u.ellted passag e of Marvel C ave "* l oca t e d a s h ort dista nce from Notch This gave r i se to the theory th a t Yoac hu ms m i n e w a s l oca t e d in M a l-vel Cave, w h e r e tra ces o f S pani s h m ay b e see n. The ca v e was e xpl o r e d severa l times b y tre a sure hunte rs, but n o min e w a s eve r foun d Hqwe-ver, the r e a r e m a n y of the cave which ha ve n O t b ee n explo r e d a nd the theo r y 'Spani s h Sil ver Mine a nd M a rvel Cave (Museum nota ti o n),

PAGE 80

PaJ!.c 78 that the min e I S l oca t e d in the cave i s still ad v a nced by m a n y o f the natives in thi s sectio n of the O zar ks. Another sto r y has the mine on the c r est o f Bread Tray Mountain, ab out twelv e miles southe a s t of h ere; whil e still a n othe r l egend gives its location as Wild Cat Cave, ab out six miles from Reed Springs. The n at ives b elieve Yoachum f ollowed a l ong, winding out-of-th e-w ay route to the min e for the purpo se o f losin g anyone who happe n ed to attempt to follow him. It i s ge n erally belie ved that the mine, if i t eve r ex i s t e d is l ocated in Sto n e county and not far dis t ant from the site o f the old Y oachum cabin near Reed Springs. T o C l ay P e rry: I hav e ju s t turne d up a l ette r that had got mislaid a nd whi c h I wish had been able to s how yo u wh e n yo u w e r e h ere o r at the B a k e r's Quarry Cave and Brown' s B o uld er. It is from an age d wom e n f o rm erly a resid ent of Lanesboro and a sc ho o l teacher for ye ars, who wrote m e under date of April 30th from h e r home in Cheshire, Mass. som e thin g that s h e d s b ette r light on the Susan Bak e r -Capt. John Brown s tory, and mi ght b e of sufficient interes t to b e included in the BULLETIN, a long with the r eport of yo ur visit to those caves. As a form e r resident of Lanesboro and with some littl e knowl e d ge of the histor y o f that old tow n I h ave often wish ed to cor rect a misappr e h e nsion whi c h has often ap p eare d in the newsp a p e r s and p er haps in yo ur book (which I hav e not seen) with ref e r e nc e to the cav e in the west part o f Lanesboro. In cide ntally I would lik e to d o belat e d justic e to a most est imabl e woman Miss Sman Bak e r who owned the land on which yo u found the cave, and the vindictive scraw l o f a disappoint e d SUItor. "Of course, I did not know Miss Susan Bak e r p e rsonall y, but m y parents did. She was for m a n y years the riche s t woman in Lanesboro and if she refus e d the old widower. John Brown (w irh som e t e n c hildr en), s h e had abundant and suffic i ent r easo n for doing so. It was her privil ege. Also, the whole town know a t the tim e that Susan was not h a l f so an x iou s to find a man' as John Brown was to ge t a hold on Susan s 'ba rr e n land which was the n and is n ow c ho c k full of first qualit y m a rble, n o t to m e n tio n the entire mountain to the west of it, the n cov e r ed with wood l o t s of it v aluable lumb er. "S usan B a k e r also owned the B a k er Tave rn ( now de m olis h e d), which was a hi storical l andmark for the Masons of Berkshire county, a s w ell as the Col e House in C heshire, as t h e earliest m eetings o f Mystic Lod ge w e r e held there and in C heshire, alternately." Mrs. Anna Full e r B ennett, Chester, Mass. (5 /23/44 ) BULLETI N N UM B E R EIGHT The caus e for this bit of historical correct i on is the s till l eg ible, carved inscription on a lar ge m a rbl e bould e r n ear what is known as Bak e r 's Quarry Cave, often vi s it e d to thi s d ay, and recently explo r e d b y a party of s p e leol ogis t s from Virg inia a nd Washington, D C The inscription reads: "Cap. John Brown born at Stafford's Hill Cheshire, Mass. O c t. I 180 9 Inscrib e d up o n thi s rock Apri l 2, 1 878 : May God Bless Susan and all of her b a rr e n land And whe n s h e gets to H eave n, I hope she finds a MAN." The story was that Captain Brown an officer in a militia company, paid court to Miss Bak er, whe n s h e wa s 81 years of age and h e was 69, and hi s s uit was r e j ecte d (The story is told in its esse ntials, in the book "Under ground N e w Engl and Tall Tales o f Small Caves," b y Cla y Perry.) REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON BIBLIOGRAPHY AND LIBRARY B y B etty Br ay, Chairman For r e port of this committee, 1 submit the following r ecent additions to the Soc i e t y libr ary: Adams, R obert M cCo rmick Archeological investigations In J e fferson county, Mo., 1 9391 9 40 : Acad. Sci. St. Louis vol. XXX, No.5, May 3 1 1 941 All e n Gro ver M., Bat s (bibliography on ly) publi s hed ? Barbour Thomas, The sea and the cave: Atlantic Monthly, April 1 943 Br etz, J Hade n, Solution cav ities in Joliet limeston e of northe ast e rn Illin o i s: Jour G e ol. vol. 48, no 4 pp. 337384 1940 C a ves and Caving: vol. 1 nos. I 3, 4 5, June, 1 937, Januar y, April Novembe r 1 938. "Craydal e," Settle, York sh ire, Engl and. Furcron A. 5 Geol ogy and mine ral r eso urces of War renton quadra ngle, Va.: Virginia Geol. Surv ey Bull. 54 1 939 Hildebrand S. F., and Cable Lou ella E D e velopment a nd lif e histor y of 1 4 t eleostean fishes at B e aufort, N. C: U. S D e pt. Commerce, Bur. Fish erie s Bull. 46, Docu m ent No. 1093, Gov t Printing Office, Washington, D C, 1930 Hubbs, Carl L., Fishes of the Yucatan P e ninsula; Carne gi e In s t. Washington Pub. 457 pp. 157-287, Feb. 5, 1 936 Hubrecht, L eslie, Studies o n the neararctic freshwater Amphipoda: Am. Midland Naturalist, vol. 29, no. 3 pp 683-712, May 1 943 Lobeck Armin Koh l Geol ogy and physiograph y o f the M ammoth Cav e Nationa l P ark: K entucky Geol. S urvey ser. 6, Pam. 2 1 1 928 Loomis, H F., New cave and epigean millipeds of the United States, with notes o n som e establi s hed s peci es: Harvard CoIl. Mus. Compo Zool ogy Bull. vol. XCII, no. 7 Jun e 1 943

PAGE 81

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCI ETY M a l o n Cl y d e A., Three cave rn pictures: Indi a n a Acad Sci. P roc., vol. 38 pp. 2 01-20 6, 1 928 Mohr, C h arles E. Dwellers in darkness: P e nns y l vania Game News, Harri sburg, Pa., July 1 9 43 Muma, Martin H A rep or t o n Maryland spiders: Amer ican Museum Novitates no. 1 2 57 June 30, 1 9 44 ------Mary l and's lar gest s h e lt e r cave: Mary l a nd J o ur. Nat. History vol. 14, no. 3 B a ltim o re, Jul y 1 9 44 Step h e nson, Wm. J., Spel eo 10gy, it s relati o n to the State s: Assoc. A m Sta t e Geo logi sts J o u r., vol. 13, no. 3 Jul y 1 5, 1 9 4 2 Sto n e, R W Cave exp lo ring: Pennsyl van i a Gam e News, Harrisburg, P a., Jun e 1 943 P ennsylvania caves a r e reported: P enn sy lvania D e pt. Int. Affairs Monthly Bull. vol. 10, no. 10, September 1 9 4 2 Stude b a k er, Bert Sec r e t o f ce nturi es: The Highway Tra vele r vol. XVI n o. 1 F eb.-Mar. 1 9 44 Printe d b y Greyhound Bu s Lines Publication s of Musee roya l e d 'His t oire naturell e de Bel giq u e Bru xelles. B oettge r Caesa r R., Die s ub t e rran e Mollusk e nfauna BeI giens: M e m no. 88, September 1 939 Cernosvitov L., Oligo c h etes cavernico les (2e S erie), Bull. tom e 12. no. 2 1 Jul y 1 936 d e B ea u c hamp, P., T urb ellaries triclades: Bull. tome 12, n o 2, Janu a r y 1 936 d e Coninck ( G a rd), Les n e m atodes libres de Grotte d e H a n (Han-surL esse, B e l g ique) Note de bi o-speleo 1 0gie: Bull. tome 15, n o 2 0, April 1 9 39 Denis, J R., Apte r ygo tes d e l a Grotte d e Go ye t : Bull. to m e 13, no. 2 0, April 1 93 7 Kiefe r F r ederic k Ueber e ini ge Ru derf usskre b se (Cru stacea cop e p o d a) aus dem Grundwass e r Belg i e n s: Bull tome 12, no. 3 J an. 1 936 Kl i e Walt e r, Neue Cando nin ae (Ostr.) aus d e m Grund wasser v o n B e l g i en: Bull. tome 12, n o 13, April 1 9 36 L eruth R o b ert, L a b io logie d u d o maine souter r a in e t l a faun e cave rni co l e de l a B e lgique : M e m no. 87, [Sept.] 1 939 Pho rides cave rni co les d e B e l gique ( I ns. Dipt. ) (2c Note): Bull. to m e 12, n o. 3 6, Sept. 1 936 Schubart, Otto, Die in Bel gis h er H o hl e n vo n R o bert L eruth gesamme l te n C hil opo d e n und S ymph y l e n : Bull. to m e 1 2, no. 35, Sept. 1 936 S i ckc nb e r g 0., Die In sekte n fresser F l e derm a u se und N aget i e r e d el' H o hlen von Goye t ( B e l g i e n): Bull. tom e 15, no 1 9, April 1 939 Van E md c n Fri tz, Kafer l a rven a u s b e l g isch e n H o hl e n : B ull. tome 12, n o II, April 1 936 Viets, Karl, H y dr ac h e n ellae et P o r o h a l aca ridae (Acari): Bull. tome 12, no. 28 S e pt. 1 936 P age 79 R EPORT OF T H E COMMITTEE ON FAUNA B y James A Fowler C h airman The 1 9 44 report of t h e Fa un a Comminee includes the usu a l additi o n s to the list of faun a collect ed fro m caves b y The National Spe l eo logi cal Societ y, a noth e r lis t of rece n t l iteratur e on North Ameri ca n cave fauna, and a r eprint of an a rticl e b y the c hairm an o f t h e Fa un a Com mittee. In a n effort to s implif y the list of n e w additio n s to the fauna of caves in t hi s r e p ort, t h e a nim a l s liste d h ave been separate d into tw o main g r o ups, the verteb r ates a nd the inv ertebra t es. In the initia l cat egory are incl ud e d a nim a l s with a ba ck b o n e s u c h as b ats, birds lizard s snakes, frogs, toads, s alamand e rs, and fis hes. The laner cat egory i s representativ e o f a nim a l s w ithout a backbo n e and includes suc h forms as i n sects, s pid ers, crayfis h, m illipedes, snai ls. a n d worms At t h e sam e time h owever, the individu a l s pe c ies a r e lis t e d b y thei r scientific n ames in order to retain the u sef ulness o f thi s r e p or t to the m ore t echnical r eade rs. P e rsons wh o a r e d oing field work are ur ge ntl y aske d to collect a n y specimens of cave faun a that co m e to their attention T o acco mpli s h thi s end, all that i s n ee d e d are som e via l s a nd b o ttles and a prese rvativ e s u c h as 5 -10% formalin o r 70-80 % alcohol. In a dditi o n a pair of tweezers and a cam e l' s h a ir brus h will facilitate coJlecti n g. S keletal materia l which i s a lso desi red, ma y b e co nvenie ntl y put into a jar o r c i gar b ox. With r ega rd to preservatio n of livin g materia l m ost speci m ens can s impl y b e dropped into a container filled wit h preservative. Except for a mphlbi ans (sa l amanders frogs and toads), whose s kin i s sof t e n o ugh to p ermit p e n e trati o n o f the prese rvin g fluid l a r ge forms parti cularly, s h o uld be s lit open a long t h e abdomen to insur e pr oper preservatio n Suc h slitting is best d o n e with a s h arp knife or a razor blade. S mall e r forms s u c h as flies, mosqui toes spide rs, e tc. a r e best ca u g h t by dipping a camel' s h a ir brush in alco h o l and pi cki n g them up wit h tbe tip of th e bru s h which i s the n wash e d off" into a v i a l of prese rvative. All m ater i a l collecte d s h ould be l abelle d with the d ate n ame of cave, a n d localit y. L oca lit y data s h o uld include 'rh e n a m e of t h e nearest tow n the county, a nd the state. For t his purpose, s m all s lips of white p a p e r a nd a soft l ead pencil are quite satisfactory. W h e r e possib l e it is also valuable to indi cat e in w hat part of the cave-i.e., wit h regard to lig h t conditions-the s pecim en was collected. For t hi s p urp ose the followin g abbrev i at i ons are usef ul: CE, PO, and TD. These represent "cave entrance "par tia l dark n ess," and tota l darkness," respect i ve l y. A n y fauna l matcria l sec ur ed s h o uld b e fOI ward e d to t h e Fa una Comm ittee in care of James A. F o w l e r 39 W. I rving St. Ch
PAGE 82

Page 80 New Additions to t h e Cave Fauna List INVERTEBRATES H a rve st men or D addy-LongLeg s Family Pha lan go dida e Phalangodes acanth in a Crosby and Bis hop.-21 spec i mens (TO), I (PO) by J. A. Fowl er, Grand Caverns Grottoes Va. ; 5 specimens (TO), I (PO) b y J A. Fowl e r Fountain Cave Grottoes, Va.; 5 speci m ens (TO), Salt peter Cave Grottoes Va. Family Pha l a n gii d ae Leiobunum bicolor Wood. I specimen (PO), Sand Cave, Loch L y nn Md.; I speci m e n (PO), M ys tic Cave, Teterto n W. Va.; 2 spec im ens (TO), Fis h H atchery Cave, N ewcastle, Va. Leiobl4rlHm politum Wood.-I specime n (CE), Ath ey's Cave, Rus h Md. Spiders Family Pholcidae PholcHs pha/angioides F uesslin I youn g f e mal e (PO), Luray Caverns, Lur ay, Va. Family Amaurobiidae Amal4robiu.s bennetti B l ackwal1.Severa l speCimens (PO), Goat Cave C umb e rland Md. F a mily Agelenidae Calymmaria cav icol a Banks. I fema l e (PO), Sand Cave, L och L y nn, Md. Cicurina p a l/ida Keyserling. I female and I young femal e (TO), Fountain Cave Grottoes Va. Coras fidelis Banks.I female (PO), Sand Cave Loc h Lynn, Md. C oras medicina lis H entz.I fema l e (CE) B eave r Run Cave, A lesia, Md. F ami ly Pisaur id ae Dolomedes tenebrosHs H entz.-I youn g f emale (CE), Seeler's Cave, Cumberland Md. Family The ridiidae Theridion redemptum Gertsch a n d Mulaik.-l ma l e (PO) by Earl Beards l ey, Round Top Cave No. I, H a n cock, Md.; 3 yo un g (CE), S howal ter s Cave, Lexingto n Va.; 2 females and 8 young (PO) by J A. Fowl e r Foun tain Cave, Grottoes, Va. ; 2 ma les a nd 5 fenules (CE) and (PO), Barterbrook Cave, Barterbrook, Va.; I you ng p air (PO), Moch Cave, Lur ay Va. The l ast record was e n tered incorrectly as Theridion. tepidariorum Koch o n p II of BULLETIN No.4. The ridion tepidariomm Koch. I f e m a l e (CE), D ead H orse Cave Twiggtown, Md. ; I female (PO) b y Earl B eards l ey, R ou nd T op Cave No. I, Hancock, Md. ; I femal e (PO), Snive l y's Cave, Keed ysville, Md. ; I pair (CE), Showa l ter's Cave Lexin gto n Va. ; I pair (PO) Bell Cave B U L LET 1 N N U 1\1 B ERE 1 G H T Lexin gton, Va ; I fema l e (PO) Salt peter Cave, Grottoes Va ; 2 yo un g f e males (PO), Grand Caverns, Grottoes, Va. F amily Linyphiidae Frontine ll a communis H entz.I fema l e (TO), Sho walt e r' s Cave, Lexin gto n Va. Linyphia marginata Koch.-I yo un g male (CE), Mysti c Cave, T e t e rton VI. Va. ; 2 fema les (CE), OeviI's Oen, F lint sto ne, Md. Microneta zonaria Keyserling. I fema l e (PO), Snive l y s Cave, Keed ysville, Md. NesticHs pal/Mus Emerton.-3 fema les (PO) b y K E. Muma, Crysta l Grottoes, Boon sboro, Md.; I yo un g pai r (PO) b y J A. Fowl e r Fountain Cave, Grottoes, Va. Nesticu.s tennesseens i s P et runkevit c h 5 m a les and 9 fema les (PO), Fish H a t c h ery Cave, Newcastle, Va.; I mal e and 2 f e males (TO), Wal k Through Cave, Newcastle, Va Phan etta SHbterranea Emerton I fema l e and 1 yo un g mal e (TO) b y Earl Beards l ey, Sky lin e Caverns, Front Roya l Va. Troglohyphantes cavernico lu.s K eyserling 3 males and I fema l e (TO), B ell Cave Lexin g t o n Va.; 3 f e m a les (TO), Buck Hill Cave, Natural Bridge, Va. ; 1 female and 2 yo un g (TO), Fountain Cave, G rottoes, Va.; 3 yo un g (TO), Saltp eter Cave Grottoes Va. Family Argiopidae Mangora placida H e ntz.-I female (CE) by Ear l Beardsley, B ell Cave Lex i ngton, Va. l Vleta menardi Latreille .-Sev eral spec im e n s (PO) by Earl Beards l ey, Snive l y s Cave, Keedysville, Md.; I ma l e a nd 1 female (PO), Sand Cave, Loch Lynn Md.; I young fema l e (CE) b y Earl Beardsley Beave r Run Cave, Alesia, Md.; several yo un g (PO), observed, Hig h Roc k s Fissure Cave, Keyser, W. Va ; 1 m a l e b y R. Bray, Tony's Cave Giles Co Va.; 2 yo un g fema les (PO), Saltp eter Cave Grottoes Va. T h eri diosom a gem mOSHm Koch. l fema l e (PO), Sand Cave Loch L y nn Md. VERTEBRATES Salamanders Family Plethodo ntida e Plethodon c. cinereus (Gree n ) Barterbrook Cave (CE), Barterbrook V a.; Fri end' s Cave (CE), Sang Run P O., Garr ett Co., Md.; Sil e r's Cave nr Toma h awk, B er k e ley Co., W. Va. Plethodon g. gluti nosus ( Green) Seeler's Cave, 111'. C umb e rland All ega n y Co., Md.; Quarry Cave, South Fork nr. Franklin P e ndleton Co., W. Va.; Buc k Hill Cave Natural Brid ge, Va. Pseudotriton r. rt4ber (Sonnini) .-Bart e rbro ok Cave (PO), Barterbrook, Va

PAGE 83

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCI E T Y Page 8 1 Frogs and Toads Bufo a. tlmer iC{I11I4S ( H o lbrook ) .-1 s mall s pecim e n in a c revice b e tw ee n the w all a nd ceili n g (PD), Sil e r 's Cave, T omaha wk W Va. Further Additions to the Literature on North American Cave Fauna 1 943 Chambe rlain R a lph V On M ex ican centip e des. Bull. Univ Utah, V ol. 33 No.6, pp. 55. Gro bman, Arno ld B. N otes o n sal a m a nd e r s with the d esc ription of a n e w species o f Cry p to bl' tlnchus. Occ. Pape r s Mus. Zoo I. Univ. Mich., No. 470 pp. 1 12, pI. I. In a discussi o n o f s pecim e n s o f Ellrycea lu cifugtl fr o m the N;Islwille Bas in in T enne s see, w hi c h vary consid era bl y with r ega rd t o s i ze a nd pi g m enta ti o n fr o m t y pi cal E l ucifug a fr o m l o c a lities outside the Nash ville Basin a s p e ciman collect e d fr o m Phe lp s C a v e K entuc k y i s m e nti o ned Hitc h coc k Harold B. Bandin g as a n a id in study in g the activ ities o f the Little Bro w n B a t M yotis l uci f ugHs lu cifugus. P a p e r s Mic h Acad Sci., Arcs, and L ett. 29: 2 772 79. Hubricht, Leslie. Studies o n Near c ti c fres hw a t e r Amphip o da, III. N o tes o n the fresh wate r Amphipo da of eas t e rn Unite d S ta tes wit h d esc ripti o n s of 10 n ew sp ecies. Ame r MidI. N at. 29(3): 6 3 8-712 Loomis, H F. N e w cave a nd epigea n milli pe des o f the Unite d States, w ith n o tes o n som e establish e d s peci es. Bul!. M us. Compo Zool., V o!' XCII No.7, pp. 3 7 3-410 M idd l eka uff, Woodrow W. A r ecor d of the c a ve salam a nd e r f ro m Alabama. Co p e i a No.2, p 1 26. EUl'ycea l uci f u ga r eported fr o m a s m all lim esto n e cave a l o n g the s h o r e lin e of Wilson R eservoir b e t wee n Town C r eek and L e i g h to n Colb ert Co This i s the fir s t d e finit e A l a b a m a l oca l it y fo r this species a nd rep r esents i ts southern most s tatIOn M ille r L oye. The P l ei stoce n e birds o f San H oseci t o Cave rn Mexi co. Univ. Calif. Pub!. Zoo!., Vul. 47, No.5 pp.25 1 9 44 Bis h o p S h e rm a n C. A new n eote m c Pl etho d ont salam ande r w i t h note s o n re l ate d s p ecies. Cop eia No. I p p 1 5 T yphlo t riton 11 ere us a neot e nic sal a m a n de r w h ose dist ribu t i o n is lim ited t o t h e O zark P latea u i n Okla h o ma, Ka n sas Nfisso uri and Ark a n sas and whi ch has hi t h e r to bee n confused wit h l arva l T. s p e l aeus, i s d esc rib e d :tvf a n y of t h e localities f ro m whi c h it has b ee n collecte d are caves. These cave l oca l ities are as f ollows: Missou.r i R ockho u se Cave, B a rr y Co.; Wilson 's C ave, Jasp e r Co ; Down e r's Cave, S a r cox i e Jasp e r Co. Whe n f ound in caves thi s s pecies i s p ale, whil e i t i s p i g m ente d w h e n l i ving in the o p e n. T. nereus i s regar d e d as dist inct from T. spe l aeus beca u se i t occ u p ies the s am e ge n era l t e rr ito r y as T. spe / aeus, and i n som e in sta nces the sam e strea m s and caves, w i t h o u t evide nce o f inte r g r adatio n Co les, V Nest i n g of t h e Turkey V ultur e in Ohio C aves. A uk 6 1 (2): 2 1 9-228. F owle r J A. The Ca v e Sal a m a nd er i n Virginia. P roc. BioI. S oc. Wash. V ol. 57 p p 3132. A r eprint o f thi s articl e in its entire t y m ay be foun d be low. Grobman, Arno l d B The dis tributi o n o f the salam a nd e r s o f the ge nu s Plethodon in eas t ern United States and Ca n a da. Annal s N Y. Acad Sc i., Vol. X LV, Art. 7, pp 261-316. Amo n g severa l new s ub species d esc r ibe d a r e s pecim ens collect e d from c a ves. Plethodon g lutinosus a l bagu la, inso f ar as the par a t y pes a r e concern ed, occ ur s a lmost exclus ivel y i n caves. These caves are as f ollows: T exas-H e in dric h C ave, Br a un fels, Co m a l Co.; San Marcos, H ays Co. ; P osey Cave, S an M arcos, Hays Co. ; Schneide r Cave, B oerne, Kendall Co.; P rassell R a n c h Cave Boerne, Ke nd all Co. The light throa t as s i g nifi e d b y the s u bs pecific na m e of this form ma y b e a cor relati ve of the cav e h abita t a nd m ay represent a very early s ta ge o f loss o f pa tte rn The h o l o t y p e of a new s ub s pecies, P lethodon cinerel4s an gus ticlav iu.s, was collect ed a t M ud C ave, near Fair y Cave, Sto n e Co. Mo. THE CAVE SALAMANDER IN VIRGINIA J A. FOWLER The r a n ge o f t h e Cave Sal a m a nd er, Eurycea lucifuga ( Rafin esq ue), as sta t ed b y both S t ejneger a n d B arbo u r ( 1 943, C h eck list of North American Amph i b ians and R e p til es, 5th Editi o n p. 3 3 ) and Bish o p ( 1 9 43 H andbook o f Sal a m a n de rs, p 431 ) does not i nclu de V i rginia d esp ite the fact t h a t Bish op's dist ributi o n al m a p (loc c i t., p 432) f or t h e species ind i cates that i t occurs i n t h e sou t h wes t ern cor ner of the s t a te. The species has, h oweve r b ee n r eporte d from Giles Co unty, Virgi nia b y Dunn ( 1 936, Lis t of Vir gini a a mphibia ns a n d r ep tiles, H ;1Verford, Pa., m i meog r ap h e d p. 2). The followin g recor d s for E. lucifuga in V i rgi nia, accumu l a t e d as a result of the cave collecting activities o f T h e Nati o n a l Spe leol og ical Soc i e t y a n d a u g m ente d by rec o rds o f s p eci m ens in var i o u s muse um collections, are thus presented to m ore def init e l y esta bli s h this cave-inhabi t i n g sal a m a nd e r in t h e s t a t e as well as to m ore acc ur ately delinea t e i t s present distrib u tion The sources of t h ese recor ds, a n d the abbreviat i o n s use d to d esig n ate the m are as follows: National Speleo l og ical Society (NSS) V i rgi nia P o l ytechnic In s t itute (VPI) Unite d S t ates Nation a l Museum (USNM), Carnegi e M u se um (CM) Aca d e m y of Natura l Sci e n ces of Phil a d e l p hi a (ANSP ) an d the p erso n al collec ti o n of th e a u t h or (JAF). For m aki n g these recor d s avail able, t h e w rit e r ex t e nd s hi s t h a n ks to t h e f ollowin g p e r son s: D r D or i s M Coc h ran Mr. M. Gra h a m Nettin g, R ep rinted from Proc. BioI. Soc. Was h 57:31 32 June 28 1 944.

PAGE 84

P age 82 Dr. Hel e n T. Ga i ge. Dr. Arno ld Grobman. and Mr. C harles E M o hr. Especi a l thanks a r c du e Dr. H e rb ert W. Jackson o f the Bio l ogy D e p a r t m e m Virg inia P o l y t ec hni c Institute w h o ge n e r o u s l y comribute d hi s r eco rd s for thi s s pecies f r o m caves in sou t hwest e rn Virg ini a a s a basi s f o r thi S pap er. The r eco rd s f ollow : TAZEWELL COUNTY: Cassell Cav e Burk e' s Gard e n 2 collecte d Jul y 15, 1 941 (ANsP Nos. 2 4744-45). G ILES COUNTY: Ca ve. S inking C r ee k nr. Newp o rt I collect e d Jul y. 1 93 5 (UsNM No. 99106). ( Sp ec im e ns r e p orte d b y Dunn. l oc. c it .) Cave. nr. Newp ortI collecte d 1 9 3 8 alt. 2000 ft (CM No. 1 3989) New River Cave. G oo dwin's F e rry-I c oll ec t e d F e b 14. 1 943 (VPI). Lu cas C a ve. Newp ort-2 c o lle c t e d April II. 1 943 (VPI). C an oe Ca v e Newp ort1 collect e d April IS. 1 943 (VPI ) T o ny's Cave. N e wp o rt-1 collect e d May 9. 1 9 43 (VPI). Sm o k e H o l e Ca ve. N e wp ort-2 collec t e d M ay 9. 1 9 4 3 (VPI). CR A I G C OUNTY: Two-mil e Cave, nr. Loon ey. Mead o w Cree k. 1 c o l lected May 30 1 943 (VPI). Fis h Hatc h e r y Cave nr. L oo n ey M c ad o w Creek 4 co l lect e d May 30 1 9 43 (VPJ); 2 colle c t e d O c t 31. 1943 (JAF No. 8 12). R O CKBRID G E COUNTY: Buc k Hill Cave. Natural Bridge-2 collec t e d Jun e 6. 1 943 ( N .5. 5 ) ; 5 collec t e d O c t. 30 1943 (J AF No. 813.) Phys i og raphi cally these r eco rd s a r e r e pr ese ntativ e o f the Valley and Ridge Province o f the Appa lachian Hig hlands. E lsewh e r e t h e r anae o f E. lucif uga also II1cludes the Ap palachian Plate aus Prov inc e of the Appala chian Hig hl a nds. the Interio r L ow Plateau s and C emral L o wland o f the Imerio r Pla ins. and the O za rk Pl a teau s o f the Interio r Hia hland s O f these othe r provin ces the Appa lachi a n Pro vin ce ( Kana w ha sec ti o n ) occurs i n Virg inia. The r e a r c appar e ntl y n o r eco rd s f o r E. hecifuga from thi s pr ovll1ce in V ir g inia. So far as dra inaae i s con ce rn e d those r eco rd s fr o m T a ze -b well a nd Giles Coun t ies a r e in t h e New R ive r drall1a ge. w hil e those fro m Cra i a and R oc kbrid ge C o unties are in the J a mes River draina ge. The N ew Rive r is tribu ta r y to t h e M ississippi River by way of t h e K a n a wha a nd O hi o Rivers. T h e J a mes River o n the oth e r h a n d. flows cast in to t h e A tlanti c O ce an In thi s latte r co nn ect i o n t h e spec im e n s from C r a i g County wer e collect ed in caves alo n g N fe:1elow C r eek. a h ea d w a ter tri butary of t h e J a mes River n ca r t h e drain age div ide betw ee n it a nd the New Riv e r T h e spec im e n s fro m Rock b rid ge County. also in t h e J ames R ive r basin. exte nd t h e r a n ge o f t his sala m a n der i n Virginia co n side r ably n o r t h a n d cast. Mor eover. the spec im e n s f r o m both Craig a nd R oc kbri dge Coun t ies repr ese n t t h e only r eco rd s f o r thi s spec ies throu g h o u t i ts e nti r e range from a stream flowing cast into t h e Atlanti c Oce a n S i gnific:1ntl y. h oweve r t h e J a mes River. a l t h o u g h B U L L E T J i\ N U J II E J( E J G H T R o win g e a s t. arises west o f the Blu e Rid ge and f ollo w s a course a c ross It. In vie w o f the occ ur e n ce o f E. luc ifuga in the James Riv e r draina ge. future collec tin g parti c ularl y in caves and cave rnicol ous habitats. s h o uld help to d e t e rmin e the ex t ent to whi c h thi s salamand e r i s establi s h e d in thi s wat e r s h e d a s w ell a s to indi c at e wh ethe r o r n o t it occ ur s c a s t o f Nat ural Brid ge COMMITTEE ON HONORARY MEMBERSHIP R e p o rt t o the Board o f Govem o r s S o far a s yo ur comminee i s awar e n o ge n eral prin c ipl e s hav e b ee n establish e d o n whi c h t o base selection s f o r h o n o rar y m embe r s hip. As the r eputati o n o f the Soc i e t y m ay d e p e nd to no s mall degr ee o n the quality o f its h o n o rar y m embe rs. s tudi e d c onsid e rati o n s h o uld b e give n to the c h o i ce. The co m ,minee felt the n ee d o f ge n e rali z ati o n f o r it s o wn g uidan ce It did n o t f eel tha t it s fir s t thought w o uld b e a final c rit erio n N e v e rthel ess. i t was m ove d to se t up som e kind o f s tandard. These su g ge sti o n s ar e submitte d t o the B o ard o f G o v e rn ors n o t n e cessaril y a s a fin a l s tandard but to b e a ccepte d m odifie d o r r e j e cted a s the B o ard m ay s ec fi t a s a g uid e f o r future hon o rar y m embe r s hip committees : I An imp o r tant con side rati o n s h o uld b e the publi c ati o n o f comme nd a bl e articles o n cav e s ubj ec t s b y w ell ed u cate d p e r so ns If the di sc ussi o n i s theo r etical. emphasi s s h o uld pla ce d o n the r e ason able ness o f t h e v i e ws. 2 A s peciali s t in an y branc h o f sci e n ce who ha s ap pli e d s p ec ial knowledge to s o m e phase o f s p eleo logy. o r a nyone. wh o b y hi s o r h e r o wn efforts in othe r ways tha n b y publi c ati o n has a dv a n ce d s peleol ogy. o r the inte r ests o f thi s Soc i ety. i s o p e n to con sid e r atIo n 3 H o n o rar y m embe r s s hall b e c h ose n fr o m m e m b e r s o f the S oc i e t y o r from n o n m embe r s wh o a r e exce pti o nall y outs tandin g f or the ir contr ibuti o n s to s p e l eo logy. 4 H o n o r a r y m embe r s s h all b e c arri e d p ermane ntl y as s u c h o n r olls o f the Soc i e t y. 5. H o n o r ary m e mb e r s s h all not b e c h ose n fr o m t h e ex e c uti ve officer s o f the Soc i e t y durin g the per i o d o f the i r II1cumbe n cy. With the a b ove i n m i n d the co mminee m akes t h e f o l lowing n o min at i on: Recommendtltion for H ono/'tlry lV! embership ALLYN COATS SWJNNERTON F o r h o n o r a r y m embe r s hi p i n 1 94 4 your committe e n o m ina tes Ally n Coa t s Swinn e r to n Prof essor o f Geol ogy Antioch College. Yellow S prin gs. O hio. A g r a du ate of W illiam s College i n 1 9 1 9 a n d earnin g the Ph.D. d eg r ee at H a rvard i n 1 922. P rofesso r Swinn e r ton h;15 h eld his p r esent posi t i o n since 1 922. a nd a lso was o n t h e geo logi c staff of t h e U. S. Geo logical S ur vey 1 922 -

PAGE 85

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 1936. He was el ected to f e llow s hip in the Geological Soci ety of America in 1 928. He studied caves in B er muda in 1 928 and publi s h e d a report on the m. He is se l ected for this present honor in recognition of hi s mast erly the OIetical paper of about 10,000 words on "The Origin' of Limeston e Cav e rns ," publi s h e d by the Geol og ical So ciety of Americ a in 1 9 32 in which he discusses the genetic relation of lim estone caves to the phys iographic dev el op m ent of the region in which they occ ur Signed : R. W. Ston e R o b er t E. Morga n R. J. Holde n Committee on Honorary Membership ALLYN COATS SWINNERTON The Director, Lon g Bran c h Signa l L a borator y (N. J.), Army Servic e Forc es, is a major a s shown b y the accompanying official portrait, but in p eace tim e h e is Prof. A. C. for h e ha s been pro f essor of geology at Antioch Coll ege, Y ellow Springs, Ohio, since 1 922. Born in N e w York s t ate in 1 897 an A.B. at Williams Coll ege in 1 919 a nd PhD. at Harvard in 1 922, geology be c ame his forte. H e did geo l ogic work for the Unite d States Geological SlIrv ey during field seaso n s 1 920-36, taught geo l ogy at Stanford and at Harvard has been consult ant to the T ennessee Valley Authority, and held other imp ortant po s iti o ns. Swinnerton b e l ongs to the A A .A.S., American Ge ograph ical Soci ety, Geol og ical Society of America, Geophys i cal Union, and Ohio Academy. His sc i e ntifi c in t eres t is l argely in physiograp h y, h ydro log y of lim esto n e t e rran es, and caves, though a t present hi s work is chiefly concerned with quartz crysta l s u se d in comm uni c ati o ns eq uIpm e nt. As Swinn e rton was elected to h o norar y m embers hip in r ecog nition of hi s pap er o f about 10,000 word s o n 'Th e Ori g in of Limeston e Caverns," publi s h e d b y the Geol ogica l Soci e t y of America in 1 932, it was natural to inquire what started him off a s a spe leologist. H e replied : "It i s a b it diffi c ult to d e t er min e how I happ e n ed to d ev elop an inte rest in c a ves. Doesn t everyo n e wh o has read Tom Sawyer and HH ck l ebe rry Finn ha ve som e c uri osity about caverns? Actually, I b elie v e m y transition 'from New Engl a nd to Ohio had something to d o with it. In N e w Engl and I s tudi e d geo l ogica l suuctures a s m y s p ecia l field. Whe n I r eac h ed Ohio, t h e rock str u ct ures seemed to b e p ersis t e ntl y and p e rman e ntl y flat with nothing more inte restin g than fossils to satisfy m y ap petit e The Mammoth Cav e r egio n was witllin easy weekend di s tance, as wer e the caves i n Indiana. Page 83 "A close friend, Mr. R. W. Say l es, inve s tigat ed t h e fossil soils of B ermuda a nd related the ir hi story to t h e sev era l stages of the g l acia l period. H e aro u sed m y interes t in th e B e rmud a caves b ecause of the changes o f sea l evel whic h were indicat e d b y hi s theory of the origin o f the buri e d soils. It l ooke d lik e a p ro mi sing place to st ud y the effec t of changes of sea l evel on cave rns. Dr. A ll yn Coats Swinl1 ertol1 T h ave not had the opportun it y of s tud yi n g caves o u tside of the United States othe r than those in B ermuda. Tn this country I hav e visit e d som ething lik e 75 caves 111 20 sta tes. As soo n as m y services ar e no l o n ger need e d in th e arm y, I e xpect t o r eturn to geo l og i cal work. M y 1I1te r rs t s arc primarily with the g r o und w a t e r h ydro l ogy o f lim estone ar eas so conti nu e d stud y of caves i s ines capab le." U nd e r gro und g laci ers hav e been found und e r the a n cient lava b eds of Modoc Calif.

PAGE 86

Page 84 (foweL09 NEW RIVER CAVE A FIRST UNDER GROUND EXPERIENCE Undergro und H ow ofte n h a d I h ear d that word, but to m e It was so methin g that was unrea l and unknown. My only co n ce pti ons were ba se d o n sce nes from a few movies and n ews r ee ls. The n cam e the time when I had the c h a n ce to see f or m yse lf-to l e arn b y act u a l ex p er i e n ce, not to m e ntion a few hard knoc k s ... that caving is a sport and a n art. B y the tim e we r eac h ed N e w Riv e r Cave, after a lo n g, breathtaking climb to the c av e entrance, p e r so nall y 1 was g lad for the c h a nc e to rest and wat c h t h e last-minute prep arations b e f o r e t a kin g off into the "unknown." Carbide s upplies were c h ec k e d, ropes coil e d caref ull y, and fin a l in s truction s give n My heart did "doubl e time" when they cam e to the following ge m of wisdom-"If yo u start to s lide, ju s t b e Aat, presenting as muc h of yo ur body to t h e ground as possibl e The friction will stop yo u -1I1 m ost c a ses." Still wond e rin g about the perc e ntages of those cases, I m ee kly follow e d the party in; o n ce in the cave 1 m e r e l y f ollowed the g l ea m of the carbide l amp in front o f m e The darkness was so bla c k that I could almost feel it. At first the going was co mparativ e l y e asy (There were e v e n a f e w cr ud e sto n e steps at fir s t to lull my s u sp i c i o n s.) Then w e b ega n to climb ... scramble, dig in with your toes, clin g to the helpin g hands offered, no tim e to think just k ee p goi ng. Finall y the welcom e word of Rest was pa sse d ba c k a long the lin e and I immediate l y flopped d own. Afte r making sure that 1 was in no danger of s lid ing, I loo k e d around for the fir s t t ime. Hig h above u s stalac tites, g leamin g in t h e light o f the lamps hung lik e huge icic les-below u s tin y dots of lights a pp eared, van ish e d :lI1d r ea pp e ar e d Fir eAies in a cave? No, it was the oth e r party s l owly workin g alon g the l ower trail. The s i ze o f th e r oo m o v e rwhe l m e d us. And this, they to ld m e was sn1311 compare d to som e of the othe r s B y th e tim e we h a d r eac h e d t h e Lun c h Room ," wh e r e the diff e r ent parties se parat e d 1 h ad starte d to f ee l quite coc k y coc k y e n ough to attempt a j oke. The sound of trick lin g water echoed through the roo m and lookin g, I saw a thin stre am of water gleam silve r as it casca d e d from a bla c k hol e in t h e ce ilin g. Laughingl y 1 said : "Whe r e d o w e go from h e re? Up that h o le, n o doubt. To m y utter ama ze m ent, Y es," was the an swe r ; a nd in a f e w minutes o ur l e ad e r disappeared up the treac h e rou s l ooking a sce nt. All was qui e t for a seco nd then a rope B U L LET 1 N N U 1\1 B ERE 1 G H T cam e hurling down a nd a r eass urin g voic e called down, 0 K ; n ow, just tak e your tim e a nd b e caref ul. Put all yo ur w e i ght o n the rop e 'c ause it 's safely anchore d. " W ell, the rope ma y b e safe l y an c h o r e d but h ow ca n I a n c h or m ys elf safely to the rop e?" was the question in m y mind. Fr o m that point o n m y impress ion s are nothing more than a con glomeration of a jumbl e of incide nts Tha t s ud den s i l e n ce tha t c am e ov e r the gro u p wh e n so meon e dropp e d a flas hlight. We watch e d it bounce from l edge to l e d ge f o r about 50 fe e t ; the light went out, but we co uld h e ar the sound of it grow fainte r a nd fad e into nothin g n ess. The n too, I r e m embe r waiting m y turn to go down a drop The f e llow in front of me was trying, rath er uns u ccessfully to pla y "China Town" by beating o n sta lactites with a handpick. All t h e tim e swinging hi s l egs a nd fe e t w hi c h wer e n o n c halantl y dropped over the edge of the l edge. Once when 1 was stuck-afraid to mov e my hands or f eet b ec ause 1 was sure that e ven a m ere echo would knock m e l oose from the wall I asked what I s h o uld do. H ang on with your eye -lashes, ca m e t h e r e ply. That i s one thing 1 l e arned: a se n se of humor i s o n e of the require m ents for a caver; if yo u don't h ave one, the qui c ker you can d e v e l op it, the b ette r it i s for you. B y the time w e r eturned to the Lunc h R oo m-at this p oint 1 started humming I Beli e v e in Miracles "-I was mor e than glad to sink down and stretch out at full l ength to l e t m y tired muscles rest. Afte r eating three huge sandwiches one slig htl y seasone d with sand two apples, an d was hin g down several cookies with cave r s punchthat is, water flav ored with carbide-the sound of conversa tions b e came coher e nt, phrases b eca m e distinct. "It was all right until the lin e got foul e d and-" "No, wh e n yo u come to the plac e marked d e ad e nd you v e gotta go back along t h e strea m;" You s h o uld h av e been with us. We found a plac e wh e r e the roc ks ... ", H ey, who has a pair of e xtra pants? The r e it was a mixture of everything -cavin g, geology, all mix e d in with adv enture, tall stor i es, j o kes, and a lot of good-nat ur ed kiddin g. The food and r est did wonders for m y sp irit s After som e serious thinking I cam e to the concl u s ion that noth ing co uld be an y worse than what w e had go n e o v e r in t h e morning-so wh y w o rr y? At that point I didn t know that w e would b e going up the China-s lid e." It was worse. H owever, the s lid e b eca m e a c hallen ge. Take it littl e b y littl e res t whe n yo u hav e a chance, "so und off" w h e n yo u kno c k down a rock. S l o w l y I l ea rn e d caving i s an art and a s p ort, it d emands a h ealthy physical con diti o n a nd a n a c tiv e brain.

PAGE 87

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY On the way out, m y f ee t didn' t seem to bel o n g to m e -they deli ghte d in stumbling wh e r eve r there was the slightest exc use and e v e n i f t h e r e was n t an excuse. The h eav i e r m y f ee t b eca m e the lighte r m y h e ad go t. The n just wh e n I was s ur e w e wer e go in g in c ircles, I s aw da ylight-burnin g da ylight o f a bri ght s un III a blu e s k y. In a few m o r e minutes w e w e r e o ut. Goi n g h o m e in t h e tru c k I closed m y eyes g loatin g over the fact tha t it was possib l e to relax a nd that I was out in the ope n again. Aroun d m e the talk continue d, "S m o k e H o le, S lush e r s C h ap e l T o n y s Cave." The next t hing I kne w I was wondering when we wou l d go o n the n ext trip. The wind k ept whistling in my ears, "Next trjp n ex t trip next trip. (Mi ss) M. J Wilson FURTHER REPORT ON PIC HOLE Re: D escent into H ess' H ollow Giles Co. Va. On April 1 5, 1 9 45 the seco nd d escent into H ess' H o l l ow was acco mpli s h e d A party of five con s i sti n g of A. A B ernhardt, Martha R oss, H e l en B eave rs, Warring Cow les, a nd m yse lf rigged a r ope l adder from the Brid ge a nd ex pl o r e d t h e bottom. The ladd e r was fastened to a rock in the round Aat d epressi o n whic h drops a b out s i x f eet to the l eft of the Brid ge o n t h e far side of the H ollow from the entrance H ere are severa l h o les l eading d ow n a nd the rope l adder was put through the left o n e (fac ing t h e e n trance) Once through the h o le, w e fou nd o ur selves d esce ndin g the face of a n 80-foot cliff over about 30 f ee t o f w h ich the l adde r hung fr ee. At the bottom was a l arge room stretching p e rp e ndi c u larl y to the Brid ge It was covered wi th t h e u sua l coa t ing of g u a no a nd somew h e r e above o ur head s could b e h eard m a n y b ats. The l adder hung in t h e ex tr e m e l eft e nd of t h e r oom ( facing t h e entrance). Directly unde r the l add e r was a s mall s ink fo r a trickle of wat er comin g from above It l ed stra i ght d ow n and could b e followed for a b out 1 520 f ee t b e f o r e b eco min g so fille d with d ebr i s as to prevent further progress. In t h e r i ght sid e of the r oom t h ere is a n over h a n g abov e w hi c h a ledg e co ntainin g severa l h oles can b e see n Sin ce the face i s s m oot h a nd the ledge i s 2 0 feet hi g h we w e r e unabl e to r e a c h them. The w h o l e room i s r o u ghly 1 00 f ee t l o n g, 20 f ee t wide, and about 200 feet hig h. At t h e l e ft e nd of t h e r oom, a nd around to -the right of a hi g h jutting b l ade of r ock is a s teep incl ine, 40 feet hig h l e adi n g to a s mall h o l e just unde r a sort of over h a n gi n g roof. This h o l e a ltho u g h s m all, leads to the bo t to m of a muc h l a rger roo m in wh ich the passag e rurn s at right angles to the left. Follow in g t hi s w e found a drop Page 85 in t h e Aoor of t h e passage of abo u t 1 5 fee t t h e walls and face of whi c h were s heer. H owever two small l edges p e rm itted passage across this rock which was 20 feet wide. O n t h e f ur t h e r side, th e pa ssage resum ed for about 40 feet befor e bein g closed b y som e type of cave-in. This pla ce was exp l ore d o n ce befo r e b y R H Hess in 1 9 43 w h o was l owe r e d from abovc o n a sin gle ropc. His nam e was found s m oked o n thc wall of the first room and his footprints w e r e found in thc cnd of the passag e m cnti o n c d imme diatel y above This last area s h o u l d by rou g h g uess, lie some wh e r e n c ar ju st und e r the Queen 's Bath Samuel C. Rain ey Blac ksb ur g, Va. ( 4 / 1 5 / 45 ) TRIO OF PENNSYL Y ANI A CA YES Hine m an Cave August 7, 1 9 45 This cave i s 1 3 miles e a s t of Butl er, Pa o n R oute 422, .7 of a m i l e ove r the county lin e in Armstrong county. T h e prop erty i s own e d b y a Mr. D a n esc h w h ose h ouse i s about 75 f ee t III front o f cave entra n ce o n t h e side of a woode d hill. Arrive d 2 p. m. got p e rmissi o n from own e r Mr. Dan esc h w h o s howe d u s the entrance. C h a n ge d clothes a nd ente r e d cave by 3 p m by c raw l in g into a n o p e nin g two f ee t hi g h a nd three feet wide whic h immediate l y ex panded into a small r oo m about s i x f eet wid e four feet high, a nd 10 f ee t l o n g a t the e n d of whic h was a vert i ca l drop 10 f eet deep; d esce nd e d t his wit h out th e aid o f rope From h ere t h e goi n g i s very wet, two pa ssages l ea d off from this point, o n e alm ost s trai g h t a head and a litde to the left, and the oth e r turns imme diat e l y to the right 1 8 00 into a ma ze of pa ssages, t h e average b e in g f our f ee t hi g h and abo u t four f ee t wide. W e too k this rou t e a nd ex plor e d for about 400 f ee t tll e n ret urn e d for m ore aquip m e n t R e-ente r e d t h e cave at 4 p. m. and ex p l ored nume r o u s passages, l etti n g out string behind lIS. M aze of passages quite confu s ing but genera l directio n seems to b e S. W. Pa ssages ex tr e mel y muddy all t h e way a l t h o u g h no ap preciab l e c reek present. Coa l v e ins vis ibl e in most of pas sages. Seve r a l s m all room s at intersec tions of pas sages. Followed o n e passage, pa y; n g o u t stri n g b e hind us, stoppe d to ta k e bear in gs ; Ris l e r l ost compass w hil e wallowing in mud--n o bearings continued down this passage o n elbows a n d knees-ran out of stringused ar r ows on w all for t h e n ext 400 fee[ sto pp e d to change carbide, passage co n tinu ed in a s light downward path mud gettin g d ee per d ec id ed to turn back a nd r eturne d to entrance. Cave ap pe a r s [0 b e solmi o n form ed. Saw o n e s mall salamander a nd

PAGE 88

Page 86 STRANGFORD CAVE This map not entirely accurate but only an approximation. B U L LET I l' N U B ERE I G H T Formation in vestibule j Stream issuing from under rocks Intersection spot from which string vanished ----/ .--------.... l' Break cow n and mud block stream Several pot-holss alone passage Passage continues _._----------one cave c rick e t about 10 feet in from entrance. Emerged from cave at 8: 35 p. m., w ell mudde d from h ead to feet. Cave has some stala c tite s and flowstone Air temperature in cave is 480 F., many passages left unexplored, made no attempt to map this maze Augus t 8 R e-ente r e d ca v e at 10 a m for photographs and to ex plor e l e ft side pas sage This passag e e nded in a mud choke about 100 f ee t from starting point, but had a small pas sage h e r e leadin g to what l ooke d lik e a fair-siz e d room but entrance to pas sage wou ld h ave to b e e nl arged. Exit from cave at 1 2 n oo n. Mr. Danesch says h e ha s n t b ee n in cave in the last five years, but the las t t im e h e was in alon e he found a good-sized lak e whi c h h e s a ys hi s light cou ld not span, but h e got sca red afte r five h o urs in cave a nd came out, ha sn't been in s in ce. This ma y b e true, but one would n ee d a rubb e r suit to f ollow passages mu c h further. C h anged clothes, packed up t ent and thanke d Mr. Danesc h for hi s h osp italit y and head e d for Stra n gford Cave. 400 Strangford Cave August 8 Cave i s located in an abandone d quarry b e tw ee n the town of Strangfo rd and the Conemau g h River. Arriv e d at 7 p. m. set up t ent and refu e led our breadbasket. Entra nc e to cave i s ga in ed by climbing halfwa y up the side of a rock cliff over l ose debris Entrance cann o t be seen from ground below cliff is about 75 f ee t high. En tered cave at 8: 50 p m. through an opening six f ee t hi g h and seven f ee t wid e, passag e turns to lef t about 350 after enteri n g. Observed a small bird 's n est II fee t in fr o m entran ce on left s ide wall about six feet from floor. Mud slope runs from floor to ce ilin g 011 right sid e of thi s pas sage, whi c h gives the impression o f walking o n the side of a hill. One ha s to walk at an angl e to avoid bumping the ceilin g which f ollows the mud s lope. M easuring thi s way the distan ce from ce iling to mild slop e is five f eet wid e and about 15 feet hi g h This passa ge was f ollowed for ab out 90 fee t wh e r e a right side passag e was v i s ibl e a t top of s lope, climbed up and w ent through to a room five feet high and about 20 f ee t l ong, 1 2 fee t wid e small passag e from here to a vesti-

PAGE 89

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY bule eight feet long, six feet wid e and five feet high, with some formation; very tight squeeze getting through opening, but made it ; pass age s lants down to vestibul e with passag e leading from here to a smaller vestibule and an other from h e r e l ead in g down but too s mall to get IntO. R eturne d to main pa ssage and follow e d to a room seven fe e t hi g h about 50 f ee t l o n g and 20 feet wide, observ e d a m osquito A ying around lantern ma y hav e fol l owed u s in to c av e Continu e d on, and pa ssage opened 111to a room with a s tream in i t and whi c h turned into a rathe r lar ge side passa ge eight feet hi g h 10 feet wide. H o w eve r w e followed the main pa ssage for the time b eing, a l ong the stre am f o r about 200 f ee t m o re, where it ende d in a breakdo wn and mud bl oc k the stre am through t h e rocks R etll1'ne d to inte r sect i o n o f left side pa ssage w h e re s tr eam turns d o wn. Ris ler deci d e d to leave hi s m e a s urin g s trin g h e re until w e go t ba c k and pla ce d a s mall ro c k over the e nd to mark the point at which to start m e a s urin g again. 'vVe starred d o wn t h e side passage whi c h was eight fe e t high, 10 f l:et wide, f o r about 75 feet and came to a vertica l drop of se v e n f eet, go t d ow n W Ith no trouble, passage much narrow e r h ere passed a chimney with a s mall opening in side, c r:lwl e d up seve n feet to a small vest ibul e and over a p o t h o l e three feet in diameter ove r the stream to another s mall vestibule. R eturne d to main passa ge and continue d down s tr eam, pas s age narrows down to a tunnel four feet high and three feet wide with sev e ral pot hole s alo n g the way, l ooked up seve ral m o re chimneys Tunnel takes a s h arp turn to the right, and f ollowed for anothe r 150 f ee t o n knees ancl elbows. Tunne l ha s a ge n e ral d ow nward tre nd and i s p oss ibl e to c rawl h e re without gettin g ve r y w e t a s there ar c manv r aised porti o n s o f r oc k out o f the stre am ; how e ver we gave i t up w h e n the wat e r got d eeper. R eturne d to main passag e at llltersect l o n to resume m e asurIn g and this i s where the g reat dis app earing act happe n e d. About 45 minutes h a d elapsed s inc e we left t hi s point, o f the orig inal IS f oo t m easuring string only four feet was left with the rock still o n the e nd :l11d n o tra c e of the other II f ee t It was probabl y the work of a cave rat, altho u g h w e h :ldn' t seen a n y there was plenty of evide n ce in the way of feet prints. H owever, we put o ne over on t h e anima l ; we pocket e d the re mainin g four feet and no doubt wh e n h e returned for i t h e was as muc h s urprised as we wer e at first. Fro m h e re w e used a random l e ngth o f strin g and m eas ur e d it l ater. two bats, on e l arge and one small. Return e d to entrance, e m erge d from cave at 1 2: 05 a. m. Page 8 7 Temperature in cave is 52 F. R eturne d to tent, changed clothe s and slept till lOa. m. August 9 Reentered cave at I p m. to take photographs; emerged at 2 p. m. pack e d tent and head e d f o r B e ar Cave. Stoppe d in I31airville, Pa., for food, papers, and a rest Arr i ved at n e arest p oint to Bear Cave at 7 p. m., set Up t ent and nude a preliminar y sea r c h for cave no lu c k and gettin g dark ret urn ed to tent and calle d it a day. B ea r Cave August 10 Cave i s l ocated ncar the tow n of Hill side, n e ar a n old lumbe r camp (Camp Blair). I t i s about two mile s up t h e side of a hill f r o m Camp B l air which one ha s to walk The cave i s at the bottom o f an outcrop ping o f lim esto n e ledg e and has seve ral entran ces, all l eadi n g to the sam e main passage As tim e was getting s h ort, we on l y gave this cave a o n ce ove r lightly-(very lightl y, ex pl o red only abollt 400 f eet, m e re l y scra t c hin g the s ur face) The c av e see m s to b e b o rh soluti o n and wate r-w o rn as the ma ze of pa ssages r;se mbl e tunne l s a lmost c ir cula r in shape and having a slight downward tr e nd. Much ev idence of other cave r s h e re-su c h as st rin g, carbide on rocks and arrows p ointing the way out. Obser v e d two salamande rs-orange wit h black spots, one four inches l o n g and the othe r about s ix inches lon g. These w e re see n ab out 40 feet in from the entrance. Cave i s probabl y exte nsiv e and will have to m a k e a return trip. Spent about one and o ne-h a lf hours in cave. No f o rma tio n was o bserv e d in the part explo r ed R eturned to c ar pa c ked and l eft. George Ris l er and A I Mis l ay C l eve land Grotto VPI VALLEY TRIP The Cave Club ha s now b ee n in f our of the commercia l cave rn s o f Virginia. Normallv visiting on l y undeve l opecl and unex p l o re d caves, we d ecide d f o r ju s t this o nce to see h ow it f e lt to walk in a nd out of a cave. watch whi l e sOl1lcbodv c lse t urn e d the l ights o n and off and lis t e n to a g uid e spiel a b o llt the milli o n s o f yea r s that w ent into t h e formation of that parti c ular cavern. Conseq u e ntl y, we hircd a t ru c k and took t hi s littl e trip to which we h ad l o n g look ed forward. L eavi n g about 6 : 30 o n Frida y, l\1f ay 25th, we had a lm ost aotten starte d wh e n it began to rain. Since we were t o s mall tempor:lry set ba c k s of this nature, w e strung a tarpaulin ove r the tru c k to keep the rain off. It didn't work. H owe v er, after seve ral sto ps, we manage d to tie t h e canvas down secl\l'e l y just as it stoppe d raining.

PAGE 90

Page 88 D arkness hid the s pl e ndid s c e n e r y o f the She n a ndoah Vall ey a s w e rod e thro u g h. The trip pass e d uneventfully e n o u g h until w e r e ach e d L exingto n. Dr. J a ckson our facult y s p o nsor had told u s tha t w e c o uld not possibl y turn off the m a in road ro g o throug h the VMI g round s but b y so m e c uriou s c o in c id e n ce w e f o llow e d hi s coup e and n o ti ce d tha t the road b ec ame quite cro o k e d and that a n occ a s i o nal barra ck s appe a re d b e f o r e u s To m a k e our pa ssage kno wn w e ga v e the m a H o k y and s an g a c oupl e o f c h o ru ses fr o m W e D o n t Gi ve a Tinke r 's ---for the \ V h o l e T ow n o f L ex ington." I think w e alm ost bro k e up o n e c rap m ee tin g w hi c h we s aw in pro g ress. A rrivin g a t the Endless C a v e rn s c amping g r ounds about I : 00 a. m. w e pitc h e d camp a nd s l ept lik e s o many lo gs Whe n we aw o k e in the morning, w e f ound that it was a beamiful da y, and the liquid s unshin e was pouring d o wn o n u s b y the b a rrelfull. Afte r a breakfa s t of bac on and eggs, we pil e d into the tru c k a nd c ast off f o r She n and oa h C a ve rns. The truc k was a bit damp, bm w e didn t l e t that b other u s because we f ound that b y t a king tllrn s o n the b a ilin g buc k e t tha t we could almost k ee p ah e ad of the rain. S h e n a nd o ah Cave rns, the o nl y c av e 111 Virg inia with a n e leva to r i s ju stly proud o f it s rar e and b e autiful Diam o nd C ascade, an d it s resp o nse to vari co l o r e d lights wa s ma g nifi cent. A ft e r l eav in g S h e n a nd o ah Cave rns, w e climb e d b ac k into th e tru c k and d rov e o ve r the m ounta in to Lura y. Pro b a bl y the most b ea utiful and the l a rgest o f all the c a ves w e saw it contain e d an astounding numbe r o f lar ge scu lpture d f o rma t i o n s in it s tr e m e nd o u s cathe dral-lik e room s W e w e r e fortun a te, too, in arrivin g in tim e to hear th e c arill o n of Luray rin g Ollt with it s 47 b ells. R eturning to E ndless C av e rns, w e ate suppe r a nd e n t e r e d E ndless Cave rn s in the e v e nin g This c av e was the soluti o n c h a nnel o f an unde r g r ound rive r ; and whil e i t lack ed the f o rm atio n s o f the othe r s b ec au se o f its co m p a rati ve youth, i t prese n te d many s trikin g a nd inte rest in g features, a m o n g these b e in g our g uid e ( F o r further inform atio n sec I. R. Tannenbauml ) Sa turd ay night, in co ntra s t to Frida y, was beautiful a nd the m oo n cam e out, fin ally S in ce n o o n e felt lik e s l ee p i n g, we sat b y th e fire and liste n e d to Di c k South w orth read Oma r Khay am b y the light o f a carbid e lamp A ft e r breakfa s t o n S unda y m o rnin g w e pa c k e d a nd counte d up our equipment (losin g only o n e cantee n c up), a nd starte d o n o u r h o m e ward jo urn ey. W e s topp e d a t Grottoes to see Grand C ave rn s the o l dest comme r cial c a ve in Virg inia. While the re, w e m e t J S P e tri e th e sec retar y o f our N atio nal Sp e leologi c a l B ULLETII'\ NUMB E R EIGHT Soci e t y, and Capt. John Showalte r and w e r e p l ease d to hav e the ir company in the cav e Gra nd Cave rns ranks a lmost e quall y with Lura y, in Its multitude of d elicate and b e autiful f o rmati o ns, and in clud e d m a n y curiou s and unique shi e l d s of limeston e Lunc h consi s t e d o f hotdogs and w ild str a wb e rries, whi c h latte r g r e w in profu s i o n b e low the entrance. The da y was cle ar and warm and a p e rf ec t climax for the trip. On the way bac k three travel ersG. L. Jon e s S outhw orth, and P e trie-l eft us at Way n e sbor o ; but the rest s p e d ba c k to Black sburg, onl y stopping in L e xin gton to o rd e r a VMI sp ecial. W e arriv e d a b out 7: 30, a ft e r hav -1I1g two o f the m ost wond e rfu l d ays an y o f us could 1l11agll1e Sam C. R a in ey B l a c k sburg Va. (May 1945) [ A swell T e p mt, w hi c h The Ed especi a lly l i k ed.:I SPRUCE RUN (ELM TREE) CAVE VA. A cave n ew to VPI Grotto wa s di sco ve r e d thi s quarter, the w ee k e nd o f the N e w Riv e r trip C owles, Krinits k y, R a in ey, and B ernhardt set out S aturday afte rnoon April 14th to in vestigate Hog Hole, suppose d to b e t h e l eg endary N ewport ex it of the N ew Riv e r Cave. A ft e r se v e ral natives prov e d to b e o f n o help in t h e l oca ti o n o f this cave o n e old fell o w did h appe n t o r e m embe r that there was what h e suppose d t o b e a s mall c a ve entrance n e arb y o n the m o untainsid e This was o bvi o u s l y n o t the ca ve w e w e r e se ar ching f o r n e vertheless it pro v e d a worthwhil e find Bri efly, tha t i s wh a t w e f ound. A s m all rubbl e-s lid e e n tran ce s lantin g d own f o r 3 0 feet in to the hill side the n a b out 30 f ee t o f passa ge r e du c in g fr o m 8 f eet hi g h a nd 15 f ee t wide to an o th e r 3 0 f ee t o f passage ju s t brge e n o u g h to c rawl throu g h. U p s l ightly and to the right, a t the b ottom of the s lid e, wa s a s m all rOO:11 with m a n y s m all, pure wh ; te, and odd-shap e d s talactites cover in g the ce ilin g. The ge n eral s t 'ik e o f th e cave thus far i s n ortheas t At t h e e nd o f the c r a w l w e c a n:e to a s::nall. qui e t running stre am flo win g at n e arl y right an g les throu g h a p assa ge large e n o u g h in most places to sta nd in Continuing d ow n s tream 100 f ee t o r so, w e f ound that the stre am n ow flo win g n ortheas t ente r s a lar ge r oo m a t the e nd o f the passa ge. This r oo m w hi c h ha s a mud floo r i s ove r 60 f ee t in diam e t e r a nd ha s a 2 0 foot ce i l in g. On t h e f a r s;de o f t h e room i s a wid e b alco n y, th e ce i l in g o f whi c h i s e n c ru s t e d with o dd-shape d, pure white s talactites, a nd floo r ad o rn e d with m a n y small s ta l a gmites and severa l columns. Se ve r a l blind s h ort passa ges l ea din g from this roo m in a n ortherly dir ectio n were explo r ed. Ea c h of these passa ges e nd e d am o n g tree roots, piles o f w alnut s h ells, and othe r tra s h. The stre am a lso flo w s fr o m the

PAGE 91

NATIONAL SPE L EOLOG ICAL S O C I ETY roo m III a n ortherly dir ectio n, via a tin y o p e nin g pr e s um abl y reaching the s urfa ce at the base of a roc k out cr opping on the c a s t sid e of the knoll. One of the proj e cts for the n ext quarte r i s the explora tion of thi s c av e upstre a m from the point wh e re w e firs t stru ck the stre am A s we had to leav e the c a ve and mov e on up the m ountain, w e r egre tfully postpone d thi s investi gation. Our obj ec t was to climb the m ounta in inv e sti gate what appeare d on the U. S. G. S. maps to b e s ink hol e s on the south s id e o f the m ountain, camp, and j o in the rest of the Grotto at the N e w Riv e r Cave Sunday morning. The furthe r result s of the tre k w ere neglig ibl e The exact l ocation of the Spruce Run C a v e i s a s f o l l ow s : on e-third of a mil e c a s t of May bro o k. o n the high "way b e tw ee n N ewport and Pearisburg, l e adin g b ac k toward s the mounta in, the r e i s a dirt r o ad whi c h run s o n the west side o f the most promin ent o f three or four knolls proj ecting from the m ountain. From the h o us e at the end of thi s r o ad the entrance i s r o ughl y 500 y ard s due e a s t unde r a 50foot elm o f the so-calle d "oa k f o rm," which stands a l o n e s a ve for seve ral sumacs in the pasture. A. B e rnharcl t Blac k sburg, Va. ( 4 / 1 8 / 45 ) KERN S CAVE TRIP W e l ef t Richmo nd, Va., on Saturday, January 29, 1 9 44 to vi sit c aves in Shenandoah Valley The party fille d two au tomo bil e s and c onsi s t e d o f Mr. W m. J ones ( driv e r), E l ton Bro wn ( l e ad e r and driv e r), L oretta Kurtz Ann Richard s on, Gra ce Dinsmore, Mrs W o lf e Nelso n Fit zhugh, More llians, Don Cle m ents, Bill Fo s ter Bob Evans and Sam W o lf e L e avin g Richmond at 2 : 15 p m. the p arty drov e to Zio n Cross R o ads on R oute 60 turne d right to G o rd o ns ville to S wift Run Gap, up Sk y lin e driv e to Pano rama, and to Lura y Afte r regi s t e rin g at h o t el, w e ate dinne r and drov e to Lura y C av e rns. The u s ual c h a r ge f o r entra n ce t o the cav e rns nearb y i s $2. 00 but the entire p arty w a s admitte d free of charge This was b y previo u s arran ge ment b e tw ee n the m e m b e r s o f the s o c i e t y and the manage m e n t o f the cave. An employee o f the c av e was our g uide, and the party was conduc t e d throug h undeve l o p e d p o rti o n s of the c av e as w ell a s throug h the c omme r c i ally ex ploit e d part s The cav e rn i s fille d with s t alactites a nd s t alagmites of diff e r ent hues and col o r s Artific i a l lig ht:n g was installe d b y the G e n e ra l Electric C ompany a nd t h e lights ar e plac e d to show the interio r o f the c av e to the best advan ta ge. Grave l walk s a nd c on c re t e s t e p s hav e b ee n in s tall e d to accommodate the public. A portion o f the cav e ha s b ee n s caled off b y a roc k w all Page 89 havin g a trap d o or the re in A ir fr o m the seale d p o rti o n i s drawn up b y fan s and u se d t o coo l tbe o wn e r s b o u se. Our g uid e o p e n e d the tra p d oo r ( whi c h h e f o uncl with c o nsid e rabl y diffi c u l ty) and w e ente re d thi s p o rti o n of the cave This sectio n w a s undevelo p e d a nd require d c ra w lin g at v ariou s p oints The walls and A oo r s w e re damp and the colorin g was n o t a s beauti ful. The guide expla in e d t hat m a n y yea r s ago a l gae was b ro u g h t into t h e commerc i a l p art o f the cave, possibl y o n the s h oes o f v i s i to rs, and that i t was resp o ns ible f o r the g reat e r co l o rin g in t h e co m m e rcial part. Mr. Bro w n J o nes and F oste r were zealo u s in e xpl o rin g many side pa ssages. This cav e was the first cave comme r c i ally e x ploit ed s u ccess full y in thi s sectio n o f t h e country, and the g uid e state d that it had b ee n a source of cons i dera bl e wea l t h to It s s u ccess I ve o wn e r s It i s easily a ccessi ble a nd l oca t ecl n c ar an important hi g hw ay A total o f a b out tw o and o n e half h Olll"s w a s s p ent in the c ave. The party s lept in Luray, and t h e n ex t m o rnin g afte r breakfa s t dro v e ove r the M assanutte n M ounta in a t N e w Marke t Ga p to the to wn of New M a rk e t. T u m i n g right, they d rove to Wood stoc k Va. Leavin g \ Voo d s to c k the p arty too k the F a irvi e w roa d. This ro a d lead s to w a rd the All ege h e n y M ountains a nd ente r s \ Voo d stoc k thro u g h North F oundry S tr ee t. Dri ving f our miles to F a irvi e w (old n a m e i s Al o n za ville), a righ t turn was m a d e o n to t h e Bac k Road. One mil e was driv e n o n this r oad a nd a l eft tlIrn wa s made a t a white bung alow This road l e d to the m ountain a nd was ab out o n e -half mile. The c ave was l oca t ed in a field a t the e n d o f t h e ro ad a nd as i t mad e a l ef t turn to run a l o n g the f oo t o f the m O llntain It i s a t the r e ar o f t h e Windle f arm a nd I S o n the o l d Maury pla ce (s in ce sold) Sto ppin g o n the r o ad w e w e n t to the c a ve s e n t r a n ce. Mr. Br ow n J o n es, and Fost e r e xpl o r e d sev e r a l cr ev i ces b e tw ee n the r oc k s bllr f ound the pas s a ges plugged b y mud and d ebris A large a r ea dra ins n a turall y to the cave Old p erso ns in t h e vi cinity h a d told Mr. Ev a ns tha t p e rsons h a d ente r e d the cav e f o r 100 feet and h a d com e to a ve rti cal d ro p that pre v ente d furthe r e a sy p e n etra tio n A c a reful survey o ve r all the a dja cent land wa s m a d e f o r the purpose o f findin g othe r entrances. A s mall o p e n in g was found, but it w a s i n suffic i ent f or a perso n to crawl m o re t h a n five fee t the re in. This cave not b e in g e xpl o r able, it was decide d to go to t h e K e rn 's Cav e Mr. Richard W a hl form erly a n ex am i n e r in the P a t ent Office, had suggeste d thi s c av e to soc i e t y m embe r s L e av in g the I Vfaur y Cave, the p arty dro ve a mil e o n the ro a d running alon g t h e ba se o f the m ountain. The road pa sses

PAGE 92

Page 9 0 C harle s Schwarz s pla ce. In te r secti n g t h e continuatio n o f the F a irvi ew R oa d t h e p arr y c r osse d (hi s r o ad and c on tinue d o n the road parallel to the Illountain. About o n e and o ne-half or two mile s d o wn the road and afte r COIll ing d ow n a hill o f a couple hundre d y ards, w e c am e to Mr. Philip K e rn 's house, or rathe r to (h e dri veway l e ad IIlg the r eto The h Ollse set back 5 0 o r m o re y ard s fr o m t h e r o ad towa rd the m O lln ta in. CAVE .!! L Kern's '" + :.; House '0 [ g '1.5 Miles Fairview L.utheran Church "l l[ L Cl LL Windle o Fan" I Mile I Whit e Bungalow ---+-___ N Pike Stoppin g in t h e ro ad Mr. Bro w n and Ev a n s w ent to Mr. Philip K e rn 's h o m e and a s k e d p e rmissi o n to explo re the c a ve w hi c h i s in the middl e o f a field at the base of a walnut tr ee The field i s o n the side o f a hill ab out 200 f eet hi g h and the s l o p e f ro m the road to the c a ve i s ve r y s t ee p. The c ave had an entra n ce h o l e a b out s i x feet in diame t e r a t an a n g l e o f ab out 700 Afte r att a c hin g r o pes to the walnut t ree, the parr y l owe re d t h e msel ves d o wn the in c lina t i o n to the A oo r the reof. This w a s a di stance o f ab o u t 5 0 f eet. At ab o llt o ne-half t h e h e i ght o f the c av e a Iate r ; d branc h le d to t h e left. This ex t e nd e d also for ab o u t 50 f eet. Both passa ges w e re suffic i e ntl y hi g h to stand up i n : d t h ollg h the lateral pa ssage e nd e d in :t cr a w lin g pa s sage a b ollt s i x feet in length. A crev i ce ex t e nd ecl fr o m a side o f the lat e r : d bra n c h to t h e bottom o f the ve rti cal pa ssage. The c a ve h a d n o othe r s llb s t a ntial p ass a ges Mr. Philip Ke/'ll and hi s s i s t e r Mrs R ice cam e to the cave ;1Ild in v i te d the partv to t h e ir h o me. Afte r lea v in g B U L LET 1 N N U 1 ... 1 BElt E 1 G H T t h e c ave, w e w ent the re, wa s h e d up, changed our clothe s and drank h o t coffee furni s h e d b y Mrs. Rice, L e avin g about 4 o clo c k, w e drov e to Shenandoah Cave rns, n e ar Mt. Jac kson To r e a c h Woodstoc k from K ern's C ave, w e drov e back ov e r the road we had co m e to the Fairview Road and tben to W oo d s to c k on the F:tirview Road W e dro v e south on the Vall ey Pike (No, II) from Woods to c k to :rvft. J:tc k s on. B ec ause the brid ge to the c av e rns a c ross Shenandoah Riv e r was w a s h e d out, w e had to tak e a c ir cuituo u s route the re to Arrivin g at the S h enandoah Cave rn w e m e t Mr. Chap man, the own er. Afte r consid e rabl e discussion b y Mr. Bro w n and J o nes as to the aim s o f the soc i e t y ;lI1d its V I SItS to othe r comme r c ial c aves, :rvfr. Chapman in vite d u s t o sec hi s c av e grati s The u s ual charge wa s $1.6 5. The cave i s ente r e d b y an elevato r and the cave Aoor i s e ntirel y o n on e l e v el. It w:ts a ve r y b e autiful ca v e and ha s many pretty formati o n s Lights w e re situate d so as to pre s ent t h e sce nes in the best p oss ibl e w a y b y illumina tIo n e n gInee r s L eaving Shenandoah C av e rn s ab out 7: 30 p. 111., the party dro ve to Harrisonburg and e nj oye d dinner. The return to Richmond wa s b y way o f Elkton, S wift Run Gap ove r the Blu e Rid ge M ountains, and Gordonsvill e Zi o n C ross R o ads, ;lI1d the Charlottesville R o ad. B o b Evans CARPENTER S CAVE C arp ente r 's C a ve, o n C arp ente r pbce, Farman, \ V Va., was vis it e d b y the N ati o nal S p eleo logi cal Soc i e t y o n April I 1 9 44. Directio n s f o r r e a ching it : Turn right fro m R oute 4 2 b e t wee n P e t e r sburg and Blirlin g ton W Va., a t s m all s tore, onto road know n a s P atte r s on C reek Pike Follow that f o r 6 8 miles t o a brid ge, The n take a right an gle turn at the brid ge, and f ollo w the r o ad until you re a c h vallev at t h e f oo t o f Orr's Peak in Patterson Mts The party v i s itin g thi s c a ve 011 April 1 s t park e d the c ar s a s h o rt wa y b eyond the farmho u se. Se v e ral of the party walk e d west across the pa sture, and f ollo w e d the c rest o f the hill s that run in a r o u g h semi-circle, until they ente re d the w oo d s The rest of the party f ollo w e d t h e ro ad d ow n to the foot of the hill and the n right with it for ab out a quarte r o f a mile. \ V h e n the r o ad t urn e d l ef t up w ard ;Ig ain the party continue d s trai ght ah e ad ove r t h e woo d e n f e n ce f o r p erhaps 3 00 y ard s o r so, and the n turne d left uphill f o r several hllndre d f ee t. The parties con ve r ge d a nd a hunt f o r t h e c a ve entrance began It was finall y l ocate d in a d epress i o n in the ground, quite l ost to v i e w unde r a b out two f ee t o f d e ad l e aves. It lay ab o llt 2 0 feet n orth o f a lar ge fall e n tree, with nothin g outs t a ndin g t o m a rk it s l oc ati o n.

PAGE 93

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY AEre r c learin g away the d ebris a nd dead leaves a bol e a little ove r two f ee t in dia m e te r was d i s closed A s afet y rope was l o w e r e d Petrie was h a rn esse d a nd w e l l sec u re d to a l o w er in g ro pe. T h e f ollo win g d escr ip t i o n was given b y him to C hri s N f ansfie l d and Br ow n over t h e portabl e t e l e p h o n e: T h e ope ning w ent straig h t d owll a bo u t s i x feet to a ledge with root s of trees s h ow in g all a r ound. T h ere t h e p assa ge wide n e d to ab o u t 1 0 feet. U nd e r t h e ledae was a t:> h o l e tha t l oo k e d l ik e a s mall seconda r y entra n c e P e tri e w ent ove r t h e l e d ge a nd d own t o a b o u t 30 feet wh e r e t h e p ass age close d up to the s i ze of the entra nce. The n it r e a c h e d a s l o p e h e was a b l e to sta nd o n. The pas s a ge n a r rowe d and was bare l y brae e n o u a h to aCt thro u a b b b b b 1 a nd t h e g r ound very d amp. A t 50 fee t dow n i t b o r e off in an N E. dir ectio n A t 65 fee t i t was still o nl y a round h o l e a b our two fee t in d i a m e t e r w i t h walls of s h a rp r o u g h ro c k. A t 75 feet h e e n co un te r e d bottom w h e re h e found a log ab o u t s i x feet l o n g, and reporte d b e was standing o n b o u l d ers throw n into t h e cave. L e ad wid e n e d into a pit a b out 1 9 feet b y tbree feet The re w a s a h o l e ab our e i a h t in c hes wid e s till aoin g d ow n b b p ass i n g a n o p e nin g a b out four feet hi g h o n e f oo t wide at the to p and a b o u t t w o f ee t at the b ase. The re was a c r ac k in the ope nin g t hat e n a bled him to see a b out 20 feet b eyo nd bur muc h too s mall to enter. H e t h e n f ollo w e d t h e lead go in a off a b out 4 5 dear ees b b N E., a t t h e end o f w hi c h h e could sec a pit about e i ght f ee t in diame ter. It was a to t a l of 9 0 feet d ow n to t h e to p o f the pit, and t h e n a vertical d escent o f 1 2 fee t to t h e b ase of the p i t c i rcula r in s h ape. The re was a sec ondary chimney l e ad i n g off t h e p it b u t i t was o n l y a f ew in c hes w i de. N o lead s an y wh e re. The r e was an o p e nin g a t t h e bottom of the pit about t h ree feet wide, w hi c h wid e n e d out un d e r ove r l a ppin g l e d ges o f about o n e a n d o n eh a l f fe et. B e l ow thi s was a n othe r ope n i n g a b out o n e and o ne-h a l f fee t wide. Tha t ap p e a re d to b e the end of t h e cave; but the rock look e d unde r c ut, so s m all lead s of a f ew inc hes co u l d go off The cave was o f lim esto n e con tai n e d som e A owstone, a nd o n e bi g sta l a g mi te. A t t h e e n d of hi s ex p l o rin g there was 110 f ee t o f lead r o p e pl aye d out, but 1 2 f ee t of that was bte r a l a nd n o t vertical d e sce n t. C hri s t in e Mans field S u b t e rran e a n Wond e r l a nd " b y D o roth y F e r rell H ay d e n in AMER ICAN FORES T S f o r A pri l 1 9 4 5 (p. 170). A n Atlanta Ga w r i te r and photograp h e r the author desc ribes (acco m p ani e d with exquisite illu s tra t i o n s ) t h e "gr a nd eur b e n eath the fo rest A oo r o f L oo k o llt Mountain ," n c a r Chattanooga T enn. Page 9 1 TWI N CAVES OF CA VE MOUNTAI N (Smo ke hole W. V a.) As h ost s to o ur party at H e r m it I sbnd L o d ge we arc indebted to Mr. a n d M r s Charles Neville, of Franklin. O n Thurs d ay evening, J u l y 27 a group from t h e Sum m er T rai ning Cam p at Chestnu t Ridge ( ncar Cooper's Rock N f o n o n ga l i o Co.) arrIv e d at H ermit I s land L o d ge in p repa r ation for a hi ki n g and caving ex p e d i tion for t h e next two da y s R ev. A l fr e d L ee K l aer, Student Pa sto r at Cornell Uni vers ity, I t h aca, N Y and fou nd e r o f the C h estn u t Rid ge Camp, a n d t h e w r it e r w e re in charge. Fr i da y, J u l y 28, t h i s gro u p hik e d to the c abin h o m e of A n d y A y res, Smokehole 's o l dest reside nt. tv fr. Avre s 94 years o l d was f o u nd in bed u nd e r doct o r 's c ar e T h e gro u p san g a number of h ymns and fol k -so n gs while there. Tha t eve nin g Mr. C h arles Neville of Frankl i n w a s a g u est at d inn er. The yo ung peop l e aErer dinner e n ter tain e d Mr. Neville by putting o n various stunts aro und the cam p f ires W hile t h e entertainment was pro c ee di n g f ive m embe r s of t h e N.S.S. arrived fro m R ich m ond, Va. ; Mr. \iVilli a m J. S t ep h e n son, Presi d e n t ; J S. Petrie, V. Pres. and Sec re ta r y ; Mr. a nd M rs. Bur ton F au s t ; a nd M iss L o retta Kurz. Early Saturday m o rnin g, with f ull cave equipm ent, the party of 27 peo pl e too k t h e Cave R ock trail i n t h e R e cre a tion a l P ark arr ivin g at T win Cave s at 11: 00 a. m T he gro u p was di v i d e d into t h ree parties h e ad e d bv Stephen son P etri e a nd R obinson Petrie a nd pa r t y ex p l o re d Cave No. 1 a n d u pper pas sage o f Cave No.2. S t ep h e nson a n d party e xp l ored u ppe r a n d l owe r passages of Cave No.2; R o b i nson a n d party exp l o r e d l ow e r passag e of Cav e No.2. T w in Caves are l ocate d at south east e n d o f Cave N ft. at 2 500 feet ab ove sea l evel, 1 I 00 f ee t abov e the b e d of t h e river. They op e n at t h e base of a l i mesto n e cliff its ba re face promin e ntl y exposed as o n e ente r s Smok e H ole f ro m U p pe r T r act. The openings f a ce du e sou t h Cave No. 1 i s the s m alle r o f the two a n d about 50 fee t abov e t h e level of Cave No.2, but abo u t 200 ya r ds downgrade a l o n g t h e edge of the cliff. Fro m Eagl e R ock a pro m in ent lan d m a r k opposite Eagle Grove. n e ar Briggs Run T win Caves arc approxi m ate l y o ne h a lf m i l e south e a s t a nd di rectly a b ove B i g S prin gs. Fr o m t h e begin n in g of the well m a rk ed [[':Iii in t h e Recre atio n a l Park to T w in C:lves, t h e dista nce i s t wo m i les. T h e trail curs slantwise up the w est face of Cave M t. thro u g h a h eavi l y-s h ad e d forest. Ev e n t h o u g h t h e ( b y was w a r m t h e gro u p d i d not t i re a r riv in g at the to p in good spirits, r eady to undertake all h aza rd s

PAGE 94

Page 92 T win Caves 11Jve b ee n regularl y visited for many year s The ea rli est d ate was see n in the l owe r pa ssage of Cave No.2, t h e date b eing 1 769. It wa s burm on no o n e studie d the figures to n o t e if t h ey were burnt on b y c arbid e ; if so, the date was phony But the r e was plenty of ev id e n ce that torches h ad b ee n used, and tha t fir es h ad b ee n made in vario u s s e ctions. Sa lt p e ter, in year s galle b y, had b ee n extrac t e d. Names a nd date s wer e fOllnd in many pla ces. One name and p l a ce wa s especially noted in Cave No.2: A. A. Gowanns, L o nd on, Eng land. Mr. Steph e n so n President o f the Society s ays that the caves hav e n o connecti o n and ar c the ref ore tw o eIi> tinct c a ves. They hav e in common the same general forma tion -thn is, l o n g g all eries, ab out 2 5 feet wide, and ; lVera g in g from 1 2 ro 40 feet in h e i g h t, the r oo f uniforml y that of an an tic l i n e The Roor s a r c strew n wit h l arge b o uld ers, making it n ecess ar y to move s l owly and c alltiou s l y. Very littl e m o isture was present. The r e were no separate r oo ms. Several funnel-sh aped Aues were observed The o utstanding formati ons were co ral pillars, columns, and A ; lke. In the l atter w e r e found im b e dd e d numero u s s mall fossilize d sea-s hells. A l ong the rig h t side of the galle r y in the l ower pas s age about half way to t h e dead e nd wa s a bulged cove rin g of the wall r e a c h i n g from the Aoor to t h e ce iling l ook in g lik e a permane !l[ wave on the h e ad o f a giant goddess. Lo cal stories co n cerning Twin Caves ;lre s imiliar to those ex pr esse d e l se wh e r e -that the c ave s ha ve many pas sages whi c h ha ve n e v e r b ee n fully ex plored ; and that m e n hav e b e e n known to co m e out at exits seve ral mi les di stant from t h e entrance vVhat arc the cau ses for s u c h s tori es to ari se and b eco m e wid e l y c irculat e d amon g the l oca l inh:lbitan ts, i s a CJuest i o n for the psyc h o l og i s t. Accord in g to the findings of the s pel eo l ogists who studied and mappe d Twin Caves o n thi s trip there i s n o r e a so n to b e l ieve that th e c av es extend more than a CJuarte r of a mile I t i s r e asonabl e to assume the n : ar c oth e r pas sages ba c k of t h e b l oc k e d e nds, but no pas s a ges were di sco v e r e d that wer e large enou g h for a man to sCJuecze throug h. Bats were fair l y nume rou s Above the entrance of Cave No. I l y in g alo n g a ledge of r oc k the writer got a s peci m e n of an unknown salamande r w hi c h h e sent to James Fowler for i e f entifica tion The three panies reas sembled at the entran ces and pro cee d e d down the trai l arrivin g at H ermit Island Lodge around 5 p. Ill. It w;]s a da y in whi c h b oth mOllntain climb in g and c av e explo rin g we r e combine d. The view from the entrance of the c aves was worth the trip The officials o f the Society w e r e v e r y much p l ease d lis tin g Twin Caves among the largest yet dis c over e d In Wes t Virginia. Following i s the complete p e r sonne l of the gro u p 1I1 B L ; L I. E TIN N U B E I ( E I G H T addition to those named: Fritz and V e ronica Gi es eler Wilmington, D el.; L o i s Parmelee, Pittsburg h, Pa. ; Ariel D. Robin so n Arthurdale, W Va. ; Linda 1vfartin, Wes t bury L. I., Y. ; Mary Elle n Proppe r Fore s t Hills, N. Y. ; J eannette Z e m el', D e troit, Mich.; and, from New York, N Y. Charl es \ Nest Anne Lise Str au ss, Joan D c Keyser, A m y Sc h e u er, Elle n Sperro, Yurika Morikawa, R oge r Baldwin David Brisk Thomas Marill David P e rrin Rob ert Richter, Clive Schlossb erg a nd James Finkles t e in. F elix D. Robinson, Arthurdale, 'IN Va. (7/ 29 /44) DULANEY CAVE, UNIONTOWN, PA. jl,!JemiJers of p Clrl. y : Dr. R. W. Stone of Pennsy l van ia, and th e Cleve/and grou p cons isti llg o f lVir. and 1111'S Wm. Blaha, LVii'. and LVlrs. Earl Gumz, Bett y A. Yo e Al Mislay c/I7d Geor g e Risley. \tV e s t;1rt e d our trip at Summit Hotel Sunday morn in g, 1 0 o 'c l oc k in the middl e of a t e rrifi c r ; lin storm w hi c h las t e d until n oo n. Taking the first road e;1st of Summit Hotel, w e turne d south for three miles to t h e f o rk in the road. Taking the right fork for anoth e r mil e a nd -a-h a lf we thcn turne d right on :111 o l d wash e d -out roa d for an oth e r o n e-half mil e thro u g h the woods down the rid ge The cave i s ente r e d from the side of the hill. The r e ar e tw o entrances the main entrance b eing t h e larger o ne, w hi c h w e u sed. The first trip was l e d b y Dr. Sto n e who took a baro ; n eter r eading at the entrance, to b e u se d in determinin g the d epth of cave at farthes t point of p e n e tra tion 'INc lit our Col emans and c arbid es, then proceeded down the main passage w hi c h was a rathe r s t ee p and rock y s l ope leadin g to t h e Dining Roo m t h e fir s t lar ge s i zed room in the c ave. Taking o ne of the nume rous passages from the dining r oom, we continue d downward until w e hit one of the three s treams a nd followed the stream to the main pa s sage to the Ballroo m, and continued downstream pa s t the roc k kn()wll a s "Man's H ea d. At thi s point Dr. StolIc took anothe r barome ter r eading whi c h s h owed that lVe wer e ;lpproximate l y 28 0 f ee t below the entrance. \Nhilc Dr. Sto n e and the girls w e r e taking the barome t e r r eading, the oth e r s continue d d ow n t h e passage to the far e nd of the cave, whe r e the stre am forks off the pas sage we were follow in g. H e r e Al Misl a y dammed the stream and r e-routc d it into anothe r pas s age that pete r e d out, the n all r eturned to wher e Dr. Stone and the g irl s wer e waiting. 'IN e r eturne d to the ca r s after a fas t trip out, as Dr. Stone had a I o'c l ock appointment. Afte r a brief r est, we r e-ente r e d the cave with photographic eCJuipment ( in cluding A I 's m ov i e camera) into the Dining Room, and took Aas h pic ttl!'Cs. Becau se we w e re pressed for time and

PAGE 95

NATIO AL SPELEOL OG I CA L SOCI ETY George Risl er, A I Mis l ay, fin d Willi a m Bl aba ( in liS lIa l ord er ) "tak e 5" in Dulaney C ave, near Pa. the equIpment was cumbe rsome, Al and Geo r ge returned the equIpment t o the car s The n w e pro cee d e d to re trac e our s t e p s to the point wh e re AJ h a d damme d the stream and h e expl o re d the form e r strea m pa ssage to it s e nd which p e t e r s out wh e r e the stream ran d own a crac k in the r oc k. We r eturne d to the main passage, took the right-hand fork a nd about 20 0 f ee t in w e saw quite a few b a t s and so m e l arge s tala ctites. This point seems to b e t h e o nl y sectio n o f the c a ve in which the r e i s an y apprec iabl e a m ount of f or m atio n. Continuing on f o r about 6 00 m ore f ee t w e n o t e d that the tim e was getting s h ort; a nd a s the c av e s h owe d no indic a tions of p e t er in g out, w e dec id e d to m a k e a fast trip ba ck to the c ars. VYe left the cav e at 5:30 p m According to t h e avai l ab l e m ap of the ca v e w e only cove re d about on e-third of it, the r e wer e m a n y m o re p as sages that l ook e d in viting, but w e couldn't ex pl ore the m ex t e nsiv e l y due to lac k of time. The articl e in B ULLETI N No. 4 m e nti o ned that the m a p was ba ckwa rd s We found that the orig inal m a p i s co rrect W e had the map with us and or i ente d the map a long with the pa ssages, a nd found the a rrow pOllltl11g corr ec tl y on the map. We took a t empe r ature reading in the cave, whi c h s h owed 54 d egrees. Dr. Ston e pointe d out the cross b e d ding of t h e limestone. W e s aw a live snai l near t h e e n trance and an orange centipe d e far in the c ave. Vve f ound som e white fung u s growth in the Dining Room. R e pro Page 9 3 duced h e re are two of t h e pIctures t a k e n in the Dining R oo m. FURTHER WORK I B etty Y oe, Cl evela nd O. (9/ 9 /45) BLOWING CAVE The party w hi c h composed thi s trip was di v id e d into three sections. The firs t sectio n under the leaders h ip of H e rb er t Vincent was designate d as the Exp l or in g Party This party co n s i s t e d of J oh n P e tri e v Villiam P etrie, an d Vv'illiam J o n es, beside the lead er. The second section unde r the l eade r s h ip of Bill Step h en son was desi gnate d a s the Mappin g and U tilit y Party and was composed o f Floyd B arIoga, G o rd on, K o hl e r S t e rns, and D rysda l e The third p arty was under the l e adership o f Earl Porter, and was desi g n a t e d as the L e veling Party, a nd was com p ose d of \;Villiam F oster and A lvin Guttag. J ohn Shuwalte r with three youn g bo ys, constitute d a n additi o n t o the third p a rt y The purpose o f t h e Expl o rin g Party w a s to make its w ay a s quickl y as p ossib l e to the s tream and to follow the stream d o wn t h e re and to explore the sam e a s far a s p oss ibl e or until a n absolute end was re a c h e d The m embe r s w e r e supposed to c a rr y t h e n ecessa r y r o p e and othe r p a r aphe rn a lia for the ir purpose. They were also to string ro pes in the d a n gero u s pla ces to e n a bl e the parties to follow afte r the m. The Mapping o r Utility Party had as its m a in purpose

PAGE 96

Page 9 4 to c h ec k the previously prepare d map of the cave as far back as the stream for details, and note such co rrections as were found. This party was a lso charged with the duty of takin g t emperatures a nd collecting an y fauna observed. They were a lso t o exper im ent with various m ethods d ea! in g with the mud of Blowing Cave such as the cutting of ste p s in the mud bank, the use of ropes the possiblf" u se of clea n cloth s f or Wlpll1g the mud off a p e rson 's hands, etc. The L eve ling Party's prime purpose was to run an ac curate lin e of l e ve l s from the Cow Pasture river which flow e d 100 ya rd s from the cave, in to the stream in the ba c k o f the cave. This lin e of l eve l s was to b e run with an acc ura cy within the ran ge o f s ix inches. R esults The Expl or in g P arty was a bl e to work to a p oint a b out 75 feet further o n down strea m t h a n had b ee n prev i o u s l y reached. They the n tu r n ed back because a r ope wa s r equire d to go o n further for saf e t y. It lat er turne d out that this pa 'rty, by some oversight, had l e ft the r o pes provided for that purpose in the car outs id e and that th e e lab ora t e preparations previously mad e for their w o rk accounted for practically nothing In sp it e o f the fact, the Expl o rin g Party had pushed o n 75 f eet and was stopped o nl y be cause of l ac k of proper equipment. All of the m embe r s o n this party admitted that eve n with prop er eq uipm ent they would not ha ve been able to n egotiate any further B ULLETI N N MBER EIGHT Anne Blaha B etty Yoe ( S ec retary 0/ tbe C leveland Grotto). nnd Ethel Gumz lis e the same spot tor n sbot. in Dll i ane y Cnvc. before they would ha ve b ee n co mpl e tel y wo rn out and forced to turn back At the point where the Exploring Party was forced to turn ba c k the cave was compose d of a l arge room, roughly 75 feet across and 20 to 30 feet above floor l evel. The side walls of the room ex tend e d downwardly from the roof approximately 10 to 2 0 f eet, and the n s lop ed t owa rd the center o f the room, similar to the sides o f a funnel. This slope on eac h side is compose d of a mud bank l y in g a t a n angl e of repose t y pical to this kind o f cave. In the center of the room the floor of the cav e was form e d b y a pool which was about three or four f ee t wide a nd was five to s ix feet b e l ow the edges of the mud bank. The mud banks dropped ve rti cally into the pool, or evell co uld b e said to b e slightly underc ut. These b anks were so s l ipp e r y that the ir traverse was tho u ght to b e too hazard ous without a sa f e t y rope, o r at l eas t som e m ea n s to pull o n e out should they h ave s l ipped and fall e n into the pool. Steps cut in the mud bank gave goo d support for a few minutes and the n gradually gave way under the w e i ght of the explor er. Even had o n e p e r so n b ee n able to cut hi s way b y m ea n s of steps across the mud banks, it i s doubtful whether the s t eps had held s uffici ent to p e rmit passage o f the e ntir e explor in g party. The Mapping o r Main Party ge n erally attained all of the ir o bj ectives. The previo u s map was co rr ec ted back as far as the stream and the stream map completely d o n e to the point where the exp l ori n g party was forc e d to turn

PAGE 97

ATIONA L SPE LEOLOGICAL SOC I E T Y b ac k. S e v e ral t emperature re adin gs w e r e tak e n but n o cav e fauna wa s o bserv e d The L e velin g P arty w a s an outs t a ndin g s u ccess. T h ey w e re ab l e to run a lin e of level s fr o m the Cow P asture ba c k to the stre am. It i s b elieve d tha t these lines o f l evels w e r e a ccurate to l e s s th:ll1 three in c hes. The l e velin g procedure was excee d in g l y s l o w a s it took co nsid e r a b l e tim e to d o the exterio r l e v e lin g as the t emperature o utsid e the cave was d o wn to 1 5 and the muddy co ndition o f the interio r of the c a ve prevente d the attainment o f a n y hi g h degr ee of sp ee d. The party unde r Showal t e r ex p e rim ente d with the use of wal ki et a lki e outfits f o r c a ve w o rk The yo un g b oys unde r hi s dir e ction se rved v e r y w ell a s assistants f o r hi s ex p eriments It i s beli e v e d that these results, to gethe r w ith the othe r d e tai l s will b e re p o rtd at som e othe r time. A t present, t h e walki et a lki e app ears t o b e too l a rge a n d cumbe rsom e a n in strument f o r u se in cave ex pl o rati o n SMmmary of ResMlt s a n d Recommendations The E x p l o rin g Party a dv a n ce d t h e ex pl o r atio n o f thi s cave so m e 75 f ee t. It i s recommen d e d that in future all explor ati o n equipment b e c heck e d b y t h e p arty l e ad er b efo r e ente rin g the c a ve to b e s ur e that all I t e m s whi c h ar e p lanne d to b e c arri e d b y the p arty a re prese nt. Fro m the ex p erie n ce o f t hi s and pri o r ex pl o rations, it wo uld appear that ex p l o r atio n in this t y p e o f cav e can pro babl y b e d o n e b y degr ees, a n d tha t a n a d va n ce of 5 0 to 100 f eet m ay b e co nsid e re d as set for a n indi v idu a l explo rin g p a r ty. The co rrect e d m a p and addit i o n a l sectio n s o f thi s cave w ere co mpl e t e d b y the M appi n g Party. 0 serIO U S e r rors w e r e f ound on the fir s t map, a nd o nl y a f e w min o r co r rec tio n s w e re f ound n ecessa r y T emperature re adin gs we re fou n d t o b e 1 8 at cave entra n ce 4 2 a t entra n ce to k ey h o le, 4 9 at entrance to "break -aIeg" r oo m 52 at b reak -a-Ieg" r oo m 5 6 i n s tream r oo m and s tream temperature was 57 Appa re ntl y tile enti re A o w of t h e air at tllis tim e of tile yea r is into t h e ca ve, a nd the cav e is c oo l ed for a consid era bl e d ista n ce b ack. d ue to the inru s h of air. T his great and s t eady A ow of air a p pea r s to in d i cate t h e presence of some othei' o p e n i n g f o r thi s c a ve whi c h has not yet b ee n f ound. The R ow o f a ir wa s stro n g as far as t h e b reak-aIeg" roo m and w a s noti cea bl e in all p assages back a s far as the s t re am r oo m D o wnstream, t h e air c urrents seemed to b e b l o win g up the strea m rath er than d o wn but a n y aIr m o v e m ent w a s so s l ight that c andles blink e d a l o n g the route d o wn strea m without a n y noti ce o f flic k eri n g of t h e light. The M a ppin g P arty was a ble to follo w a s far as til e Explo rin g P arty. From thi s ex p e r ience. i t w o uld a p pear Page 9 5 that mapping data can b e ta k e n effic i e ntl y w h erever a cave can b e exp l ored. H owever, it appears m u c h m ore efficient t o sep a r ate the functi o n s of t h e M appi n g and Expl o r i n g P a rti es. Whe n t h e end of the explore d p o rti o n h a d b ee n reac h e d the instruments o f t h e m a ppin g p a rty had b eco m e so mud-covere d as to b e p r actically usel ess. It is d o ubtful t hat the ma pping co uld h ave b ee n exte nd e d very muc h f urth e r wit h o u t a fres h set of instruments. [n muddy caves of t hi s type, it appea r s t hat t h e mapping s h o uld b e do n e i n sec t i o ns. The L eve lin g Party did n o t a p pea r to s u ffer as severely fro m mud sin ce t h ey did not reac h into t h e ex tr e m e muddy porti ons o f t h e cave. There is n o reaso n h o w eve r t o d oubt t hat they will be a bl e to run a l i n e of l e v e l s thro u g h a n y p o rti o n of t h e cave i f t his l i n e i s exte n ded only to a s mall w ay a t a t i me. Experi e n ce b y all parties s h owed t hat i t was practically imposs' ibl e to car ry suffic ient rags to allow the party to c lean u p a nd k eep i t s instruments clea n once t h ey were put 111 use. W. J Steph e nson ( 1 / 9 /44) DOWN INTO THE V IRGINIAS TO GRAND CAVE RNS, VA. The D a vis, W. Va. trip ce l e bratin g J ack P re bl e's h o me com i n g f ro m the wars h av in g falle n t h ro u g h the week-eno of May 27 bid fair to b e s p eleo logically b a rr e n excr.pt for s tu dent p a rty to B reathi n g Cave. A cop y of t h e V PI. GrapeVine schedu l i n g a VPI trip to t h e Shen andoah Valley com i n g to P ete's a t tention Saturday morn i n g was e n o u g h to set him off fur Grand Caverns. Batchel l e r h a d roo m for liim as far as C h ar l ottesville, a n d a frie ndl y cou ple m otori n g throu g h took him o n to \Vaynesb oro. A telephon e call to J ohn S h owa l ter a r ranged a m eeti n g in G rottoes Sunday m o rn i n g A t womil e lift inte rsp e r se d betwee n abo u t two h o urs' walkin g p artly i n t h e rai n was s u cceeded b y a truc k rid e tile r est of t h e 1 6 miles into Grottoes b y 9 p. m o lodging thrusti n g i tself on the traveler, h e rolled his ow n i n a s t rawstac k on a far m i n t h e outs ki r t s of the vil b ge for n ear l.v as good a sleep as two w eeks l ater a t Valley View for Ji;7 inclu di n g meals! A n experi m enta l self i nclud<;:d p h oto s hot at ear l y daw n was collect e d for evi de n ce. F our store coo kies co n stitu t ed b reakfast w h i l e wait i n g a few minutes f or J ohn S h ow alt e r af t er the last 60 p ages o f Raini er 's Pip e lin e to B a ttle" h ad b eee n consumed as bra in food waitin g for daw n to mature in the straw ; s tack. J ohn S was prompt, and at G r a n d Cavern s fin di n g no VPI ga n g, tho u g h s h ortly ex p ec t e d t h e two m embe r s s p ent a n h our explo rin g n ear b y F ounta in Cave a n d t a k i n g a f e w pictures

PAGE 98

Page 96 Emerging s h o rtl y before noon, they found Dr. and Mrs. J ac k so n and 22 V P[ students arrived by truck wait in g f o r the guide, t h e n in the cave rn s to take the m thro u g h Hot dog s andwi c hes with all the trimmings, thoughtfully provid e d by VPI m ade a d elic i ous lunch aft e r which t h e tvvo J ohns had their f ourth trip through Grand Caverns whil e m ost of t h e VP[ g r o up h ad the ir fir st. F o r th e first time in P e t e's experie n ce in thi s b ea u tiful c av e pictur e tak ing was p ermitte d the yo un g l ad y g uid e l a u g hingl y say in g s h e h a d n o ob j ec tion t o anything so l o n g as the cave wasn't damage d. Our student grotto i s j e alou s of it s r eputation, an d despite the ab undant hilari ty of the occas i o n was careful a s u s u a l of th e innume rabl e irr e pla ceab l e features of wondrous b eauty in th e ir po ssess i o n for the tim e b e ing. As ha s p e rhaps b ee n s aid befor e, all goo d things come B U L LET INN LJ I3 ERE I G H T to a n e nd eve ntuall y, a nd so did thi s visit to on e o f Vir gi nia s ( and of the w o rld's) m ost b eautiful cave rn s Hitchhiking home, e ven in compa n y of Dick South worth an exm embe r o f the g rotto and ve t e ran o n fur l o u g h fr ol11 E isenho w e r a n d Co. of co ur s e in uniformproving n o n e too s u ccess ful on thi s b ea utiful Sabbath afternoon P e t e finally got a Richmon d bus arou n d 8 p. m betwe e n Afton and Croze t to e nd a well-nigh p e rf ec t da y TO S H EPHElmSTOWN W. VA. April 29 P e t e o r g ani ze d a trip from Arlington, taking youn g P e te (o n l e av e from .AS, Melbourne, Fla .), R oscoe Dwiggins, Bob Tanne r and frie n ds, John Cory and T ommy Cataldo, to S h ephe rdstown area. S h ee p s h e ad Cav e and a compan ion cleft a l o n g the P oto mac just out of town were first v isit e d Eac h of t h e s e caves is on l y a littl e l T Vhile P etrie foc lls e s on a brok en sta l acti t e in Porter's C ave St. e1Jhenso n puzzles 011 what Goliath pushe d asunde r the pi ll ar a t his f ee t.

PAGE 99

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAl. SOCI ETY P age 97 2-P e tri e lightly ho l ds up the cave roo f with his finger tips whil e l ookill,'!. for a lost sou l or bat or something in Port er's C ( /ve. over 100 f ee t in extent; the first extend s in crawl; whil e the latte r starts p:lrtwa y up the hill s ide and drops down betw ec n inc lin e d ne:lrly rock walls to a p ool so m c 1 5 f ce t long and of indeterminate d epth, som e what unde r cutting thc roc k wall. Thc n o n Bob 's tou s in 's farm a hole in the middlc of a field was evcnndly di sco v e r e d b y aid of co u sin afte r B o b s landmark idcntific:ltion sys t e m p e rf ect except for b c k of the elc m ent of s u cccss, h :ld b ce n tri c d :lnd found wanting. Seve ral of thc p:lrt y droppe d about 10 fcet d own the h ole vcrti c ally, and thcn c rawled ;lnother 10 f ee t d own :l s l ope b e tw ee n ro c k w all s to a pool with no mC:ln s o f asccrtaining it s extent o r d epth du e to blo c kin g of the p:lssagc overh e ad. Furthc r inv estigation, in a perhaps dri e r sc ason might y ield m orc information. But, for thc prescnt, T :lllll C r'S Folly" was by unanimous co ns ent c h ose n a s the n:lmc for this cavc Aftcr lun c h the party f ound and penetr:lted :l po r t i o n of the mysteries of II/f o hl er's Cave. This was n ew to all the party but P e te w h o h a d spent the ni ght in thi s cave o n ce in 1 94 1 but w h o found qllir r 11(' W or at lc:lst emirel v unre m embere d pa t h s thi s time. A s the c av e s hows evi denc e o f having b ee n v i site d under wid e l y var y in g water conditions it s ge n e ral f e:ltures m ay well c h ange sOlll e wh:lt from time to time. In vie w of the time, the party did not penetrate to a nv definite e nd of t his c av e but e m e rged after one :lnd threequarte r s h o ur s to top off t h e da y with Crystal Grotto n ea r Boonsboro N Id. H e re the manage d pulled a rather n ovel o ne. P e t e and so n having been prev i o u s l y in "of course will n o t b e c h arged a ga in ," but new co m ers pa y the 75c f ee plu s 1 5c tax. Membe rship in the Society had n o inAu e n ce h e re, Tanne r and Dwiggins faring no b e t ter than Cory and Cataldo H owever, all inclllding P e t e (except yo un g Pete wh o pref e rr e d the sunshine to a r e p eat

PAGE 100

Page 98 p e rf ormance eve n though fr ee to him) figure d this pretty lit tl e c ave worth t h e cost and a fittin g d essert" for the da y s i nteresting b ill o f fare. J. S. P e tri e ( 1 9 45 ) Progress R e port :I S W e Spr ead Abroad (Continu ed fro lll Inside Back Cove r ) w o uld lik e to kno w a l so, if the r e i s any o bj ec tion o n t h e part of your Soc i e t y, as to trans lation s whi c h I co uld make o f so m e of the articl es publi s h e d in your BULLETIN, for p u blicatio n in r ev i ews o r the l oca l press, with n o other inte r es t than di vulg in g speleology, its m ethods, its results. For example, your article in B ULLETI N No.5, entitled "The S p e l eologis t D e fined," i s ve r y inte restin g in this respe c t ; and I would l ike to translate and publi s h an excerpt of it if it pleases yo u. W e have to fir s t o f all ed u cate peop l e r eg:lrding spe l eo l ogy, b efore any practi ca l co-o p e rati on ca n b e gotten and for that nothing is better t h a n p u blishing n ow : lIld the n so m e articles o n the matter. Awaiti n g vour inte restin g answers to all questIOns pointed in thi s p e rh aps too l o n g a letter, I r emain, Sr. v Va lter Dupo u y, Director, N [ u seo d e C i e n cias Naturales, Ave nida Los Caob os, Cuac as, VeneZlleia, S A. (6/ 1 7 /44) 5 1'. \-Va l ter Dupo u y, Directo r I t wuuld b e a p i eas m e to h ave you and Professo r C rux ent as m embe r s of our Soc i e t y. Applica ti o n blanks are b eing sent vou togeth e r wit h paper s outlining the p rivileges attache d to m embers hip. The Society also pro vides for an instituti o na l m embe r ship which wo uld allow VOlll' muse llm to b ecome a m embe r as an in stitutio n. The cos t of in d ividual m embe r ship i s $ 3.00 p e r year and that of ins titlltional m embe r ship i s $ 10.00 p e r year. While u ur Societv is primari l y co n ce rn e d with caves in the U nited States, there i s n o l i mitati o n o n nati o nalities of m embe r s h ip, and we feel h o n o r e d that South American sc i e nti sts arc s u fficie ntl v IIlr eres ted in our work to co n side r m ember s hip As we understand it, t h e Somh A m erican caves h ave been cve n m or L Ill : glccte d and cOllStitute an c \'Cn m o r c fertile field for i n vest igati o n than d o the ca v es of the U. S. A. \Ve wou ld b e more t h an g lad to r eceive any mate rial w hi c h you co uld se nd u s o n the Venezu e lan caves, o r other caves i n So u t h America w hi c h yo u may know of. W e expect to reprint portions o f Humboldt' s artic l e o n G ua charo's Cave i n o n e uf a m coming B ULLETINS. The parti : d ind e x of "Caves of t h e \Vorld in B UI.I.ETIi\: Five was, as the titl e implie d m e rel y a partial ind ex. It ha s brou g h t forth muc h comme llt, es p ec iall y in t h ose regi o n s B U L LET I N N U B ERE I G H T whe r e w e before h ad few r eco rds. In view of the g r eat numbe r o f ca ve s whi c h h a v e b ee n calle d to our attention as omitted from t h e lis t, w e hav e d ecide d to make n o co n s i stent effort to lis t for e i g n c ave s until afte r our Amer i ca n listings ar e m o r e n e arly complete An excepti o n will b e made as to E n glis h caves and for e i g n c aves bro u ght to our attention b y our ow n m embe rs. Whe n we f eel that this project ha s b ee n suffic i ently adva n ce d w e plan on issuin g a comple t e volume on Ameri can caves a nd t h e n to d e vote our atte nti o n to listi n g f ore ign caves Our Soc i e t y will b e glad to co-o p erate with your l1lU scum i n any wa y p oss ibl e and wo uld l ike to r eprint as muc h of your r eports on ex p e ditions as possible \-Ve wo ule! be h o n o r e d to h ave cop i es o f any o f your cave r e p o rts or data for in c lu s ion in our p ermanent files. The first three numbers o f our BULLETI N are practi cally exhaus t e d \ Ve will make an effort, h o w e v er, to o b ta in co pi es and forward the m to you a s a start o n o ur s p e l e o logy lit erature. Copies No.4 and No. 5 arc bein g se n t yo u unde r separate cover. As a m embe r o f the Soc i e t y, yo u w o uld of course hav e the privilege of b o rr owing mate rial from the Soc i e ty's librar y. This librar y, w e h o pe, will so m e da y b e o n e of the o utstanding collec ti o n s of cave literature At present the r e i s muc h basi c materia l whi c h the library is lac kin g, for e most of w hi c h is "Sp e c h ela," publi s h e d by the Fre n c h Speleo logi cal Soc ietv ( n ow di sba nd ed), and "Caves and Caving," the j ourn: ll of t h e Briti s h Speleo iogicli Society. It is (1m using to find that yo/./ rUII illto the same conditions with you r promotioll o f sciellce o f speleology that we did; however, this is the history of every new idea, sci ence or illvciI/ ion Throughout. thc t l ges they h 1ve a ll p racticdl y m e t v ;ith ulli vers d public indiffe rence if 1I0t with {lctual oppositioll. S p e l eology as (l s c i ellce can exp ect 110 better rec' eptioll than W(IS or i gilla ll y (Iccord e d to physiology, geo logy, and 0111' othe r sciellces ill the i r illfall cy, It\! e find h ere in the United States th(lt we get a better welcome (ln d a greater illtcr est from t .he zoologist thail we do from the geologist. II ta l i cs ours. Ed .1 There will b e n o object ion whatsoeve r to your t ran slat in g and r e publi s hin g any p o rti o n o f our B ULLETI N or othe r publi s h e d works provide d c r e di t i s gi v e n a s to Its source. In fact we \\'o uld l ike to hav e Ollr s p e l eo l ogica l 111 (ormati o n sprea d as wide l v as pos. ibl c \ V hil e the da y ma y b e qui te d istant, I hope that SOlll e da y a Latin American speleo logicll soc iety ca n b e o r ga n i ze d. The lan g uage barri e r i s probabl y too great to war rant O llr soc Iety ser vin g an y g r eat portion of t h e So u t h A m eric a n lay m e n and sc i e nti sts int e rested in s p ck-o l ogy, 3 \Veirri stolle stlltU<' S alld fallt c !sy i n rock background this lake in Grand C averns at Grottoes. Va (The Editor's it led inCid en tally o f exquisite cave rn photography.)

PAGE 103

. \ T I 0 ;-.; \ I. 5 P I I. I 0 I. 0 G I C \ I. Soc I T Y thoug h w e of course w e lcom e in ro our m embe r s hi p all thos e wh o care ro j o in. If a Latin American so c i e t y i s e v c r o r g ani ze d w e co uld p erhaps provid e for r ec ipl:ocal m embe r ship privil eges so that m embe r s in e a c h soc i e t y co uld re ceive all bene fit s a ccruing ro t h ose of rh e oth e r This, h owev e r i s n ow o nl y a dream. I rais e the point at this time so that you will kno w that the r e will b e n o hard f ee lin g if and when our So u t h Ame r ica n m embe r s d eci d c ro establish the ir own so c iety. B y j oining our Socie t y at t h e present time. a nucl e u s of So u t h America n sci entis t s may b e built lip whi c h mav so m e dav cO!ls t itutc the nucic u of the Latin American a ssoc iati o n If I have omitte d answering sp e cifically an y o f the ques tions rais e d in YOllr lette r I hope that you will call t h e m to m y atte ntIOn In your future co rr espondence Wm. J Stephe n so n ( 7 /14/44) CA VODDITIES In the Jugh o l e caves of i\i fatl ock D e rbyshire, lay the g host of a mad dog; a ghost that 100 year s ago sropped t h e area s l ead-mining. Old mining r cco rd s t ell the tal c of t h e mad dog whi c h barke d when .mine r s "workings" broke inro the vast ope n Illgs In the hdl and so scared t h e workers that they stru c k and nev e r went ba c k. A party of rock. climbe r s who h e ard the barking re cently w h e n explol'ln g a di s u se d lead mine rook up t h e "ch allenge" and d ecide d to ex pl o r e the Ju gh o l e cave's The party found an o p ening and a passag e, hung with stalactites, that s loped steepl y d ow nwards. They made t heir wa y along it, and s lldd e nl y they h ea rd it : a sound lik e a do g barking, coming from about 1 ,000 y ard s awa y Whe n t h e barking stopped they move d cautious l y throug h the caves. It l e d ro a chambe r h o ldin g a s h allow lak e, and through t his the party waded and sat down ro r es t by the far wall of the c av e rn. Suddenl y it happe n e d. A cross the far side t h e placid s urfa ce of the lak e b egan ro move, mysterious l y the lake began ro boil vio l ently, and the n, from its d epths, ca m e t h e most swrtling intermittent e xplosions. The last ex pl os i o n ended in a sudde n l o n g drawn out roar. In a f e w moment s the A oo d e d cave was empty, and they saw a round tunne l in the A oor, d ow n whi c h t h e c av e watCl' had gone. The n t h e incoming stream. after running into it .Iik e a g r eat waterbll, starre d to fill. and t hey saw t hat It wa s the twiste d n ec k of a double-turne d tllnnel which ha d b eco m e a vast natural sypho n in t h e r ock. A c h oking sound was c au sed b y the confining of :lir in s id e the sec ond b end w hi c h wa s compresse d b v the wate r a s the c av e fille d the n e xpelled in vio lcnt cxpl osio n s as the lak e wa ter got to o hi g h The lak e took o n e and ollc -half h ours to fill. thc n t h e "bJrking began again. Arizo na s p layboy" c r ce k t h e one that w e n t wandcr Illg to parts unknown illstead of attend i n g to its duties of P t lge 1 0 1 ----pro v idin g OIlC o f t h e essential. of l ife ro the p eo ple.: :lnd Irvestoc k a l o n g I ts banks was r eccllt l y rec:lptured, h a r n esse d and the h o l e thro u g h w hi c h it e scaped scaled off. I n e ffe ct, the e rl'ln g water A ow was s evcrclv rebuke d and t e ps take n ro sec t h a t it d oesn t wande r :lgai n. The stream is Horron C r eek and is among those that Arr zo na I S very f o nd of and watches c aref ull y. \Vhell, Witho u t apparent calise the l ow e r stream JUSt simpl v c e a se d to f l o w It wa s reported l ost S u c h was the c a se. In searc h of a d venturc. or m e r e l y taking the easies t course, Harron C r ee k was f ound to be d isap pearin g d own an ap erture 111 the stream bed onl y I S i n c h e s w id e and three feet l o n g. This o p e nin g led into an underground c ave rn and anothe r unde r g round o utl e t from t h at, f o r t h e str eam simply lost it se lf fro m all knowl e d g e after ente rin g the c aver n Dras tic m e a sures w e r e d e t ermined upo n to capture t h e H ow and for ce it to r e m a in in its pro p e r pla ce The A ow wa s detoure d around this escape route, the cave rn filled with bo uld e r s and the opening p l ugged with concrete. The n the b e d o f the stream W:lS pa c ked with a good clay dirt. I t i s hoped this will k ee p Horton Creek in its pla ce. The R ecord Stockmall, 1 945 Annual Numbe r page 116 \Vith Army Eng in eers in Palau l slands (AP) A littl e luc k p lu s Yankee ingenuity has give n this a rm y e n g in eer in g unit a co ral swimming poo l o f fresh cool water, in whi c h to sec k surce a se from the burning h ea t. The e n g in ee r s wer e bla sting out posth o l es and whe n t h e ir trained ea r s d e t ec t e d a strange note in a bla st, in vestig:lte d Far below they sa w the glea m o f w a t cr. L ie ut. Col. Alan E. G ee the ir commanding officer. wa s l owered b y rop e to inv estigate H e found a ca v er n 100 f ee t long and 50 f ce t wide. fille d with wate r co ld clea r and d ee p. "Coolest pl:lCe o n the i s land. h e r e ported o n e m e r g in g. Blast t h e openll1g bigger and we 'll make a swimming h o l c So 200 se rvi ce m e n of all branches disport the:n se lves dail y and find l ife o n this tropic i s l e a little more b e arabl e Lu cerne switze rland (AP) Fiv e Luce rn e mountain eers h ave c1ear c d up the myst c r y o f the H elle nlo c h o r "Gatc to H cll," a cavernous h o l e in the i c rd crba u c rnalp ncar h e r c The G 1 vern fr o m whi c h the roar of subterra n e an cat arac ts emerged was di sco v erc d ycars ago b y a party of A lp ine climbers but onl y a f ew da ys ago did sc i entists v cntllre ro d escend into it. U sing a rop e 850 feet l o n g, a w incll ass ancl cr an e, three o f the party of fiv e w e r e l o w e r e d i n to the stvg ian h ole. At a d epth of 300 f ec t tlley f ound thems elves in : 1 glac i erm ill" or giant' s ca uld ro n said ro be t h e lar ge s t eve r d iscover e d I t was an immc nse h ollow 1 6 feet 1 0 1]0" :1I1c1 23 fect wiele with a zure-co l o red walls . that werc s mooth as glass :md that s h o n e w e irdl y 111 the g l ow of Has hli ghts. (J 4 -The five fagged s p e / e ozca / ots ill p ursuit o f filII alld i ll/ or m (lIioll ill P orter's Ca ul'

PAGE 104

Page 1 02 From Members in UniformCave Calls From O verseas Your Newsl etter and n o t e arrived. Thanks f or t h e m a nd the BULLETI N which elosely f ollowe d. The newslett e r s a r e coming in sp l e ndidl y, and I ha ve just r ece i ved the com pilati o n of n e w m embe r s hips. I sure miss the activities I read of, and hope that soo n I s hall b e ba c k rap e llin g o n the old ropes aga in It's been a rugged life, and altho u g h I h ave quite adapted m yse l f I wo uld still pref e r sleeping som e wh e re in the States ne;lr a cave entrance-and t ha t s putting it mild l y. The w or k and a c tivit y o f the Soc iety during the war see m s eve r in c r e a s in g and not decreas in g as mi ght be anticipate d. I offe r m y utmost feli c itati o ns to the g r eat j o b you f ellows ar e doi n g unde r s u c h tr ying times. The fine Soc iety i s b ecoming q uit e a prominent organiz ati o n K eep u p the goo d work a nd l e t m e hear fr o m you w h e n the time allows. H C. A llnutt, T ec 5 Co. D," 4th M e d. Bn. ( 4 -22-45) Another Old Cave r Comes In During the year s 1 9394 1 I was fairly a c tiv e in the study o f caves in New England, havin g accompanied C l a y P e rr y of Pittsfi e ld and R oge r J o hnson of Springfie ld Nfass. o n seve ral field trip s Since t ha t tim e I h ave e x p l o r e d a goo d m a n y l arge n o n -comme rc i a l i ze d caves in t h e Mid-Western Unite d States, tak e n notes and made photographs. Clark Gallag e r geo logy professo r at Iowa State College in Ames, has help e d m e with m y study of Arkan sas caves S in ce I'm in the arm y n ow, I n aturally h ave n t h ad the time to purs u e m y h obby but w o uld lik e to keep informed of any work being d o n e a l o n g thi s line. I wou l d lik e t o appl y f o r m embe r ship i n the Soci e t y. Lt. Donal d F. H askell, LAAF, Lincoln Neb. (9/ 28 /45) B oo k N o te fr o m L ondo n Today I mai l e d you Wookey Hole, by Balch. A w o nd e r ful b oo k. Y o u ma y a l read y h a v e it h ope n ot; a nd C ave Hte/'lting, b y Dawkinsa very old b oo k. A lso, a v e l!' s m all book f o rget it s n a m e : I just t h o u ght it was am us ing and s h ows the f e ar people of o l d had f or c aves. I am t r y in g m y best to get The Netherworld o f i H e n dip a l ovely book rep l e t e wit h cave s tuff H o p e you ge t a list over t o m e of w h;n vou a lread y hav e on Briti s h B U L LET INN U B ERE I G I I T c aves so I'll know wh e n I'm dupli ca tin g. I h ave n o w writ t e n to a numbe r of p eo p l e Frank So lari gave m e many m onths ago. I h ad a ni ce l ette r fro m seve ral espec iall y P e t e r Wild I n due time, diff e r ent o nes will g i ve m e names of boo ks. I then get a used bo o k man h e re to c ir c ulate the Brit i s h trad e and h e u s uall y ca n find them. Have an e ngagem ent to go out to C hi selhurst c aves n ext week. Approximatel y 5 000 p eople ni ghtly s lept in the m during blitzes, a nd m a n y va luabl e paintings e t c., hidde n t h e re Some books o n caves in Europe c an b e had h e re, too, but so f a r I h ave n t bothere d wit h t h e m. Y o u will see in Wookey Hole tha t for hundre d s o f years t h ey didn' t ge t ve r y far in it until t h ey dug o u t a passage o r two n ow they've go n e a l o n g way and f ound b e autiful stuff. Newsletter Delights Pri ce C apt. T. T. P e rr y L o nd o n ( 3 /15/ 45 ) I ha ve just fini s h e d reading the Octobe r Newsl et ter w hi c h r e a c h e d m e in good tim e o n thi s Armistice Day an ni versary. Too bad i t c an repea t but appare ntl y t h e e n e m y d oes n t know w h e n it is beat e n The A m erican s servin g with the Briti s h hav e all now b ee n returne d to the ir Americ an units for N filitar y Guvern m e nt. This i s m y first opportunity to w rit e you s in ce yo ur last inter est in g l etter. I landed in France 0 -24 wit h t h e British army, and stayed with the m through Caen Argentan Fa l aise Gap, Amiens, and Lill e Some of i t was pr etty tough, but the last tw o months at Lill e (the coa l center) w e r e very in t e restll1g. Unfortunate l y I have had n o opportunity to do a n y c aving; a nd I was disappointe d in not seei n g any of the ca,fes i n t h e U. K In the a rm y the r e seems to b e little opportunity for s elf-enlig h ten m ent. I re ad t h e Newsl etter wi t h eage rn ess I a m m e ntall v with yo u o n your many trips. I s h o u ld have e nj oyed the late o n e to Gree nbrier county I note with pride your in cre a se d and expande d acti vit ies. I t i s r emarkabl e to m e the inAu e n ce and in te rest a COI11 parativ e l y f e w e arn est and e n e r getic w o rk ers l ik e yo ur se l f and Petrie a nd a f e w oth ers, h ave d ev elop e d t h ro u g h o u t the co untry Keep u p the goo d w o rk. Please r e m embe r m e to all l11y fr i e nds. ? Who i s "George"? Paul Pri ce, France (11/11/ 44 ) Don' t get any c h ances at caving work. W hat f e w I get a shot a t a re u s u ally volca ni c a nd h ave b ee n u s e d as forts by the J aps. D o n t lik e find i n g piece s of Japs or boob y t r aps so d o n t b othe r t h e m muc h

PAGE 105

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY Stay pretty busy on the ship. Am exec utiv e officer a nd am breaking in a new skipper and a n e w fourth offi cer. That do e sn t l ea v e m e too muc h chance for pla y The n e w captain i s okay and I am really g l ad. Hope to hav e my own ship b e for e too long Have b ee n recommended f o r command e ver since July Hope it's a good ship and soon. The Ame rican Society of A g ricultural Engineers is d o in g som e w o rk on underground water, and I r ece ntl y wrote Mr. Olney, the secretary. Thought it might b e advantageous to both societies f o r him to contact yo u and pool our information. I'm enclosing his rep l y. (Ed: W e don't hav e it.) Beli eve it might b e a goo d id ea. Some goo d work might result and the publi city wou ld ce rtainly b e favorable to N.S.S. ASAE i s a we ll-establi s h ed technical group and hav e a l arge c irculation for the ir journal. What do yo u think of it? George (?) U. S. S.j A. P. O 33 (8/ 1 /45) Wilson's Wanderings Since coming to this division, I hav e b ee n living in dirty littl e villages that are supposed to b e Fr e nch, but t h e p eo pl e s p ea k a nd ac t German. While there was plenty of snow and cold w eathe r it was not too bad ju s t picturesque. Now we hav e had a lot o f rain and warm e r weather, all of which adds up t o v e r y gooey mud. The same sort of s tuff I iiv ed in all last Enll. I d o n't know what the cave s ituati o n i s around h e r e as i t i s not practical or safe to wander around cross-country. Keep h ear in g o f the natives hiding out in caves to esca pe s h e llin g, but hav e not ye t see n any of these pla ces. Have just had a letter fr o m John M ee n ehan, indicat ing h e i s in Pue rto Rico and trylll g to get out and do som e ex ploring. Franc e (2/ 6 /45) As yo u probabl y we have pra c ticall y n o o pportunity to get out and around the country for s uch pur poses as looking into caves, etc. Howeve r I did notic e one opening in some roc k s just' b ehind a littl e town called Urspring, on the road b e tw ee n h e re and VIm. At the tim e I was on a truck going down to Munich, but mad e a m e ntal note o f the pla ce and hitc h -hike d ba ck there a t the fir s t opportunity. The r e was an outcropping of well ero d e d lim esto n e a coupl e o f fal se entrances and one r ea l cave entrance just about big enough to walk thro u g h. About 10 or 1 2 feet in, it opened up in a pit eight f eet d ee p and e i ght feet across. The r e were absolute l y no hand holds, and at the bottom was the wr eckage of an old decayed ladd er. M y Aas hli ght showed openings in t h e Aoor to the left and in the ce ilin g to the right, as well Page 103 as anothe r dir ectly o ve rh e ad, but out of m y reach After unsu ccess full y trying to find a way into the pit I scouted around the woo d s l oo kin g for a pol e o r something to shinny down on. But these G ermans pi c k up eve r y stic k in the woods, so h a d to come away em p tyh a nd e d Over the entrance to thi s cave the r e i s a concre t e s l a b mould e d onto the rock, with the words "Cave of Urspring," som e m ore German writ in g, and tll e s i g n o f the 55. The foll ow in g Sunday I got som e r ope a nd three oth e r fel l ows with Aashli ghts and candles and we went back in a j ee p. We all go t d ow n into the pit without muc h trouble and I proceeded to go down the s h a ft to the lef t. There was a ve r y narrow a nd Aimsy l adder dow n this almost vertica l s ha ft, so k ept a safety rope o n a nd d esce nd e d about 15 f eet. It was a ple nty tight squeeze, and at the: bottom it l eve l e d out a nd went f or a n other 15 fee t before b e in g stoppe d up with mud. Getting ba c k up was a t e r rifi c probl e m b ecause it was o n e of these p l aces too tight to use yo ur e l bows and knees in We then climb e d up the shaft on the right and got into a passa ge wh ere yo u could wal k f o r about 30 f eet. It then went straight up in a n a rrowing chimney that did not l oo k practical. The r e w ere o n e or tw o other s u c h o p e nin gs in th e ce iling but we did not mak e any attempt to get up the m and prob ab l y would not hav e b ee n able to, so cam e out gai n well cove r e d wit h mud, a lthough not nearly as much so as fr o m som e o f the American caves we hav e visited. This is the only cave I'v e b ee n able to un cove r a r ound h e r e Howeve r did h ave a pass t o L yo n, Fran ce, for five da ys and s p ent mos t o f the tim e getting over to Gre nobl e and Chamoni x to see the A lps. When yo u approach the Alps near Grenob l e yo u can count numero u s cave e n tra nces alo n g the highwa y. Of cour se, I d o n t know if they go a n yw h e re, but they certainly l oo k e d as if they did B eing on the inside of a charcoal burning bus, I did not h a ve a chance t o investiga te. The r e al e s now -cove red mounrains around Grenob l e a nd I stayed the r e a cou pl e o f da ys before pro cee din g to Chamonix, which i s at the foot of Mt. B l a nc, the hi g h est point in Europe . Spent o n e night the r e at N It. Blanc, just living o n sce n ery a nd the n h a d to start b ac k It was goo d climbin g weather an d numero u s parties \\i e r e go in g and com in g. It i s a three clay trip to the summit and ba c k and takes all kincls of equipment as well as a compe tent g uide. I real ized the n ecessity o f thi s wh e n I firs t saw the mountain towerII1g up to 15,700 feet. In fact, go t a stiff n ec k ju s t l oo k in g at it. Everything from about 7,000 f eet on up is ice and s n ow, except where the rocks jut s trai ght upw a rd for a few tho u s and feet at a time, s uch as the Aguille du Plan, th e Aguille du Midi, the Grepons a nd the Aguille Verte. These all stic k up in a row above the town of Chamo nix,

PAGE 106

Page 104 a nd anyone of them will m ake yo u reconsider wanting to be a rock climber. In the one eve nin g I was there, I climbed up to the base of o n e of the great g l acie r s (Gl ac i er du B o i sso ns ) It was really just an uphill walk through the wo o d s for about 1 000 feet, then out onto the moraine bel ow the g l ac ier. I was climbing up ove r this tremendous pile of rock and g r avel when I slippe d a nd scoo t ed about 50 feet down a s l ope It turned out that I was o n the i ce and didn' t know it because it was covered w ith all this debris. Up ahead though, the i ce was white and clean and about 100 f ee t o r m ore thick. Since it i s full of c r evasses and fantastic formations of g iant proportions, there was n o sense in try ing to go out on it a l o n e with out a n alpe nsto c k and c ramp o ns, so had to admire it from the s idelines and the n start back before it got too dark. All in all, it w as quite an a d venture though, and did muc h to refresh m y inte rest in climbin g Meenehan' s letters ca m e along regularly and h e k eeps m e supplied with Spanish lit e r ature Am getting to where I can read it f airly w ell. Jack Wilson, Geislingen Germany (6/ 24 /45) Notes from Nebraska I hav e b ee n esp ec iall y inte rest e d In l ap idar y work in the past and h ave a fine home shop at Alliance, Neb. That i s closed for the duration, h oweve r as m y Uncle Sam sent m e a very definite greet in g n early tw o years ago ... since that time I h ave spent most of m y time at Fort L eo nard Wood. During this time I hav e turned to the caves a nd various fields in the surrounding area for an o utlet for m y Earth Sciences a mbiti on. I hav e in con n ec ti o n with m y s h op a small museum of cut and p o lish e d sto nes, and a great many Indi a n artifacts from that area of western Nebraska. I searc h ed these hill s for mate rials s uitabl e for cutting, but found nothing; thus it occurred to m e that thi s a r ea s hould be id ea l for prehistoric relics ahd I b ega n hunting some of the n ear b y fields and im mediate l y b ega n to find a rtifa c ts. It was o n one of these trip s that I fin ally s i ze d up the area in which I was hunting. and noticed the cave w hich seemed to m e to be an ideal place f or a shelter. I h a ve don e cnough hunting w ith exper i e n ce d peop l e in the p ast to know it is not wisc to molest any suitab l e place s u c h as this without keepin g a goo d r eco rd of what i s fO:lI1d a nd unde r w hat conditi o n s Thus we sta rt e d t o work in the Sprin g Creek Cave a nd, b efore removing any of the dirt in the bottom of the entran ce. we laid it off into squa res and kept a writte n account o f all w e f o und. I also s p ent BULLETIN NUMBER E IGHT som e tim e and drew som e s mall maps of the cavc which I a m sending yo u along with a n account of o ur findings. This is the only cave we ha ve m o lest e d at all, as I am n o t in favor of tearipg the m up when they ma y b e of so muc h fu ture valu e in r eaching a cle ar e r understanding of just what thc pre-hi storic lif e was lik e in America. I hav e so m e fin e Yuma s p ec im ens from m y area of western N ebraska, but I hav e not h a d the goo d fortun e to find any that I would t e rm genuine Folsom p oints a s yet. I had h o p e d that the l o wer l evels of thi s cave might s h ow some s i g n s of the Folsom but none h ave b ee n The Maxey Cave m entione d in the n e wsp a p er article has b ee n dug up badl y b y p eop l e years ago, as is the York Cave just a mil e below the Maxey. The farm e r who owns that land said that they hav e gotten lots of arrowh ea ds from the York Cave. I found 26 fine points on a field ju s t below thi s cave last Sunday. I send all m y artifact s home and hav e the m all l a bel e d so I can have an accurate histor y of all of the m whe n I again se t up m y littl e museum. (Let u s hope that will b e soon.) Inclos e d yo u will find a written account o f our findings in the one cave we hav e excavated. The r e can b e m o r e w o rk done in this c ave but we have worked the m a in part o f the.fr ont o p e nin g where it i s dry. I hope these m aps and this inf ormatio n will b e of so m e use to you I h ave wanted to get in touch with som e o n e For some time n ow who knew about this ar ea, and any information yo u ca n give m e will b e appreciated S / Sgt. W R. Zieg, Ft. L eo nard Wood, Mo. (6/ 14 /44) [Th e E ditor r eceived rhis I crrc r too lat e to go wirh rhe article "Sp rin g Creek Cave (BULLETIN No.7. p. 17) by Sgr. Zieg so r e pri nr s ir h ere for irs inreresr. Sgr. Zieg is now a m embe r of rh e N .S.S. Hi s arricle on Maxcy Cave e t c., was in rh e Sr. Loui s (Mo ) Globe-Democ r at for May 20 1944 An Americ an in France As a n e w m cmbe r o f the National Speleological Society feel that I ought to se nd along som ething f or the N ews letter as a to ken of m y interes t. In spitc o f b e in g over seas, m y interest in arc heology has not waned, a nd I am taking cvery opportunity to visit sites or mus eums in this a r ea. When I heard of a cave (o r "grotte") n car h e re, I decided to l ook it over in h opes o f findin g som e indi catio n that anc;ent man had used it. While I was disappointed in t his respect I did spe nd a very en joyab l e half-da y unde r g,oun d The ca\e is l oca t e d o n the south Aank of a lar ge f orest ed hill called thc M ontagn e d e R e Inls. The hill I S a s:Jlid c h alk. id e n 6cal to that of the "White C liff s of D over." England and lies about eight milcs south of

PAGE 107

NATIONAL S P ELEOLOG ICAL SOCI E T Y thi s CIty. The enrrance ro the c av e I S at the e d ge of t h e row n of Trep ail, the m ayo r of whi c h g uid e d m e through t h e trip The cave enrrance i s sca l e d b y a bri c k wall thro u g h whi c h a n ir o n d oo r opens imo a man-made pas sage into the c av e prop er. The unde r ground stre am wh i c h c arv e d the c ave i s tapped b y a l a r ge pip e w hi c h lies alo n g the A oo r o f the artifi c ial passa ge for aboU[ 1 00 meters. The stream is used as the rown s sour ce of drinking wat er. The water t emperarure was aboU[ 50 F and, as far a s I could fin d our, conra in e d n o anima l or planr life. The orig inal m outh of the cave h a d collapsed so that I could not ex amll1 e I r. At the p l ac e wh e r e the pipe e nd e d t h e natura l passag e began. Vic follow e d thi s ba c k inro the hill f or anothe r estimated, 700 m eters. The cave was not ove r s ix m e t e r s wid e at a n y poinr and was u s uall y a b o u t tw o m eters. The h e i ght varied fr o m five ro 2 0 m e t e r s The strea m was o nl y about 50 c m d ee p in most pla ces, but occ asiona l p otho les were over a m e t e r d ee p I n several places lar ge falls of the ca v e ro o f obstru c t e d t h e pass a ge. \ Ve c rawl e d unde r seve ral of these, but two we had ro climb over. One of these was s ix m e ters hi g h and w e had ro usc a r tifi c i ally notc h e d steps i n the sidewalls and a r ope ro s ur m oum the v e rti cal sides of the m ass. W e finally re ach e d the p oint f ro m whi c h t h e wate r bubble d up out o f a b e d of soft sand, indi cating the end o f the pas s age. Afte r re trac in g our s teps w e finally r e a c h e d da ylig h t a ga in after ab out three h ours undergr ound. No bats, snails fis h or oth e r form s of l if e were e n counre re d at an y po in t. U ndoubtedl y t h e sea lin g of the c a ve many years ago ro k eep t h e water s uppl y un po llut e d has also se rv ed ro pr eve m the enrrance of bats tho u g h the absen ce of aquatic l if e i s m o re diffi c ult ro e xplain The r oc k foundations ar c all c h a lk in som e p laces cov ere d with a gliste nin g, siliceo us coar. Sta l actites and oth er s tructures w e re scarce. N o f ossils were observed and n o c rysta l s of sufficiem size ro recog ni ze wer e found. This i s t h e o nl y cave I'v e b ee n ab l e t o l ocate so far, but I'm cominuin g ro in q u i re ab o u t the m a nd if I find more, I 'll let you know abo u t t h e m I am l oo kin g forward ro a rerurn ro the States i n Oc tob er, wh e n I h ope I'll b e ab l e ro resume m y archeol ogica l work the re in V ir g inia H e re's hoping tha t I can get ro go o n a f e w of your fie ld trip s the re. lVf y home was in \ Vas hin gro n D. C, b e f o re the war but I ex pect ro settle n c ar Staunton, Va. afte r t h e war, wh e re I'll continue m y resea r c h es. H o ward A. MacCorcI. Rheim s Fran ce (8 / I /45) Page 105 N o te fr o m th e Philippines I am in t h e Phili ppines and h ave bee n shuttling from o n e place ro an othe r and cove re d half the damn islands! I t used ro r;lin continuo u s l y nig h t and d ay, k eepi n g every thing wet a nd muddy; h ar d ro keep dry, especially when t h e s un did not s h ow f or da ys. Really was miserabl e I was with the X I Corp s for a coupl e of m onrhs a nd n ow ba c k wit h the divi sio n. Glad for a c h a n ge o n ce 111 a while. The pe o pl e h e re were in t er rib l e shape at first an d for tha t ma tte r are n o n e roo well off a t presenr; they hacl v e r y littl e clothin g o r food Sackclot h was used for c loth e s and in som e pla ces t h ey w e re a lmost st arvin g. The J aps too k eve r ything and issued pap e r m o n ey ju s t ju nk. \ Vill b e g lad wh e n t hi s i s ove r ; ge t s worse all the tim e -was not too pleasant t h e last f e w m o n ths F rank Ru occo U S. Army ( 3 / 1 4 / 45 ) "Nurse" Miller on Kwa j a lein Certainl y n ice ro receive your C hri st mas g reet in g I cer tai nl y was n t f o rgotten during t h e h o lida ys e v e n tho u g h I m t h o usands o f mile s awa y fr o m the mainland. Really h ad a ni ce h olida y seaso n h e re in spite of the tropica l h eat and lac k of vegetati o n. A littl e o f t h e "West B y Gawd Virginia m ountains w o uld go goo d h e re. See v e r y l ittle of a n ything gree n F o r our nurses quarters w e did hav e a real fir tree that was sent ro lIS from Oahu. H ad a few sto re orname n t s but f or the m ost were h o m e m a de. I'm tanned so b ro wn I scarcel y l oo k lik e a white per son. H ave a daily sunbath u s u ally for half-h our fronr an d ba c k. U ltra vio l e t r ay's 'so intense h e re o n e has ro b e quite cau tio u s o r a sunburn will resulr. Y este rd ay I was exposed ro s u n three-quarters h our fr o m and ba c k and I got red as a l o b ster eve n tho u g h I'm acc u sro m e d ro b e in g out dai l y H ad a tender s pot h e re and t h ere a nd m y fac e felt a little parc h e d R eceive d a h o l i d ay g reeting fro:n a rotal s tran ger, S. H Gi llett e M u sco da \ Vis. S h e wrot e a n o t e on back o f it s tating: In l oo kin g t h roug h m y cave mate rial I f oun d l isted your n a m e and I take it y o u too ar c c a ve minde d. This i s ju s t a frie ndl y g reetin g from cave folk s in W i sco nsin." Enclosed with g reetin g was an adverti se m ent o f "Eagle Cave, n car M u sco da \ N i s., Mr. and Mrs. S. H Gillette m;lIu ge rs." I did think It a ve r y m c e gestlll"e f o r h er to s e nd m e a g ree tin g. Have missed o u r cave safaris a nd h o p e som e tim e n o t too di stant future, all the old GlVerS with the n ew c an resum e w h e re we left off.

PAGE 108

Page 106 The n eares t thing t o a cave o n thi s island i s a foxho le carv e d f ro m t h e sand. As far as vege t a ti o n i s co n cerne d it i s the barest p l ace I've eve r see n Can h ave fun h e re t h o u g h on l y 1 8 o f u s nurses a m o n g the mul t itu des of m a l es. W h en I was o n Oahu I h e ard t h e r e we re caves the re, a n d o n e s up pose d r o b e quite beauti ful btl( I n eve r did get to see a n y o f t h em. Lived in a t ent fro m Janua ry 1 6 of last year until June 5, o n Oahu so I've ex p erie n ced a g re n deal o f outdoo r liv in g sin ce I left West Virg inia. Was s tati o n e d in L o ui s vill e, K y., before comi n g overseas, but n eve r a n y t im e off whil e t h e re to see IvIam :l loth Cave o r an y othe r s The o n e a n d o ne-h a l f years I' ve b ee n in ser vice, the o n l y lc, lve I' ve h ad w a s three d ays prev i o u s to comin g overse as. In a d d i t i o n to bein g a S p elunke r I'm a lso a S h o rt S n o r ter. having co m e dow n h e re from Oahu b y plane. 2 nd L t Lila G. Mille r Kwajalein I s l a nd M a r s h all Group ( 1 / 22 / 45) COl":: Cave ( Ga. ) D isappoi n ti n g YO:I m ay b e inte rest e d to kno w that a f ew w ee k s ago I took a t r ip to north ern Geo r g i a and v i s it e d Cove Cave, nea r Jasp e r Ga. The l ocal p eo pl e t h e re cla im e d that it h ad never b ee n f ull y exp l o re d and p eople had b ee n lost in i t for d ays"; but, as u s u ally is the c a se, i t was n o t a l arge c a ve and only too k a fe w minutes to go thro u g h the w h o l e thing. M y friend wh ose h o m e i s n e ar the re in s i s t s tha t the re must b e an o til er c a ve, a s h e h a d h e a r d sto r ies ab out it f or years; but we hik ed all ove r a nd didn' t find a n othe r o ne. The cave i s l ocate d at t h e b otto m of a n o l d m a rbl e quarry whi c h has n o t b ee n w o rk e d for ove r 40 yea rs. It was discove re d a bo u t C ivil War t im e w h e n they bl asted in t h e q u ar r y, a nd m y friend's g r andfathe r said h e w o rk e d the r e a bout 4 0 ye ar s ago. It i s quite p ro b a bl e that at o n e t im e t h e cav e was muc h m o re ex t e n s i ve, but the p ass a ges ar e n ow fil led with clay. There a r e a f e w f o rmati o n s in t h e cave a n d many o f the m ne:!r t h e entra n ce ha ve b ee n hack e d off. S /Sgt. Geo r ge H P oo l er M a co n G a ( 1 /14/ 44 ) BULLETIN Ed. F ee l s Hurt Well, aga in I h ave c h a nged l ocatio ns. I h ave been u p h e re at t hi s "so ldi er's p ar a di se s in ce abo u t the middle of A u g u st. This pl ace i s h e a ve n compa re d to t h e hot-box M ississi ppi It was n early d ow n to 40 t hi s eve nin g, a nd did i t f eci goodl We s h o u l d b e h avi n g some s n o w pre tty soo n We h ave b ee n wea r i n g o ur winte r unifor m s since I a rr i ved. B U L LET INN U B Elt E I G H T I gue s s you kno w that D e n ve r i s know n as the "Switze r l and of t h e U. S. A." W e a r e in t h e f oo t-hill s o f the R oc k y Ivfts., and t hi s part of the country i s unbeli ev abl y ric h in geo logi cal inte rests. I s h all undoubtedly s p end m ost of m y t im e (s p a i-c time, that is) c n field t : i ps. I he:!r the re ar e seve r,11 caves n e ar h e re that a re just w a i t in g to b e ex pl ored, so i f co ndi t i o n s (and U ncl e S am!) p ermit. I'll b e "cav ing" in the n ear future. The 11l0unta in s them selves a re fir s t o n m y lis t S in ce I h ave n t m y l ist o f m embe r s h e re, 1 am w o nd e r in g if you could tell me if the re ar e an y N .5.5. m embe r s in o r near D enver. I w o u l d l i k e t o contact the m if so, and ge t togethe r f or a trip C. Sid M o r se, D e n ve r Col o. (9/ 1 2 / 45 ) "Rudy" H e s s H eard From! Y o u ha ve n't h e ar d fr o m m e fOl: quite a w hil e I g u ess. but tha t d oe sn t m e an t h a t I'v e f o rgotten N .5.5 and cavin g. I'v e t r avele d quite a bit s in ce I l ef t V P I. last D ecember. Fir s t I w ent out t o s outhe rn C alif o rnia in Janu a r y to w o rk for D o u g las Airc r aft at L o n g B eac h While the re I tri e d to find caves in tha t a re a but the o n l y o n e s tha t I heard a bout w e r e o n C a ta l ina I s l and whi c h i s close d up n ow. The draft boar d calle d m e ba c k h o m e in M ay, and o n June 9 I s t arte d m y army car eer. I'v e ju s t fini s h e d 17 w ee ks of basi c trainin g o n the Rat sands o f Fort Br agg, N C, in t h e fie ld a r t ille r y. As w e w e re restri c t e d to a 75 mil e r a diu s at B ragg, I was una bl e to t a k e a d vantage of the c a ves o f t h e west e rn p a r t o f N orth C a ro lin a H o w eve r things a re lookin g up n o w f or m ore cavi n g. On N ov. 5 I r e p ort to Camp Chaffee, Ark F ro m in f orma ti o n tha t I' ve bee n a b l e to gathe r a b out the l ocality o f C h affee, the r e s h o uld b e caves in t hat a rea. And so I ge t to the main purpose o f m y l e t ter. I w i s h that yo u w o u l d send m e all o f the inf o rm atio n that you ca n o n the l ocation s o f c a ves an d N 5.5. Grottos in the f ollo win g counties o f A rk a n sas: Se ba s ti a n Scott, C r a wf o rd Frankl in and L oga n And in Oklaho ma: Sequoya h and L e Flo re counties. If the r e ar e caves close e n o u g h to ca m p. I pla n to r ry to s t art an inte r est i n cave ex pl o rin g among t h e G. I' s the r e I a lr ea d y ha ve seve r a l f ellows wh o w e re w i t h m e a t Bragg inte rest e d and, i f things work out, mnyb e the A r m y S p ec ial Serv i ce will be inte rested e n o u g h to help out. D o n't know w heth e r o r n o t a n yo n e else has starte d a n y G. I. club s b u t I h a v e heard o f n onN .S.s. m e m bel's s p e ndin g leaves exp l o rin g caves in Europe. I certainl y di d e n :oy read in g B UI.LETI N No. h. I think t h a t the G l ossf lry coillpile d b y Ivfartin a nd K a y Muma i s a

PAGE 109

N \ T ION A L Si' E LEO LOG I CAL SOC lET Y grand contribution. I got a ki c k out of r e adin g the V. P. l. arricles ( I f eel lik e the V. P. Grotto is m y baby"). I was with T o'11my o n t h e expl o ration of S lu sser s Cave and still h av e t h e n otes we made. I h ope that thi s will make u p so m ewhat for m y s ilen ce. If eve r ything work s the way I'm "dreaming the m u p y ou 'll b e h ea rin g from m e quite often I certain l y h ope to be able to send in reports all "G.!. Caving" in t h e future P vt. Ralph S. H ess, Jr. Fo r t Bragg, N C. ( 1 0 /26/ 44) [-Je r e and The r e with iVleenehan I took a stati o n wagon tri p across the island t o P o n ce thi s past wee k. The r oads are narro w and t h e Illollnta i ns .here in Pue r to Rico make "W. By God ," Virginia look a lmos t lik e Aatl a nd. The valleys are all young a nd r eally r esem ble ca nyon s m ore than they do valleys. Of co ur se the r oa d s h ave n o guard rai ls, but the n the drops off the road are only from 500 to 1 ,000 f ee t down so you r e ally don' t n ee d the m. I'v e b ee n taking a numbe r of co l or pictures and added a few m o r e o n this trip. I mi sse d o u t o n a trip d ow n to Dutc h Guiana next Mon da y. I think you d l ik e Martinique. I t i s hi g hl y pic turesque with the natives running around with turbans and banana sta l ks o n the ir h ea d s and t h e farm ers in the m a rk ers se llin g string b e an s in l ots of a doze n b eans I s a w M t. Pel ee that b l ew up in 1902 and kill e d 30, 000 p eople. The l ava A o w i s still plain J ohn Meenehan, Pue rto Rico ( 1 0 /29/ 45) Thro ugh Europe with Bisc h off Your Newsletter s are b e in g f orw ard e d to m e -and althoug h they are quite o ld w h e n t h ey r e a c h me, t h ey are none t h e l ess r e ad and r er e ad and t h oro u g hl y enjoyed. Si n ce m y last wr iting t h e war has taken me, first to several states o n t h e easte rn seaboar d-and t h e n to Eng land, France, B e l g iulll H olland, and Germany But so far it h as b ee n m y misfortune to llwa ys be l ocate d in a parti clilar a r e a t h a t is completely devoid o f s ubterranean phe n o m e na. Blit I s till h ave h opes of see in g o n e or two o f t h e famoll s E uropean caves before r eturning to States. I did pass albeit quite rapidl y, t h ro u g h a s p e l eo logical paradi se o f lim estone g r o t toes o n t h e Sein e Rive r bel ow Rauen. The W:lI' does not allow muc h time for sight seeing o r the purs ui t of h obbies I H ow i s myoid l ove t h e Expl o ration an d L oca ti o n Committee-gettin g a l o n g! I s u ppose war rationing and transportation problems curtail i ts activit ies g reatl y. But there i s h a rdl y a committee whi c h has more w o rk await in g it afte r the war. Pag e 107 Cave-hllnting over h ere in Ellrope i s now not a hobby, but : 1 gri m n ecessit y for a great many of the c ivilian pOpll l ace. I t appea r s that t h e simple cave, s o Important t o pnmltlve man for s h e lter and protecti o n from danger, still r eta in s it s u sef llin e s s and importa n c e in t h e mode rn wor l d. At anv r:He, t h e ne c essity of a nation knowing the l o c ation and exteIH of its caves now becomes apparent. Let m e hear from YOIl-and keep those N ews l ett er s co mlll g. Gcnmnv (2/11/45) A ltho u g h t h e war i s t empor aril y preventi n g m v acti v e partic ipa tion in spe l eo l ogica l interests I am nevertheless lIsin g a g reat deal of m y spare tim e in t r y i n g to puzzle thro u g h som e o f t h e p e rplexin g problems I encountered in pre-wa r da ys. I am som ew ha t handicapped b y not h avi n g m y n otes and records with m e but at l e ast I can wo rk o n the m o r e gen e ral q u estio ns. In thi s connectio n I wo uld l ik e to submit the follow ing two id eas f o r your com ment an d crit i cis m -and for that of any oth e r o f the cave r s w h o may be around. Y o u ma y r e member t h e s h ort debate I h ad some time ago wit h I\i{artin M llm a o n t h e quest i o n of cla ssifica ti on and defi n it i on This s ubject i s still of great interest to me. a nd I co n side r its so luti o n qllite n ece s s ar y to a n y worth w hil e f uture work in the speleo logi ca l field The n e c essi t y of arrivi n g at a d efinition of what i s w hat is not a c av e is appa r ent t h e mome n t we eve n begin to think of cla ssificat i on. And t hat there i s a neces s it y for c bssifica t i o n if we a r e to bring o rd e r o u t of t h e chaos of s u b t er rane;1Il p h e n o m e na I be l ieve ),011 will a g r ee. I am not acq u ainte d w i t h t h e r esults of Mr. M U 'lla's questionnair e o n d cfi n itio n s and i t may a l so be that somethi n g ha s been done in thi s connectio n sin c e m y leavi n g for the wars. But in the abse n ce of s u c h informatio n I mus t s u ppose that thi n gs r emai n as they were. F i rst, [o r m y proposed definition: A "cave" is: a n y nat mal l y forme d ope ning in the earth, ca pabl e o f prov idin g s h e lt er from t h e o u tside elements, and accessible ro man. This definition s uppli es, I t h ink, the thre e m ain require mcnts of a cave ( I ) t hat it is a n atural phenomen a and not m a n m ade ; (2) that it i s larg e e nough to b:: acce s sible to man; and (3) that it s d epth, size an d fOt'mation be at least of a degree s u fficient to provide s h e lter from t h e ordi narv o u ts i de elements of w i nd, rain heat and co ld This t hird po int i s nccess;;r y or we s h all b e forever c o nfused over the q uestion of p oc k ets," h ollows ," crevices," :1Ild s pa ces unde r overhangs o f cliffs o r lar ge r oc ks. I am s till not at all sat i sfie d with this definition, h oweve r a n d I l oo k forwar d to your cOlllm e nt. S h ou l d the wo r d r ock b e s u b stinneci f o r "earth" t o make it more specific? I s there so m ething m issing ?

PAGE 110

Page 108 B U L L E T I N N U B El( E I G H T -----------------------------------------------------------------------------. Second f o r m y prop ose d syste m of classification After dis carding most of the oth er sys t e m s of classifi c ation 1 tried with som e s u ccess to classify according to t y p e of rock But eve n unde r major h e adings, thi s sys t e m threat e n ed to become too l o n g, contain e d too many combinations and exce pti o ns. 1 a lso came to feel that tlie pro cess of formation was afte r all, the most important factor in d etermining any cav e s type a nd peculi ar it y The result is o n the attached s h ee t. P l ease g i ve m e your op ini on of it. Somew h e re in G ermany (2 / 1 5 / 45 ) [ I am g l ad to see that you ar e ab l e still to thin k a littl e a b out caves From your l ette r of F e b. 15, 1 tak e it that you ha ve not as yet received your co p y of B ULLETI N No. 6, whe rein M uma" g l ossa r y was publis h e d a s a s pecial artic le. H e did a fin e j o b, but it i s jusr a start. Many of the definitions will h ave to b e revised lat e r in lig h t of how the m embe r ship accepts the m and how they stand t h e test of usc. Anyway, w e hav e at l east our present d e finitions of m ost of our commonlY-LlSe d c av e t e rms. You will note that Iv[uma's definition of a cave i s practically the same a s yours b u t I like your s bette r as it i s s h o rt er. I still wo nder, especially in v i e w of the n ow commo n practic e of callin g an y hol e in t h e ground a c av e b y the n e wspap e r s (as Jap s driven out of t h e ir cave by D. S. Marine," Jap sea l e d in cave"), if the t e rm "cave" i s not really generic a n d s h ould b e m o difi e d for our u sc by the word "natural"? A l so, young bo ys ofte n dig caves; abandone d mines have b een referr e d to a s c aves and ar c s tudi e d by t h e British and N e w Eng land S p e l eo l ogists with the sam e v igor as natural caves. Many E n glis h caves ar c associated with mines. I n many Britis h Spe l e o l ogica l reports it is h ard to d ete rmin e if they ar c s peaking of a tru e natural cave or abandone d min e A lso many caves arc en l a r ged for the purpos e of mining both in England and h e re in Virginia-as Ansal t P e t e r Cave. L ost J ohn, o n e of the most famous o f the Briti s h wil d caves, i s h alf mine and half cave. I am sending a copy of your clas sificatio n of c aves to the c hairman of our committee in genera l geo logy and o n F o rmati on and Ivf in e ralog y It l ooks O. K to m e W. J Stephe nson.] H olland mus t b e the plac e w h e re all bad spelco logi sts go wh e n they di e For, to the best of my know l edge, afte r consid e rabl e resea r c h and traveling about, there i s n o t a s ingl e natural c av e in all of t h e N ethe rland sl For a w hil e 1 had imagined it wou l d b e a cave-hunters' par adise -esp ecially Limburg provin ce and the R e a lm of t h e 77 Caves" stretching fr o m Maas tri cht t o H ee r l e n But Sec page 56. a l ack and alas, e v eryone of these c ave s been dug out with huma n l abor an d not on e o f the m natural! R ece ntl y I ran a c r oss the following state m ent in a book, This I s Limburg ," b y Mathias Kemp ( Lavign e trans lati o n): "Some yea r s a go, m ys t erio u s sketches w e re dis cove re d in o n e of t h e f e w natural caves unde r the ruin s of Neth e rland s' o nl y h oogburcht ( m ountain castle), the Diingel, at Val k enburg. So this wee k 1 paid another vis i t to the Neth e r lands to c h eck o n the Val k enburg cave I ta l k e d to Fathe r Wol f the l oca l priest who is a n authority o n the c a ves, and h e said Aatly : \iVhat the book says is a lie -there are n o natural ca ves in Valk enburg, and non e in Limburg." H e w ent with to t h e cave in quest i o n and oth e r s in the ar e a, a nd satisfie d m e that they could not hav e been e v e n originally, lutural caves. But eve r y disappointment has its bright s i de a n d m y tour through the Limburg man-made caves prov e d as in t e resting a s an y ex p l o rati o n of natural caves could have b ee n. B egun b y the Romans unde r Caesar and s in ce d e veloped b y thi e ves, arti s ans religious refu gees and even politic a l re f u gees of the Dutc h u nd e r ground during the recent G erman occ upati o n they ar e of a complex i t y and large n ess t hat wou ld amaze you. The soft marl sto n e in whi c h they ex i s t i s of co ur se, an easy m e di u m. Artifac t s and bones of pre hi storic anima l s have b ee n found in the sto n e The walls of the caves ar e d ecorate d by charcoa l paintings made b y various artists throughout the centuries. So extensive arc t h e c av es, t ha t one could wand e r for da ys in the maze if o n e gOt lost. So far bad luc k has dogged m y foot s t e ps in European cave-hunting. 1 paid a visit r ece ntl y to the T e u felsh o hle" (Devil s Cave) near Steinau in Germany, a cave r eputed to b e quite extensive and filled with b e autiful dripstone f o rmations on l y to find afte r penetratin g about 50 f ee t of the entra n ce tunne l that the ceilin g of the tunnel had collapsed b locking furth e r progress This collapse was e vid e ntl y the result of co ncussi o n from n earby bombing, as t h e field n e ar t h e cave is p ock m a rk e d w i t h c raters I hav e map locati o n s and statistics of so; n e 30 oth er G erma n caves, so if I am h e r e long enough pC:'h aps I shall get into som e o f t h e m If I am lu c k y, I s hall let you know. vVac h t e r sburg, G e rm a n y T h e re ar e two famous caves in B e l gium whic h 1 have a l ways wanted to sec-the o n e at Remou c h amps and the o n e at Rochefort 1 had to m a k e a c h o i ce, so 1 pi cked Rem ouchamps-and I'm not sorry. This cave rn L a Grotte de R e m o uch amps," i s o n e o f the best I h:lve ye t see n. I t i s locate d in t h e l ittl e village of R emouchamps-ab out 1 0 miles from Spa :ln d I h ave spent the better parr of

PAGE 111

NATIONAL SPE LEOLOGI CAL S O C I E T Y the las t three da ys wand e rin g ab out in it s compli cate d 111 te n or. B efo re the w a r the c a ve was quite a to urist attractio n. The re i s a h o t e l and restaurant a t the entra n ce, and the c av e itself i s well d e v e l o p e d w ith g rad e d p aths, s tair c a ses, brid ges, e tc. The re also was a n ex t e n sive electric lig h t in g sys t e m N o w e v e r ything i s abando n e d -the g uides a r c go ne; the lighting sys t e m i s broke n ; and w hil e the c a ve i s s till ow n e d b y the "communal ," the re i s n o o n e in charge o r resp o nsibl e f o r it. C o nseq u e ntl y, I had to d o m y ow n ex p l o rin g, a i d e d b y two g asolin e lante rn s I b o rr o w e d fr o m an arm y p ost n c ar h e r e Afte r the fir s t da y I had suffic i e ntl y tra ce d the ma1l1 p assages s o that I w ou l d n o t ge t l ost I conta c t e d the Ame r i c an R e d C ross, and they sent out sev e ral tru c kl o ad s o f soldi e rs. For the followin g two da ys I g uid e d the m throug h the c av e rn s in g roup s of 13. Al w a ys wante d to b e a "cav e g uide"-and this was m y chance to ha ve som e funl M y equipment, o f cour se, w a s too limit e d f o r a n y explo rati o n o f the m o re diffi cult pa ssages, o r f o r a s urv ey o f the main P ;llT o f the cave. The entrance i s n o t s pecta c ular the o p e nin g b e in g 15 feet hi g h b y 2 0 f ee t wide The passa ge turns s h a rp l y left and down to meet the w a t e r s o f a n unde r ground stream. This stream empties into the Amblcve Riv e r in the v alley b e n eath. There ar e o ld w o od e n b oats the r e ( now bro k e n ) form erly used f o r navi gating the unde r g round riv er. The passa ge the n turns up and a way fr o m the riv e r p asses thro u g h many lar ge c h ambe rs, a nd the n dips s t ee pl y d ow n to m ee t the riv e r again in an imme n se chamber. I could n o t sec the ce ilin g e v e n with m y t w o lante rn s o r a Aashlightl The r e a r c nume rou s side p assages som e of whi c h w e re blind alleys, and some continue d f o r s o far I had to turn ba c k The c av e i s full o f excellent f o rm atio ns-notabl y s ta l ag mites, Aut e d ribbons, and ma sses o f A ows tone. Pre d ominat in g col o r s ar e g ra y, white, and tan. The re was an unus u a l absen ce o f s tala ctitesI did n o t find o n e w elld eve l o p ed on e The c av e i s othe rwise a t y pi c a l limeston e soluti o n c avit y. It ex i s t s in w elld efine d s trata, t h e til t o f the strata b e in g ab out 450 This i s trul y on e of the best c aves I hav e see n. I wish I co uld s p end an othe r w ee k h e re. The p e rson responsibl e f o r t h e expl o rati o n of the pr esent known portion is M Rahir"-n o t e d f o r his s urv eys o f the "chanto irs" in thi s ar ea. Sin ce I e xp ect to b e re t urn in g to the U. S. this month, thi s i s apt to b e the e nd o f m y Europe an c ave-hunting Page 109 G oo d luc k to yo u 111 your ow n cav in g, and k ee p 'e m c rawl i n g. E r w in Bisch off Spa, B e l gium ( 7 / 1 4 / 45 ) From Members at HomeEven for Ins e c ts 1 (s Bad! G etting d ow n to bu s iness abo u t caves The spec im en bro u ght h o m e f r o m the bst t r ip was t a k e n fro m T rout C av e It was a fossil rock ta k en from the ceil i n g abo u t h a l f way thro u g h t h e m a in passage. I t was com posed of s h ells imbe dd e d in l i m esto n e The r eas o n for m y donat in g i t to the na t ur e club was to create interest i n our w o rk. I think i t has do n e w hat it was intended to do, as I will ex plain l ater.' If yo u think i t s h o uld b e tu rn e d over to t h e Soc iety f o r ide ntifi cat i o n just say t h e word and I will see that it i s d o ne. I c oll ec t e d som e s p i d e r s a n d cric k e t s a lso w hil e o n that t rip. The most o f these w e r e t urn e d over to P e tri e to b e give n to Martin M um a The r e main i n g few w er e lef t in Sa m All e n s c ar b y m ist ake. Whe n h e f ound the m t h ey we re in rather bad s h a p e I h a d n o alco h o l the ref o re I use d carb o n t e tra c hl o ride. I find t hi s has t h e t end e n cy to di s m ember the s pecim e n s if h a ndl e d ro u g hl y I hav ent' t tri e d to buy alcoh o l l a t e l y, but if i t i s a n ything lik e the whi sky w e h ave to d r ink nowad ays i t wo uld burn up an ything on e mi ght put into it.2 S a m All e n g a ve a lecture at the nature club last m onth. H e used Duc k ey Thompson s pi ctures. H e put the S o c i e t y ove r in a bi g way A t that tim e we t a lk e d o f a trip to the c a ves o f West Virg ini a It i s our p l a n to sta r t S a t urda y, M ay 12, ab out noon s p e nd t h e ni g h t i n D avis, the n tak e in som e cave not to o r o u g h for the fir s t. The n if p oss ible, o n e tha t ha s not b ee n explo r e d I h a d a l ette r f ro m L i la Mille r last wee k. S h e thinks the trainin g s h e i s r ece ivin g n o w will m a k e h e r a b etter c a ve ex p l o r er. Sh e i s s t a tion e d in the Hawa iian I slands. Jim Beard, Pi ttsburg h P a ( 3 / 1 3 / 44 ) Maybe a Grotto of Girls? W e rece ntl y too k a g r o u p of M a wr students, ran g in g from freshme n to graduate students to Aitkin Cave in Mifflin county, Pa., an d spent three d ays m apping the m o re a ccess ibl e p o rti o ns, b y wa y o f a mapping probl e m Inte rest in spelunking i s n o w running hi g h h e re tho u g h w e' re rath e r di stant fr o m an y g oo d c a ves Eu ge n e S Ric hardson J r., Br y n Mawr C ollege Br y n Mawr, Pa. ( 1 / 5 / 45 ) I The Society des ires to k eep trac k of all s pecim e ns collected 011 tri ps. di s position as Jim h e r e m ade i s excellellt, so lon g as pr o p e r r eco rd i s m a d e of t h e di sposal. d o u b t m a n y s p ecimclIS h ave ha d som e c x pericllce.

PAGE 112

P a g e 1 1 0 Another One W e' r e Waiting For! alr eady co mpl e t ed a n article quoting w hat Dr. \"'hite sa ys of the paleontology of t h e Appalachians, co nnecting his observati ons with t h e findi n gs of C. Hibben in hi s article In Searc h of Lost A m e r ica ns" that was pllblished in H arper's Jul y, 1 944 You will b e i nterested to know t hat I a m making a study of folk l ore from the sta ndpoint of literature. I h ave com pleted m y i n Greek Myth o logy-and am now pro ce eding with t h e Scandi na via n Wels h I a m m a k ing out a car d index lis tin g all the standard poetry and pros e that contains t h e m atic and direct ref e r e n ce to c a ves. It i s amazin g list. A l so in t h e standard repertoire of s un g ope ras four of t h e m have cave sce n es. F elix G. R ob in son Pastor Arthurdale Community Churc h Arthurda le, W. Va. (8/ 1 5 / 44 ) Neville Sets Us Right BULLETIN No. 6 i s a ve r y inte r esting number T h e G l ossary of Spe l eo logy" b y Dr. and M r s Muma i s ve r y compre h e n s ive a nd so m e t hing that adds to the value of our hobby. I t must h ave take n a great dea l of time, a nd I know i t too k a n imme n se a m o unt of s kill to prepare t hi s They d ese r ve t h e t h anks of eve ry s p e l eo I agi s t for the ir wo rk. Fri e nd C l a y P e rry writes inte restingl y, but I am he too k a genero u s bit o f r eporte r 's lice n se" w h e n o n page 52 of thi s B ULLETIN, in r e f erring to m y cave work, h e m akes so m e sta t e m ents which of course a r c p r e po ste r ous. I n eve r cave-crawle d for ove r 5,000 miles, and I n eve r ha ve travele d un d erground over 25,000 mil es. T h e i te m the numbe r of cave photographs i s abo u t as co r r ec t a n unde rstatem ent p e r h aps r athe r than an es ti mate too l arge. Again on page 67, of t hi s sa m e B ULLETIN o. 6, Perry goes off the d ee p e nd w h e n h e a l ec ture at Westfield, 1vI ass., I to l d m y a udi e n ce that k odac h romes could not b e taken in a cave. I n eve r in m y lif e m ade s u c h a statement to audi e nce. I know better, as I h ave b ee n a photographe r oth er things eve r s in ce I a kid. I hav e take n and I ha ve h e l p e d tak e kodachro m es in caves. I did t h e n a nd w hat I said to a udi e nces many t i m es, is t hat "co l ored movies are not at thi s time in caves That' s w h y I u se d h an d -co l o r e d lantcrn s lid es of s tanciard s i ze. I do not lik e k o d ac h ro m es for a ud i e nc e s h ow ing. They' re fine for h o m e sh ow in g; but w h e n yo u get before an a u dience of seve r a l hundre ds o r perhaps, two o r three t h o usand they Just d o n t fill the bi ll. That's m y idea of I t, at And I still stand o n the BULLETI N U B ERE I G H T proposition that cave movies in co lor not within the u se of a n y ordinary in d ividual at this stage o f d eve lopm ent. I will apprec i a t e It i f yo u will co rr ec t t h ese e rr o n eous statem ents made, I am s ur e in good bith bv Perr y But t hey make m y work l oo k foolis h to anyone familiar wirh cave co ndi tions and cave ex p l o ration work. Mr. Perry p ubli s h e d a ve r y fin e article, with the number of mis sta tements, but on t h e w h o l e a ve r y fine article in t h e SatHrda)' Evening Post a few ye ar s Vic f urni s h ed him wit h muc h of the material h e u se d at t hat tim e W e lik e Mr. P e rr y, h e s our friend eve n i f hi s statem e n ts so m etimes d o make u s appe ar foolis h to knowin g o n es in c a ve wo rk. R. T. Neville, Kewanee, III. ( 1 1 / 25 /44) -----Articl e to Come on Cavern D evelop m ent tim e I had n ote, r efer rin g to so m e by E r w in Bischoff, in w hi c h it urged I an o n cave rn d eve l opment. I replied t hat I w o uld m a k e t h e effo rt, and submit it to you for possib l e p u bli catIO n 111 t h e BULLETIN. I h ave quite a lot of data o n subtc rrane;lll drainage ill r e lation to the of Indiana a nd K entucky, these data r elate to c av e rnollS routes o f water of diverte d s urfa ce M y l etter to Bisc h off was written c hi e R y to give h im o n the Val ley cave rn sys t e m co n cerni n g w hi c h h e Iud sent Oll. t an inqui r y. H e h ad re;llarked, in cide n tally, that the system was suppose d to r epresent a n excellent illustrati o n of the Davis co ncept of d ee p g r oundwate r cave rn d eve lopment. S in ce I m ade a c arefu l stud y of the cave rn sys t e m I was able to g i ve h i m so m e on the syste m ; and, in additi o n I m ade numbc r of comme nts o n d e velopment w hi ch are adve:sc t::> the Davis concept. In the w hi c h I intend to prepa r e for t h e BULI.ETIN, I set forth the co n cep ti o n of cavern deve lopm ent by wate r s d iverted from the surbce to underground r olltc s I beli eve that I s h all b e ab l e to m ake it of interest t o the reade r s of the BULLETIN as well as p r esent so m e of cave rn dev e lopm ent wh i c h a r c in harmo n y with processe s work in cave rn d eve l opment not so d epe nd ent u pon t h eory dependent upon old, a nd partially blle n in cave rn s l o n g r e mov e d fro:11 t h e pro cess w hi c h d e ve l ope d them. I am m u c h inte r este d in your sec tion "Random Not es in the B U L LETIN. It s h ould b e an o utl e t for so m e very interesting i t e m s w h ether co n side r ed a l o n e o r a s t hey may contribute to f eatures a nd r e lat i o n s as a w h o le. Cly d e A. B l oomington, Ind. (2 / 1 0 / 44 )

PAGE 113

N TIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCI ETY Do You Spe-lunlc or Spe-Iunk? (To Dr. R. W. Stone) Wil son College has a n e w word and w e o w e i t all to yo u I receive d y our two copies o f t h e bulletin s of the D epartment of In t e rn a l Affairs a s I was on the way to class. The fir s t paragrap h o n t h e caves was qui c k l y read and t h e word "Spelunker" tickl e d m e so muc h t hat I t h o u g h t I would ask m y cla s s h ow they w o uld pronounce it. I wrot e it o n the b oa rd and ask e d for s u ggestio n s Spe lun k e r' a nd s pe' Iunk e r w e re the two meth o d s o f s ayin g i t w hi c h came out of the disc ussion. Now I a m to ask yo u whi c h i s right or w hat it is, i f n o t o n e of these Of course t h ey wante d to kno w w hat it meant and I re ad them the second paragraph. Some w e r e so inte rest e d ,hat they wante d to tell o f the ir e xp erie nces whi c h took u s a bit awa y fr o m t h e s ubj ec t of t h e l esso n whi c h was bact erial m eta b olis m. Whe n I rem ind e d the m o f t hat they said t ha t a study s h o uld b e made of the ba c t e ria in caves, I and n ow t hat I have had a c h anc e to re ad 'the w h o l e article, I see that n o m ention has b ee n made o f t hat a s p ec t of s p e l eo logy. JUSt a s u ggestio n. Elizab eth Peab o d y Wilson College, Chambersburg Pa (11/ 1 8 / 44 ) ( T 0 Miss P eabo dy) Dr. Stone h a s pass e d o n your cla ss' s u gges tion regard ipg s tudy of bacteria in caves a nd request for informati o n o n pronunciati oJl of "spelunker. In a smuc h as the last i s a coin e d word, I r ec k o n (ac_ quire d V ir gi nianism), an y b o d y m ay pronounce It a s see m s goo d in hi s eyes Inasmuc h a s it s root word ha s t h e accent o n t h e Iun k, I k ee p it there m yse l f a nd do n t rec all any ge n e ra l use othe rwi se. A nybody w h o p refers De'troit might like spe'lunk e r better. I believe Cla y P e rr y, of our F o l k l o re Committee o r some of hi s N e w E n g l and g r oup, orig in a t e d the t erm: a t any rate h e w o uld h e an excellent correspo n d ent. So m e of us prop osed a disguis e d tel egram o n ce s i g n e d 5. P Lunker. J. S. P e trie, S ec. Welcome R e port" Type Letter had a caid from P rofesso r Gra y bill and h e has a lread y sta rt ed t o get t h e folk s inte r e s t e d up the re in that county. H e gave u s a v e r y goo d writ e up in t h e ir w ee kl y county pap er. I am go in g to t r y to ge t up the ir t hi s w ee k e nd a n d hav e a ta lk w i t h him. Also talk wit h Mr. A r gabrite a n d see if we ca n l ocate that cave wit h the s altp e t e r va t s in t h e m I H e r e i s anot h e r f i e l d for som e o f o ur Society to tac kl e Back in 1 940 Dr. (Bill) W elch was pbnnin g to start s u c h 3 st ud y. W o nd e r w h a t h appe n ed to i t. P tlge I II If I can t h e n will g e t o n e m ov e d i n to tow n and in the C it y M u se um wit h our card on it I t will b e a good b o o st f o r u s and keep s u s in t h e minds o f t h e people Nfr. Cilly said som ething abo u t a c av e under hi s h o m e at the cliff we l oo k e d at. May b e that co uld b e p a r t of D av i s Cave. I a m going to find out o n e o f the e days and I will l e t you know. I t hin k h e i s wrong about w h e re t h e wate r comes to the s urface Will t ell you m o re lat e r ; will a lso g i ve yo u a few m or e direct i o n s of caves. I a m tr y i n g to f ollow a lead o n an i ce cave in Ice M ounta in that I heard of t hi s past week. Have a co uple of l ette r s out to t h ose who ar e supposed to know abo u t the m G eorge Dare C h a r lesto n W Va. ( 1 9 44 ) Stone County, Mo., C aves W rites Dr. A. C. Burrill: I n rummag in g arou n d in t h e literature, I ha ve n ote d these two articles wh i ch m ay not b e in the Sp e leo logical Librar y, a nd a re certain l y not in m y scr a pb oo k s The first i s an a rticl e i n the l op l in Globe of w hi c h a r efe re n ce i s g i ve n in t h e l vlisso uri H is torical Revi ew for 1 92 7 The a rticl e c it e d, 1 927, p age 3 1 7 i s e ntitl ed "Trad ition s of Stone County Caves R ecalle d in t h e n e wspap e r for Marc h 1 1 92 5. This a rti cle ma y a lso inte rest Clay P e rr y Ovid B ell, a w ell-kno wn edito r o f Fulton, Callaway county, Mo., w rites an a rticl e e ntitl ed Pi onee r Lif e in Callaway County in t h e H istor ictll R e v i ew for Janu ary 1 92 7 o n page 1 60. It says H ere in CallawJY t h e p i o n eers mJde the ir o wn p ow d er at the sal t p e ter cave near P o rtl a nd .' This was r h e first I kne w o f a cave so near as five stati o n s top s e a s t o n the oth e r s id e of r h e Missouri River valley w h e r e we a re I have access o f the fir s t bur [ h ave a m agazi n e of t h e seco nd." An "Add" from W a rd I n ote 111 the lat est Newsletter the comments r ega rd -1I1g 111y K entuc k y trip from which I r e t u rned o nl y r ece ntl y. I left h ere o n A u g ust 2 n d b y bus arri v in g at the Cav e rn s o n the 3 r d. H a d a fine tim e t h ere, b u r mi sse d our old ga n g The D octor i s v ery busy fini s h i n g the enla r ge m ent o f his home near the caverns. Travel i s very light, with only a n occas i o nal v i s ito r to t h e cave. On account of t h e l ack of l a b or n o work has been done in cleaning out the t unnel off R oc k H all. VVe got into the seco nd r oo m fr o m t h e e nd o f that tunnel the da y after yo u folk s l ef t las t Augu st. The n e w cave can b e s een far ah e ad, wher e t h e A oo r dips in ele vatio n b eyo nd the present reac h of m an all of w hich can b e see n t hrou g h a mass o f shining s t a lactites in a wid e pa ssageway too tight to c rawl t h roug h e v e n if the f o rm ario n was bro k e n away. The A oo r will have to b e l owe r e d but b e f o re that is d o n e,

PAGE 114

Page 112 the tunnel will hav e to b e clear e d of the pr esent excava tion now pardy fillin g same, to make way for that which will hav e to b e carried away from the n ew sub-avenue. All of this work will probably be done just as soon as labor is availab l e; n e w tra c ks will have to b e built, and a new dolly constructed, e tc. At least we knO\\r the n ew cave lies ahead and that is something to look fOl" ward to Geor ge Parke m e t m e a t the caverns Saturday, August 5th, and took the bu s back home with m e on the 8th. I sure was g l ad to see him, as w e r e the Rows eys also. Sunday, August 6th, was spent in exploring. W e visited a n ew c ave, or rather the "beginning" of one, near M ys ter y Cave. It was a very tight crawl and a tighte r squeeze downward through a crevice that brought us into a very inter esting room about 30 feet below the surface. Lots of formation and flows tone. A hol e at the lowest elevation in thi s room, leading straight downward with the aid of a rope, mad e possibl e the entrance of severa l members of our party into a low e r room. Parke did considerable probing down the re, and thinks he found the entrance way to a l ower l evel. W e lacked tim e and equipment, however to make further progress. Work is being done at this site, how ever, by a couple of local boys, and p e rhaps sometime in the future we may have the privil ege of ente ring another such cavern as Mystery Cave, which I know you will nev e r forget A friend of the Doctor's was visiting him from Omaha, and so of cOlirse we had to make another trip to Mystery Cave. It seemed wond e rful to aga in crawl into that great room It r eminded m e of o ur vis it the re last August, when you, P!'!tri e, and Stev e w e r e with us ; also the other folk s from Richmond The roo m was the same as when yo u visited it-such place s are not s ubject to time or change, wh ere ages pass unnotic e d, in sil e nce and in darkness and in hidd e n beauty. Late that afternoon, we visited Dead Goat Cave at the top of the large hill in back of the caverns. Parke dis cove r e d a n ew room whil e we wer e there, and we had a lot of fun in that most unusual cavern at the top of the hill. Monday and Tuesday was spent helping the Doctor at his hou se. G eo rge and I did quite a lot of painting, which was of quite some help in thes e d ays of labor short age. Every evening, howev er, we took a walk after supper, through the cave, and beli eve m e we appreciated the 56 t emperature after a day in 97 tempera ture III the upper world. The Doctor' s copy of BULLETIN No. 6 was d e liver e d the l ast da y I was at the caverns. We all appreciate your publishing the story, and shall l ook forward to B ULLETIN No.7, wh e n the contin u ed portion will b e a lso publish e d. BULLETIN NUMB E R EIGHT We thought the g l ossary b y Doctor and Mrs. Muma was most co mpl e t e and enlightening. The B ULLETIN was very fine and I believe it i s one of the best yet issu e d. Pl ease ex t e nd our co ngratulations to the ed itors L. E. Ward, Tole do O. (8 /16/ 44) All About Mark Twain Cave N ee dless to say, anyon e intere sted in caves and caving would not want to l ose asso ciation with the N .S.S .... M y father, E. T Cameron, for many years owner of Mark Twain Cave, passed away last J a nuary. He had been guide and opei'ator of this cave for more than 50 years. We beli eve it wa s the first cave in Missouri, and one of the first in the country to b e opened to sight seers. Shortl y after Mark Twain wrote Tom Sawyer in 1876, the cave which had long be e n explored by local e nthusiasts began to attract v isitors from a distanc e. Many w e re afraid to venture in without an ex perienc e d guide, and one John East b ega n to conduct parties through the cavern On this card you requested a story of Mark Twain Cave and I wou ld be glad to pre pare this any time you desir e It might inte rest you to know the cave was mapped by a geo logy class from the of Chi cago under the direction of Prof. J Harle n Br e t z. The writer d i scovered a cave near Mark Twain Cave in 1 925, which was also mapped by three form e r students of Prof. Br e tz who are now geo logi sts for the State of Illinois. They ar e Paul Herbert, Mr. DuBois and Mr. Johnson This cave is severa l miles in ex t ent and, lik e Mark Twain is a wind in g network of passages in which the uninitiated might w ell get lost. I hav e shown the BULLETINS to many p eople. Also hav e approached severa l loca l m e n about be coming mem b ers of the Societ y. Am looking forward to the next BULLETIN. It might interest yo u to know that I plan to use the articl e by Jo Chamberlin, entitl e d the "Netherland of Night," to enter ta in a t a luncheo.n club to which I belong when it comes my turn. Archie K. Cameron, Hannibal, Mo. (11/ 6 /44) ----Our First Proposition I will try to see that your party has a chance a t the Knox Cavern. My health does not permit my work in it now ; it was closed last year-, and most of the time in '41 and '42. Will be g l ad to give your party free access. I have a plan to turn a farm "said to have a cave" into a Spelunker 's resort My idea was to open the f arm to the public for a small grounds admi ssion, hav e N .S.S. mem-

PAGE 115

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCI ETY bers to make it a s ummer camp, a nd ope n the cave for pleasure The brm joins Knox Cave l an ds. The sto r y of this cave follows: L ocatio n uppe r Coeymans, dry cave, form erly entered b y a pit, first roo m l arg e with dry clay A oor, rock s h e lf o n l eft. An elderly man cam e to m e a nd said that when he was 1 8 years o l d the ow n e r of the land hir e d this b oy and his fath e r with oxe n to roll a large sto n e into t h e cave mouth to clos e it b ec ause tbe p u b lic was tramping d ow n c r ops in go in g to the cave. The old man said that h e visited t h e cave many times; and t hat the day they close d it, h e counte d 1 2 human sk ull s in the clay A oor saw t h e skulls of a nim a l s wit h h o rn s not lik e co w h o rn s (pre hi storic bison b y his d escr iption), and that there w ere a number of stone tool s or impl e m ents o n the s h e lf. My idea was to h ave Clay P erry write it up. I meant to open a l oca l museum in a barn o n the farm, and c h arge admission to tbe farm. T h e n after paying to go on the property, to let the public ex p l o r e at will, p i cnic, see the mus eum, a nd do as they lik e until c ave i s actually open. If t h e r e i s a wort hwhil e cave, a n extra c h a r ge cou l d b e made to see it. The w h o l e p l an would be h andled by the Spelunke r s who were there on vaca tion. D. C. Robinson A lt a mount, N. Y. ( 4 /22/44) News N ote s on the Glossary As a of interest to yo u a nd other Soc i e t y m e m b ers in the East, Kay and I h ave b ee n d o in g som e co n stru ctive thinki n g in rega rds to a revis e d g l ossa r y. We plan to: I. Includ e f ore i g n term s in our revis e d g l ossary. These will in all proba b i lit y b e in separate sect i ons in the final form T o this e nd we h ave writte n J ohn H ooper in Engl a nd for informati o n conce rnin g spe l eo logist s i n Europe who mi ght b e ab l e to provid e lists of terms. We will also, of co u rse, foll ow up an y and all libr a r y references in thi s countr y tha t we n ow know of or t hat ma y b e s u ggested to us. 2. Includ e illustrati o n s in so far as possible that will cla rif y d e finiti o ns. More o bvi o u s illu s trati o n s will, of course, be drawin gs and pictures o f formations, p h eno m e na equipment a nd so forth. L ess o bvi o u s i llu strations mi g h t t a k e t h e form o f d iagramatic ex planation of theor ies. W e wou ld app r ec iate t h e assi stance of specialists in the Society in thi s matter. 3. We b elieve that the r ev ised m o r e e xtensiv e form of the g l ossa r y will best b e publi s h ed as a separate vo lut;ne from the BULLETIN. Vve pl a n, in thi s r espec t contact in g a publi shing h o u se in New York City, whom we understand specializes in the printing of d i ctionaries and g l ossar ies. Page 113 The above ramb l ings sho uld assure yo u that w e hav e not l ost inte r e t in th e g l ossary or for that matter in some good o ld spelunking. The latte r we inten d to indulge in, next fall d uring vacation Kay a nd I hav e take n advantage of a n opportunity to duck into a s mall sandstone cave of particu l ar h istorical interest h ere in L i n co ln. W e a r e writing a report of the cave for the next issu e or two of the BULLETIN. Pl ease g i v e o ur regards and express our jeal o u sy to every cave c raw ling frie nd in the East. Martin Muma, Lin co ln, Neb. (9/26/45) Data on G eorg i a Caves Coming No do ub t yo u h ave b ee n interes t e d in t h e caves of Geo r gia a long wit h thos e of other states. W e s h o uld l ike to l earn what d e tail e d a nd publis h ed info rm ation may b e obtained through yo u as we are making a cata logu e of this type of natur a l p h e no:n ena in this state. Certainly w e s h all want to ha ve Georg i a caves lis t ed, a nd a stud y i s being mad e of this subject n ow. Vv'ithin a few we eks we h ope to have a co mpl e te list of Georgia s Ites wit h descriptiv e information to send yo u L ee S. Trimble Pan e l Director, Ag. and I ndustria l D evelopment Bd. of Ga A tl anta, Ga. (11/ 9 /45) Ala. G eo logist on Ground Water" I t was ni ce to r e ad ove r tll e Newsletter. Maybe o n e of t h ese da ys I can get back into normal tllings and b e of som e use to m y favorite Society. I do ex p ect to spe nd a we ek or two scrap in g off buttons in north Alabama dur i n g October. I s hall attempt to cor ral some of t h e n earby spe l eologists as soon as I am ab l e to work up a schedule for the trip One of these da ys I will try to m a k e up a co:np l ete lis t of A l abama caves and se nd i t in I ha ve m ore or less thoroughly ex plored 107 caves I want to revisit a few of them. I hav e at l east 50 oth ers to get into. Each time I go to a n ew o n e I generally find one or two more. Actually, I g uess the business i s an e ndless o ne, where i n finit y can only be approac h e d a nd never reached M y interest in caves, of course, is m o r e geo l ogica l tll an zoo l ogica l or est hetic. T o me, the m ost im portant sing l e item about any cave is the history o f t h e m ove m ent of ground water w hi c h for m e d it i n the first place. Through our study of caves we a r e getting a tre m e nd ous l o t of information with respect to tll e m oveme nts of ground water. As yo u know there is not as muc h water in t h e gro lln d as f o rm erly. We must first establi s h tll e trend

PAGE 116

P age 114 b efo re we can in a u gura t e corr ective m e a sures. I know of n o sing l e way in w hi c h the reco rd c an b e b ette r completed t h a n through a s u s t a in e d stud y of caves. The r efo re, in additio n to the genuin e ple a sure whi c h all of u s get, w e c a n p oint to a ve r y pra c tical a pplicati o n of our work. Walte r B J o n es, ( A l abama) State G eo logi st, Unive r sity A la. (9/ 7 /45) Top Caver in N .S.S.-Who, Then? Encl ose d find c h ec k for lif e m embe r ship, cav e kna p sac k a nd in s i g nia I h ave e nj oyed the Newsl etters and B ULLETINS. They brin g back m a n y interesting m e m ories of the c arefre e da ys befo re the war wh e n I covered mos t of the c aves in N e w Engl and and N e w Y ork State, with seve r a l in Virginia a nd P ennsylva ni a and oth e r p a rt s o f the country from little b e ars d e ns to Carlsbad, with e v e n a f e w o ld mines and a sew e r thrown in. I have not cover e d muc h abroad except in B ermuda som e o f the g r ottoes in Italy, the mos t c o l orfu l c aves !l1 the wor l d in E n gland, a nd the huge grottoes of Han in B e l g ium Until the w a r i s over I'm tryi n g to s a ve gas and s p end m y e xtra e n e rgy with the R e d C r oss, se rvi ceme n s h os pita ls, War B o nd driv es, and othe r e fforts to speed the v i c tor y The n h ope to do som e s p elunking again. Roger Johnson South H a dl ey, Mass. (10/ 7 /44) Excerpts on Several Matters H e re i s a clippin g from a l ocal pap e r o f tw o name l ess (?) c aves in B oo n e county (w h e r e A s hl and i s ) b equeathe d b y an 8 5yea r-old Negro (see p. 53) to the county for picnics and outings Maybe thi s is n othing unusual and the caves unimportant a s sce nic points, but furni s h a r oof fr o m storms. Doubt if Bob lvforgan had a copy of comme r c ial cave lis t sent you rece ntl y, s o I e ncl ose another for him o r who e v e r need s i t m ost. From a lette r of Nov. 5 from r e tir e d Curator of W iscon s in Histor ical Museum, Chas E. Brown, I g l ean: "Misso uri Cave Bill No. 4 92 re ad with inte rest. Its provi s i o n s for c av e insp ectIo n ar e v e r y goo d and I trust it will soo n b eco m e a law. It promi ses to b e v e r y b e n efic i a l b oth to cave visitors, cave o wn e r s and employees. Othe r states s h o uld e nact s imilar c av e inspection l aws. H e a dd s a term subte rranean museums." Has that b ee n u se d b efo re? Thus : In our sta t e w e hav e at present but tw o c aves whi c h ar e o p e n to the public a s subte rran e an museums tll e Cave of the Mounds, at Blu e Mounds; a nd Eagl e Cave, in Richland county Both ar e w ell lighte d ; and provide d wih pro tectiv e fu rnishings s u c h as ar e m e n tion e d in the Misso uri bill. B U L LET I N N U B ERE I G H r "You may b e inte rest e d to know that m y good frie nd of m an y years standing, Walte r C. E n glis h of W yoce na, \ V is., has ju s t di e d. H e was our cav e authority, havin g at som e tim e or othe r V i s it e d e v ery cave of co nseque n ce in southe rn and central Wisco nsin. Yo u ma y a lso b e il}te rested to know that our fr i e nd Dr. A l o n zo W. Pond, has r e tir e d from the manage m ent of our ve r y best d ev elop e d c ave -the C a ve of the Mounds, at Blu e lv f o llnds. In it s b est years b efore the war thi s c ave, ric h in f eatures of geo logi cal interest, ente rtain e d over 100 000 v i s itor s annuall y The c ave managers B rec h I eI' and Hanne m ann, ar e n ow runnin g it the:nsel ves. A. C. Burrill J effe rson City, M o (11/ 9 /45) Anybody Find a J awbone? ( From a. letter to William Bowma.n RHby F a ll ... Cave, L ookout l1i oul1ta.in Cht l ,ttanoogt l T enn.) It see m s as if we will alw ays h ave tro ubl e with that man in the l owe r cave. I find that I mus t h ave left hi s jawb d n e w hich w e dug up this last time, with you, as it wa s not in the ca r upon m y r eturn to Richmond. The last I r e m embe r con cerning it was unwrapping it from the papers and showing it to o n e o f your guides over b y the glass top counter. I wou ldn t b e a t all surprised if, i : l the ru s h I w ent off and left it the re I h ope you f ound it. If so, will you pack it in so m e raw cotton o r the lik e and send it o n to me. Last week I c h ec k e d with the Museum con cerning the main s kull, and they s ee m to have mi s pla ce d thata r eg u l ar co m e d y of e rrors. They ar e sure tha tit i s tll e r e som e place, but i s mi sp l aced o r wrongl y id e ntifi ed. If w e ca n forward the missin g jawb o n e it is v e r y probabl e that they ca n l oca t e and identify the s kull b y matc h : n g t h e j a wb o ne. W. J. Stephe nson Richmond, Va. (11/ 2 1 / 45 ) From Hell-to Hole I am h o m e for good unl ess an atomi c b ombing c arries m e awa y aga in ( I am s till sea r ching for a v e r y d ee p a nd fin e cave in t hi s country. It may b e useful som e dark day.) I'v e b ee n in both wars and f ee l I'v e had e n o u g h I ma y ge t the postmaste r ship in C harles T o wn Have m y hat in the ring. I starte d m y t e rminal l eave o n Octo b e r 13th and took m y tim e drivin g h o m e fr o m Battle C ree k ( Ft. Custe r) Mic h. Seve d times pas s in g throug h Ohio near Bainbrid ge, o n U. S. 50, I had n otice d s i g n s t e llin g o f "The S e v e n C a ves." So, upo n l eaving C in cinnati one m o rnin g I d e term in e d to see t h e m, a s they ar c on l y a mil e a lit of the w ay.

PAGE 117

NATIONAL S PELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY I dro v e in and found o nl y Mr. and Mrs A. G. Chaney the owners on the pr o p erty. They s aid I was the first m embe r of the Society e v e r to come w ay. Chaney is a f e llow m ember, and they w ere most courteo us Afte r a nic e chat, Mr. Chaney showed m e 'round. It is a fasc i n a tin g s pot. Just about eve r ything nature ha s to offer i s cooped up the re in seve ral hundre d ac r es, huge c hasms a lov e l y l'IYer, cliffs, w oo d land, b e autiful trails and an id e a l pla ce f or a picni c and l e t the c hilclren wandel' and pla y. They have a "serve -yourself m etho d of vlewlllg the caves. P l acards with press buttons t ell yo u what that particular light w ill s how and you d o your ow n pressin g. It' s r ea l fun The c aves are small but inte restin g. The re ar e som e s m all unex p l ored hol es Mr. Chaney ha s n e ver followe d up. I told him I hope d som e m embers of the Society mi ght com e that wa y som e day and l ook into the m If they d o go the re, they s h ouldn't ex pect too muc h in the wa y of cave expl or in g; but I'll g u arantee they will f eel amply repaid b y the natura l w ildn ess, beauty, and charm o f the place Mr. Chaney i s an ard ent member and need s c ultiv a ti o n I'm trying alwa ys to l ocate som e inte restin g holes and a r e a l c av e or two. Tho u ght I had a huge one l oca t ed r ece ntl y. A man to l d m e up neal' Middl eway, W Va., close h e re, that h i s i ceman h ad b ee n in a c ave-h a rd to get in -but o nc e in a h o rse was n ee d e d to ge t r ound. Finall y ran d ow n thi s man shucking co rn and f ound h e had be e n in the D ea d Dog Cave. R e m embe r it? Not l a rge at all. The Ohio Caverns and thi s senes could stand some l ooking into. Whe n I saw the Ohio Cav e rn s in '43, I t h ought some h o les l ooked very interesting and that the cave prop el' might b e ba c k further unde r the hill. Major Thornton T. P e rr y, Jr. C harles Town, W. Va. ( 1 1 / 1 2 /45) N otes on New Membership Since the annual m ee tin g last Janua ry I went courtin g, b eca m e engage d marri ed, went on a honey m oo n m ove d and set up a n e w h o u se h o l d S i n ce things hav e set tl ed d o wn a bit I have b ee n g ivin g m o re thought to N S.S. It has occurred to m e that we have w ithin our g roup a sto r e of kno wledge concerning m embe r ship whi c h w e mi ght find very helpful in in c reasing our m embers hip. I would lik e a s k eve r y m embe r how h e h ear d of the Society and what influenced him to b eco m e a m ember. Experience t ells m e that if s u c h question s are put in a form r equiring muc h tho u ght o r writing, the p ercentage o f r e p lies will probabl y b e di sap p ointing. The ref o r e I Page 115 would lik e to s uggest a questionnaire III a form requiring c h eckma rk s only, while l eav in g som e sp a ce for r emarks concerning p o ints not oth e r wise covered i n the form. This questi o nnair e s h o u l d b e arran ge d so tha t it ne e d o nl y b e checked, t o rn off, and mail e d A s u gges t e d quest i on nai re form is e ncl osed for c riti c a l comment"'. I would s u ggest a folding post ca rd for the questionnaire if t h e n eces sary questions co u l d be a rr a n ge d in the limit ed space In the m eantime, I a m read y now to sta r t correspond in g with s u c h pro s p ects as yo u m ay b e ab l e to send me. It wou l d b e helpful to me to know all t h e actively f unctio nin g grottoes and the ir officers, parti c ularl y the c h air m e n of the ir m embe r s hip committees, so that I can refer l oca l pro s p ec t s to the right p eople I believe t ha t a p e rsonal contact can b e muc h more effec tiv e than any amount o f corr esponde n ce (This o pini o n m i ght tu rn our to b e wrong, but until w e know it is, I inte nd to emphasize a personal co ntact wh e n ever possib le.) We h ave hurri ed l y planne d a field trip for t h e w eek-e nd o f A u g ust 111 2 to get information n ee d e d to compl e te the mapping of Mystic Cave. You said t hat m easure m e nts h ad been co mpleted in Blow H o l e to the duc k -under. I unde r s t and that yo u mean the first craw l in the s tre a m W e'll tack l e B l ow H o l e after w e finish M ystic;, probabl y o n a late r trip. This trip will b e str ictl y a work trip although I h o p e t o make som e contacts co n ce rnin g m embe r s hip in Elkins eithe r coming o r goi n g. An a rti cle in the last Newsl etter head ed "Information Wanted on Lim esto n e Mines," s u ggests a noth e r s i zeab l e j o b for our l oca l group. We have a number of abandoned clay mines a l o n g the Ohio River Valley which appea r to h ave b een cut from solid r ock and h ave n o timber sup p orts No g reat changes a re apparent in the yea r s sin ce these mines were activ e a nd they will probabl y remain esse ntially unchange d f or m a n y years to come. Sam H. Allen Ste ub e nville, Ohio (8/ 3 /45) F or D etai ls, See E l sewhere Dr. Kirb y-Smith, Dr. McCrady and I h ave for som e tim e intended to submit articles for possibl e publication in the BULLETIN bur h ave negl ec t e d to do so b eca use o f the commo n human biling of putting things off. Dr. Kirb y-Smith and I hav e s h ort articles written which w e r e read befor e the T ennessee Acade m y o f Sci e n ce l ast fall and ha ve intended for som e m onths t o sen d these in to yo u but h ave been waitin g for a companio n pi ece b y Dr. McCrady wh o did not h ave hi s talk t y p ed at the time. All of the a rticles are o n the caves of what we call the Sewaneee Cave area Dr. Kirb y-Smith' s co n ce rnlll g the f o rmati on of the caves mine about cave form a ti ons a nd Never r eac h ed Ed

PAGE 118

Dr. McCrady's to b e about Cave Fauna We will try to hurry McCrady on thi s and get thes e in to you soon*. I also intend to write an account of a very unusual, pos sibly unique, formation or rather type of formation which we discov ere d in Higgenbotham Cave some months ago. I may have to illustrate this with drawings as I don't believe photographs could show the structure. W e are beginning to photograph our finds but are not having a great deal of luck so f a r because we are not very familiar with photography under cave conditions. We believe we hav e in the Sewanee Cave area one of the world's really great opportunities for original cave study b eca use we have a large number of caves, possibly hundreds, of many types somewhat different from caves in most of the other cave areas. Our caves most nearly resemble those in the Missouri-Arkansas area, and exhibit a great variety of conformations-all of the known ones, and contain a relatively unknown fauna. I suppose you have been told of some of our discoveries. To tell you the truth, I am a little afraid to write much more bec a use you'l! b e sure to think I am making up all these finds out of my own imagination Indeed it seems unlik e ly eve n to m e that we could have made all of the remarkable. finds we have in so short a space of time : the helictites, the n ew genus and species of sal amander, tlle incompl e tely id e ntified skeleton of the Plistocene cat, etc. Just to give yo u an idea of the opportunities we have here-day before yesterday we explored a previously un explored section of a well-known cave. We found countless specimens of our common cave crawfish, including typical outside s pecimens and an interesting type about half-way betw ee n in color and conformation; dozens of our one known blind cave fish In addition, we collected two specimens of a salamander which Dr. McCrady is certain will prov e to b e a new species of the same new genus m e ntioned above; and we saw a new blind fish which we could not catch. This fish was nearly five inches long, perf ec tly white, and will certain l y be a n e w T en nessee fish if not a new genus or species. The Plistocene cat mentioned above was at first identi fied as a sabretooth tiger, but latest information seems to s how it to be Feris Cetrox, a much more important find Of course, reports of such finds wou ld be of extreme interest in the BULLETIN and I am very sorry I have been unabl e to make reports on them. While in a way the dis cover ies belong to the three of us they really belong to Dr. McCrady; and. as a true scientist, he is very con servative about having anything published until he is abso lutel y s ur e of his ground. He has done an immense amount of work on the n e w salamander and will soon Still waiti n g for it. Ed. B U L LET INN U 1\1 B ERE I G H T hav e a r eport. probably in Cop eitl. The complete study of the cat r e mains will probably have to wait until the salamander question is settled and this is now complicated by the discovery of the new species m e ntion e d above This is an attempt to e xplain why w e arc so slow in reporting these discov eries. Also, the fact is, we find so much stuff we are s wamped and hardl y know where to begin in either stud y or r e ports. Dr. McCrady is, as you know, a new member of the Society and" is very much impress e d with the excellence of the last BULLETIN which is the only one he has seen. We can undoubtedly prevail upon him to give us some real articles for it whenever he can find time, since he has s uch a high regard for it. Harvey M. Templeton, Jr., Winchester, Tenn. (4/17/45) On a recent cave trip (see Templeton letter above) we found what is apparently a subspecies of the New Salamander. In addition, in this cave, w e r e innumerable blind crayfish and blind fish-Typhlichtys. We a lso saw, but did not catch, two six-inch white fish which were probably Amblyopsis Spelaetts. I don t beli eve these have eve r be e n seen around h e re b e fore As I sit writing this, b y my side is an aquarium in which I have four T yphlichtys and three blind crayfish One of the latter has just shed its old skin and is now beautifully white. Its h eart beat is 72 p e r minute. I certainly wish that some of the other speleologists could visit our cave country, for I can assure you that we have wonderful types of caves h e re. H enry T. Kirby-Smith, Sewanee, T e nn. (4/ 20/45) "Sunday" Notes from Missouri think the last Boa rd of Governors minutes show con siderab l e progress going on. I was pleasantly surprised to find my name on the temporary committee, and straightway wrote Chairman Harry H Wilson b y way of introducing m yse lf. I wonder, does Capt. H effera n of U S. Army Air Forces know that President Roosevelt appointed a Committee on the Conservation of Cultural Resources, that mey suppos edly secured WP A or other help, and mad e a survey of mine and cave storage facilities in the U. S. Was this microphotographed on film and stored in the WP A or other U S. archives lik e so many of the WP A records? A letter from Asst. State Geologist Groskopf informs me Dr. Buehler's cave measur e m e nts hav e never been organized. and tl lis would be a good tim e for such a sur vey if our Society should initiate it Supposing the army wants this data for another war, or to hide cultura l objects

PAGE 119

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY in, in case o f atomic b ombs or what not-why s h ould w e lag o n e ste p behind Germany or other countries 1!1 co n sidering protection? I inquire d to find that o ur P a rk B oar d ha s some 25 to 40 caves o n state pro perty s uch as parks ; the Mark T wain and oth e r N at i o n a l Forests in this state h a v e some more. Both serv ices co uld report o n their own. Then I talk ed to Commissioner B ode of t h e Missouri Conservation D epartment and h e r emifiJded me that a rm y engin eers h ave proposed numero u s dams for Missouri that would drown many caves. So I enclose m ap, and m y neighbor Engineer Short's, report on present s t atus of dams. As yo u m ay recall, the govern ment d ecided to c h oose three dra in age valleys in U S. as g uin ea pigs for in tensive st ud y o f r ec reati o n and farms versus water power dams and floo d co ntrol ; a nd the o nl y one of these b eing thoro u g hl y stud i e d i s the Meramec River watershed (sec map so u thwest of St. L ouis county in J e fferson county) where -Commissione r Bode believes a number of caves will be drowned in area to be flooded It is a lso a big recreation a r ea for the l arge city of St. L ouis. H e thinks n ow i s the tim e for all good men to floc k to the pro t ect ion of caves from the army e n g in ee rs, if it can b e s h ow n that caves may hav e grea t usc, present or future Yet, the Meramec has been known to co m e up to 50 feet in a few h ours af t e r h eavy or prolonged rain s as m eas ured a t suc h places as Valley Park, southwest St. Louis county, flooding boating clubs summer bungal ows, bottom cornfields in crop etc. Meantime, our l egislative committee o n flood control, after a 5,000-mile trip and many hearings on Missouri River waters h ed has just report e d with neighbor Short against a three-man MY A appointe d by the President in favor of an interstat e committee with powers to act. Note some dams flood m ore acres if built, than farmland s they protect from flood. L e t 's claim caves lIseful for safe deposit vau lt s and hide-outs for non -combatants where d ee p enough, a nd big enough, and dry enough for use, and get venti latin g equipment b y ar m y i f n eed be Excuse these Sunday t h oughts. I've just r eceive d and so notifi ed Edi tor, Dr. G G Simpson's "Notes on Pl eistoce n e and R ecent Tapirs (pp. 70-80, a new species of tapir from Missouri) from Enon sinkho l e of 1 942. A. C. Burrill, J efferson City, Mo. (12 / 9 /45) Ramblin g Notes from Georgia Monday, J an u a r y 29th I went over to the museum and talked with Dr. Morrison and then Dr. H arvey Jackson Dr. J ackson ha s sent m e 400 bands to u se o n bats. A co upl e of weeks ago we went caving and I brought back som e bats Dr. E. P Odum a nd I ha ve identified Pag e 117 them as b e in g 15 pipistr e llis and one myotis keenii. We mad e skin specimens of fOllr of them and af ter I get some mor e I'll send them up to J ackson so that h e ca n identify them for my k ey. The weather h e r e is up in the 60's; so, last night I saw a co upl e of s mall bats flying around town I also cau ght a couple of amphip ods w hi c h I'll se nd up Also, a cave cricket I h ave n't any information on the skull I would like a copy of a report on it from Dr. T. D Stewart. Last week end Bob In gram went u p to Ruby Falls Cave and Bill Bowman said that h e cou ldn t l e t him in the lower cave I don't know wheth er it is because of the skull or that Bill didn t know Bob Bob said it was b eca us e of the s kull : the own e r s of the cave arc afraid of scari n g customers away. Elton told me on that Monday, that the Society had a l etter which might be useful in getting gas ... I'd lik e to b e abl e to make mor e or less regular trips up to Chattanooga and start on the Knoxvill e sec tion. (2 / 6 / 45 ) I'll wrIte to Bill and Wal ter Jones Thanks for instnlc tions o n m a ppin g. They see m quite comp lete-now I'll h ave to t ry it. I'll make out a set of file cards on them, too. We ma y go b y a cave tonight or in the morning a nd look over a new sect ion I found a coup l e of weeks ago; also collect some more bats In about a month or so I hop e to hav e a good cave article in the A t l anta Journal magazine section. Please l e t me know about that gas letter when you send m e the map of "Missing Cave Ernest Ackerly, Ath ens, Ga (2 /14/45) Idea From Al To Clay I note that Clay Perry is r ev i sing "Underground New England, Etc. I would s u ggest t hat the Society handle obtaining copies for inte rest e d members I for one wou ld l ike a co py, especially sinc e I've never been able to obtai n the origina l e dition. Possibl y Cla y could a utograph copies for m e mb ers if it isn t too much trouble. That would make a grand add iti o n to a caving libr ary. In a matter of a few wee ks I'll be deep in caving country -can h ard l y wait to do som e craw lin and wigglin A I Mueller, Blacksburg, Va. (31 9-46) Data At Large From Bischoff Tha nks for the list of West Coast members. I am writing all of them in hope s that we can get together. I am a lso contacti n g Bill Petrie, who is at Camp Shoemaker n ear h e r e

PAGE 120

Page 118 Y o u say you d lik e to see ml: t a k e an othe r crac k at those caves in Y osemite P a rk I think you mus t m e an Sequo i a Park. Y osemite, despite the beauty and nati o nal publicity ha s only o n e s m all, s hall o w c a ve S equoia ha s a t lea s t s i x fine limeston e c av e rn s I h o p e to see some of the m thi s summer. Bu t I ma y tr y N e vad a fir st. That Northumberland C a ve fascinates me. Rum o re d to b e v er y exte n s ive it h a s n eve r b ee n expl o re d b e in g a b out 1 0 0 mil e s f ro m the n e arest settlement o r mall1 road Vv'ho kno w s it ma y be an othe r Carls b a d E rwin Bisch off ( 1 / 28 / 46) Have ju s t rece ived m y co pies o f the Soc i e ty's last two B UI..I.ETINS-and they ce rtain l y were excelle nt. I go t so a bsorb e d in the m I s ta ye d up n e ar l y all ni ght! Ea c h on e see m s to b e b ette r than the o n e ju s t preceeding -and that' s a goo d s i g n. I h o p e tha t e n o u g h copies ar e b e in g printe d that m embe r s will b e able to o rd e r ba c k copies in b ound f o rm But I canno t r esis t putting in m y tw o cents' worth in comment o n som e o f the a r t i cles In J o Chamberlin 's N ethe rland o f Night" ( p. 12, B ULLETIN 6), whi c h is p erhaps t h e best g e n e r a l arti cle o n caving I h ave eve r re ad I n otice that h e c redits Jim \Vhite with b eing t h e first ex p l o r e r o f C ar l sbad C av e rns. This i s a m yth w hich see m s v e r y widespre ad and p e r haps need s som e c orre c tion b efo re it i s accepte d b y eve ryon e a s an unas sailable fact. Jim 'Nhi t e made hiS e xpl o rati o n in 1 9 0 1 and cer tainl y d id muc h to brin g the c av e rn to the atte nti o n of the ollt sid e w o rld. Howe v e r the c av e rn wa s w ell known as e arl y a s the 1 8 70 's, a s the old trail o f the 4 9 e r s ran b y it -and it was used a s a landmark. The fir s t known (o r at least reco r d e d ) e xp l o ration o f t h e cav e rn by a I X lrt y was i n 1885. This party includ e d G e or ge Lu c a s Bill J o n es, Julian Smith, Lum Ande rson Bill \ V ard a nd S am Smithseveral o f w h o m ar c still liv in g in the Carls had ar ea. In 1 901, wh e n White made his e xp l o rat i o n a C alif o rni a company was alr e ad y o p e nin g lip the ba t win g o f the c av e rn s for g uan o mining -and White was o n e o f the ir e mpl oyees In BULLETIN 6 pa ge 6 3 a s / s g t. F. Silv e r writ e s co ncerning the possibilit y o f a 6,OOOf oo t d e ep c av e in M exico This i s undoubte d l y t h e Boca Del Diabl o (On,il' s M outh) l oc a te d n c ar Taxco in the state o f G u e r rero. I t i s n c ar the ha c i e nda o f \ V illiam Spratlin g, an Americ an The re ason the state autho rities closed the m omh o f t h e c av e rn was b eca use o f it s dange r to trav ele r s it b e in g ju s t 1 0 feet from the main }.,ifexico City A c aplllc o hi g hwa y The othe r re ason s w e re politica l as many o f the natives b elieve ( with som e ju s tifi c ati o n ) B ULLETI1\: NL' M BER EIGHT that t h e c av e was used to ge t rid of sta t e p o l i t i c a l prison e r s and t h e clo s in g o f the c av e ha s b eco m e quite a l ocal p olitic a l issue. E zequeil Ordanez o f M exico C itv i s the autho rit y o n the c av e I am inte reste d in knowing whe re t h e fig ur e 6 000 f ee t was a rriv e d at, a s the b est o f m y info rmati o n i s that t h e c av e ha s n e v e r b ee n sound e d. The opening i s 1 8 f eet in diame t e r and o f unkno wn d epth. The re i s a led ge 3 00 feet d o wn bur s tones droppe d f rom thi s l e d ge n e v e r have b ee n h e ard t o land bel o w The o p e nin g was closed b y pla c in g a fram e w o rk o f l ogs 1 00 feet clo wn and the n d y n amiting the o pen in g so that the d e bri s c ov e r e d t h e fram e w o rk Mr. S ilv e r c an d e riv e consolation from the fae[ that anothe r o p e nin g ha s b ee n di sco v e r e d b y Spratling a narrow cr evice leadin g from t h e Spratling prop e rty. S i x tho u sand f ee t sounds in c re dible. I ha v e b ee n think in g that a pit f O llnd in on e o f our C a l if o rnia c a ve s (known t o excee d 1,200 f ee t s trai ght d o wn ) was unll s ual e n o u g h S peakin g o f t h e unus u a l h e re's o n e f o r your faun a committee: On the Afri c an contine nt, at s in o ia, 82 mile s n o r t hwest o f Sali sbury ( in n o r t h e rn part o f S outhern Rh o desia) ar c f our c av e s inhabite d b y baboo n s II I t w o uld b e inte restin g to sec the committee attempting to p l a ce tho s e s p ec imens in alc o h o l phi a ls! M y l ette r s to other C alif o rnia m embers h av e alr e ad y elicite d tw o inte restin g re plies. One from C ar l Hubbs at L a Jolla with some informati o n o n t h e La J olla Caves and a pro mise o f c av e re p o rt s o n som e othe r s h e has v i site d Ano t h e r f ro m Thompson at Bak e r sfie l d wh o is a go ld and s i l v e r mine r in 1vl ex i co a n d o wns an entire town in the s t a t e of S o n ora in M ex i co. H e has kindl y offe r e d coo p e r atio n and assi s tance to an y o f thl: Soc i e t y m e m b e r s planning to expl or e in M exico I am n o w attempting to o r g ani ze a party to tak e lip hi s invitati o n a s h e states the re ar c som e inte restin g c av e rn s in Son ora. If s u c cessful, w e would probab l y go do w n som e tim e in June o f thi s year. Ple ase pass the w o rd around and ma y b e othe r m embers o f the S oc i e t y w o uld lik e to join II' in a l o wcos t vacati o n in M ex i co, wit h c a ve hllnti ng-a s well a s goo d hunting f o r deer ante l o pe, wild h og, and tige r E rwin 'vV. Bischoff, Oakland, C al. (2 /13/ 46) Our B eet l e Trapper Talks I would lik e nothing b ette r than to ge t away from i t all f o r a w ee k end with yo u in the h oles. I hav e k ept m y n ose a littl e to o close t o the g rind sto nl:, I f e ar and am re apin g som e o f the fir s t harves t s o f the m e ntally-rutte d i n the f o rm o f nosta l gia f o r olel stamping g ro unds A c ase o f Au hasn' t helped muc h I am s till und e r d oc tor 's o rd e r s so I'm afraid t h e best I c an d o f o r a cav e trip i s a wis tful g lan ce at a map.

PAGE 121

N .. \TIONAL SOCtETY I hav e b ee n through four c aves at and n ca r Blacksburg, though I hav e n e ve r had the pl eas ur e of m eeting Dr. Holde n As a result of my survey, I discov e r e d the reabouts, two n e w species and a n e w rac e of anophthalmid b ee tle It is certa inl y a rich collecting ground. Do not fail to explor e T onies (or 'T ommies") Cave at Newport; if yo u enter a cave on the N e w River west o f Blacks burg ( bootleggers k ept me out!), k ee p yo ur eyes p eele d for the littl e yellow, running b eetles. If yo u find a n y, I would appreciate your communicatin g them dir ect to me. M y types always gravitate to the U.S.N.M., and it saves e ndless r e d tape if I hav e compl ete contro l of the specimens prior to dete rmination. All such work as I d o on c ave be etles now must b e don e after hours anyway. M a nson Valentine, McLean, Va. (1941) Cave Hydrologist Says The greatest interest of m y lif e has b ee n connecte d with cavern studies and the circu lation of waters which produce the m. P e rhaps if and whe n conditions r eturn to n ca r normal, I may be a bl e to r eturn t o m y cavern s tudies and pre par e l ong dela ye d work in water div ers ions and cave rn d e v e lopment. I think yo u a rc to be congratulated in yo ur efforts to continue the study of caverns, and I think yo ur organizatIo n IS a s pl e ndid one. I am g l a d to b elong to i t. Cl y d e A. Malott, D e p artment o f Geology and Geography, Indiana Unive r sity, Bloomington Ind. (1943) More on "Speleology" From a l ette r from C l ay P e rr y, from another to him in 1940 from (then) Corresponding Secretary A. C. L ewis (a r c yo u with us?), comes thi s p a ragr aph: "Your reference to your inabilit y to di scover a soc i e t y lik e the District o f Columbia Sp e l eo logical Society (o f n a tional scope lik e the British Speleo l ogica l Society) wa s one of the m otivating f ac tor s t1ut l e d to o u r f o rmin g such a group. There are pl enty of to urist s and sight see r s who go throug h the commercialized caves nearb y, but w e a r e inte rest e d in gathering together kindre d souls who would find real pleasure in burrowing into e v ery hol e it was possibl e to discov er, regardles s of mud, water o r p e rsonal II1COIWel11e nce. In thi s we hav e been v e ry successfu l And from a 1945 I etter from Walter B. J o nes, Alabama State G eo logi st, to our Newsletter Ed. W. S. Hill thi s p e rtin ent paragraph: "It appears to m e tha t a summary o f geologists Int e rest i n c av e ex ploration mi ght be as follows: P age 119 Pra ctically all caves and cave rn s h ave b ee n formed b y soluti o n in ca lcar eo u s rocks. From s u c h places the geo logist ca n get va luabl e inf o rm a tion with r egard to quantity and mov ement of underground w ater, strike and dip of stra ta accurate geo l ogic sections of strat a ex p ose d in cave walls, a nd frequently excellent collect i o n s of perfectly preserved fossils. In conjunction with the bio logi st, muc h can be deduced from a study of cave f a unas, bearin g up o n unde r ground co nnecti o n b e tw ee n caves. T o a geo l ogis t a hol e in the ground, whet!ler it b e a cave, mine, or quarry, i s a c hall e n ge. In Al a b a m a we consider cave study to b e as imp ortant as an y other phase of o ur work. From Members and Others Abroad From the Yorkshire Ramblers President I h a d yo ur l etter o f May 26 at a tim e when the prospect o f o ur d o ing anything but staying put and wo rkin g was very r emote. Howeve r we ar e beginning to think some da y th e r e ma y aga in b e holida ys; dra stic cuts in train s h ave thi s week b ee n r e pla ce d b y som ething lik e a serv i ce, and evacuees will r eturn t o som e towns and release rooms 111 the country to some ex t ent. Pra ctically the whole of our 2 3 numbe r s (o f the Y or k sh ir e Rambl ers' Club publication) ar e available b a r two p e rhaps. V ery f ew of our la st, 1 9 38, r emain. We shall publi s h the next as soo n as d ecent pape r is obtainable a nd wh e n m e n b egi n to l e av e th e f o r ces a nd to inquire whar happe n e d in '30 and '40. If yo u are publishin g a journal not entire l y d evo t e d to archaeology and bon e-digging (w hi c h does n o t interest o ur m e n ) I h ave no d oubt m e committee will at once agree to exc h a n ge a nd to i nclud e ba c k numbers to some ex t ent. Ernest E Rob e rts Harroga te, Yorkshire, Eng. (10/ 3 /44) Anybody Have An Answer? While readin g an a rticl e in m e Magazine Digest I came across a p a ragraph wh ere the writ er mentioned finding Runic l ette rings in a cave. It did not, howev er, indi cate the l oca tion o f t11is pl ace To introdu ce m yself, I hav e b ee n tr ying to carryon som e SOft o f a r esearc h on Viking travels i n America. M y inte rest s in thi s m atte r w e r e arous e d wh e n som e relics w e r e found in thi s vicinity whi c h were cla im e d to b e part of the authentic equipment of a Viking warrior. Up till n ow the r e ha s b ee n so littl e actual proof of m ese v i s its of the Vikings to Amer i c a tha t a nything o f furthe r proof -su c h as this article hinte d atwould be o f g r ea t impor tan ce. M y p e rsonal theory is that these travels occun'Cd ove r a l o n ge r p erio d of tim e and over a wid e r area than is at present known to hi sto r y.

PAGE 122

I wr o t e to the editors of this magazin e and they sug ges t e d writing to you \ Vould the re b e any possibility of getting a photograph of these inscriptions? It would b e inte resting to know if they co uld b e determine d as to period of tim e inscrib e d, or w hat the inscription r e veals when it is d eciphere d I h ope I am not in co nv e ni encing you by inquiring about th i s ma tter. Martin Kaija, P ort Arthur, Ontario, Can., (21 2-45) Excerpts from English Editor am v e r y k ee n on any form of co-operation b e twecn cave r s the world over; so, if anything i s r equirc d by the N S.S. ju s t write and I'll do m y best. Thc clubs I b e l onG b t o ov e r h e r c a r c all tip-top, and will help too. Now and then, books on caving ar e offered for sal c b y second-hand book shops o v er here. Whc n anything goo d i s offered I will snap it up f o r your Society M:v own lib rar y i s pretty compl ete for English works some 200 volumes: 50 Fr cnch; nin c G erman; a few Spanis h ; for U. S. A., I have M e rc er's Hill-caves of Yucata n and Hovey s Cele brated American Caverns. and Bask e t m t /k e r C ave s of N. E. Arizona, Vol. viii, No.2, P e a bod y Muscum. I lik e to includ e in cach issu e of m y B. C. a "show c avc" bookl c t, or l eaRet (onc that will bind in well). It's an e xcellent addition, as thc B. C. is read b y experts and copies go out to many publi c libr aries and muse ums over hcre. All the best and good caving. G e rard Platten, New Milton, Hams, Eng. (9/ 7 /44) IsM ember in Argentina For some time I hadn' t been ab l e to make up m y mind about whethc r I w i shed to j o in the Socicty. B eing out of the country for t h e I S m onths has made it e asi c r to put off making the decision. H ow e ver, as you know, I lik e cavi n g a lot; and, as a r esult of thi s and your good l ette r o f F ebruary 1 5 which reach e d me today, I finally d e cided to settle the matte r once and for all by paying up for life; h e nc e t h e e nclosed check. I or iginall y inte nd e d to see if I co uld do a littl e caving out in the Cordoba provinc e of western Argentina whe n I took a two-w ee ks vacation. Unfortunatcly I forgot the matte r compl e tel y during the vaca tion even though I had brought the essentia l equipment to Buenos Aires. Perhaps I'll get another chance John Fishburn, U S. Embass y, Bue nos A ir es. Argentina ( 4 / 1 7 /44) BULLETIi' NUl'vIBER E IGHT Promise from Venezuela recciv e d your l ette r of Sept. 16th, e nclosing my m e m b ers hip card for the Soc i e ty. Many thanks. Under separate covcr and by ordinary mail I al11 send in g you four copies of the separates "La Cueva d e Guaicai puro. Contribucion a la EspcIeologia VenezoIana," of which I am auth or. This work the first of its kind published in this country, appear e d in Revist a Nacional de Cuitura, No. 46 Sept.-Oct., 1 944 officia l publication of the Ministry of Public Educati on. One copy is for you p c rsonall y, anothcr for Mr. Stephen son, President of our Society, and the other two for the Library of the last. I wish to know, also if you pl c ase, the impress ion this modest work has caused you or other Americ an Speleologists who may run through it At pres ent I am prcpar in g a joint work with Mr. Walter Dupouy, Director of the Muscum of Natural Sc i e nc es, about a v e ry interest ing exploration w e made a few months ago of severa l oth e r caves; and we shall publish it eve ntuall y as well as othe r works 011 caves I have recently visited. I am inte rest e d in rece iving all or any of the available back numbers of your B ULLETIN. Also, I wo uld like to get the address of some houses that sell speleo l ogica l equipment. This co-operation will b e highly apprec iat cd. J. M. Cruxent, Sociedad a T ra posos, Caracas, V e n ez u e l a (11/ 30 /44) I nquiry from India As a member of the British Spel e o l ogica l Association in Ind ia, I am wr itin g to try and establish conta c t with yo u to ex plor e thc possibi lities of mutual assistance on cavll1g topICS. 1 have, I regret to say, on l y rece ntl y h c ard of your ex ist e ncc and would greatly welcome the opportunity of recciving your journal and, if pos s iblc, b e comi n g an assoc i ate or foreign m cmbc r of your Socicty. Therc are a lot of things 1 wis h to learn about c avin G b in America, and 1 wonder if the r c i s much lit erature on thc sub j ec t which you could pcrhaps suggest? Unfortunatcly thc r e are but f e w of u s spe l eo l ogists in Indi a ; but we have madc a start on the huge amount of exploratory work to b e done, and hav c got a s mall supply of n eccssa ry tackl e The caves in thi s part o f the world are mos tly in Ceyl o n and in Himalayan mountains fr o m Kashmir to north Burma and China. Thc r e arc numerous Ame rican troops in In dia ; and if any of the m happen to be your members and inte re s t c d in caving out here, w e would b e on l y too glad to help them all we can

PAGE 123

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY The m a n who k n o w s m ost a b out t h e s ubj ect i n thi s pa r t o f A s i a i s Brig. E. A. Gl e nni e o f the S u rvey o f Indi a D e lhi o r Cecil H o tel D e lhi a nd i t wo uld be bes t i f yo u post hi s address to a n y of your m embe r s o u t h ere, s in ce h e is m o r e access ibl e geograp hically a nd wou l d be ve r y ple a se d to meet the m In communica tin g to me, pl ease u se m y m o r e p e rm a n ent address, w hi c h i s ca r e Lloy d s Bank, H o rnby Road B o m bay, India Cpl. R. D Leak ey, C h aklala, Indi a (2 / 7 / 45 ) Data and Advice from B S .A. One h ea r tily agr ees with yo ur comme n t t hat t h e m e m b e r s o f our two b o dies s h o uld e nd eavo r to co o p e r a t e in e ve r y way possible. W e a r e a t present liv in g in abnor m a l tim es, but I c an assur e yo u t h a t m a n y of our peo ple, o n ce they return to c i vilia n life, will b e o nl y too h appy to b eco m e m e mber s of the N.s s The questi o n s inhe r ent to your s t ate m ents a b out re co rdin g cav in g d a t a pro m pts m e to offer yo u t h e f ollow in g inf o rma t i o n and ex pl a n a tion : Your first a n d most imp ortant w or k i s to establi s h yo ur sys t e m of r ecor din g. I a m a n old m a n n ow; but w h e n I l ook ba c k 40 -odd years a nd think o f the vario u s id eas a nd m etho d s trie d o ut-from di aries to card ind ex, b efo r e o n e ac hi eved wo r t h w hil e result-well, a t l east, it was amus m g. Y o u ha ve got to allow for expa n s i o n i t i s grow m g all t h e time-easy r efe r e n ce a n d etc. I a m go in g to g i ve yo u a min o r exa mpl e as I go a l o n g, of h ow I wo rk a nd trust it will b e o f u se to yo u I w i s h yo u w e r e here-a few minutes in the 4 00-odd vo lumes o f reco rd s wo uld g i ve yo u a better i dea tha n h ours o f w r i tin g Fir st, obta in Ordna n ce Survey S h ee t s a n d rul e the g rid as e ncl ose d .;; Tha t m ea n s q uick re f e r e n ce a n y ti m e as t o l ocatio n N ext, the surface survey. Get yo ur p eople o u t l ocat in g all swall e ts, ris in gs caves, poth o l es, e t c., m ar k II1g sam e o n s u rvey s h eets. W h e r e yo u h ave l o t s a nd l ots of s h a k e h o les' a nd yo u d o n o t kno w wh e r e to o p en out, go ove r t h e m in winte r ; som e of t h e m will b e s ur e to b e "breathing; w arm a ir coming u p fro m the cave rn s b e l ow will h ave b o r e d a h o l e r i g h t t hrou g h the snow. Mark these out f o r future di gs. N o w w e can comme n ce o n our car d in dex not f or reco rdin g, but as a n ind ex to r eco rds. Eve r y c a ve, a n y whe re, i s put into t hi s ind ex. We m ay n o t eve n know it s approx im a t e l ocality-but i t goes i n in the h o pes it can b e built up as tim e goes a l o n g. Sever" J unrcpro du ccd e nclosures cam e wit h S im pso n 's J etter. Page 1 2 1 R ecor d s com e next, and are l oosel eaf bi n ders sheets f r o m som e I e ncl ose h erewit h O u r Brit i s h caves we are wor k in g inte n s ivel y, a nd we h ave a vol u m e or series of vo l u mes for eac h d rain age area. Yorks h ir e has 1 2 drainag e a r eas a n d t h e r eco r d s are exp a n ded to 56 vo lumes! A s a n exa m p le, l e t u s take part of t h e Kingsda l e drain age a rea: First we h ave t h e g r a du a l acc umulati on of d ata for r eco rd s The a r e a i s cove r ed b y sixi nc h O. S s h eets 8 0SW. 96NW. & 95NE. On the e n closed sheet (96 W ) o n the west s ide, i s s hown the m a j o r p ortion of t h e K i ngs d a l e a rea. The P ar i s h b ounda r y l i n e is a long the water s h e d ; the who l e dra in age to the east of that lin e is in t h e C h apelI ed a l e are a I n t h e ge n e r a l reco rd s of eac h a rea are noted t h e geo logical d ata, surface, drainage e tc. You will. note t h e mill race or wate r cut (A3. B2. C2. Dl. E l. Fl.), w hich i s a rtifi c i a l a nd cut to brin g d ow n t h e wate r fro m h ig h up the valley, to drive a water mill near T hornton. L eak age fro m thi s m illrace is t h e wa t er wh i c h i s e n g u lfed by var i o u s poth o les-all t h e wate r s so absorbed come to lig h t aga in at K e l d H ead (G2). A t nor m a l times, the who l e o f t h e b e d o f K i n gsda l e B eck (dotted blue) is dry-th e strea m followi n g a n un de r gro un d co ur se; after h eavy rain h owever a great quanti t y of water follows the sur face r iver bed Geo logi ca l feat ures s h ow t hat t h e base of Yoreda les fol l ows rou g hl y the l i n e of the mill race, t h en Mou ntai n Lime sto n e to a d epth of 50 feet below Keld H ead (a bo u t 4 50 f eet t hi c k), t h e lim estone res tin g u pon Siluri a n T he A oor of t h e valley i s cove r ed wit h A llu via l (ove r which the co urse of K i n gs d a l e Beck i s found) t h e site of a g laci a l l a ke. All unde r gro un d wat e r s com e to t h e surface a t Keld Head Next co mes s urv ey photography biology, etc., of eac h i ndi v idu a l cave i n t h e a r ea. These eac h h ave the i r ow n sections; a nd everyt h i n g that has b ee n written a b out t h a t pa rti cular cave i s p u t into r eco r ds, w i t h a to h av in g everyt hin g known abo u t a n y pa rticula r cave under o n e headin g (see J i n g l i n g P o t Notes e nclosed). In Kin gs d a le, survey gave t h e followin g results to date : D epth. Batt y Pot ..................................... 40' 300' Y or das Cave ............ ........... ...... ... .... 675' Bull P o t ...................... ................. 275' 407' Jin g lin g P o t .................................. 1 92' 1 80' Jin g lin g Cave .......... ...................... .... 1178 R ow tiIlO' C a ve .............................. .... 938' R ow t e n'" P o t ................................. .355' 5 80' S im pso n Pot ............................... .392' 14 70' D o ubl e Three H o l e ........................ 3 3 25' swin sto Cave ......... ...... ................ .395' 239 4 Hut P o t ........................................ 28' 28'

PAGE 124

P age 122 D epth. L e n g th. New Pot ............. ... . . 34' 15' Sheepfold Pot ... ... . 35' 65 Tho m ey Pot ...... ......................... 51' 53' Littl e Pot ......... ...... . ................ 40' 62' Marble Ste ps P ot.. .......... ............ 410' 1711' Cellar H o l e s East......... ..... ......... 21' 36' Pin H o l e .................. ... ........ ....... 42' 49' Braid ey Garth Pot .... . . . .... .... . ... 39' I S' Lord Top H o l e .......... ...... .... ...... 4 If 36' The next probl e m was (a nd s till is) wher e is the "master cave which collects the wat e r from e ach chasm and d e liv e r s it at K e ld H ea d ? Pl a ns were plotted onto the s ixinc h O S. s h ee ts, and a sec ti o n o n what I calle d the Kin gs dal e Valley Fault m a d e It s how e d e very pothol e go in g down to saturati o n l evel wit h the e xception of Jingling Pot. (Everyon e o f other holes ende d in a syphon.) Why v alley fault": Notice h o w the s urv eys in pl a n follow to a g reat parallel to the lin e of the valley This fracture, in which all the d ee p cavities are situate d was probabl y formed b y the h eelii1g o v e r-very s lightl y -of the rock afte r the vall ey had b ee n d eep cut a nd the support removed. We s hall probably find the drainage follows a lin e parallel to the valley until the vicinity of Sheepfold Pot i s r e ached, then m ee tin g a pr oved fault from the r e throu g h Keld H e ad Nook and deliv er in g the wat e r b y this r oute to Keld H ea d I trust yo u will forgiv e this l engthy e xplanation and hop e it ma y help you. Eve rythin g p e rta i nin g to the M ammoth Cave i s vastly Imp orta nt. Sorry M egge r tester not muc h good; but yo u will hav e see n s imilar gravity balances at work in the States. If not, l e t m e know and I will try a nd send yo u some dope along r egarding same-that is, if o ur p eo pl e h ave escape d b omb damage. I hav e not h ear d from the m for a coupl e of yea r s . But the real factor o f n ew underground ploration i s to get the two e nd s of r easo n : the s ink o r swalle t ; a nd the rising, or p oint of d e b ouchure b y co lour o r c h e mical tests Yes, I kno w that underground p ickup m a kes thi s trick y at times. G e t all the s inks in a n area that communicat e with a risin g. Once yo u do that a whol e big field of research c ommences ju s t think, does th e Mammoth Cave stand o r a r e there othe rs? In s tead of thinking in term s o f solution-think of t ec to nics, faults a nd fissures plu s e rosiv e act i o n of wat er and yo u will go some. Had a letter from Norbe t Cas t e r e t H e ha s com e thro u g h all rio-ht and in 1 943 discov e r e d a n e w I SOO-foot a b yss P som e wh e r e a r o und the P y r e nes. Also h e ard from d e Joly; h e a lso i s O. K. E. S impson President, Briti s h S pel eo logical As s ociation Settle, Yorkshire, E n g. ( 3 /14/ 45 ) B U L LET INN U B ERE I G H T Highlights from Hooper Letters was ex tremely inte rest e d to r ea d 'about the National Speleological Society in Vol. 1 2 of the Briti s h Caver. I should, in f act, b e most grateful if yo u could l e t m e h ave full details o f the Society, as I s h o uld like to b ec ome a m ember. I am a lif e m ember o f the British Speleological A ssociatio n and my wife and I hav e b ee n e nga ge d o n the e x ploration and s urv ey of the compl e x (though s mall, per haps, b y your standards) system o f caves at Buckfa st l e igh in D evons hire. W e hav e b ee n fortunate e n ough to discover and make the first d e scents o f a numbe r o f e n tirely n e w c aves in thi s ar ea. I hope that on e da y I s hall b e abl e to tak e a trip to Ame rica and v i s it just a f e w of the nume rous ca ves about which I h ave r ea d with so muc h II1te rest. (10/31/43) A copy of B ULLETIN No.6 r eac h e d m e safely las t w ee k. It is a fin e j o urnal and both m y wife and I hav e found it inte resting r e ading. I h o p e to writ e to the Editor it in a few d ays, as I hav e a numbe r of com m e nts which mayor ma y n o t b e of inte r est. I can, f or exa mple, add a f ew t e rms, which find common u sage in this country, to the g l ossa r y o f speleology. I am g lad to note the scie ntific a ngl e from whi c h your Soci e t y tackles all these probl e ms it adds 'so muc h t o the v alue of a cave trip if everyt hin g i s pro p erly r eco rd e d I con gra tul a t e the Society also o n its attempt to index all the know n caves of the world-truly an a mbitiou s proj ect. I suggest that wh e n yo u com e to d ea l with the caves in this country yo u contact E. Simpson H o n. S ec a nd R eco rd e r British Speleological Association, Duke Stree t, Settle, Yorks. I doubt if there is an y m a n in thi s country who know s m ore about Briti s h caves. H e also p ossesses a vast a m ount of writte n info rmati o n (including many translati o ns from the original accounts) o n the caves on the European contine nt. I c an also probably give y(m a certain amount. of stuff o n the caves in D e vonshir e which h ave not b ee n r eco rded at all else where M y wife a nd I are d o in g what we can to collect in f o rm a tion o n cav e formati o n and structure, the growt h o f hcli ctites, e t c.; a nd so w e should b e v e r y gra t eful if yo u could put u s in tou c h with an yo n e in yo ur country who specializes in that line, or if YOll co uld l e t u s know of a n y U. S. lit e rature whi c h d ea l s specifically with that s ubj ec t The only p ape r which I hav e f o und that at t empts to d eal with sta lactit e f ormations at all thoroughly i s b y W. Prinz, o n Crystallisations in the Caves of B e l gIUm" ( 190S). This pap er goes into t h e matter in som e d e t a il; but unfortunate l y the translation I have i s v e ry

PAGE 125

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY lit e ral and in many places, d oes not r epresent t h e true sen s e of the orig in a l pap er, and so I h ave h ad to go throu g h l ate r and r e tran s l ate it. I do not know wh e th e r yo u h ave see n the follo win g d e finiti o n of a spe leologi s t It app e ar e d in the Briti s h Sp eleo logical Ass oc iati o n jo urnal Ca ves and C av ing No.1, under the h eading As Othe r s See U s," as a s u gges ted entry for the n ex t E n cyclopaedia Brittani ca. "SPELEOLOGIST.-One of the (fortun ate ly) l esse r known mamma l s They shun the da ylight a nd altho ugh only p a rtiall y n octu rnal s p e nd many da ylight hours in h o les in the earth Although g ift e d with l egs they pref e r to c rawl o n the ir stomac hs and suc h ar e the ir dirty h abits, that they ar e happier l yi n g in the mud than on dry ground. Whe n m e t in the d a rk they resemb l e huge g low worm s and, although sci entists cannot find a r easo n the light i s at the oth e r e nd Gifte d with vocal cor d s they make numero u s sounds, but liste n e r s will h ea r most fr eque ntl y the strange call of one to a nother of 'Dam, o'ell, dam;' this call u sually follow s any bumping sound." (4/ 23 / 44) I ha ve b ee n bitte n b y the "Cavin g Bug" for just over e i ght yea r s n ow. I noti ced in t h e r e c ent Grotto Grap ev in e s ent m e tha t somebody h ad totall e d 170 "und e r ground h o ur s." This aspect h a d not occurred t o m e before; and so, out of inte rest, I w ent through m y r eco rd s and t o t alled up m y own underground h o ur s I was s urprised to find that it ca m e to ju s t over 400 M y wif e can claim a s imilar figur e At a n y r a te, I s hould f eel it a privil ege to b e a m embe r of yo ur Soc i e t y, as altho u g h I that under present c ir cumstances, I cannot h ope to ga in full adva ntage from my m embe r s hip it will be nic e t o kee p in tou c h with caving activ ities in your country, and the B ULLETIN will make a w e lcom e add iti o n to m y growing libr a r y of cave lit erature. I s h ou ld be v e r y please d to get in to u c h with a n y of your m embers who are in thi s country, and if they were not t oo far awa y m y wif e and I would always b e g lad to offer them h ospita lit y; a nd b etter still, I mi ght be abl e to arrange a cave trip for them. I a m a f raid, how e ver that transport difficulti es, a nd A y in g bombs hav e rather c urtail e d our caving activi ties thi s year. In fact, I had m y second r e a l trip on l y just over a w ee k ago-to Swildon s Hole in Somers e t which was as u s ual very w e t indeed. H owever, it was the first time I h ad visited the cave for four and o n e -half years so it all seemed quite n ew to me, and I managed to get som e quite satisfactory photos. (Photograph y i s on e of m y m a in inte re s t s and I almost feel that a trip h as b ee n wast e d if I do not r eturn with som e pictorial record of it. The trouble is that it r equires a lot of will-power to cart a camera tripod R as h powder e tc. into a cave, and som e times laziness gets P age 123 th e uppe r h and I If Platte n has sent you hi s lates t B ritis h C aver [Vol. 1 2 J, yo u will find there in a frivolous ar ticl e of min e o n cave photography.) The other cave trip that I had thi s yea r was of inte rest in t ha t m y wife and I and som e rock climbing fri e nds mad e the fir s t descent of a rat h e r un expec t e d 1 20f oo t d ee p pothol e in Devonit was JUSt o n e vertical fault fis sure-and we had an 8 S f oot rope ladd e r d ow n which i s the bi ggest ve rti ca l we hav e so far fou nd in D evo n H owe v e r as I b elieve I m e ntion e d in m y earli er l etter, w e are n ow mainl y co n ce rn e d w ith o ur exploratio n work in the caves at Buc kfastle i g h ( in the sam e county), w h ere w e h ave a very compl ex syste m-an und e r ground m a ze ex t e ndin g on t o about e i ght separa t e l evels, mostly inte rconn ect ing-a real surveyor s nightmare. So far we have mappe d out well ove r 8, 000 f ee t o f pa ssages in t h e l arges t cav es, and a lot of it was rea l virgin territory. Y o ur trip in H ell H o l e sounde d v e r y interesting, and I should lik e to hav e seen the main room t h e re. The l argest c h ambers I h a v e b ee n in in this country hav e been the Great H all in G aping Ghyll H ole ( Y o r kshire), wh ere a potho l e falls 340 feet sheer into the r oof o f a c h amber 480 b y 80 b y 100-iSO feet hi g h ; and the rece ntl y discove r e d G. B. Cave in Somerset, wh e r e t h e main canyon is about 100 f ee t high a nd 7S0 f eet l o n g, dropping 2S0 f ee t throughout i ts l e n g th. The big ges t c h ambe r I have eve r b ee n in i s the Salle du D o me, in the Grottes d e H an ( Bel gium). This i s rou g hl y 4S0 f eet in di a m e t e r and about the same in h e i ght, with a p y r a mid 1 68 f eet high in the center. (12 / II / 44 ) Platte n t ells m e tha t on e o f yo ur m embers, Capt. T. T P e rr y, i s in Lond o n at the m o m ent, and so I ha ve writ t en to ask if h e w o uld lik e to com e over and see m y wife a nd m yse lf If the r e are any oth e r U. S cave r s in thi s country, please let m e know as we s h o uld always be ver y g l ad to see the m I m a n aged to do a littl e cav in g over the Ea s t e r Bank H o lid ay wee k e nd and h a d a p l easant trip to Sw ild o n s H o l e in the M e ndip Hill s (So m e rset). Thi s i s n o rmall y rathe r a w e t c av e but for onc e the wat e r l e vel wa s comp a rativ e l y low! I a m particularl y keen on cave photography a nd u sed thi s trip to try m y h a nd for the first tune at ste r eosco pic photog raph y. I ha ve now d ev elop e d the film and o n e or two of the photo s l ook quite promising. It see m s h oweve r tha t not all cave sce nes l e nd themselves to s t e r eosco pic tr eamlent, and n ex t time I try I shall choos e m y s ubjects with rather more care. I imagine the r e a r e som e photographic e xperts in the Societ y who could give m e som e useful tip s o n this particular s ubj ec t (4/ 4 /4S)

PAGE 126

P age 124 I hav e n t as ye t r eceive d the co p y of Br e tz' s articl e o n ca ve rn f o rm a ti o n. So unl ess it has b ee n lost in transit, I s h o uld ima gi n e that it was n o t sent off It i s a most 111t eresti n g a rticl e and a cop y o f m y own will b e o f muc h value to m y wife :lI1d m yse lf in our w o rk o n the D evo n shire ca ves. I appreciat e d yo ur r emark to the effec t tha t all cav e l ilud i s quite the sam e no matte r where found, and that it eve n s m ells the same. I wou ld, how ever, go furthe r and ( fr o m p erso n a l experience) say tha t it e ve n tastes the same. A ctl riou s bus in ess, this fasc ination o f c rawling in the b owels o f the earth-wonder if p syc h o logists hav e a s uitabl e ex pl a nation for it (a "cav e rn compl ex," p e rhaps). I lik e yo ur id e a o f an inte rnati o nal competition f o r caves and h ope it will com e to fruiti on. I s hall wat c h the N ews lette r a nd the B ULLETIN with inte rest in the hope of see in g som e announcement on the subject. Whatever els e may b e pro pos e d I s hould c e rtainly lik e to see (a nd enter for) a photog r aphic competition. At the m o m e nt, I b e liev e that yo u h a ve the advantage ove r us in the field of co l or photog raph y as c o l or films hav e not b ee n obtainabl e ove r h ere during the war yea rs. I am looking forward to trying the n ew Kodachrome, and hope it will be availabl e this side soon. All m y s lides h a v e had to b e lab oriously co l ored b y hand. Incid e ntall y, it i s a lwa ys a nic e p oint as to whethe r pi ctures of cav e inte riors shou ld b e g i ve n the tru e natural colors, or the colors which the caver actuall y sees, i.e., the app a r ent" co l ors which the roc ks, form a tions, e t c., take on when viewed in the pronounce d yellow i s h lighting of an electric lamp or candle? This w o uld b e a goo d s ubject for a s p eleo logi s t "brain trust" to argue over. I have not "been underground" sinc e Whitsun, but muc h e njoyed reading the May Newsletter. It helps one to keep in touch with the activities o f the Soci ety, so that one does not f eel "out of it;" and having read so much about many m embers of the Society I f eel that I know the m quite w ell although I hav e n e v er m e t theml I a m much looking forward to seeing Volume 7 of the B ULLETIN. I hope whe n I get settl e d in my new house I s hall hav e tim e to writ e the two artic les which the Editor ha s "demanded" from m e I gather that Vol. 8 is to includ e a list of British caves. Might I suggest that the following b e added to the list, as they are not com monl y known (except by my party whi c h has been working on them) although they are quite as big as many o f the c aves in the b etter known ar eas s uch as Som e rset o r Y o rkshire-caves at Buckfastl eigh, D e von ; Bak ers Pit Cave, R ee d's Cave, Partition Cave, Disappointment Cave, B U L LET INN U B ERE I G H T Rift C a ve, Bon e Cave, Spider's H o l e, Smuggl e r s Hole, Rock House Cave, Roost e r 's Cave, Ware Cave, Bunke r 's Hole, Tuc ker's Orcha rd Cave, Pridhamslci g h Cavern. J ohn Hoop er, Ashford, Middl esex, E n g. (11/23/45) Unive rsit y of Colorado Exte n s i o n Div i s ion Bur. of Visual Edu. Catalogue of Visua l Aids, Boulde r Col o.: Work of Unde rgrou .nd Waters. 1 ree l -sil ent-$O.6 0 Caves, sinkholes, and natural bridges scu lp tured by underground wa t e rs. L uray C averns. 2 r e els -sound-color-$ 0.50. A scenic trip throug h these b e autiful c av e rns II1 Vir ginia, showing the quaint, c urious, and wonderful forma tions, glittering sta l actites bro a d fold e d draperies, cascades po o l s of c r ys t a l c l ea r water, ric hl y o rnam ented domes supporte d b y giant flut e d columns Carlsb ad C averns 1 reel -sil ent-$O .6 0. The film starts with views of the semi-arid region showing plant lif e and improv e m ents around the opening of the caverns. A sev e n-mile trip along well-built trails re v e als the spectacu lar limestone formations of stalagmites and sta l actites, magnific ent b eyo nd d escr ipti on. N e w Zealand claims a most uniquel y lighte d cave. It is the Glowworm Grotto in the Waitomo Caves. As the name indicates the natural means of illumination in this cavern is the light emitte d by hundre ds of thous ands of littl e iI15ec ts of the g lowworm species. These livin g lamps ar e known to sci e nc e as Bolitophili a Colorado iVl agazi ne, p 96; May, 42. H ermit o f Pat's Hole": "When the (Civil) War closed, Pat (Lynch) was in Georgia. H e w ent to Nf i sso uri and, for a short time, liv e d in a cav e n ear Cane Hill in Polk county. H e told Bak e r that h e had left a knif e the re, after inscribin g his n a m e on the cav e wail. If thi s record i s s tiil extant it pro babl y will prove to b e a sailing vessel, as this seems to have been his id e ntification mark. P 97: "In H a rdin's H o le, locat e d in the d epths of Yampa Canyon betwee n Pat' s Hole and Lily Park, is a large c ave. Local set tl ers have a leg e nd that !:\vo of the women captives take n by the Ute IndiaI15 in the M ee k e r Massacr e of 1 8 7 9 were hidden h e r e while the U. S troops w e r e searching for the m. The r ecor ds of this event mak e it extremel y impossibl e that the wom e n w e r e eve r n e ar Y ampa River, but t!l e c av e r ece i ved its name, Indian Cave," from this l egend. Farrington R Carpenter, state revenue director and authority upon northwest e rn Col orado history, states that there i s the outline of a sailing vessel on the wall of this cave, which is attribute d to Pat."

PAGE 127

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY Page 125 INDEX TO FIRST SIX NUMBERS OF THE BULLETIN For the wcll clone p onions of t h e followi n g, yo u ma y writ e your thanks to Dr. R. W Stone; f o r the r est -and all e rror s a bidin g curse The Ed. Bull e till of I .hl.! Spe leol og ietd Society o f the Dis l .ric t o f Columbia V ol. I Jun e 1 9 40 (Unnumbe re d pages ; mimeo. and stapl ed in b l u e illustrate d cove r). This i s the first num b e r of O llr publ icatio n. For ind ex in g pages hav e b een numbe re d a rbitraril y beginni n g with page I and f o llow in g insid e fr ont cover, through 68 Pa ge 66 i s blank, a nd the r e arc 1 2 blank pa ges at the end; a nd pages 46 and 48 m ay b e ide ntical. A Acknowledgment, 59. Animals in c aves, 22. An, cave 23 B Bail ey, V e rn o n article b y, 21. Bats, 22. 33 38 39, 49, 54,57. Bib l iograph y, 60. B lowing cave 4 1 Books, 24. Brown 's c ave, 51. C Cave D e posits, Certa i n Notes o n 1 8. Caves and Cave Life, 21. Caves, t y pes and f o rmati o n of, 21. Contents, Tabl e of In side front cover. E Equipmcnt, cave 26. F F a una cave, 22. F l ora, cave, 23. G Geology ca ve, 35. George \Vashington cave, 33. H Hclictit es, theories o n formation of, 1 8 H ell H o l e D escent into, II. Hol d e n Dr. R J., arti cle b y, 1 8. Hortman, Gus, cave r e port by, 38. J J enning s cave, 34 L Lava caves, 21. Lav a y Caverns, 30 Libr a r y oti ce 24. Literature, cave, bibli ography of, 60. P Photograph Collection, 29 R Read s cave, 35. Rhea' s cav e 43. Ruftli er s c ave, 32. S Safety, Cavi ng, 25. Sc hle c ht, William a rticl e by, I I. Sile r 's cave, 54. Spe l eo l ogica l Soci ety (o f D. C.) hi sto r y o f I. constitution of, 2 b yl aws of, 4. m embe r s o f 8 finances of, 60. S prin g case, 35. Steph e nson \V. J., articl e b y, 25. Strea ms, under-ground, 38, 50, 51, 5 3. Surveys Cave, B l owing Cave, Va. 41. Rh ea's Cave, Va., 43. Madden's Cave, Va. 46 ( 48). Joh n Brown 's Cave, W. Va., ( 49), 51. Sile r's Cave, \ V Va. 52. Mohl e r 's Cave, W. Va., ( 52), 54. W 'vV it h ero s cave, Va., 37 3 8, (54), 56. T Trips, Cave, Lura y Cave rn s Va. ( 1 / 1 5 / 40),30. George VI! a s hi ngton Cave, Sil e r 's Cave, W Va., (2 / 25 / 40), 33. N fadd e n s Cave R e ad 's Cave, J e nning' s Cave, Va. (3,130/ 40), 34. Sprin g Cave, Va. (11/ 6 /40), 35. 'vVith e ro's Cave, Va., ( 4 / 7 / 40), 37 38. Mohler' s Cave, \ V Va., ( 4 / 1 4 / 40), 37. Bulletin (ac tu ally nllmbe r 2 ) of the .5.5., May 1 941. Mimeog raph ed, green wr appe rs. Fir s t isslle wit h societ y l"lll blelll o n cover. T ab l e of Contents, followed b y 53 pages of text. A Air c ir c ula tio n c auses of, 35 Allen' s Cave, Va. 26. Amos, Wal ter, articl e by, 10. Anoph thalmids 4. Arkansas Unsung \ Vo nd er, 30. B Baker Q u arry C a ve, Nfass. 16. Baldwin Caves, Va. 25. Bats in cave, 8 30, 34 46 47. Bats, counting 38. Bats, l o n g-eareel, 35. Beetles trapping f or, 4 Beetles, Gllwht, 8 .. t:> BiblIOgraph y, 49. Blindw o rm 44. Blindworm s na i l 45. B l indw orlll, amphipod, 45. B e rryville Cave (Charlestown Road), 23 Broad c ast by Bloch 9. C Cam era for cave photograph y expos ures, II. Caves, log of, 3943. C harle stow n R oad Cave 23. Cochra n C1vde sinkho le, 7. cr i c k e t in 45. sp id ers in 4 6 Collins, Flovd Crystal Cave, 16. Conrincnul drift, evidence of, 5. Conn cll, Ge orge L., articl e b y, 30. Colltrib u tions tax fr ee, 17. Cri ckets, 7, 8, 34 45. CrllStac c a in caves, 45 Cry stals, white ( Epsom s alt), 1 5. Cul verwell, Tom, I. D D e ad Dog C ave, 'vV. Va. n bats in 47. m ap of, 52. Defense, ational caves in 1 2 Dixi e Caverns Va. 19. Dulaney Cave bats In, 47. E E mbl e m, design of, I. Epsom salt 15, 37. Equipment for exploring, 3. Eq u ip m ent Committee, 38. Evo lllti on, adaptive, 4. F Fauna list of, 44. Fla s h g un Victor, pock e t II. Fly c ur ious t ype, in GIve, 34. Fil to n s Cave, Ark., 30. Fr og, hibernating, 46. Front R oya l Va., cave s n c ar 25, 26. faun a in, 44 45 46. G George \ Vas hington Cave, bats i n 47. G r andpappy's ( Ogden ) Cave, 37. Gandy' s Sinks, newt in 46. Gran;te fissures 1 8-21. H H all, W. Scott, l etter, 1 6. H elictites, 34. H ell H o l e Cave, W. Va., 27. b ats in 47. H er mit' s Cave, 'vV. Va., 37-46. Higginb o tlull1 s Cave, 8. H orses hoe Cave, Va. 27. Insects, trapping for 4. Inte rnati o na l Affiliation, 13.

PAGE 128

Page 126 J acox W. Va. cave near 7. J enning s Cave, bats in 47 J o h n Brown s Cave frog in 46 m a p a nd cross-s ec tions of, 53. J ohn' s Cave, Va., 30 45, 46 47. K Kenn eyS imm o n s Ca ve, b l ind amphipods in, 45. sal a m a nd er in, 46. Kn oxville, T e nn cave n ea r 10. L L ake, und e rgr o und 23 26, 3 1 37, 40 4142, 43. L a k e Lure Cave, N. C, 1 8. L exington K y., caves near 1 6 Lin co ln Leo L., article by, 1 617. Lin ville Cave rn s N C, 1 9. Luray Cave rns, bats in 47 M Madden' s Cave bats in 47 Marlinto n W. Va. 7. M ee n e h a n J ohn F., a rticl e by, II. M ohle r s Cave, \ V. Va., moi sture in 37. M o i sture co nditi o n s 37 Mosquitoes in cave 4 6. Mushroo m s 30 N N ee d y's Cave, P a., blind w o rm in 44. b lin d amphipo d in 45 bats in 47. N e w E n g land gro tto orga n I ze d 1 6. N e wt in caves, 46. P Pea coc k Cave W. Va 32. bats in, 35 47. Pear ls, cave, 34. P e ndi eto n Co. W Va., 1 0. P e rr y, C l ay, g uide, 1 6. P e ttibon e Falls Cave, Mass. 1 6. Photogr aphy, co l o r 111 caves, I I. Preble, Jack, artic l e b y, 7 32. Prin c iples f o r s afet y, 1 3. R Raft, usc o f 7 R ate of fill, 37 R a t s c ave, 26. Allegh e n y w ood, 33 R ef r ig e r ato r Cave, N. C, 21. River, unde rgr o und 7 3 2 R oc k y B ottom Cav e b ats i n 47 Rumblin g Bal d lv f ountain Caves, r eport o n 1 9 S Safety pr eca uti o ns, I. Safet), r o pe, usc o f 2 Salamander, 7, 4 6. Saltp e t e r Cave, bats in, 47. Saltpete r wor k s 8, 43 Sc h effe r V i c tor B., 1 5. 'School H o u se Cave, W. Va. 27. bats in, 47. Schu l tz, Jack article b y, 1 8. Sh owa lt e r's Cav e, n ewt 111, 4 6 Sil e r's Cave salam a nd e r 111, 4 6. sna k e in 4 6 bats in, 47 Skylin e C ave rn Corp. 26. Skyline Cav e rns, f a una 111, 44-46 S nail s in caves, 44. Snake garte r in caves 4 6. Snee dgar' s [Sned (e) ga rl Cave 8 S n o d grass Cave, 8. Spel eo logi ca l Soc i e t y orga n i ze d May, 1 9 3 9, 9. Spiders, 4 6. Steph e nson \ V m. J a rticle b y, I. Stettinius, E R., Jr. 12, 13. T Tel ephone, u se o f 27. T emperature iIi caves, 35. Trap ins ec t ,S. Trappi n g b eetles, 7. Trout R oc k Cave \ V. Va. 45 bats i n 47 Tro u t's Cave, W. Va., bats in, 3 8 U Unde r g r ound strea m 7 2 3 31, 40 ,41, 42 43 45. Use of caves in defense 12. V Valentine, J Manso n arti cle b y, 4. Victoria F alls 32 BULLETI 1\ N UMBER E I GHT W \Vaterfall in cave 7 3 2. \ V hitin g's Neck Cav e, W. Va., 29, 45 m osquitoes in 4 6. sal amande r s in, 46. Wh), passa ges dimini s h 36. Willi a ms, J ea n R., articl e by, 27 Withero's Cave, 15. bats in 36, 47 Worm, blind 44 Numbe r 3 Bull e tin of the N S .S., J anuary, 1 942 Blue w r appe r s First printed issu e. A Air, draft o f 17, 23, 33 A l abama, cav e in, 35 Algae o r m oss, 6 8. All e n J ohn Elliot article b y 14. Amos, Walt er, article by, 7 Animal life, 6 10, 12, 14, 34. Arche r Allan F., article by, 35. Arizona, cave in 2 32 Army lif e raft 14 B Bak e r Ernest A., article by, I. l ette r from 31. Ball's cav e, S 6, 7, 8, 34. Banff Albe rta cave n ear, 39. Bat s in cave, 9, 1 .7, 20, 29, 34 35 41, 42. Bla ck D o n a rticl e by, 32. Blackwate r Falls, 23. Blowing Cave Va., 10, II. Blu e Rid ge Mountain Cave rns, I Boa t r i de in cave 6. Books in libr a r y, 47. B oo n e's cave, 1 8. Butts Charles, 28. C Carterville, G a., sol ution caviti es, 1 9 Caves comme rci a l 45. Caves log of 43 Cav e Hill cave III. 35 Cave o f the Winds, Colo 36. Cave t o wn cave, 1 5 Clark' s cave 10,40. Cla y in l ayers colored, 3. Clay, s lipp e r y floor 10. C l y m er, Virgil H 6 8 Coast Gu a rd b oat, 9 Cobleskill N Y. cave ncar 8 Coc hrane, C l y de, s ink 1 2 1 3. Col orado ca v e in 33, 36. Comme r c i a l caves, 4 5. C rawfi s h col orless, 13. C r ayo n P orte, 23, 37. Cric k e ts, 1 2, 42. Crustacea, 35. C r ys t a ls, pink, abundant, 2. lar ge r 4 r e d wh i te, 4 cove rin g sta lactites, 3. C r ys tal cave Ariz. 2 32. C r ys ta l Riv e r 2 3. o Devil's D e n Va., 2 Die r J ohn L. articl e b y, 33. Donahue, Mrs Ed., 4. E Experie n ce o f cave fright, 7. E xpl oring ca v es, I. F Fauna cave, 34 42. Feld spar orig in o f cave, 1 8. Fog in cave 22, 23 F ox h oles," 2. F o w l e r Jam es, 9, 28, 34 Fri end's, J ohn, Saltp e t e r cave 29. Fri ght in cave, 7 Frogs 34 Fult' s cave, III., 35. Fung u s in cave 33. G Galax V a., I. Gandy Creek s inks, 21. G eo r gia, cave in 1 8, 43. Glades n e ar Gal ax, Va., 2. Governors Board of m eet-ing, 29. Grandpappy's cave, Va., 4 2 Granite-g n e iss, cav e in 1 8 Guano, to n s of 2 4 H H a wkin s A. C, article b y, I 1 8 1 9. Helictit es, 4, 36 42. H ell H o le, 23. H ermit's cave, K a n., 39. H ermit's cav e, W Va. 22. Hie rogl y phics 40 4 2. Hill sboro W. Va., s ink s, 12. H o l e in the Wall, K a n., 40. H o n o rar y m ember, E. A. Bak e r 31. H owe Caverns,S, 6, 8 Hulbricht, Leslie a rticl e b y, 35.

PAGE 129

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY Ibinthruthesinks C lub 21. Icc cave, III., 35. Icc cave, V t. 7. Ice in cave 20. Illin o i s southern, caves 111, 35,43. Indiana caves in, 43. Indian writing, 40, 42. I n s e cts cave, 34. J Jackson, Geo. F letter from, 42. J ohn's cave, i 6 J ones Quarry cave, 30. K Kansas, cave in 39, 40. Kentucky, caves in, 43. l Lac e y Springs Va. cave n e a r 37. ladd' s lim e cave Ga. 19. Lake, unde rground, 6 9 i2, 23, 39. landon's cave, Va. 34, 35. Largest room, W. Va., 9 Lava Riv e r caves, 1 4. Lavelle, J. I. arti cle by, i6. L ewis & C lark e cave, 39. Library books in 47. Lineville caverns i 9 Lisburn cave Pa., 32 Long' s Mike, cave, 35. M Marbl e Mountain cave Col o 33. Maryland, cave in 1 5 43 McGill, Wm. H., letter from, 30. McGl o ne, C h as. T., a rticle by, 2. 1\;r e e n e h an J ohn F., article by, i7. Minne sota cave in is. Mintz, Nathan l., article b y, 8. 1\;r ohr, Chas. E. letter fro m 29. Montana, cave in 39. Morgantown, W. Va. cave ncar 7. Morrison' s cave, III., 35. Morrison cave, Mont., 39 Mt. Etna cave, Md. 36. Mounds, Blue Cave of 40 M ysti c Cave, Teterton 8. N Needy' s cave, Pa., 34 Nestle's Quarry cav e 1 5 New E n g l and Grotto, 7, 8, 20 New York, caves in,S, 8, 43 N i agara cave, 15. North Carolin a cave in 1 8, 19,43. o Oakland, Mo. cave n e a r 29. Ogden' s cave, 35 42. Ore go n caves in i4. Outdoors fro m Top to Bot tom S P Pa lm e r s cave, Kan., 40 Peacock cave, 1 6. Pearl, cave, 1 9. Pennsyl vania cave s in 43. P erry, C l ay, article by,S, 20 Petri e J ohn, 7, 10. arti cle by, 1 0, 1 4 15, 1 6 36, 40 45 Petsch Bruno, 39. Plant l ife, 6. Porte C r ayo n, Mt., 23, 37. Pre b l e J ack, article by, 21. Pre historic cave, Kan 24. Proje c ts for study, 30 R R aft, Army lif e 14. Rat, Pea c oc k cav e 1 6. Reading list p roposed 47. Rhea s cave 10. Riv er, unde rground, 2 3 6 R o binson Felix 27. S Sal ama nd e r 1 2, 1 3 34. Saltpete r cave 29, 40. Schlichtig Wm. J article by, 14. Sc h o h ar ie, cave n car 6 8. Sc h o h ari e Counry, N. Y. 5. Schoolhou se cave 1 7 S h arp s cav e 14. Sil er s cave W. Va. 41. Silver Frank, articl e by, is. Simmon' s cave, W. Va. 9 Sinks of Gandy, 21. Ski nn e r s cave, V t., 7. Sk inn e r 's Holl ow cave, 7 20. Smokehol e Caverns 1 6 S n edegar s cave 22. So luti on cavit i es, I Spe lunking, article on 8. Spid ers, 1 4 35. Stalagmites h ollow musical. 4. white 4 Stemml er s cave, III., 35 Ste ph e nson, Wm. J 5. arti c l e by, 14. Stream, underground 2, 3 6 7 10, 1 2 14, 15, 1 9 23,35. Symposi um, 25, 27 T T emperature cave, 4 14, 23. Tennesse e caves in 43 T ete rton "Mystic" Cave, 8. Trout cave W Va. 9 35. V V e rmont, cave in 44. Virginia, caves in 1 0 II 15, 34, 40 42, 43. Virginia northweste rn cav e s in, 1. W Waterfalls 14, 15, 22. W cst Virginia, c a ve s in 7 8,9, 12, 1 3 15, 16,34, 40 44. \Vhite hall, Mont. c av e ncar 39. Whitings e ck cave, 34. Wil b er, Steve, cav e owner, 6, 8. Williams, I da, 4. Wilson J J., article b y 41. Wisconsin cav e in 40 \Vither' s cave 10, I!. W o od s cave, Va., 34 35 Woodson cave, Kan. 24 W yandotte cav e 42. Bulletin of th e N atio nal Spel eo logica l Societ y No.4. Sep t embe r 1942. A Animal l ife of Cave rns, 3. Archaeo l ogy, cave I Arnold Cave, Ore. 22. B Baile y, V G. d eath o f 3 9 B a ts cave, 4. Beetle s cav e S Benn J. H., a rticle b y, .J. Bets y Bell Cave, Va. 46. Bischoff, Erwin \ V articl e b y 20 B l ack Don, articlc b y, 25 B utl e r Cave, 0 57. C Cabl e Cav e Va. 23 Cav e D e posits Certai n Note s on 8. Cave The ( a rticle), 1. Cav e s for Archives, 30. in C h erokee B l uff ( T enn. ) 25. and C hri st i anity 7 P a g e 1 2 7 commercial 3 I 5 8. n o n d e ve l op e d, 3 2 Gov ernme nto wn e d 33. i n th e Washington (D. C.) ar e a 33. c ommerci a l (lists t h ese in 34 states, with p e rtin ent informa tio n ) 58. of th e Far West, 20 Crate r s of th e Moon Caves, I daho, 21. Cra y fish blind, 4 Crys ta l Fall s Cav e Id a h o 21. Cric k e t cave, 4. o Davis, S h e l don articl e b y ( f r o m Stockton, C al., R eco rd 4 / I / 22), 25 D e ar o lf, K e nn eth, articl(' b y, 4 8. Dulaney s Cave, Pa 44. Dye r C a ve W. Va. 47 E Eno E. Anthony, articl e b y, 47. Equipm ent, Committe e R eport on, 3 4 F Faunt, c av e II, 4 8 Fish ey ele s s 4 Flo rida Cav e rns Sta t e Park, 36. Flo y d C ollins C rys tal Cave K y 13: Foote, L eRoy W., editorial b y In side back cover. Formations, cave, 3 Formation Cave Id aho 21. Fowl e r J A. article by, II. G Giovannoli, l., a rticl e b y 3 6 Great Sal t s Cave K y 14. Gunpo wd e r (salt peter) 111 1 812, 5 H H amilton Cave W. Va. 5 2 H e l i c tit es, 8 H idd e n River Cave, Ky. 13. H o l d e n Dr. R J article by, 8. 2 4 J Jac kson. G e org e F article b y, 3. Kle w e r Lou article b y, 42.

PAGE 130

Page 1 28 L Landes C, b y, 23, 46. Caves Nev., 20. Lett ers, 35 ff. from: J ackson, G. F.; J ones, W. B.; Hawkins A. C ; Stephen son W J.; Petsch, B.; Stone R. W.; Price, P. H. Locating Caves, 29. L og, Cave, of the Society (list caves on fil e from 32 states 53. Lookout Mountain Cave, Tenn., 16. Lost Rive r Tenn., 16. visitors to 3rd Open H ouse 39. M Nfammoth New Dis covery in and fauna col l ected, 48. N fammoth Onyx Ky., 13, 14. Marengo Cave, Ind., 6, 13. Nfary l and int e r esting, M e mbership N .5.5., editorial on, Inside back cover. Cave Id aho 21. Mines, old, 33. Minnetonka Cave Idah o 21. Mitchel s Cave vv. Va., 44. Cave (Cal.) 20, 25. Mock Cave, Va., 23. Morrison Mont.), fauna from 11. "Mr. Big (Nickajack er n sta l agmite) 16. Kay, article by, 23. N I lima, Martin H ., by 24, 46. Mystic Cave W. 45. N Needy's Pa. 22. Tenn., 16. P Petrie, J 5., b y, 1 2 35. 58 P ig Cave, W. Va., 10. Port e r Cave, Va. 41. R Reconnaissanc e Biological of N e w Discover y in Mammoth Cave K y 48. Robinson R ev. F elix G., article b y, 7. Rub y Falls Cave T e nn. 16. Ruffn e r s Cave 43. 5 Salam anders, cave 5. Saltp eter Cave, John Friend 's, 9. Schoo lh ouse Cave ( \V. Va.), Report on Trip to, 8 / 23-24 /42 (?), 17. S h oemaker, H W., article b y (from A lto ona, Pa. Tribune), 42. S hosh o n e lee Idaho, 21. S i ghtseeing Underground 3 (adv. on [64]). Silver F., articles by, 44 45 Spiders, cave, 5, 11-12. Stephenson, William J., articles b y, 9, 10, 22, 29, 30, 40 43 44, 52. T Third Quarry Cave W. Va. 45. Tucker County in 1854,42. T wiggtown Cave Md: 2 4 Types, cave and histor y of limestone cave 2. U Under grou nd route (from Knoxville T e nn. JOl/r nal), 47. W \ V uses, caves for ( l etter to O. G. Harris, Comm. on Conservation of Cultur a l Resources), 30. Williams, J. R., article by, 34 \ V ilson J J., article by, 17. Wonder B e low Ground 5. vVonder Cave, T e nn. 16. Woomer Cav e Pa. ; 42. Wyandotte Cave (Ind.), Society Trip to, 12. B llll etil1 of the Natiol1al pclcolo gica l Society No.5. October. 1 943. A Amos W 5 articles by 27. "Unsung Wond er, 46. Assessment Value of Propert y for Taxable Purposes 22. B ULLETIN NUI\'IBER E IGHT B Banded A Note on Some, 40. Beard, James, articles by, 46, 55, 56. Earl, articles by, 54 55. Cave, Pa., 55. Bibliography, Cave, 13. BigSprings Cave, W Va., 56. Bischoff, Erwin W., articles b y, 24, 36 (a nd Fred R. Presly), 41. Black sburg Meeting (9 / 57 / 42) of N.S.S., Notes o n Cave Deposits pre pared for 30. Blowhole Cave, W. Va. 54. Bray ; Robert 5., article by, 31. C California caves, 41, 46. Cave Air Notes on CO Content of, 27. in World History, 1. List" of 1859 1 6. Cave Log of the Society, 41. C r ys tal Cave, 41. Marble Cave, Cal., 42. "Boyden's, " Soldier 's Palmer, <;::lough, Put nam Caves, Cal., 42. Unnam e d lim estone cave, Cal., 43. Shos h one Cave, Cal., 44. Volcano Hill Cave, Cal., 44. Craters of the Moon Cal., 45. Twin Buttes Cave, 45. Formation Cave, Cal., 45. Mercer Cave, Cal., 46. Property Assessm ent V of, for T Purposes, 22. Caves, The Gem of, 17. Clarke s Cave (map), 58. C rin oid stems near terra A lta, 27. D D e ad Cow, Cave of the Mass., 47. Goat K y 55. Depo s i ts, Cave (th eories of formations) 30 ff. Doyl e Cave, Ky., 56. D ye r 's Cave (W. Va ) Leg end.i\ry Report (from Moorefield Exa miner 4 /15/42), 60 E and L ocat i o n (Newsletter No. I of) Committee o n 36. F cave, 37; lit erature on, 39. Ferris Cave, W Va. 56. Field Trip, N.S.S. (7 /10-11 /43), 57 ; (7 / 31-8 / 1 / 43, 59. For Pete's Sak e (Poem), 23. Fowler, J A. articles by, 37, 40 H H awver Cave, Cal. 24. Hclictit e Formations (il Ius.), 64. H ell's H a l f-acre Mont., 53 H olden, Dr. R. H., article by 27 (30). H y drography of Skyline Caverns (Va.) map, 21. I Ind ex, partial to all the known caves of th e world, 3. United 3. 10. 10. M ex i co, 10. America, 10. \ Vest Indies, 10. Sout h America 11. Europe, 1 2 Asia 13. Oceania 13. Africa, 13. Indian Caves P e ndl e ton county, W. Va., 50 K Kle w e r Lou, article by, 55. L Limestone Mt. Cave, W. Va., 51. Lit e rature, Cata logu e of, in N .5.5. Library 31. Lost Creek Cave Mont., 51. M Morgan, Robert article bv I. Cave Mont., 17. Morrison, J. P. E., article by 20.

PAGE 131

NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY Muma, K ay and Martin,' a rticles b y, 50. News l e tt e r No. I (Com mittee o n Exp l or3tio n and L ocat i u n), 3 6 P P asse n ger Coac h Cave, Ky. 5. Practi ce H ole, Va., 59. Presley, Fre d R. (a nd Erw i n W. Bisc h o ff), articl e b y, 41. R R at, c av e near Morga n tow n W. V3., 27. R eco nnaissanc e Pre limin ary Speleo logical ( 5 /17-2 4 / 42), 41. Rive r Old Mist'r y (Se n eca Caverns, 0.), 62. R oa rin g Spri n gs Cave, W V a., 56. S Sa ltpe t e r Cave J ohn Fri e nd s Md., 48. Se id e m ann, H e rm a n, Jr. a rticl e s b y, 53. Seneca C ave rns, 0., 61. S k y l in e Cavern s (Va.), R e v i s itin g the S n a i l s of, 2 0 S nai l s of S k y lin e Cav erns (Va.), R e vis itin g the, 2 0 Sniv e l y 's Cave Ky., 54. Spe l eo logi s t Define d The, 28. Steph e nson W. J., a rticle s b y, 28, 40, 57. T T olley's Cave, Va., 59. V Vance Cave, Va. 40. W Ward, L. E., article b y, 61. White, Dale, a rticle b y, 17. Wilson H arry H., ar ticl e b y, 22. W ytheville Cave, Va., 56. B ull e tin N umber 6 Jul y, 1944. A Animal lif e, 1 5 Animals, ex t i n c t, 15, 45. Arc h aeo logy Committee materia l 5 4 Australian ca ves, 58. B Bailey, Verno n 0 38. Bak e r a nd Balch 13. Barbour Tho mas, 41. Barloga Floyd, 44, 54. Bat egg," 50. Bat s in Okl a h o m a Caves, 5 2 in S m o k e h o use Ca. ve, 59. Bats, T e n Tho u s 3nd Band e d, 66. B e 3rd James, et aI., 61., B e nn J a mes H., 51. B ennett, Bruce H., 62. Bib l i og raph y, 32. Big B o n e Cave, T e nn. 45. Bisch off, E. W 29, 53, 68. B l ind fis h 14. Blowin g C a ve po e m 33. Blowin g H ollow Cave, 50. B oy Scouts R esc u e d 47. Brandt' s Cave, \ V Va., 2 4-26. Br e tz J Harle n 2. Briti s h Spe l e o logical Soc i e t y 1 2 Burrill A. C, 38, 42, 4 9,68. C Carls bad Cave rn II, 1 2 15, 42, 58. Cave f l ora, 48. Cave preca uti o n s 13. Caves of the World 28. Cave symbo l s 10. C h ambe rlin Jo, I!. Clover H ollow Cave Va 50. C l y m er, Virgi l 2 Comme r cial caves, 4 2 "Conde n s ation roo m s," 48. Cornwell Cave, W. Va. 61. Cox, C E., 48. C r abb, G e org e 60. Crayfis h eggs 14. Crystal Cave, K y 12. 13. C udj o's Cave, Va. 54. Cumberbnd Gap, Va., 5 4 D D e arolf, K enne t h 14, 55. Diamo nd Cave rn s K y. 16, 37. E Eag l e Cave Wis., 4 2 50. Ea s t e rwat e r C ave, E n g l a nd 14. Edi tor s n o tes, 33, 70. E ndless Cave rn Va. 1 2 Equipm ent, s p e leol ogica l 34. Espy, Ja y, 33. E urop e an caves, 6 4 Explorat i o n s Committee, 53. F Fauna of c aves, 33, 55. F a una Committee 55. Fis h e r A lfr e d J 65. F lints arrow p o int s 54. Flo ra, c ave 48. Flu o r esce n ce, 50. F o lkl o r e Committee 52. F oote, L e R oy W., 40. Fowl er J a mes A. 35, 55. Fra zie r L eroy, 24, 25. G Gage Edwin W 6 1 ,63 ,64. Gid l ey J. W., 45. G illette, M r s S. H 4 2 G lossar y 1. comments o n 67. Grape vin e C av e W. V a., 2 4-27. Gro t to vs. N.S.S 4 6 G u y Bris coe, B., 50. H H arrington, M. R., 30, 49. H o l den R. J 2 39, 51, 53, 68. H o n o r ary m embers, 38. H owe Cave rn s N. Y. 12. Hubric h t Leslie 55. I Ind ex to world caves, 28. In d i a n mlllTImifi e d 15. b o nes, 54. J J ac kson H. W 50, 55, 58, 59. K Kind e r P ete r 4 2 Klew er, L o u et aI., 1 6 Knox Cave N. Y. 52. L L o u d L. L., 4 9 L ovelock Cave Neb. 49. Lur a y Cave rn Va. 12. M Mammoth Cave, K y., II, 14, 1 5 1 6 42, 5 Mann, George, 2 4 25. Match ett, C h arles, 6 1 62. M e n c k e n H L., I. M e teor in cave 1 8 M ex i co City, c ave, 63. Mine r a l ogy Commi ttee, 53. Mohr, C has. 14. Moore's Cave, M o., 14. Morgan R o b ert E., 28, 64, 66. Morrison Cave, N f o nt. 44. Muma, Kathe rin e E 1 ,68. ----Martin H., I 49. 54, 68. Page 129 N etherla nd of i g ht, II. New E n g l and caves 66. o O klah o ma caves 52. Orego n caves, 12. P P aleonto logical e xplorat i o n 44. P e rr y Clay, 28, 33, 47, 52, 66, 67. P eITY T. T. 63. P e tri e J S., 2 P oe m to Blowi n g Cav e 33. P ohl, E H. 2. Prehistoric m e n 64. Pr og ram Commi ttee, 5 1 R R eprints cost o f 70. R u b ey W. W., 46. S Sa lamande r s 55. Sa nd Cave, K y. 13. S and Cave Md., 54. Se n eca Cave rn s Ohio, 62. S h owalte r J o hn 63. Silve r F., 63. Sincl air W J 44, 49. Sfusse r s C ave Va. 60. S m oke h o l e Cave, Va. 58. S nails, 55, 56. Sta l actite, giant, 1 7 S t ephe nson Wm. J., 2 34. Sto ne, R a lph W., 2, 39,50. Stre a m s und ergro u nd II, 58, 6 1 62. S ub t e rran e an adv enture, 16. Symbo l s cave 10. T Temperatur e in c aves, 5 1 Thompson L ohman 6 1 ,66 T o l e do speleologi s ts, 16. T reasu r e r s com m ents, 40. U U s tr e am 11, 5 8 6 1 62. V V.P.1. ex p e diti o n 5 8 W Ward, L. E. 1 6 Waterfall 5 8 Watkins, Wm. H., 64. Watts, T ommy, 61. \Vetm o re, A l e x a nd er 54. White, Dal e 44. White, David 44, 46, 47, 65. White, Jim 12, 15. \ Vi n gfie ld, J L., 24. \ Visco nsin caves 64. \Vyomin g caves, 64.

PAGE 132

For your convenience: Notes, Comments, and Criticisms

PAGE 133

Progress Report As We Spread Abroad (This inquiry and reply w ere so interesting we felt t hey deserved spotlighting Both Senor Dupouy and Professor Cruxent are no w m e m bers of the Society, and results of their speleological work will be published in later issues of the BULLETIN') Wm. J. Stephenson, President DR. ALEXANDER WETMORE, assistant secretary, Smithsonian Institution, had the kindness, upon my request, to send me your BULLETIN No.5, Oct. 1943, informing me of the existence of your Society. It happens that Prof. Jose Maria Cruxent, of our Archaeological Department, and I have been carrying on some speleological studies of Venezuelan caves, with strict s cientific methods. Speleology w a s practically unknown in this country, until Professor Cruxent initiat ed it. He did work in this science in Europe, where he has visited a nd descended to over 100 caves and chasms. In our mu seum, he gave an interesting lecture on speleology dur ing one of the meetings of the Local Chapter of the Inter-American Society of Anthropology and Geography, of which we both are members. During another meeting, I lectured on our expedition to the caves of Quebrada Seca de La Guairita Estado Miranda, showing the nu merous photographs, croquis and maps and the fauna and lora collected. On another opportuni ty Professor Cruxent lectured on his exploration of Cueva de Guaicai puro, Estado Miranda, show ing also th e material collected, photos and croqu is. His paper on this last work will be published shortly in Rev i sta Nacio nal de Cultura, and separata will be printed of which I will gladly send you a copy. Although many of the known Venezuelan caves have b e en visited now and then, e v en by scientists, up to the present no specialized speleological study has been made of them-not even of the famous Gaucharo Caves of Caripe, Estado Monag as, w hich were visited by Humboldt at the beginning of last century. In f a ct. I was surprised to see that in the mentioned BULLETIN 5 of your Society, "Partial Index to All Known Caves of the World," Ven ezuela is not even listed. Also, Professor Cru xent observed that many caves he visited in Europe, are missing in the index. We may claim, as far as we know the priority in such scientific work in Venezuela; and it is our intention to develop speleology here making a census of Venezuelan caves (we have listed already over 20) ex ploring them according to our possibilities. As I said, the known caves have been visited now and then, generally by people without scientific training, rather for curiosity's sake or moved by desires of hiking But then, such visitors ge nerally p enetrate only t o a cer tain extent, be i t for l a ck of p r o pe r e quip men t o r for fear. Our museum is prep arin g a n expedition f or the end of the month to the Cav e El P enon near O cumare del T uy Estado Miranda; and i n J uly we will visit o ther caves n ear Valencia, Estado Car a bobo and possib l y also the o nes of San Juan de Los Morcos, E stado G uarico. Of each exploration papers will be written, and duly illustra ted. Now, it is our desire-Professo r C ruxent' s an d mine-to become members of you r S ociety, if it were possibl e in order to co-operate with your p rogram o f activity; an d if you think it of inter est, c ollaborating with the BULLETI N graciously, sending you for publ icati o n p a pers on the works we are developing duly illustra t ed. At p r esent, we can offer you a p a per o n our March exploratio n to the mentioned Cuevas d e Quebra d a Seca d e L a Guairita. Three caves form the group and we drew the croquis of all of them and of many !,)f their galleries, with m easurements and registrations of temp erature, humidity, alti tude, etc. We photographed som e of the cry pts, usin g mag nesium light. You will k i ndly inform me, please, what ar e the re quirements for becoming member o f your what are the annual dues and whe th e r they incl ude the p ri vilege of receiving the BULLE TIN. Al so, whethe r you h ave all the back number s ho w ma n y for m the series up to the present, and the valu e of su ch b ack num bers. I think you may be interested to know that P r ofessor Cruxent is preparing a pa p e r entitle d Intra Terram, with illustrations w hi c h will a pp ear in a future number of Acta A mericana th e review of the I n t er-Ameri can Society of Anthropolo gy and G eography This w ork covers speleolog y a s subject matter, and h a s the purpose of divulging this science w hich is not well kno w n in South America. In vie w of the fact tha t we are lacking entir ely literature on speleology, we will a p precia t e highly any p ublic ations you may send us. For the sake of curi o sity, we would like t o know i f y o u s p e l e olog i s t s h av e met with criticism, even o n the pa rt of scientists w h i l e c arrying on your activities there We ask thi s que stio n, becal4se at o ur end people in g enera l and even a f ew scient i s t s have considered speleoiogy as s ome t h in g l u e i ess, or of little value, and to some, as an activity t h at d e s erves ev e n laHghter. O f course, such ma y b e SlIre, w O H l d never dare to enter a cave Hnder any ci r c umstances! YOtl '!Uill observe, therefore, that we are doing the pioneer in [ Italics ours. Ed.] (C o n tin u e d I nside, Page 98)

PAGE 134

BULLETIN NuMBER EIGHT Contents Department Page! SncL\L AJrrxCLIIS . Notes on Undeveloped Caves of Virglnia-Wm. M. McGUI .. 1 Extract from Biograllhical Notes of W. L McAtee ... _...... ..... 7 Caves of the BrItish Isles-Robert E. Morgan and Frank Solari _ .. .. __ _._ ... .. ___ .. 9 Caves of the Sewanee Area-Henry T. KirbY-Smith, ]!D:. D.. ... 18 Cave Formations in the Sewanee Area-Harry M. Tet:/lpl e ton Jr. _ ... ... _._._ ... _. __ .;._ .. _____ 2 0 I:DUOlIIAL Annual Report of tti:e President 11945) .. ... .. ... ...!. ...... ... _.... 22 JtejiOrt of. Annual Meeting (1946) ._ .. ...... _._ 22 Membership Data.-23 POTHOLE 24 Caverse Corner _______ .. .__ 27 What We Know About Caves--W. J. Stephenson ... _ _ 28 As We Remember Him-Edwin W. Beardsley .. .. .. _._. ... 33 Preview' of a Cave Book-Clay Perry .____ 311 Frankly Stated. Diorama in Florida, WIlere'''Numbers'' Idea Began. Note on Grotto Formation, Caves Are Not Dumps, Society Loses Valuable Member. D. S. Reichard Drowned. MOre on SpeIeology. Legislative Committee Set Up, Hand book on Caves, More Theory on 0r1gIn of Cave Species -Repqrt on Charter Awaited. etc. __ . _ .. .. __ ----lIO-il COMMERCIAL CAVEll Cav_Wisconsin-T. 9. V8JUlBl!1l-._. .-._:_.,;-42 A Forgotten Freak of Nature-Fra Elbertus. .. __ .. __ ... 44 baves in Vlrginia-Wm. Guthrie, Esq ................ _ ..... ...... __ 51 Grand Party to Explore a Cave-Bayard Rush HalL. .. .. _ 52 Unexplored Regions of Wyandotte-George F. Jackson ... ... 53 RANDoM NODS Scientific-Fauns! Note, Proposed Classification by Process oi FOTIJUltion. Note on Breathing Cave Fossils. Sabre-, D8partment ,, w.;;. Page tooth TIger Findl Cave Fossll Descr!QM: : .?llt!tnts" in Cudjo's Cave Explained,' Recent vs. YfeId Fossil Remains. CResearCb Ba Feeding HabIts. Phenomeno of 56 Cave-Vast Room in Qjves'J f Florida, On ...t'p!'.cupine (lce) Cave. De'Vn's Den Not So On DUnois Rock Cave. Wis., On Bennl's Cave, Va. On E ,astville Cave, Pa.. On Marble Cave; ;Col., Fulford (Yeoman Park) Cave. Ne. P,ennsylvania. Cave Noted. A Query-and the Notes. Explored Branch of Cave. W:_ va::. Caves in PaleoQtology, Folklore, Bibliography and Library. Fauna. . . .... CAw LOONew River Cave. Pig Hole. Pennsylvania Caves (Hineman. & Bear)." VPI Shenanooah Valley Trip, SPl'1Ice Run (Elm Tree). Kern' s Carpenter's. Twin Caves of.Cave Mountain. DuIaney Blow'!ng. 'D0'flllnto the ,giifias --.. .._._.__._ ...... .. _ -Letters to and from Society lndex to First Six Numbers ProgreSS Report We ILLUSTRArIONS Maps-Goyden Pot (po 11) Lost John's Isles (p. 16). Wyandotte Cave (p. (p. 86). Kerns Cave (p. 89). Diorama in Portfolio of ,"" Notice to Cpntributors .. .. This BULLETIN, intermittently. is. the official organ Original drawings-not of of the National Society . I ii it are published should accompany the cop:>::; and, if intended original notes, . to reprocluctipn,. shoi.ila.lft!,in black ink on white speleology. Unless the sender mdicates otherwIse, all letblue-whlte pal'er or bnstol Phqtographs should ters directed to offcers of the Society or whiCh' are referred be glossy p.rints securely mounted with colorless paste or to them, may be to be for publicatiol : in whole rubber only. More 4 T::ns bve forms of illustration ?r in !tart, at of the Editor. No payment : ""., IS ma e matenrus published. ... J '" AI! _" . $h ould be W ith The editors do !lot r esponslbilItr. f f Ideas legc;n : Wl1tteJJ attached. Drawmgs expressed by authprs . J m arRed ,. name; and 'Should Contributions should be submitte4 'to the Editor, but be cre dttt -.: m .ay be sent througll other officers the So.ciety. Cut ".!' In : ord:t prompt publicat;ion, one pro o ';,will tnbutors are to consult .the latest ISSUes of the O'en.erally be sent to authors in or W f.or guldance to style of otle, editors will exercise due care to '5(':: that copy ..... tables: bibliography" for illustraoons etc. All te.xt lowed. alterations made in p roof 1;)" the author may .be submltted should be carbo?'-Copy, typewntcharged to him at prevailing rates. ten double-spaced on white paper, one SIde only, and carry I' th S di" h the author's complete name and address. nqwry to e oClety exc ange Th &Ii dertak th th b canons for those of other suCletles should be e tor un e to ? n o the Librarian. VlOUS, DllD,9r errors m copy submItted, a n d reserves cl-. right to return otherwise approved JItl!nusCrip-t and ilJustra for bole' "'Ubers of the BULLETIN SnOUfd"fje -tions to the author for reVISIon iI 'not 10 proper, 6.llihed dir e cted to the Corresponding Secretary. form for the printer. If the author so desires, the Editor Reprints will be furnished in with the schedwill prepare the materials and !;harge the author for tJte ule of prices below. Authors wishing reprints should re of the work ($?.50 per lOOO woras). When the the number and type in advance of printing, amolJnt of tabular and material is judged tcr be communicating directly with the Editor iQ this matter and excessive or unusually expeQsive, D?-ay requested enclosing Money Order for exact amo,uot with their re to pay the excess costs. Usually. illustraoons m excess of quest. Others desiring reprints should reguest from the e

Description
Contents: Notes on
Undeveloped Caves of Virginia / by Wm. M. McGill --
Extract from Biographical Notes of W. L. McAtee --
Caves of the British Isles / by Robert E. Morgan and
Frank Solari --
Caves of the Sewanee Area / by Henry T. Kirby-Smith, M.D.
--
Cave Formations in the Sewanee Area / by Harry M.
Templeton, Jr. --
Annual Report of the President (1945) --
Report of Annual Meeting (1946) --
Membership Data --
POTHOLE --
Caverse Corner --
What We Know About Caves / by W. J. Stephenson --
As We Remember Him / by Edwin W. Beardsley --
Preview of a Cave Book / by Clay Perry --
Frankly Stated --
Diorama in Florida --
Where "Numbers" Idea Began --
Note on Grotto Formation --
Caves Are Not Dumps --
SOciety Loses Valuable Member --
D.S. Reichard Drowned --
More on Speleology --
Legislative Committee Set Up --
Handbook on Caves --
More Theory on Origin of Cave Species --
Report on Charter Awaited, etc --
Crystal Cave Wisconsin / by T. C. Vanasse --
A Forgotten Freak of Nature / by Fra Elbertus --
Caves in Virginia / by Wm. Guthrie, Esq --
Grand Party to Explore a Cave / by Bayard Rush Hall --
Unexplored Regions of Wyandotte / by George F. Jackson --
Random Notes --
Committee Reports --
Cave Log --
Letters to and from Society Members --
Index to First Six Numbers of the Bulletin --
Progress Report as We Spread Abroad.