Cave Conservation and Restoration

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Cave Conservation and Restoration

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Title:
Cave Conservation and Restoration
Creator:
Jim C. Werker Val Hildreth-Werker ( suggested by )
Hildreth-Werker, Val
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English

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Resource Management ( local )
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Open Access - Permission by Author(s)
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(2006 Edition)
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See Extended description for more information.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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K26-00584 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.584 ( USFLDC Handle )
20158 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
1-879961-15-6 ( ISBN )

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Front Matter and Table of Contents ( .pdf )

Endless Caves and Lost Stalagmites / Ronal C. Kerbo ( .pdf )

Vision for This book -- About This Book -- How to Use This Book -- Acknowledgements -- Not the Last Word ... But a Call to the Future ( .pdf )

Current Best Practices / Val Hildreth-Werker ( .pdf )

Resource Inventory: A Tool for Cave Science, Management, and Restoration / Harvey R. DuChene ( .pdf )

Do Not Disturb Hibernating Bats or Nursery Colonies / Debbie C. Buecher ( .pdf )

Federally Listed Threatened and Endangered Bat Species of Importance to Caves and Mines / Robert R. Currie ( .pdf )

Anthropogenic and Foreign Chemicals in Caves / Penelope J. Boston ( .pdf )

Protecting Microbial Habitats: Preserving the Unseen / Penelope J. Boston, Diana E. Northup, and Kathleen H. Lavoie ( .pdf )

Paleontology in Cave Conservation and Restoration - Archived Antiquity / Richard S. Toomey, III, James F. Baichtal ( .pdf )

Archaeology in Cave Conservation and Restoration / George M. Crothers ( .pdf )

Rock Art and Historic Writing in Caves: Restoration Implications / Barbara Bilbo and Michael Bilbo ( .pdf )

Karst Hydrology: Protecting and Restoring Caves and Their Hydrologic Systems - Pseudokarst / George Veni ( .pdf )

Protecting Lava Tube Caves / Victor J. Plyak and Paula P. Provencio ( .pdf )

Defining Limits and Protocol at Kartchner Caverns / Richard S. Toomey, III ( .pdf )

On Cave Gates / Jim Kennedy ( .pdf )

Materials Considerations for Cave Installations / Jim C. Werker ( .pdf )

Trail Delineation and Signage in Caves: Reduce Visitor Impact / Val Hildreth-Werker, James R. Goodbar, Jim C.Werker ( .pdf )

Conservation-Minded Cave Surveying - Exploration and Survey Illness - The Zen of Cave Survey / Patricia E. Seiser ( .pdf )

Visitor Impact Mapping in Caves / Hans Bodenhamer ( .pdf )

Photographs as Cave Management Tools - Permanent Photomonitoring Installations - Minimum-Impact Code of Ethics for Photographers / Val Hilldreth-Werker ( .pdf )

Using the Law to Protect Caves: A Review of the Options / George N. Huppert ( .pdf )

Management Tools for Supporting Conservation Ethics / Jerry L. Trout ( .pdf )

Are We Managing Caves or Conflicts? / John M. Wilson ( .pdf )

Model Ethics System for Resolving Cave Conservation Dilemmas ( .pdf )

NSS Conservation and Preservation Policies ( .pdf )

When to Quit / James F. Baichtal ( .pdf )

Slow Down / Paul Burger ( .pdf )

Digging: An Apparent Contradiction in Cave Conservation / Rick Olson ( .pdf )

Virgin Digs - Dig Checklist / Jim C. Werker ( .pdf )

Do Cavers Need a Code of Conduct? - Minimum Impact Code of Ethics for Caving Groups / Val Hildreth-Werker, Jim C.Werker ( .pdf )

Packaging Human Waste / Val Hildreth-Werker ( .pdf )

Health and Hygiene Related to Cave Conservation / Stephen R. Mosberg, M.D ( .pdf )

Public Relations: An Essential Element in Cave Conservation - Geocaching and Caves: Finding a Common Ground / Jay R. Jorden, Hazel A. Barton ( .pdf )

Cave Restoration Overview - Why Call it Cave Restoration? / Val Hildreth-Werker and Jim C. Werker ( .pdf )

Bucket Brigade at Caverns of Sonora / George Veni ( .pdf )

Managing Cave Conservation Projects / Douglas M. Medville ( .pdf )

Assistance Agreements: Partnerships for Cave Conservation / James R. Goodbar ( .pdf )

Documenting Volunteer Value / Val Hildreth-Werker and Jim C. Werker ( .pdf )

Do No Harm / Val Hildreth-Werker ( .pdf )

Hidden River Cave: A Karst Reclamation Success Story / Michael Ray Taylor ( .pdf )

Cave Graffiti: The Writing is On the Wall / James R. Goodbar and Val Hildreth-Werker ( .pdf )

Control of Lamp Flora in Developed Caves / Rick Olsen ( .pdf )

To Bleach or Not to Bleach: Algae Control in Show Caves / Penelope J. Boston ( .pdf )

Cave Lint and Dust Removal Projects / Rodney D. Horrocks and Marc Ohms ( .pdf )

Guidelines for Trash and Rubble Cleanup Projects / George Veni ( .pdf )

Removing Artificial Fill from Developed Caves / Rodney D. Horrocks, John E. Roth ( .pdf )

Sinkhole Cleanout Projects / Joseph H. Fagan and William D. Orndorff ( .pdf )

Restoration in Pellucidar / Val Hildreth-Werker and Jim C. Werker ( .pdf )

Harms and Limits / Val Hildreth-Werker ( .pdf )

Sources for Cave Restoration Water / Val Hildreth-Werker and Penelope J. Boston ( .pdf )

Pressurized Water for Cave Restoration / Val Hildreth-Werker and Jim C. Werker ( .pdf )

Flowstone and Dripstone Restoration / Val Hildreth-Werker and Jim C. Werker ( .pdf )

Footstep Ethic / Val Hildreth-Werker ( .pdf )

Carbide and Soot / George Veni ( .pdf )

Mold Kits / Val Hildreth-Werker ( .pdf )

Water Filtration and Cave Pool Restoration / Val Hildreth-Werker and Jim C. Werker ( .pdf )

Gypsum Cleaning / Jim C. Werker and Val Hildreth-Werker ( .pdf )

Cave Pearl and Delicate Speleothem Restoration / Val Hildreth-Werker ( .pdf )

Protocol for Pristine Passages / Val Hildreth-Werker and Jim C. Werker ( .pdf )

Cave-Friendly Footwear / Val Hildreth-Werker ( .pdf )

Practical Caving Gloves / Val Hildreth-Werker ( .pdf )

Candle Table Revisited / Jim C. Werker ( .pdf )

Current Best Practices in Speleothem Repair / Val Hildreth-Werker ( .pdf )

Speleothem Repair Planning and Documentation / Val Hildreth-Werker and Jim C. Werker ( .pdf )

Speleothem Repair Materials - Choose Cave-Safe Speleothem Repair Materials / Val Hildreth-Werker and Jim C. Werker ( .pdf )

Speleothem Repair Supplies and Equipment / Jim C. Werker ( .pdf )

General Techniques for Most Speleothem Repairs / Jim C. Werker and Val Hildreth-Werker ( .pdf )

Stalagmite Repair / Jim C. Werker ( .pdf )

Stalactite Repair / Jim C. Werker ( .pdf )

Column Repair / Jim C. Werker ( .pdf )

Drapery Repair / Jim C. Werker and Val Hildreth-Werker ( .pdf )

Rimstone and Travertine Dam Rebuilding / Jerry L. Trout ( .pdf )

Flowstone Repair / Jim C. Werker and Val Hildreth-Werker ( .pdf )

Gypsum Repair / Jim C. Werker and Val Hildreth-Werker ( .pdf )

Lava Formation Repair / Jim C. Werker ( .pdf )

Fragile Speleothem Repair / Jim C. Werker and Val Hildreth-Werker ( .pdf )

Apparatus for Large Speleothem Repairs / Jim C. Werker ( .pdf )

Assist Devices for Medium Speleothem Repairs / George Veni ( .pdf )

Tripod Speleothem Repair System / Al Collier ( .pdf )

Beware of Claims and Labels / Val Hildreth-Werker ( .pdf )

Endless Surprises / Jim C. Werker ( .pdf )

"Three R" Story / John A French, Paul J. Meyer ( .pdf )

Resurrection of The Flutestone / Jonathan B. Beard ( .pdf )

Colossal Hanging / Jim C. Werker and Val Hildreth-Werker ( .pdf )

Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988 / Appendix 1 - ( .pdf )

Cave and Karst Information Source Listing - - Speleological Sources - Federal Agencies - Biological Sources - Cave Mapping and Inventory Sources - Geological Sources - Archaeological Sources / Appendix 2 - ( .pdf )

Cave and Karst Management Reference List / Appendix 3 - ( .pdf )

Cooperative Agreement Between BLM-NM and NSS-SWR / Appendix 4 - ( .pdf )

Guidelines for Entering Lechuguilla Cave / Appendix 5 - ( .pdf )

Cave Management Plan: Caves of McKittrick Hill / Appendix 6 - ( .pdf )

Cave Management Prescription and Minimum Impact Code: La Cueva de las Barrancas / Appendix 7 - ( .pdf )

Sample Cave Management Plan: Joe Doe Cave /Appendix 8 ( .pdf )

Biographical notes ( .pdf )

Index ( .pdf )

K26-00584-CCR-2006.pdf

K26-00584-description-fixed.htm


Full Text

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Part I-Introduction: Kerbo-Foreword Foreword Endless Caves and Lost Stalagmites Ronal C. Kerbo Where Will Our Spirits Lead? When did people stop seeking caves for shelter? When did we stop thinking of caves as sacred places? When did we start using claustrophobia as an excuse not to go as far as our spirits will lead? When did we reject the comforting velvet dark of caves beckoning us forward toward the unknown? When did we replace our awe with a fear of the great underground wildernesses-and how have we allowed caves to become arenas for extreme-sport escapades? How can we reconnect with the natural underground world and build ethics that evolve from understanding caves as fragile systems created and sustained by natural processes? Understanding Caves as Systems Before we can develop a conservation ethic for caves we must understand that caves are the result of natural processes that arc neither magical, mysterious, nor supernatural. Caves form through processes as natural as rainwater running into cracks in the rock, lava flowing down slope, or ocean waves slamming into coastal rock outcrops. These processes can be observed, measured, and understood by anyone willing to take a little time to read and observe. As you make your way through this book, written by members of the National Speleological Society and edited as a labor of love by Val Hildreth-Werker and Jim C. Werker, you will come to understand that both the conservation of caves and the ethics of cavers have changed over the years. You will find out that leaving things as you find them may not be as easy as it first seems. You will read about how we have come to understand that our excursions into caves, for whatever reasons-exploration, survey, photography, science, or recreation--ean make profound and lasting detrimental impacts on these very fragile systems in ways that weren't even recognized 30 or even 20 years ago. You will begin to sec why some feel that caves can be protected only by keeping discoveries secret and by not revealing the existence of new caves to anyone. Our conservation ethics must be born out of understanding caves as natural processes-as systems that are greater than the sums of their parts. I hope this book will help deepen our understanding of caves and pave the way for new modes of thinking.

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2 Speleothem is a general term for cave formation. The word embraces all stalactites, stalagmites, helictites, flowstone, moonmilk, flowers, and other secondary mineral deposits in caves. Endless Cave is an example of telling one-person-toomany about a cave location. Cave Conservation and Restoration Human Impact, an Endless Challenge As a caver who started out in southeastern New Mexico and far west Texas, I can think of no better example of how humans impact caves than to recall the story of Endless Cave. In 1968, Joe Spencer from Oklahoma and I accompanied Jerry Trout on a cave photography trip. Jerry took us on a whirlwind trip through the major passages and chambers of Endless Cave before we finally stopped in the Totem Pole Room to begin our photography. We were impressed with the complexity of what was really a rather small cave. In fact we made four more trips over the next two months, just to relocate and explore the places Jerry had revealed to us on that first trip. During those years, the cave entrance was not gated as it is now. Some distance into the cave a narrow pinch of piled rocks disguised the entryway into more fragile areas. As we explored the cave, we became morc impressed with its beauty and more protective of its contents. As we learned more about its history, we realized that we were only seeing a shameful remnant of the cave's former glory. Early Exploration of Endless Endless Cave was first extensively explored in the 1930s by a group from Carlsbad, New Mexico. One member of this group was Robert Nymeyer, author of the book Carls had, Caves, and a Camera. Nymeyer writes o"r his initial trips into the cave and the great beauty discovered there, saying that Endless soon became his favorite cave. He tells of going away to school and returning to find that his favorite cave had been vandalized by a rockhound who polished and sold its speleothems. In his book, Nymeyer (1978, page 87) had this to say about the day that one of his caving friends showed him the wanton destruction of Endless Cave: He reached up on a shelf and handed me an enlarged photograph. It took me a while to recognize the scene. Then I realized it was the Soda Straw Room [in Endless). But nothing I remembered n'as there-jllst bare walls and ceiling and aJew remnants oJthe coral fountains and hroken edges of the lily pad,. Gone were the soda straws and the gleaming white stalactites and the rows oj chocolate brown draperies that hadJestvoned the walls. I realized my hands were shaking. I felt like a little boy holding his favorite toy that had been smashed by the bully next door. The only diflerence was that the little boy could CI}'. 1 never went back to Endless Cave. For the 1978 National Cave Management Symposium held in Carlsbad, New Mexico, two photographs were posted prominently by the doors leading to the Symposium meeting rooms. The photos were simply captioned: "Endless Cave: circa 1930s" and "Endless Cave: 1960s." The picture depicting the cave in the 1930s was one of Bob Nymeyer's early photographs and the other was a Jerry Trout photograph made in the same place a quarter century later. The difference between the two pictures was startling and no one could pass them without commenting on the damage shown in the later photo. As cavers and resource managers studied the contrasting pictures, they too did not cry-but I don't think they would have wanted to return to Endless Cave either, had they been there before the looting.

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Part I-Introduction: Kerba-Foreword Chain of Vandalism During my caving career I have seen and heard references to Endless Cave as an example of sharing a cave location with one too many people. Had one of the original explorers not taken the rockhound vandal to the cave, it might have survived in much bettcr condition. But most people who go into caves do not, unfortunately, keep secrets. It may start small-this knowing about a cave. At first only one or two friends know-then three or four have been told. After a time, the informal information network takes over and soon too many people know where the new cave is, or they have at least heard rumors. Away we go with a hearty "High-ho, Silver"-ropes, hard hats, and lights in hand-for we are the real cavers and we know the way. We must go and sec, for we are not like the three guys I once met deep underground in another New Mexico cave in about 1968. They Tried to Steal the Candle Table I was again caving with my friend Joe Spencer. This time we were in a cave high in the Guadalupe Mountains of southeastern New Mexico. 3 Figure I. This photo, taken in about 1934 by Bob Nymeyer, shows the original beauty of the Soda Straw Room in Endless Cave. Looting by vandals destroyed the pristine room. According to Nymeyer, the walls were covered with rippling brown flowstone curtains and hundreds of pencilthin stalactites hung over the water. The white soda straw on the left was estimated to be more than 3 meters (10 feet) long. Figure 2. This photo was taken in about 1961 by Jerry Trout. The room is now called the Green Lake Room, not the Soda Straw Room. All the soda straws are goneonly broken stumps remain of the hundreds of soda straws, stalactites, draperies, and other speleothems-the result of vandalism before the cave was gated and access was controlled.

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4 Figure 3. In 1961, the Candle Table was still intact with the unusual candle-like speleothem in place on the coke table shelfstone. Bob and Jerry Trout enjoyed making photographs in this beautiful room hidden inside a New Mexico cave. It didn't take a lot of imagination to guess that they were trying to steal speleothems. Cave Conservation and Restoration Surrounded by crystalline beauty and that deep silence common to many desert caves, I rustled around in my pack searching for my extra charge of carbide and decided I was long past due for something to eat. I shed my pack and extracted a small white candle from its depths. I pulled ofT my hard hat and touched the flame of my carbide lamp to the candle's wick, then melted the other end ufthe candle just enough to stick it to the top of my helmet. I placed my hard hat on the cave floor in front of me and extinguished the flame of my headlamp so that I could eat by candlelight and save my precious carbide for the trip out. Sitting quietly on the cave floor in the warm glow of my little candle, I was now ready to eat and relax into the darkness that is always just beyond the reach of my light. I carefully made sure no trash was leli in the cave. I was very conservation-minded. I always tried to take nothing but pictures, leave nothing but/oo/prints, and kill nothing but lime. As I sat quietly watching the wax from my candle drip and run down the sides of my helmet I had no idea that three guys were trying to remove a well-known speleothem called the Candle Table from a chamber deeper in the cave. As we ate, the three flashlight cavers were sweating their way through another passage seeking the "'best route" to the entrance. Finally, they came to where Joe and I were having our lunch. They asked us where to tind the best route out of the cave. We told them the best way back was the same way they had come. Alier they left, Joe and J finished eating, packed up, and went down a nearby slope to check out a crawl under the breakdown. We were soon almost directly beneath the three spelunkers who were having a heated debate over something they had left behind. "We'd better get Ollt afhere now and leave that thing/or later, .. said the first. "Those tvI/O guys might not like the idea o/us taking that thing out 0/ the cave, replied another. Then, we heard one dissenting voice. "Damn it, "want that thing illl/1Y backyard. It 'II/aak great.

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Part I-Introduction: Kerb<>-Foreword But the others insisted, "Leave itfor laler, we'll come back H'llen those guys are gone. We decided to find out what they were up to. It didn't take a lot ofimagination to guess that they were trying to steal speleothems. We started back toward the main passage. The three must have heard us rustling about below them and headed for the surface. Joe and I tried to get back to the main passage quickly, but instead popped out further into the cave, just at the right spot to see the "thing" they had been talking about. Lying on the passage floor were the broken remains of the Candle Table, a beautiful stalagmite with rimstone encircling its top. The table-shaped formation had been broken off at the base and the three had managed to carry it only some 50 feet from its former spot in a chamber called the Table Room. We headed for the cave entrance, but the three had already reached their vehicle and sped away before we could catch up. Joe and I then trudged back into the cave and returned the table to its proper place, leaving a note about the incident. A few days later we helped Jerry Trout (who is now the National Cave Coordinator for the USDA Forest Service) repair and restore the stalagmite. c Ever Evolving Ethics ~ There you have it. Back in the 1960s I was not only a ~ dedicated disciple of the National Speleological Society's ~ motto (all oflhat take nothing, leave nothing, and kill g nothing philosophy), but I was also a defender of the ~ flame, a keeper of the truth, and certainly a most true ~ crusader. Had we caught those three guys, I would have been happy to take them on half a cave dive or on a one-way trip down a deep pit. I was properly outraged, morally offended, righteously indignant, and knew deep in my heart that they would all three come to no good in the future. What did it matter that right after our encounter with the Candle Table vandals, 1 did several things that no careful caver would consider doing now. When we finished lunch, I dusted food crumbs off my jeans onto the cave floor. I jerked the candle off my helmet and flicked the excess wax onto the cave floor. I turned toward a pile of bat guano and urinated into the darkness. I was secure in the knowledge that I was Mr. Conservation. After all, bats pee in caves. Those little food crumbs I brushed off might come in handy to a starving cave cricket. You couldn't even see the candle wax-besides, it's inert stufTanyway, isn't it? Now where is a good place to bury my spent carbide ... ? Today we know more about how humans can impact cave systems. We've changed our ways, and we now discourage activities that were common practice until only a few years ago. Changing Times As the poet, Robert Zimmerman (aka Bob Dylan) says, 'The Times They Are A-Changin'." In fact things have changed quite a lot. In recent years, the most fascinating and exciting discoveries about caves involve microorganisms that dwell in the deep. Research conducted on cave microbes is 5 Figure 4. Louk carefully at this photo of the still beautiful peach-colored column rising from the coke table shelfstone in a New Mexico cave. You will discover countless broken speleothems descending from the ceiling. This breakage dates from before this delicate section of the cave was gated to help stop further vandalism.

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6 Research conducted on cave microbes is revealing that compounds from these organisms may have significant pharmaceutical and industrial applications. Today we know more about how humans can impact cave systems. We've changed our ways, and we now discourage activities that were common practice until only a few years ago. Cave Conservation and Restoration revealing that compounds from these organisms may have significant pharmaceutical and industrial applications. Microscopic organisms also may play important roles in the development of speleothems. We now understand that neglecting to clean mud from our cave gear (or transferring mud between various caves) can contaminate and severely affect cave microbial communities. Human impact on previously uninvestigated microorganisms can initiate a ripple effect and eventually disrupt the food chain of a cave ecosystem. It is no longer good enough just to remind each other to fake only pictures, leave only footprints, and kill nothing but time. We must become sensitive enough to these environments that we automatically use minimum-impact behaviors. For example, when we take a photograph, we shouldn't become so engrossed in the endeavor that we neglect to look at our surroundings and damage other speleothems just to take a picture. We should make sure that our footsteps do not mar pristine flowstone, disrupt the ecology of cavern pools, or crush fragile floor features. Killing time has been expanded to not killing whole ecosystems out of ignorance. In this book, the traditional motto has been modified to reflect changing ethics: Take nothing but conservation-wise photos. Leave nothing bul carefu/footprints on established trails. Kill nothing but time. Embracing Cave Systems As I think about the responsibility we shoulder when we enter caves, I'm of two minds-hesitating to ever enter a cave again, or realizing that by being sensitive as I traverse a cave, I can greatly enhance my experience. Inside a cave, we become intimately aware of the unique environment that surrounds us. We are immersed in wilderness so profound that new discoveries may await us at every tum of a passage. Novel ideas may stalk us at the portal to a new chamber. Exciting discoveries of previously unidentified organisms may be in store. Our conservation ethics must be born out of understanding caves as natural processes-as systems that are greater than the sums of their parts. For far too many years, those of us who are the most intimate with caves, from recreational cavers to scientists, have focused almost exclusively on the nonliving, geologic components of cave systems. Our personal ethics, as well as laws, regulations, and policies, reflect our focus on the physical contents of caves rather than on how entire cave systems are made up of interdependent components. We can no longer afford to ignore karst processes. We need to develop aggressive educational programs, strategies, guidelines, and policies that can help us understand, protect, conserve, and interpret the overall processes of cave and karst systems. I don't want to diminish the importance of protecting the physical contents of caves (both natural and cultural). But we must emphasize the importance of looking beyond single components and learning to view caves as ecological systems. I hope that this book will help deepen our understanding of caves and pave the way for new modes of thinking. We can no longer ignore these interdependent processes as we develop better methods in cave and karst conservation management.

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Part I-Introduction: Kerbo-Foreword Outreach and Education Do More than Laws We have laws that help protect caves and their contents-the Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988 and various state laws. None of the current laws place priority on the need to understand caves and the processes by which they are created. No currentlegisla-tion ensures that caves will be considered in terms of environmental ethics. Promoting ethics and clarifYing the reasons for conservation are not within the scope of laws. That important work of establishing an acceptable conservation ethic must still be accomplished onc step at a time by patient cavcrs-collectively the members of tile National Speleological Society, American Cave Conservation Association, Cave Research Foundation, Karst Waters Institute, National Cave and Karst Research Institute, and others who have devoted their energies to speleological research, education, and public outreach. There have been many positive changes over the last 35 yearschanges accomplished by the persistent spirits of individual and collective cavers. We must be ever vigilant or we will lose the best of ourselves as well as the great and small caves of the world. Cited Reference Nymeyer R. ] 978. Carlsbad, Caves and a Camera. Teaneck, New Jersey: Zephyrus Press. 318 p. Author's Note Forcing people to develop an environmental ethic by dint of law rather than by educational processes is a skewed attitude that will ultimately alienate us from the very people who could make a real difference, the public at large. The Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988 may have forced federal land managers to cover their collective bureaucratic backsides and make lists of caves. However, at this time no one has invoked our existing laws to address the issue of so-called extreme-sport enthusiasts using caves and lava tubes as underground climbing gyms, stress-challenge venues, and sites for media-promoted eco-challenge events. These extreme activities certainly disrupt the biotic communities of caves, destroy speleogens, damage mineral deposits, and have no true justification other than for the participants' ego satisfaction. With land managers' reluctance to use the Federal Cave Resources Protection Act for fear of lawsuits, how long before sport enthusiasts start climbing directly on America's speleothems? (Climbing on speleothems is the current practice in the caves of Thailand, a land beyond the reach of our laws.) At the mere suggestion of not using caves as sports gyms, the climbers whine to their advocacy organization and usc U.S. discrimination laws to combat conservation ethics in the world of speleology. There is a lesson here for cavers-it is clearly time to promote low-impact caving ethics and reach out in advancing awareness of conserving cave and karst resources. 7 Figure 5. While still impressive, the Breast of Venus Room in Endless Cave is only a shadow of its fanner glory. Stones on the floor mark a trail through the room so cavers can avoid walking on areas now restored to a nearoriginal condition by volunteer cleanup crews. These volunteers washed off the many layers of mud tracked in by countless visitors. The caver sitting within the trail provides scale for the stalagmite and column.

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8 Cave Conservation and Restoration



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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Veni-Karst Hydrology Section A-Identifying and Protecting Cave Resources Karst Hydrology: Protecting and Restoring Caves and Their Hydrologic Systems George Veni Cavers tend to be conscientious. We try to tread softly through passages to limit our impact. We clean up and restore caves that have been impacted by others. We fight to preserve and protect caves and their contents from outside impacts like urbanization. We work to improve our restoration and protection methods, and, through vehicles like this book, share that information as much as possible. Many orthe adverse impacts a cave may suffer and the means to prevent or alleviate them are determined by the cave's hydrology. This chapter provides hydrologic information and guidelines to assist cavers in protecting and restoring caves. It teaches the basics of how caves forn1 and how water moves through caves and their surrounding landscapes. The chapter also examines common hydrologic problems and impacts on caves, and what problems can be solved by individual and group actions. The following sections are meant to reach cavers of all experience levels. References are cited for those wanting details. Specific recommendations are included, but the focus is on general principles to help guide cavers through situations that cannot be covered within this chapter. The Basics of Karst Hydrology How Water Enters, Moves Through, and Exits Caves The movement of water through caves is closely tied to the question of how caves form. Moore and Sullivan (1997) provide a good basic overview, while White (1988), Ford and Williams (1989), and Klimchouk and others (2000) offer highly detailed information. Gillieson (1996) offers less detail but more emphasis on cave management. Despite their wide variety of origins, caves or cave areas can be classified in one of three groups: carbonate, evaporite, and pseudo karst (Figure 1). Caves in carbonate rocks form primarily in limestone, but some also occur in dolomite and marble. Caves in evaporite rocks usually form in gypsum but also in halite in exceptionally arid climates. Caves in both carbonate and evaporite rocks form primarily by water dissolving away the bedrock. The landscapes where such solutional processes are dominant are called karst. It is beyond the scope of this brief chapter to discuss all cave types in detail. Limestone caves will be emphasized since they are the most common. The typical limestone cave begins to form where water enters the rock along a fracture or bedding plane and slowly flows downward and laterally until discharged from a spring at a lower elevation. While pure water has little ability to dissolve limestone, water entering the ground is charged with carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and soil to form carbonic acid. Over millennia, the weak acid enlarges fractures and bedding planes. As the openings become larger, water drains more efficiently. These increasing 121 Many of the adverse impacts a cave may suffer and the means to prevent or alleviate them are determined by the cave's hydrology.

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122 Pseudokarst George Yen; Caves and karst-like features that do not form primarily by the dissolution of the rock are called pseudokarst. Several types of pseudokarst feafures occur. Major types include the following: Sea Caves. Formed where waves pound on cliffs and preferentially enlarge fractures, zones of softer rock, or areas where wave action is concentrated. (Cootinued 00 ",xl page! Figure 1. A summary chart of how cave morphology reflects hydrogeologic origin (from Palmer 1991). Cave Conservation and Restoration volumes of water then enlarge the openings at faster rales. This process self-accelerates. Eventually, one flow path toward the spring dominates the local drainage pattern and captures flows from smaller channels. When it becomes large enough for human exploration, we call that conduit a cave. In the more common situation, a cave map looks like a branching surface stream. The tips of the hydrologic network typically include fractures, sinkholes, and swallets that capture surface water and route it underground. In the subsurface, each branch flows downstream to join other branches, eventually fonning limbs and then the trunk of the underground drainage network which discharges from a spring (angular and curvilinear passages, Figure I). Geologic and hydrologic factors often prevent the development of such ideal flow systems, which usually occur in relatively flat-lying, highlyfractured rocks that sit atop relatively impermeable rocks. Local geologic factors frequently affect cave development. Low fracture frequency and/or continuation of the limestone deep below spring levels result in cave networks that extend deep below the water table. Caves in dipping rocks may branch asymmetrically, capturing most waler from the updip direction. Figure 1 shows some other examples of how hydrogeologic factors that create a cave relate to the cave's shape. Braided or anastomotic passage patterns indicate slow or ponded conditions. Rectilinear mazes may suggest development by flooding or seepage through a caproek. Ramiform and spongework patterns, such as in Carlsbad Caverns, did not form epigenically by water flowing down from the surface, but hypogenically by rising hydrogen sulfide gas mixing with groundwater to form sulfuric acid, \vhich in turn dissolved the limestone to create caves. TYPE OF RECHARGE VIA KARST DEPRESSIONS DIFFUSE HYPOGENIC SINKHOLES SINKING STREAMS INTO POROUS (LIMITED DISCHARGE IGREAT DISCHARGE THROUGH SANDSTONE SOLUBLE ROCK FLUCTUATION) FLUCTUATIONI DISSOLUTION 8'1' ACIDS OF SINGLE PASSAGES AND DEEP-SEATED SOURCE OR BRANCHWORKS CRUDE 6A/\NCHWOAKS. MOST CAVES ENLARGED BY COOliNG OF THERMAl (USUALLY SEVERAL LEVELS) USUAlLY WITH THE FURTHER ElY RECHARGE MOST CAVES FORMED BY WATER & SINGLE PASSAGES FOLLOWING FEATURES FROM OTHER SOURCES MIXING AT DEPTH SUPERIMPOSED: 00 ,/ f!; ~\~-~ ~ ~\ /IA w ~ ~ ~ i >< >~ in ~ ; \ ISOLATED FISSURES ANGULAR FISSURES, AND RUDI"'ENTARY NETWORKS, 0 PASSAGES IRREGULAR NETWORKS FISSlJHES. NETWORKS NETWORKS SINGLE PASSAGES, FISSURES II: 0 00 .--'. PROFILE: --=" !~1 "" -/?}t u. z ~ J -'i IJf ~ 0 ~ ~ < w ~ ..... .~ "" >z .\ ~ / >0 I SHAF'T ANO CANYON RAMIFORM CAVE'S, W CURVILINEAR ANASTOMOSES. COMPlEXES,lNTEASTRATAl RARE SINGLE-PASSAGE /\NO >m PASSAGES ANASlOMOTIC MAZES SOLUTION SPONGEWORK ANASTOMOTIC CAVES Z PROFILE: ~ Z ~ ", ~~ ''J( .~' :E :l 0 '. .. ~i 0 z 0 < ,". .. ~~ .. ~ ~ ~ w ~ ~ RUDIMENTARY SPONGEWOAK RUDIMENTARY SPONGEWORK RAMIFORM & SPONGE WORK BRANCHWORKS SPONGEWORK CAVES

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Veni-Karst Hydrology Beyond the Cave: Water in the Drainage Basin For most of the 20th century, scientists argued whether caves form above, below, or at the water table, or even whether \vater tables actually exist in karst. \Ve now know that caves form in all of those situations, and that karst water tables do exist. Caves are integral parts of karst aquifers and are a part of an interconnected series of voids that transmit water down through the vadose zone (the area above the water table) and into the phreatic zone (the water-saturated area below the water table), and eventually out of the spring. Aquifers are reservoirs of water held underground in whatever voids exist in the rocks and soil. In karst, these voids make up complicated networks of fractures, bedding planes, some pore spaces, and of course, caves. The area that feeds all water into a stream, spring, or cave is called the drainage basin. Valley ridgelines define the drainage basin boundaries for surface streams. All water that enters the basins must eventually flow through these streams. Groundwater drainage basins do not always conform to the boundaries of surface basins. Karst groundwater basins arc notorious for crossing below surface basin boundaries, but they still function by similar principles. Rather than surface water flowing down a topographic surface, groundwater flows down from "ridges" to "valleys" or troughs in the water table where flow is concentrated. Significant cave streams often flow along these troughs. Subsurface flow converges on large conduits because of their greater ability to transmit water. Even hypogenic caves, which form independently of water entering the ground from the surface, capture local flO\v paths from the surface to form drips, domes, pools, and streams. Figure 2 illustrates how water that seeps or floods into sinkholes, fractures, and sinking streams flows down troughs in the water table to merge into single large cave streams, and discharges from the same spring, It should therefore be clear that caves, plus the rate, volume, and quality of water that flows through them, and the materials carried in the water, directly reflect the conditions and activities on the surface in the cave's drainage basin. Cave Chemistry and Speleothems Some of the water which enters caves is responsible for creating speleothems. Hill and Forti (1997) provide the authoritative review of speleothems and cave minerals. While there are over 250 minerals and dozens of types and subtypes of speleothem forms, calcite and gypsum speleothems are by far the most common and are those discussed here. As water moves through a rock, it dissolves minerals along the way and carries the ions in solution. At some point, the water may become supersaturated with respect to a particular mineral, meaning it is carrying more of the dissolved material than it can hold, and so it deposits the minerals, The amount of carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) in the water primarily determines how much dissolved calcite the water will hold, and where and at what rate the calcite will be released. The more CO~ in the water, the more calcite it can keep in solution. Calcite is most commonly deposited where sufficient CO 2 is released from the water to result in calcite supersaturation. Typical locations include where water emerges from the limestone wall, releasing carbon dioxide into the cave atmosphere which has far less CO~, or where turbulence releases CO~ by splashing the water onto a stalagmiie or running it over a flowstone slop-e or rimstone dam. Evaporation also plays a part in the deposition of calcite but is far more important in the development of gypsum speleothems and is their usual cause of supersaturation. While calcite does not dissolve in pure water, gypsum is soluble in water and thus more chemically vulnerable to changes in cave environmcnts. Consequcntly, gypsum speleothems form primarily in dry passages that no longer contain active streams. 123 (Con,nued) Tectonic Caves. Humanly enterable fractures that occur where large sections of bedrock separate, such as by one side slumping down a hillside or valley. Talus Caves. Humanlyenterable spaces that occur beneath and within piles of large fallen rocks. Suffosion Features, These include caves and sinkhole-like depressions that form by the localized downward movement of fine, unconsolidated material through or below locally denser or better-cemented material. Volcanic Pseudokarst. Lava tubes are the most extensive type of volcanic pseudokarst. Lava tubes form where molten lava drains from beneath a cooling, solidifying lava flow. (See lava tube caves, page 133.) While these features form by radically different processes than karst caves, they often bear hydrologic similarities such as turbulent flow through large conduits and little to no filtration of contaminants, Much of the information presented in this chapter will also apply to pseudokarst areas,

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124 Cave Conservation and Restoration MAJOR SPRINGS n 2. Double Sink 1 TurnholeSprillQ A. Mill HolE! B, ProctorCave 1. Patoka Creek 2. Calle City 4.SaI'ld Cave 5. Colton Gin 6 E~River 7.PlkeSpnng u.ooo INDEX TO GROUNDWATER BASINS AND SUB-BASINS N A E Echo River S Sly> G GrealOoyx P Pike M Mill Hole I \ \ .1 i r;' '. .. -i '.I 'o, LEGEND I'I'ltentiomelric; (water eI) _000~ ~ COnwil1te", ,20Ille! '" Fklw route and tonlIooroce ilS cleletmioed by dye !raO!!S and poteobomelr'l;lXIOlours --HogMe-U1Cave Nat>onal an. SH Sandhouse Cave T Tumhole SC Sand Cave CG Cot!onGin C CedarSink Figure 2. Map of the Turnhole Spring groundwater drainage basin and some smaller adjacent basins (from Quinlan and Ewers 1989). The ages of speleothems are frequently misunderstood. Ages are often estimated based on an assumed constant growth rate. which is rarely the case. Each speleothem is different, reflecting the unique water chemistry and flow rate along each flow path, as well as soil and climatic factors on the surface. All of these factors change with time, and thus change the conditions of speleothem development. Generally, the larger speleothems are the oldest, but not always; they may just reflect rapid mineral deposition, while nearby small speleothems, which form by slower deposition rates, may in fact be much older. Under certain unusual conditions, speleothems can grow up to several centimeters

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Part 2-Cave Conservation, Management, Ethics: Veni-Karst Hydrology within a year. Typically, several centimeters of growth requires hundreds to thousands afyears. Thus, any impacts on speleothems are effectively permanent. The Sensitivity of Karst Systems to Contamination and Modification Among the various types of aquifers around the world, karst aquifers are the most sensitive to groundwater contamination and the most easily impacted by modification of the surface landscape. Drew and Hotzl (1999) describe these impacts in detail. Caves, solutionally enlarged fractures, and other voids create highly permeable features so that the volume of water discharged from karst wells and springs are the greatest volumes on record. However, this same permeability also allows easy access for pollutants. Karst aquifers can respond so quickly to surface activities, that in many ways, they function as direct extensions of the surface landscapes. The conduit systems in karst allow for the rapid transmission of contaminants with effectively no filtration. Studies repeatedly show that when contaminants are present in karst areas, they invariably reach and adversely impact their aquifers. The close hydrologic connection with the surface also makes karst aquifers sensitive to physical changes in the landscape. Increased flooding, decreased runoff, sedimentation, and erosion on the surface are often mirrored by changes in caves and the general behavior of the karst aquifer. Well pumping and artificial recharge of water can also dramatically change aquifer conditions on a scale and rate that is much greater than in other groundwater systems. Few effective engineering solutions have been developed to prevent many of the problems which are unique to karst. It is therefore vital that people living and working in karst arcas avoid creating problems in the first place. Watson and others (1997) and Veni and DuChene (200 I) offer broad, yet concise guidelines for the protection and management of karst areas. Common Hydrologic Problems: How Cavers Can Avoid, Find, and Resolve Them The many types of activities that threaten caves and karst areas fall into two groups: those resulting from pollution and those caused by physical modification of the karst system. This section addresses the most common problems and provides guidance on what cavers can do to resolve them, beginning with problems most directly relatcd to cavers and ending with those over which cavers have no direct control. Hydrologic issues related to cave restoration activities are discussed at the end of this section. Groundwater Pollution Exploration Pollution "Pack it in. Pack it out." This motto has frequently been used by cavers to state that we should carry our trash out of caves. Spent batteries or carbide are especially hazardous to groundwater. They should be removed in leak-proof containers and disposed of properly. Too many stories are still told of how bags or bottles of spent carbide ruptured or exploded. Let's do the job right and use appropriate containers. Human \Vaste. Unfortunately, urine and feces are sometimes deposited in caves. In hydrologically inactive caves, these wastes should instead be packaged and removed whether or not the caves are decorated with speleothems. Certain areas in such caves tend to become restrooms which accumulate wastes. Even ifburied in sediments, the wastes may migrate 125 Among the various types of aquifers around the world, karst aquifers are the most sensitive to groundwater contamination and the most easily impacted by modification of the surface landscape.

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126 Contaminated water that soaks into cave sediments should not be discounted as harmless; many species burrow and lay eggs in the sediments and can be injured or killed by acids or bleach. Cave Conservation and Restoration into the local groundwater. In a concentrated amount they could prove harmful. (See human waste, pages 35, 71, and 276; also see packaging waste, page 269.) In hydrologically active caves, while unappealing, relatively small amounts of human wastes left in caves will get nushed out of the system or mixed with animal wastes washed in from the surface and will cause no significant impact. Ifcamping in or near a cave entrance and packing out wastes is not an option, cavers should dig latrines as far from the entrance as practical in deep, vegetated soil where biological activity will more rapidly decompose the wastes. Latrines should not be placed where they may be rapidly eroded by surface runoff. If possible, they should be placed down slope from springs, sinkholes, or cave entrances. Bathing and \Vashing Gear. Bathing and washing camping and caving equipment in hydrologically active caves is not a problem from a general groundwater contamination standpoint. However, in hydrologically inactive caves with only isolated pools, contact with the pools should be avoided. Cavers may use them as untreated water supplies and could become ill. Additionally, the pools could be biologically significant and harmed by caver-introduced bacteria. (See pools page 74.) Tracer Tests. Dye tracing has been used by cavers to delineate drainage basins and hydrologic connections between caves, sinkholes, and springs. However, as increasing numbers of tracer tests are conducted, state and municipal authorities are increasiflgly regulating their use. Cavers could be fined for tracer testing without an appropriate permit. One important reason for regulation is to reduce cross-contamination, where one tracer test unknowingly picks up dye from a second test and produces an inaccurate interpretation. Since tracer tests are important in decisions on land, water, and waste management, undiscovered interference in the results could have major repercussions. While most dyes have low toxicities, some are more hazardous and should not be used if they may reach a spring or well used for drinking water. Cavers who wish to dye trace should tirst check their state regulations, cheek carefully for other possible traces in the area, inform potentially affected people of their trace, and learn the proper methods, amounts;and types of dyes prior to injecting them into the karst. Eckenfelder (1996) provides guidance on designing and implementing sound tracer studies. Restoration Pollution Like some pollutants resulting from exploration, pollutants produced during the restoration of caves are not usually produced in sufficient volume to harm an aquifer's groundwater quality. However, these pollutants can severely impact water quality in localized areas within caves to the detriment of cave fauna and cavers who may use that water tor drinking. Contaminated water that soaks into cave sediments should not be discounted as harmless; many species burrow and lay eggs in the sediments and can be injured or killed by acids or bleach running off walls and speleothems after removing graffiti and algae. Too much water flowing into normally dry passages can be equally destructive to cave ecosystems. The use of chemicals in caves should be avoided or minimized. If applied, all chemicals should be thoroughly rinsed and diluted with water. Clean towels and sponges should be placed immediately downslope of restored surfaces to capture as much runoff as possible. Runoff containing chemicals should be placed into water-tight sealable boltles, then removed from the cave and deposited into a municipal sewage system for proper treatment. (See anthropogenic chemicals, page 57.)

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Veni-Karst Hydrology Rural Pollution Caves located in rural areas have the best chance to avoid human-produced contaminants. While such contaminants do occur in rural areas, they do not usually occur in the volume and severity found in urban and industrial areas. The drainage basins of many rural caves include areas of light to intensive agriculture. Extensive activities, such as livestock grazing, result in higher than natural bacteriological contamination of caves (Figure 3). Such operations cannot be easily relocated, but they pose far less of an impact than runoff from feedlots or barnyards. Landowner Assistance. Many rural landowners recognize the hazard to their own drinking water supplies and do not place septic systems and barnyards near caves and sinkholes. Cavers can assist landowners by guiding such activities away from surface drainages that feed into caves or from areas and sinkholes directly above caves that are identified during cave mapping. Cavers can especially help by discouraging owners from dumping trash into caves and sinkholes and by cleaning up existing dumps. In some areas, municipal or regional agencies may ofTer funding or other support to volunteers and owners who clean up such sites. (See sinkhole clean out, page 381.) Residents ofmral areas should be made aware of the special sensitivity of karst to pollution. Cavers can offer publications and photographs showing how pesticides and fertilizers used in some agriculture and pollutants in trash dumps may contaminate karst aquifers. Rural residents' standard water purification method of sedimentation in storage tanks, natural die-ofT of some pathogens, and chlorine treatment of any remaining organisms may not adequately cleanse the water. Urban and Industrial Pollution Urban and industrial areas produce pollutants in the greatest volume, variety, and toxicity, and they survive the longest in the environment. While it is tempting to suggest plugging caves and sinkholes, or at least diverting drainage away from them to prevent groundwater contamination, such actions will often prove ineffective. Polluted runoff can enter karst aquifers in greatest volume via large entrances or sinkholes, but significant pollution can also flow underground through small sinkholes, solutionally enlarged fractures, and other less obvious pathways. Protection of individual karst features alone is not a sound method for aquifer protection. Pollution Prevention Strategies. Protection of aquifer water quality requires excluding contaminants from the karst area and preventing those present from entering the surface water or groundwater. Prevention is not 127 Caves located in rural areas have the best chance to avoid human-produced contaminants. While it is tempting to suggest plugging caves and sinkholes, or at least diverting drainage away from them to prevent groundwater contamination, such actions will often prove ineffective. Figure 3. Livestock in a sinkhole pond.

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128 [n many cases, the best solution is to purchase critical caves and drainage areas for protection from urbanization. In working with these groups, cavers should be careful to not oversell their technical knowledge and expertise if they don't have an actual specialist in their group. However, cavers should be equally careful not to undersell their perspective. Cave Conservation and Restoration easy. Sedimentation and filtration basins are among a group of measures called best management practices used to capture and remove contaminants. (See best management practices, page 34; also see current best practices, page 17.) However, it is important to remember that best does not mean effective. Their efficiency varies widely according to the specific method used and the pollutant treated, with common contaminant removal rates less than 40% (for example, Tenney and others 1995). Veni (1999) proposed a strategy for assessing potential impacts in karst and found where there are insufficient data for definitive assessments, limiting impervious cover to 15% of the area ufthe drainage basin should preserve groundwater quality. This percentage correlates to the level of urbanization where a broad suite of studies found that significant ecological and water quality degradation begins to occur (Schueler 1994). Pollution Prcycntion Coalitions. The water quality problems which exist in urban karst areas are well beyond the ability of most cavers to solve individually. As groups, cavers should learn to work cooperatively with landowners and regulatory agencies, yet also be prepared for adversarial relationships with regulators who may lack the authority or impetus for certain protective actions without sufficient public outcry. In many cases, the best solution is to purchase critical caves and drainage areas for protection from urbanization. Examples exist throughout the country of volunteer groups pushing major land purchases made by local, state, and federal agencies, by cave conservancies and organizations like The Nature Conservancy, and even by businesses looking to develop good public images and tax write-offs for conservation casements. In working with these groups, cavers should be careful to not oversell their technical knowledge and expertise if they don't have an actual specialist in their group. However, cavers should be equally careful not to undersell their perspective. Most regulators and many non karst geologists lack cavers' important information and knowledge from inside the aquifer. Maps, photos, and videos demonstrating how water and contaminants move through caves can be worth far more to regulators and judges than the opinions of well-paid consultants who never venture underground into a karst aquifer. (See photodocumentation, page 204.) Land purchases will not be practical in many situations, in which case cavers should work with agencies and organizations to educate the public and promote sound voluntary stewardship of the karst by public and private landowners. Conservation easements, tax relief incentives, and support for ecologically sound yet profitable land uses can also be promoted to reduce impacts in karst areas and drainage basins. Hydrologic Modifications Exploration Modifications To further exploration, cavers have drained sumps, diverted streams, notched rimstone dams, and built dams, among other actions that hydrologically changed caves. The possible consequences of each action are too numerous to individually discuss and rely too much on specific local conditions beyond the scope of this chapter. Most hydrologic changes from exploration tend to be short-term and thus probably of no significant impact. The impacts of long-term or permanent changes should be closely considered before implementation, and tested, if possible, with temporary modifications that produce the same effects. Distinguishing between short-term and long-term modifications will need to be done case-by-case. The impacts of hydrologic modifications from exploration can be addressed as two general groups.

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Veni-Karst Hydrology I Hydrologic Impacts. One type of impact is the hydrologic change in the cave and aquifer. Water in cave streams flows to springs and/or wells and may be increased lor decreased by dams or diversion. Removal of natural dams (breakdown, rimstone, or otherwise) may result in turbid (muddy) flow for some time as sediment once trapped behind the dam is washed out and affects the stream's use as a water supply. Speleothem growth and development may change in affected parts of the cave. Dam construction would have opposite effects, increasing flooding and sedimentation of upstream areas, and causing some sediment erosion in downstream arcas. I Biological Impacts. Hydrologic modifications can also adversely affect a cave's ecosystem~ Penn anent draining of sumps or flooding of passages may isolate populations and dismpt feeding and reproductive behavior. Changes in water, depth, temperature, turbidity, velocity, /lood levels, and flood frequency may also harm ecosystems adapted to specific conditions. (See conservervation don'ts, page 35.) I Water Chemistry Modifications Discounting the introduction of contaminants into a cave and the hydrologic modificatiops discussed above, a significant hydrochemical change occurs in some show caves which divert water from one part of the cave to another to "reactivate" inactive speleothems or provide constant flow to waterfalls. The idea is that since water from the cave is used, speleothems will grow and the cave will be kept "natural." The problem is that the chemistry of waters throughout a cave may vary dramatically. The water diverted to reactivate a speleothem, especially if diverted from a tlowing stream, may be chemically undersaturated and hence would begin to dissolve the spel<~othem. Certainly, wet speleothems are more sparkly and attractive than dry ones, but dry speleothems are also natural features of caves. I Surface Modifications The effects of modifications on the land surface provide additional examples of how closely caves and karst aquifers are tied to activities on the surface. I Vegetation and Soil Loss. Vegetation and soil are important to preserving the reservoirs of shallow groundwater that sustain speleothem growth and pools in the caves below. While vegetation tends to use water stored in the soil, it also holds the soil in place. protecting it from erosion and high evaporation of its water. Significant loss of vegetation invariably leads to the loss of soil, soil moisture, and moisture in the caves. The chemical changes in the water are less predictable. Less soil and vegetation means less CO~. The resulting changes in water now rates into the cave and reaction rates of tile water with the limestone may prompt, halt; or have no measurable effect on speleothem growth. Eroded soil also often ends up deposited in and sometimes plugs caves and sinkholes. I Increases in Surface \Vater Runoff. Decreases in soil and vegetation on the surface result in greater and faster runoff of rainwater. Impervious covers like concrete and asphalt allow no infiltration or storage, and all rainwater runs off into streams. Increased runoff results in higher and more frequent flooding of streams. If the streams lead underground, caves may be flooded beyond their normal levels, destroying habitat for cave species adapted to dry conditions in those areas, dissolving speleothems, depositing sediments in some areas, and eroding old sediment deposits in other areas that might hold paleontologically or archaeologically significant materials. Gypsum speleothems. even above the new tlood levels,' could potentially be dissolved by tlood-induced increases in humid air flow. 129 The effects of modifications on the land surface provide additional examples of how closely caves and karst aquifers are tied to activities on the surface.

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130 While Ihe quarrying or mining away of a cave are obvious impacts on cave hydrology, major adverse impacts are possible in caves not directly touched by the operations. Figure 4. Sinkholes may collapse from several factors that modify their hydrology. Groundwater contamination can result if a collapse breached sewage and other pollutant-bearing pipelines. Cave Conservation and Restoration Quarries and l\lines. Quarrying is the complete removal ofthe rock for use, such as the removal of limestone for building stone, concrete, and gravel. Mining is the selective removal of material, such as minerals and fuels, from within the larger bedrock mass. Quarrying occurs by digging huge open pits, while mining can be through open pits, tunneling, or well drilling. While the quarrying or mining away of a cave arc obvious impacts on cave hydrology, major adverse impacts are possible in caves not directly touched by the operations. The most common problem is dewatering or lowering of the natural watcr table, which can drain cave streams, stop springflows, and cause sinkholes to collapse (Figure 4). Another severe problem is groundwater contamination, especially from acids and metallaced waters discharging into streams or the ground from mining activities. Dams. Dams are built to hold water, which is extremely difficult to accomplish in karst areas. Caves and sinkholes below and near dam sites are plugged with concrete to keep the water from leaking out of the reservoir. Nonetheless, water levels and flooding in caves upstream and downstream of the dam will increase because most of the caves and karst features will not be found and plugged. Those above the dam will be inundated if they are located beneath the reservoir; caves further away and at higher elevations may have their lower levels flooded by the elevated water table produced by the dammed lake. Caves and springs downstream of the dam will see a marked increase in flow from the leakage that will invariably occur despite the best efforts to block it. Regulations. All of the surface modifications described above are likely beyond the ability of individual cavers to affect. Fortunately, tougher regulations and more in-depth research prior to the permitting of such operations are decreasing the frequency and intensity of these problems. Cavers working with the permitting process may help regulators with the important measures listed here. Steer operations away from the most sensitive areas. Enact tough protective measures if sensitive areas cannot be avoided. Perhaps limit already permitted activities ifnew information shows the potential for severe impacts that were previously unknown. As discussed in the above section on pollution, conservation actions that preserve, purchase, or consider the entire drainage basin will be most

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Veni-Karst Hydrology effective in protecting caves and aquifers from activities that modify large sections of the karst surface. Hydrology and Cave Restoration Restoration actiJities have mostly beneficial hydrologic impacts on caves; adverse impacts are few and minor. The removal of unnatural rock and sediment piles is' important to restoring natural water and sediment flow through caves. Trash removal improves water quality and ecological integrity. Concentrated sprays of water are effective in cleaning many cave surfaces. (See pressurized water for restoration, page 397.) Unfortunately, bleach is commonly used in water sprays to remove algae in show caves. Fungi have been'cleaned from gypsum crusts with a bleach mist solution, followed by rinsing with water the next day (Rogers 1995). Until new methods are available, bleach should be minimized in concentration, volume, and area because it indiscriminately kills cave organisms. (See bleach, page 349; also see lamp flora control, page 343.) Research is also needed for bette~ ways of cleaning gypsum speleothems. Spray cleaning dissolves gypsum and frequent cleaning may prove harmful. (See gypsum cleaning, page419.) Restoration activities must be planned to avoid adverse impacts from the use of inappropriate chemicals and materials, or appropriate materials used in inappropriate ways. Other chapters in this book describe cave-safe supplies and methods in detail. Luckily, the quantity of materials and the areas of restoration are generally small; improper techniques and supplies will usually not have adverse cave-wide hydrologic impacts, and there will be time for corrective measures. In hydrologically active caves, there is probably no substantial difference in impact by using cave water instead of noncave water to clean speleothems, so long as the water source is unpolluted and unchlorinated. (See sources for restoration water, page 393.) Water brought into a cave that is significantly hotter or colder than the cave's temperature should be allowed to equalize with the cave if rare species may be present. The shortterm and small-range application of the water should make any differences in chemistry inconsequential, especially if the restoration water is captured after use and removed from the cave. Water from within a cave may be the most convenient! but use it with caution if few pools exist and are slow to replenish. Filtering the used water for placement back into the pools is an option assuming'chemicals have not been added to the water and the pool has no rare organisms and was not completely drained. (See filtration and pool restoration,l page 415.) Filtered restoration water could be used for additional washing if water is scarce. If the cave is dry and has a sensitive microbiological community, water from surface streams could introduce new microorganisms and should not be used. (See isolated pools, page 73; see uncontaminated pools, page 74; also see water choices, page 338.) Summary The hydrologic protection and management of caves requires consideration of a broad range 'of factors. They necessitate understanding of small features within diVes to karst aquifer drainage basins that extend far beyond a cave's known limits. Small-scale considerations typically involve aesthetics and biological management. Large scale factors include smaI1scale concerns, but mainly involve issues of groundwater quality and quantity, plus land use management. As urbanization, mining, and other intensive uses of karst areas increase, 131 Restoration activities have mostly benefi-cial hydrologic impacts on caves. Adverse impacts are few and mmor.

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132 Cave Conservation and Restoration cavers will need to extend their efforts in cave restoration and protection to include the landscapes in which they occur. They will need to coordinate with and lobby regulatory agencies for general land resource protection. It is vital for cavers to work with other groups to purchase and preserve karst drainage areas in perpetuity as the only assured means of conserving our fragile and unique underground resources. Cited References Drew D, Hotzl H, editors. 1999. Karst hydrogeology and human activities: Impacts, consequences and implications. Infernationa! Contributions to Hydrogeology 20. Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema Publishers. 322 p. Eckenfelder, Inc. 1996. GuidelinesJor wellhead and springhead protection area delineation in carbonate rocks. Region 4, US Environmental Protection Agency, EPA 904-B-97-003. Ford DC, Williams pw. 1989. Karst geomorphology and hydrology. London: Unwin Hyman. 60 I p. Gillieson DS. 1996. Caves: Processes, Development, Management. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. 324 p. Hill CA, Forti P, editors. 1997. Cave Minerals oJthe World. 2nd ed Huntsville (AL): National Speleological Society. 463 p. Klimehouk (Klimehuk) AB, Ford DC, Palmer AN, Dreybrodt W, editors. 2000. Speleogenesis: Evolution oj Karst Aquifers. Huntsville (AL): National Speleological Society. 527 p. Moore GW, Sullivan N. 1997. Speleology: Caves and the Cave Environment. Rev 3rd ed SI. Louis (MO): Cave Books. 176 p. Palmer AN. 1991. Origin and morphology of limestone caves. Geological Society 'if America Balletin I 03( I): 1-21. Quinlan JF, Ewers RO. 1989. Subsurface drainage in the Mammoth Cave area. In: White WB, White EL, editors. Karst Hydrology: ConceptsJrom the Mammoth Cave Area. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. p 65-103. Rogers N. 1995. Mammoth Cave restoration field camp. NSS News 53(2):44-45. Schueler TR. 1994. The importance of imperviousness. Watershed Protection Techniques I (3): 100-111. Tenney S, Barrett ME, Malina JF Jr, Charbeneau RJ, Ward GH. 1995. An Evaluation oj Highway Runojf Filtration Systems. Technical Report CRWR265. Austin (TX): Center for Research in Water Resources, Bureau of Engineering Research, University of Texas at Austin. 133 p. Veni G. 1999. A geomorphological strategy for conducting environmental impact assessments in karst areas. GeonlO1phology 31: 151-180. Reprinted in: Giardino JR, Marston RA, Morisawa M, editors. 1999. Changing the Face oJthe Earth-Engineering Geomorphology: Proceedings oJthe 28th Binghamton Symposium in Geomorphology, held 28 August to 3 September 1997 in Bologna. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishers. p 151-180. Veni G, DuChene H, editors. 2001. Living with Karst: A Fragile Foundation. AGI Environmental Awareness Series, no 4. Alexandria (VA): American Geological Institute. 64 p. , . Accessed 2005 June 21. Watson J, Hamilton-Smith E, Gillieson D, Kiernan K, editors. 1997. Guidelines oJCave and Karst Protection. Cambridge: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. 53 p. White WB. 1988. Geomorphology and Hydrology oj Karst Terrains. New York: Oxford University Press. 464 p.



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Part 2-Conserv,ation, Management, Ethics: Polyak and Provencio---Lava Tubes Section A-Identifying and Protecting Cave Resources I Protecting Lava Tube Caves Victor J. Polyak and Paula P. Provencio I 133 Basaltic lava flows worldwide contain beautiful and impressive lava tube caves. Although just as intriguing and delicate as limestone caves, there is a perception that lava tube caves have not been as thoroughly studied and protected as limestone and dolostone caves. Outdoor recreational activities such as caving have become increasingly popular over the last few decades. As a result, there are equally accelerating impacts to n~tural and cultural resources in caves. Prior to the Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988, there was undoubtedly less incentive to man~ge and protect most caves, and lava tube caves were no exception. (See cave laws, page 217; for complete text of the Act, see Appendix I, page 507.) There was also no meaSure for determining the impact to these caves, mainly because little was known about the lava tube caves and their resources. Since the Act was implemented, management emphasis of publicly owned lava tube caves has shifted from recreation to conservation (Nieland 1992). There is now a need to more thoroughly define lava tube caves and their resources so the most appropriate management plans can b'e administered. What should be preserved in a lava tube cave? This is the fundamental question that ultimately leads to the protection of lava tube caves and their features. Caves of Washington by William R. Halliday (1963) and An l/Iustrated Glossary of Lava Tube Features by Charles Larson (1993) are monographs that point out what exists in these caves in terms of uniqueness and worthiness of preServation. While the lava features in lava tube caves are often small and difficult to see, they are truly unique and usually very fragile. Once damaged, these features do not recover and are not easily restored. Lava tube caves can be quite diverse and complex, as indicated in the Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology (Hong 1992), published by the National Speleological Society. Braids, mazes, multi-levels, vertical entrances, crawl ways, and immense boreholes are descriptors oflava tube cave passages. Mineralogical deposition in these caves can be equally impressive. This chapter offers a brief synopsis of the uniqueness oflava tube caves with emphasis on preservation, conservation, and protection. I Resources in Lava Tube Caves Lava tube caves lre formed in basalt flows. Unlike limestone caves, they form rapidly (over weeks, months, or years). Those interested in the origin and character of lava tubes can refer to Greeley (1987, 1971, 1972), Peterson and Sw,mson (1974), Allred and Allred (1997), Rogers and Mosch (1997), and others. The timing of the speleogenesis oflava tube caves can simply, be determined by dating the basalt bedrock of the cave. During the active lifetime of the lava tube, remelting of the surfaces produces lava features that mimic speleothems commonly found in limestone caves, such as stalagmites and stalactites. These are primary This chapter offers a brief synopsis of the uniqueness of lava tube caves with emphasis on preservation, conservation, and protection.

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134 Figure 1. This lava stalagmite was probably broken by early cave visitors (shown here on top of a glove). These features are not easily noticed with carbide or weak electric lights. Cave Conservation and Restoration speleogenetie features (formed when the cave formed). Secondary speleothems like those found in limestone caves can also form in lava tubes. Because the speleogenetic features and secondary speleothems found in lava tube caves are generally small and often not easily seen, they are vulnerable to damage by visitation. Lava Features Visitors often overlook lava features because of their dark color, or because the features are not well defined. Common lava features in caves are lava stalactites, stalagmites, helictites, columns, flowstonc, coralloids, grooves (flow lines), shelves, ceiling cusps, linings, lava falls, dams, levees, gutters, and benches (Larson 1993). Cavers tend to be most familiar with lava features that resemble typical speleothems such as. stalactites and stalagmites. Although most of these speleothem-looking lava features are small and delicate, some can be quite large and impressive. For example, a lava column 7.6 meters (29.4 feet) high is located in a Korean lava tube cave (Hong 1992). Lava stalagmites can exceed 3 meters (10 feet) in height. Small stalagmites and other lava features (for example, peanut-sized lava bubbles) on cave floors are very vulnerable to damage by visitation (Figure 3). Even shelves and benches that appear to be physically robust can be damaged easily (Figure 2). Lava features should receive as much recognition and protection as speleothems in limestone caves. Lava helictites seem to be as unique and rare as carbonate helictites. Lava stalagmites, in most cases, are extremely delicate and are much rarer than carbonate stalagmites. Continued lack of protection for these features will make them exceedingly rare. Mineral and Depositional Resources Lava tube caves usually contain secondary salts, carbonates, and silicates. The salts usually consist of gypsum, epsomite, thernardite, and mirabilite. These form delicate speleothem types such as crust and moonmilk. Calcite is common in lava tube caves, also as coralloids, crust, and moonmilk. Silicates such as amorphous silica and poorly formed magnesium clays (trioctahedral smectite) are also found in lava tube caves in crust, coralloids, and moonmilk. Oxides are observed in lava tube caves as ironoxides (probably hydrous) which commonly coat or stain the walls. Ice decorates many lava tube caves, creating spectacular speleothems. Found in caves located in cooler climates, some ice speleothems can be very large and long-lived if the cave temperature perennially stays below O¡C (32¡F). Other ice speleothems are seasonal, melting during the summer and fall, and reforming during the winter and spring. Some ice deposits have potential to reveal important historic or climatic information (Dickfoss and others 1997).

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Polyak and Provencio-Lava Tubes 135 ~ 11:." h .,. ;;:;;j;~~~ .:., j. ~~ '" '. ~rDark spots or Ii~es on lava surfaces (isolated and discrete features) may be fonned by dripping water or ice melt and airflow, and appear to be spots where the original lava surface is left clean. These secondary features are not speleothems or lava features, and may seem unimportant to most visitors in lava tube caves. As insignificant as these floor spots might seem, they may provide information regarding past cave climate. Since they seem to result from dripping water, they may also be microhabitats for unusual or important life. Another interesting secondary feature found in many lava tube caves is rockflour. This po~dery material otien can he associated with primary features such as linings, and is a weathering product. Biologic Resources Scientific research of lava tubes has accelerated over the past 40 years with NASA becoming interested in habitats for extraterrestrial life and potential human shelter. (See cited references tor microbiology, pages 78-82.) Caves Figure 2. It is not known whether this broken lava shelf was damaged by people climbing on it, or whether it broke naturally. In any case, these types of features are prone to damage by careless visitors.

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136 The ecological balance of lava tube caves is often quite fragile. Establishing restrictions (permits, signs, gates, trails) in lava tube caves is not straightforward because the entrances are usually too large to gate, and entrance areas often harbor a number of different resources. Cave Conservation and Restoration have interesting biology and lava tube caves are no exception. Many traditional cave studies in biology relate to bats. Bats frequently use lava tubes, and bat habitation of lava tube caves can be significant. For instance, one of the larger bat colonies in the southwestern United States resides in an impressive lava tube cave. Since the twilight zones of these caves are commonly extensive, other animals also frequently use lava tube caves. The ecological balance of lava tube caves is olten quite fragile. For example. beautiful carpets of moss develop near entrances and below skylights in the lava tube caves of EI Malpais National Monument. These are important habitats for invertebrates and microorganisms. Silvery or golden-colored slimes are olten observed on the walls and ceilings of lava tube caves-these reflective slimes result from colonies of bacteria such as actinomycetes (Northup and Welborn 1997). Microbes may also be partly responsible for the origin of secondary deposits such as moonmilk and vermiculations. (See biofilms page 68.) Cultural Resources Caves made good shelters for people of early cultures. Lava tube caves were used as burial or religious sites. or as places of refuge (La Plante 1992; Sinoto 1992). Important cultural materials still exist in many lava tube caves (Cresswell 1999). Religious resources are precious to native cultures and are receiving greater respect and protection. Cultural materials in lava tube caves are difficult to protect because the materials, if still present, are typically exposed and visible on the bedrock floors. To ensure preservation of these resources, cavers should report potential cultural sites to the appropriate archaeologists and keep the cave locations confidential. Protecting Lava Resources: Restriciting Visitation and Establishing Trails Lava Tube Cave Entrances Establishing restrictions (permits. signage, gates. trails) in lava tube caves is not straightforward because the cntrances are usually too large to gate, and entrance areas often harbor a number of different resources. Many lava tube cave entrances form niches for plants and animals not common elsewhere in the region surrounding the caves. This is well discussed by Northup and We1bourn (1997) and citations within. For instance, lava tube caves in the southwestern United States provide havens for moss, grass, or fern gardens, which are often located at entrances or below skylights. These gardens are habitats for mites, flies, microbes, and other creatures. Visitors need guidance to avoid trampling or disrupting these fragile ecosystems. Who knows what future studies of these sites might reveal? Archaeological materials are sometimes located on the surface near cave entrances. Rock walls that were constructed as shelters arc often observed. Long tree logs are found at the mouth of collapses near entrances to lava tube caves and were sometimes used during historic or prehistoric times as bridges or ladders to enter the caves. Disturbing any artifacts destroys the cultural history of these caves. Lava Tube Cave Passages The cave floor is the area most prone to damage from visitation, especially if visitors are unaware of fragile cave resources. Pennanent damage can occur even by lightly walking across a delicate area. For instance, sometimes there are abundant spots and lines on a lava tube floor. These floor features are often hard to see and might seem insignificant. but they may harbor important climate and microbial information. Floor deposits can be

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Polyak and Provencio--Lava Tubes I easily obliterated by just a few visits to a lava tube cave if trails are not established and properly used. Small lava features on cave floors, walls, or ceilings are easily damaged by unmanaged visitation (Figure 3). Large features can be tempting structures for curious and energetic visitors. For instance, some shelves are very well formed and large enough to walk or crawl on, and may be easily broken (Figure 2) if guidance and restrictions are not in place. Speleothem deposits such as moonmilk, coralloids, and crusts are also prone to inadvertent or intentional damage by visitors. Many deposits seemingly having little scientific or historic value-but even mounds of rock flour should be protected for aesthetic reasons and for future scientific research. I Impacts from Emergency Situations Search-and-rescue groups often have no experience in caves and no special knowledge about lava tube cave resources---eonsequently, personnel may inadvertently damage a cave during a search. Much damage can be prevented if an organized caving group has inventories and maps of area caves. Familiar with caves, and equipped with the proper gear and maps, I 137 Figure 3. This small lava stalagmite with a lava straw welded to it is in the center of a crawl passage. Increased visitation will undoubtedly damage this special little candlestick stalagmite, which is less than 10 centimeters (4 inches) in height. Also note lava "peanuts" (bubbles) on the cave floor surrounding the stalagmite.

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138 Conservation management through restricting visitation, establishing trails, and posting signs to limit impact can help protect the natural and cultural resources. Approach lava tube cave skylights with great caution, or better yet, simply avoid walking near them. Cave Conservation and Restoration cavers can assist search-and-rescue efforts with increased efficiency, thoroughness, and minimum-impact stewardship. Until we are content with "virtual cave visits," trails will have to suffice as a means for protecting important areas of caves from frequent visitation. Many areas in lava tubes contain fragile and unique features. Probably the best way to protect these features in caves that receive frequent visitation is to establish trails. Developing trails that will not contribute to contamination is a challenge. Trail development, approached as a science, will hopefully be a significant topic of spelcology in the near future; appropriate materials for cave trail construction and placement strategies need to be addressed. (See trails, page 175.) Conservation management through restricting visitation, establishing trails, and posting signs to limit impact can help protect the natural and cultural resources. Potential Hazards of Lava Tube Caves Skylights Skylights are intriguing openings in the ceilings of lava tube caves that almost always have an associated vertical component. An important conservation message-Be Prepared-is especially important in avoiding the inherent hazards of lava tube caves. On the surface, sma)) skylights are not easily seen. Hiking at night, or running in areas with lava tube skylights can be dangerous. Also, the thickness of cave roofs around skylights can be very thin. Approach lava tube cave skylights with great caution, or better yet, simply avoid walking near them. Ceiling Collapse Many lava tube caves have ceilings that are partially collapsed. While these caves seem solid and stable, blocks are obviously falling from the ceiling over time. Frost wedging is one of the culprits. Caves that fit this description and receive moderate visitation should be monitored periodically for evidence of freshly fallen blocks. In this type of cave, avoid touching the ceiling. Managing agencies might want to carefully consider allowing open public access to caves with partially collapsed ceilings. Hypothermia and Histoplasmosis Many lava tube caves are cold. Basalt is a good insulator and lava tube caves often form eflective cold air sinks. Hypothermia is the chilling of the body's core temperature and commonly results from caving. Halliday (1974) and Mosberg (2006, page 271 in this volume) describe in detail how hypothermia can fatally atTect cavers. Prepare properly for cold cave environments and avoid hypothermia. Dress warmly. As well, anticipate changes in surface weather. Take along a small thermos of hot fluids to drink. Carry snacks with high fat content (tor example, summer sausage and nuts). Ask for the assistance of fellow cavers if you feel chilled. Never underestimate your situation. Take precautions at the first sign of shivering. (See hypothermia, page 271.) Other health hazards are common for cavers visiting lava tubes. Deposits of guano and rodent middens may create a cave environment conducive to diseases such as histoplasmosis. Travel carefully to avoid stirring up dust or spores, and wear respirators for protection in dry, dusty caves. (Sec histoplasmosis. page 277.)

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In lava tubes, cavers are helping by surveying the caves, inventorying the cave resources, and orgamzmg cave cleanups. Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Polyak and Provencio-Lava Tubes Conservation Management Rapid growth orthe world population is contributing to increased human impacts on caves in at least two ways. I Encroachment by housing and business development. Accelerated v'isitation by people. Lava tube caves a!e no exception. Since the Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988, under-funded federal agencies in the United States are increasingly r~lying on volunteers for assistance. In lava tubes, cavers are helping by suryeying the caves, inventorying the cave resources, and organizing cave cleanups. In the United States, volunteers are providing an important service, but the responsibility of saving and preserving the significant publicly owned lava tube caves ultimately belongs to the appropriate federally employed managers (Nieland 1992). (See cave management tools, page 229.) Managing human curiosity and the will to explore on one end and malicious intentions on the other is a great challenge. (See managing caves or cavers, page 237.)1 Controlling urban and industrial encroachment in some areas will be an even greater challenge in the quest to preserve the world's beautiful lava tube caves. I Acknowledgements We are grateful to 1 m embers of the Sandia Grotto who are participating in a survey and inventory project that directly supports protection of the lava tube caves in EI Ma1pais National Monument. We also thank John Lujan, Herschel Schulz, and the stafT of EI Malpais National Monument for supporting the ongoing research oflava tube caves in the Monument. This volunteer effort has enabled us to offer the information herein regarding the protection oflava tube caves. I Cited References Allred K, Allred C. 1997. Development and morphology of Kazumura Cave, Hawaii! Journal ofCa!'e and Karst Studies 59(2):67-80. Cresswell LT. 1999. Archaeology of the Snake River Plain, Idaho. In: Kline T, editor. Idaho. the Underground Gem. The 1999 National Speleologicat'Society Convention Guidebook. Filer Idaho. p 23-25. Dickfoss PV, Betancourt JL, Thompson LG, Turner RM, Thronstrom S. 1997. History,ofice at Candelaria Ice Cave. In: Mabery K, editor. Natumillistory of £1 Malpais National Monument. New Mexico Bureau of Mines & Mineral Resources, Bulletin 156. p 91-112. Greeley R. 1971. Observations of actively forming lava tubes and associated structures. Modern Geology 2(3):207-223. Greeley R. 1972. Additional observations of actively forming lava tubes and associated structures. Modern Geology 3(3): 157-160. Greeley R. 1987. The role of lava tubes in Hawaiian volcanoes. In: Decker RW, Wright TL, Stauffer PH, editors. Volcanism in Hawaii. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 1350 (Vol 2). Reston (VA): U.S. Geological Survey. p 1589-1602. Halliday WR. 1963. Caves of Washington. State of Washington Division of Mines and Geology, Information Circular 40. Olympia (WA): State of Washington, Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology. 132 'po Halliday WR. 1974. American Caves and Caving: Techniques, Pleasures, and Safeguards of Modern Cave Exploration. New York: Harper & Row. 348 p. I 139

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140 Cave Conservation and Restoration Hong SH. 1992. Caves in Cheju Island, Korea. In: Rea GT, editors. 6th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology: Hilo, Hawaii, August 1991. Huntsville (AL): National Speleological Society. p 168-169. Larson Cv. 1993. An Illustrated Glossory of Lava Tube Features. Western Speleological Survey, Bulletin 87. Vancouver (WA): Carlie & Jo Larson. 56 p. La Plante M. 1992. Recently discovered Hawaiian religious and burial caves. In: Halliday WR, Rea GT, editors. 6th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology: Hilo. Hawaii. August 1991. Huntsville (AL): National Speleological Society. p 7-9. Mosberg SR. 2006. Health and hygiene related to cave conservation. In: Hildreth-Werker V and Werker JC, editors. Cave Conservation and Restoration. Huntsville (AL): National Speleological Society. p 271280. [This volume.] Nieland J. 1992. Inventory, evaluation, and management of publicly owned caves in the western United States and the impact of the Federal Cave Resources Protection Act. In: Halliday WR, Rea GT, editors. 6th International Symposium on VulcanG.\peleology: Hilo, Hmvaii, August 1991. Huntsville (AL): National Speleological Society. p 273-279. Northup DE, Welbourn WC. 1997. Life in the twilight zone-Lava tube ecology. In: Mabery K, editor. Natural History of £1 Malpais National Monument. New Mexico Bureau of Mines & Mineral Resources, Bulletin 156. Socorro (NM): New Mexico Bureau of Mines & Mineral Resources. p 69-82. Peterson DW, Swanson DA. 1974. Observed formation of lava tubes. Studies in Speleology 2(6):209-222. Rogers BW, Mosch CJ. 1997. In the basement-Lava tube origins and morphology. In: Mabery K, editor. Nall/ral History of £1 Malpais National Monument. New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Bulletin 156. Socorro (NM): New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources. p 61-68. Sinoto YH. 1992. Hawaiian use of lava tube caves and shelters. In: Halliday WR, Rea GT, editors. 6th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology: Hilo, Hawaii, A/lg/lstI991. Huntsville (AL): National Speleological Society. p 3-6.



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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Toomey-Kartchner Caverns Section B-Developing Cave Management Programs I DefininJ Limits and Protocol at Kartchner Caverns Rickard S. Toomey, III I It may be politically correct for cavers to think we can somehow manage natural voids under Earth's surface. But is it accurate to make this audacious claim'? Skeptically, we ask how humans can possibly manage cave environments. Any kind of management involves defining limits and protocols for human actions. Usually, managing caves goes hand in hand with protecting the resources from damage by people. Resource managers develop philosophies and administrative procedures to support the conservation and protection of cave values. I The goals involving protection are addressed through an expanding array of creative manag~ment objec. ,,~' \: tives. Valid administrative ~'&' options range from extreme secrecy, to gate installations, pennitting systems and sometimes, show cave development. Through three decades of development history, all of these management tactics were applied in the protection of Kartchner Caverns State Park~ Arizona. Discovery of Kartchner In 1974 Randy Tufts and Gary Tenan discovered a cave on the eastern slope of the Whetstone Mountains about ten miles southwest of Benson, Arizona. The cave they found was wet, well decorated, and in pristine condition. The find caused them to worry about hO\v to protect such a cave. They ~ere familiar with numerous examples of caves that were badly damaged after their existence became public knowledge. I The pair of explorers examined ~ methods to protect the cave from ~ damage. They first 'opted for bi extreme secrecy. Their quest to g keep it quiet extended to having ~ 9 141 Figure I. The beauti. ful speleothems in the Throne Room at Kartchner Caverns State Park" spawned both the need to pro. teet the cave and the opportunity to make it an educational destination for tourists.

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142 Figure 2. Gleaming tlowstone and exquisite soda straws remain pristine even in the new areas under development at Kartchner Caverns State Park'. Conservation by development-to assure the long-term protection of Kartchner Caverns, it was developed as a show cave. Cave Conservation and Restoration anyone they took to the cave sign a secrecy agreement. By 1977 they had determined that secrecy alone was not sufticient. The cave's location near a major highway, and the fact that unauthorized people were learning about it, clearly indicated it was time for another plan. Conservation by Development Inspired by a paper written by Russell Gurnee (1966) they considered another possibility-eonservation by development. Under this concept, to assure the long-term protection of tile cave, it would be developed as a show cavc. Although development of the cave would result in significant impact (from trails, lights, and tourists), it would also provide for controlled access that might prevent other types of damage and impacts. In 1978 Tufts and Tenan approached the landowners, the James A. Kartchner family, about the cave, and began exploring the possibility of a private enterprise show cavc. In 1985, Tufts, Tenan, and the Kartchners decided that development through a public entity was a more appropriate solution. In 1988 after numerous secret negotiations through members of the state legislature and with the help of the Nature Conservancy, the state of Arizona purchased the cave and about 560 acres ofland around it. The cave became the James and Lois Kartchner Caverns State Park under the stewardship of Arizona State Parks and its director Ken Travous. For a more comprehensive history of the cave see Tufts and Tenan (1999). From the beginning, the goal of Arizona State Parks was-to the greatest extent possible-to develop the cave in an environmentally and speleologically sensitive manner (Travous and Ream 2001). They took many complicated steps to succeed in that objective. One of the first and most important steps was to document a series of baseline studies before initiating any development of the cave. These investigations provided the necessary information for the responsible planning of development. Studies provided the raw data that were needed to limit development and tours and deline development protocols. Arizona Conservation Projects, Inc. (ACPl), under the management of Robert Buecher, was awarded the contract to perform two years of predevelopment studies. Starting in the spring of 1989, research included both the surface ecosystem (weather, geology, hydrology, vegetation, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles) and the cave environment (mapping, geology, hydrology, climate, mineralogy, invertebrate biology, algae, fungi, and bats). The results included an extensive Iinal report (ACPI 1992) and numerous subsidiary reports and maps (approximately 328-page report with an additional 590 pages in appendices). The studies also led to a symposium held during the annual NSS national convention, and the papers from that symposium were published together as the Journal oj Cave and Karst Studies, Volume 61 Number 2. Overall, Kartchner is among the most thoroughly studied caves in the world. Baseline investigations yielded more predevelopment data than had been achieved for any previous show cave. Following predevelopment studies, the planning and development process was as thorough as state of the art allowed. The primary objectives were to provide for cave protection and quality visitor experience. The planning process used the predevelopment studies, as well as consultation with speleologists and other experts, to design an environmentally friendly

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1 Part 2-Conscrvation, Management, Ethics: Toomey-Kartchner Caverns facility and tour experience highlighting safety, education, and entertainment. Potential impacts from surface facilities and cave facilities were examined in the planning process. The surface facilities were located to calise minimum impact on the cave. Cave facilities were designed to protect the cave and its resources and to provide adequate visitor access (including barrier-free access to the cave tour). Designs for access and trails at Kartchner Caverns employ cave protection techniques pioneered at other show caves. These include trail placement to minimize: impact, use of airlocks, construction of lint curbs, and the separation of trail lighting from feature lighting. One innovation used in trail design and construction in Kartchner features the combination of an integrated trail base and lint curbs with a sump system. This design allows trails to be washed down and the water and trail debris to be pumped out of the eave. I In November 1999, the first section of the cave (the Rotunda and Throne Room) opened for tours. An important part of protecting the cave was to keep the tour groJ p size small. Each tour is limited to 20 guests. Two guides are assigned to each tour, a lead guide at the front of the visitors and a trailing guide to bring up the rear. The two guide system allows for cave protection, improved interpretation, and improved visitor safety. There are 25 tours each day in the Rotunda-Throne section. This limits visitation to 500 guests entering the cave each day. Development of another section of the cave (the Big Room area) is complete and tours began in November of 2003. Because the tours going through this section walk much closer to delicate cave features, stricter limits on tour size are indicated for this area. Tours in this area are limited to about 20 tours per day with 15 people on each tour. The Big Room poses additional challenges that were not encountered with the Rotunda, Throne Room area. The Big Room is the summer home to a southwestern cave myotis (Alyotis veNfer) colony ofbet\veen 1,000 and 2,000 bats. In order to protect the bats, cave development work in the Big Room ccased between May and mid-September. Studies were performed to predict potential bat reaction to various tour scenarios (Mann and others 2002). As a result of the studies, Arizona State Parks decided that the Big Room section will be open for tours only between mid-October and midApril. Bat pooulations are monitored for potential impacts from development. So far, 'none have been observed, I 143 Designs for access and trails at Kartchner Caverns employ cave protection techniques pioneered at other show caves. Figure 3. Trail features, including integration of the impervious trail surface, lint curbs, and a sump system, allow the trails to be washed at Kartchner Caverns State Park~'. The water and trail debris is pumped out of the cave, Kartchner Caverns also employs a specific Cave Unit staf1'to monitor cave conditions, maintain the cave tour infrastructure, and take the lead in cave protection.

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144 Kartchner Caverns has been developed according to the best current practices. Solutions from the most advanced show caves in the world have been implemented. Figure 4. A member of the Cave Unit at Kartchner Caverns State Park' checks the evaporation at one of the cave's environmental monitoring stations. Ongoing monitoring of the cave's environmental condition is vital to understanding and mitigating impacts from development. Cave Conservation and Restoration Well-conceived development and limits on size and numbers of tours only go so far in protecting the cave. Conservation by development represents a compromise-some impact on the cave is allowed in order to prevent other potentially more damaging uncontrolled impact. Arizona State Parks made two crucial commitments to insure continued protection of Kartchner Caverns: Continue study and monitoring to lessen or prevent impacts. Adjust limits, protocols, and operations as conditions change. To accomplish these commitments, Arizona State Parks created a specific staff (the Cave Unit) to monitor cave conditions, to open and close the cave each day, and to do maintenance for the cave tour infrastructure. This arrangement keeps these tasks from falling between the duties of tour guides and the park maintenance staff. In addition, it creates a core group with commitment to those tasks. Arizona State Parks also created a Cave Resources Manager within its Resources Management Section. That person is in charge of cave research and monitoring, and recommends operational changes to better protect the cave. Cigna (2002) noted the following about Kartchner Caverns upon assessing the condition of the cave one year after it opened for tours: 11 must be emphasized that Kartchner Caverns has been developed according to the best standard, because each particular solution adopted in the most advanced show caves in the vmrld have been implemented. This is one of the greatest successes ever ohtained in this field and should be taken as an example for any further development of a tourist cave. Whether the careful, thorough approach is sufficient to protect the cave from long-term impacts remains to be seen. Over time, other caves will develop additional solutions and improvements on those implemented at Kartchner Caverns. In addition, limits and protocols at Kartchner will be altered as conditions merit due to improved knowledge and technology. Ultimately, Kartchner Caverns will serve as an important test of"conservation by development" as applied to caves.

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I I I Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Toomey-Kartchner Caverns Cited Referenc1es Arizona ConscNation Projects, Inc. 1992. Final Report: Environmental and Geological Studies/or Kartchner Caverns State Park. Report to Arizona State Parks Board. 328 p. Cigna AA. 2002. Modem trends in cave monitoring. Acta Carsologica 31 (I ):35-54.1 Gurnee RH. 1966. Conservation through commercialization. In: Actes du IVe Congrs I~ternational de Splologie en Yougoslavie-Proceedings qf the 4th Intenlational Congress ofSpeleology in Yugoslavia: Pas/ajna, Ljubljana. Ditbrovnik. 12-26 IX 1965. Ljubljana: The Congress (1962]. p 109-114. 1 Mann SL, Steidl RJ, Dalton YM. 2002. Effects of cave tours on breeding Myotis velifei: Journal o/Wildlife Management 66(3):618-624. TravailS KE, Ream JP. 200 I. Developing and managing an environmentally responsible tourist cave. Proceedings of the 131h international Congress o/Speleology. Brasilia. Paper 086/S6, Abstract 269. Tufts R, Tenen G. 1999. Discovery and history of Kartchner Caverns, Arizona. Journal a/Cave and Karst Studies 61 (2):44-48. I Additional Reading Buecher RH, Hill CA, Hose LD, Pisarowicz, JA. 1999. Kartchner Caverns: Research Symposium. Huntsville (AL): National Speleologial Society. 87 p! Published in: Journal a/Cave and Karst Studies 61(2):40-123! GrafCG. I 990.:Kartchner Caverns State Park: A geologic showpiece. Arizona Geology 20( I ):2-15. Hill CA. 1997. Kartchner Caverns, Arizona. In: Hill CA, Forti P, editors. Cave Minerals of the World, 2nd edition. Huntsville (AL): National Speleological Society. p 350-354. Negri S. 1998. Nature:~ Underground Wonderland: Kartchner Caverns. Phoenix (AZj: Arizona Highways Book Division. 32 p. Travous K. 1995. Kartchner Caverns: A gift of nature. Arizona Highways 71 :4-13. 145 Ultimately, Kartchner Caverns will serve as an important test of "conservation by development" as applied to caves.

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146 Cave Conservation and Restoration



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I I Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Kennedy-Cave Gates Section B-Developing Cave Management Programs 147 On Cave Gates Jim Kennedy I Cave gates. There are hardly two words that polarize cavers as much as these. Even the most vocal anti-gale cavers admit that gates serve an important function in protecting irreplaceable cave assets, and in reducing the liability of cave owners. Yet all too onen land managers turn to gates as quick and easy solutions to complex cave management problems. Cave gates can be an important part of a comprehensive cave management plan, but there is much more to gating a cave that just welding steel. This chapter will ,iot tell you everything you need to know about gates and gating, but it will give you an overview of the planning, design, building, and monitoring process and will direct you to additional expert resources. Is a Gate Needed? First, determine if a gate is truly necessary. Since a gate is a somewhat permanent structure that requires great expenditures of resources and may negatively impact the cave environment, it should be installed only after careful planning and design. Other protective methods may be more efticient or effective and should be explored first. Other protective measures for cave habitats include but are not limited to the items in the following list: If a gate is needed, it should have minimum negative impact on the caVe. Units of Measurement Editors' Note: In this chapter, dimensions for materials deviate from the standard metric! English format used elsewhere in this volume because construction materials are usually said in English units in the United States. While carefully designed and constructed gates have minimum effect on the cave environm~nt, poorly placed gates can be very detrimental to the cave and its resources. If a gate is needed, it should have minimum impact on the cave. I Types of Protective Closures Next decide on an 'appropriate gate design. In this section, the term cave gate is used for any type oflockable barricade that prevents human access to the cave, including fences, doors, and bars. Some types of closures, such as a simple chain across a passage restriction, are less secure than others. The majority ofthis chapter focuses on various types of bat-jriendly horizontal bar gates, which are suitable for most situations and are very secure. In rare instances that require an environmental seal, such as a newly opened cave or section of cave with no natural entrance, bat-friendly gates would be inappropriate. In those cases, air-lock gates may be necessary to prevent drying air currents and contamination by outside organisms or materials such as mud. Administrative closures Signage I Fencing Redirecting trails Public education Protective stewardship Electronic su~eillance

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148 Editor's Note: If a cave gate will change air currenls thaI originally flowed through breakdown or small openings, then measure the natural airflow before the gate installalion begins. Design and construct the gate to mimic the original airflow. (See virgin digs, page 261.) Cave Conservation and Restoration Bat Friendly Gates Most cave gating scenarios call for a bat-friendly gate. Fortunately, there are many Iypes of gates that incorporale bat-friendly fealures. Standard batfriendly gates are designed with widely spaced uprights and 5 3/4-inch (146-millimeter) spacing between horizontal bars. The aClual design depends on Ihe amount of human vandalism pressure, the bat species present, and the way the bats use the cave. For instance, we must be aware that some species of bats do not tolerate cave gates at all, and others only at certain times in their life-cycle. The size and angle of the cave entrance may also dictate innovative adaptations of the standard bat gate designs. (See drawings for the horizontal bar gate, Figure 3.) Afier carefully choosing a location and initiating the actual construction, observe the effectiveness and impact of the gate over time. If the gate is creating negative impacts, quickly modify or remove it. Routine maintenance tasks should be planned before commencing the actual construction. Maintenance schedules may be required to repaint the gate if necessary, remove sticks and leaves or flood debris, change locks before they stop working, and remove rocky debris that accumulates around the gate. Signs, fences, and gates are also susceptible to vandalism, and repairs or replacement may be necessary. Selection of Protection Method Before installing a gate at a cave entrance, many factors must be considered. Issues to examine can be divided into two broad categories. Evaluate the cave resources themselves. Assess the level of threat to the cave resources. Obviously, an easily accessible cave is more in need of protection than a rarely visited cave in a remote wilderness area. Likewise, a cave with a wealth of speleothems, important biota, or archaeological and paleontological remains, is more in need of protection than a small, featureless, relatively sterile cave. We believe that all caves have value. But how do we determine what is significant and threatened? Ideally, a complete resource inventory is done for the cave in question, with periodic monitoring up to the time of the actual gating. In reality, this rarely happens. Even caves that have been known and visited for decades hardly ever have simple baseline data, like temperature and invertebrate studies. Onen a gate is planned because the cave owner or manager is reacting to a crisis-the discovery of a rare and threatened rcsourcc, advanced loss of cave resources, sharply increased visitation, or liability concerns. No mattcr what the impetus for protection, we should considcr all users and resources when designing a gate or other type of protective closure. Five Possible Scen'arios This process can be illustrated by a hypothetical example. Assume that we have five caves on a I,OOO-acre (405-hectare) parcel oftand. Cave I. This cave is located on a remote back corner of the property, accessible only by fording a shallow river. It is backed by several hundred contiguous acres of forest under other ownership. It has a few thousand feet of passage, some fun climbs, and ancient bear den sites. Cave 2_ This is a shallow, 25-foot (S-meter) pit leading 10 300 feel (90 meters) of easy canyon and crawlway. This cave is very near a road, and an obvious lrailleads to its entrance. No bats or other obvious wildlife have been noted, but the temperatures are very cold, even in the summer.

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Part 2-conservltion, Management, Ethics: Kennedy-Cave Gates Cave 3. This caJe is on a distant hillside and has a small obscure opening that leads through breakdown and crawls to a fairly large room. Endangered bats hibernate in this cave during the winter. I Cave 4. This is a large, well-known system with several horizontal entrances. Several entrances have obvious trails leading to them, and onc entryway is small, torturous, and rarely used. There are many delicate and unusual speleothems in this cave, and damage has been steadily increasing for many years. I Cave 5. This is a small crawl cave with records of endangered invertebrates. Because it is near the fourth cave, it is often mistaken as an entrance to Cave 4 and receives unnecessary tratne. I What to do with these? Gating all the entrances would be time-consuming and expensive, would likely aggravate those people currently visiting them, and might cause overflow problems in neighboring caves. We already have some resource information on the five caves. so we can prioritize their significance. We also have information on the level of disturbance and threats to these caves, so we can determine the level of urgency for protecting each one. Now we have to determine exactly how we will protect each cave. 1 I 149 Gating all entrances would be timeconsuming and expensive, would likely aggravate those people currently visiting them, and might cause overflow problems in neighboring caves. Cave Significance Threats 1 paleontology, recreation, pristine few due to difficult access 2 possible bats in winter, recreation highly visible, liability (pit) 3 bats in winter small, hard to find, rarely visited 4 recreation, speleothems, possible heavy traffic, increasing damage invertebrates 5 invertebrates unintentional traffic from Cave 4 I Set Up a Table to Prioritize Actions Cave 5. This cave appears to have an urgent need for protection because of its endangered fauna and the unintentional traffic. This reality would need to be weighed against the population size of the invertebrates, and the numbers of those species in other caves. Since this is a relatively small cave with a well-~nown entrance and no bats, a gate could be appropriate. Cave 4. This cave l needs a more thorough resource inventory. Its proximity to Cave 5 indicates a likely connection. Although it is viewed primarily as a recreational cave, the possibility of finding endangered invertebrates there is high. There are too many unknowns at this time to make a good decision. Perhaps the entrances can be gated. A small internal gate might allow access to only pari of the cave. Signs and a permit system might reduce the number of visitors to a sustainable level. We need to know morc. Cave 3. This caVelmight be categorized toward the opposite end or the spectrum. Rarely visited and obscure, it faces no immediate threats. The only critical time of year is winter when the bats arc hibernating. Winter visits could be curtailed simply by doing public education through the local grottos. Because the entrance is obscure, a gate or signs might draw unnecessary, detrimental attention to the cave. Cave 2. This cave1presents a different challenge. It is easily accessible and

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150 Figure 1. Bat roost stains on cave walls provide evidence of bat population even when bats are not present. In the image, a 3-inch (SO-millimeter) HOBO' Pro data logger is used for scale. (See page 5 of color section.) Careful assessment of a cave's resources and threats is necessary before installing any protective device on a cave. Cave Conservation and Restoration well known, so rerouting the trail would make little difference. A combination of educational signage and a bat-friendly fence could prove beneficial, and would not detract from the aesthetics of the pit. If the fence is repeatedly damaged, and if the cave is suitable for bats, a cupola-style bat gate could be installed over the entrance (Figure 4). Since temperatures are suitable for hibernating bats, we might conclude that bats are no longer in that cave due to disturbance, so fencing or gating should allow for their eventual recolonization. A thorough in-cave survey for old guano or roost stains would help with this decision (Figure I). As with any site where there is a strong history of visitation, the reputation for open access must be broken, even if it means patrolling the site and arresting violators. Cave 1. This is a relatively pristine wild cave. However, traffic may increase if other nearby caves are gated. The paleontological resources are very vulnerable. A permit system, combined with increased caver education, might work here if the location is protected by the terrain and the remoteness of the site. Ifnatural site protection is not adequate, the cave might nced a gate. Since the threats are not immediate, protective efforts for this cave are not as urgent. Summary of Assessment Careful assessment of a cave's resources and threats is necessary before installing any protective device on a cave-particularly more permanent structures like gates. Public input from concerned user groups should be solicited, especially if those groups oppose closure and may damage or destroy protection efforts. It is essential that gates and other protective structures be continually monitored, not only for structural damage, but also for their impact on the cave ecosystem. Gates, culverts, or fcnces that cause a negative effect should be modified or removed. Cave gating is not a quick Band-Aid approach to cave management. Gating is merely one tool a cave manager can use. Maintenance schedules should be established because gates need attention and review after installation. Certain types of protective efforts may have an opposite effect than that intended. For instance, several species of North American cave-dwelling bats do not tolerate any type of gate at all. Some species only tolerate gates during one part oftheir life cycle and not at other times of the year. Always consult experts early in the planning stages of any gating project and be sure to get the most current gate design recommendations through Bat Conservation International, the National Speleological Society, and the American Cave Conservation Association.

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Kennedy-Cave Gates Location and Design Placement ofa fence or gate is as critical as the actual design of the structure. Poorly located gates may increase flood damage to the cave, accumulate debris, restrict airflow, and restrict movement of bats or other wildlife. Poorly placed gates may also be more susceptible to natural damage or vandalism, and may increase predation at the cave. Much depends on the size, shape, and orientation of the opening, but in general, bat gates should not be situated in natural passage constrictions, and fences should not interfere with the flight path at the entrance. It must be stressed that cave gating is not a cookie-cutter management technique. Simply because a cave has bats does not mean that one can dust otTa gate design and build it in the cave mouth. But even if a cave does not have bats, the cave may need a bat-friendly gate. The approach to protecting each cave should be based on the configuration of tile cave itself, the species using it, the season bats occupy it, the proximity to civilization, and so on. There is not a one-size-fits-all solution to cave protection. Poor gate design or placement can render the cave unsuitable for bats. Consult the experts listed in the resources section at the end of this chapter. I Gate Location As mentioned above, cave gates should not interfere with the natural flow of air, water, nutrients, or wildlife to and from the cave. Gates should never be in a constricted part of the passage. The bottom of an entrance slope should also be avoided since it will catch debris that will pile up against the gate. In cave entrances that have inflowing streams this can be a very serious problem. The gate on the North Entrance of Bat C~ve (Carter County, Kentucky) failed in the spring of 1996 as flood debris lodged against the gate, backing up water until the increased pressure finally collapsed the gate. The resultant flood pulse destroyed many low-roosting Indiana bats, a federally listed endangered species. (See Indiana bats. page 49.) Predation Dangers Predation can also increase dramatically because of badly located gates. Most bat predators rely on vision when hunting, so gates in the daylight or twilight zone may'enhance the predators' foraging success. When bats slow down to negotiate the gate bars, or back up behind the gate waiting their turn to pass through, they are easily captured by enterprising raccoons, ringtails, and feral cats. Gates installed beyond the twilight zone eliminate the predators' advantage. The old gate to the lower entrance of SinnettThorn Mountain Cave (Pendleton County, West Virginia) had piles of Virginia big-eared bat wings around it from the nightly predations of local house cats. The gate was removed in October 1998 and a new gate was built in a tall area approximately 75 feet (23 meters) further l in, despite having to maneuver the steel and equipment through a crawlway. The new gate, in the dark zone, has eliminated the predator problems. Cupola or Cage IGates for Vertical Entrances Vertical or near-vertical entrances pose their own set of problems. ~ A horizontal gate at such an entrance accumulates debris, makes a perfect feeding platform for predators, and is very difficult for most bats to negotikte. E To solve these problems, a raised gate called a cupola gate or cage ~ gate can be used. Generally, the longer and narrO\ver the opening, e 151 It must be stressed that cave gating is not a cookie-cutter management tcchnique. Figure 2. This is a poorly designed gate, constructed of I-inch (25-millimeter) round bars. It is not very secure-the bars may be easily bent and the welds are small. The small rectangular openings in the narrow vertical entrance make the gate difficult for bats to Ily through. On this type ofplatfonn gate constructed in a vertical entrance, branches and leaves can collect to restrict airflow and light.

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152 Cave Conservation and Restoration t , ____ L r ~ ~._. I I I 1 , I _1-"'. -1~ I I I I ~----~----~----r-.--r-t : , ~----~--------~---_!_--, : ----~-.:_--~---~ ---~, I I : : : : I I t -._.~----:----~----~--, Figure 3. Idealized Sequence of Horizonal Bar Gate Construction Front and Side Views Figure 3c. Trenching and securing of sill. Figure 3a. Measurements of the gate location, taken at regular intervals from a horizontal (level) linc. Figure 3b. Scale drawing of finished gate, used to estimate materials.

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Part 2-Conserv~tion, Management, Ethics: Kennedy-Cave Gates 153 Figure 3d, Installation and securing of uprights. o o Figure 3e. Installation of bottom bar and hangers for second bar. o Figure 3r. Continuation of hangers and horizontal bars (for clarity, removable bar is not shown).

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154 Fig" re 3~. Completion of horizontals. Cave Conservation and Restoration Figure 3h. Placement orbat guards. Bat guard ~OCEment Figure 3i. Completed gate. Bat guard """""" fa, detail

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155 / / / / / / l7("ain J raf!lin g ~:J Figure 5. Chute gate at McDowell Cave, Missouri. Figure 4. A cupola or cage gate is often used in vertical or near vertical-entrances. ~ / Horrzontal bars / / / r Top of fooling / / / 4-inch piece of 4-inch-by 4-inch-by-3/8-inch angle iron anchored 10 concrete with 3/8 inch / / / / Square tube 4-inchby 4-jnch-by-3/8~ inch for grated cenler support / / I Part 2-Conser~atlOn, Management, Ethics: Kennedy-Cave Gates I the larger and taller the cupola gate should be in order to give the bats adequate space to gain altitude and avoid predators. Cupola gates are I not practical for very large openings, and fencing may be the only option. I For vertical entrances with very short drops', a standard gate may be insialled deeper within the cave where the passage begins to be morc horizontal (when the vertical entrance itself is not a liability concern). I Chute or "Window" Gates A recent innovation, since the late I 990s, is the chute u gate, sometimes called a CD window gale. A~ otherwise f standard horizorltal gate is ~ modified with a:rectangular ~ opening boxed in with @ additional angle iron and expanded metal mesh. This design allows sufficient opening for emerging bats and makes it very difficult for trespassers to breach the opening. The chute is usually angled to make it more difficult for humans to enter. This particular gate design is especially useful in caves with large bat populations, such as gray bat maternity colonies, which have entrances that are too small for traditional half gates or flyover gates. Because orthe weight extending out from the main (standard) part of \IIi I the gate and the resulting mechanical stresses, extra attention is needed in the design and construction to prevent future cracked welds and gate failure. Chute gates have been used successfully on numerous Alabama, Kentucky, Missouri, and Tennessee caves, and are well accepted by bats. U m I c I 00 g N I Nonstandard Gates Caves that are entirely unsuitable for bats (as opposed to sites where bats are not currently found) may be candidates for gates that are not batfriendly. However, the bat-friendly design is the preferred solution for most caves, except those that have no natural entrance and require some sort of environmental seal. Sometimes the availability of materials and volunteer labor, or the lack of adequate funds will dictate construction of a nonstandard (not bat-friendly) gate. Nonstandard gates are almost always poor substitutions. I Educational Signage All finished gates require signs stating the purpose of the gate and contact numbers for more information. The penalty for entering the cave or vandalizing the gate can be written in small print, but this should not be the focus of the sign because it is often taken as a dare by would-be vandals.

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156 Cave Conservation and Restoration Figure 6. Typical bat gate (not to scale). BAR FASTENEO TO Roor USING ~ STEEL PLATE PINNED TO Roor / AND WELDEO TO e ... R. ----HORIZONTAL BARS r SUPPORT COLUIoINS .." 4" 3/8BAT GUARD OVAeLE eAR OPTIONAL 1l0AOVABLE .. STEEL SIll. REQUIRED TYPICAL BAT GATE HOT TO SCALE Figure 7. Horizontal bar spacing, typical detail (not to scale). 6-inch by 6-inch by 3lB-inch Type A.36 mild steel angle iron Front Stiffeners /Bat 9 uard 4.inch by 4-inch by 3/8.inch Type A-36 mild steel angle iron Figure 8. StitTener detail horizontal bars (not to scale). r 4-inch by 4-inch / by 3/B-inch angle iron ~wel~' '/2.'nch by 11/2 by 1/4-inch angle iron Stiffeners run the fuillengih of the the horizontal bar, except for being 2 inches shorter on each end

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Part 2-Conseryation, Management, Ethics: Kennedy-Cave Gates Educational material is less antagonistic. Signs themselves sometimes become collectors' items, or arc needlessly damaged by thwarted cave visitors. Permanent signs mounted inside the gate where they can be read, but are out of harms way, will last longer. Paper and wooden signs are highly susceptible to \\'eather, decomposition, and the gnawing teeth of rodents. Metal or plastic signs are preferred. (See protective signs in caves, page 183.) Construction Logistics This cave gating chapter is no substitute for a more complete cave gating manual or training workshop. \Vhile it covers the rudiments of cave gating to assist resource managers in making better informed decisions, it is too brief to help with actual design and installation. Nevertheless, here we provide information for better planning of gating projects. Further assistance is readily available on request. (See cave gating resources, page 161.) Timing Construction should take place during seasons when human activity is least disturbing to the cave resources. For bat caves, this means the \\lork must be done when the bats are absent. Some caves may be used as both summer and winter roosts, which leaves only short periods in the spring and fall for construction. Seasonal temperature variations may also cause reversals in the cave's airflow. If the cave is drawing in air, it may be necessary to install temporary plastic curtains inside the construction site to keep smoke and noxious welding fumes out of the cave. (See toxic fumes, page 40.) Materials Ordering adequate materials depends on accurate estimates of the area to be covered. Gate construction projects require accurate measurements and scale drawings of the finished gate. Materials should be ordered well in advance of the actual gating and may need to be stored off-site in a secured area before being transported to the cave. Always order a little extra for emergencies. (See materials, page 167; also see managing projects, page 305.) Supplies To help ensure completion of the project, carefully calculate welding gases, welding rods, grinding wheels, and other expendables. It is much easier to return unused supplies, or save them for the next project, than to run out 157 Figure 9. Halfor "'tlyover" gate. Note the removable bar at bottom right. Expanded metal mesh covers the overhanging top portion, making it extremely difficult to climb over. Coating the overhang with grease also helps repel trespassers. Permanent signs mounted inside the gate where Ihey can be read but are out of harms way will last longer. Construction should take place during seasons when human activilY is least disturbing to Ihe cave resources.

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158 Every cave gating work plan needs to address the protection of the cave and surrounding site as well as the safety of the workers involved. Cave Conservation and Restoration before the new gate is finished. Tools The remoteness of the site will dictate the type of tools needed, but almost every gating project requires an electric generator or two to run the welders, grinders, and lights. Most projects need the following equipment: Electric generator(s) Extension cords Oxy-acetylene torches (with spare tips and regulators) Chipping hammers and wire brushes Tape measures, levels, and squares Ladders (fortall gates) C-c1amps Portable work lights Hammer drills and hand-held grinders Digging and rock breaking tools to prepare the site Also, provide the following safety equipment at cave gating sites: Rakes and water for fire control Buckets Welding vcst, hood, and gloves Cutting goggles, and so on Always plan for things to break, so have backups on site or readily available. Other equipment such as come-a longs, pulleys, chain saws, all terrain vehicles, or in extreme cases, a helicopter may be needed to move materials to the site. Short, 8-loot (2.S-meter) lengths of I-inch (2S-millimeter) tubular nylon webbing tied in loops make excellent carry handles for moving lengths of stecl. Tools should be color-coded or labeled so they get back to their proper owners. Be careful to keep track of tools and equipment. Tools are especially easy to lose in or around the cave area. Transportation of Materials Many ingenious methods have been developed for moving materials to cave sites. Rarely can the delivery truck drive to the cave m-outh. For long hauls, caver power may sumce, given a large enough workforce. Animal power (horses, mules, and burros) is sometimes used. All-terrain vehicles are sometimes used in nonwilderness areas with adequate trails. Boats or rafts may be necessary along rivers or lakes. Materials may even need to be airlifted in extremely rugged terrain. Airlifts are sometimes accomplished with the cooperation of a local military reserve unit (the project may be used as a training mission). But during the course of most projects, all materials must be carried by hand. Keep in mind that a 20-foot (6-meter) length of 4-inch (lO-centimeter) angle iron, 3/8-inch (9.S-millimeter) thick, weighs about 196 pounds (89 kilograms). Avoid pinched fingers and crushed toes by keeping safety in mind. Personnel The gate designer should oversee construction-this person is most important in any gating project. Currently, there are very few people in North Amcrica with the experience needed for all but the simplcst jobs. (See contact list, page 165.) Next comes the welder, who may be an agency employee, a volunteer, or a person hired specifically for the project. Depending on the size of the gatc

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Kennedy-Cave Gates and the amount hfwork necessary, it is usually good to have several welders (people 'and machines) available to make the work go faster and to afTer rest breaks~ Gating projects also need one or more welding assistants, anticipating the next piece to be cut, handing tools, taking measurements, and generally facilitating the workflow so that no one is standing around idle. Finally, a proj~ct needs sufficient labor to prepare the site, carry items from the cutting'area to the gate location, carry the steel from the drop point to the work area, and clean up afterwards. These workers can be hired with the welder"be provided by the responsible agency or organization, or be volunteers such as local cavers. In several gati~g projects, prison labor was arranged for much of the heavy work. Using volunteers is beneficial because it involves the cave's user groups, educates them about purposes for the gate, and lessens potential for opposition and future vandalism to the gate. Don't forget t~ take care of the safety and well-being of your workers. Provide plenty of food and drinks, and give adequate recognition after the project is finished. Safety Every cave gatiri g work plan needs to addrcss the protection of the cave and surrounding site as well as the safety of the workers involved. Prevent ground fires from starting at the work site. It may be necessary to temporarily remove de'ad leaves or grasses in the areas where cutting, welding, and grinding occur. As a precaution, have plenty of water and fire fighting tools (rakes and shovels) on hand. An Indian Pump or chemical tire extinguisher is also handy. All workers should wear leather work boots, preferably steel-toed, as well as leather gloves, hardhats (caving helmets are fine), long pants, longsleeved shirts or:coveralls, protective eyewear, as well as hearing protection, especially when working around the welders, torches, and grinders. Caution all workers not to look directly at the torch flame or welding arc. Brief the crew on hot metal, heavy objects, potcntial dangers from the tanks of welding gases, and any other hazards specific to the site (loose rock, steep slopes, poison ivy, and the like). Keep a well-stocked first-aid kit on site. Also, be aware of the dangers of exhaustion, dehydration, hypothermia, and heat-related illnesses. Be sure the team takes breaks, cats during the day, and keeps hydrated. I Site Restoration It may be difficult, but try to minimize disturbance of rocks, vegetation, and ground cover during stecl hauling and other work. Natural contours should be restored after the gating is completed, unless the work on the cave entrance in~ludes retuning it to a former historic configuration in an attempt to restore internal conditions. Sites may need revegetation, and trails may need to be blocked to divert casual hikers from the cave. All trash should be picked up and removed, including all scrap metal and as much welding waste as possible, including wclding rod stubs. Cave gates, after painting (if necessary), should blend in rather than attract attention. Ifan entrance ~as previously modified or enlarged, gating processes may provide a perfect time to restore the entrance to a former ccological state. Keep in mind that, relatively speaking, caves are short-lived geologic features that constantly change. Entrances open and close naturally during the life of some caves, sometimes repeatedly. Choosing the historic baseline configuration is sometimes a judgement call based on the special resources for which the site is actively managed. For declining populations of endangered Indiana bats, for instance, we would aim for restoration to a time frame of pre159

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160 Many modern gates now dispense with hinged doors entirely, and use removable locking bars. If the gate is not doing its job, then it should be modified or even removed. Cave Conservation and Restoration European settlement, but post-Pleistocene. Locks and Removable Locking Bars Since the main purpose of a cave gate is to secure the site from intrusion, the choice oflocking mechanism is critical. Many modern gates now dispense with hinged doors entirely and use removable locking bars. The removable bars can be secured with standard padlocks or with specially keyed bolts, similar to automotive locking lugnuts. Removable bars have severa) advantages: Removable bars are easy to construct. They disguise the obvious entry point. They eliminate the use of moving parts. They reduce maintenance tasks. All padlock mechanisms must be designed to protect the lock from damage. Locks should be inspected regularly and replaced at the first sign of trouble or failure. No gate is completely vandal proof, but the idea of building a strong gate secured by a weak lock is ridiculous. lrthe cave is worth gating, make it as secure as possible. Monitoring and Maintenance So, you have finished building the gate and restored the entrance zone to a natural appearance. Job well done, right'! More like job half done. There are no guarantees that the gate will accomplish your objectives despite your most careful planning. Instead of helping maintain or restore the cave's ecosystem, a gate may cause further problems. Only long-term monitoring and assessment will tell. For bat caves this entails nightly and seasonal observations to monitor and ensure the bats' behavior is unchanged and uninterrupted. For other critters, monitoring might involve population estimates via specific sampling techniques. Monitoring requirements also point out the need to establish good baseline data before gate installation so comparisons can be made with postgating data. At the minimum, temperature and airflow should be recorded, but observations of moisture and humidity, animal distribution, and nutrient flow are also useful. If the gate is not doing its job, then it should be modified or removed. Many bat caves gated in the 1970s and early 1980s were thought to be protected and were largely ignored thereafter. Continuing bat population declines puzzled researchers, who believed the caves were protected and looked for other reasons to explain decreases. Recent advances in gating knowledge show that the gates themselves were causing negative impacts on the caves because they were poorly designed or placed, or because the entrance was modified during the gating process. In an extreme case, the temperature of the cave was raised by as much as 5¡F (2.8¡C). Temperatures were restored and the population began to increase when the original gate was replaced with a better-positioned and better-designed closure. Monitoring programs are now initiated early in gating projects to identify and correct bad situations before human modification results in tragedy. Gates must also be monitored for the inevitable breaching attempts. Certain segments of our society delight in trying to break into places where access is denied. Proper signage will go a long way toward educating most ofthc public about the reasons the cave was gated. Signs should point visitors to more information and contacts for access. Gaining the trust and cooperation of user groups and local cavers during the planning and

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Part 2-conseJation, Management, Ethics: Kennedy-Cave Gates construction processes will also alleviate potential animosity and break-in attempts. I Repairing Damage Any damage to the gate should be repaired immediately-otherwise, you will be rcpairing1more damage and dealing with illegal entries. \Vhen design flaws and weaknesses are discovered, you have the obvious opportunity to modify the gate and make it stronger. As noted gate expert Roy Powers says, "We have to keep one step ahead of the vandals." Be careful not to negatively impact the cave environment with security modifications. Recurring vandalism may require increased security measures, such as surveillance. Sometimes trustworthy local cavers can be named as volunteer cave stewards who can provide much-needed manpower for patrolling the site. A well-publicized arrest of trespassers vandalizing a posted cave gate makes a wonderful deterrent to other would-be lawbreakers. Many other clever techniques have been utilized to deter vandalism, including fake monitors and signs announcing (usually nonexistent) alarm systems. Real alarms can also be used, triggering a dispatch to the agency office or local law-enforcement authorities. Cave Gating Resources If, after reading this, you feel overwhelmed and want to stay as far away from cave gating 'issues as possible, RELAX! There are several sources of excellent assistan1ce available to help you. Modern, bat-friendly cave gates (also called zero-airflow-reduction bat gates) are the result of many years of experimentation and development, supplemented by field observation, strength testing, and wind tunnel testing. The design presented in this chapter is the standard accepted by most federal and state agencies that manage caves, and by organizations such as The Nature Conservancy and Bat Conservation International. The leading force behind bat-friendly gate development has been the American Cave Conservation Association, particularly Roy Powers. Detailed drawings may be requested from them. Across the country, there are examples of many adaptations showing varying degrees of success. Successful gate designs provide entrance security and avoid the blockage of airflow, water, nutrients, and animals. Current Books 'on Cave Gate Design Bat-friendly gate ~esigns are also widely used for closing abandoned mines. Mines and caves are similar, but not equivalent management concerns. Mines usually lack the complex ecosystems and recreational values that caves ofTer, and mines often pose bigger liability problems. Mines are extremely short-lived in comparison to caves. Stabilizing or closing mine entrances to achieve desired conditions does not have the ramifications that'such actions cause in undisturbed caves. Bat Conservation International (BCI) has produced a free booklet, Bats and Mines, that discusses in detail the suitability of mines as habitat, addresses the dangers associated with them, and includes full plans for both standard and cupola gates. The booklet also offers excellent template forms for conducting external and internal summer and winter bat site assessments. (In the additional reading list for this chapter, see Tuttle and Taylor 1998.) The authors and editors know of no modern, comprehensive, published gate plans for caves that have no bats or other vertebrates. Trap-door gates and air-lock gates' are common in several parts of the United States but are usually built by local experts. A detailed book on cave gating has been developed by the US Fish and I I 161 To get hands-on training, participate in one of the Cave Gating Seminars cosponsored by the American Cave Conservation Association, Bat Conservation International, the US Fish and Wildlife Service, and the USDA Forest Service.

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162 Modern, bat-friendly cave gates (also called zero-airtlowreduction bat gates) are the result of many years of experimentation and development, supplemented by field observation, strength testing, and wind tunnel testing. There are several sources of expertise and possible funding assistance for gating projects. Cave Conservation and Restoration Wildlife Service, the USDOI Office of Surface Mining, Bat Conservation International, the American Cave Conservation Association, the National Speleological Society, and numerous other sponsors. It includes the entire proceedings from the ground breaking conference on cave and mine protection options held in Austin, Texas, in March 2002. It is available through the National Speleological Society and covers the entire gating process in detail. (In the additional reading list for this chapter, see Vories and others 2004.) Cave Gating Seminars To get hands-on training, participate in one of the Cave Gating Seminars cosponsored by the American Cave Conservation Association, Bat Conservation International, the US Fish and Wildlife Service, and the USDA Forest Service. These workshops combine evening slide lectures and discussions with hands-on gate building experience. The small group residential setting teaches design and placement philosophy, covers design options and case studies, and offers an opportunity to interact with some of the most knowledgeable cave gaters in the country. Contact the American Cave Conservation Association or Bat Conservation International for dates and locations of upcoming workshops. Cave Gate Contractors There are also several private individuals and firms that will contract gatebuilding projects. The best of these have many years experience or are graduates of the Cave Gating Seminar. Names of those known to be knowledgeable and rcliable can also be obtained from Bat Conservation International or the American Cave Conservation Association. (Sec the contact list at the end of this chapter, page 165.) Summary Cave gating is only one form of cave protection. It should not be undertaken without sunicient study and planning. There arc many types of gates and the manager should choose the type that best protects the resources within the cave and best fits the cave configuration. Planning, construction, and follow-up activities are time and resource intensivc. Gating projects may require a lot of manpower and other resources, including volunteers as well as specialized equipment. There are several sources of expertise and possible funding assistance for gating projects. Gating experts should always be contacted before any work begins. Additional Reading Anon. 1985. Volunteers protect Tennessee bats. American Caves 1(2):8-9. Anon. 1993. James Cave receives new gates for bats. BoIs 11(3):4. Anon. 1993. BCI helps protect Pennsylvania mine for bats. BOIs II (4): 1617. Anon. 1995. New ACCA gates protect Kentucky and Tennessee caves. American Caves 8( I): I 0-11. Anon. 1997. Gates, gates, and more gates! American Caves I O( I ):6-7. Bat Conservation International (BCI). BCI home page. . Direct link to full articles from BoIs Online. . Accessed 2004 March 30. Bobo K, Greene J. The gating of Wolf River Cave. NSS News 58(10):283, 286,294. Brady JT. 1985. Cave management for the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) and gray bat (Myotis grisescens). In: Thornton H, Thornton J,

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Kennedy-Cave Gates editors. 1982 Cave Management Symposia Proceedings. Richmond (VA): Ame~ican Cave Conservation Association. p 86-95. Brown CB. 1996. Bat habitat in caves: What are the caver's responsibilities? NSS News 54(2-3):52-53. Burghardt JE. 1997. Bat-compatible closures of abandoned underground mines in National Park System units. In: Brandt JE, editor. 1997 Proceedings a/the American Society/or Surface Mining and Reclamation. Lexington (KY): American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation. p 184-195. Currie RR. 2002. Response to gates at hibernacula. In: Kurta A, Kennedy J, editors. The Indiana Bat; Biology and Management of an Endangered Species. Austin (TX): Bat Conservation International. p 86-99. Dutko R. 1994. Protected at last, the Hibernia Mine. Bats 12(3):3-5. Elliott WR. 1996. The evolution of cave gating. American Caves 9(2):9-15. Elliott WR. 2001. Project reports 2000: Missouri caves. American Caves 14(3):6-9. I Elliott WR. 2001. Cave Gating Criteria. Unpublished document for the Missouri Department of Conservation. 5 p. Fletcher MR. 1985. Endangered bat protection at Bulfalo National River, Arkansas. I~: Vandyke lE. editor. 1984 National Cave Management Symposium 'Proceedings. Missouri Speleology 25(1-4): 147-150. Forbis S, Haski~s V, Foster DG. 1996. Protecting the ancient history of Crumps Cave. In: Rea GT, editor. 1995 National Cave Management Symposium'Proceedings: Spring Mill State Park. Mitchell, Indiana, October 25!28. 1995. Indianapolis (IN): Indiana Karst Conservancy. p 88-92. I Hathorn J, Thornton J. 1987. The common sense guide to cave gates. In: ACCA Cave Management Series 1(3):23-45. Horse Cave (KY): American Cave Conservation Association, Inc. Hathorn J. Thornton J. 1993. Cave gates: Design and construction considerations. In: Foster DL, Foster DG, Snow MN, Snow RK, editors. 1991 National C~ve Management Symposium Proceedings: Bowling Green, Kentucky, October 23-26.1991. Horse Cave (KY): American Cave Conservation Association, Inc. p 359-363. Hopper HL. 1999. Cave gating: Three success stories. American Caves 12(3):6-9. I Hunt G, Stitt RR. 1975. Cave Gating. Huntsville (AL): National Speleological Society. 60 p. [Cave Gating (2nd edition). 1981. Huntsville (AL): National Speleological Society. Editors' note: Use both editions for historical reference only-these gate designs are outdated.] Ludlow ME, Gore JA. 2000. Effects of a cave gate on emergence patterns of colonial bats. Wildlife Society Bulletin 28(1): 191-196. MacGregor J. I ~93. Responses of winter populations of the federal endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) to cave gating in Kentucky. In: Foster DL, Foster DG, Snow MN, Snow RK, editors. 1991 Nalional Cave Management Symposium Proceedings: Bowling Green, Kentucky. October 23-26.1991. Horse Cave (KY): American Cave Conservation Association. p 364-370. Martin K W, Puckette WL, Hensley SL, Leslie DM Jr. 2000. Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science 80: 133-137. Murphy M. 1993. Restoring Coach Cave. Bats 11(3):3-5. Nieland J. 1996.,Washington's Christmas Tree Cave gated-Bats protected. American Caves 9(2): 16-17. Olson R. 1996. This old cave-The ecological restoration of the Historic Entrance ecotone of Mammoth Cave, and mitigation of visitor impact. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Mammoth Cave Science Conference. Mammoth Cave (KY): National Park Service and Cave Research Foundation. 'p 87-95. 163

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164 Cave Conservation and Restoration Powers RD. 1985. General cave gate considerations. In: Thornton H, Thornton J, editors. 1982 National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings. Richmond (VA): American Cave Conservation Association. p 77-79. Powers RD. 1993. Design improvements for gating bat caves. In: Foster DL, Foster DO, Snow MN, Snow RK, editors. 1991 National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings: Bowling Green, Kentucky, October 23-26,1991. Horse Cave (KY): American Cave Conservation Association. p 356-358. Powers RD. 1996. A study of acoustical confusion. In: Rea GT, editor. 1995 National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings: Spring Mill State Park. Mitchell. Indiana. October 25-28, 1995. Indianapolis (IN): Indiana Karst Conservancy. p 274-276. Quinn M, Petterson J. 1997. A grand effort in the Grand Canyon. Bats 15(3):4-7. Raesly RL, Gates JE. 1986. Winter habitat selection by north temperate cave bats. American Midland Naturalist 118(1):15-31. Richter AR, Humphrey SR, Cope JB, Brack V Jr. 1993. Modified cave entrances: Thermal effect on body mass and resulting decline of endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis). Conservation Biology 7(2):407-415. Roebuck BE, Vakili A, Roebuck L. 2001. Cave gate airflow disturbance: a qualitative study. In: Rea GT, editor. Proceedings of the 14th National Cave and Karst Management Symposium: Challanooga, Tennessee, October 19-22, 1999. Chattanooga (TN): Southeastern Cave Conser. vancy. p 169-175. Roebuck L. 2000. Gating in Tennessee: A plethora of summer bat protection projects. American Caves 14(1 ):6-8. Stihler CWo 2000. Gates constructed to protect bats in West Virginia caves. American Caves 13(2): 15-16. Toomey, RS 1II, Coburn ML, Olson RA. 2002. Paleontological evaluation of past use of caves by the Indiana bat: A significant tool for restora-. tion ofhibernacula. In: KurtaA, Kennedy J, editors. The Indiana Bat: Biology and Management of an Endangered Species. Austin (TX): Bat Conservation International. p 79-85. Tuttle MD. 1977. Gating as a means of protecting cave-dwelling bats. In: Aley T, Rhodes D, editors. National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings: Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 6-10. 1975. Albuquerque (NM): Speleobooks. p 77-82 Tuttle MD, Stevenson DE. 1978. Variation in the cave environment and its biological implications. In: Zuber R, Chester J, Gilbert S, Rhodes D, editors. /997 National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings: Big Sky, Montana, October 3-7. 1977. Albuquerque (NM): Adobe Press. p 108-121. Tuttle MD. 1985. Joint effort saves vital bat cave. Bois 2(4):3-4. Tuttle MD. 1997. A Mammoth discovery. Bats 15(4):3-5. Tuttle MD, Taylor DAR. 1998. Bats and Mines. Resource Publication (Bat Conservation International) No 3. Revised edition. Austin (TX): Bat Conservation International. Tuttle MD. 2000. Where the bats are, Part Ill: Caves, cliffs, and rock crevices. Bats 18( I ):6-11. Tuttle MD, Kennedy J. 2002. Thermal requirements during hibernation. In: Kurta A, Kennedy J, editors. The indiana Bal: Biology and Management of an Endangered Species. Austin (TX): Bat Conservation International. p 68-78. Twente JW Jr. 1955. Some aspects of habitat selection and other behavior of cavern-dwelling bats. Ecology 36(4):706-732. Vories KC, Throgmorton D, Harrington A, editors. 2004. Proceedings of

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Part 2-Conseryation, Management, Ethics: Kennedy-Cave Gates I Bat Gate Design: A Technica/lnteractive Forum held in Austin, Texas, March 4-6. 1 2002. Carbondale (lL): USDOI Office of Surface Mining. Alton. Illinois and the Coal Research Center, Southem Illinois University at Carb'ondale. 434 p. Proceedings available on the internet . Accessed 2004 March 30. Werker Jc. 2005. Materials considerations for cave installations. In: HildrethWerker V, Werker JC, editors. Cave Conservation and Restoration. Huntsville (AL): National Speleological Society. p 171-178. White DH, Seginak IT. 1987. Cave gate designs for use in protecting endangered bats. Wildlife Society Bulletin 15:445-449. I Contacts for Additional Information American Cave Conservation Association (Roy Powers or Dave Foster) PO Box 409 Horse Cave K Y 42749-0409 502-786-1466 E-mail: Web: 1 ACCA Northwest Chapter (Jim Nieland) 12178 Lewis River Rd Ariel WA 98603.9745 360-247-39,46 360-247-3901 fax E-mail: Bat conselation International (Jim Kennedy) PO Box 162603 Austin TX 178716-2603 512-327-9721, extension 17 512-327-9724 fax E-mail: Web: I US Fish and Wildlife Service (Bob Currie) 160 Zillicoa Street Asheville NC 28801-1038 828-258-3939, extension 224 828-258-5330 fax E-mail: 165

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166 Cave Conservation and Restoration



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Part 2-Conser~ation, Management, Ethics: Werker-Materials Section B-D'eveloping Cave Management Programs Materials Considerations for Cave Installations, Jim C. Werker I What materials te safe and cost effective for long-term use in the harsh environments of caves? Characteristics of common construction materials are described in 'this chapter. Emphasis is placed on materials that are considered corrosion resistant, tough, and readily available. Other exotic materials, though their characteristics may be beneficial to the protection of underground ha~itats, tend to be expensive, less available, and sometimes require special fabrication procedures. Before planning and designing cave construction projects, evaluate the material options'and fabrication requirements. Several reference manuals are especially useful when considering options. I MachinelY"s Handbook (Industrial Press) Manual a/Steel Construction (American Institute of Steel Construction. Inc.) I Electrode Pocket Guide (Airco) Ryerson Steels Stock List and Data Book and Ryerson Special Metals Data Book (Joseph T. Ryerson and Son, Inc.) Most materials rlference books are updated regularly and contain useful infonnation for any construction project. For example, Machinery 5' Handbook contains sections on types and properties of materials, welding specifications, and finishes. The strength of materials section in Machinery 50 Ha;'dbook provides simplified mathematical fonnulas to use in calculating material strengths. Stainless Steels Chromium-nickel austenitic steels are commonly known as stainless steels, Both names refer to the same family of steel materials. The corrosion resistance and totighness of stainless steels make them highly suitable for cave installations. The longevity of stainless is ten-fold that of mild steels. Even though stainless is more costly than other materials, it is increasingly used to replace wood and steel structures in caves, Stainless steel life expectancy and corrosion resistance far exceed the characteristics of most other materials. Any of the chromium-nickel austenitic steels otfer good characteristics for cave installations, however there are important fabrication requirements for these stainless steel materials. There are a number of weldable chromium-nickel austenitic steels on the market. If the project is fabricated in a controlled, clean welding shop, any of the weldable austenitic stainless steels will work wcll. Find complete listings of the characteristics of austenitic steels in Machinery:\' Handbook. For austenitic stainless steels, welding requirements call for shielded gas metal arc welding processes to minimize the potential for carbide precipita167 What materials are safe and cost effective for long-term use in the harsh environments of caves? Characteristics of common construction materials are described in this chapter. The corrosion resistance and toughness of stainless steels make them highly suitable for cave installations.

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168 Characteristics of Manganal" include high-strength, ductility, toughness, and substantial longevity. Cave Conservation and Restoration tion; for example, tungsten inert gas (TIG), or metal inert gas (MIG) processes are often recommended. Generally, stainless cannot be properly fabricated in the field unless special welding equipment is used to purge the welds with argon to minimize corrosion-inducing carbide precipitation. If welding must be done at the cave site, chromium-nickel austenitic steel types 304L, 316L, or 321 are recommended. These steels are less vulnerable to the harmful carbide precipitation that enhances weld corrosion (rust) tendencies. For field applications, optional construction methods may apply. For example, predrill and countersink holes in a fabrication shop, transport the pieces to the site, then use bolts to assemble the pieces. Holes for the rivetlike bolting can be drilled in the shop. If bolts are used for stainless gate designs, after installing stainless bolts with countersunk heads, tlatten the heads with a hammer, then grind the nuts to a cylindrical shape so they will not accept a vandal's wrench. Manganal@ A high-manganese. austenitic, work-hardening steel that is currently used in some cave gates is available under the trade name Manganal. Typically, the chemical composition is manganese (12.00-14.00%) and carbon (1.00J .25%). Manganal bars, plates, and castings are used for high-impact industrial applications. Cost of these high-manganese materials tends to run two to three times that of mild steel (Stulz-Sickles Steel 2002). Manganal is used in extreme wear conditions and is hardened by impact, hammering, and abrasion. This surface characteristic is known as work hardening. As this alloy work hardens, strength and resistance increase (Amodt and Mesch 2004). In other steels (for example, carburized or casehardened), the depth of hardness is fixed. When Manganal is subjected to wear, the surface toughens and the material remains ductile underneath. Characteristics include high strength, ductility, toughness, and substantial longevity. Corrosion resistance (resistance to rust and attack by acids) is about the same as ordinary steels. Manganal is extremely tough when work hardened and may tolerate harsh environments. Functional mine rails made from this material are over 100 years old (Louis Arnodt, personal communication). Cave gates constructed of Manganal can deter vandals using hacksaws. However, power tools or cutting torches can breach the closures. Manganal is used for wear resistance in jail bars, bulldozers, scrapers, stone chutes, and military equipment. Continuous high temperature can embrittle the high-manganese, austenitic steels. In electric arc welding processes, no local area should remain at visible red heat for more than two or three minutes. If there is build up with multiple layers from weld passes, the welder should either skip weld, or weld intermittently to reduce localized heat. Manganal is a good choice for field fabrication if the high cost is justified. Preferred applications tend to be in remote sites where minimal acidic conditions exist and where vandals cannot easily use power tools. Manganal is durable and has excellent longevity characteristics. Structural Steels Because mild steels (structural cold-rolled steels) corrode quickly, these materials should be carefully evaluated before installing within cave environments. However, structural steels often provide cost-effective solutions for cave gates. When constructing cave gates, stainless steel life expectancy and corrosion resistance far exceed the characteristics of other steel materials. However, since repetitious vandalism is a key issue at some

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Werker-Materials I cave sites, and ~ince replacing stainless is expensive, cost may dictate the use of structural steel for gate construction. I f the environment is too harsh for mild steels to survive, the site conditions may dictate that stainless be selected for its increased life expectancy. The most common grade of structural steel (sometimes called mild steel) is ASTM A-36. :The high-strength structural steels ASTM A-529 and A-440 have high carb6n content for strength but they are no more durable than mild steels. Co~osion-resistant, high-strength steels have one advantage over the mild varieties in that they are more difficult to vandalize. Mild steels are easy to fabricate, readily available, and cost less than most other options. Mild steel is available in a variety of structural shapes that are easily welded and fabricated in the field. For gate construction at cave entrances, the life expectancy is 50 to 100 years. However, within caves, the life e~pectancy of structural steels may be tremendously reduced by the environmental conditions, and habitat may be compromised by rapid degradation of the material. Aluminum Aluminum can deteriorate rapidly and the degradation may introduce toxins into cave habitats. For example, an aluminum ladder left in a cave located in the arid southwestern U.S. literally deteriorated to a pile of scrap in less than 20 years (Werker 2003). Aluminum carabiners left in caves for varying time int1ervals rapidly show signs of pitting and corrosive deterioration (Storage 1994). Aluminum will probably work for gates placed in dry, nonalkaline environments. However, aluminum is easy to vandalize because, generally, it is not as strong as steel. When aluminum structures are exposed to the atmosphere, a thin, invisible oxide skin forms immediately and protects the surface from additional oxid~tion. This self-protecting characteristic gives aluminum its high resistance to corrosion unless it is exposed to some substance or condition that destroys the oxide coating. Alkalies are among the few substances that will attack the oxide skin-thus, the alkaline conditions of most limestone ~aves will cause aluminum to corrode. When aluminum is placed in direct contact with other metals, the presence of an electrolyte (moist conditions or high humidity) will cause galvanic corrosion of the aluminum at the contact points. Dissimilar metals in direct contact with each other within a moist environment will definitely induce corrosion. Ifdissimilar metals are already in place, nylon or neoprene washers can be used to separate or isolate the materials from each other and delay the corrosion. (A moisture film may eventually form across barriers and corrosion will continue.) Depending on the site conditions, protective coatings may increase the life expectancy of aluminum. Chromate coating can be brushed on in the field, but anodizing must be done at a coating lab. However, once any kind of coating is br~ached by a scratch or nick, the integrity of the surface is compromised and the electrochemical process begins to produce pitting and deterioration as'the metal corrodes (Spate and others 1998). Because aluminum is especially susceptible to both vandalism and corrosion, it is usually a less desirable material for cave applications. I Concrete I Concrete works well in most environments. It is resistant to chemical and corrosive attack ~md has extremely good longevity characteristics. Stmctures I I 169 Since repetitious vandalism is a key issue at some cave sites, and since replacing stainless is expensive, cost may dictate the use of structural steel for gate construction. Aluminum can deteriorate rapidly and the degradation may introduce toxins into cave habitats. For example, an aluminum ladder left in a cave located in the arid southwestern U.S. literally deteriorated to a pile of scrap in less than 20 years.

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170 Figure I. These aluminum carabiners were left on a traverse in Virgin Cave, New Mexico. After only six months in the cave, pitting and corrosion was abundant. Material strength was greatly reduced, and some of the biller gates no longer closed. Stainless steel carabiners are recommended for long-term use in cave environments. (See page 6 of color section.) Concrete works well in most environments. It is resistant to chemical and corrosive altack and has extremely good longevity characteristics. Cave Conservation and Restoration built with 3,000 psi (20,680 kilopascal) concrete reinforced with rebar will deter vandals and will hold up for many decades in most circumstances. The chemical composition of concrete resembles the natural composition of some cave passages and it introduces few toxins to cave systems. Cement, which is basically burned limestone, is also known as Portland cement. Sand, gravel, and water are added to cement products to make concrete. An Australian paper by Spate and others (1998) recommends applying a protective membrane between natural floors, rock, or flows tone before pouring concrete. Also, fine sand is recommended for covering microgours and sharp surfaces and can be vacuumed away if the concrete is removed in the future. If concrete is chosen for cave projects, use high tensile strength cement with low-content calcium hydroxide, which will last longer in most cave environments. The calcium hydroxide in cement products is very soluble and it will quickly dissolve and redeposit to form new "soda straws" or "flowstone" below concrete structures (Horrocks and Roth 2006, page 369 in this volume). (For additional information on cement choices, sec the speleothem repair section (page 476). Culvert and Pipe Culverts and pipes installed as cave access structures can be made from a variety of materials. Several material types are addressed below. Be aware that culverts or pipes may not be the best option for protecting bat colonies and habitats for other animals. Small diameter flyways and absence of natural barriers can set the stage for easy predation. Culverts and pipes can change the natural airflow of a cave, alter air temperatures and relative humidity, and impede or increase the presence of biota. However, where cave entrances have been enlarged for human access, a culvert may provide the best protection. Galvanized Steel For decades, galvanized steel culvert has been used in roadway construction where it seems to function well. However, in caves, galvanized culvert may deteriorate rapidly. For example, a galvanized culvert installed in Lechuguilla Cave in 1986 showed visible signs of degradation by 1994, and had severely deteriorated by the time it was replaced in 2000 (Werker

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Part 2-Conserv~tion, Management, Ethics: Werker-Materials ~ ~ I ~ 2004). I As the zinc coating of galvanized steel degrades, it maylgenerate toxins that are harmful to flora, fauna, and perhaps to speleothems (Jameson and Alexander 1996; Spate and others 1998). Welding galvanized material results in noxious fumes that can be hazardous to human health and cave-dwelling a~imals. The breakdown, outgassing, and deterioration of galvanized steel culvert result in byproducts that may be especially toxic to bats and other cavedwelling biota. I Plastics I Little is known about the degradation processes of plastics that are used in cave environments. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) used in water lines and air conduits tends to become brittle over time. PVC also outgasses potentially harmful substances. Until studies further define the longevity and degradation characteristics of PVC and various plastics placed in subterranean environments, other construction materials are preferred for (ve use. Recycled Materials Developed for Environmental Use I Advances in fabrication technologies have provided recycled construction products that are'intended to be environmentally friendly. These materials are generally des'igned for aboveground applications. Time will tell how well these products endure subterranean environments. Timpanogos Caves National Monument, Oregon Caves National Monument, and various other sites are using products made from recycled materials for in-cave installa171 Figure 2. In 1986, aller digging open the entrance, a galvanized culvert with a solid steel gate was installed in Lechuguilla Cave. Aller only a few years, it was visibly rusting and deteriorating. (Sec page 6 of color section.) Figure 3. In 2002, the rusted culvert was replaced. A stainless steel culvert with an air lock entry was installed in Lechuguilla Cave. (See page 6 of color section.)

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172 All products will break down over time, but archival products are formulated to do less harm than those on the general market. Cave Conservation and Restoration tions. The durability, degradation, and outgassing characteristics of these innovative materials may prove to be appropriate for underground applications in cave environments .. (See anthropogenic chemicals, page 57.) Archival Epoxies and Adhesives All glues break down over time. Many epoxies and adhesives are known to be composed of detrimental materials and display degradation characteristics that will destroy or harm biota. Any new product should be checked by research chemists and biologists who understand the cave environments where use is proposed. What are the components of the agent and how will the degradation and outgassing characteristics ofthase compounds afTect cave-dwelling biota, ecosystems, chemistry, water quality, or the minerals of a cave system? Arrange for a chemist or a materials engineer to evaluate long-term degradation and potential chemical interactions. Get the federally regulated Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) and understand recommended safety precautions. Wise product choices for cave environments are based on thorough research. Updated information is often available on the Web. (See MSDS, page 70.) Epoxies, bonding agents, and quick glues found in neighborhood hardware and variety stores are certainly easier to obtain than the archival-quality adhesives, but the mass market products can introduce toxins and nasty agents into caves. All products will break down over time, but archival products are formulated to do less haml than those on the general market. To augment safe travel in caves, stainless steel bolts are sometimes installed. For outdoor applications, adhesives have been used in the installation of climbing bolts. However, an archival-grade epoxy may be the best choice for installing bolts in cave systems because most consumer epoxies have not been studied in underground environments. When adhesives are necessary. use archival products, museum-grade epoxies, or pure forms of cyanoacrylate adhesives. All products will degrade over time, but some compounds are formulated to be more archival than others. The following recommended adhesives, used in subterranean applications over the past several decades, appear to be relatively safe for long-term use in cave environments. Epon 828@ With Versamid@ or Epi-cure@ 3234 (TETA) Epon 828 epoxy has been successful in underground environments for decades. Epon 828 epoxy resin combined with Versamid 40 curing agent works for dry surfaces, even in humid cave environments. For wet applications, Versamid 28 hardener cures more efliciently. Epon 828 with Versamid 25 curing agent will bond underwater. The Epon family of archival adhesives will develop strong bonds with shear strengths up to 6,000 pounds per square inch-6,000 psi (41,370 kilopascal). Curing time can take 24--72 hours and sometimes longer. Shrinkage is minimal. The bond is resistant to a broad range of chemicals. Mixing ratio is typically I: l--one part Epon to one part Versamid (50:50 mix). However, for a more rapid drying time, use just a little more hardener for a 40:60 mix. Epon 828 and the Versamid hardeners were lab tested for long-term underground use at the US Department of Energy Nevada Test Site and have proved successful in cave applications for several decades. These products are available from the Shell' Chemical Company and through local chemical or plastic product suppliers. However, the Versamid curing agents are increasingly difficult to locate and fabrica

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Part 2-Conserva;tion, Management, Ethics: Werker-Materials tors in the plJstics industry are recommending a replacement Shell product, Epi-'cure 3234, which is a highly concentrated curing agent with bonding properties and archival characteristics similar to Versamid. Epi-cure 3234 (TETA) is now the recommended curing agent for Epon 828 and is typically mixed in a 12: I ratio, twelve parts Epon to one part TETA. I HoI Sluff" Super T and Special T Fast-drying cyanoacrylate adhesives are useful for repairing soda straws, helictites, thin dnlperies, and other delicate speleothems or small applications in caves. Hot Stuff adhesives are industrial-strength products containing a very pure form of cyanoacrylate that remains clear when it cures. Oil is not added to lengthen shelflife (as it is in many other instant glues). Hot StuffsuJerT is often used in paleontological applications and model-building and works well for small repairs in caves. Hot Stuff Special T is a more viscous product, formulated to fill in gaps and is extremely useful for cave applications. In most caves, Hot Stuff cures in 30-90 seconds, but bonding can be accelerated with NCF-Mild Accelerator. Shear strength is weakened by accelerated curing times, but cyanoacrylate does not bond quickly in large quantities. One spritz from a spray pump bottle of Hot Stuff NCF-Mild will cause chain reaction bonding. Hot Stuff Super T, Special T, and NCF-Mild Accelerator can be purchased in model-building stores, quality woodworking shops, museum supply catalogs, and through a few sources on the Web. Finishes and Paints I Finishes applied to the surfaces of materials are intended to enhance longevity but may introduce contaminants to cave environments. All paints and finishes deteriorate over time. Flaking onto the habitat floor is obviously detrimental~ but there are more subtle degradation characteristics. Outgassing and:chemical deterioration of finishing products may introduce potentially toxic materials to cave systems. Increased corrosion may be generated:ifa paint layer is compromised-severe corrosion may result when an ele1ctrolyte, perhaps a simple film of moisture on a scratched finish, reacts with the large metal anode area under the paint (Spate and others 1998). Resbarch is needed to investigate the potential benefits and harms of various finishes applied to installations within caves and near cave entrances. Common Sense Function and cost are important components of materials selection for cave environments. Characteristics of materials and finishes are vital factors in any design and phlnning process. Assessment of site environmental conditions and evaluation oflongevity criteria are essential to project planning. For each material historically used in caves-stainless steels. Manganal, mild structurql steels, concrete, aluminum, galvanized steel, plastic products. epoxies, adhesives. paints. and other finishes-there are beneficial as well as disadvantageous characteristics. Specific knowledge about species that use the cave. habitat requirements. chemical compositions within the cave, and general common sense must dictate design and material selection.! I 173 Finishes applied to the surfaces of materials are intended to enhance longevity but may introduce contaminants to cave environments.

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174 Cave Conservation and Restoration The arduous tasks of investigating the multitude of material choices, evaluating their varying characteristics, analyzing the costs, considering the potential for vandalism, and understanding the inherent longevity of the materials may appear overwhelming. First, evaluate the site, the habitat, and the purposes for any structure or installation. Simplify the goals, state the site objectives. and then allow common sense to dictate material choices and construction techniques. When planning projects to protect caves, the priority is to be realistic about the habitat, the site requirements, and the budget. Keep it simple and remember that opting for no construction is sometimes the best decision. Cited References Aireo. No date. Electrode Pocket Guide. Airco Welding Products. Union (NJ). 161 p. Amodt LA, Mesch MR. 2004. Round har Manganal@steel "jail bar" bat gate. In: Vories KC, Throgmorton D, Harrington A, editors. Proceedings of Bat Gate Design: A Technical Interactive Forum held in Austin, Texas, March 4-6,2002. Carbondale (IL): USDOI Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois and the Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. 434 p. Proceedings available on the internet . Accessed 2004 March 30. American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. 1973. Manual o/Steel Cons/ruction. 7th Edition. New York. 999 p. Horrocks RD, Roth JE. 2006. Rcmoving artificial fill from developed caves. In: HildrethWerker V, Werker JC, editors. Cave Conservation and Restoration. Huntsville (AL): National Speleological Society. p 367-380. [This volume.] Jameson RA, Alexander EC Jr. 1996. Zinc leaching from galvanized steel in Mystery Cave, Minnesota. In: Rea GT, editor. Proceedings of the 1995 National Cave Management Symposium: Spring Mill State Park, Mitchell, Indiana, Octoher 25-28. 1995. Indianapolis (IN): Indiana Karst Conservancy. p 178-186. Joseph T. Ryerson and Son, Inc. 1967. Ryerson Special Metals Data Book. Denver (CO). 288 p. Joseph T. Ryerson and Son, Inc. 1987. Ryerson Steels Stock List and Data Book. Denver (CO). 432 p. Oberg E, Jones FD, Horton HL. 1985. MochinelY's Handbook. 22nd Revised Edition. RyfTei HH, Geronimo JH, editors. New York: Industrial Press, Inc. 2512 p. [Editors' note: Machinery's' Handbook has been updated continuously since 1914. See Oberg, Jones, Horton, RyfTel, McCauley, Heald, Hussain. 2000. MachineIY:' Handbook, 26th Revised Edition. New York: Industrial Press, Inc. 2640 p.] Spate A, Hamilton-Smith E, Little L, Holland E. 1998. Best practice and tourist cave engineering. In: Smith DW, editor. Cave and Karst Manugement in Australasia XII. Carlton South, Victoria (AU): Australasian Cave and Karst Management Association. p 97-109. Storage B. 1994. Techniques and safety: Aging carabiners. NSS News, 52(9):277-279. Stulz-Sickles Steel Company. 2002. FAQ About Munganol. . Accessed 2004 March 30. Werker, JC. 2004. Characteristics of materials used in cave and mine gates. In: Vories KC, Throgmorton D, Harrington A, editors. 2004. Proceedings of Bat Gate Design: A Technical Interactive Forum held in Austin, Texas, March 4-6. 2002. Carbondale (lL): USDOI Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois and the Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. 434 p. Proceedings available on the internet . Accessed 2004 March 30.



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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Hildreth-Werker-Current Best Practices Section A-Identifying and Protecting Cave Resources Current Best Practices Val Hildreth-Werker 17 This book presents cave conservation methods and philosophy from an assortment of speleologists and cave managers. In composing this work, the authors, reviewers, and editors have collaborated in refining the methods that are presented as current best conservation practices. The editors have sorted through techniques, evaluated concepts, and coordinated statements to present consensus and describe the current best practices in cave management, cave conservation, and cave restoration. The first objective in cave conservation is to avoid creating new problems. First, do no harm-primum non nocere. Evaluate the situation from all angles and consult with trained speleologists before launching into any cave conservation etfort. Before deciding how to change it, fix it, clean it, or remediate the conservation problem, be sure to explore approaches, research current management practices, and gather information about materials that are reasonably safe for long-ternl use in caves. No two cave systems are alike and the demands for protection vary tremendously. Evaluate each cave individually and avoid becoming stymied in a cycle of standards. For any action in a cave, do no harm-and if that sometimes means doing nothing, or sometimes means returning to an old standard because the current best practice doesn't fit a situation, go with the common sense solution that best protects the cave. For cave dilemmas, the demand for immediate protection of resources is often vitally important to long-term conservation. Many cave systems are extremely sensitive to human impacts. As scientists and cavers learn more about underground environments, it is immensely clear how little is known. The body of knowledge in spe1eology is rapidly expanding with new information gleaned through advanced technologies. Scientific disciplines are replete with topics for new spelean studies. As new scientific facts are integrated with cave management, improved best practices continually evolve. There is one constant factor in cave conservation-mistakes lead to new methods. Many practices of the past are now rejected because of detrimental efTects (Hamilton-Smith and others 1998). There is much to learn about the scientific mysteries of Earth 's subterranean systems-conservation practices are refined as new answers emerge. The term best practice (or world's best practice) is a standard buzzword for management. (See best management practices, page 34.) People are sometimes suspicious or contemptuous of the term (Spate and others 1998). However, tor cave conservation, discussing standards based on the current best information is valid for two reasons. First, adding the word current in front of best practice reminds us that improved methods are always on the horizon. Second, the tenn inherently spawns the all-important process of questioning, "What are the current best conservation practices'!" Thus, the phrase encourages research, evolution of ideas, and advances in methodology. There is one constant factar in cave conservationmistakes lead ta new methads. Many practices af the past arc naw rejected because af detrimental effects.

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18 Current best practice in cave conservation and management is not an end product, but rather a conscious process of defining and enhancing standards. Cave Conservation and Restoration Current best practice in cave conservation and management is not an end product, but rather a conscious process of defining and enhancing standards. The current best practices presented in this volume are principles intended as springboards for discussion. Best practices for protecting cave and karst resources are not prescriptions for all situations. Cited References Hamilton-Smith E, McBeath R, Vavryn D. 1998. Best practice in visitor management. In: Smith DW, editor. Cave and Karst Management in Australasia XI!. Carlton South, Victoria, Australia: Australasian Cave and Karst Management Association. p 85-96. [Also in: Australasian Cave and Karst ManagemenlAssociation Journal. 1997.27:33-43.] Spate A, Hamilton-Smith E, Little L, Holland E. 1998. Best practice and tourist cave engineering. In: Smith OW, editor. Cave and Karst Management in Australasia XII. Carlton South, Victoria, Australia: Australasian Cave and Karst Management Association. p 97-109. Additional Reading on Cave and Karst Management A comprehensive list of references concerning the development of cave and karst management is included in this volume. (See Appendix 3, Cave and Karst Management References. page 531.)



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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Hildreth-Werker, Goodbar, WerkerTrails and Signs 175 Section B-Developing Cave Management Programs Trail oJlineation and Signage in Caves: Reduce Visitor Impact Val Hildreth-Werker, James R. Goodbar, and Jim C. Werker This chapter focuses on establishing and maintaining trails and signs in undeveloped cave passages. Direct travel to durable surfaces. Mark safe routes through caves. Reduce expa'nsion by marking both sides of trails. Prevent new} inappropriate routes. Minimize compaction of soils that provide habitat for cave life. Preserve cave values by routing visitors a safe distance from sensitive or fragile resources, cultural materials, speleothems, wildlife, and habitat. I Management objectives frequently focus on preventing harm to cave values. Clearly m'arked trails through cave passages help confine human impacts to areas that arc already impacted. Strategically placed signs convey conservation information and encourage low-impact protocol. This chapter focuses on trails and signs in undeveloped caves. I ITraiis in Undeveloped Caves Do wild or undevbloped caves really need m'arked trails? Cavers are defining routes through many wild caves because allowing people to wander leads to damage and eventual destruction. Like walking on sidewalks, or following paths in the wilderness, cave trails can make travel more efficient and help protect resources. Population increases in urban areas result in more people looking for adventure outside of cities-thus, more untutored people are entering caves. Increased ~isitation typically leads to increased resource damage. Grottos and caver:cducators simply cannot stay ahead of the growing recreation demands. To help inform cave visitors and encourage good caving ethics, it is l time to implement more on-site training tools like trails and educational signage. It seems surprising, but in many undeveloped caves most people will comply and remain on the trails. When cave visitors understand the importance of staying on already compacted routes, they tend to act with respectful stewardship and remain within the trails. First, explore whether the path through a cave needs to be marked. Trail, designation is not lappropriate for all caves. I I Why do we need trails in caves? Trails help reduce cumulative impacts in show caves and in undeveloped caves. When visitors are confined to defined pathways, features outside the trails arc better preserved. Trail designation is an excellent tool for managing sensitive cave resources. Show cave routes should provide durable, safe walking surfaces and definite boundaries for visitors. Trails in wild caves should confine travel impact and help protect cave values. Designated routes and delineated trails can improve cave protection and enhance resource management in several important ways. I

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176 In the past, reflective paints, tapes, and adhesive stickers were applied to plastic spoons, popsicle sticks, rocks, aluminum strips, plastic stakes, PVC tubes, and other support devices. Figures 1 a (left) and 1 b (closeup, right). Reflectors mounted on PVC rings appear to be durable in an Idaho lava tube cave environment. But in some cave systems, these materials will rapidly degrade and the byproducts may cause harm to cave-dwelling life. Unfortunately, intermittent marking systems also tend to encourage visitors to wander ofT-trail between the markers. Cave Conservation and Restoration Is there an obvious route that most people will follow? Is the pathway visible to untrained visitors moving through darkness with only a flashlight or a helmet light? What is the appropriate material for marking trails? Surveyors flagging tape works very well in some environments, but it is not the right choice for all caves. In caves that are prone to flooding, flagging tape may be useless, while rocks may work great along trail edges. Stream passage caves with few formations and delicate areas may not need marked trails. However, if there is some compelling reason for taped trails in a stream passage, one option might be to remove the flagging during flood seasons. Caves with large chambers have different trail needs than those with long, tight crawls. Heavily decorated caves may need trails that help minimize impacts by limiting traffic to a narrow path. Protecting cave passages that contain cultural or historical materials may make defined pathways necessary. Some cave passages need the extra protection afforded by marked trails, and some don't. Ask this question-will marked trails help reduce cumulative visitor impacts? Materials for Marking Trails in Undeveloped Caves What materials work best for marking trails? New answers for trail delineation materials will emerge as better materials become available. Only a few trail-marking materials tit the standards of current best practice. Cave rocks Surveyors nonbiodegradable flagging tape High visibility nylon or polypropylene cord In the past, reflective paints, tapes, and adhesive stickers were applied to plastic spoons, popsicle sticks, aluminum strips, plastic stakes, PVC tubes, rocks, and other support devices. Though these markers were innovative for their time, some have caused impacts that we can avoid in the future. For example, globs of clay holding markers in place have streaked and discolored flowstone surfaces. Over time, paint may turn into a pile of

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177 Figu rc 2. Aluminum strip and red adhesive marker. Though an innovative and simple trail marking device, this marker will deteriorate rapidly in many cave enVlTonments, leaving aluminum oxide and other contaminants in the cave system. Trail flagging takes a bit of skill. There tends to be more to the process than might be expected. I Techniques for Marking Trails in Undeveloped Caves Part 2-eonseJation, Management, Ethics: Hildreth-Werker, Goodbar, WerkerTrails and Signs I Oakes. Supports made of wood may mold and rot. In many cave environments, aluminum will degrade, leaving aluminum oxide and other contaminants. Most paints, adhesives, and many plastic products 'deteriorate quickly in cave environments, and the byproducts are likely to be detrimental to native biota in cave systems. (See cbapters on biology, page 33; microbiology, page 61; and materials, page 167.) ;; ~ l' ~ When trails are hot marked through caves, responsible cavers :r: ~ choose previously impacted, durable surfaces for travel and @ avoid leaving n~w footprints. Traveling on previously compacted routes helps preserve cave sediments, small Ooor speleothems, spelean habitat, and invertebrate populations beyond the pathway. Trail routing and delineation also helps protect overhead speleothems and wall decorations, cultural and paleontological resources, and other cave values. Carefully pla~ routes for travel on durable surfaces. Protect sensitive resources. Facilitate visitor safety and rest. Allow cavcrs to enjoy, study, and photograph the magnificent features found in caves. With intermitient trail marking techniques such as reflectors, rock cairns, or short strips of flagging, visitors tend to wander off-trail between the markers and cause broader impacts. If footprints are visible beyond the designated paths, others will follow and trails will expand. One of the most significant aspects of evolving cave etiquette is the request that cavers stay on designated trails. In the past, when we found a footstep going into pristine territory, it was okay to place a foot precisely inside each original imprint, and follow the footprints to retracc the path. But, as marc people followed, too many fcet made new, ever~lwidening trails. Today, rather than retrace a step, \ve erase it and redirect traffic to designated routes. Leaving footprints behind will only invite others to follow. (See footstep ethic, page 409.) By removing visible traces of human travel outside of trails, the invitation to follow is1removed, and future damage is mitigated. Observe caver patterns and mark user-friendly pathways that make it safe and logical for cave visitors to stay within the trails. Once established, trail systems must be managed-rock borders and taped boundaries require maintenance. Rocks for Mating Cave Trails Although rock-lined trails may be aesthetically more appealing than trails marked with surveyors flagging tape, rocks are not always available. In most cases, rod~s should not be imported from outside a cavc. I Border both sides of the trail to best protect cave values. Rocks marking trails should be as continuous as the supply of rocks in a given cav~ will allow. Rocks may also be used to define and protect special floor features. Rock cairns may be appropriate for marking travel routes in some caves. Ho~ever, cairns provide little benefit for protecting a cave from I. unnecessary Impact, Avoid setting rocks along an edge where they may dislodge and fall on speleothems or cavers below. Avoid using broken speleothems to line cave trails. Broken speleothems should be gathered and stored in a relatively safe location I

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178 Figure 5. Flagging tape is laced between traildefining rocks to aid visibility and increase visitor compliance. (Sec page H of color section.) Photos@VaIHildrelh-Werker Cave Conservation and Restoration in the cave, away from traffic, and near the area where they were originally located. Tucking the pieces away in an otT-trail location may help preserve them for potential repair and may remove the temptation for visitors to haul them out of the cavc. Rocks sometimes don't command the attention of visitors. In heavily traveled caves, Joe Spelunker does not always notice the rocks edging trails-it seems that people have to be trained to see the rocks. The simple technique of weaving a continuous length of surveyors tape into a rock border accomplishes two things. First, the flagging demands attention and defines the rocks as trail delineation. Second, the practice potentially teaches visitors to begin noticing other trail borders lined only with rocks. Flagging Tape to Delineate and Communicate Trail Ilagging takes a bit of skill. There tends to be more to the process than expected. It is good to define and practice techniques before entering the cave and then work in small groups with an experienced trail-flagging leader directing the process. Surveyors flagging tape is relatively inexpensive and readily available through hardware stores, home improvement outlets, and outdoor or forestry suppliers. Flagging tape is efiicient to carry in a cave pack. Eaeh roll of tape typically contains 61 meters (200 feet). Be sure to purchase only nOllbiodegradable surveyors Ilagging tape made of polyvinyl, polypropylene, or nylon. Some cavers may profess that flagged trails are obtrusive, detract from the wilderness experience, and disrupt the aesthetic scene. However, the benefits of flagging may outweigh these drawbacks. Cave resources outside the delineated pathways are less likely to be damaged-thus, overall wilderness quality, aesthetic value, and scientific potential are better preserved. (See trail delineation, page 296.) Like lines painted on highways, continuous lines of neatly positioned flagging on each side of the trail may free cavers from the constant focus of trying to stay within the designated boundaries. If there are no highway lines painted on a stretch of road, then drivers are forced to focus most of their attention toward remaining on the road. Test Flagging Materials and Avoid Problems Based on several decades of observation and successful use in caves, the nonbiodegradable surveyors flagging tape is recommended for marking trails. Nylon or polypropylene cord is also successful in some cave environments. This section explores several potential problems that accompany flagging tape. More scientific research is needed to verify the future of trail marking materials for caves. Before deploying thousands of feet of surveyors

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Part 2-{:onservation, Management, Ethics: Hildreth-Werker, Goodbar, WerkerTrails and Signs 179 tape, small strips should first be placed in the proposed cave passages and tested for several months. We cannot assume that plastics arc inert to cave bacteria-some types of surface bacteria live on hydrocarbons. Pack rats, other rodents, and some invertebrates may gnaw on any flagging tape and then distribute it in small bits throughout cave passages. Use nonbiodegradable products to mark trails. Biodegradable flagging tape should not be used in caves. The products laheled as biodegradable can be yummy and toxic to cave organisms. (See biodegradable, page 58.) All flagging products will degrade over time, and critters may chew on any of it, but the nonbiodegradablc tapes typically last longer than the biodegradable varietic~. Under unusual chemical conditions, the polyvinyl or nylon tapes may degrade at an inconveniently rapid rale. Or, in some cases, erosive factors may deteriorate the tape-for example, flagging tape may be broken to tiny bits by the simple force of water droplets repeatedly striking the same spot (which is usually resolved by moving the flagging away from the drip). Ifany of these problems persist in your caves, you'll obviously have to avoid flagging tape and come up with plan B. Even with these factors, nonbiodegradable polyvinyl or nylon flagging tape has surprisingly good longevity and durability when used for marking trails in many cave environments. Continuous lengths of high visibility nylon or polypropylene cord have also ptoved successful for delineating both sidcs of cave trails. Tips for Flagging Cave Trails Use continuous strips of surveyors flagging tape to delineate both sides of pathways, trails, and routes in caves that have appropriate environments and surfaces. I Only use Ilonbiodegradble flagging tape made of polyvinyl, polypropylene, or nylon. Biodegradable products may be harmful to cavedwelling biota. intermittent strips of trail flagging arc not recommended. Cavers tend to inadvertently walk ofl'the trail in search ofthc ncxt piece of trail marking. Strips of flagging tape drop down holes and get strewn along cave passages. An O.5-meter (18-inch) trail width usually allows enough space for efficient travel and for keeping bodies and heavy packs inside the trail. Trails should be wide enough for cavers to negotiate the path safely, but not so wide that two people can walk side by side. I Give crawls 0.75-1.25 meters (2--4 feet) of trail width depending on how wide cavers need to spread hands and knees inside the trails to avoid scraping the ceilings. Anything within the flagged pathway is evcntually discolored, trampled, or flattened. All features inside the trail corridor will be destroyed. (In sensitive areas, narrow trails may help cavers avoid speleothem's located on the floor and may encourage slow and deliberate movement.) When a sturdy stalagmite has historically provided an obvious and necessary handhold, consider including part of it inside the llagged trail. Where there is a choice bct\vecn a high route and a low route, mark the trail along the low route to help prevent the dislodging of upper soil Flagging Tape Color Schemes Tom Bemis Various color schemes for flagging tape are used in the U.S. Specific color/pattern combinations can reduce confusion by designating leads, scientific sites, or significant features. A system of predetermined colors may indicate special mineralogical, paleontological, biological, or cultural sites. Specific color schemes may also mark contemporary human-use sites (for first aid, gear caches, rest areas, camps, and so on). Confusion and damage can occur when flagging schemes are not communicated. Wind and Jewel Caves, for example, use blue/white striped flagging to designate delicate areas, while Lechuguilla Cave uses blue/white stripes to indicate unchecked leads. Imagine the damage that might occur if a Lechuguilla Caver went into Jewel and was not informed 01 the difference. At this point, it is impractical for either cave to change flagging schemes in order to standardize. The two main purposes of flagging are to attract attention and convey information to the caver. The choice of color is not important as long as the meaning is clear. Even one single color of flagging throughout the cave is sufficient, if it is plainly labeled with a permanent marker. (Continued on next page)

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180 (Continued) Lechuguilla Cave Accepted Colors: Orange-lrail RedlWhile-sensilive or delicate area Blue-survey station Blue/While-lead White-note or sign Yellow/Black-science station Pink/Black-bones (bat, paleo, or olhers) Possible Additional Colors: YellowlWhitebiohazard (histoplasmosis, Rabies, or olhers) BluelBlack-drinking water source Pink-waste station Red-eontaminated water OrangelWhite-camp Figure 6. Flagging tape looped around a rock with a twist or knot secured underneath makes a tidy Ilagging technique. The red/white candystripe warns cavers to beware of delicate features just outside the trail. Cave Conservation and Restoration and rocks that may impact the area below. On steep slopes where travel tends to creale erosion, zigzagging the path into switchbacks helps reduce erosion and sels the stage for safer travel as the trail becomes worn On climbs and slopes, the Ilagged trail should be wide enough to accommodate various climbing styles. Where possible, include appropriate footholds and handholds within the trail delineation. The goal is to keep hands and feet inside the Ilagged routes and stay safe Create rest areas along the way for cavers to stretch out (and eat if permitted). Where it is appropriate, designate staging areas for photographers to set up tripods and still remain on the trails. Obtain special permission and use low-impact techniques if there is specific need to step ofT the trail. (See photography, page 212.) When trails cannot be delineated through chimneys, mazes, and climbs, suspend an occasional strip of flagging tape from the ceiling or wall to make the route easier to follow. Tie flagging at eye level. When cavers don't have to search around for routes, impact is reduced Use a different color surveyors tape (red/white stripe is recommended) to flag ofT sensitive areas. Use flagging to enhance protection and appreciation of delicate or unusual features. It is important to use a flagging color scheme that is communicated to and understood by all who use the cave, (See Ilagging colors in sidebar, page 179.) Solid-colored flagging tape should not corne in contact with wet flowstone surfaces because the colors bleed. However, white-backed Ilagging does not bleed. For example, red/white candy-striped Ilagging can be used if the white side is placed directly on flowstone surfaces. (See Ilowstone restoration, page 40 I.) Place all flagging tape low, at the trail level and simply tuck, tie, or neatly wrap and secure at frequent intervals along the trail edge. Without tie downs, misplaced footsteps will snag the flagging out of position. Natural protrusions make the least obtrusive flagging tie downs or anchor points. Use subtle wraps around rocks and bedrock features to secure tape positioning. Where anchor points are not available, a single wrap and twist around an occasional fist-to-football-sized rock secures the tape and prevents the unsightly appearance of stray and straggling flagging, caught and dragged by inattentive footsteps. When placing or maintaining flagging tape, make it tidy. Tie small uniform knots. Cut ends short, Don't leave dangles. Position trail flagging slightly inside the path, not directly on the fragile edges, not on crystals, not on pristine speleothems, and not on unusual features.

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I Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Hildreth-Werker, Goodbar, WerkerTrails and Signs 181 Figure 7. Double lengths of continuous flagging help preserve cave values beyond the trail boundaries. Without trail delineation, this room in Deep Seas Camp of Lcchuguilla Cave .. ould likely be trampled tlat. Figure 8. Double strips of continuous flagging confine impact to a limited pathway. This trail is flagged wider than 0.5 meter (18 inches) to accommodate safe travel and handholds along the slope. (Sec page 8 of color section.) Figure 9. Using natural protrusions for tie-downs, double lines of continuous flagging: help protect the larger flows tone area. (See page 9 of color section.) Figure 10. Trail flagging along with a laminated sign-DO NOT GO OFF MAIN TRAIL. These management tools inform cavers and encourage protection of cave passages. Figure It. On climbs, wider !lagged areas accommodate handholds and varying climbing styles. (See page 8 of color section.) Figure 12. To reduce further impact, a caver stands in a flagged IX'Sing area for a portrait in Lechuguilla's Chandelier Ballroom. (Sec page 8 of color section.) Figure 13. Hanging tape defines the route through this gypsum maze. In pristine passages, cavers are encouraged to wear clean gloves and flowstone shoes. (See page 9 ofeolar section.) Figure I .. t To prevent color-bleeding, carefully place the \vhitc side ofllagging tape down against wet flowstone surfaces. (See page 9 of color section.)

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182 Cave Conservation and Restoration Figure 15. Wider areas are flagged for resting. All gear remains within the trails. (See page 8 of color section.) Figures 16 lind 17. While cavers work or rest, they remain within the delineated trail and carefully keep all gear within the boundaries. Figure 18. A whisk broom gently combs away f001steps outside the trail. Leaving olT-trail footsteps encourages more to follow. (See page 9 of color section.) Figure 19. A caver replaces blue/white flagging with red! white at the trail level through the Boogins in La Cueva de las Barrancas, New Mexico. (See page 9 of color section.)

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Signs are often placed al cave entrances to explain laws, permit requirements, safety precaulions, behavior expectations, species, habitat, cave resource education, and contact information. Figure 20. Laminated sIgns warn caversDO NOT GET OFF MAIN TRAIL-the second sign tells cavers the area is closed for scientific study. If small strips of flagging or other materials are used for marking temporary routes in a cave, remove it on the way out. Never leave personal trail markers in a cave. Never leave personal cairns set up in a cave. I Part 2-Conserv~tion, Management, Ethics: Hildreth-Werker, Goodbar, WerkerTrails and Signs 183 I Cavers are required to stay within the Hagged boundaries during all routine travel and resting in the cave. Whether eating, napping, or moving, everything is expected to stay in the trail-packs, gloves, bodies, and all gear stays inside the nagging. This practice limits impact to the already trampled zones within the boundaries defined by the nagging'tape. I Trail Maintenance In caves where trail definition is appropriate, the flagging, rocks, or other trail markers must be maintained. The characteristics of the cave environment and the nature of visitation will dictate maintenance schedules for realigning rock borders, repositioning flagging, restoring sections of flagging, and updating signs. I When flagging becomes brittle, it should be replaced. In some caves, flagging will last up to a decade-in other caves, it should be replaced every year or two. When stray' footprints are found outside of delineated trails, or when paths lead to nowhere-gently erase, comb, or camouflage to restore the natural appearance of clastic sediments and cave surfaces. Use gentle combing motions with lightweight, nylon brushes or whisk brooms to avoid stirring up dust and spores while erasing footprints. (Sec compacted soils, microbiology chapter, page 72). Deep footphnts in some types of rock flour or sand can be camouflaged with natural sediments and soils taken from alongside the trail. Gentle air puffs from a clean turkey basting tool will erase footprints in some powdery substrates. Ifboot sales make unsightly scuff marks on flowstone, erase the marks before ne\\~ layers of calcite make them permanent. Ugly scuffs can sometimes be removed with the very soft scrubbing side of a restaurant-grade ~ponge. (See soft scrubbers, page 406.) Ifmore damage is likely to occur by trying to restore an off-trail footstep, leave it alone, perhaps place an informative sign, and hope people learn that one footstep should not invite.-. more to follow. v"" I I Signs in Undeveloped Caves I Signs are often placed at cave entrances to explain laws, pennit requirements, safety precautions, behavior expectations, resource education, and contact infonnation for cave rr:anagement and for the National Speleological Society. Educational material tends to do more good than signs emphasizing restrictions (penalties are sometimes included in small print). Permanent signs installed inside gates tend to last longer and draw less vandalism. (See educational signage, page 155.) Signage is made of all sorts of materials, but painted metal or polyvinyl signs are the most durable for undeveloped cave entrances. (Stainless steel is a preferred materI

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184 Figure 21. A computer-generated, laminated sign warns cavers about pristine areas ahead and gives specific instructions about clothing and cavmg gear. Figure 22. A warning is written with indelible ink on flagging tape stretched across the trail-STOP! BRUSH OFF BODYHELMET-GEARREAR! Figure 23. Two signs explain precise instructions for the water siphon tube and spigot that were once at Deep Secrets in Lechuguilla CaveDO NOT LIFT SIPHON ABOVE FLAGGING TAPEDO NOT TOUCH NOZZLE. (On multiday Lechuguilla expeditions, cavers routinely drink tested cave water from designated sites.) Cave Conservation and Restoration

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Hildreth-Werker, Goodbar, WerkerTrails and Signs 185 ial, but is rarely an Jffordable option for cave entrance signs. See materials, page 167; common 'sense, page 173,) Smalliaminated'paper signs have been used along the trails of many undeveloped caves. Create simple, easy-ta-read signs with a computer and completely seal all four edges with lamination material (heat-press lamination is recommended). As long as there are no gaps or holes in the lamination, these signs survive surprisingly well for up to a decade, depending on the cave environment. Or. use an indelible Sharpie" to write instructions and information on flagging tape, Rigid sheets of PVC or Mylar' also work well for signs and survey station markers, (See survey stations, page 189.) Flagging and signage can significantly reduce impact in a cave. Signs provide important information for the uninformed and serve as a reminder for the forgetful or tired caver. I Examples of Signage Stay inside flagged trail Brush off helmet and clothes before entering pristine area ahead Surgical gloves only Boots otThere-flowstone shoes only Move slowly~xtremely fragile speleothems ahead Packs ofT-formations overhead I Leave nothing but careful footprints on established trails. I Additonal Reading Buecher RH. 1995, Footprints, routes, and trails, In: Rea GT, editor. Proceedings ~flhe 1995 National Cave Management Symposium: Spring Mill State Park, Mitchell, Indiana, October 25-28, 1995. Indianapolis (IN): Indiana Karst Conservancy. p 47-50. Hildreth-Werker V, Werker lC. 1997. Lechuguilla restoration: Techniques learned in the Southwest. NSS News 55(5):107-113, Hildreth-Werker V, Werker JC, 1999, Restoration, trail designation, and microbial preservation in Lechuguilla Cave. In: Stitt RR, editor. Proceedings National Cave Management Symposium 1997: October 7iO in Bellingham, Washington, and Chillht'ack and Vancouver island, B.C., Canada, National Cave Management Symposium Steering Committee, Ii 181-189. Ven; G. 1997. Speleothems: Preservation, display, and restoration. In: Hill C, Forti P, editors. Cave Minerals of the World, 2nd edition. Hunstville (AL): National Speleological Society. p 301-309, I Conclusion I Mark travel routes in wild caves? For some, it's a tough message. But more people are caving and many fragile, irreplaceable cave resources are being destroyed. To mitigate human impacts in some caves, it may be necessary to confine travel to designated pathways and keep cavers off the less impacted surfaces~ In the ideal subterranean world, no trails and no restoration would be necessary. We would know how to prevent negative impacts. But in our real world of cave's and cavers, we must apply practical observation and foresight to avoid further damaging underground resources. Trails through some cave passages should be clearly marked to help us leave nothing but careful footprints on established trails. I Acknowledgements The Editors gratefully acknowledge Tom Bemis, Jason Richards, Ransom Turner, and George Veni for contributing materials to the development of this chapter.

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186 Cave Conservation and Restoration



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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Seiser-Conservation-Minded Cave Survey Seetion B-D'eveloping Cave Management Programs I Conservation-M i nded I Cave S,urveying Patricia E. Seiser I 187 While the accujacy of cave survey and quality of cave maps have improved over the years, more attention should be focused on the conservation ethics of cave surveying. Several fine technical books on cave mapping are available, but none address survey and exploration from a conservation perspective. I Currently, the practice of "survey as you go" is applied extensively in the exploration of virgin caves and newly discovered passageways. Preservation and conserVation should begin with original exploration. Cave surveying itself is not inherently a preservation activity. The survey process can be destructive, or it can be performed in a responsible manner that limits impact. The very act of entering a cave has an impact on it, but survey can be the foundation for protecting a cave system. By exploring, describing, and documenting cave passages, we can identify ways to protect a cave and the surface above it. The goal is to think and act with minimal impact. By thinking ahead and discussing options, survey teams can often assess potential impacts and determine the appropriate actions. Cave explorers and surveyors should make this a point of honor-when the survey is finished, future visitors will experience' the cave in as near-to-pristine condition as when the first explorers entered. Prepa1ring for Conservation-Style Surveying Minimum-im p lct surveying requires preparation. Surveying is more than just being able to read instruments. A cave surveyor must understand the roles of all tea~ members, use the instruments properly, comprehend the requirements for recording data and sketching, and know how to read maps and line plots. The explorer and surveyor must also be a competent caver, capable of carefully moving through the various obstacles that are encountered while traveling through a cave. The National Speleological Society has published an excellent book on cave survey and mapping. On Station by George Dasher (1994). This is a valuable text for learning how to survey, but as is true of all activities, expertise only comes with practice. Learn to read instruments and sketch on the surface.'then practice in a cave. However, not all caves are suitable for practice. Training exercises should not cause the kind of damage you are trying to prevent. Each member of the survey team is responsible for the quality orthe survey and notes. It is important that all members of the survey team understand the' basics of sketching so that team members can review the notes with the ~ketcher. Periodic in-cave review of the sketch and survey notes will help' avoid repeat trips to resolve inaccuracies. Before the survey trip, the size of the team and duties of its members need to be determined. Basic survey functions are sketching, route finding, and instrument reading, but additional tasks-such as flagging trails, While the accuracy of cave survey and quality of cave maps have improved over the years. more attention should be focused on the conservation ethics of cave surveying.

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188 Exploration and Survey Illness Patricia E. Seiser Borehole Fever and Scooper Syndrome are exploration illnesses. The discovery of huge, virgin passage often creates a burning desire to run off and see what there is to see. Borehole fever is highly contagious and typically spreads to the entire survey team. When the fever strikes, maintaining a disciplined survey attitude is usually difficult if not impossible. Often the best remedy is to spend a few minutes presurveying the area (with minimum-impact in mind) and then returning to the survey. Scooper syndrome may infect one or more members of a survey team. The caver takes off exploring for an extended period. This essentially hijacks the survey process while the rest of the team awaits the return of the errant caver. The scooper often reports "nothing to survey: despite an extended absence. This is an increasingly rare illness and is usually cured by earnest group feedback. Aspiring explorers afflicted with a severe case should not be allowed to participate in the exploration and survey process, or at least not without vigilant supervision. Survey illnesses cover a wide range of symptoms, from serious episodes of survey of the crawling dead, sketcher burnout, instrument reader dyslexia, and contortionist bends, to simple cases of whineritis. Cave Conservation and Restoration photodocumenting, or inventorying cave resources-may be planned. Keep in mind that individuals on a team can perfonn multiple tasks, and some tasks can be exchanged among team members during the course of the survey. The goal should be to accomplish the survey with the least impact. In a simple, horizontal cave passage, it may be possible to use as few as two people. In more complicated situations as many as six may be used, three to run the actual survey and three to rig ropes and do additional documentation of the cave. The quality of the team has a direct influence on cave impact and on the quality of the survey. Team members should have the necessary skills for the cave, and they should be able to focus on the goal of the trip and not be prone to borehole fever, scooping, or excessive solo lead-checking. Aborted surveys result in additional trips and increased impact on the cave. On the other hand, being too hard core can result in a tired and careless team. Decide in advance how much time is going to be spent surveymg. In the exploration of virgin caves, "survey as you go" has become the accepted practice. For every foot of new passage. documentation should be generated. By concentrating on minimizing impact during the exploration and surveying process, a survey team can lay the groundwork for conservation and preservation of cave resources. Minimum-Impact Surveying Here arc some guidelines for minimum-impact surveying. The discussion should not be considered complete-there is always room for new ideas and methods. Since cave environments vary, not all considerations will apply to all caves. Survey It or Not'? Thorough surveying does not necessarily mean that every passage must be physically surveyed. (See survey, page 258.) In fragile passages, it may be appropriate for one person to examine a delicate area and determine if it should be surveyed and, if so, select the leastdamaging route. This presurvey may include estimating readings and measurements. Using estimates, fragile areas can be drawn on the sketch without the whole team entering the area. In many cases, the decision is readily apparent; in others, it may be necessary for the group to discuss the question. What is reasonable and prudent? Will future visitors go there anyway, or will they too turn back? In some cases, the final decision will be made by the stewards of the cave, even though this may require an additional trip to the area. Why perform survey at the cost of a delicate area that could have been sketched from a distance and left virgin? In some caves, stewardship goals may require only a survey of the major passages to provide information about the general layout of the cave. While this leaves unchecked leads on the map, it serves to preserve areas of the cave for future management objectives. Reduce Gear. Exploration and survey can require a lot of gear. Carrying heavy packs and ropes through a cave has consequential impacts, especially in passages that are delicate or tight. It is rarely necessary to carryall the gear all the time. Leave large packs, climbing or camping gear, and ropes at logical and safe locations along the route and retrieve when necessary. Use pockets or small packs to carry surveying equipment and supplies (of course, always carry a spare light and batteries). Surveying is a slow process, and when something is needed, a gear cache is usually not far away. Even if heavy gear eventually has to be carried though the new passage, it can be hauled with less impact when it is not set down at every station to conduct the survey.

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Seiser-Conservation-Minded Cave Survey 189 Working with Photographers. Cave photography serves a variety of purposes ranging from personal scrapbooks, to publication, to documentation. In order to avoid the impacts of dedicated photo trips, much photography can be done1during survey trips without being overly disruptive. Indeed, many published cave photographers also serve as instrument readers or sketchers on highly productive survey learns. Before entering the cave, survey learn members need to discuss the use of cameras, including the purposes and limits of photography. Survey stations should never be located to meet a photographer's needs, but rather to best suit low-impact surveying and caving. Nor should existing survey markers be moved for the purpose of a photograph. In some caves, specific photomonitoring points have been established as part of an impact-monitoring program and their locations may be included in the survey. (See photomonitoring, page 207.) S S I I h h I.' urvey tahoos. t IS Important to recognize t at t e survey me, m terms of best defining the cave passage, may not be the same route as the trail through the passage. Additional impact on the cave should be evaluated when running the survey along a different route. When the survey line and the trail coincide, placement decisions for survey stations should take into account whether they will be destroyed by travelers on the trail (and whether there will ever be a need to use those stations again). The type of station marker used should be appropriate for the type of cave passage. Flagging tape or reflective Mylar ll tags are successful in many caves. (See cave-safe materials, page 185.) The visibility of the station marker is important because it does little good if surveyors must walk all over looking for a station marker. When selecting stations, evaluate potential damage that may occur while reading instruments for both foresights and backsights. A convenient site for a station may not be the best choice in terms of minimizing impact. Whenever possible, avoid placing survey markers on delicate or active formations. When selecting station sites, also consider potential tie-ins to other survey lines and the possible need for a station near a point of scientific interest. The Sketcher. It is important that the sketcher is capable of creating an accurate, readable sketch as well as clear notes. Poor sketching often results in repeat visits that add unnecessary impacts. Illegible notes create difficulties in data entry, reporting, and checking accuracy of sketches. Many survey projects require sketchers to meet specific guidelines and standards before being allowed to sketch. This helps ensure the quality of the survey. It is common Ipractice for the sketcher to be the team leader during the surveying process. The sketcher sets the pace of the survey. Instrument readers may have to wait for the sketcher to complete a thorough record of the site. In addition to the sketch and survey data, the sketcher may be required to take notes to document hazards, rope positions and lengths, flagging locations, or other pertinent information. Reviewing the survey book with team members during the survey process can help ensure the quality of sketches and notes. Sketching can be a tedious process. Sketchers need to be aware of body position at all times, and take care to limit impact when sitting or stretching. I I Flagging. Surv~yors flagging tape is used for a variety of purposes: survey stations, protection of fragile resources, designation of scientific stations, lead marking, trail marking, and signage. Flagging tape comes in a variety of colors and patterns and survey teams should be aware of the color conventions for'a particular cave. (See color schemes for flagging tape, I (Continued on next page) (Continued) Essentially these illnesses are all derived from staying at the survey process too long and exceeding the capacity of one or more surveyors to participate effectively. Establish a stop time for exploration and then stick to it. Inordinately tired explorers and surveyors are a danger to themselves and a threat to cave resources, adversely impacting the cave during their stumbling exodus. Knowing when to quit is important for conserva. tion-style survey. It is common practice for the sketcher to be the team leader during the surveying process. The sketcher sets the pace of the survey.

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190 The Zen of Cave Survey Patricia E. Seiser lhe warrior is pledged to protect whatever is lovely, vulnerable, and truly precious. -Rick Fields, The Awakened Warrior What is the Zen of cave survey? It is the understanding that a cave exists on its own terms. It might be described as becoming one with the cave. See the cave passage as it is, envision a survey line through it, and then leave the passage as little disturbed as possible. Zen understanding of the cave involves the whole of the cave environment and its resources-the formations, biology, hydrology, historical and cultural features-then evaluating the possible consequences of survey actions. The Zen of cave survey requires a state of consciousness in which cavers choose routes and perform survey, yet thoughtlully reduce their impacts. Surveyors must implement what has already been learned through the experiences of others. The caving community develops the knowledge, ethics, and expertise for caving nondestructively. Surveyors need to implement these lowimpact techniques. It is important to think of minimal impact from the start, to be proactive, not merely reactive, and to prevent damage that can result from exploration and survey practices. (Coolinuerl en page 192) Cave Conservation and Restoration page 179.) In passages that are subject 10 damage, it is important to clearly mark the path. Trail delineation may be one of the duties of the surveying learn. It is helpful to note in the survey book where trail flagging is placed. This information can be recorded on the sketch or in the notes section. (See trail marking, page 176-183.) Instrument Reading. Accurate instrument reading is essential for quality surveys. Computer programs can quickly identify survey errors when surveys contain loops. However, the site of the error can usually only be roughly identified, and a resurvey of the whole area may be required, resulting in additional impacts. The use of both foresight and backsighl readings provides an in-cave check for reducing errors in both reading and recording. To reduce the chance ofmislakes in hearing or writing, the sketcher should repeat back readings after recording the data. Instrument reading can create significant impact on cave resources. The sign of a good instrument reader is the ability to recognize that the least impacting position may also be the most uncomfortable one. It is important to constantly be aware of body position and the potential to damage small deposits and features. Take care to reduce contact with the cave as much as possible (Figures I and 2). Understanding and using correct instrumentplacement offsets from a station can limit impact to delicate features, yet still produce accurate readings. To protect the cave or to get a better reading, helmets may need to be removed. It is a good idea to have a bandana covering the head to reduce hair and sweat left-behind on the cave walls. In some situations, it may be necessary for all team members to carry a set of clean clothing (including knee pads, elbow pads, and gloves) to change into before surveying. The Survey Tapc. Reading a survey tape is usually a low-impact activity. However, the potential for unnecessary impact occurs in reeling out, reeling in, or stretching the tape. Surveyors need to be aware of where the tape is running and what it might catch on and destroy (Figure 3). Take appropriate actions to avoid such problems. Taking a Break. Explorers need to be aware of their surroundings and actions when resting or waiting for team members to complete a task. If a trail or resting site has been established, surveyors need to be sure that their bodies and their gear are contained within the boundaries. Avoid leaning on formations and walls (even if the walls are speleothem free). It is easy to transfer sweat and dirt to areas that \\/ere previously pristine. Cavers should be as careful and alert to body and gear positioning when resting as they are when moving through the cave (Figure 4). After the Survey The responsibilities of the exploration and survey team do not end once the survey trip is completed. Surveying the cave, gathering data, and photodocumenting the resources do little for cave management and protection unless the information is properly reported. A comprehensive trip report and the finalized survey notes should be submitted to cave owners or managers upon completion of a survey trip. In addition to describing the survey trip, the report should document problems or hazards posed by the particular cave passage mapped. The report should also include a list of equipment required for future exploration and survey, and a lead list to facilitate future exploration. The trip report should also contain recommendations for preservation, conservation, or restoration. Copies

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Part 2-Conserva~ion, Management, Ethics: Seiser-Conservation-Minded Cave Survey 191 Figure I. Protect speleothems and cave walls by removing the helmet to read instruments in tight locations. Contain hair and sweat with a bandana or other head gear. CI Val Hildreth-Werker Figure 2. This caver is using an instrument offset to reduce contact with the fragile surface of the cave wall covered in colorful, fluffY corrosion residue. CI Val Hildrelh-Werker Figure 3. To prevent the survey tape from damaging fonnations, surveyors carefully lift the tape high over the speleothems. @Val Hildreth-Werker

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192 Figure 4 (left). Impact is reduced when cavers are careful to stay inside the delineated trails. Gear should never be set outside the trail boundaries. Figure 5 (right). During survey and exploration, choose routes through new passages to preserve pristine qualities. Trail designation is typically assigned to survey teams. (Sec page 9 of color section.) (Continued) Cave explorers and surveyors can view themselves as survey warriors-guardians protecting caves through their actions. By serving as guardians, there is active participation in the conservation ethic instead of enforced participation in the ethic. The latter usually delivers only lip service or is applied only for survey and not for other caving pursuits. Conscientious surveyors not only learn and pass along new concepts and practices, but they also apply low. impact techniques to all caves they enter regardless of the condition. Cave Conservation and Restoration of appropriate photographs should be submitted in a timely manner. The aim of the survey is to produce a quality map that documents the cave. If the cave is large, an interim exploration-quality map should be produced as a survey tool. It may be necessary to provide surveyors with line plots for in-cave use to prevent unnecessary impact to the cave. At the completion of the survey, or during the survey ifit is an extcnded project, plans should be made for removing or maintaining flagging and any equipment left in the cave. Any restoration projects should be finishcd. The ultimate goal of the survey is to produce maps, photographs, and reports that clearly document the cave. significant features, established trails, and passages set aside for preservation or scientific study. The cave steward can use this information in developing a management plan that will best protect the cave, and ifpossible, allow for continued access by other cavers and scientists in the years to come. Conclusion Those who choose to explore and map a cave have the responsibility of protecting it. Careful choices can minimize the impacts of survey and exploration. The resulting maps can help provide for the protection of caves and conservation of surface regions above those caves for future generations. The goal is to act with minimum impact. By implementing conscientious surveying techniques. we increase the potential for others to experience the cave in as near-pristine state as possible. The quality of exploration and survey that occurs now will determine the quality of the legacy that cave explorers and surveyors leave for the future. Additional Reading Thomson C, Taylor R. 1991. The art of cave mapping. Missouri Speleology31:1-181. Dasher G. 1994. On Slalion: A Complele Handbook for Surveying and Mapping Caves. Huntsville (AL): National Speleological Society. 240 p. Day A. 2002. Cave Surveying. Cave Sludies Series II. Buxton (UK): British Cave Research Association. 40 p. Ellis B. 1976. Surveying Caves. Bridgwater, Somerset (UK): British Cave Research Association. 88 p.



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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: DuChene-Resource Inventory Section A-Identifying and Protecting Cave Resources Resource Inventory: A Tool for Cave Science, Management, and Restoration Harvey R. DuChene The exploration and study of caves has steadily increased in popularity over the last 50 years. This interest is shown by growth in the membership of the National Speleological Society and similar organizations around the world. The growing number of cavers results in increased pressure on known caves. Damage to fragile resources is an almost inevitable consequence of visitation. It is now recognized that we must take care or caves and find new ways to conserve, protect, study, and enjoy them. In 1988, Congress enacted the Federal Cave Resources Protection Act. (See Appendix I, page 507, for the complete text of the Act. A Iso see cave laws, page 220.) This Act mandates the identification of significant caves on federal lands and prohibits: ... the willful disturbance, altering. remuval, sale, receipt, and possession of ... cave resources obtained illegally on Federal lands. The Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988 instmcts that significant caves are to be considered in the preparation or implementation of any land-management plan. Through this Act, federal agencies, including the Bureau of Land Management, US Fish and Wildlife Service, USDA Forest Service, National Park Service, and US Geological Survey, are mandated to manage and protect caves. To manage caves effectively, their extent, contents, and significance must be assessed. This evaluation requires the methodical gathering, sorting, and interpreting of cave data. The first cave inventory projects led to development of methods for acquiring this information. Inventory projects are active on both private and federal lands. Many caves managed by the Bureau of Land Management, the National Park Service, or the USDA Forest Service, as well as independent cave projects or conservancies, have active inventory programs. The information presented in this chapter is based on the LechuguiIIa Cave Mineral Inventory, a project that has been collecting and analyzing geological data in Carlsbad Caverns National Park since 1990. What Is Cave Inventory? Cave inventory is the systematic observation and recording of significant features found within a cave. An inventory may include many types of data on the archaeology, biology, chemistry, hydrology, geology, history, mineralogy, paleontology, speleogenesis, and impacts of modern human use. The amount and type of information collected depends on several factors: the purpose of the project; the nature and complexity of the cave; and technical, financial, personnel, and temporal limitations. 19 To manage caves effectively, their extent, contents, and significance must be assessed. Cave inventory is the systematic observation and recording of significant features found within a cave.

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20 Cave inventory is not a new concept. Scientists have been cataloging biota, archaeological sites, and fossil deposits in caves since at least the 1700s. Cave Conservation and Restoration Cave inventory is not a new concept. Scientists have been cataloging biota, archaeological sites, and fossil deposits in caves since at least the 17005. These systematic studies are essential for understanding processes, geological history, and biological communities in caves. Since the adoption of the Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988, inventories have expanded to include the cataloging of all significant attributes in a cave. Cave mapping is a popular, systematic method for collecting data from caves. Early cave maps were simple, commonly showing passage walls but little or no internal detail. Over time, cave maps have evolved to include other information such as streams, breakdown, formations, bedrock geology, and other characteristics deemed significant by the survey crew and cartographer. The amount of detail included on a map often depends on the observational skills, drawing ability, and patience of the survey sketcher. The term cave survey usually refers to linear and angular measurements made inside of cave passages. This mathematical data is used to describe the location, fonn, and extent of a cave. Typically, a cave survey is used to make a map of a cave. A cave resource inventOlY lists the contents of a cave. Cave cartography-making maps of caves-has become an art form with cartographers striving to include as much inventory information as possible while making maps that are faithful depictions of the cave. Why Do Inventory? Information is the key to appreciating and understanding caves and their contents-understanding cave systems is the key to managing and protecting resources. The amount of detail and specific type of information required depends on the reasons for conducting an inventory. For some projects, a reconnaissance inventory is adequate. Inventory for scientific studies, restoration projects, and management oflarge systems requires more detailed data collection. The depth and breadth of knowledge about various aspects of the cave environment varies widely among map sketchers. Thus, the data included on maps, especially of large and complex systems, is inherently inconsistent. This is particularly true where many sketchers are responsible for mapping a large cave. The cave inventory process utilizes checklists that help survey teams and sketchers gather consistent information. These lists itemize the features found in the cave and provide a mechanism for documenting attributes that arc rare or significant. The objectives for a cave inventory project should be well defined to determine the type of information and the amount of detail to be included. Most cave inventories do not require specialists in geology, biology, or other sciences, but they do require a basic understanding of the features likely to be encountered in a cave. Some inventories of a highly technical or scientific nature may require active involvement of specialists. Inventories as Tools The following examples describe how cavers, managers, and scientists use inventories as tools for project design. Cave Scicncc. Basic cave inventories are used by scientists and other researchers to locate areas tor study. Once inventory data is stored in a database, information can be accessed quickly. The use of inventory data can lessen human impact on caves. By providing a reference to recorded information, researchers may not need to enter the cave to learn about the resources. For example, a researcher interested in water sampling can use

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: DuChene-Resource Inventory inventory data to locate cave pools. Without a good cave inventory, the researcher would probably have to visit multiple sites to determine if any were suitable for study. I\lanagement. Cave inventories provide infonnation for making educated management decisions about cave resources. When making choices about access through cave passages, cave managers can use inventory databases to locate sensitive archaeological or biological resources (for example, historical artifacts, bat roosts, aquatic troglobites, or habitat for threatened species). Managers can use inventory data to protect important resources by designating travel routes or surface activities that mitigate negative impact. Restoration. Cave inventories can pinpoint infonnation on areas or passages that have been negatively impacted and need restoration. Using inventory data, managers can locate these areas quickly and can also compare the potential impacts of proposed restoration tasks to the potential benefits of restoration. For example, restoration is proposed for an area that was muddied by traffic and then closed to visitation. Cave managers can use inventory data to help evaluate the sensitivity or fragility of the area. The data can provide information for detennining the size of restoration teams-perhaps only two or three skilled individuals should take on the task or the job may require caver groups working in multi-day shifts. Or it might be decided the damaged area should be left as it is and no restoration effort should be initiated. Databases can also be used to identify multiple restoration objectives that can be accomplished by one team to maximize productivity and minimize additional human impact. Resources for Inventory Many information sources exist that can help project managers design inventory programs. Primary sources include published literature specific to the topic or area covered by the inventory. (See Appendix 2, listings of resources and agencies for archaeological, biological, geological, and speleological information, page 515.) Information may also be gathered from local experts, libraries, colleges, universities, and from local, state, and federal government agencies. Information on scientific aspects of a specific cave or cave region may be available within the caving community. Members of the National Speleological Society (NSS) have foroled special interest groups within the Society called Sections. Members of the various NSS Sections (geology/ geography, history, biology, paleontology, conservation/management and others) can provide helpful information for the design of inventory projects. Other information sources include the National Speleological Society Library, Cave Research Foundation, American Cave Conservation Association, Karst Waters Institute, and the National Cave and Karst Research Institute. (See Appendix 2.) Geological maps and reports are available for many locations and may be obtained from state geological surveys or the US Geological Survey. Maps provide information on the geology of the area surrounding the cave as we)) as information on topography, surface drainage, rock types, geologic formations, minerals, and fossils. Information about archaeology may be obtained from the state offices of archaeology. At the national level, the Society for American Archaeology has contact information for local experts. Biological information is available through professional wildlife biologists at state, federal, and private agencies (for example, Karst Waters 21 The objectives for a cave inventory project should be well defined to determine the type of information and the amount of detail to be included.

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22 Hands-on training familiarizes nonspecialists with the features of cave inventory. Cave Conservation and Restoration Institute, Missouri Department of Conservation, Illinois Natural History Survey, and Bat Conservation International, Inc). Hands-on training familiarizes nonspecialists with the features of cave inventory. This may be accomplished "on the job" by mixing new personnel with experienced leaders on inventory teams. It is also helpful for the person or group managing the inventory to prepare a photographic guide to specific features found in a cave, especially those features that are uncommon or unique to the region. Types of Inventory Qualitative or Quantitative Inventory can be either qualitative or quantitative. Qualitative data are easier to obtain, and provide information on the geographic distribution of features without specific details on rarity, abundance, density, or other measurable attributes within a given cave. Qualitative inventory information from several survey stations can be compiled onto one notebook page as shown in Figure I. When these data are combined with abundance estimates indicating whether a feature is rare, common, or abundant, as shown in Figure 2. the project is a quantitative inventory. Levels of Detail The amount of detail incorporated into an inventory depends on the objectives oCthe project. In order of increasing detail, inventory projects may be classified in the following categories: Reconnaissance General-purpose Project-specific Reconnaissance Inventory. The purpose of a reconnaissance inventory is to gather general infonnation about a cave to detennine ifmore detailed study is warranted. Reconnaissance may be a simple compilation of features without specific information on distribution or abundance. Quantitative data on features may be included in a reconnaissance inventory, but usually only for a small portion of the cave. A reconnaissance project should be conducted with care because it is the foundation for more comprehensive projects and it may be the only summary of scientific information for a cave. General-Purpose Inventory. During a general-purpose inventory. the team collects infonnation on the identity, condition, and distribution of all the significant attributes' of a cave. This is the most common type of inventory and is applicable to most caves. A general-purpose project may' follow a reconnaissance project if the cave merits additional study. Project-Specific Inventory. A project-specific inventory involves collecting detailed information on a cave or a specific part of a cave, It may be qualitative, hut more often is quantitative because the investigator is interested not only in the identity and distribution of features, but also in the abundance, intensity. or frequency. Project-specific inventories may focus on certain features of a cave, such as archaeological artifacts or cave biota. This type of data collection usually supports a larger project. such as restoration, biological or geological studies, archaeological excavation, or the design of a management or development plan.

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: DuChene-Resource Inventory Performing an Inventory Gathering good inventory infonnation requires careful preparation and use of the correct tools. Essential items include prepared inventory forms for recording data, a notebook to hold the fonns, a map of the cave, pencils, and other sopplies. (See tool list at end of chapter.) Preparing the Notebook The basic inventory tool is a notebook with forms designed for recording data from a specific cave or project. To prepare the inventory forms, it may be necessary to perform a reconnaissance trip to create a list of the features. If the investigators are familiar with the cave, this list may be constructed from memory. (See inventory list at end of chapteL) Once the list offeatores is made it should be sorted by category, with items in each category listed alphabetically for quick reference (Figurc I). The form is printed on pages designed to fit in a standard surveyors looseImaginary Cave Team: Date: Speleothems: Calcite Columns Draperies Flowstone Helictites Soda straws Stalactites Stalagmites Cave Fill: Breakdown Gravel Guano Mud Sand Silt Fossils: Bones Skull Archaeology: Torch fragments Biota: Bats Beetles Isopods Fish Crayfish Spiders 23 To prepare the inventory forms, it may be necessary to perform a reconnaissance trip to create a list of the features. If the investigators are familiar with the cave, this list may be constructed from memory. Figure 1. This is an example of a simple inventory fonn.

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24 Once the list of features is made it should be sorted by category, with items in each category listed alphabetically for quick reference. Figure 2. This example of an inventory form is designed for collecting data on the type and abundance of cave features. Note that one copy of the form is needed for each survey station. Cave Conservation and Restoration leaf notebook. For some caves, the tist may be long enough to require several notebook pages. In wet caves, special water-resistant paper may be appropriate. Each category includes several related features. For example. the category for Calcite Speleothems includes tlowstone, helictites, soda straws, stalactites, and stalagmites. Several blank lines are left at the end of each category so that additional features can be added to the tist. Blank pages should also be included for verbal descriptions, drawings of unusual features, documentation of photographs, site-specific directions, and other information that does not fit the structure of the inventory form. Collecting the Data In most cases, the cave to be inventoried has been surveyed. Ifno survey and map of the cave exists, inventory data may be collected in conjunction with the cave mapping data (the cave survey). In caves that have been previously surveyed, the inventory team should have a copy of the map with the names and locations of the survey stations clearly marked. Referring to the map will speed the process of locating survey stations Imaginary Cave Team: IDe t-to~ag, sattfj caver, lae~ Kar
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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: DuChene-Resource Inventory and collecting data. It is helpful if the cave contains either permanent or temporary survey station markers. (See station markers, page 189.) Ifstations are not marked, surveying tools may be used to relocate and temporarily mark the stations. Normally, the area to be examined at a station extends from the midpoint between stations A and B to the midpoint between stations Band C. This midpoint rule works well where the distance between stations is 12 meters (about 40 feet) or less. Where the distance is greater than 12 meters, it may be necessary to add supplemental survey stations, especially if the cave has an abundance of features that should be included in the inventory. It may be appropriate in quantitative inventories to divide cave passage into equal-length segments so that the collected data is statistically valid. However, equally spaced inventory sites must be added to the survey data if the inventory information is to be displayed on computer-generated maps. Data Collecting Scenario To systematically collcct data, (assuming the survey stations in the cave are labeled) the inventory team goes to station A-I and carefully examines walls, ceiling, and floor while discussing what each person is seeing. Once all of the significant features have becn identified, the bookkeeper records the data on the inventory form. At station A-I, the passage is decorated with calcite speleothems, including stalactites, stalagmites, flowstone, and helictites. The floor of the passage is covered with breakdown blocks and mud, and the remains of a torch are found next to one of the walls. The bookkeeper finds the name of each feature on the inventory form and writes the name of the station next to the feature as shown in Figure 3. When all of the features near Station A-I have been identified and recorded in the notebook, the team moves to station A-2 and repeats the process. At station A-2, there are columns, draperies, flowstone, stalactites, and stalagmites, and the floor is covered with mud and breakdown blocks. A small red beetle is seen on the floor of the passage. The bookkeeper makes the appropriate entries as shown in Figure 4, and adds notes regarding color and size of the insect. Short notes can be included directly on the inventory page. Longer notes are written on blank pages with a reference to the appropriate survey station. When the team is satisfied that everything of significance at this site has been recorded, it moves to the next survey station. At station A-3, the walls are covered with flowstone, helictites, and popcorn. The floor consists of breakdown and mud. Notice that popcorn does not appear on the prepared form so it is necessary to add it to the speleothem category as shown in Figure S. The bookkeeper writes in popcorn on one of the blank lines under the heading for speleothems and makes an entry showing that popcorn is present at station A-3. At station A-4, features include flowstone, helictites, soda straws, and some unusual crystals next to a small pool. The pool is in a flowstone basin, is partly filled with water, and has a thin layer of silt on the bottom. A photograph is made of the crystals and the pool using a metric ruler for scale. The bookkeeper adds a category for crystals and records the name of the survey station next to the appropriate categories on the inventory form as shown in Figure 6. A note next to the line for crystals indicates that a photo-graph of the pool and crystals was taken. At the bottom of the page, a short note describes thc pool, gives the dimensions and depth, and notes that the bottom of the pool is covered with silt. Any time extraordinary, rare, or unusual features are found, written descriptions and sketches should be made or photographs should be taken. 2S I f no survey and map of the cave exists, inventory dala may be collected at the same time the cave is surveyed.

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26 Any time extraordinary, rare, or unusual features are found, written descriptions and sketches should be made or photographs should be taken. Figure 3. A sample inventory form showing data entered for station A-I. Cave Conservation and Restoration (See photodocumentation, page 204.) A blank page in the notebook is used to record these descriptions. Written descriptions should include the direction and distance of the feature relative to the nearest survey station. Descriptions and directions should be clear and concise so that the site can be easily relocated. If the feature is particularly significant, it is advisable to add a survey station for the site. An inventory team quickly becomes familiar with these techniques and with the attributes of the cave. Typically, cave attributes are similar from one station to the next, with only one or two items dropped off as others are added. Once the basic attributes are identified, which usually occurs at the first two or three stations, the inventory process becomes smooth and efficient and the team is able to move rapidly through the cave to complete the project. When inventory data are not proprietary, the field forms should be copied for all members of the inventory team and for the cave owner or manager. This helps ensure that data are not lost and provides team members with a sense of accomplishment. Imaginary Cave Team: Joe !-tod.g, S.lltl c.vey, JOCR. K.ystVII.."" Date: g/260.'J Speleothems: Calcite Columns Draperies Flowstone A1. Helictites A1. Soda straws Stalactites A1. Stalagmites A1. Cave Fill: Breakdown A1. Gravel Guano Mud A1. Sand Silt Fossils: Bones Skull Archaeology: Torch fragments A1. Biota: Bats Beelles Isopods Fish Crayfish Spiders

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: DuChene-Resource Inventory Transcribing Inventory Data Accurately transcribing inventory results into a computer database is as important as gathering the basic information. Entering survey information and inventory data into a computer database simplifies duplication and distribution, eases sorting and analysis, and enables automatic plotting of inventoried features on multiple versions of the cave map. The database will become the working repository for the inventory data and can be linked to computer mapping software to create displays. Computer formats tend to be ephemeral and storage media often fail. It is wise to print a paper copy of the entire database and to save the database as a delimited raw text (ASCII) file. Hard copies of original inventory sheets need to be archived to ensure future access. Because an original database can eventually become unreadable, computer records should be copied into newer programs every few years. Many database programs for home computers are adequate for storing and manipulating inventory data. It is advisable to check with the owner or Imaginary Cave Team: Joe I-IOl>.g, S.lll::l c.ver, J.c~ Karst",-.", Date: gn"'03 Speleothems: Calcite Columns A::< Draperies A::< Flowstone A1., A::< Helictites A1. Soda straws Stalactites A1., A::< Stalagmites A1., A::< Cave Fill: Breakdown A1., A::< Gravel Guano Mud A1., A::< Sand Silt Fossils: Bones Skull Archaeology: Torch fragments A1. Biota: Bats Beetles A::< (reel-brow'" 41'11.1'11. loVl:Cj) Isopods Fish Crayfish Spiders 27 Computer formats tend to be ephemeral and storage media often fail, so it is wise to print a paper copy of the entire database and to save the database as a delimited raw text (ASCII) file. Figure 4. This sample inventory form contains data for station A-2.

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28 A data-entry screen that allows clicking on feature names can help to avoid typing identical entries for every station where they occur. Figure 5. This sample inventory form contains data entered for station A-3. Note that a new category for popcorn has been added to the list of speleothems. Cave Conservation and Restoration manager of the cave to see if specific software and formats are required. Database Formatting In the simplest case, a table with a record for each survey station is created. The record is labeled with the name of the station (A-l is used in this chapter). Each record includes the X, Y, and Z coordinates of the station as computed from the raw survey data, as well as a list of all the features at that location. A data-entry screen that allows clicking on feature names can help to avoid typing identical entries for every station where they occur. To make data entry easier and less error-prone, the data-entry screen should be similar in arrangement to the inventory forms. While notes from the inventory forms will not usually be useful in computer processing, provision should be made to copy them into the record in order to archive all data in onc place. If the database is relational, it is possible to separate the data into two or more tables. Well-developed inventory databases contain many tables that specify types of data, such as biological inventory, mineralogical Imaginary Cave Team: Joe tto~ag, saLLJ:1 cavey, Jac~ KaYSt""a" O.te: ./:
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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: DuChene-Resource Inventory inventory, and so on. The first table contains a record for each station name and contains only the geographical coordinates. Other tables contain records for each inventory feature and include a list of the stations at which that feature occurs. The station names in the inventory data table must be identical to those in the survey data table. The program can then find the coordinates of feature locations by relating the two tables using the station names recorded in each. Properly designed, either the single table or related tables can be emcient and easy to use. The map drawing or geographical information systems (GIS) software used to display the data may dictate whether more tables are appropriate. Displaying the Data Creating multiple versions of a cave map by hand is tedious and timeconsuming. Personal computers have simplified this process, facilitating Imaginary Cave Team: Joe l-toolQg, SQlll;j CQvey, JQcl< K.£lystVl
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30 A wide variety of software is available for cave mapping and for displaying and managing inventory data. Cave Conservation and Restoration the production of a series of maps with different features. Layers of information can be created and superimposed with digital technology. Putting all the available data on a single map usually results in a cluttered presentation that is difficult to understand and interpret. Thus, it is useful to create several versions of a cave map with each version featuring different attributes. For example, one map may display bedrock geology, another might show speleothems, and yet anothcr could show the distribution of biota. Cave mapping programs have evolved to include specialized GIS tools that can store and display both survey and inventory data. Geographic data systems are design'cd to work with databases and computer aided design (CAD) programs. GIS software relates inventory data, photographs, and other documentation tools to specific locations in the cave. Importantly, the software also relates inventory data to other layers in the GIS database, potentially identifying relationships and patterns previously unrecognized. There are a number ofeAD and cave mapping sol1ware packages available. Selection of mapping software depends on the needs and financial resources of the user, and on the requirements of the cave owner or manager. A wide variety of software is available tor cave mapping and for displaying and managing inventory data. These include specialized cave survey programs as well as commercial CAD and GIS software. Many include capabilities to incorporate various database and geographic data formats. Increasingly. GIS is being used to query and manage cave inventory data, to understand the spatial relationships within the cave, and also to identify relationships with the external environment. Additional Reading General Northup DE, Mobley ED, Ingham, KL Ill, Mixon Ww. 1998. A Guide to the Speleological Litera/llre of the English Language 1794-1996. St. Louis (MO): Cave Books. 539 p. Mineralogy Hill CA, Forti P. 1997. Cave Minerals of the World. 2nd ed. Huntsville (AL): National Speleological Society. 463 p. Speleulogy Klimchouk AB, Ford DC, Palmer AN, Dreybrodt W, editors. 2000. Speleogenesis: Evolution of Karst Aquifers. Huntsville (AL): National Speleological Society. 527 p. Surveying Dasher GR. 1994. On Station: A Complete Handbookfor Surveying and Mapping Caves. Huntsville (AL): National Speleological Society. 242 p.

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: DuChene-Cave Inventories 31 Potential Items for Cave Inventory Lists Speleothems: Fill Material: Aragonite Clay Stream slols Projectile points Anthodites Gravel Water lines Petroglyphs Bushes Guano Pictographs Frostwork Ice Biota: Sandals Mud Vertebrates Tools Calcite Sand Amphibians Torch fragments Bell canopies Loess Bats Coatings Topsoil Birds Human Remains Crusts Fish Bones Cryslals Bedrock Mammals Burials Nailhead spar Features: Reptiles Coprolites Dogtooth spar Bedding planes Scat Draperies Breccia Invertebrates Drip pit linings Limestone beds Amphipods Historical Flowstone Sandstone beds Isopods Features: Helictites Shale beds Beetles Habitation Mammillaries Strike and dip of beds Centipedes Historical signatures Rafts Faults Crayiish Mining equipment Rims Joints Earthworms Nitrate leaching tools Rimstone dams Flies Stills Shelfstone Paleontological Leeches Shields Features: Millipedes Damage: Soda straws Bedrock Fossils Moths (Restoration Targels) Splash rings Algal deposits Psuedoscorpions Batteries Stalactites Brachiopods Scorpions Broken formations Stalagmites Bryozoans Snails Carbide dumps Trays Cephalopods Spiders Chalk marks Coral Contemporary graffiti Sulfate Crinoids Microbiota Flagging material Barile Echinoids Coatings Human waste Crystals Gastropods Filaments Mold blooms Massive Pelecypods Mud tracks Stalaclites Scaphopods Water: Off-trail footprints Celeslite Sponges Dripping water Trail markers needed Coating Secondary Pools Soiled formations Crystals Seeps Trails Gypsum Fossil Deposits Streams Contemporary trash Crust Pleistocene bones Pools Crystals Trace fossils Raceways Riffles Needles Footprints Springs Flowers Scratch marks Swallels Scat Wet surfaces Moonmilk: Nests Balloons Dens Archaeological Features: Coatings Speleogenetic Cultural Artifacts Minerals: Features: Carbon blackened Boxwork Walls Aragonite Drip pits Ceilings Barite Karren Ceremonial items Calcite Pothole karren Chips and "akes Gypsum Rillenkarren Hearths Nitrates Spitzkarren Pottery Quartz Scallops Pottery sherds

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32 Cave Conservation and Restoration Tools for Cave Inventory Map of the cave Inventory notebook (surveyors book) Custom-designed waterproof pages listing features to be inventoried Pencils Eraser Magnifying glass (not a loupe or hand lens) Scale (metric) Camera and film Compass Clinometer Surveyors tape Indelible marking pencil Surveyors flagging tape (for temporary station markers)



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Part 2-Conserva,tion, Management, Ethics: Bodenhamer-Visitor Impact Mapping Section B-Developing Cave Management Programs Visitor Impact Mapping in Caves Hans BOden~amer I 193 Many cave managers rely on impact mapping and photomonitoring as tools to monitor nonrenewable resources. Visitor impact mapping is used to quantify damage and augment photomonitoring. When combined, impact mapping and ph~tomonitoring provide extremely detailed information about mineral formations, bone deposits, floor surfaces, human impacts, and so on. (See photomonitoring. page 207-210.) Visitor impact mapping involves pinpointing damages on detailed maps. Impacts caused hy human visitation are added to existing cave maps. Also any fragile, undamaged resources are detailed and quantified. Different types of visitor impact monitoring can be established to suit a variety of management needs (Bodenhamer 1995). In this chapter. two types of monitoring arc discussed: V .. I. ISltor Impact pomt mappmg Visitor impact area mapping I IVisitor Impact Point Mapping Visitor impact point mapping locates damaged and fragile resources using numbered points~ Each point is drawn onto a map of the cave based on its Visitor impact mapping involves documenting undamaged resources as well as damage caused by human visitation. Locations are pinpointed on a detailed map of the cave. J J c I FIGURE 1 I EI Cap Cave MAP E VIP Map 8 4 11 SCALE am o 10 20 FEET

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194 Cave Conservation and Restoration Table I Impact Point Descriptions EI Cap Cave Point Map E Numher Uescription 2 Ten mud stalagmites. each about 2 inches in diameter. Five are about 10 inches high and five are about 2 inches high. No signs of any visitor damage. 3 Three mud stalagmites. each is about 1 inch in diameter and 4 inches high. No damage. 4 Five mud stalagmites. each is about 1 inch in diameter and 1 inch high. S Beautiful pristine mud surface with rcd.orange coaling and white speckles. 6 One boot skid mark in silt surface. 7 Small depressions in silt surface. three sets of closely spaced, 1/2 inch diameter depressions. Probably finger (or hand) prints. 8 Strange feature -thin, white. irregular coating \vhich covers area less than I foot diameter. 9 Large depression in silt surface (about 2 feet in diameter). May be the result of visitors kneeling, falling. sitting, or placing a pack in this area. Depression may also be natural. 10 Hand tralIic on edge of silt deposit has slightly altered the character of the surface. On top ofledge there are three areas with obvious finger depression marks. Other than these three areas top of ledge is pristine. 11 Blackcoated roek. Some wear and spalling probably from visitor tralIic. Throughout this passage (Map E) these coated rocks are present in a density of about 5 to 15%. Some seem to have been worn a bit by visitor traffic. 12 Resolutioned tlowstonc on corner. No damage due to visitors. 13 Pristine silt and cobble deposit in alcove. Deposit has white speckles. No visitor damage to deposit. relative position to mapped features, and a written description of the damaged (or fragile and at-risk) resource is rccorded. Photos can augment the descriptions. An example of a visitor impact point map (VIPM) is presented in Figure 1, and some of the corresponding point descriptions are included in Table I. By studying a VIPM map, descriptions, and photographs the cave manager can evaluate and compare the conditions of resources (at the time of mapping and in subsequent updates) at specific points throughout the cave. Visitor impact area mapping documents areas that have been impacted by visitation. Areas are drawn onto the cave map based on their relative position to mapped features. Visitor Impact Area Mapping Visitor impact area mapping locates areas that have been impacted by visitation. Areas are drawn onto the cave map based on their relative position to mapped features. Each area is classified and color-coded according to the severity of impacts within it. A sample visitor impact area //lap (VIAM) for floor surfaces is presented in Figure 2. On VIAMs, visitor impacts may fall into five difTerent classes: Pristine No obscrvable impacts Light impacts Heavy impacts Severe impacts Areas classified as pristine have floor surfaces that are extremely fragile and it is obvious that visitors have never walked there. Areas that are classified as no observable impacts indicate that visitors may have walked therc, but floor surfaces are of such a nature that impacts cannot be detected, even under close visual inspection. Areas that are classified with light, heavy, or severe impacts are defined

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Part 2--Conservation, Management, Ethics: Bodenhamer-Visitor Impact Mapping FIGURE 2 EI Cap Cave VIA Map for Floor Surface SCALE ,10'1' I"e o 10 20 FEET 195 0; E 1 J iii I --\ Severe Impacts rm Heavy Impacts ~ Light Impacts ~ No Observable Impacts ~ Pristine Surface I Table 2 Explanation of Impact Classes for Different Types of Floor Surfaces I Tvnes of Floor Surfaces Impact Silt, Mud, or Rounded Bedrock or All Types of Cobbles or Class Sand All~arRock Flowstone Floor Surfaces Light. Light brushing of Mud smears cover Mud smears cover v" in. or less surface covering less than 50% of less than 25% debris layer rolled less than 25% tops onto surface Faint depressions covering less than 25% Heavy I Trenching less Mud smears cover Mud smears cover V" in. to 1 in. than V2 in. deep 50 to 100% of tops 25 to 50'Y" debris layer rolled onto surface Brushing of more I than 25% Noticable I depressions covering 25 to 50% Severe I Tt-enching greater Mud is deposited Mud smears cover Greater than 1 in. thanV2 in. deep inlayers V" in. or 50 to 100% debris layer rolled greater Mud is deposited onto surface Depressions V2 in. or greater Cobbles (or Rocks) in thick layers cover 50 to 100% are rolled to side V4 in. or greater to form trench Surface has been chipped or broken according to thd types of floor surfaces. Table 2 presents impact classifications for several different types of !loors, A map indicating the types of floor surfaces for the same portion of the cave shown in Figure 2 is presented in Figure 3.

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196 Cave Conservation and Restoration FIGURE 3 EI Cap Cave MAP E Floor Surface Types SCALE []IIII []II o 10 20 FEET ~ Cobbles and Borders lIID Flowstone [J Silt, Mud and Sand 9 Bedrock All the mapping tools described here coordinate and give the cave manager an overall pattern for the condition of resource areas as well as specific impact information for points throughout the mapped portion of the cave: Visitor impact mapping is used to evaluate and compare resource conditions of different caves within a region. Visitor impact point map Table of visitor impact point descriptions Visitor impact area map Map of floor surface types Table of impact classes for types of floor surfaces Visitor Impact Mapping for Evaluating and Comparing Caves within a Region Visitor impact mapping can he used to evaluate and compare resource conditions of different caves within a region. Figures 4, 5, and 6 show VIAMs tor floor surfaces in the entrances of three caves located in one region. The floor within each cave consists of thick deposits of pollen and powdered sulfate minerals. The presence of extinct animal bones on the floor suggests that the surfaces in each cave may be over 8,000 years old. Rex Cave. Shown in Figure 4, Rex Cave has received a cumulative visitation of about 500 people. Most of the visitors were recreationists. Severe impacts are limited to a small area, which is near the north wall about 12 meters (40 feet) from the entrance. These impacts were the result of visitors digging a pattern into floor sediments by dragging their feet. Heavy impacts cover the largest portion of the floor. Light impacts are in low crawl areas. Finally, only a few small areas near walls and under low ceilings are classified as no observable impacts. Kappen Cave. Shown in Figure 5, Kappen is similar to Rex Cave in regard to visitation. The entrance is highly visible from nearby hiking trails, yet access is relatively difficult. Cumulative visitation to Kappen Cave is about 300 visitors (very similar to cumulative visitation to Rex Cave). However,

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Part 2-Conserv~tion, Management, Ethics: Bodenhamer-Visitor Impact Mapping 197 SCALE ITIII o 10 20 FEET SCALE ." ITIII o 10 20 FEET Kappen Cave VIA Map for Floor Surfaces II Severe Impacts I m Heavy Impacts I ~ Light Impacts ~ I ~ ~ No Observable Impacts j I @ Disturbed Artifact ~ I unlike Rex Cavej about 25% of the visitors to Kappen Cave were affiliated with research activities. The amount of floor surface that has received heavy impact and the amount that shows no observable impact are proportionally the same l in Rex and Kappen. However, sevel"e impacts in Kappen Cave are more extensive and are the result of excavation pits that were left uncovered. Of special note are the doubled circles shown on the Kappen Cave VIAM. The circles represent prehistoric artifacts that have been left in the cave but are not in their original context. I FIGURE 4 I Rex Cave VIA Map for Floor Surfaces III Severe Impacts I J:m Heavy Impacts I ~ Light Impacts I ~ No Observable Impacts I I I FIGURE 5

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198 Cave Conservation and Restoration FIGURE 6 Matts Cave VIA Map for Floor Surfaces .,' Severe Impacts Jm Heavy Impacts ~ Light Impacts ~ No Observable Impacts @ Undisturbed Artifact SCALE [I D! IJIII o 10 20 FEET Magnetic North Visitor impact mapping can also be used for long-term monitoring. Malts Cave. Shown in Figure 6. Matts Cave, like Kappen and Rex. is relatively difficult to access. but unlike the other two caves, the entrance to Matts is much more obscure. Cumulative visitation to Matt's Cave is only about 10 visitors. There are no severe or heavy impacts within the cave. All visitors remained on the lightly impacted trail, which traverses the middle of the passage. Of interest are the circled asterisks, which represent prehistoric artifacts that are in their original context and have not been touched in modem times. Comparison. Study and comparison of the VIAMs in Figures 4, 5, and 6 give a graphic impression of resource conditions within each cave. Assuming visitor use patterns are related to resource conditions, it is possible for the cave manager to predict the conditions of other caves in the region from the documented impacts of these three caves. These three VIAMs were selected to represent conditions that are expected within all known caves in this region. Visitor Impact Mapping for Long-Term Monitoring Visitor impact mapping is also useful for long-term monitoring. Figure 7 presents a VI PM for the west portion of SP Cave. Point numbers and descriptors have been omitted for clarity. Points are coded according to impact over a 4-year period (from June 1991 to July 1995). Points marked with a Happy Face remained unchanged. Points marked with a Sad Face became more severely impacted. About half of the points reinspected in 1995 had become more severely impacted. Most damage involved breakage of additional stalactites and smearing of mud onto previously pristine flowstone. Another example for long-term monitoring with visitor impact mapping shows a floor that consists mostly of pristine mud-cracked surfaces, located in the east portion of SP Cave. Figure 8 shows the 1991 VIAM for floor surfaces. Figure 9 shows the remapped portion as it appeared in 1995, four years later. Close study of the two maps reveals that a few trails became wider and more severely impacted. Figure 10 combines the two maps to

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SCALE Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Bodenhamer-Visitor Impact Mapping FIGURE 7 @ West Portion of the Big Room ~Q SPCave "'~ Combined VIP Maps I '~~:'~",,,:\'::c 1:~,~ 1:95 ~ ':;C::"'@'::-:,::::@:_ {" t I 10 20 I;..;@/,,. .. ,\ FEET ; o'~", (" ~ ~,~~~:~ri>*, :'~~? ,:,.::;~::. '~£ ~ ~~;.. .' ."", f @\~"""l .~. ., .. \@); ,~.,:.--"",\ '._ :;':". 71'~\ .:;~' .... :.~ 10," '~~ ~ (~~" ~ lQ r.:, Resource WhiCh:.: more' '~:$! .. ~~~\iJ~ .. ) 'ell severely impacted since 1991. :: \\t@ @ Resource which has not I, changed since 1991. 199 I FIGURE 8 1.._____.', \ I East Portion of the Big Room SP Cave VIA Map for Floor Surfaces November 1991 SCALE DI'CIID" o 10 20 FEET ___ ,1 __ -" II Severe Impacts r:m Heavy Impacts ~ Light Impacts ~ No Observable Impacts graphically show changes in floor surfaces. Table 3 presents the calculated change in area for each class of impact. The information presented in Figure 10 and Table 3 may provide the cave manager with a tangible and quantitative look at resource changes over time. I Visitor Impact Mapping for Short-Term Monitoring Visitor impact maJping is also used to determine the effects of one-time, special events. Figure 11 shows VIAMs for floor surfaces of a portion of El

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200 Cave Conservation and Restoration II Severe Impacts m Heavy Impacts ~ Light Impacts ~ No Observable Impacts ~ Nm \ o 10 20 FEET SCALE East Portion ofthe Big Room SP Cave VIA Map for Floor Surfaces August 1995 FIGURE 9 -----', \ I , Area which was impacted in 1991, but has remained unchanged f:':] Area which has "heeled" due ~ to natural processes I!fffiIl Area which has become more 1lmiIl severely impacled since 1991 ", ", o East Portion of the Big Room SP Cave Combined VIA Maps \ 1991 and 1995 Nm SCALE \ [II' [I' ,,~. FIGURE 10 -----', \ I , Cap Cave before and after a rescue practice. Study and comparison of the VIAMs shows that the amount of severely impacted area increased. This increase is a result of rescuers hauling a stretcher-bound victim up a small pit. The rescuers walked further out onto the lip of the pit than previous visitors had, and the stretcher scraped and broke ofT chunks of bedrock as it was dragged over the lip. Interestingly, photomonitoring was also repeated before and after the rescue practice. Photomonitoring detected more impacts than visitor impact mapping. Impacts detected with photo monitoring mostly include small mud smears on previously pristine bedrock walls.

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Part 2~onservation, Management, Ethics: Bodenhamer-Visitor Impact Mapping 201 I Table 3 East Portion of the Big Room SP Cave VIA Map Surface Areas I November 1991 AUl!USt 1995 Chanl!e Impact Floor Area Percent of Floor Area Percent of Floor Area Percent of Class I (sq ft) Total Area (sq ft) Total Area (sq ft) Total Area No I 9,696 87.7% 9,497 85.4% -199 -1.8% Impacts Light I 211.5 2.0% 274.5 2.5% +63 +0.5% Impacts Heavy 304.5 2.7% 368.5 3.3% +64 +0.6% Impacts Severe 904.0 8.1% 976.0 8.8% +72 +0.7% Impacts Totals 11,116 100% 11,116 100%, I Visitor Impact Mapping Versus Photomonitoring I ... d I .. h In companson, both VISitor Impact mappmg an p lotomomtormg ave advantages and disadvantages: Visitor impact mapping seems to be better at detecting and quantifying large scale or isolated impacts in expansive areas. Photomonitoring seems better at detecting detailed changes in small areas. I For example, a large area of pristine floor surface may be better monitored with visitor impact mapping. Trails and otT-trail footprints throughout the area are located on the map and most changes are easy to detect. However, an articulated skeleton of a squirrel may be better monitored with a photograph. Visitor impact mapping can record that visitors have stepped on or near the skeleton, but in order to determine if visitors are FIGURE 11 EI Cap Cave Upper Entrance VIA Map for Floor Surfaces Visitor impact mapping is also used to determine the effects of one-time, special events. ~ c I Pre-Rescue Practice SCALE [I II II D"CII._ o 10 20 FEET Post Rescue Practice II Severe Impacts ~ Heavy Impacts ~ Light Impacts ~ No Observable Impacts

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202 When people first view visitor impact maps, often their impression is that the process must be very tedious and time consuming. In practice, it usually takes about the same amount of time to establish visitor impact mapping as it does to establ ish a good photo transect. Cave Conservation and Restoration actually picking up and moving individual bones, a photo is clearly more informative. Prudent cave managers should probably develop a coordinated monitoring system using both visitor impact mapping and photo monitoring to best fit their resource management needs. Time and Impact When people first view visitor impact maps, often their impression is that the process must be very tedious and time consuming. In practice, it usually takes about the same amount of time to establish visitor impact mapping as it does to establish a good photo transect. However, compared to traditional photomonitoring with tripod, compass, and plumb tine, rcpeating the visitor impact mapping usually goes more quickly. (See traditional photomonitoring versus streamlined photomonitoring with penn anent stations, page 207.) It docs secm to take a lot of time to develop detailed base maps. Good visitor impact mapping requires a scale of about 2.5 meters = I centimeter (20 feet = I inch), and detail should be such that an isolated footprint can be located and drawn in an area with a diameter of about I meter (3 feet). Fortunately there are a lot of cave mapping enthusiasts, and these cavers are likely to volunteer for a project that would generate a detailed base map. Perhaps cave cartographers would also be interested in developing visitor impact maps. When doing any sort of cave mapping, it is extremely important to drastically limit additional impacts. (See survey, page 187.) Whether developing detailed base maps or establishing and repeating visitor impact mapping, it is best to stay on well-established, designated trails. In order to see impacts and fragile resources that are ofT the trail, use a very bright light. Hand-held, self-contained spotlights that are suitable for visitor impact mapping are available through various outdoor sports retailers. Jfthere are ofT-trail areas that cannot be secn, even with a bright light, there is a simplc, impact-free solution-don't map them. In almost all cases, the type of monitoring information that can be generated by staying on trails will be more than adequate to dctect resource changes and direct management decisions. Cited Reference Bodenhamer H. 1995. Monitoring human-caused changes with visitor impact mapping. In: Rea GT, editor. Proceedings of the 1995 National Cave Management Symposium: Spring Mill State Park. Mitchell, Indiana, October 25-28, 1995. Indianapolis (IN): Indiana Karst Conservancy. p 28-37.



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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Hildreth-Werker-Photos as Management Tools 203 SectionlB-Developing Cave Management Programs Photographs as I Cave Management Tools Val Hildreth-Werker Take nothing but conservatiOfFwise photos. Leave nothing hut carefulfootprints on established trai/s. Kill nothing hut time. Cave softly ... and erase your frace. Photographs provide visual records that document, educate, and entertain. Cave pictures are made for various purposes-personal enjoyment, historic documentation, resource inventory, salon entry, restoration before-andafter, and so on. Any photographic image may someday become an important element in cave management decisions. Photographs can have significant influence on cave conservation. We refine and change caving ethics as we learn more about the detrimental impacts humans cause in cave environments. Photos can support protection of critters, microbes, bones, minerals, speleothems, cultural remains, geologic 'featurcs, and cave systems-photographers can create support materials l for all sorts of cave resource conservation. Photographers have the opportunity and responsibility to communicate updated stewardship standards-through our in-cave behavior and reflected in the resulting images. Photos that portray outdated modes should systematically include explanation statements describing improved ethics. This chapter defines photodocumentation, photoinventory, and photomonitoring. Simplify and enhance cave project photography with fonnulaslfor effective photos, strategies for file organization, and systems for effici~nt archiving. I Photodocumentation, Photoinventory, and Photomonitoring Three categories of cave photography support resource management decisions. I PhoiodocWllentation is the photographic recording of events, projects, prod:dures, expeditions, evidence, locations, or scientific examples. Photodocumentation includes organizing the photos to tell a coherent visual story. Documentation or inventory photos should always include an object or a person to indicate scale. I Photoinventory is much Jike a picture inventory of va Juab Ie household items for insurance purposes. Photoinventory is an organized, labeled collection of pictures recording the valued resources and features of a cavelor karst system. I Photomonitoring is based on established photo stations that enable the same photographs to be accurately repeated over time. Photomonitoring sequences may document and detect visitor impact, vandalism, speleothem growth and decline, water level fluctuation, trail conditions, and other anthropogenic or natural impacts. This chapter defines photodocumentation, photoinventory, and photomonitoring to support resource management.

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204 Photographs that record or document events, projects, procedures, expeditions, evidence, locations, and scientific data examples are called photodocumentation. Cave Conservation and Restoration Most importantly, write the date and place the photo was made on every cave photograph. Immediately record the date and location on each slide mount, on the back of each print, or electronically tile the information with each digital image. Photodocumentation Some cavers take a lot of pictures. We use images to record expeditions, projects, procedures. events, locations, evidence, and scientific samples. Picture collections become photodocumentation when the images are properly labeled, organized, and captioned to tell a coherent story. Photographs made for scientific documentation should include a measure or an object for scale reference. Documenting Evidence or Stages of an Event Basic documentation is sometimes communicated in a single image. (See photo that shows before-and-after gypsum cleaning in one shot, page 420.) A series of two images can document before-and-aftcf-the conditions before and results after an event, a project, or a time interval. (See Southwinds photo pair, page 207.) A series of three or more images can describe a process or tell a story. (See Lower Cave stalactite repair series, page 468.) Rules of Three for Better Documentation Photos Shoot at least three images at each site: Shoot from a distance or use a wide-angle lens to make long shots that record an overview of the area. Move in (or zoom in) for medium shots and include people involved in activities. Make close-up photos to record details. Shoot three angles of each image area-move the camera to higher and lower positions and find interesting angles that best communicate information. Bracket exposures and make notes about the camera settings for later comparative analysis. Shoot at least three bracketed exposures on important documentation shots. Compose the image before you shoot. Improve your photos by using the rule of thirds (Figure I). Mentally divide your frame into thirds (nine sections)-composition is often improved by placing the subject at one of the four points where the lines intersect. Figure 1. Rule of Thirds (left). To enhance photographic composition, mentally divide the frame into nine equal portions. Place the subject at one of the four intersection points. (See Figures 3, 4, and 5, page 205.) Figure 2. Bull's Eye (below). Deliberately center the composition only when centering will enhance the visual impact of an image. (See Figures 6 and 7, page 205.)

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Part 2-e?nservation, Management, Ethics: HildrethWerker-Photos as Management Tools 205 I Figure 3. The white helmet in this image is positioned on an imaginary intersection for rule of thirds composition. The trail in this image, though umnarked, is an obviously compacted pathway that carries the viewer's eye down from the helmet, then back up into the passage. Figure 4. The caver is positioned in an imagined rule of thirds intersection. The viewer's eye is drawn from the silhouetted caver down the discolored path. The hole in the flowstone at the bottom of the trail creates more appeal by prompting the eye to move up through the image again. Figure 5. Visualizing the rule of thirds, each caver is positioned on an opposing intersection point. The eye is drawn between the white circle on the foreground T-shirt and the caver sitting in the background. This interesting composition tends to hold the viewer's attention. Figure 6. AI caver is centered in the old culvert entrance to Lechuguilla cave. The rings of the galvanized culvert give a literal bull's eye impression to this image while the ofT-center flash adds interest to the composition. I Figure 7. The cave cricket is intentionally centered in the frame of white calcite. Note the slightly ofT-center nylon cap covering a photomonitoring station, adding visual interest to the image. Only use a bull's eye or centered composition when you deliberately choose to center the subject, not because you forgot to compose the image. 1 Mentally compose the image three other different ways before exposing a bull's eye shot (Figure 2). I Document Participants in Action Make simple shots of human activity. Organize photo gear so action shots can be made quickly: With' a nonnal, mid-focal~length lens, shoot 2-3 meters (6-10 feet) from the p~rticipants. Shoot two frames-the first candid, the second posed. Add a slaved flash at the side only if convenient, conservation-wise, and quick. I Reference Scale for Scientific Documentation Photos, made for scientific documentation should include a measure or an object for scale reference. I

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206 Figure 8. The IFRAO color scale, developed by the International Federation of Rock Art Organizations, is ideal for cave photographers. The fig seed, inadvert. cOlly left by a caver at a lunch stop, sprouted in the cave's dark silence. (See page 10 afeolor section.) Figure 9 (1999) and Figure 10 (2002). Nest of cave pearls at the bottom of Boulder Falls in Lcchuguilla Cave. These two images show no change during a three-year period. Because several pearls once disappeared from this nest, stand-andshoot photographs are made periodically at this site and filed as photoinventory images. Cave Conservation and Restoration The International Federalion of Rock Art Organizations (IFRAO) has designed a color scale for photographic documentation of archaeological resources (Bednarik 1991; Bednarik and Seshadri 1995). The IFRAO scale is an excellent tool for cave photographers (Figure 8). On this useful Web site, , a PDF tile of the color scalc can be downloaded and printed directly onto photographicquality paper. The digital and archival benefits of color matching with the IFRAO scale are described dcscribed by Bednarik on another Web site . A small nonreflective ruler is adequate for scale only. Or use a common object of recognizable scale to indicate the approximate dimensions of the subject matter. Photoinventory The term pholoinvenlory describes the process of photographing specific cave features or passages using a simple, somewhat repeatable, stand-andshoot method. The photographer stands in an easy-to-remember, obviously discernible trail location and shoots the speleothem, feature, or scene. Usually, nothing is left in the cave to identify stand-and-shoot locations. Over time, stand-and-shoot spots are memorized with the aid of notes, or locations are matched to previous photos. This technique yields approximate repeat shots. Even if a location marker is placed in the cave, repetition of the shot will not be exact. Like a picture inventory of valuable household items organized for insurance purposes, photoinventory images should provide simple, readily accessible information. Photoinventory images should be individually labeled, organized, and archivally stored as a collection of pictures that record the valuable resources and features of a cave or karst system. Photo inventory collections can benefit and support resource management decisions. Tips for Photoinventory Good lighting greatly enhances images that are to serve as visual records for identification and inventory. Use composition and lighting to emphasize the subject. A simple, repeatable lighting solution works well for photo inventory images: Shoot with a camera-to-subject distance of 2-5 meters (6-15 feet). Use two flashes. Fire one flash from the camera. Slave the second, offcamera flash. For consistency, the slaved flash can be held to one side at arm's length.

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Hildreth-Werker-Photos as Management Tools 207 Figure II (April 8, 1994) and Figure 12 (August 8, 1997). The entrance to Southwinds in Lcchuguilla was very white and pristine on the day after it was discovered in 1994. Three years and about 150 cavers later, the entryway had become dusted to a dull, brown-colored appearance. Cavcrs should move gently through this area to avoid kicking the soft rock flour into airborne particles that discolor the features. (Sec page 6 afeolar section.) I Choose camera position, image composition, and lighting techniques that ~an be approximately repeated if future comparative photographic analysis is necessary. I I Photomonitoring Pholomoniloring sequences yield time-based information for both qualitative and quantitative comparison of change, growth, and impact. Images are created from identical camera locations monthly, annually, or once every few;years. Photomonitoring systems can facilitate consistent documentation of human impacts and natural fluctuations in cave environments. Comparative images made from established photo stations provide monitoring data that pinpoint changes. Environmental photomonitoring is a management and research tool for documenting, evaluating, and protecting resource values. Management decisions are supported with tangible, time-based evidence of changes in cave environments. Habitat fluctuation, visitor impact, natural growth and decline, water levels, trail conditions, cultural sites, paleontological remains, and other resource conditions should be photographed. Repeat photos can be made from the same point again and again, creating a timelapse sequence that shows change or stability over time. Photomonitoring images that are carefully labeled and archived become visual documentation tools for immediate, intermediate, and long-term cave management. Tradition.al Photomonitoring Methods Historic methods of environmental photomonitoring are labor-intensive and time-consuming. Tedious documentation is required to achieve rigorous duplication of tripod placements, heights, angles, and camera settings (Uhl 1981). The repetitious use of levels, plumb-lines, measurements, and compass re~dings further complicates traditional methods of cave photomonitoring, often renders inaccurate results, and increases impact to fragile resources. I Streamlined Photomonitoring Installations During the '1990s, Werker and Hildreth-Werker (1994, 1996) began developing systems for permanent photomonitoring installations to ease the I I Photomonitoring systems enable consistent documentation of human impacts and natural fluctuations in cave environments.

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208 Figure 13. Traditional environmental photomonitoring techniques are cumbersome and time-consuming. With traditional systems it is diffi~ cult to avoid causing repetitive impacts to areas ncar the photo stations. Fi~ure 14. The streamlined photomonitoring system developed by Jim Werker and Val Hildreth-Wcrker is installed in caves throughout the western U.S. Cave Conservation and Restoration time burden and redundant cave impact oftraditiona I photo monitoring methods. Installing a permanent photomonitoring system enables quick, accurate, and repeatable images every time a photo station is used. Stainless steel sleeves are installed in the floor, wall, or ceiling of a cave passage to achieve consistent image alignment, angle, and camera-losubject distance. A specially designed mount accepts the camera and plugs into each sleeve. The same image area is reliably duplicated during subsequent photographic sessions-today, tomorrow, or 50 years from now. With permanent photomonitoring installations and the specially tooled mono rod, images made during subsequent photo sessions are readily compared on a light table, computer screen, or a projection system. Multiple projectors, multi-image dissolves, or digital comparisons can dynamically display temporal change and anthropogenic or natural impact. Photomonitoring programs supply data for resource protection decisions and provide documentary photos for storytelling and interpretive activities. Contemporary digital technology enables faster, more consistent photographic documentation. Advances in electronic imaging make it possible to compare visual data through layers, graphs, and statistical analyses. Innovative photographic technology and GIS applications will open future avenues for quantitative analysis of photomonitoring data. Tips for Photomonitoring Selection criteria for a photomonitoring camera (digital or film-based) includes excellent lens quality, cave-friendly size and shape, adequate flash characteristics, sutlicient exposure settings, and appropriate mounting positions. A camera with auto-focus, automatic settings, and in-camera flash makes photomonitoring sessions much easier, faster, and more consistently repeatable. Images exposed with only the camera flash make the most easily repeated.type ofphoto-monitoring picture. Photograph subject matter located close to a photomonitoring station using only an in-camera flash (no additional external flashes). The in-camera flash yields a flat-looking image, but renders data that can be easily compared in multiple photos. However, multiple flashes are sometimes necessary to adequately light an image area. Choose identifiable positions for photo statiuns. Photopoints should be easily located during subsequent shooting sessions.

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I Part 2-qmservation, Management, Ethics: HildrethWerker-Photos as Management Tools 209 Figure 15 (1995) and Figure 16 (2003, trail flagging added). These two photomonitoring images graphically show the success l of management strategies to minimize new impacts along a trail leading to the New Mexico Room in Carlsbad Cavern. I In some caves, photopoints are installed at systematic intervals to enhance the monitoring objectives. In other caves, randomly located photopoints are more useful. If there is no appropriate durable surface for installing a photomonitoring sleeve, choose a suitable stand-and-shoot location and include this shot to augment the chronological sequence of photomonitoring data. Stand-and-shoot photos are also useful for recording close-up details of subjects. For efficient identification, clearly labeled images indicate stand-and-shoot. (See photoinventory, page 206.) In addition to thorough written descriptions of each photo station, note the camera settings and flash techniques. Augment documentation with a photograph of each station area clearly showing the photopoint location and flash positions in relation to other features at the site. Tie photo stations to the existing cave survey and add the photomonitoring stations to maps of the cave. I f using station markers in a cave environment, the recommended materials are stainless steel, nylon, or Mylar x (See survey markers, page 185 and page 189; also see cave-safe materials, page 167.) Photographic transparencies (35-millimeter slides) combined with digital images work best for photomonitoring projects. Fine grain films, typically ISO 100 or slower allow for enhanced resolution of small details but often require more flash power for proper exposure in caves. Kodachrome" films, when properly processed by approved labs and stored correctly, promise archival stability for several decades. Kodakr E-I DOS, a professional transparency film that records accurate colors with flash photography, is this author's first choice for In addition to thorough written descriptions of each photo station, note the camera settings and flash techniques.

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210 Permanent Photomonitoring Installations Val Hildreth.Werker and Jim C. Werker Permanent photo monitoring systems can streamline environmental docu~ menting processes. Designed by Jim Werker and Val Hildreth-Werker for cave installations, the streamlined system is efficient for any environmental photomonitoring application. A small stainless steel sleeve is installed at each station. Each sleeve is covered with an unobtrusive nylon cap to prevent debris from entering. The camera is mounted on a specially designed monorod that fits the sleeves to assure accurate alignment and efficient operation. The systems include simple methods for archiving and retrieving both analogue and digital photographic data (Werker and HildrethWerker 1994,1996). Both Jim and Val are long-time cavers and have backgrounds in research and development. Val has been photographing caves since the late 1970s and brings professional experience in medical and commercial photography, animation, multi-image, and video production" The tedium, time consumption, and redundant cave impact inherent in traditional photomonitoring led to the development ot the streamlined method. The idea of installing permanent photomonitoring systems in caves simmered until Cave Conscrvation and Restoration photomonitoring film. For slide dcveloping, use Kodak "Q" Lab ti services (photo labs that are inspected and certified for quality control in film processing). With archival processing and proper storage, Kodak E-I DOS retains color balance and quality. Proper processing and storage enhance the archival potential of any film. Prints (black-and-white or color) should not be used a the only media for photomonitoring because processing and printing variations for negatives can be extreme. Video photomonitoring has not proved successful because it is more eHicient to compare individual, high-resolution images. For increased archival protection, scan photomonitoring images, (transparencies or negatives) and store the files on digital media. Some CD-ROM manufacturers claim I DO-year storage stability. Ideally. archive digital images with at least 2,500 pixels on the long axis. In terms of common digital camera formats, a five megapixel tile is adequate (note that a five megapixel camcra tile will make an 18 megabyte TIFF file). However, storage in Ji'EG format compressed to no less than 10 percent of the original file size is adequate for archival purposes (10: I compression). Many soft\,,"are packages offer some degree of control over the level of JPEG compression-always choose the lowest degree of compression to achieve the least loss in original image data. Even this will result in substantially smaller tile size than a TIFF. In the digital world bigger is always better, and larger image files will give better capability to resolve small details (Dave Bunnell. personal communication 2(03). Immediately after processing or downloading, record the date and location on all photographs. Label all slides and place in archival, polypropylene sleeves for preservation. Polypropylene slide pages work well. (Polyvinyl pages are not recommended because they emit gases that rapidly deteriorate photographic emulsions.) Sequcntial slidcs or digital images from each photo station are paged or filed to facilitate easy retrieval, viewing, and comparison. Store complete photo sets in at least two separate locations. Update all sets with future photographs. Ifphotomonitoring images are digital. then archive high-quality prints separately. Store electronic files on CD-ROM, DVD-ROM or other commonly accessible media. Photos typically grow more valuable over the decades and centuries. Long-tcrm archiving and retrievability are important factors. Ideally, store photomonitoring images in public archiving institutions that accept cave photos. Find archiving facilities through cave societies, libraries, museums, and other public institutions. Organizing and Archiving Cave Photographs Cave photographs should be organized for efficient retrieval. Otherwise, photographic information is of little benefit to resource managers. Conservation management decisions and law enforcement cases arc frequently supported with photographic documentation, but a cave manager has to be able to access the photos. Changes in cave environments; habitat fluctuations; \vater levels and conditions; effects of moisture variations; trail maintenance status; progress of survey, construction, or restoration projects; grO\vth and decline of speleothems; documentation of geologic features; condition of cultural materials or paleontological sites; visitor impact; vandalism; gate status; entrance vegetation; and other resource information should be photograph i

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: HildrethWerker-Photos as Management Tools 211 cally reco~ded and archived. Val described the Every photo that is labeled with at least the place and date the image was concept to Jim. He created has potential future use for cave or karst management decisions. If designed and created labeled with the location and date, comparative photos created over time hardware. are invaluable for law enforcement situations. Jim, a mechanical However, if those potentially useful photos cannot be found when a need engineer for Sandia National Laboratories arises, then their usefulness is certainly diminished. Some type of efficient since the 19605, brings organization is obviously important. Photo filing systems vary as much as decades of professional the photographers themselves. Most resource management offices already experience in tooling have photo filing systems in place. If a filing system is too complicated and design, engineering, and time-coms'uming to catalog and store images, then revamp and simplify the fabrication. For 30 years, system so it is easy and user-friendly. he worked at the I National Labs and the label Photographs Underground Nuclear The date is the most overlooked detail on many photographic images. If Test Site in Nevada. necessary, lather information can be reconstructed from an accurate date Jim and Val collaborated to develop the through comparison with field notes, journals, datasheets, or other photocomplete graphs. I photomonitoring system. When photos come back from the processing lab, immediately write a Installation of their first tiny date on slide mounts or in a corner of prints. When downloading system began in 1993. digital images, include (at least) the date and cave name with the tile. When From designing the time permits, make complete labels that include the following information: prototype through the I evolutionary adjustments Date the image was photographed ot fabricating, archiving, Name of the cave (or code ifname information is especially sensitive) and digitizing, they Location in the cave (or name of the passage or survey station) created an easily Name "I' the photographer (and assistants) repeatable means for chronological environAddress, phone, e-mail, contact information for photographer mental documentation Names of the people appearing in a photograph with photographs. Name of the landowner or managing agency The couple also Caption explaining the photo developed a specialized File number for personal image retrieval system system using infrared Copyright (optional) photographic technology Request for photo credit for monitoring the I Mexican free.tailed bat h h' k I h d I population at Carlsbad CopynghtlOg p otograp IC wor IS optIOn a Copyng te matena may Caverns National Park. complicate 'future use of simple documentation photos. Copyrights may They photomonitored the make photographs less serviceable to the managing agency, organization, colony annually and or landowner. Regardless of copyright decision, request for photo byline or collected population data photo credii may be included on the label. during a to.year study I (Route and others 1999, Organizing and Archiving-Tools That Work 2005). Streamline labeling and retrieval systems and minimize organizational time The Werkers have with thefollowing suggestions: installed permanent I photomonitoring systems in several caves of the The ink in most Pilot~ ball point pens will not smear on plastic slide mounts'and resin-coated photographic papers. western U.S.; caves in the Guadalupe Mountain Ink-jet or laser printer labels work well and look great, but when time region of New Mexico; is short! write directly on the slide mount or photo print (front border caves of Arizona, Texas, or back'corner) and save tedious label making for later. Utah, Nevada, and A phot~graphic loupe aids in quickly viewing images on a light table. Oregon; caves managed All photographs should be labeled and archivally sleeved for preservaby the National Park tion in polypropylene slide or print pages. Avoid pages made of other Service, the Bureau of materials-PVC, polyvinyl, vinyl, sticky pages, and so on-these Land Management, the products emit gases that rapidly deteriorate photographic materials. USDA Forest Service; Today, most archival pages are made of polypropylene and the and caves managed by packaging will indicate archival quality. private land owners. Patent is pending. For prints, choose a photo-safe, archival album \vith slots for the negatives L -" I

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212 In the spirit of leave-no-trace ethics, cave photographers are developing ways to restore along the way. Some cave photo teams now carry a little restoration kit with simple tools. Cave Conservation and Restoration unless you already have a well-established negative filing system. For slide storage, archival clam-shell boxes made of polypropylene with ring binders inside work well for keeping dust away from slide pages. Archival slide pages and ring binder boxes are worth the investment-purchase throogh large photographic suppliers. These products greatly facilitate image organization and retrieval. Photography Can Promote Cave Stewardship "She's a photographer ... she can do anything she wants." That's what some people believe. On several occasions, I've overheard people say that about me. But, when it comes to caves, I wholeheartedly disagree with this sentiment. Wielding an otlicial-Iooking camera rig does not give license for go-anywhere-do-anything ethics in caves. The longing to get a shot should never overpower the importance of reducing impact to the cave. Before acting, first think about protecting the resources-the cave should come first. Conservation Ethics for Cave Photographers Promote leave-no-trace attitudes by staying on trails and adopting caver minimum-impact ethics. If there are no marked trails, look for the most impacted path and choose to stay on it. Always appoint an assistant to be in charge of spotting the photographer. It is easy for cave photographers to get preoccupied and forget to watch out for their feet, backs, elbows, helmets, len,ses, and equipment. Assign a conservation-minded caver who will speak up when the photographer needs caution or correction. Check with cave managers and speleologists for proper protocol before entering sensitive areas. Preplan restoration gear and erase your trace as you move through the cave. Become aware of state-of-the-art conservation ethics and insist that models, cavers, and assistants cave softly. Shoot for no new impact. (See the minimum impact code for cave photographers, page 215-remember to eat over a zippie bag, use non marring boots, wear lintfree clothes, and pack clean flowstone shoes.) Erase Your Trace For decades, cavers promoted a follow-the-footsteps-of-others ethic by placing feet inside the first set of footprints to avoid causing new impact. But, more people are caving, and ethics are changing. Pathways of single footprints have expanded into multiple scars across cave floors. Today, rather than retracing former impact, cavers are developing gentle ways to prevent and erase impacts. Even the traditional caver motto has changed-7(lke nothing but pictures. Leave nothing butfootprints. Kill nothing but time. Many are now augmenting the adage to reflect new ethics-Take nothing but conservation-wise photos. Leave nothing but carefu/footprints on established trails. Kill nothing but time. Cave softly ... and erase your trace. If trails are not marked, choose routes across durable surfaces. Avoid creating new footprints and causing new damage to cave passages. Immediately remove or restore any inadvertent foot or hand imprints if the restoration activities will not cause additional harm. Erase left-over footprints so they cannot tempt others to follow. In the spirit of leave-no-trace ethics, cave photographers are developing ways to restore along the way. Some cave photo teams now carry a little restoration kit with simple tools. Use only clean, contaminant-free equipment. When feasible, get water from the immediate cave passage for restoration tasks. Use supplies in a single area to avoid cross-contamina

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Hildreth-Werker-Photos as Management Tools 213 tion. With just a few lightweight tools, many types of restoration and repair can be accomplished (HildrethWerker and Werker 1997, 1999; also see chapters in the restoration sections of this volume): I Small nylon-bristled brush or a new, soft toothbrush for muddy prints Packable spray bottle for water Absorbent sponge to blot up gunk Two or three clean zip-closure plastic bags Stainless steel or plastic tweezers to remove small debris Nonlatex, powder-free surgical gloves Light nowstone shoes f I h' 'b I' h I settmg up a 5 at IS gomg to e extreme y tlme-consummg. some p oto assistants and models might be willing to work on restoring a small area while the rest of the team participates in shot preparation. By planning and appointing an experienced restoration team leader, simple tasks-certain trail maintenance, nowstone cleanup, or small speleothem repairs---can be quickly accomplished, I Photos Can Help Protect, Preserve, and Perpetuate ~ ~ ~ I ~ Photograph1s document our journey through the history of cave exploration and conservation. Each image freezes a single moment in speleological time. Pictures become silent mirrors, chronicling subterranean systems, human ethics, and environmental impacts. Cave photographs should illustrate good caving practices. People tend to repeat or emulate what is seen in pictures-blunders, as well as new techniques, can make bold statements in photographs. Photographers can create images that focus other cavers toward low-impact methods and thoughtful resource stewardship, Any cave photographer can support and promote co~servation ethics through their images. Those who make and show photographic work of caves have an intense responsibility to communicate the best possible conservation messages. Any published photograph, exhibition image, or salon entry that depicts outmoded dIving practices should include a disclaimer, warning, or explanation~ Insist that a statement describing better practice is boldly displayed or printed with any photograph that illustrates questionable behaviors (Figure 17), Use captions to educate. Ifphotos showing cave damage arc used for I Any cave photographer can support and promote conservation ethics through their images. Figure 17, Two cavers work as a team cleaning flow-stone with sponges, water in spray bottles, and light brush strokes, By today's standards, both cavers should be wearing non latex, powder-free surgical gloves to help minimize new impacts. Cavers should also check the soles of tlowstonc shoes to confirm they are nonmarking-be especially careful to test aqua socks that have dark-colored soles.

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214 Use captions to educate. Any published photograph, exhibition image, or salon entry that depicts outmoded caving practices should include a disclaimer, warning, or explanation. Figure 18. Photographers, flashes, and assistants remain within the trails in Lake Louise, Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico. Cave Conservation and Restoration instruction, or if photos with outdated practices are used for historical documentation, clarify the intention in the caption or context. Through careful wording, cave photographers can encourage low-impact caving ethics and champion current best practices in cave conservation. Cited References Bednarik RG. 1991. The IFRAO Standard Scale. Rock Art Research 8:788. Bednarik RG. Seshadri K. 1995. Digital colour re-constitution in rock art photography. Rock Art Research 12:42-51. Hildreth-Werker Y, Werker Jc. 1997. LechuguiJla restoration: Techniques learned in the Southwest. NSS News 55(5): I 07-113. Hildreth-Werker Y, Werker JC. 1999. Restoration, trail designation, and microbial preservation in Lechuguilla Cave. In: Stitt RR, editor. Proceedings National Cave Management Symposium /997: October 710 in Bellingham, Washington. and Chilliwack and Vancouver Island, B.C .. Canada. National Cave Management Symposium Steering Committee. p 181-189. Route B, Bemis T, Roemer D, Hildreth-Werker Y, Werker J. 1999. Methods for monitoring large colonies of Mexican free-tailed bats. In: Stitt RR, editor. Proceedings National Cave A1anagement Symposium 1997: October 7-10 in Bellingham. Washington. and Chilliwack and Vancouver island, B.C., Canada. National Cave Management Symposium Steering Committee. p 159-168. Uhl P J. 198 I. Photomonitoring as a management tool. In: Mylorie JE, editor. First International Cave Management Pmceedings. Murray State University. p 123-128. Werker JC, Hildreth Y. t994. Streamlined photomonitoring. NSS News 52(2):66. Werker J, Hildreth-Werker Y. 1996. New improved system for photomonitoring. In: Rea GT, editor. Pruceedings of the 1995 National Cave Management Symposium: Spring Mill State Park. Mitchel/, Indiana, October 25-28, 1995. Indianapolis (IN): Indiana Karst Conservancy. p 311-312.

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: HildrethWerker-Photos as Management Tools 215 I Minimum-Impact Code of Ethics for Cave Photographers Val Hildreth.Werker and Jim C. Werker I The goal of this code of ethics is to encourage cave photographers to minimize human impacts to caves. As we learn more about cave environments, we are in a continuing process of evaluating and redefining caver ethics. These guidelines for low-impact cave photography come from the experiences and thoughtful contributions of many cavers. Think safety-+take care of you rself and your team. Think stewardship-avoid impacting cave resources. Take care of aesthetic, cultural, paleontological, geological, hydrological, mineralogical, meteorological, biological, as well as microbial resources. Move gently and photograph so my Packs~ vertical gear, boots, aqua socks, gloves, helmets, and lint-free clothing should be freshly washed to avoid transfer of mud, dust, and microbes from other environments. Photo gear and tripods should also be cleaned before each cave trip. Use only non marring/non marking soles. Whether light or dark colored, many boot soles will leave marks on calcite and other cave surfaces-test by striking soles across untreated limestone or concrete. No heavy waffle stompers. Traditional black lug soles will leave marks on cave surfaces. Be careful with blond rubber soleschunks from soft soles tend to break ofT and leave debris in cave passages. Use padded camera cases rather than hard-edged boxes when feasible. Minimize photo gear-smaller, lighter, more compact. Always ask to be spotted when photographing fragile areas. Spot the feet, too. Instruct models to refuse if the photographer suggests a move that is too close to delicate speleothems. The model usually has the best vantage point. Appoint an assistant to spot each model. Avoid disturbing bats and other cave-dwelling creatures. Take riothing from caves. Removal of natural or historical objects is unethical and illegal unless you have a collection permit for authorized research. (Contemporary trash usually should be removed.) Wear gloves. Rather than grabbing handholds along the trail, use a gloved knuckle for balance where possible. Pack in clean gloves for use in gloves-ofT areas and in pristine passages. Powder-free, non latex surgical gloves are recommended. Fresh surgical gloves also help keep photo gear cleaner. Carry clean flowstone shoes-lightweight, lint-free, and nonm~rking. Use water-sports booties, smooth-soled athletic shoes, aqua socks, or nylon slippers. Include a plastic bag to contain dirty boots. Do not use bare feet or socks-lint, skin flakes, blood, and body olils should not be left on cave surfaces. Insist that all team members change to clean garments when entering pristine areas to make photographs. Avoid contamination. Know which special-attention areas require clean clothes, shoes, and gear. Do not enter restricted areas wearing general caving attire. Keep these areas pristine. Avoid isolated pools. Tens of thousands of skin flakes and fragments I The goal of this code of ethics is to encourage cave photographers to minimize negative human impacts to caves.

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216 Photographers are not exemptthey should adopt minimum-impact ethics. Cave Conservation and Restoration of debris fall from each of our bodies every hour. Don't comb or brush hair in caves. Try to avoid scratching. Don't smoke or use tobacco in caves. Smoke and fumes can kill bats, invertebrates, and other cave-dwelling animals. Remove all human wastes. Contain and carry urine, feces, spit, and vomit out of caves. Eat over a plastic bag. Carry out all crumbs and debris. Don't eat on the move. Stay on established traits. Sit within the pathway and be careful not to set packs outside the trail. Keep tripods within the trail. Always look for and use the most impacted areas whether traveling or stopping. Where trails are not obvious, stay within the most compacted or durable zones. Don't lean on walls, ceilings, or speleothems. Don't sit on formations. Avoid trampling floor deposits. When traveling through the cave, use small points of contact for balance instead of dirty open palms. Rather than retracing footprints and handprints, gently erase and restore. Photographers are not exempt-adopt minimum-impact ethics. Stay on trails. Stay away from sensitive or otf-limits areas. Look carefully, move gently, don't kick up dust, and avoid anything you don't have to touch.



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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Huppert-Cave Laws Section B-Dcvcloping Cave Management Programs I Using the Law to Protect Caves: A R~view of Options George N. Huppert The legal system of the United States provides many avenues to protect caves. It seems paradoxical that, with all of the laws covering vandalism, theft, and trespass, caves still need special additional protection. Why do caves need specific protection laws? Those who enforce the law are sometimes misinformed and believe that caves have little value. Groups of cavers, conservation societies, and scientists ",",ork diligently to persuade the legal system to recognize the substantial values associated with caves. However, in pragmatic terms, applying ~nd enforcing laws for the effective conservation of caves, karst areas, and'unique associated biota can be ditlicult at best. Often, the biggest obstacle is convincing the enforcing authorities that caves are, in fact, worth the application of these protective laws. Fortunately, over the past three decades there has been a gradual improvement in this attitude. Success has been slow but productive. Many federal and state agencies, and to a much lesser degree local agencies, have accepted the wisdom of protecting caves. Still, enforcement remains spotty and can be quite variable, even within the same agency. Laws are not static entities, but changeable records. Modifications can be developed and legislated. Court decisions can create precedents that may change the interpretation and application of the law. Usually the changes are helpful, clarifying some phraseology in the text, or including aspects of caves or karst that were omitted in the original law. Unfortu~ately, modifications can also be detrimental, even to the point of requiring repeal. Keeping current with this body of legislation is necessary in order to' make the best use of it. Fortunately, the Internet has made this once fonnidable task easier. Many federal and state laws are readily available through search engines on the World Wide Web. This chapter is a compendium including a brief history of cave laws, descriptions of existing state and federal laws that may be useful for cave protection, and a list of Web sites for finding further information. Background I The first significant compilation of cave laws was produced by Louise Power (1974) in her role as Chairman of the Legislation Subcommittee of the Consefvation Committee of the National Speleological Society. Power's effort provided a handbook to guide enactment of cave protection laws in tlH~ states. Next, an article and list of state cave protection laws by Stitt (1976) was published in the proceedings of the first cave management symposium held in the United States in 1975. These t~o publications started a series of articles that follow a similar format: Huppert and Wheeler (1982), Bradshaw (1982), and Anonymous (1995). These earlier articles rellect the emphasis of the times-primarily to fonnulate and pass cave protection acts. Later articles, such as Huppert (1995), LaMoreaux and others (1997), and Lera (2002) provide greater detail. 217 This chapter is a compendium including a brief history of cave laws, descriptions of existing state and federal laws that may be useful for cave protection, and a list of websites for finding further information.

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218 The Puerto Rico Act speci fically protects karst as well as the caves found within karst terrains, whether on public or private land. Cave Conservation and Restoration State Laws During the past 100 years, many stales have enacted laws to protect caves. Colorado passed the first cave protection law in 1883, followed by Wyoming and South Dakota. All three states later revoked the first statutes because they were vague and dinieu!t to enforce. (Also see states, page 220.) A number of other states enacted laws early in the 20th century that have since been repealed or superseded by superior legislation. With the exception of Oklahoma, Maine, and Hawaii, (plus Coloradosee sidebar, page 220) all cave protection acts presently in force were passed between 1976 and 1993 (Huppert and Wheeler 1986, 1992). There are now 24 states with specific cave protection acts. Puerto Rico and the Cherokee Nation also have similar legislation (Huppert 1995). (Some states have resource protection laws that incidentally mention cave resources. Such laws may have been passed in different years than those listed below.) There is great variation in the application and effectiveness of cave protection laws. Apparently, the drallers of the acts gradually learned from earlier efforts, because the later laws tend to be the best constructed. The following specific cave protection laws arc listed by Iluppert (1995) and Lera (2002). Alabama 1988 Arizona 1977 Effective 1978. Arkansas 1989 California 1976 Effective J 977. Colorado 2004 Florida 1980 Georgia 1977 Hawaii 2002 Idaho 1982 Illinois 1985 Effective 1986. Indiana 1983 Kentucky 1988 Maine2001 Maryland 1978 Missouri 1980 Effective 1981. The state also has a 1959 showcave inspection law. Montana 1993 New Mexico 1981 North Carolina 1987 Ohio 1988 Effective 1989. Oklahoma 1967 Pennsylvania 1990 Effective 1991. Tcnnessee 1991 Texas 1979 A 1977 law was repealed, and then it was enacted into a different part of the statutes. Texas also has a law against littering in caves and another law protecting cave owners from liability. Virginia J 979 West Virginia 1977 A Model Law: 1995 Puerto Rico Act An encouraging event occurred on August 21, 1999, with the enactment of Law 292 for the Protection and Conservation of Karst Physiography in Puerto Rico (A Vale, written communication by facsimile on April 23, 2000). This Act specifically protects karst as well as the caves found within karst terrains, whether on public or private land. Protection also includes

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Huppert-Cave Laws formatiohs, minerals, flora, fauna, and all natural materials. The sale of such cave items is specifically forbidden. Law 292 is truly enlightened legislation and could be used as a model for similar laws elsewhere. Unfortunately most state cave protection acts only protect caves on state lands. The few that cover caves on private lands usually require the landowner's permission to press enforcement. This is often difficult to obtain. Landowners frequently place no real value on caves and may not want to be bothered with the inherent problems and expenses of legal actions. An additional obstacle to enforcement may be that the violators are neighbors, friends, or relatives who were invited onto the property. I Protecting Archaeological Sites Examples of states that protect cave resources as part of archaeological, paleontological, historical, or natural sites include Nevada, Vermont, Washingion, and Wisconsin. The Nevada statute, passed in 1959, is perhaps the strongest of these. Based on archaeological evidence, the requirements of an archaeological protection act may well offer full protection for a cave and perhaps a portion of the surrounding surface landscape. Therefore, finding such assets in a cave may be the best route to protecting a cave in some states. I Other Legal Avenues Additional legal routes can protect caves. Most states have endangered species acts that cover a surprising number of animals and plants. For example,1 in 2001 Texas passed a law specifically protecting bats. In other states, the protection of biota requires protection of the habitat, which may include caves. Many states also have their own wilderness acts, usually listed by state name, such as the Arkansas Wilderness Act of 1984. Caves may fall under the definition of wilderness in some states. Pennsylvania has a law that provides I for an assistance program to help landowners who suffer damage from sinkholes. Tennessee requires stricter codes and oversight when a sewage disposal site is constructed on karst. Kentucky has several laws that are specifically meant to protect caves, karst, and karst groundwater in addition to the state cave protection law (LaMoreaux and others 1997). Other states should have similar laws. Many states have provided some level of legal oversight for significant caves by including them in their system of state parks, wildlife, or natural areas. Texas and Missouri have probably protected the greatest number of caves in this manner. I Protection Through Tourism: Kartchner Caverns A recently developed show cave in Arizona, Kartchner Caverns, is especially worthy of mention (Hose and Pisarowicz 1999). Kartchner was discovered in the early 1970s and its location was kept secret for years. Four years after discovery, the cave was revealed to the landowners and the state government in order to protect the site from potential encroachment by community, commercial, or industrial development. It was decided that careful development as a public show cave would best assure the pennanent protection of Kartchner Caverns. A decade passed while negotiations ensued to raise money for the purchase of the property and to transfer the cave to the state. Then it took another decade to plan for development, raise funding, and open the cave to the public in November 1999. Kartchner is perhaps the most studied cave in the United States in terms of resource conservation and show cave development. Many millions br dollars were expended in the effort to implement best current practices:in the conservation and development of Kartchner Caverns. (See Kartchner Caverns, page 141.) 219 Examples of states that protect cave resources as part of archaeological, paleontological, historical, or natural sites include Nevada, Vermont, Washington, and Wisconsin. It was decided that careful development as a public show cave would best assure the permanent protection of Kartchner Caverns.

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220 State Cave Laws Thomas Lera Twenty-eight states have cave protection laws. Texas has an additional law that specifically protects bats. The definition of a cave varies widely by state and ranges from "historic site I" as defined in Vermont, to Kentucky's definition of ... any naturally occurring void, cavity, recess, or system of interconnecting passages beneath the surtace of the Earth containing a black zone including natural subterranean water and drainage systems, but not including any mine, tunnel, aqueduct, or other man-made excavation, which is large enough to permit a person to enter." Definitions of vandalism include removing materials found in caves, killing or removing plant and animal life, breaking or tampering with doors or gates, and other destructive or damaging acts. Penalties for vandalism are classified in every state as a misdemeanor ranging from Class A (Class 1) to Class E (Class 5). The penalty is either criminal or civil and ranges from $50 to $2,500 and may include up to one-year imprisonment. In most states, a subsequent violation either increases the penalty or the offense becomes a felony. (Continued en next page) Cave Conservation and Restoration Undeveloped Caves on Public Land Commercially undeveloped caves located on state lands may well enjoy greater de/acto protection than their dejure protection status, simply by neglect and remaining unknown to the public. Often, overworked personnel are tempted to ignore such non tourist caves. Nevertheless, this method does not provide viable protection once the location of a cave becomes known. Fortunately, protection of such caves is improving. More state-level managers are becoming aware of conservation management practices through the National Cave and Karst Management Symposia, the associated published proceedings, and the efforts of many cave conservation organizations such as the National Speleological Society and the American Cave Conservation Association. It is increasingly common to find access to these caves controlled by gates and permit systems. States Needing Cave Laws Reviewing specific state laws that protect caves raises the question of whether there are other states where such acts would provide benefit. It may be important to note that some states have few, ifany caves. Much of the land in the western United States is under federaljurisdiction, and should, at least in theory, be protected by federal statute (see federat taws below). On the other hand, cave protection laws that apply on private land would be beneficial in states where most caves are on privately owned land. Huppert (1999) tists the following states as those most needing specific laws to protect caves. Alaska South Dakota Minnesota Iowa Colorado (Sec sidebar.) Utah Wyoming New York People are discovering significant caves on remote possessions of the United States. The caves on the island of Guam have recently received intense scientific attention and they appear to deserve strong protection. As more caves are discovered, the need for adequate legislation in the states listed above will become more apparent and, in fact, it might be necessary to add states to the list. A more detailed account of state cave protection acts was published in Amer;can Caves, a journal of the American Cave Conservation Association (Anonymous 1995). Federal Laws Numerous federal laws have been passed to protect caves or their contents. Many of these laws apply to all lands in the United States and its territories. Others are more restrictive in their application. Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988 A controversial law is the Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988 (P.L. 100-69 t). The significance of this law lies more in its precedence than its content. The Act requires many fedemlland managers to take into consideration and plan for all cave resources under their jurisdiction. Prior to 1988, many known caves could be ignored. The law has some drawbacks, however.

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Huppert-Cave Laws I For example, it does not apply to all federal lands and it only applies to sign(ficunt caves. There is considerable argument about what is actually meant by the term significanl. See Appendix I for full text of the Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988 (FCRPA). I National Park Service Act of 1916 Some of the nation's most outstanding caves are protected under the National Park Service Act of 1916 (P.L. 64-235; Vol. 39 U.S. Statutes, page 535). Examples of national parks and monuments where caves or karst are the main theme on display include sites across the U.S. Malmoth Cave National Park in Kentucky Carlsbad Caverns National Park in New Mexico Oregon Caves National Monument in Oregon Wind Cave National Park and Jewel Cave National Monument, both in South Dakota Timpanogos Cave National Monument in Utah Caves ari often protected within the confines of larger national parks. Examples include parks in several regions. I Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona Great Smoky Mountains National Park in North Carolina/Tennessee Hawaii Volcanoes National Park in Hawaii Lehman Caves of Great Basin National Park in Nevada When setching for legislative information, it is important to nole that many national parks were mandated by their own enabling legislation. I The Antiquities Act The full name of The Antiquities Act is the National Monuments Act, An Act for the Preservation of American Antiquities of 1906 (c. 3060, 34 stat. 225; 16 U.S.c. 431 el seq.). It allows for presidential mandate to establish national monuments. In 1908, President Theodore Roosevelt designated Jewel Ca\re as the first national monument. I The Wilderness Act of 1964 The Wilderness Act of 1964 (P.L. 88-577) has helped conserve caves in designated wilderness areas such as the Bob Marshall Wilderness Area in Montana: Much effort has been expended in attempts to designate several caves as ~ilderness areas on their own merits. Some of the unsuccessful tries are described in articles by Huppert and Wheeler (1986, 1992), Bishop and Huppert (1990), and Huppert (1993). Most other wilderness areas have had their;own formative acts passed by Congress. These are usually titled by the name of the area, such as the Carlsbad Caverns Wilderness Act of 1978. I The Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968 This law'(p.L. 90-542) was enacted by Congress and allowed for the protection of caves along some of the nation's most beautiful rivers. Among the most important river areas for cave conservation are the Buffalo National River in Arkansas and the Ozarks National Scenic River in Missouri. I The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 An important federal environmental law (1970) (P.L. 91-190, 83 Stat. 852 42 U.S.C. 4321 el seq.), the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) embodies significant legislation. Passed by Congress in late 1969, and 221 (Continued) On August 4, 2004, Colorado became the twenty-eighth state to provide caves with legal protection from vandals and trespassers through a new Colorado Cave Protection Act. The penalty is a Class 2 Misdemeanor with the maximum penalty of $2,500 and possible revocation of the individual's driver's license. Those convicted of property damage will also be required to personally make repairs or provide appropriate compensation to the owner. Damages include: defacing cave passages; break.ing or removing speleothems; breaking or harming cave gates and locks: removing any cave resource including animal and plant life, paleontological deposits, and cultural materials. Some ofthe nation's most outstanding caves are protected under the National Park Service Act of 1916.

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222 It is rare for a law to be enacted to protect a single cave. Perhaps the most significant such law is the Lechuguilla Cave Protection Act of 1993. Cave Conservation and Restoration signed by President Nixon on January I, 1970, NEPA requires federat agencies to consider the consequences of their actions when environmental issues are involved. An environmental impact statement (EIS) must be written by a federal agency (or by the responsible governmental unit) for any project that would use federal funds to support an action that might significantly and adversely affect the quality of the environment. The agency must also pursue mitigating actions to reduce adverse impacts when projects are implemented. The EIS process has conserved, or at least reduced, the impact of management decisions on numerous caves. Many federally managed caves or karst regions have an associated EIS. The Endangered Species Act of 1973 The Endangered Species Act (P.L. 93-205) provides a mantle of federal protection for endangered species which is usually more effective than the protection that slale endangered species statutes can offer. As mentioned above with state laws, the protection of a species may well require the broader protection of the habitat which may overlap political boundaries. Numerous animals use caves and karst as habitat for all or part of their life cycle. In Texas, the protection and management of more than 200 caves come under the provisions of this federal law and similar state laws (Texas Speleological Survey, unpublished data 2002). The Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 This Act (P.L. 96-95) gave protection to prehistoric sites on federal lands. Early inhabitants of the present United States olien used caves as storage sites or as permanent or temporary domiciles. Wisely applied, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act could give significant protection to other cave assets. Unfortunately, this Act is not applied as widely as it could be on federally managed lands. Lechuguilla Cave Protection Act of 1993 It is rare for a law to be enacted to protect a single cave. Perhaps the most significant such law is the Lechuguilla Cave Protection Act of 1993 (P.L. 103-169). The cave, which extends 1,567 feet deep and more than 115 miles in length, is located within the boundaries of Carlsbad Caverns National Park and Carlsbad Caverns Wilderness Area. In a legal sense, Lechuguilla Cave is perhaps the most protected cave in the country. It is directly protected by The National Park Service Organic Act of 1916. (The legislation that specifically enabled the park is found in Ch. 279, 46, Stat. 272, 1930 and also found in Title 16, 407-407c. and P.L. 88-249.) However, Carlsbad Caverns National Park was initially protected as a national monument by Executive Order No. 1679 (October 25, 1923-43 Stat. 1929), signed by President Calvin Coolidge. President Coolidge twice expanded the monument through Executive Orders (No. 3984 in 1924 and No. 4870 in 1928), followed by President Herbert Hoover who expanded the boundaries of the National Park by Executive Order (5370). Both Carlsbad Caverns and Lechuguilla Cave are protected under the Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988. In addition, they are protected by the Federal Wilderness Act of 1964 and the Carlsbad Caverns Wilderness Area; the latter was designated under the National Parks and Recreation Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-625). Additional federal laws may offer other specific protections. As exploration continues, Lechuguilla Cave may extend beyond the rigid boundaries of the park and wilderness area. Entities with mining operations on adjacent lands are required to assure strict protection of the cave ifany passage is found outside the present protection zone.

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Huppert-Cave Laws I National Cave and Karst Research Institute Act of 1998 A law that could have significant impact is the National Cave and Karst Research Institute Act of 1998 (P.L. 105-325). The Act mandated that the National Park Service establish the Institute, stipulated that the institute will be located in the vicinity of Carlsbad Caverns National Park in New Mexico (but not inside park boundaries), and that the Institute cannot spend federal funds without a match of non federal funds. The main purposes of the Institute are to facilitate speleological research, to enhance public education, and to promote environmentally sound cave and karst Imanagement. The Institute is authorized to carry out its objectives internationally as well as nationally. The concept has been approved, initial organization has been implemented, and the Institute has entered the initial stages of permanent staffing. I National Parks Omnibus Act Another significant law passed in 1998 is the National Parks Omnibus Act (P.L. I 05~ 391). This Act gives park managers another tool to protect resources in the parks and allows the withholding of information on the location and nature of resources in national parks (DL Pate, personal communication on February '14,2000). Section 207 of the Act, dealing with confidentiality of infonnati~n, provides managers a way to protect resources from freedom of information requests. The law states that resources which are: I ... endangered, threatened, rare, or commercially valuable, 0/ mine/'al or paleontological objects within units o/the National ParklSvstem. or 0/ objects 0/ cultural patrimony lvithin units of the Nati~~al Park System, may be withheld/rom the public in response to a ;equest under section 552 o/Title 5, United States Code, [unless an exemption is granted bv the Secretmy 0/ Interim}. I Other Federal Cave Laws A list follows, though probably not exhaustive, of other federal laws that could possibly have a role in cave and karst protection (Huppert 1995). I Eastern Wilderness Act Endangered American Wilderness Act Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act Historic Sites Act Multiple Use Sustained Yield Act National Forest Management Act National Historic Preservation Acts (two, enacted in 1966 and 1976) National Parks and Recreation Act National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Reservoir Salvage Act I LaMoreaux and others include most of the following federal laws in a list they prepared iu 1997. I Clean Air Act Clean Water Act Coasial Zone Management Act Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and ~iability Act (CERCLA) Disaster Relief Act Energy Policy Act Federal Emergency Management Act (FEMA) Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) 223 The main purposes of the National Cave and Karst Research Institute arc to facilitate speleological research, to enhance public education, and to promote environmentally sound cave and karst management. Complete sets of federal and state laws can be found in any major law school library. Technology has provided another route for accessing state and federal laws through the World Wide Web.

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224 NSS Cave Vandalism Deterrence Reward Commission Thomas Lera The National Speleological Society (NSS) offers a reward for information that leads to the legal conviction of cave vandals anywhere in the United States. (See commission sidebar page 110.) The NSS will consider a reward of $250 to $1,000 for information leading to a local, state, or federal conviction of any person (or persons) for acts of cave vandalism Breaking, breaking off, cracking, carving upon, writing on, burning, or otherwise marking upon, removing or in any manner destroying, disturbing, defacing, marring, or harming the surfaces of any cave or any natural material which may be found therein, whether attached or broken, including speleothems, speleogens, and sedimentary deposits. Breaking, forcing, tampering with, or otherwise disturbing a lock, gate, door, or other obstruction designed to conlrol or prevent access to any cave. Dumping, littering, disposing of, or otherwise placing any refuse, garbage, dead animals, sewage, or toxic substances harmful to cave life or humans in any cave or (Continued on next page) Cave Conservation and Restoration Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Forest Land Management Planning Act Global Climate Change Protection Act Global Change Research Act Magnuson Fisheries Act Marine Plastics Pollution Research and Control Act Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Aet National Parks Resource Protection Act Ocean Dumping Ban Act Oil Pollution Act Renewable Natural Resources Planning Act Resources Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Shore Protection Act Soil and Water Conservation Act Toxic Substances Control Act Weather Service Modernization Act The application of some of the above laws to caves and karst may seem a bit of a stretch to some readers. However, LaMoreaux and others (1997) point out that all of the above laws can in some way be used to protect groundwater and thus may involve karst. Local or Regional Ordinances and Regulations Among the countless city and county ordinances in the United States, local governments often have regulations in force that protect surface and ground waters or rare biota. They also include codes or statutes that establish parks, prehistoric or historic sites, or other unique phenomena. It is well beyond the scope of this book to present even a small collection of such samples. Conservationists should become familiar with such local regulations, especially where they may be used to protect caves and karst. Two unique situations should be noted, The Edwards Aquifer in Texas and the Floridan Aquifer in Florida are two of the most heavily used and studied karst aquifers in the country. State laws and regional zoning protect both of these important aquifers that provide domestic and irrigation water for millions of people, Refer to LaMoreaux and others (1997) for a detailed description of the legal circumstances related to these two aquifers and several other unique situations On the local level, zoning ordinances and construction codes should be checked to see if they might be useful in protecting karst. An example ofa very complete local law is the 2001 revision of the San Marcos (Texas) Edwards Aquifer Protection Regulations. It requires detailed surveys of caves, sinkholes, and other karst features; provides for protection of particularly sensitive features; requires buffer zones around those features and streams; and establishes limits on impervious cover in the surrounding area (City of San Marcos 2001). This ordinance serves to minimize pollution reaching the karst groundwater system and could stand as a model for other karst areas. There are undoubtedly similar but lesser known regulations in other parts of the country. How to Find the Laws Complete sets of federal and state laws can be found in any major law school library. Helpful individuals at most law libraries will guide your search or answer your questions. However, there are a limited number of law collections, and many cavers dealing with the legal ramifications of

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Part 2-C~>nservation, Management, Ethics: Huppert-Cave Laws cave cons~rvation do not live near one. Technology has provided another route for accessing state and federal laws through the World Wide Web (list of suggest'ed sites below). However, local laws are often inaccessible through tliis vehicle. I Law Libraries Probably the easiest way to find a particular act in a law library is by its popular name. For example, with the title Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988 (FCRPA) in hand, you can go to Shepard,. Acts and Cases bv Popular Name for the complete citation. The latest edition is continuously updated with bimonthly cumulative supplements to keep it current within 60-90 days. Shepard's Acts is a 3volume sei that lists state and federal laws alphabetically by their common name and provides their complete legal citation. For example, the FCRPA is P.L. (public law) 100-691. This means the 100th U.S. Congress passed it and 691 is'the chronological number assigned to the final bill, representing the order ih which the president signed it. The complete reference for FCRPA is as follows: I U.s.C. (United States Code) 1988 (year of code edition at time of passage) Title 16 (this is conservation law) 4301 (first section of the law) et seq! (Latin for "and the following" sections) IfJisted as!"USCA," ("A" stands for annotated), the act is published by the West Group. If the listing is cited as "USCS," ("S" stands for Service), it is published by LEXIS Law Publishing. The official federal government citation is j'U.S.C." However, the two annotated versions are used more frequently lin legal research. They both supply more informative footnotes, case references, notes on the law's history, and cross-references. State laws have somewhat similar citations. Usually ~tate cave protection laws are in the volumes titled as follows: I ConservatIOn Environment Natunil Resources A related or similar reference Internet Jnd World Wide Web Fortunately, the World Wide Web has made the task of finding laws considerably easier. Some useful Web sites and their contents are listed here. I National Speleological Society On the National Speleological Society homepage, click on "Conservation" or use the site search engine to find cave laws. Federal and state cave protection laws are listed. d I Fm Law This site directs you to a complete listing of federal and state legislation. I Many city and some state ordinances are found on this site. Librart of Congress Legislative Search Engine Full text of proposed bills, legislation and the Congressional Record are found here. 225 sinkhole. (Continued) Removing, killing, harming or otherwise disturbing any naturally occurring organisms within any cave. Excavating, removing, destroying, injuring, defacing, or in any manner disturbing any burial grounds, historic or prehistoric re. sources, archaeological or paleontological site or any part thereof, including relics, insctiptions, saltpeter workings, fossils, bones, remains of historical human activity, or any other such features which may be found in any cave. Application for this reward must be made within three months of such conviction, To notify or apply, contact NSS Cave Vandalism Deterrence Reward Commission 2813 Cave Avenue Huntsville AL 35810 For more information, see the NSS Web site:
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226 A wide variety of laws at all levels of government may be useful in the protection of caves and karst. Cave Conservation and Restoration Government Printing Oflice On this site from the Government Printing OIliee, find Regulations by keyword in the Federal Register and Code of Federal Regulations. The site also allows individuals to search for government documents by subject and by depository libraries holding them. Legal Online This privately produced site provides the laws of all fifty states. Some of the states also include bills presently being considered in their legislatures. Other useful law school Web sites are: Individual slales also maintain online access to their government legal services including a listing of their laws. Gaining proficiency in using various search engines is very useful in extending the breadth of a \Veb search. Often, one search engine may contain useful information not found in another. DogPile is a particularly helpful engine, which actually searches multiple other engines: The Web addresses listed above were accurate at the time of this book's publication. However, addresses may change over time. Conclusion A wide variety of laws at all levels of government may be useful in the protection of caves and karst. It is the job of concerned individuals to become educated about pertinent legislation, codes, and regulations that apply to their particular situations. Legislative education is an ongoing process because the legal system, at all levels, is constantly changing. If con~ervationists are not vigilant, there is always the chance an important law for cave protection will be negatively modified, rendered ineffective, or even repealed. Environmental conservation problems never seem to go away. The forces of ignorance or aggressive land development are often ready to compromise or destroy spelean assets. Acknowledgements The Editors gratefully acknowledge Betty J. Wheeler and Thomas Lera for reviewing and updating this chapter aner Dr. Huppert's untimely passing. Cited References Anonymous, 1995. An evaluation of state cave laws. American Caves 8(1):18-19. Bishop SJ, Huppert GN. 1990. Taking wilderness underground. In: Lime DW, editor. Managing America s Enduring Wilderness Resource: Proceedings o/the Conference, Minneapolis, Minnesota, September 1117, 1989. St. Paul (MN): Tourism Center, Minnesota Extension Service

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Huppert-Cave Laws I and Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station, University ofMinnesota, p 367-370. Bradshaw E. 1982. Cave laws of the United States. In: Wilson RC, Lewis JJ, edit~rs. National Cave Management Symposia: Proceedings [for 1978 and I 980}. Oregon City: Pygmy Dwarf Press. p 214-227. (Presented at the 1980 symposium.) City ofSa'n Marcos. 2001. Edward, Aquifer Protection Regulations San Marcos' City Code Chapter 94, Article 6. . (Access Directory, find Edwards Aquifer Protection Regulations.) Draft accessed 2003 Jan I. [The final approved version is available at . Accessed 2003 Jan 31.] Hose LD,I Pisarowicz JA. 1999. Kartchner Caverns: Research Symposium. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 61 (2):38I 26. [This isa special issue with 13: articles devoted to scientific studies of Kartchner Caverns.] Huppert ON. 1993. Underground wilderness: The time is right. In: Foster DL, Foster DO, Snow MN, Snow RK, editors. 1991 National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings: Bmvling Green, Kentucky, October 23-26,1991. Horse Cave (KY): American Cave Conservation Association. p 263-266. [Also listed as 1991.] Huppert ON. 1995. Legal protection for caves in the United States. Environmental Geology 26(2): I 2 I -123. Huppert ON. 1999. State cave protection laws ... where next? NSS News 57(4):103-104. Huppert ON, Wheeler BJ. 1982. State legislation concerning the protection of caves. In: Wilson Re, Lewis JJ, editors. National Cave Management Symposia: Proceedings [fiJI' 1978 and I 980j. Oregon City: Pygmy Dwarf ~ress. p 45-47. (Presented at the 1978 symposium.) Huppert GN, Wheeler BJ. 1986. Underground wilderness: Can the concept work? In: Lucas RC, editor. Proceedings-National Wilderness Research Conference: Current Research, Fort Col/ins, CO, July 23-26, 1985. Ogden (I.JT): USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Expcriment Station. General Technical Report INT 212. P 516-522. Huppert GN, Wheeler BJ. 1992. The case for underground wilderness. In: Krumpe E, editor. Designation and Management of Park and Wilderness Reserve,: Official Proceedings of the Symposium held during the 4th World Wilderness Congress 1987. Moscow (ID): College of Forestry, Wildlife'and Range Sciences. p 1-7. LaMoreaux PE, Powell W J, LeGrand HE. 1997. Environmental and legal aspects of karst areas. Environmental Geology 29( 1-2):23-36. Lera T. 2002. A Summmy of Legislation and Organizations Involved in the Preservation of Caves and Bats. . Accessed 2003 Jan 4. [Editors' note: Many laws associated with cave protection are available on this site.] Power L. 1974. A Handbook on Cave Conservation Legislation. Huntsville (AL): C~nservation Committee of the National Speleological Society, unpaged I Stitt RR. 1976. State cave protection laws and their enforcement. In: Aley T, Rhod~s D, editors. National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings: Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 6-10, 1975. Albuquerque (NM): Speleobooks. p 91-97. [Cave Research Foundation also in listing.] I Additional Reading Juberthie C. 1992. Underground Habitats and Their Protection. Council of Europe: Strasbourg. [Editors' note: details of existing cave protection legislation in Europe.] 227

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228 Cave Conservation and Restoration



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Part 2-C;onservation, Management, Ethics: Pate-Tools for Conservation Ethics Section B-Developing Cave Management Programs I I Management Tools. for Supporting Conservation Ethics Dale L. Pate I 229 Education and Scientific Research Caves arelUniqUe, fragile environments that can provide educational, scientific,! and recreational opportunities for casual visitors, cavers, and researchers. These activities, when not properly managed, can seriously impact and even destroy the very features that make these opportunities possible. In many caves, these features are nonrenewable. Once lost, they are gone forever. Active participation of management is essential in conveying conservation messages to all who enter the cave. Several important' management tools may help people develop conservation ethics: Educltion and research Written guidelines Monitoring of cave use Access control I I Conservation education should target three groups of people: Manakement and employees (including volunteers) Recreational cavers The gbneral public I Ideally, education begins with management. Owners and managers need to establish conservation objectives based on thorough understanding of their cave resources-the fragility of underground resources as well as surface impacts that may affect the cave system. The manager must assure that everyone who enters the caves, for whatever reasons, is adequately informed about conservation ethics and protection guidelines. This goes for employees, cavers, and sightseers. Speleological research is a significant component of many conservationdirected cave management decisions. Surface development activities can affect caves in numerous ways. Many show caves have been impacted because owners or managers did not understand the relationship between surface features and the cave below. The study of infiltration routes into Carlsbad Caverns is a prime example of how scientific results can influence management decisions. Before planning any construction, management should know the nature and location of the cave, its surrounding rock, and how water and other substances may infiltrate the cave. Some caves are located in limestone terrains knbwn as karst, while others are found in lava flows, and yet others in a varietyofdiffercnt rock types. Regardless ofthc substrata, should buildings, sewer lines, gas tanks, and other manmade structures be placed near or over a cave? Or should they be located some distance away? Existing se'wer lines, parking lots, and other structures may be negatively I Active participation of management is essential in conveymg conservation messages to all who enter the cave.

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230 Whether the resource is being developed as a show cave or whether it is a wild cave that is open to recreational visits, some features may be extremely vulnerable or fragile. Figu re 1. This aerial view shows the National Park Service infrastructure built directly over Carlsbad Cavern. The cave entrance is in the lower central part of the photo. Cave Conservation and Restoration impacting the cave below. Scientific studies can aid management in deciding the appropriate placement for manmade structures. Knowledge about the nature of the cave is essential for making appropriate conservation decisions. Whether the resource is being developed as a show cave or whether it is a wild cave that is open to recreational visits, some features may be extremely vulnerable or fragile. Every cave is different, and certain areas may need special attention. For example--eave floors may be covered with unobtrusive, fragile speleothems that need special protection; or the presence of mineral sites may limit activities; or protection of biota may require specific precautions. In many caves, floors have been trampled because paths were not clearly delineated during the original exploration. Subsequent visitors crushed features underfoot-but, not maliciously-they simply did not know that their actions were impacting the cave. Many minerals and other unique floor features have been lost this way. Minerals make up much of the visual beauty of caves and are found on the floors, walls, and ceilings. In fragile areas, even the way a person moves through the passage can mean the difference between intact speleothems and broken ones. A careful, informed person can move through delicate areas with little or no new impact. Cave life is often small and hard to see in caves. Invertebrates are easily em shed underfoot. In the low-nutrient environments of many caves, biological populations are small and vulnerable to environmental changes. Education about cave biology is essential for increasing the protection of cave habitats. In recent years, scientific studies have shown that caves harbor unique and potentially beneficial microbes. Microbial studies have shown that there are amazing and diverse ecosystems in caves, especially in isolated pools. Waste leaking from sewer lines and buildings on the surface may infiltrate the cave and destroy cave-dwelling populations. The management policies for caves are changing to reflect and support new knowledge about cave ecosystems. Establishing Guidelines Trust is a key clement in cave conservation. Written guidelines can help develop trust between management and stakeholders. Formatted in clear

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Pate-Tools for Conservation Ethics 231 and easy-to-understand language, guidelines can spell out exactly what is expected. The document should be reviewed with each person who enters the cave. Guidelines also provide tangible standards for evaluating the actions of those who enter the cave and for eliminating confusion about expectations. Lechuguilla Cave, located in Carlsbad Caverns National Park, is an excellent example of how guidelines can be essential to the protection of the cave. In 1992, management began developing an 8-page document titled Guidelines/or Entering Lechuguilla Cave, which later became an appendix of the park's 1995 Cave and Karst Management Plan. Figure 2. Beginning in 1992, the development of Guidelines for Entering Lechuguilla Cave has helped to cultivate a conservation ethic within the caving and research communities that work in Lechuguilla. Guidelines for Entering Lechuguilla Cave The reason behind developing guidelines for entering Lechuguilla Cave is to allow limited access for scientific research, survey when in association with exploration, and NPS management related trips while impacting the cave as little as possible. Of primary importance are (I) impacts to the cave and (2) the safety of all who enter. BEFORE ENTERING THE CAVE Everyone must sign a permit. Expedition leaders are ultimately responsible for the personnel on their expedition. Expedition leaders should do their best to recruit cavers who are willing to follow the guidelines that have been established. Before assigning anyone to the Far East [branch of Lechuguilla Cave], an expedition leader should be reasonably sure that individual is fully prepared for such a trip. Every team entering the cave will have one designated team leader. Team leaders have tremendous responsibilities. They are responsible for the safety of their team and for the actions of their team members. If a team member is acting in an unsafe manner or not being careful and actually causing more damage to the cave, then it is the team leader's responsibility to correct that person's actions. I f problems persist, then the team leader must abort the trip and have the team leave the cave. A team leader should gear team activities to the least experienced member of the team. This pertains to speed of travel as well as climbing leads. A team should also stay together unless an emergency requires different actions. Everyone entering the cave is responsible for their actions while in the cave. They are also responsible for reporting to the team leader acts by other team members that are unsafe or damaging to the cave. The overall goal is to allow limited access to the cave while minimizing all impacts. It is everyone's responsibility to assure that Lechuguilla Cave remains as pristine as possible and that each team member is very safety aware while in the cave. Clothing, boots and caving gear should be clean before entering the cave to minimize the introduction of foreign bacteria, molds, and fungus into this unique ecosystem. BOOTS MUST HAVE NON-MARKING SOLES. If you are in doubt, scrape boot over white floor or limestone rocks. Marking boots will definitely leave marks. Using a frame pack in the cave can be a problem and a major nuisance. It is recommended that these NOT be used .. Electric lights arc a must. No carbide lights or open-flame lights will be allowed in Lechuguilla. One of the reasons for this is safety, because of the flammability of the massive sulfur deposits found in the cavc. 1995 Cave and Karst Management Plan Carlsbad Caverns National Park

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232 The guideline document defines the conservation ethics for Lechuguilla Cave and allows exploration and scientific research to continue. Figure 3. Inappropriate footsteps found off the delineated trail can have lasting impacts. Cave Conservation and Restoration The guidelines were initiated as a result of communication problems between management staff and those working in the cave. Now, everyone who enters Lechuguilla must first attend an orientation that includes discussion of all the items listed in these guidelines. These guidelines have proven to be an essential tool for cave management and have helped to cultivate a conservation ethic among the caving and research communities. The document includes the following items: Lists reasons for developing the guidelines Assigns responsibilities to expedition leaders, trip leaders, and individuals States what is expected from everyone before they enter the cave, when traveling through the cave, and while the teams are working in the cave Lists locations of campsites and resource protection zones Discusses climbing and the use of bolts Defines survey standards Describes expectations for exploration of new areas Explains other issues that are critical to the protection of the cave Over the years, these guidelines have been refined and changed. Hard lessons have been learned by management as well as cavers and scientists. The ultimate goal of the park has been to allow limited access to Lechuguilla Cave while protecting the extremely fragile features. The guideline document defines the conservation ethics for Lechuguilla Cave and allows exploration and scientific research to continue. (See Appendix 5 for complete text of Guidelines for Entering Lechoguilla Cave, page 549.) Observations and Monitoring Written guidelines lay the foundation for good working relationships, and it is essential to follow up on that foundation by monitoring the actions of those entering the cave. In addition to resource monitoring projects, both short-term and long-term observations can aid in building conservation ethics. Short-Term By taking an active role, the manager can ensure that conservation ethics and the protection of cave features are high priorities for everyone who visits the cave. By establishing guidelines, management clearly defines expectations for behavior in the cave. By visiting areas that teams or employees have been to, visual observations like damaged speleothems or unnecessary footprints can be recorded. Through first-hand observation of new impacts, the manager can tell if a conservation ethic has been established. Any deviations from the guidelines are noted and dealt with on a case-by-case basis. Long-Term It is valuable to retain records of impacts to cave features and the extent of impacts that occur over a long period of time. Permanent photornonitoring points and visitor impact maps are two methods for documentation. By making repeat photographs of an area, visual records can be preserved and analyzed over a long period of time. (See photomonitoring, page 207.) Impact mapping may be more time-consuming and

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Pate-Tools for Conservation Ethics 233 Figure 4. When penn anent photomonitoring points are established. cave management may monitor impact trends and speleothem changes over long periods of time. Installed by Jim Werker and Val Hildreth-Werker, this photomonitoring station at Leaning Tower of Lechuguilla, provides visual documentation to aid management decisions for Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico. (See page 6 of color section.) may show ditferent levels of detail and change. (See impact mapping, page 193.) These valuable management tools can record impacts. show changes over time, and indicate how management decisions can affect conservation ethics and protection of cave resources. Controlling Access Controlling access to caves is sometimes an important management objective for supporting conservation ethics and preserving cave features. Access control may involve the use of several types of management tools: Developing access policies Providing guided trips into certain areas Gating the entrances to caves or areas within caves Denying access to sensitive resources Permanent photomonitoring points and visitor impact maps are two methods for documentation.

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234 Designing a gate is not to be taken lightly-all ramifications and potential modifications should be thoroughly evaluated before proceeding. Figure 5. Stan Allison stands at the entrance gate to Slaughter Canyon Cave. Built a number aryears ago, this gate is not considered batfriendly. A new gate in the future will correct this problem. Cave Conservation and Restoration Access Policies Carlsbad Caverns National Park enforces access policies that allow visitors a wide range of cave experiences while protecting cave resources. The main paved trail through Carlsbad Cavern is open to the general public. Guided trips are offered to arcas in Carlsbad Cavern, Spider Cave, Slaughter Canyon Cave, and Ogle Cave. Experienced cavers can apply for permits to visit eight other caves on the park. Other caves, including Lechuguilla Cave, are open only for approved research. Guided Trips Guided cave trips encourage resource protection and are excellent educational opportunities for small groups. A guide is able to point out the fragility of the cave and discuss conservation measures. With a guide watching over the visitors on tour, resource protection and safety issues can be addressed. Gates Though intrusive in a number of ways, gating cave entrances or passages often enables management to control access. Designing a gate is not to be taken lightly-all ramifications and potential modifications should be thoroughly evaluated before proceeding. Impacts created by a gate should be weighed against impacts the cave will suffer if it does not have that gate. (See cavc gates, page 147.) Discretion and Secrecy Controlling knowledge about certain caves or certain cave arcas is a method sometimes used to protect caves. Obviously, if fewer people know about a cave, then fewer will visit. Fewer visits cause less impact. However, secrecy is not always the best answer. A manager must weigh the need for discretion and secrecy with other factors to best protect resources. Deny Access The cave manager also has the option of using another tool. Access can be denied. A cave or an area can be closed to a single individual, to certain

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Pate-Tools for Conservation Ethics groups, or to all visitors. It may become necessary to deny access to stop unwarranted impacts created by individuals or groups. When there are no other options for ensuring ethical behavior, denying access will at least halt the damage. Denying access will get the message across when nothing else works. 235 Summary To protect cavc systems and preserve their fragile resources, all users need to adopt conservation ethics. Since every action can have adverse effects on a cave, it is essential that the owner or manager take an active role in developing and encouraging conservation-directed behaviors. It is important for owners and managers to learn and foresee how impacts will result from their management decisions. For example, management should evaluate the range of potential impacts before allowing cave access to work crews, restoration groups, research teams, or recreational visitors. Education and research programs, guidelines, observation, and access control are excellent management tools for establishing cave conservation ethics. An effective cave management program using the right conservation tools may mean the difference between a cave remaining relatively pristine and a cave becoming trashed. Additional Reading Alexander EC. 1991. The evolving relationship hetween Mammoth Cave National Park and its hydrogeologic symbionts. In: Foster DL, editor. 1991 National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings: Bo'wling Green, Kentucky, Oclober 23-26,1991. Horse Cave (KY): American Cave Conservation Association. p II-56. Baichtal JF, Swanston DN, Archie AF. 1995. An ecologically-based approach to karst and cave resource management. In: Rea GT, editor. Proceedings of the 1995 National Cave Management Symposium: Spring Mill State Park, Milchell, Indiana, October 25-28, 1995. Indianapolis (IN): Indiana Karst Conservancy. p 10-27. Bodenhamer H. 1995. Monitoring human-caused changes with visitor impact mapping. In: Rea GT, editor. Proceedings of the 1995 National Cave Management Symposium: Spring Mill State Park, Mitchel/. Indiana, Oclober 25-28, 1995. Indianapolis (IN): Indiana Karst Conservancy. p 28-37. Buecher RH. 1995. Footprints, routes, and trails. In: Rea GT, editur. Proceedings of the /995 National Cave A1anagemellt Symposium: Spring Mill State Park, Mitchell, Indiana, October 25-28, 1995. Indianapolis (IN): Indiana Karst Conservancy. p 47-50. Despain J. 1993. The creation and implementation of restrictive cave management policies: Three examples from Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. In: Pate DL, editor. Proceedings of the 1993 National Cave A1anagement Symposium: Carlsbad, New Alexico. October 27-30, 1993. [lluntsville (AL)]: National Cave Management Symposium Steering Committee. p 175-183. Goodbar JR. 1995. Cave permits and permitting systems. In: Rca GT, editor. Proceedings of the 1995 National Cave Alanagement Symposium: Spring Mill Siale Park, Milchell, Indiana, Oclober 25-28, /995. Indianapolis (IN): Indiana Karst Conservancy. p 99-107. Gookin J. 1991. Secrecy and discretion as cave management tools. NSS News 55(4):114-115. Gookin J. (1995). How cavers learn ethics. In: Rea GT, editor. Proceedings of/he 1995 National Cave J1anagement Symposium: Spring Mill To protect cave systems and preserve their fragile resources, a conservation ethic needs to be developed among all users.

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236 Figure 6. The Visitor Center at Carlsbad Caverns National Park is located above Bat Cave Draw. The black path from the Visitor Center leads to the cave '5 historic entrance. On the horizon are the Guadalupe Mountains. Cave Conservation and Restoration State Park. Mitchell, Indiana, October 25-28, 1995. Indianapolis (IN): Indiana Karst Conservancy. p 108-110. Gurnee R. (1993). Cave management is control of access. In: Pate DL, editor. Proceedings of the 1993 National Cave Management Symposium: Carlsbad, New Mexico. October 27-30, 1993. [Huntsville (AL)]: National Cave Management Symposium Steering Committee. p 218221. Ptlugh DC. 1993. Resource-responsible professional caver education programs on public lands. In: Pate DL, editor. Proceedings of the 1993 National Cave Management Symposium: Carls had, New Mexico, October 27-30. 1993. [Huntsville (AL)]: National Cave Management Symposium Steering Committee. p 96-102.



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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Trout-Caves or Conflicts Section B-Developing Cave Management Programs Are We Managing Caves or Conflicts? Jerry L. Trout Many individuals with deep interests in cave resources have pursued their passions by becoming involved in cave management, either as a career or as an avocation-and have done so as a result of the desire to preserve and protect underground resources. But are we really managing caves? Caves don't need us-they manage themselves without interference from people. When no one enters or impacts a cave, it needs no human assistance. However, human entry may cause obvious negative impacts and surface activities may inadvertently atTect cave systems. The human actions that impact caves, karst terrains, and ground water quality need to be managed. Cave managers are often immersed in managing people with tenuous, opposing, and complex social values. Rather than managing resources, we scem to be morc in the business of managing human relationships, disputes, and conflicts. In outdoor recreation management, conflict is typically defined as "'goal interference attributed to another's behavior" (Jacob and Schreyer 1980). The goal interference model r~fers almost entirely to conflicts of interesthowcver, conflicts also arise from misunderstandings and value-based opinions. For example, distrust results from disputes like, ""I understood the area was otT-limits to recreational caving" or sentiments like, "cave photographers compromise conservation ethics to get the perfect picture." Sources of Conflict Burton (1990) believes that only value-based disagreemenls truly qualify as conflict, while Amy (1987) describes three general sources of conflict: Misunderstandings-eonflicts arise when groups are differently informed about an issue. Interests-people want to use the same resource for different activities. Values-disputants differ in deeply rooted beliefs about what is right. Conflicts tend to flare between recreation users and other natural resource stakeholders. Clashes between recreation interests and advocates of commodity land uses are common. For example, mining companies and mining-dependent communities may oppose plans to designate an area as wilderness or a cave as significant because these designations typically carry restrictions on mining activities. A variant on this theme involves conflict between recreation interests and environmental organizations. For example, outfitter-guides that advocate publication of cave locations are opposed by government agencies as well as NSS-affiliated organizations that believe such listings threaten the protection of cave resources. There are also conflicts between resource managers and their constituents. Managers usually view themselves as stewards of the land or mediators 237 Rather than managmg resources, we seem to be more in the bttsiness of managing human relationships, disputes, and conflicts.

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238 Conflicts are often more effectively addressed if the focus is on "managing" rather than "resolving." Cave Conservation and Restoration between competing interests-however, stakeholders left with unfavorable solutions to shared-use problems tend to view managers as culpable individuals who hold competing interests. Conflicts can also occur within agencies as recreation managers disagree with colleagues who are responsible for commodities or environmental protection (Brunson 1998). Conflicts are often morc effectively addressed if the focus is on '"managing" rather than "resolving." Perceived restrictions associated with increased cave usage tend to cause simmering disagreements that intensify into contentious conflict. That's when management of cave resources shifts to management of human relationships. Recreation use conflicts sometimes cannot be entirely resolved since they are rooted in fundamental differences over how one should experience the natural environment. Trout (2003) further discusses management of cave use conflicts. Conflicting interests typically attempt to tilt the balance of a dispute in their favor. Lincoln (1990) describes a continuum of strategies that intensify with the degree of conflict: inaction, negotiation, facilitation, mediation, arbitration, administrative appeal, judicial appeal, legislative appeal, nonviolent civil disobedience, or violence. Public agencies often succeed in managing conflict by focusing on the objective of balancing the needs and interests of multiple constituencies. Agencies increasingly promote collaborative decision-making processes that allow the conflicting interest groups to join in crafting solutions that will minimize clashes. Education and information campaigns should be among the first strategies for managing conflict. For example, outreach programs to cave user groups teach proper etiquette, such as confining travel to a single path through a cave. Informational approaches are often coupled with improved enforcement of existing rules (Trout 2003). Strategies for managing resources by managing relationships are described in various chapters of this manual. Cited References Amy D. 1987. The Politics 0/ Environmental Mediation. New York: Columbia University Press. Brunson MW. 1998. Connict among user groups: An overview of major issues and opportunities. In: Forest Service Recreation Short Course. Utah State University. Burton J. 1990. Conflict: Resolution and Prevention. New York: St. Martin's Press. Jacob GR, Schreyer R. 1980. Conflict in outdoor recreation: a theoretical perspective. Journal 0/ Leisure Research 12:368-380. Lincoln WF. 1990. Dispute Resalution-A Handbook/or Land Use Planners and Resource Managers. Eugene (OR): University of Oregon, Bureau of Governmental Research and Service. Trout JL. 2003. Conflict among user groups. In: Rea GT, editor. Proceedings o/the 15th National Cave Management Symposium: Tucson, Arizona. October /6-/9. 200/. Coronado National Forest: USDA-Forest Service. p 44-49.



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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Wilson-Model Ethics System Section B-Developing Cave Management Programs Model Ethics System For Resolving Cave Conservation Dilemmas John M. Wilson The exploration of ethical theory in this chapter provides guidelines and methods to assist cavers in determining whether actions are ethical. An ethical act is one that should be performed, and this discussion seeks to explain how to make ethical decisions in certain. caving and cave related situations. Ethical acts are also compatible with the stated highest value and its component values. Model, Methods, and Guidelines Discovering what is ethical can be arduous and risky. Effective use of these six guidelines resolves most ethical dilemmas: Use appropriate methods. Clarify primary values. Obtain relevant knowledge. Create effective solutions. Avoid factual and logical error. Facilitate compliance. Methodology is this chapter's primary focus, but the other five guidelines are also described and further study is recommended. Classic ethical methods are described and unified in the Appropriate Methods Ethics System. This system is a model for cavers who face tough conservation decisions. As the difficulty of the dilemma increases, methods that require more time, research, calculation, and evaluation are applied. These four methods (rules, contracts, objective methods, and combined objective and intuitive methods) are based on principles from several major schools of Western ethical philosophy. Although proponents of each school of ethical philosophy may apply their model to all situations, most models are easy to use within only certain situations. The Appropriate Methods Ethics System helps cave restorers and conservationists who need to resolve dilemmas, but who lack the time or inclination to review ethics philosophy. This system offers methods, not a list of what is right and wrong. These methods can be used to help cavers analyze ethical conflicts and identify those in which inappropriate methodology is a factor in an unresolved problem. A thorough discussion of compliance is beyond the scope of this chapter; however, the degree of compliance with ethical proposals can be improved by using appropriate methodology to achieve ethical results. Appropriate Methods Ethics System The Appropriate Methods Ethics System uses a sequence of four methods, or levels, to evaluate conservation proposals and determine whether an act 239 Methodology is this chapter's primary focus, but five other guidelines are also described.

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240 The Appropriate Methods Ethics System uses a sequence of four methods, or levels, to evaluate conservation proposals and determine whether an act is ethical Cave Conservation and Restoration is ethical. Each system level should be used until it leads to an acceptable solution or until it fails; however, any of the methods, except the first, can be used to resolve any ethical problem. Level one uses only established rules, laws, and procedures; therefore, it is not applicable when a new solution is required to resolve a problem. The levels are proposed in a sequence that suggests using the least expensive, and easiest first. If a method is inadequate, one uses the next level. Using the appropriate method usually offers better solutions, and it saves time and effort. When there is no proposal, one must be developed. The proposal could be to do nothing. Developing creative proposals to solve ethical dilemmas is often an essential component of the conflict resolution process. The First Level Using What Is Known First-level or normal decisions require actions that are compatible with appropriate practices and customary relevant laws, rules, and regulations. One reviews a proposed act for compliance with customary practices and applicable laws. The first level goal is to find an appropriate solution from the present knowledge base. This contrasts with the goal of the other three levels, which is to create new solutions. We make most of our decisions using the first-level method, because doing what we know tends to be intuitive, easy, and quick. Rather than inventing the correct solution for every new situation, people do what is legal and expected based on law and custom. First-level methods are the standard operating procedure. First-level methods may be in the form of a written law, an informal custom, or a combination. The advantages of using the first-level methods include reasonable evaluation cost and less thought. In this level, people apply their knowledge to predictable situations. Successful results developed using higher levels are added to the first level, and they become part of the public repertoire of standard ethical behaviors Case Study 1 An Easy Example Submitted by the author Several cavers discover acts of vandalism in one of their favorite caves. Fifteen stalagmites and stalactites are broken and left on the ground. The group decides to repair the damage. Analysis. The group will use the most appropriate means to make the repairs, as explained in this book. The cave owner understands what is involved and wants the restoration performed. No laws prohibit any part of the planned restoration. The expense is mostly in labor willingly volunteered, but other expenses are being paid by a friend for whom the amount is nominal. The decision to restore the cave in this situation is deceptively easy because there are few conflicting interests and no ethical conflicts. There may be better alternatives for using the resources that will be committed to this cave restoration; however, because the emotional impetus to act is not likely to be transferable, these altematives probably would not benefit from diversion to another project. Rules and Transition Problems Harm or an injustice may be caused when laws and procedures are applied inappropriately. Some of the worst ,ethical behavior has occurred in the name of law, tradition, and authority. The expressions "I was doing what I was told,""1 was doing things the way they have always been done," or "'We have rules and cannot make an exception" typify rule-obedience inflexibility. The transition from standard to other levels of ethical reasoning can be difficult. This tirstlevel of ethical procedures is based on rules, not the conse

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Wilson-Model Ethics System quence of an act. Most people recognize that ifbad things are happening, and if the present rules are not helping, something more should be done. Sometimes people are unable to react because of their belief or faith in the law. There are three reasons people comply with laws and rules regardless of the consequences: Some people do not care about the outcome or are unconcerned with ethical behavior. Some people believe in the absolute authority or absolute correctness ofa rule or law in general. Ethicists refer to this school of thought as deontological, from the Greek word dean, which means, "that which is binding." The concept of duty or obligation is crucial for deontologists. For them, murder, lying, and vandalizing a cave arc always wrong, and indirect consequences of an act are not usually important. For example, mitigating circumstances such as lying to a cave vandal about the location of a cave is not acceptable. Some people may have inaccurate information or make a logical error. Case Study 2 A Lost Cave Submitted by the author A cave photographer has documented his love of caves with many outstanding photographs. One cave in Virginia had a section of rare, delicate mineral formations that he had captured on film with award-winning photographs. Many years ago, this cave was beginning to suffer vandalism and the local cavers wanted to place a gate near the entrance to keep out the vandals. The photographer vigorously opposed the gating of his favorite cave. His argument was simple: cave gates are ugly and unnatural, and they destroy the aesthetic value of the cave, and people should not change caves. The photographer was unable to prevent the gate, but delayed its installation, and vandals destroyed the mineral formations before the gate was installed. Analysis. When cave vandalism occurred in the caves he loved, the photographer was most upset. The photographer is unwilling to use another method to resolve the problem, even when it is clear that his ways are failing. He is comfortable using only current laws and beliefs. When asked how he would stop the vandalism, his suggestion was to use long jail terms for cave vandals. He was deeply intluenced by the psychological impact of cave gates. He is a "'rules" type person. He believed that his obligation is to do no wrong. If each person followed the law, a gate would not be necessary. His arguments are internally consistent. He believes that right is absolute and right conduct does not depend on the circumstances or consequences, only the intent to do right matters. This belief is referred to as ethical absolutism, and it is part of the Natural Rights school of philosophy. This philosophy says that as long as he acted rightly, he is not responsible for failed results. Critics of Natural Rights would contend that he is also committing the naturalfallacy error by using the natural state of the cave to assert how it should be protected. Changing Methods The Appropriate Methods Ethics System applies the best ethics methods to a situation. It suggests using a higher-level method when the present methods produce unsatisfactory results, such as when two acts or their consequences conflict with each other or with higher values, cause unfairness, injustice, or unnecessary harm to someone or something. For example, property right laws offer a legal justification for cave owners to sell the mineral formations from their cave although this conflicts with natural 241 This first level of ethical procedures is based on rules, not the consequence of an act. Most people recognize that if bad things are happening, and if the present rules are not helping, something 'more should be done.

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242 At the second level, it may be necessary to relinquish a law, rule, or agreement and replace it with a new contract. This level requires people to develop contracts, usually through negotiation. Cave Conservation and Restoration resource conservation values. The Second Level Contracts At the second Icvel, it may be necessary to relinquish a law, rule, or agreement and replace it with a new contract. This level requires people to develop contracts, usually through negotiation. When used appropriately, negotiating compares valid competing interests fairly, and it can be quick and effective. Many people are familiar with using contracts, and they can reach a reasonable agreement through negotiation with minimal time and effort. One way to evaluate the fairness of a contract is to imagine that you will have to live with the consequences of the solution, but that you do not know which party you will be aner the solution is adopted. That is, have each participant in the contlict pretend that they occupy the role of the other party and must accept the solution. In second-level negotiations, justice is often the major goal of the contract. When justice is the primary goal, the goal should be made explicit, but the parties may agree to other primary values. Ifno primary value is stated, self-interest is the implied primary value when people are negotiating. Level two is a simple version of overlapping consensus, which was developed by John Rawls (1971). In its most advanced form, competing interests are compared objectively, with each advocate unaware of which course of action would eventually be beneficial to him. The crucial component of the system of overlapping consensus of basic rights is the Veil of Secrecy. Philosophers call variations of this negotiating approach con/roc/arion. Most common decisions are resolved with level-one procedures and rules. When level-one methods are inadequate, one may expect to resolve most remaining problems at level two. In most cases, it is simpler to achieve a contract than to meet the fact-finding and calculation standards required in level three, the next level, so most people will attempt to exhaust contract techniques before using level three. Case Study 3 The Terminator Submitted by Diana E. Northup This kind of conflict has arisen in the exploration of New Mexico's Lechuguilla Cave. The explorers find a new area with big exploration potential and big scientific potential. Because the cave's microbial community is potentially easily affected by human visitation, scientists ask that an area be designated off limits until it can be studied. Such study can last from one to five years, a duration that may be perceived as an eternity to an explorer with a hot lead. The scientists are called "terminators," because they terminate exploration in certain areas of the cave. If scientists do not work with the explorers, then explorers may not reveal wonderful new areas for science. The situation is like walking a tightrope for both parties. Analysis. Lechuguilla cavers are developing a set of rules for resolving the sometimes conflicting interests of science and exploration. They appear to have successfully developed contracts to balan~e the gains. Knowledge and pleasure are gained from exploration while scientific limitations delay some gratification to both the explorers and the scientists. Case Study 4 What Do You Get from Discovering a Cave? Submitted by Douglas M. Medville Caver group A discovers a virgin cave that contains attractive speleothems. The group explores the cave, practicing leave-no-trace ethics. But not being surveyors, they do not map the cave. A few weeks later, caver group B

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Wilson-Model Ethics System independently finds the cave. Thinking it is a virgin cave, group B surveys it, leaving what they feel to be unobtrusive survey stations: a carbide dot here. a mctal tag at a station junction there. A few days later, caver group A returns to the cave and sees the evidence of group B's survey. Group A feels that whoever did the survey has diminished the attractiveness of the cave. Group A does not want group B to fe-cnter the cave. Group A seals the entrance, preventing group B from continuing their survey. Through a third party, groups A and B learn of each other's existence and communicate. Group 8 wishes to have the cave's entrance unsealed so they can continue their survey and promises to remove all traces of their first survey if it otfends group A. Group A is unwilling to unblock the entrance, citing a desire to protect the cave from further visitation, both by group B and other cavers whom they feel would diminish the cave's attractiveness. In addition, they express a concern that group B's photographs and map, ifcirculated in the caving community, will increase the visitation rate. The cave is on public land and there are no private landowner considerations. Neither group owns the cave. Each group found the cave independently. 80th groups feel that they have a stake in the conservation of the cave. Group A wants to see the cave protected, even to the point of making it impossible (or very difficult) for others to enter the cave. Group B believes that another group should not assume access control of a cave that they do not own, especially since group 8 found the cave on their own and are engaged in a survey. Finally, group A feels that they have explored the entire cave, while group 8, through their survey, knows of passages that group A did not see and plans to survey these passages. Analysis. What should be done? Who is correct? This type of problem is ideal for level-two methods. Part of the difficulty is that each of these groups believes it has some right to or ownership of the cave. Many cavcrs believe that certain ownership rights such as exploration or access control belong to the discoverer. Property owners may not agree. Group A is claiming rights to the cave that are beyond those usually given to cave discoverers in the United States. A facilitator should be able to help these two groups understand that the best interest is served by developing a mutually beneficial proposal. Such solutions might involve each group in the future management of the cave. All will benefit from an approach that offers the legal owner (the government) something in the future, such as their speleological expertise. The cave owner may benefit from these services enough to enter into a contract and grant certain privileges to either or both of these groups. Like the discovery of gold in a new place, it is difficult to control the exploration of a cave. Case Study 5 Mud Filled Caves Submitted by the author In Alaska, a karst island with extensive old-growth forest offers an excellent source of timber, which is being harvested using clear-cut techniques. The island receives more than 250 centimeters (about 100 inches) of rain a year. Once an area is logged, erosion removes much of the topsoil and fills caves with mud and other debris. The lumber company agrees to leave a O.5-hectare (l.2-acre) uncut buffer around each cave entrance. Analysis. This plan was not successful because a O.S-hectare (1.2-acre) stand of trees was too small to withstand high winds, and most of the trees in these butfer areas were blown down. Furthermore, the island forests do not seem to recover from clear-cut lumbering. The combination of poor 243 Many cavers believe that certain ownership rights such as exploration or access control, belong to the discoverer. Property owners may not agree.

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244 This level requires adding the advantages and subtracting the disadvantages of an act's consequences. It involves considering present and future benefits and costs, and comparing factors using a common denominator Cave Conservation and Restoration soil, erosion, and wind has prevented the regeneration of the forest. Logging on this island provides a onc-time economic gain. This agreement was reached through negotiation, which supposedly considered the interests of all parties. Employment was stated as an important factor when making the case for continued logging. With this type of negotiation, there are few clear and immediate losers. The primary loss is of the common forest environment. It is difficult to convince people with direct economic interests that exploiting commonly held resources will cause indirect harm and economic loss in the long run. This type of conflict is better resolved using the consequential methods. When no one articulates an interest, level-two methods are less successful. By focusing on articulated interests, level-two methods may not find other wrongs until subsequent events expose the inadequacies. People not yet born, other species, and commonly-held resources like caves, air, and oceans are examples of unrepresented constituencies. The limitations of level-two contracts occur when negotiated solutions equally protect the interests of people close to the situation but not the interests of more distant people. Factors unconsidered by the current negotiators can weaken a contract. This is particularly true when common resources are allocated. Not all well-intentioned, negotiated resolutions have desirable consequences. The Third Level-Consequences Using Objective Methods This level requires adding the advantages and subtracting the disadvantages of an act's consequences. It involves considering present and future benefits and costs and comparing factors using a common denominator. Comparing apples to oranges requires the use of a common denominator, such as the level of sweetness or the monetary value of each fruit. This method relies on objective calculation. Cost benefit analysis and risk assessment are examples of appropriate methodologies for this level, and success is determined when a standard is achieved. For consequential ethical methods, one compares the overall values of different actions in tenns of their compatibility with the primary value. (For examples, refer to the section below on consequential highest values.) Benefit is measured in terms of how an act contributes to the attainment of the primary value, and accurate measurement of relevant data is important. This method can be important in allocating scarce resources. Wise, appropriate, and effective use of resources is in society's interest, and it contributes to the creation of additional resources and conservation of irreplaceable natural assets. Exercise 1 How would one devise a common denominator to enable a comparison of the caving experience in a cave with economic development of the land above it? Level three's objectivity requires that values be compared with a standard unit of measurement. Different ethicists have created terms to use for comparing value. Utilitarianism, for example, employs "units of utility" as the common denominator. While this may help people with negative emotional associations with the concept of money as an ethical tool, creating a new standard will cause additional work in establishing relative value. The development of world markets has resulted in structures that regularly calculate values for exchanging or insuring almost everything, thus reducing the amount of work in assigning common denominators. By using an established practice, people making level-three calculations have less work. They must still include relevant factors, and they may have to assign some values that have no market, such as the value of free time. If the thought of using money as a common denominator for ethical calcula

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Wilson-Model Ethics System tions is not appealing, other common denominators are possible. Within the cave conservation community, there may be agreement on a goal but not on the ways to accomplish the goal. Using level-three methods to evaluate the effectiveness of differing cave-protection decisions can unite people behind a cave conservation solution. After applying all level-three methods, if the problem remains unresolved, if the value is impossible to measure accurately, or if significant incommensurable values occur, one should use the level-four methods. One should not expect to use level four often, and returning to level two might be better. Another possibility is that level-three methods are successful, but there is a compliance or marketing problem. Case Study 6 Cave Modification and the Scientist Submitted by the author A meticulous scientist who studies caves has worked many years for the geologic survey of a midwestern state. He established an elaborate and effective meteorological experiment in lee-water Cave that included a number of water level recording locations. Icc-water Cave noods often, and it is a significant hydrological information source. The information from his study advanced the hydrological understanding of the area and ofTered a way to make accurate predictions of dangerous high water levels in the cave. This scientist is quiet and shy. He readily volunteers his services and talents for opportunities to advance the study of caves. While friendly, he is no politician and not particularly effective at swaying group opinion. He appears uncomfortable when conflicts arise. In one-to-one situations, he is personable. He worked effectively with the cave owner and established a relationship that allowed him and his grotto to explore, map, and study Ice-water Cave. When a European scientist approached him with a request to measure spelean growth in the midwestern U.S. over an extended period, Ice-water Cave seemed a good choice with its large, active speleothems that appeared to be old. An inconspicuous place was available for a test boring. The 6-millimeter (about O.25-inch diameter) bore could be studied, and most of the drilled core would be returned once it was analyzed. Plans were made to implement the drilling. The grotto otlicially manages lee-water Cave. The grotto chairman was concerned that this drilling was vandalism, and he made it clear that he thought taking this formation core was wrong. In his mind, right and wrong are easy to distinguish because breaking or marring cave formations is spelled out as vandalism in state cave law and by cave organizations. The drilling was performed, and the core was studied and returned to its original place. The chairman was incensed that the grotto now had a cave vandal as a member. He persisted with character attacks on the scientist, who was bewildered, and after several months the shy scientist withdrew from the grotto. Since he was no longer a part of the management oflcewater Cave, he removed his scientific equipment from the cave. Analysis. Drilling holes in speleothems is cave vandalism by most measures, but this type of scientific study is permitted by most cave laws in the United States. The ethical exception claimed by the scientist is that the intent of this small modification will potentially accomplish a net good, even ifno new insight or knowledge is gained-a level-three argument. Most people acknowledge the value of scientific research. The principal parties cited no established law or custom that resolved this issue to the satisfaction of both parties. Current state cave laws may resolve this issue in favor of the scientific research. Because the chairman and at least a few others were unconvinced, level-three methods arc used here as 245 After applying all level-three methods, if the problem remains unresolved, if the value is impossible to measure accurately, or if significant incommensurable values occur, one should use the levelfour methods.

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246 Rule-based procedures may fail to accomplish what is best. Cave Conservation and Restoration an example of how this conflict is easy to resolve. What is lost by taking the sample? The physical losses arc a small amount of calcite, a damaged formation, wear and tear on the cave, along with the expense of performing the study. To allow quantitative comparisons, the small financial loss can be calculated. The removal of the mineral core does not harm the biological habitat. The aesthetic loss is small because the drilled area is inconspicuous (even if multiplied by the loss all subsequent visitors would experience). The scientist might claim that is unlikely that most people visiting this cave would experience measurable loss. Because the cave is rarely visited, the total 1055 to people is relatively small, maybe even zero. The gain to society may be training the researcher, or some significant new information may be obtained. How much this one piece of information may help is difficult to determine; however, it is likely to be greater than zero. Case Study 7 Caving in the Wilderness Submitted by Douglas M. Medville Cavers are engaged in the exploration, survey, and study of caves in wilderness areas in USDA National Forests. Some of the caves contain streams flowing down pits. To facilitate safe exploration and survey, the cavers set bolts at the drops to keep the ropes and cavers out of the water. Citing a concern for keeping wilderness areas pristine, and having seen scars and bolts left in cliffs by rock climbers, the Forest Service holds public meetings on a proposed rule that would forbid bolting in wilderness areas. Members of the caving community attend the meetings and oppose the proposed rule, citing safety concerns and the value of bolting in limited circumstances to conduct scientific studies, carry out resource inventories, and survey the caves. They point out that the bolts are invisible to the general public, but they are willing to forego using power equipment to place bolts in wilderness areas. Following the public meetings, the Forest Service promulgates a rule in the Federal Register prohibiting the placement of bolts in wilderness areas in USDA National Forests, citing conservation ethics and a desire to keep such areas as natural as possible. While their major concern is the placement of rock climbing bolts on outdoor cliffs, they make it illegal for cavers to place bolts in caves too. Is the Forest Service correct in its rule making? Does keeping caves as natural as possible outweigh the benefits of placing bolts in caves? How important is this naturalism, especially when the bolting furthers exploration and scientific studies that may benefit cave conservation and management? Analysis. Medville describes the classic example of rule obedience by a rule-based authority. The Forest Service followed its procedures correctly and did not come up with a good solution for cavers and land managers. Rule-based procedures may fail to do what is right. Resolution of this contlict appears to have failed using level-two methods. Maintaining wilderness areas as natural may be a primary value, instead ofa goal. If the Forest Service considers some artificial objects as acceptable in wildemess areas because they contribute to accomplishing higher values such as safety, long-term preservation, or gains in knowledge, then this value can be resolved. The best results in this type of problem require that a solution resolve the problem for both sides. One possible solution would be to recognize that climbing aids in caves perform a different function than they do on the surface and that the improved safety might help maintain the wilderness. For example, the rescue of an injured caver in a wilderness area could result in greater damage and the introduction of unnatural items to the wilderness and cave. Once a new proposal is

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Wilson-Model Ethics System developed, the advantages and disadvantages can be calculated using levelthree methods. The natural fallacy may be a factor in this case, as might be conflicting primary values or inappropriate primary values. The Fourth Level-Consequences Using Objective and Intuitive Methods Dilemmas may require using both objective and intuitive ethics methods. At level four, all of the consequences of an act, including dissimilar values and incompatible measurements are considered. The situation may determine the weights assigned to each variable. This level should be used when the solution attained using the third level is unacceptable, because the results conflict with the highest value. Unlike with the third level, some factors have no common denominator and must be compared subjectively. Third-level information and conclusions may be used, but the information from such research is tempered by invoking appropriate intuitive values. The objective and intuitive level is particularly useful when some consequences are difficult to quantify; thus, consequences are measured by how an act contributes to the attainment of the highest value. The process of subjectively comparing incommensurable values is subject to unverifiable errors, because there may not be an objective standard. Such a discrepancy may be an acceptable risk in complicated problems. Exercise 2 A cave that has a history of use by recreational cavers has come under the control of a cave conservation organization. The cave was a significant habitat for endangered bats, but the bat population has declined over the years to almost nothing. Bat censuses have reported a few individuals of an endangered resident bat species in the cave. Knowledgeable bat scientists have stated that if there were no cavers in the cave, the bats might return. Knowledgeable cavers have stated that it would be diflicult to keep the recreational cavers out of the cave, and some of these recreational cavers have threatened to remove barriers that might block the entrance. There is ready access from the highway to the cave. But no one lives in the immediate area, and no one is available to guard the entrance. Using level-four methods, develop a proposal for this conservation group-a proposal that is compatible with its charter. Their charter is similar to those ofNSS cave conservancies, and it is compatible with the conservation policy of the NSS. Beyond Methods What is Important? Some ethical dilemmas may be unresolved due to incompatible primary values. In such cases, people temporarily accept a truce. Ethics methods may achieve these results, but they will not resolve conflicts between incompatible primary values. While good methodology is important for resolving ethical dilemmas, it supplies only the how to, not the why. This discussion of primary values is only a starting point for understanding their use. The Appropriate Methods Ethical System is most effective when the primary value is explicit; it does not predetermine a set of values. People using this system need to be familiar with primary values, and they need to know when to recognize them as factors in conflicts. Some ethics systems are associated with certain primary values. For example, for utilitarians, happiness or the greatest good for the greatest number is the primary value. Most other schools of thought propose primary values. 247 Dilemmas may require using both objective and intuitive ethics methods. At level four, all of the consequences of an act are considered, including dissimilar values and incompatible measurements.

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248 Do caves or other natural features have rights outside of human interests; that is, does a cave have a stake'? Cave Conservation and Restoration Because the reasons for conserving and restoring caves are likely to be similar to other types of environmental conservation, it is important for cave-interested people to explain how cave c'onservation applies to a broader environmental statement. The selection of what is most important may have a profound elfect on the ethical solutions obtained. People have many different primary values, and sometimes a person or group may have morc than one value or conflicting primary values. In other cases, new values become more important. The concept of cave rights provides an example of how primary values might change. Cave Rights Do caves or other natural features have rights outside of human interests; that is, does a cave have a stake'? Reference to caves also refers to significant natural features in this section. While caves have great value and enhance human and other life, do they have the right to exist, and do they merit preservation and protection regardless of human interests? Do caves have rights that equal or exceed human rights? Some philosophers maintain that the concept of cave rights is an error, because caves have legal protections but not human rights. Attributing that which is exclusively human to non-human animals or inanimate objects might be an error; however, any person, group, or institution may hold as true any set of primary values. Theoretically, an ethical system could maintain that caves have a stake and could have rights equivalent to those of humans. Some of such a system's requirements and considerations are presented as an example of factors involved when elevating a subsidiary value to a primary value. There are two ways rights are bestowed on caves, by deity or nature, or by humans through institutions like governments. If a person believes that caves have rights equivalent to human rights granted by nature or deity, it is a religious belief. Therefore, this value is a matter offaith and is not subject to objective verification. lfcaves had legal rights equal to those of people, these rights would need to be compatible with other highest law so that it could be rationalized. Although some people maintain that rights are inalienable, continuing enforcement is only as effective as the people and institutions that uphold them. Institutions can withdraw rights. Human rights or their equivalents are not granted to other living things or objects, and no serious effort exists to grant legal rights to caves; however, there is a movement to grant some limited human rights to certain animals. The accepted approach to cave protection is to establish legal protections for caves and institute other measures such as education, active surveillance, and physical barriers. However, human conservation interests, not concern for caves because of intrinsic worth, generally motivate such protections. People select primary values based on their beliefs. For these values to influence public policy or social behavior, others must adopt them. The following questions may help define one's beliefs about cave rights. What is the purpose of a cave? Why do caves need rights? Why should caves have rights as opposed to protections? Should people use caves for economic gain? Is cave modification and damage acceptable when rescuing a person from a cave? If so, how much is acceptable? Does the level of cave protection depend on the significance of the cave? What sacrifices should be made to protect caves? Should caving be banned in some caves'! Who should pay for cave protection? Who represents the caves? Exercise 3 Use level-three methods and develop two ethical proposals to govern the sale of speleothems by cave owners. The first proposal is to be compatible

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Wilson-Model Ethics System with individual freedom as a highest value, and the second is to be compatible with an environmental school. Identification of the Primary Values For exercises in identifying primary values, several terms need clarification. This section describes primary value. Also included are abbreviated statements for consequential and nonconsequential highest values. Criteria for a Primary Value A primary value is a statement of what is most important. It describes what is most important to a species, group, or individual. A primary value has no components that are in conflict with each other. When there are conflicts between two components of a highest value, then at least one of them is a secondary value. Ifan ethical system has conflicting highest values, then solving some ethical problems may not be possible. A primary value helps clarify the purpose of ethical methods and offers a standard on which to evaluate ethical behavior. Primary values may be absolute or evaluated by their consequences. Primary values are in competition for acceptance. Consequential Highest Values Acts should contribute to achieving the greatest good for the greatest number of people-promoted by utilitarians and many humanitarians. Acts should contribute to achieving the greatest good for humankindpromoted by some environmentalists. Acts should maximize freedoms of individuals-promoted by the natural rights school of thought. Equal justice is to be available to all people-promoted by some contractarians. Acts should promote the health of the ecosystem-promoted by Aldo Leopold (1970) and some environmentalists. Nonconsequential Highest Values Nature determines moral acts and these acts have intrinsic valueNatural Law. God determines moral acts-most religious law is duty based and has different primary values. These systems cannot use levels three and four, and sometimes have more than one highest value. Acts should follow the Ten Commandments. Fletcher (1977) makes a consequential and plausible argument for agape (love) as an absolute highest Christian value. He brings Christian doctrine under a unified statement, which is expressed in the first two of the Ten Commandments. Errors Successful application ofthe Appropriate Methods Ethics System depends on avoiding error. Some logic texts identify logical errors and fallacies, but oversimplified. doctrinaire statements can also be a cause of error. Examples of doctrinaire statements are: job preservation is paramount; common resources are available for anyone who can take them; and cave owners can do anything they want with their caves. Two common fallacies committed in cave and environmental conflicts merit detailed discussion .. Following are some examples. Error Example 1 Denial Denial may be in two forms: A person denies that there is a problem or an injustice or that wrong 249 A primary value statement has no components that are in conflict with each other.

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250 Nallirallaws describe what is always true under certain circumstances. Nalliral evenls appear to be random occurrences that mayor may not happen the same way at any time. Using nature to devise an ethical code involves the risk of using a random event as a moral principle. Cave Conservation and Restoration has aecurre or WI 1 occur. An example 0 em3 IS w en grotto eaders endorse the social ostracism of a caver at grotto functions because of trivial personality characteristics or differences in opinion. A person denies that there is a need to use an ethical method other than a rule-based authority to solve a problem. At one time, photographs depicting cavers without hard hats were prohibited in the NSS photo salon. Recently, photographs that depict a person touching a cave mineral formation have been banned from salons and publications. In general, these may be good rules; however, there are valid exceptions with good explanations. When a person maintains that there are no valid exceptions, denial may be a likely symptom. Error Example 2 The Natural Fallacy Philosophers have sought to derive basic truths from nature. By applying fundamental truths to ethical dilemmas, they believe that they can deduce and justify ethical principles. While this method is essential for ethical systems to be compatible with natural law and to avoid fundamental errors, people sometimes mistake these natural laws for natural events. Natura/laws describe what is always true under certain circumstances, such as gravity, chemical reactions, human needs, and so on. Natural events appear to be random occurrences that mayor may not happen the same way at any time, such as human wants. Using nature to devise an ethical code involves the risk of using a random event as a moral principle, the Natural Fallacy. The statement "'cave modification is wrong because the modifications are not natural" is an example that most philosophers would identify as a natura/fallacy. The error is in using the natural state of the cave to assert that it has ethical standing that prevents an action. This natural fallacy is defined as deriving claims about what ought to be done from claims about what is the case. It assumes that the natural state of a cave is the best state. To avoid the natural fallacy in establishing an ethical principle, one could show the event is the result of a natural law and not a chance event. To ethically maintain that a natural feature should not be changed or an organism should remain in its present environment, one could show that they have significant value beyond mere existence. The next case study demonstrates how this error can be a subtle part of more complex issues. Case Study 8Cave Restorationist Versus Cave Preservationist Submitted by Joseph C. Douglas One pitfall in contemporary cave resource protection is that conservation means different things to different people, and some of these meanings are in tension with each other. There may even be conflicting primary values within cave conservation. For some, biological protection of caves is the ultimate value, while others may stress the protection of geological features. Some cavers think primarily of aesthetic values when they undertake conservation work, and others focus on cultural or historical resource protection. For some, responsible multiple-use of caves is paramount, or recreational and educational values are emphasized. There is considerable overlap between the objectives of use and protection, and cooperation is possible (and necessary). However, when the emphasis is on underground preservation, or when preservation gives way to restoration, value-based conflict can appear. Cave conservation, preservation, and restoration are important and need to be considered carefully before taking action. Restoration involving environmental modification may conflict with preservation. Aesthetic restoration is sometimes in tension with biological pr~servation and historical preservation. Removing old wood and even some types of trash from a cave improves the appearance of the space, but it may damage the cave's biota. Similarly, restoration projects that involve graffiti removal can

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Part 2--Conservation, Management, Ethics: Wilson-Model Ethics System damage cultural resources. While graftiti can be ugly, it may contain or overlay important prehistoric or historic resources. Awareness of the variety of important resources in caves, willingness to learn about them, and communication between speleologists with different values and expertise can help ameliorate conflict in the cave conservation community. Summary A model that employs four methods (rules, contracts, objective methods, and combined objective and intuitive methods) can be used to resolve cavcrelated ethical conflicts. By having four methods, onc is more likely to find a solution to ethical dilemmas. Identification of primary values and avoiding fallacies and error are crucial factors for conflict resolution. Cited References Fletcher J. 1977. Situation ethics: The new morality. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press. 176 p. Leopold A. 1970. A Sand County Almanac: With Essays on Conservation from Round River. New York: Ballantine Books. 295 p. [First published in 1949.] Rawls J. 1971. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press. 538 p. Additional Reading Barnes J, editor. 1995. The Complete Works of Aristotle. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 2256 p. Bayles M, Henley K. 1989. Right Conduct. New York: Random House. Elliot R. 1997. Faking Nature: The Ethics of Environmental Restoration. London and New York: Routledge. 192 p. Graham 0. 1988. Contemporary Social Philosophy. Oxford: Basil Blaskwell, Ltd. Gregor M, editor. 1996. Practical Philosophy by Immanuel Kant. Cambridge University Press. 664 p. Griffin J. 1986. Wel/-heing. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 403 p. Hare R. 1981. Moral Thinking. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Hargrove E. 1989. Foundations a/Environmental Ethics. Englewood Cliffs (NJ): Prentice Hall. 229 p. Hargrove EC, editor. 1992. The Animal Rights/Environmental Ethics Debote: The Environmental Perspective. Albany (NY): SUNY Press. 273 p. Hegel G, Knox TM, translator. 1967. Hegel's Philosophy of Right. Ncw York: Oxford University Press. 377 p. Kohlberg L. 1984. The Psychology of Moral Development. San Francisco: Harper & Row, Publishers. Leena V. 1997. The Intrinsic Value of Nature. Amsterdam and Atlanta (GA): Rodolpi. McClelland D, editor. 1982. The Development ofSociul Maturity. New York: Irvington Publishers. 225 p. Mill JS. 1967 Reprint. A System of Logic: Rutiocinative and Inductive. London: Longmans, Green and Co, Ltd. 644 p. Newton LH, Dillingham CK. 1993. Watershed,: Classic Cases in Environmental Ethics. Belmont (CA): Wadsworth. 249 p. Norton BG. editor. 1986. The Preservation of Species: The Value of Biological Diversity. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 305 p. Passmore J. 1974. Man s Responsibility jilr Nature: Ecological Problems and Western TradWons. New York: Scribner's. (Also see: 1980. 2nd ed. London: Duckworth.) 227 p. 251 A model that employs four methods (rules, contracts, objective methods, and combined objective and intuitive methods) can be used to resolve caverelated ethical conflicts.

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252 Cave Conservation and Restoration Peacock K. 1996. Living with the Earth: An lntraduction to Enviranmental Philosophy. Toronto: Harcourt Brace Canada. Pojrnan LP. 1994. Enviranmental Ethics: Readings in Theory and Application. Boston: Jones & Bartlett. 560 p. Schmidtz D, Willott E, editors. 2002. Enviranmental Ethics: What Really Matters, What Really Works. New York: Oxford University Press. 624 p. Taylor PW. 1986. Respect for Nature: A Theory of Enviranmental Ethics. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 342 p. Wenz PS. 2001. Enviranmental Ethics Today. New York: Oxford University Press. 326 p. Wenz PS. 1988. Enviranmental Justice. Albany: State University of New York Press. 384 p.



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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: NSS Conservation and Preservation Policies 253 Section C-Improving Caver Ethics NSS Conservation and Preservation Policies NSS Cave Conservation Policy The National Speleological Society believes: Caves have unique scientific, recreational, and scenic values. These values are endangered by both carelessness and intentional vandalism. These values, once gone, cannot be recovered. The responsibility for protecting caves must be assumed by those who study and enjoy them. Accordingly, the intention of the Society is to work for the preservation of caves with a realistic policy supported by effective programs for: Encouraging self-discipline among cavers. Education and research concerning the causes and prevention of cave damage. Special projects, including cooperation with other groups similarly dedicated to the conservation of natural areas. Specifically: All contents of a cave-formations, life, and loose deposits-are significant for their enjoyment and interpretation. Caving parties should leave a cave as they find it. Cavers should provide means for the removal of waste. Cavers should limit marking to a few, small, removable signs as needed for surveys. Cavers should especially exercise extreme care not to accidentally break or soil formations, disturb life forms, or unnecessarily increase the number of disfiguring paths through an area. Scientific collection is professional, selective, al)d minimal. The collecting of mineral or biological material for display purposes-including previously broken or dead specimens-is never justified, as it encourages others to collect and destroy the interest of the cave. The Society encourages projects such as: Establishing cave preserves. Placing entrance gates where appropriate. Opposing the sale of speleothems. Supporting effective protective measures. Cleaning and restoring over-used caves. Cooperating with private cave owners by providing knowledge about their cave and assisting them in protecting their cave and property from damage during cave visits. Encouraging commercial cave owners to make use of their opportunity to aid the public in understanding caves and the importance of their conservation.

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254 NSS Conservation Policy History Editors' Note: Rane Curl reporled that AI Amon, George Moore, and he wrote the NSS Conservation Policy in 1960, The NSS Board had asked Amon-who was chairman of the NSS Conservation Committee-for a "cede of conservation ethics," The NSS Conservation Policy was the result Curl added that he's as suprised as anyone that the 40.year.old policy has survived this long without revision (McClurg and McClurg 2003), McClurg D. McClurg J. 2003. A History of the San Francisco Bay Chapter, NSS #79, 195710 present. In: Proffitt M, editor. Range of Light, Realms of Darkness: A Guide for the 2003 NSS Convention. Huntsville (All: National Speleological Society. p 152. Cave Conservation and Restoration Where there is reason to believe that publication of cave locations will lead to vandalism before adequate protection can be established, the Society will oppose such publication. It is the duty of every Society member to: Take personal responsibility for spreading a consciousness of the cave conservation problem to each potential user of caves. Without this, the beauty and value of our caves will not long remain with us. Adopted by the National Speleological Sociely Board ofGovemors on December 2M, 1960. NSS Cave and Karst Preservation Policy Caves and areas of karst and pseudokarst development are sensitive environments that often interact with surface and subsurface waters and ecosystems, They frequently harbor recrealional, historical, and natural resources of considerable significance. The National Speleological Society believes: All caves and cavernous areas are important. Cave wilderness, like surface wilderness, is a valuable resource that should be protected regardless of official designations or boundaries. Caves and cavernous areas, with their unique environment and development, may require management measures that are independent of geographic boundaries or designations established for the management of other surface or subsurface resources. Accordingly, the Society endorses, supports, and advocates the implementation of the following precepts: No cave or cavernous area should be altered or modified without a full, balanced, and conservative study of the impact of such action, including input from knowledgeable persons specifically experienced in the exploration and scientific study of caves and cave resources. Cave resources should be protected by keeping wild caves wild and free from human manipulations and alterations that hamper the free play of natural forces, endanger cave and karst ecosystems, or diminish the pleasure of future visitors. Special efforts should be made to preserve the integrity of ecological and hydrologic systems within caves and cavernous terrains. Where formal designation of Cave Wilderness is a useful tool in protecting this resource, the National Speleological Society will support such designation through actions of its Board of Governors. Adopted by the National Speleological Society Board or Governors on Novemhcr 15, 1994.



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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Baichtal-When to Quit Section C-Improving Caver Ethics When to Quit James F. Baichtal The cave was formed in a grayish-blue and white banded marble breccia with a red-to-pink matrix. There had been a long habitation by early humans, and a midden nearly blocked the entrance. Charcoal from torches was found on many of the ledges. Shells were stacked where children had played maybe thousands of years in the past. Bones of deer and other forest animals as well as birds, marine mammals, and fish were scattered in the passages. The cave's entrance is approximately 30 meters (98 feet) from the beach and 20 meters (65 feet) above sea level. The cave formed when the present spring surfaced at a slightly higher level as part of an extensive karst groundwater system that flows from a lake nearly 1.3 kilometers (4,260 feet) away and 180 meters (600 feet) higher in elevation. Today, the main spring flows from just below the cave into the sea. At higher flows, a second spring rises from a pit at the base ofa clifT and forms a substantial stream to the north. The main large room of the cave has two levels into which many old phreatic passages come. We explored these passages which ended in breakdown or became too tight. One passage continued for over 60 meters (200 feet) into a maze of phreatic tubes, a spongework. Lying on the floor, one could hear and feel the pulse ortlle huge stream in the passage beneath. On this particular day Steve and I were exploring and mapping the maze of tubes, hoping to find a way down into the main stream passage below. We worked up into one of the highest tubes, surveying as we went. We rounded a comer and the passage in front of us was quite decorated. Soda straws and stalactites hung from the ceiling, moonmilk coated the edges of the passage, and gravels on the floor contained several otter bones. The passage continued but we concluded our survey. We decided not to disturb this passage. By careful negotiation we may have been able to work our way past the moonmilk and under the formations-but why? This passage was trending away from the stream passage below and no air movement was detccted in this portion of the cavc. Exploration of this passage was not necessary for our purposes. We could have incrcased the overall surveyed length of the cave or found another entrance. Maybe the passage doubled back under us and down to the stream passage, but it was unlikely. We left the passage unsurvcyed and untouched. We made the conscious decision not to leave our tracks, not to risk harming the formations. Steve and I discussed our options and left the passage as we found it, just as it had been for thousands of years. 255 Steve and I discussed our options and left the passage as we found if, just as it had been for fhousands of years.

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256 Cave Conservation and Restoration



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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Burger-Slow Down Section C-Improving Caver Ethics Slow Down Paul Burger Cavers do not like being told what to do or how to act. Explorers are generalized by die-hard conservationists as reckless and destructive. Conservationists are generalized by explorers as people who want to close caves. There is no way to dissuade the extremists of both camps. For this discussion discard the extremists and concentrate on the middle, the average caver with only a minor interest in cave gating and heavyhanded management and just a passing desire to use mining techniques to get deeper into a cave. The best advice for preserving a cave while doing exploration is to slow the heck down-not exclusively how fast cavers actually move through a cave, but how fast cavers make decisions. First, address the actual speed issue. Moving quickly through a cave is more about how efficiently you move than how fast you actually try to move. When most of us started out, every crawl and squeeze was awkward, every breakdown pile was an unstable shifting mass trying to crush us, and every climb was a daunting, holdless mudslope. As we gained experience and got our "'cave legs," we became more comfortable with these environments. Once we became more comfortable underground, we could move past these obstacles more efficiently and get to places faster. H is important to make the distinction between speed and efficiency (exerted energy) because a great deal of damage is caused by people trying to keep up with someone who is traveling more smoothly through the cave. Keep an eye on your team, especially ifyo.u have newcomers or people who are tired at the end of a long trip. Running them into the ground might make you feel like a cave stud, but when one of the team crashes into a formation or stumbles and puts his muddy glove on a pristine wall, regret will (or at least should) follow. Trip leaders need to recognize these struggles and adjust the trip speed accordingly. Unless the cave is flooding or someone has a bomb strapped to his chest that will explode if you don't make it out of the cave by a certain time, there is no reason to push the team beyond their level of efficiency. The speed of decision making also affects the condition of a cave. In the heat of exploration, we commonly opt to tackle problems head on. If we hit a dirt plug, we dig it out-if we hit a wall, we climb it-and if we find a delicate room with a lead going out the other side, we cross the floor and push it. Often it turns out that there was a different route to get to the same place. Sometimes, it is best to slow down and check all of the passages around that dig or delicate room. Look at the passages you already know beyond that climb to see if there is a way up that doesn't require bolting. Decisions to move by using higher-impact pushing techniques should be made with as much information as possible. There is no doubt that a good survey can help in finding routes around 257 The !:est advice for preservmg a cave while doing exploration is to slow the heck down-not simply how fast cavcrs actually move through a cave, hut how fast cavers make decisions.

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258 Figure I. Fragile cornflakes-should we cross the thin, delicate rafts of this virgin passage? Docs it go? Should we survey further? I was asking these questions when I stopped, reached forward to carefully place the slaved flash, gently put a glove in the foreground, and made this photo in a crawling passage beyond the Leaning Tower ofLechuguilla. Cave Conservation and Restoration obstacles. While "survey as you go" works for most projects, it does not work all the lime. On the subject of survey and its close cousin cave inventory, I want to suggest what borders on the blasphemous. It is not necessary to survey and inventory every square inch of cave. There are times when only one person goes to the back of a delicate crawl or through a short, well-decorated loop. One caver causes far less impact than a whole survey team going through the same passage. (See survey it or not, page 188.) Sometimes it is better for the cave if you just sketch the passage rather than survey it-but make sure it does appear on the map. If you leave it unsketehed or sketch an open lead, someone will push the passage again and do the damage you hoped to avoid. Common sense should also apply to inventorying cave passages that have already been mapped. Think about cave inventory (or photomonitoring, impact mapping, or whatever) and ask these questions. Is the information we're getting worth the impact? Do we have enough inventory around the delicate passage to characterize the area? Should we consider doing no inventory for this area? For example, Jewel Cave has the world's "strategic reserve" of manganese and there is a problem with the manganese wandering around the cave on the bottom ofcavers' boots. A complete inventory of the cave would result in more manganese being tracked into relatively pristine areas-so, only enough inventory is done on the previously surveyed passages to characterize the area. Certainly, these ideas can be abused and some cavers will use them to justify wanton scooping. But it's impossible to stop the scoopers anY'vay. I just suggest these ideas as a way to slow down, look at \vhat infonnation you are trying to collect, and see if it is worth additional impact on the cave. These suggestions are based on my observations and no small number of my own mistakes. This commentary is merely intended as a starting point for discussion and seed for thought. If it slows down just one person and saves one single soda straw, then it was worth it.



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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Olson-Digging Section C-I mproving Caver Ethics Digging: An Apparent Contradiction in Cave Conservation Rick Olson On the surface, it seems inconsistent. The National Speleological Society, dedicated to cave exploration, study, and conservation, has both a Conservation and Management Section and a Digging Section. At the annual national convention, we have blasting workshops where people learn how to blow things to bits, and we have restoration workshops where people learn how to glue busted things back together. Could anything be more contradictory? Apparently so, but actually not. Digs can ultimately lead to advances in cave conservation. The editors of this book asked me to explore the conservation issues associated with digging because I am neither a strong opponent nor an adamant proponent of excavating cave entrances or passages. In the process of exploration, documentation, or study, humans can cause heavy impacts on cave resources. Accordingly, the National Speleological Society (NSS) calls on cavers to leave the cave as they find it. (See the NSS Cave Conservation Policy, page 253). In other words, as we move through passages we should minimize impact-we should cave sofily. Does this leave-no-trace philosophy indicate that digging out passages or entrances to allow human entry has only negative consequences for conservation of cave resources? One test of the value of anything is to imagine taking it away, and then evaluate the consequences. lfwe had decided years ago that digging should not be done, then what would the consequences be? What would we lose? Lechuguilla Cave in Carlsbad Caverns National Park was ultimately entered via an extensive dig (Cahill 1991). Most of the grand finds in Jewel Cave National Monument are beyond a low spot named The Dugway (Cunn and Conn 1977). In Mammoth Cave, the section known as New Discovery could only be accessed after a slab was reduced to rubble, and more recently a trunk passage with undisturbed artifacts left by Native American cavers was found after moving small breakdown (Olson 1999). La Cueva de las Barrancas, a pristine 259 Figure \, Rare gypsum speleothems in the Chandelier Ballroom of Lechuguilla Cave have become an icon for extraordinary cave resources. Had it not been for the entrance excavation, these and hundreds of other remarkable features would remain unknown.

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260 Figure 2. In Barrancas, a cave protected as a laboratory for speleological research, cavers have decided not to enter Yucca Flats. Instead of traversing the deep mud, they are looking for a less obvious route to explore the room. La Cueva de las Barrancas was discovered as a fistsized opening whistling with airflow and the entrance was enlarged to allow human access. (See page 11 of color section.) Cave Conservation and Restoration cave now protected as a scientific laboratory, was discovered because air was sucking noisily into a fist-sized opening and a dig ensued (Hildreth-Werker 2001). There are many other similar examples, but these are sufficient to make the point. Would we choose not to know about these important finds? Would not knowing serve the best interest of these resources? My answer in both cases IS no. Recognizing that only virgin cave has a shot at remaining truly pristine, one possible management alternative is to secure the entrance of a new cave without exploring, documenting, or studying it. This might be a valid approach if closing ofT the entrance would actually protect a cave. But it can't. In the long run, simply gating an entrance or keeping it secret cannot provide the highest level of protection for caves. Most caves cannot be protected by secrecy or closure because caves are vulnerable to the unintended side effects of surface land use and mineral extraction. Except in special circumstances. cave passage locations cannot be reliably predicted or remotely sensed. Even if we could determine where cave passages run without physically entering them, we would still be totally ignorant of the resources within. The bottom line is that we cannot begin to manage resources we are unaware of, or do not understand. Paradoxically, digging has actually facilitated the conservation of some caves even if excavations are controversial. What can new discoveries do for us? Caves offer tremendous scientific, aesthetic, and recreational values. Caves are like libraries. They have dark corridors with their own special smells, and stored within their walls are enormous amounts of information. In caves, we can learn lessons from previous human cultures and we can study life in earlier geologic eras. In caves we can discover previously unknown species and habitats. We may even learn new details about the nature of life itself and how life may exist on other planets. Some may still conclude that it is simply better to leave virgin passages undiscovered. Others will conclude that not exploring is contrary to the human spirit. I conclude that careful, deliberate exploration can lead to advances in cave conservation. Cited References Cahill T. 1991. Charting the splendors of Lechuguilla Cave. National Geographic 179(3):34-59. Conn H, Conn JE. 1977. The Jewel Cave Adventure: Fifty lvliles of Discovery Under SOl/th Dakota. Teaneck (NJ): Zephyrus Press. p 179. Olsol1 R. 1999. Significant new discoveries in Mammoth Cave. Memorandum to Mammoth Cave National Park Superintendent Ron Switzer. I p. HildrethWerker V. 200 I. Jim Werker and the Barrancas story: Vision of a cave laboratory. NSS News 59(3):67-69.



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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Werker-Virgin Digs Section C-Improving Caver Ethics Virgin Digs Jim C. Werker Hiking down a canyon, we heard a whishing sound off in the distance. We stopped to listen. It sounded like rushing water-but that was unlikely in the desert Southwest. Realizing it might be air, Mike Reid and I headed for the sound. We did find air-it was whistling into a fist-sized opening. A promising air-sucking hole was in the bottom of a rugged canyon, not a likely place for a cave, so some say. But, caves arc where you find 'em, so we began to think about a dig. Before beginning the dig, we measured the hole. To maintain nature's original air exchange in this cave, we had to design a gate that could recreate the cave's natural quantity ofairtlow. Week after week, a few caving friends returned, enlarged the entrance, and kept quiet about the find. We installed a gate that was designed to allow approximately the same amount of airflow as the original hole. Before opening up any cave entrance, first consider a few important issues. Think Through the Consequences A variety of questions should be answered before initiating a cave dig. Who owns the land and what are the legal ramifications'! What critters or plants might be impacted by a dig? Who needs to be contacted ifbones or cultural matcrials are discovered? How might a dig in this location affect water flow-where will water go and how might debris change the flow path? .Is water likely to bc directed into the new opening? How will air exchange be measured and monitored? There are plenty of questions specific to each region and each site-evaluate the immediate as well as long-term consequences. 261 Dig Checklist Jim C. Werker and Val Hildreth.Werker Record the dimensions and calculate the area of the natural opening(s) at any dig site. If a gate is necessary, design it to replicate the original airflow. A solid gate or air lock closure may be required if no natural opening existed. The gate design might include fabricated apertures or ports to mimic smaller quantities of air exchange. Before initiating a dig, think through the consequences. Explore the potential legal, social, safety (and other) ramifications. Obtain permission from the landowner or land managing agency. What organisms might be impacted by a dig? Evaluate both flora and fauna. Who should be contacted if bones or cultural materials are discovered? (Coot'nued 00 next page) Figure I. Jim Werker pops through the Barrancas entrance gate. This solid gate was designed to replicate and maintain the natural air exchange that was measured at the cave before the fist-sized opening was enlarged.

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262 (Continued) How might the dig affect water flow? Where will water go? Is flow likely to be directed through the new opening? How might debris change the flow path? Evaluate the immediate and long-term conse. quences. Is it wise to keep the dig secret? Think ahead and prearrange a plan of action to meet the challenges if the secret is unleashed. While constructing a gate or waiting for authority, a temporary closure may be necessary for security. On cave maps, use a symbol (perhaps a spade) to indicate entrances or connections made by significant digging projects (digs that require tools). By indicating dig sites and the digging techniques used, future research~ ers in cave archaeology, biology, hydrology, or geomorphology can seek information that may be important in the analysis and interpretation of cave features. In searchable cave survey databases, include information about connections made by digging. Dig safely and cave softly. Cave Conservation and Restoration If a dig site is on federal, state, or county land, environmental regulatory procedures may be required. While constructing the gate or waiting for authority, a temporary closure may be needed for security. When the legalities and safety requirements are established and it is okay to proceed, measure the natural opening(s) of the cave before any digging begins. Record the dimensions and calculate the area of the natural opening where air is entering and exiting the cave. Design the gate to allow for approximately the same rate of air exchange. I f necessary, construct the closure and include fabricated apertures to create exchange that emulates the original airflow. Air that moves past the closed gate should mimic or replicate the original calculation. The final gate design should either allow the original quantity of air to pass through--or the gate should in some way obstruct the new passage to simulate the original lack of airflow. If no natural air exchange flowed through the original breakdown or fractures and holes, then consider designing a solid gate or an air lock closure. If encouraging bat habitation is among the objectives, research the habitat requirements for species in your area. Gate tolerance varies for different species. Check with Bat Conservation International, Inc. , and consult with bat specialists from universities, state agencies. and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. (See additional sources of information for cave gates, page 165.) If there is time or inclination to gather additional baseline data before initiating the actual dig and deciding whether to build a gate, use meteorological instruments to record conditions inside and outside the entrance during a variety of weather conditions and seasons. Establish time intervals for monitoring and collect data sets before the gate is installed. Continue the monitoring schedules during and after gate construction and compare to the original data sets. Gate modifications may be necessary. When gates are built for virgin cave dig sites. they should be designed to mimic the original conditions and replicate airflow. (See cave gates, page 147.) Figure 2. Airflow is monitored at the entrance of Barrancas, a cave now established as a speleological preserve and laboratory. Val HildrethWerker records meteorological data at the entrance gate.



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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Hildreth-Werker and Werker-Code of Conduct 263 Section C-Improving Caver Ethics Do Cavers Need a Code of Conduct? Val Hildreth-Werker and Jim C. Werker Cavers don't like being told how to behave. But inappropriate caver behavior propagates considerable negative impact. More people are entering caves-flashlight spelunkers, weekend recreationists, enthusiastic students, keen scientists, and veteran explorers. Even casual observers find it obvious that cave environments are damaged by the normal activities of apparently well-meaning cavers. Traditionally, experienced cavers mentor newcomers. Novices are taken underwing and trained in caving ethics. Ideally, rookies either become competent or quit caving. Attrition rates are high-many get their fill of the caver hierarchy, lose interest, and drop out along the way. When new cavers stick with the system, they become increasingly involved in project caving, eventually take on leadership roles, and develop caving lifestyles. In some parts of the country, cadres of well-versed cavers maintain this influential peer-training system. But in other areas, there are simply too many inexperienced people who impulsively cntcr wild cavcswho go caving, but receive no mentoring. Over the past two decades, the speleological community has faced a twofold challenge. More people are going into wild caves, and current best practices in caving ethics are rapidly changing. The mentors can't keep up. One-an-one training has become unrealistic. To do nothing is to invite more inappropriate impacts. Ifwe want to protect cave systems from cave visitors, we need to expand our training arsenal and adopt new educational tactics. Caving Codes and Guidelines Minimal impact codes and codes of ethics have been developed by speleological societies around the globe. A code of conduct is typically used to describe a set of principles and expectations for members ofa particular group. Thus, a code of caving conduct contains clear guidelines and expectations for behavior in a cave. American cave environments are diverse. Caves across the U.S. are categorized and managed very differently. Consequently, specialized codes that outline protective measures and describe expected behaviors have been developed for individual cave sites. Clarifying Expectations for Lechuguilla The National Park Service realizes the importance of clearly defining expectations for cavers who work in Lechuguilla Cave. In 1992, the cave resource management team at Carlsbad Caverns began developing a document titled Guidelines/or Entering Lechuguilla Cave (Appendix 5, page 549). All who enter Lechuguilla must first attend an orientation that includes guideline clarification and discussion. The guidelines became an appendix Minimal Impact Codes and Codes of Ethics have been developed by speleological societies around the globe. A code of conduct is used to describe a set of principles and expectations for members ofa particular group.

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264 Cave Conservation and Restoration Figure 1. (top left). A specialized Minimum-Impact Caving Code was established to help protect La Cueva de las Barrancas as a speleological preserve for scientific research. In this photo, Penny Boston, attired in clean caving garments, is placing slides for long-term microbial studies in a small virgin pool in Barrancas. (See page 3 of color section.) Figure 2. (top right). To reduce impact, Jim Werker remains within the designated drop route as he descends to Big Kiss in Barrancas. (See page 11 of color section.) Figure 3. (middle right). Jim Werker is in the entrance crawl of Barrancas, installing bolts at the top of the first vertical drop. (See page 11 of color section.) Figure 4. (bottom right). Dave Hamer carefully adjusts the rigging to help protect delicate features as he ascends to Eagles Aerie in Barrancas. (See page II of color section.)

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Hildreth-Werker and Werker-Code of Conduct 265 of the park's 1995 Cave and Karst Managemem Plan. (See establishing cave management guidelines, page 230). The dig that opened Lechuguilla Cave occurred in 1986. In the early 19905, Lechuguilla was a relatively young expedition cave and caver impacts were readily identified. By the mid-I 990s, the impacts in Lechuguilla had great influence on improving caver conservation ethics. For our own expeditions into Lechuguilla, we began to augment the park guidelines with a written code of conduct to further clarify behavior expectations. We updated our list of expectations frequently and it became an informal agreement with anyone who went into Lechuguilla with us. In 1996, we titled our document Minimum-Impact Guidelines. Later, as acceptance increased, our title became Minimum-Impact Code o/Ethies (Werker and Hildreth-Werker 1999). The draft continues to change as cave conservation parameters are better defined. Updates are essential to the success of this surprisingly effective educational tool. Minimum-Impact Code of Ethics Eventually, we developed a simplified sheet of minimum-impact guidelines for general caving situations. The Minimum-Impact Code of Ethics for Caving Groups is designed for introductory caving trips, cave conservation workshops, and educational outreach presentations. The example on page 266 can be used as a template, but should be revised to fit specific caves or caving areas. Specialized Codes and Protocols Increasingly, we write specialized codes of conduct and protocols for specific cave systems. Barrancas, a virgin cave discovered in 1991, is now protected as a research laboratory for geomicrobiology and astrobiology (Boston 200 I; HildrethWerker 200 I). Abiding by the code established for Barrancas is essential to its continuing status as an underground speleological laboratory and prototype site for research in extraterrestrial life detection and contamination control. Thus, we included an agreement statement and signature line in the minimum-impact document (Werker and HildrethWerker 2003). The cave management plan requires that anyone who enters Barrancas must sign this agreement. (See Cave Implementation Schedule: La Cueva de las Barrancas, Appendix 7, page 567.) Cave conservation practices differ widely across the United States as terrains and protection demands vary. When cavers travel outside of their local caving areas, they sometimes receive behavior guidelines that facilitate quick updates on the principals and protocols in various regions or in specific caves. Through a code of conduct, written emphasis is placed on the specialized conservation demands of particular caves or karst systems. Find the NSS Cave Conservation Policy and the NSS Cave and Karst Preservation Policy in this volume (page 253) and on the NSS Web site: . Find links to a variety of minimum-impact and international caving codes on the NSS Conservation Division Web site: . Or link to a page of international codes through the NSS Cave Conservation and Management Section: . Point out unsafe or damaging behavior. It is every caver's responsibility to ensure that cave environments remain as pristine as possible and that every team member is safe and aware of conservation ethics. Cave conservation practices differ widely across the United States as terrains and protection demands vary. Behavior guidelines facilitate quick updates on regional protocols.

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266 Cave Conservation and Restoration Minimum-Impact Code of Ethics for Caving Groups Val Hildreth-Werker and Jim C. Werker The goal of this code of ethics is to encourage practices that minimize negative impacts to caves. As we learn more about cave environments, we evaluate and redefine caving conduct. These guidelines, compiled from the experiences and contributions of many cavers, describe low-impact caving techniques. Avoid harming cave resources-aesthetic. cultural, paleontological, geological, hydrological, mineralogical, meteorological, biological, as well as microbial. Move gently and be good stewards. Think safety-take care of yourself and your team. Take care of the caves. 0 Each caver should wear a helmet with a light attached. Each caver should cany water, food, a bottle for urine, and three sources of light with extra batteries and bulbs. All cave packs, vertical gear, boots, gloves, helmets, and lint-free clothing should be freshly washed to avoid transfer of mud, dust, and microbes from other cave environments. 0 Usc footwear with nonmarringlnonmarking soles. Whether light or dark colored, many soles do leave marks on calcite-test sales on untreated limestone or concrete. No heavy waflle stompers. Traditional black lugged sales will leave marks on cave surfaces. De careful with blond rubber soles-chunks from soft soles tend to break off, leaving debris in cave passages. Use soft or padded cave packs. Avoid hard-edged boxes. Choose gear that is smaller, lighter, and more compact. 0 Don't disturb bats or other cave-dwelling creatures. Watch for insects and avoid crushing them underfoot. Don't smoke or use tobacco in caves. Smoke and fumes can kill bats, invertebrates, and other cave dwelling animals. 0 Wear gloves. Check gloves for mud, dirt, and holes. 0 Know which areas require clean clothes, shoes, and gear. Don't enter pristine areas with muddy or dusty garments and gear. Avoid isolated pools 0 Limit scratching of skin and hair. Tens of thousands of skin fragments and debris fall from each human body every hour. Never comb or brush hair in a cave. Reduce the input of organic carbons. 0 Leave nothing in caves. Carry out trash. Do not mark on cave surfaces. Never mar a cave with gral1iti. 0 Remove all solid and liquid wastes. Carry an emergency pee bottle and burrito kit. Carry out all urine, feces, spit, vomit, and other waste. Avoid dropping crumbs and food particles. Eat over a plastic bag. Carry out crumbs and debris. Don't eat on the move. 0 If you light a candle, catch the wax drips on a suitable base such as heavy foil. Ifcarbide lamps are allowed, carry the spent carbide out of the cave in plastic bottles with threaded lids 0 Stay on established trails. Sit inside the trails. Keep packs and other items within the path. Choose the most impacted pathways. 0 Move carefully and gently through the entire cave-avoid kicking up dust. 0 Always spot each other in fragile areas. Especially watch heads, backs, hands, feet, and packs. 0 Spot each other on climbs. Remember to maintain three points of contact. 0 Touch as little as possible. Avoid leaning on walls, ceilings, or speleothems. Don't sit on formations. Look and avoid trampling Iloor deposits. When movement requires handholds, look first to avoid delicate features and usc knuckles or fingertips for balance rather than dirty open palms. 0 During survey and exploration, establish pathways on durable surfaces to minimize future impacts. Take nothing from caves. Removal of natural or historical objects is unethical and illegal unless you have a collection permit for authorized research. Check with cave managers, archaeologists, biologists, and historians before making decisions about large items or cultural materials. (Recently-deposited trash usually should be removed. Always carry extra plastic bags and use common sense safety precautions.) 0 Point out unsafe or damaging behavior. It is every caver's responsibility to ensure that cave environments remain as pristine as possible and that every team member is safe and aware of conservation ethics. Cave softly ... and leave no trace.

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Hildreth-Werker and Werker-Code of Conduct 267 Cited References Boston PJ. 2001. Microbes, minerals, and Mars: The NASA cave connection. NSS News 59(3):70. Hildreth-Werker V. 2001. Jim Werker and the Barrancas story: Vision of a cave laboratory. NSS News 59(3):67-69. Werker JC, Hildreth-Werker V. 1999. Restoration, trail designation, and microbial preservation in Lechuguilla Cave. In: Stitt RR, editor. Proceedings oj/he 1997 National Cave and Karst Management Symposium: Ocluber 7-10 in Bellingham. Washington. ond Chilliwack and Vancouver Island. B.C .. Canada. Huntsville [AL]: National Cave Management Symposium Steering Committee. p 181-189. [Also listed as 13th National Cave Management Symposium.] Werker JC, Hildreth-Werker V. 2003. Cave management plan for an underground laboratory: La Cueva de las Barrancas, prototype site for Mars studies. In: Rea GT, editor. Proceedings of the 15th National Cave Management Symposium: Tucson, Arizona, October 16-/9, 2(J{)/. Coronado National Forest: USDA Forest Service. p 77-87. The MinimumImpact Code of Ethics for Caving Groups can be used as a template, but should be revised to fit specific caves or cavmg areas.

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268 Cave Conservation and Restoration



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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Hildreth-Werker-Burrito Bags Section C-Improving Caver Ethics Packaging Human Waste Val Hildreth.Werker On long cave trips, it is essential to carry secure containers for urine and solid waste. Expedition cavers have devised systems to securely package human waste so it can be carried out of the cave. This chapter gives instructions for a tried-and-true burrito kit that can be rolled up and tucked in the pack. The system is handy for unexpected emergencies as well as multi-day expeditions. Pee Bottles Cavers should carry a container for urine on every trip. Even in cave passages that periodically flood and wash out, packing out all human waste is increasingly important.(See human waste, pages 35, 71,125, and 276.) Boldly mark the designated pee bottle and use a different shape than your drinking bottle-it's dark in there, and it's not fun to accidentally raise the wrong one to your lips. Make sure the lid provides a secure, leakproof fit. Believe it or not, the flexible Platypus' bottles are quite durable for usc as expedition pee bottles and they withstand multiple trips. (You can also purchase little Platy patches that really do work for repairing pinholes.) Some cavers need a small funnel to use with the Platy bottles. Burrito Bags This burrito wrapping has worked successfully in the field for over a decade and involves no foil, kitty litter, or granular chemicals. (Tiny bits of litter scatter and pieces of aluminum foil break off and disperse in the cave.) The protocol described here works equally well for caving, kayaking, climbing, or any other outdoor expedition. Make the light, compact packets ahead oftim~. Turkey Baking/Basting Bag. A medium-sized roasting bag or large turkey bag is best. It is strong and very light. This is by far the toughest, most durable, odor containing, and leak-proof bag we've tried. Cheap Paper TO\'\"els. Paper towels are more substantial in cave humidity and provide better grip than toilet paper. The less expensive paper towels have less lint. (Lint irritates skin.) Extra paper towels corne in handy for nose blowing. Reynolds' Plastic Wrap. Alternate squares of plastic wrap between layers of paper towel to avoid the problem of the plastic sticking to itself. Most cavers use two or three paper towels per burrito. Reynolds plastic wrap works best-other wraps have failed. The extra expense will secure your burrito and your travel comfort. Plus, Reynolds offers those nice, strong, camouflaging colors. (Other wraps are almost okay, but they get too sticky and rip too easily.) Antibacterial Wipes. Add individual foil packs of antibacterial towelettes to burrito rolls. Or, take several sheets from a plastic 269 On long cave trips, it is essential to cany secure containers for urine and solid waste. Expedition cavers have devised systems to securely package human waste so it can be carried out of the cave.

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270 At the end of the expedition, wrap the disposable packet with several more opaque plastic bags and properly discard. Do not leave it in the house or truck. Cave Conservation and Restoration container of wipes and repackage them in a separate zippie. The wipes are also handy for sponge bathing and hand cleaning. (Those with suspected sensitivity or allergy to antibacterial and antimicrobial agents should avoid these products.) Freezer Zips. Fold and place a small freezer Ziploc" on the layered stack of alternating paper towels and plastic wrap squares before rolling it all together for transport. Add gallon-sized zippies for compact packaging of all burritos at the end of multi-day expeditions. Additional zippics will secure the entire parcel for travel and proper disposal. Instructions Roll the above items into individual, ready-to-use "kits" for transport. Use one or more squares of Reynolds plastic wrap to hold the stacked items all together in a rolled burrito shape. For easy access. package several burrito kits together inside a quart-sized zippie. The following bullet points detail a secure wrapping procedure: Open the turkey bag and make it into a bowl shape at your squat spot. Try to avoid mixing urine with the fecal matter. This combination creales excess methane and your baggie will get gassy, which could make a risky travel scenario. To cut the odor, spread an antibacterial wipe over the top before rolling up the burrito. For personal hygiene, use a clean antibacterial wipe on hands when finished. When done, twist and tie multiple knots in the top of the baking bag. Be sure to get the air out. Gather the Reynolds plastic wrap around the whole bundle and secure it in a small freezer zippie. Several used burritos will stack together nicely in a quart-sized zippie freezer bag. For travel, wrap the stack in several more zippies for a compact, secure trek. Some like to use a small waterproof dry bag or a sturdy Nalgene" bottle for transport. Place the package in a well-padded position inside your pack. At the end of the expedition, wrap the disposable packet with several more opaque plastic bags and properly discard. Do not leave it in the house or truck. Do not flush. Do not drop down porta-potties. Do not put in open trash cans. Find a trash receptacle that will soon be emptied and carried away. On public lands where burritos are common practice, inquire about current disposal protocol.



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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Mosberg-Health and Hygiene Section C-Improving Caver Ethics Health and Hygiene Related to Cave Conservation Stephen R. Mosberg, M.D Although a complete discussion of wilderness medicine or caving-related medical issues is beyond the scope of this book, several broad health categories influence good practices in cave conservation. A variety of factors affect caving performance-heat stressors, hydration status, nutrition, and general fitness. Hygiene practices help maintain health-human waste disposal, sanitation at camp, and water quality. It is important to be aware of several illnesses that may be contracted in cave environments. Hypothermia Hypothermia is a common topic in caving literature and is described in first aid and rescue publications. The definition of hypothermia is straightforward. Hypo means "low" and thermia means "heat." Many factors can lead to hypothermia or low body heat, but the underlying mechanism is always the same-heat is lost faster than the body can produce it. Several factors may predispose humans to hypothermia-nutrition, hydration, inactivity, body habitus (lack of body fat), individual variance, alcohol use, and illness. Hypothermia can be divided into three general categories. Acute hypothermia occurs suddenly-for example, falling into a stream (sometimes called immersion hypothermia). Subacute hypothermia occurs over an intermediate period of time (hours}-and would be m'ore common on caving trips and expeditions. Chronic hypothermia occurs over a longer period of time (days, weeks, or months)-for example, a person living in an unheated room. Many published lists detail the signs of hypothermia and correlate the symptoms with body temperatures. The accuracy of these lists is often questioned, but the details are not as important as understanding the general trend. Signs and Symptoms of Hypothermia As body temperature falls, shivering begins and coordination decreases. Fine movements become more ditlicult and eventually impossible. Walking becomes dimcult and ataxia (stumbling) ensues. The ability to reason decreases. Decision making becomes difficult and poor judgment ensues. As body temperature falls, the victim becomes stuporous (sleepy). With progressive decrease in body temperature, shivering ceases and death from irregular heartbeat is not far behind. 271 Many factors can lead to hypothermia or low body heat, but the underlying mechanism is always the sameheat is lost faster than the body can produce it.

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272 It is easy to understand how lack of coordination and poor judgment might impact the cave environment. Hypothermic cavers tend to become clumsy and make bad decisions. Cave Conservation and Restoration It is easy to understand how lack of coordination and poor judgment might impact the cave environment. Hypothermic cavers tend to become clumsy and make bad decisions. Preventing and treating hypothermia is discussed in great detail in other publications. (See sources for additional information at the end of this chapter.) Appropriate clothing, adequate fuel intake (food), proper equipment, detailed planning, and awareness of your own status as well as that of your companions will go a long way toward preventing hypothennic conditions. Early Warning-Shivering Shivering is the earliest warning sign of hypothermia. It is the body's first response to falling body temperature. The intense muscle activity of shivering generates heat by increasing heat production up to five times over the rate produced when one is simply sitting (Steinman and Hayward 1995). But heat production is not without a price: calories from food or body stores (fuel sources) are quickly consumed; muscles are quickly fatigued; and fine movements are difficult ifnot impossible. Don't ignore shivering hands or chattering teeth. When you feel cold and before shivering starts, you should begin trying to retain body heat or rewarming by other measures. I'ut on a hat. A huge amount of body heat is lost through the head and neck. Up to 70% of total body heat production can be lost through the head when the temperature is -15"C (5"F) (Bowman 1995). Change to dry clothes. At least put dry clothes next to the skin. Bodies perspire constantly and the moisture is transferred to clothing. Some fabrics act like evaporative coolers. Cotton absorbs moisture, thus cooling the body by evaporation. Cotton also has high thermal conductivity and allows heat to flow from the body faster. Nylon absorbs less moisture than cotton, but also retains enough water to cool by evaporation and has poor wicking qualities. Wool is an excellent insulator, but holds moisture (not as much as cotton, but more than nylon, acrylic, and polypropylene) and becomes much heavier when wet. Acrylic and polypropylene fabrics absorb minimal water, wick moisture away from skin, and allow body heat to dry garments. Of all of these, polypropylene has the lowest thermal conductivity and highest insulating value while maintaining a high wicking ability. Eat something. Simple sugars (for example, candy) will provide the quickest energy. However, over the long term, high fat content or high calorie count foods will serve to refuel and reheat the body more efficiently than other food choices. \\'arm up. Use one of the traditional caver techniques to increase warmth. Dig out your emergency body-sized plastic bag, crawl in, and put your carbide lamp or candle under the bag to warm up quickly. Sit shoulder-lo-shoulder with two warm cavers for heat transfer. Skin-to-skin contact inside a sleeping bag is one of the quickest emergency procedures for restoring body temperature. Two or more bodies clothed in polyester inside a perspirationwicking bag may warm up even faster.

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Mosberg-Health and Hygiene Hyperthermia Hyperthermia, or heat stress, is the often forgotten, heat-related illness in caving. The definition is again easily understood from the word itself. Hyper means "high"-thus, hyperthermia is a state of "high heat." Many medical and first aid texts make a point of differentiating between heat exhaustion and heat stroke. For our purposes, the distinction is not important. Because of overlap in signs and symptoms, the two conditions cannot be correlated well with different temperatures. Several factors can contribute to heat-related illnesses-fatigue, lack of sleep, lack of acclimatization, drug usc, obesity, sustained exertion, and dehydration. Symptoms of heat-related illnesses can be easily overlooked. Headache Confusion Drowsiness Nausea Lack of coordination Loss of consciousness-a late symptom Cessation of sweating-a very late and ominous sign of hyperthermia Again, it should be apparent that anything affecting the individual's ability to reason or function in a coordinated manner will adversely affect the cave environment. Medical Emergency-Change in Level of Consciousness With hyperthermia, there is one very important symptom to remember-is there a change in the level of consciousness? This change can range from confusion to loss of consciousness. If there is an alteration in the level of consciousness, the person has a more severe heat-related illness. This is a true emergency and requires immediate attention (cooling) to prevent permanent brain damage or death. Rehydrate and Lower Body Temperature Treatment of heat illness centers on rehydrating the patient and lowering body temperature. An efficient way to lower body temperature is to wet the body with water or whatever is available (even urine will do) and then fan the person. (Since this method depends on evaporation, it will be less efficient in the 100% humidity found in many cave environments.) Immersion in cool water, previously thought to be contraindicated, is also a very effective cooling method and should be used when other measures fail to lower the body temperature (Dickinson 1995). For information on rehydrating a victim, see hydration status below. Again, decreased mental alertness is a very serious sign-anything from confusion to unconsciousness should be considered a medical emergency. Prevention and Acclimatization Prevention of heat illness requires awareness. Pay attention to signs and symptoms. Consciously monitor yourself and your companions. Plan for heat conditions and give attention to hydration status. Preparation can help you avoid heat problems. Acclimatization in hot environments may take 7-10 days. However, exercise in a warm environment (1-1.5 hours daily) may help prepare the body for a hot environment. For example, exercising in the warmest, middle part of the day rather than 273 Hyperthermia, or heat stress, is the often forgotten, heat-related illness in caving. The definition is easily understood from the word itself. Hyper means "high"-thus, hyperthermia is a state of "high heat."

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274 Like heat-associated illnesses, dehydration can cause confusion and lack of coordination. Symptoms of dehydration can accompany and mimic body temperature problems. Cave Conservation and Restoration in cooler morning or evening hours may facilitate acclimatization to warmer temperatures. Such an exercise program should be undertaken cautiously. Consult your physician before initiating any exercise program. Hydration Status Dehydration is an abnormal depletion of body fluids. The state of dehydration can be associated with the temperature-related problems described above, or dehydration can develop without heat-related stressors, as in severe vomiting or diarrhea. Humans lose about 1.5 liters (1.5 quarts) of water per day through insensible losses-normallluid loss through breathing or slight perspiration. With heavy exertion in a hot or humid environment, a person can easily lose 1.5 liters or quarts every hour (Hubbard and others 1995). One of the highest recorded sweat losses is about 3.5 liters (3.75 quarts) pel' hOl/1' (Armstrong and others 1986). Confusion and Stupor Like heat-associated illnesses, dehydration can cause confusion and lack of coordination. Symptoms of dehydration can accompany and mimic body temperature problems. Confusion and lack of coordination can manifest with hypothermia, hyperthermia, high fever, dehydration, fatigue, medical illness, diabetes, medication effects, and other conditions. Over-hydration (for lack of a better term) can also cause the same dangerous symptoms. Drinking a lot of water without accompanying salt intake may cause the body's sodium level to fall to dangerously low levels. In a cave environment, as in any extreme environment, the onset of confusion and the loss of coordination may have severe consequences for the individual, the group, and, consequently, for the cave. A state of decreased mental awareness is sometimes called stupor which reminds me of stupid. Hence, you get cold, or overheated, or dehydrated ... you get stupid. You get stupid ... you get dead. Don't Count on Thirst What about thirst? Unfortunately, thirst may be absent. The sensation of thirst is not prominent until the degree of dehydration exceeds the kidney's ability to deal with the Iluid depletion (Hubbard and others 1995). The absence of this early warning often contributes to accidental dehydration. However, voluntary restriction of fluid intake can also contribute to dehydration-for example, if the caver wants to conserve water or decrease urine output. Restricting fluid intake is not a wise choice. Fluid Intake Watch your fluid intake-drink enough water. Prevention of dehydration, whether primary or occurring with heat-related disorders, is accomplished by Iluid intake. Because of the absence of thirst, it is important to consume fluids at regular intervals. Endurance athletes often try to consume 250-500 milliliters (8-16 ounces) every 20-30 minutes. This is not practical for caving, but indicates that sometimes you should consider taking in 1-1.5 liters or quarts every hour or so, even when you're not thirsty. Much has been written and hypothesized about the type of fluids that can prevent or correct dehydration. Alcoholic beverages do not help hydrate-in fact, alcohol causes one to become dehydrated-alcohol causes the kidneys to clear more water by inhibiting the body's natural antidiuretic hormones. (This is the real

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Mosberg-Health and Hygiene reason you make more trips to the restroom when you're drinking alcohoL) Caffeinated beverages are also a poor choice as they tend to increase urine output. Generally, large amounts of water leave the stomach faster than small amounts, but huge gulps can cause discomfort. Cold liquids leave the stomach faster than warm ones, but cold fluids may not be available in the cave environment. Many commercial sports drinks are available. Sport drink supplements are based on the theory that glucose (or sucrose) promotes stomach emptying; that glucose plus sodium promotes water absorption by the small intestine; that glucose promotes performance; and that sodium is needed to replace salt loses. Research indicates no difference between water and glucose-sodium solutions in terms of absorption or effectiveness in rehydration or effect on performance. My personal preference is Gatorade" with a little extra added. To 1 liter (1 quart) of Gatorade, add about I liter or quart of water (dilute to half-strength); then add 2 milliliters (1/2 teaspoon) sodium chloride (table salt) and approximately 2 milliliters (1/2 teaspoon) potassium chloride (salt substitute). This combination reduces muscle cramps. However, beverages containing potassium (salt substitute) should not be used to Ireal heatstroke because the body's potassium may already be elevated. Nutrition A well-balanced, nutritionally sound diet is a sine qua non of good performance in any physical undertaking. Caving is no exception. One who is calorically deficient will not have the necessary stamina for prolonged exertion. Therefore, someone on a severely calorie-restricted diet should approach caving with caution. Persons adhering to a vegetarian diet should pay special attention to the balance of protein they are taking in-it takes special care and effort to maintain proper proportions of different proteins in a vegan diet. This caveat should not be taken as prohibition of vegetarian diets. There is no problem with a properly balanced diet-vegan or otherwise. Carbohydrate loading, consuming large quantities of complex carbohydrates 12-24 hours before exertion, has been practiced for a long time by endurance runners and other athletes and may be of some benefit. It may also be wise to add extra salt to food for 1-2 days before heavy exertion, especially if one has been on a sodium-restricted diet. (If sodium restriction was prescribed by a physician or dietitian, definitely consult with them before adding salt). Muscle cramps are likely to result from inadequate sodium intake before or during heavy exertion. Increasing sodium intake in anticipation of (or in response to) exertion and sweating may help avoid muscle cramps, muscle weakness, and the consequent decrease in coordination that can create new impacts in caves. Physical Conditioning Before engaging in any physically exerting activity, one should prepare with a reasonable conditioning program. Generally, 60-90 minutes of aerobic exercise per day for several weeks is a good start. Aerobic exercise raises the heart rate. The exact nature, extent, intensity, and duration is left to the discretion of the reader with the warning that a physician should be consulted before beginning any exercise program-especially if you have chronic or serious medical conditions. Such conditions would include-but arc not limited to-heart disease, diabetes, seizure disorders, hypertension, obesity, and thyroid disorders. Failure to prepare for exertion will result in inevitable decreases in 275 A well-balanced, nutritionally sound diet is a sine qua non of good performance in any physical undertaking. Caving is no exception.

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276 We humans literally leave piles of microscopic maller in our wake. We shed all the time-in the house, in the truck, on the trail, and inside caves. The absence of plumbing or even pit toilets in most caves mandates our consideration of this subject. Cave Conservation and Restoration endurance and coordination, which can easily result in new impacts to cave resources. Decreases in performance abilities will predispose cavers to accidents with the ensuing rescues and the resultant impacts on the cave environment. Personal Hygiene Personal hygiene may seem an unusual subject in a book about caving, but it can have great significance. Humans are walking bacterial fam1s-each body is covered from head to toe with bacteria. Especially high concentrations are found around the mouth and perianal areas. I know some readers are thinking, "Not me!" But no one is exempt from this biological fact. Each of us sheds millions of skin cells every day. Dust mites that live in carpets and mattresses thrive on tiny flakes of skin and debris. We also shed countless ectoparasites and other microbes that live on our skin and hair. We humans literally leave piles of microscopic matter in our wake. We shed all the time-in the house, in the truck, on the trail, and inside caves. A simple shower with antibacterial soap may reduce bacteria on a caver's skin, but you can never completely eliminate the bacteria. Laundering .. caving clothes, packs, vertical gear, and other equipment between cave trips will decrease the chance of introducing contaminates to a cave or causing cross-contamination between various cave environments. Many enteric infections-those affecting the gastrointestinal tract-are spread by the simple failure to wash hands. Hand-washing is not practical in a cave. But it is easy to carry a small bottle of disinfecting-gel hand cleaner or a small supply of antimicrobial wipes. Human Waste Disposal The disposal of human waste is a subject that many people avoid because of the unpleasant connotations. Most of us are accustomed to simply pushing the lever, and flush, it's gone ... out of sight, out of mind. The absence of plumbing or even pit toilets in most caves mandates our consideration of this subject. In caves with flowing water or those subject to flooding, it has been common practice to dispose of liquid wastes wherever it was convenient on the assumption that it would be diluted and "flushed away." The cavalier implementation of this practice should be reconsidered. Liquid wastes not deposited directly into flowing water may remain for a long time where they are left, thus altering the chemistry of the cave environment, perhaps to the detriment of those organisms that live there. Wastes deposited into flowing water produce their own problems, apart from the effects on the chemistry of the water and the organisms that may live there-you may be washing or walking in that same water. Furthermore, that water is probably somebody's drinking water (maybe yours). Solid wastes in "wet" caves are onen, unfortunately, treated the same way. This cavalier attitude has led to the degradation of the environment around many alpine climbing routes. Microorganisms can move through soil-bacteria can penetrate to about 30 meters (100 fcet) in sandy soil and viruses can travel about 90 meters (300 feet) laterally (Backer 1995). Some sources recommend that feces be spread on rocks in the sun to be desiccated (Backer 1995). The USDA Forest Service recommends that feces be buried 20-30 centimeters (8-12 inches) deep, oITtrail, and 60 meters (200 feet) from water sources (United States Department of Agriculture-Forest Service 2003; Leave No Trace", Inc. 2003). Obviously, neither of these options is viable in cave environments.

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Mosberg-Health and Hygiene Every effort should be made to remove solid wastes from caves-no other option exists. This subject has been discussed jokingly as well as in serious debates for a long time. The simplest and most reliable method remains to defecate directly into a zip-closure plastic bag, and double-bag it into another sealable bag for aesthetics and safety. The usefulness of additional bags and desiccating or deodorizing agents (for example, powdered bleach or baking soda) is left to the individual to decide. Some cavers have found that "oven baking bags" are reliable containers. Commercially available dry bags have also been suggested as an outer container for added security. (See burrito bag instructions. page 269; also see human waste, pages 35, 71, and 125.) Preventing Cave-Related Infectious and Environmental Diseases A complete discussion of cave-related illnesses is beyond the scope of this chapter. For detailed information, check with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other sources listed at the end of this chapter. A few of the illnesses to consider are rabies, histoplasmosis, leptospirosis, and exposure to radon gas. Rabies Preexposure prophylaxis is available for rabies and consists of three simple injections-a relatively painless and relatively safe procedure. Rabies preexposure vaccine is recommended for anyone who will be around large numbers of bats. If rabies prophylaxis is obtained, it is important to periodically get blood titers checked, booster shots when appropriate, and postcxposure vaccine if one's skin is broken by a bat bite (MMWR 1999). Although there are reports of persons developing clinical rabies without an obvious bat bite, aerosol transmission of rabies virus has not been conclusively shown to occur (Gibbons 2002). Exposure to rabies can be treated with postexposure prophylaxis. Exposure may be a bite (but since bats are usually small, the bite usually is not noticed) or contamination of an open wound or mucous membrane by bat saliva or nerve tissue (brain matter). Consequently, postexposure rabies prophylaxis should be considered when direct contact between a human and a bat has occurred-unless the exposed person can be absolutely certain a bite, scratch, or mucous membrane exposure did not occur. Pastexposure prophyla'(is consists of an injection of immune globulin (antibodies) and a series of five vaccination shots (MMWR, 1999). Appropriate postexposure prophylaxis is widely available in the U.S., but some other countries use different vaccines and regimens. Caution should be exercised if seeking postexposure prophylaxis overseas. The most current information is readily available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Unfortunately, rabies encephalitis (rabies virus infection of the brain) is a zero-tolerance disease-essentially anyone who develops the clinical syndrome of rabies will die. Histoplasmosis There is no prevention for histoplasmosis other than avoiding dust contaminated with bat guano or using a HEPA filter respirator. Interestingly, it appears that this fungus grows in soil contaminated with bat or bird guano but not in the guano itself. Histoplasmosis is fairly common in the eastern United States, especially in the Mississippi and Ohio River areas. Many persons living in these areas 277 Rabies pre exposure vaccme IS recommended for anyone who will be around large numbers of bats. Unfortunately, rabies encephalitis (rabies virus infection of the brain) is a zerotolerance diseaseessentially anyone who develops the clinical syndrome of rabies will die.

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278 There is no prevention for histoplasmosis other than avoiding dust contaminated with bat guano or using a HEPA filter respirator. Cave Conservation and Restoration already have some antibodies to histoplasmosis. Persons residing outside these endemic areas (those areas where the fungus is common) may be more susceptible to infection or prone to morc severe disease, but this is only a generalization. Leptospirosis Leptospirosis is an infection caused by a corkscrew-shaped bacterium carried in the urine of some animals (including bats) and it can infect humans when they wade in water contaminated by animal urine. This infectious disease is easily treated with antibiotics (such as doxycycline). Radon The presence of radon gas in caves and its clinical significance for humans is still a matter of some debate. Radon gas is a carcinogen (a substance that causes cancer) but it appears to work synergistically with smoking. Exposure to radon gas in the home, where the exposure is long-term and continuous, appears to be a greater risk than the relatively short-term exposure one might encounter on a caving trip, even a multi-day expedition. Other Illnesses Other infectious diseases which have been discussed in relation to caving include hantavirus, blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, and plague. For additional details about these illnesses, refer to the sources for additional information at the end of this chapter. lJantavirus can cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, but epidemiological factors (that is, where the deer mice live) make it an unlikely risk for cavers. Blastomycosis is a fungal infection found in the southeastern U.S. and is sometimes spread by digging in contaminated soil. Using respirators when digging to find cave passages may be helpful. Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection found in the southwestern U.S. (atso called Valley Fever or San Joaquin Fever). Bubonic Plague is endemic though uncommon in southwestern parts of the country and is caused by the bite of an infected flea. Disclaimer Every situation and every individual is different and must be evaluated on its own. No treatment should be started or carried out based solely on this or any other protocol. No medication, treatment, or medical device should be administered or applied without complete training in, and a thorough understanding of the uses, limitations, and possible complications of said treatment or device. The opinions expressed herein are solely those of the author and do not represent the views, opinions, treatment protocols, or standards of any other individual, group of individuals, medical group or organization, hospital, other organization, the NSS, or any section thereof or any of its other internal organizations.

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Mosberg-Health and Hygiene Cited References Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. 1999. Human rabies prevention, United States, recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 199948(RR-1 ):3-13. Armstrong LE, Hubbard RW, DeLuca Jp, Christensen EL. 1987. Heat acclimatization during summer running in the northeastern United States. Medical Science Sports and Exercise 19(2): 13 I -136. Backer HD. 1995. Field water disinfection. In: Auerbach PS, editor. Wilderness Medicine: i'vlanagement a/Wilderness and Environmental Emergencies. p 1086. Bowman WD. 1995. Wilderness survival. In: Auerbach PS, editor. Wilderness Medicine: Management of Wilderness and Environmental Emergencies. p 368. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Internet . Accessed 2003 Feb 5. [The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is recognized as the lead federal agency for protecting the health and safety of people at home and abroad, and providing credible information to enhance health decisions.] Gibbons RY. 2002. Cryptogenic rabies, bats, and the question of aerosol transmission. Annals 0/ Emergency Medicine 39(5):528-536. Hubbard AW, Gaftin SL, Squire DL. 1995. Heat-related illnesses. In: Auerbach PS, editor. Wilderness Medicine: Management a/Wilderness and Environmental Emergencies. p 175, 198. Leave No Trace@, Inc. (LNT). 2003. Internet . Accessed 2003 Feb 8. Steinman AM, Hayward JS. 1995. Cold water immersion. In: Auerbach PS, editor. Wilderness Medicine: Management of Wilderness and Environmental Emergencies. p 109. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Mt. Adams Climbing Information. 2003. Web site < http://www.fs.fed.us/gpnf/ wilderness/climbing-mount-adams.htm>. Accessed 2003 Feb 8. Additional Reading Auerbach PS. 2001. Wilderness Medicine. 4th edition. St.Louis (MO): Mosby. 1910 p. Auerbach PS. 2003. Medicine/or the Outdoors: The Essential Guide to Emergency Medical Procedures and First Aid. 4th edition. New York: Lyons Press. 512 p. Forgey Ww. 2000. Wilderness Medicine: Beyond First Aid. 5th edition. Guilford (CT): Globe Pequot Press. 246 p. Forgey WW, editor. 2001. Practice Guidelines/or Wilderness Emergency Care. 2nd edition. The Wilderness Medical Society. Guilford (CT): Globe Pequot Press. 109 p. Hempel JC, Fregeau-Conover A, editors. 200 I. On Call: A Complete Re/erence/or Cave Rescue. Huntsville (AL): National Speleological Society. 384 p. Sources for Additional Information Medical Section of the National Speleological Society Web: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 1600 Clifton Rd NE Atlanta GA 30333 Phone: 404-639-3311 Travelers' Information Hotline Phone: 877-394-8747 Web: 279

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280 Cave Conservation and Restoration International Association for Medical Assistance to Travelers (IAMAT) 417 Center St Lewiston NY 14092 Phone: 716.754.4883 Web: The Wilderness Medical Society 3595 East Fountain Blvd Suite A I Colorado Springs CO 80910 Phone: 719-572-9255 Fax: 719-572-1514 Web:



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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Jorden-Public Relations Section C-Improving Caver Ethics Public Relations: An Essential Element in Cave Conservation Jay R. Jorden What if you cleaned up a cave and no one noticed? All those hours spent with a toothbrush and spray bottle, scrubbing mud 01T soiled formations and picking lint out of crevices. The sore elbows and knees from seemingly endless scouring of tenacious, multicolored graffiti spray painted across flowstone. Flagging trails in the pristine, unmapped section of the cave only to find a muddy footprint on the next trip where some careless explorer had stepped away from the designated zone to snap a photo. Picking up beer cans and broken bottles inside the entrance. Patiently and painstakingly reassembling a stalagmite smashed into small calcite fragments by an earlier adventurer who had rushed through the cave in a time when the need to preserve its beauty was not even on the radar screen. After a hard day of restoration, you may find little sympathy from some of your friends who've been off enjoying themselves exploring in a new cave. They gently kid you with comments like, "Why would you want to work that hard for free?" Visitors to your cave club just want to go caving and may need some prodding to go on a restoration trip. The officers don't sec the need for having a conservation chairman. "'Why do we need that level of bureaucracy?" they ask. Sometimes, the prospect of having everyone else care as much as you do about cave conservation can be a distant dream, indeed. That's where public relations (PR) with its many powerful tools enters the picture. 281 Figure I. Labor Day 2002 restoration project at La Gruta del Paimito in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Participants labor alone or in small groups within Bustamante Cave's dark recesses, armed only with spray bottles and sponges in their attempts to remove spray-painted graffiti from large columns and tlowstone. What is Public Relations? Abraham Lincoln once remarked: "Public sentiment is everything. With public sentiment, nothing can fail. Without it, nothing can succeed." The need for effective public relations is often unstated, but nevertheless crucial. In a onesentence definition, PR attempts through a variety of methods to put the organization's best foot forward and shape positive public opinion, regardless of the circumstances. That entails more than a passive approach to publicity-not only cooperating with the media in providing information, but also reaching out with a conservation message in the hope of generating publicity. In this regard, PR is considered the longterm program of molding public sentiment, with publicity more precisely being the nuts-and-bolts, day-to-day methods of helping to achieve goals. The definition adopted by the Public Relations Society of America in 1988 is widely accepted: "Public relations helps an organization and its

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282 Figure 2. A reporter from a Monterrey, Mexico television station interviews Orion Knox (at left) of Austin, Texas. A cave restoration participant looks on during the Labor Day 200 I weekend caye cleanup inside Bustamante Cave, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. If someone in your conservation group says matter-offactly, "I don't talk to the press and you shouldn't either," resist that suggestion because it is detrimental in the long run. Cave Conservation and Restoration publics adapt mutually to each other." By this point, the question of "publicity or no publicity" should have been answered. A truism in media relations is that if reporters get no cooperation from the primary contact on a story, they will make telephone calls and follow all leads until they get it anyway. Often, that comes at the expense of the primary contact who has defaulted on the obligation to provide details and misses the opportunity to help mold the message. The idea is that if a reporter can't get the story g from you, he or she will get it from someone ~ else-who may not be your friend or may not ~ agree with your goals and objectives. Weighing in 9 after the fact to try" to straighten out the misconceptions or inaccuracies is either impossible or incfTectivc. So if someone in your conservation group says matter-of-factly, "I don't talk to the press and you shouldn't either," resist that suggestion because it is detrimental in the long run. An example of this dynamic is in organized cave exploration and conservation groups. For many years, the stated policy of such organizations has been to avoid generating interest in caving among individuals who had no preexisting desire to pursue the activity. The reason has been that caves are nonrenewable resources and population pressure can adversely atTect them. However, after someone has independently developed an interest either through books. television, or other media, the National Speleological Society (NSS) and other groups want to be the source for educating and training that person in proper technique, safety, conservation, and equipment. It's a fine line to walk, and one which involves a certain amount of outreach. A network ofNSS internal organizations scattered around the country and even in some international venues provides this passive public relations approach to outreach. It involves some media relations, but no deliberate program of publicity. Outdoor-oriented groups in other activities would likely view this approach as "hiding one's light under a bushel basket," in contrast to their more aggressive outreach programs for gaining membership. Nonetheless, successful case studies in cave conservation abound. They include the discovery and subsequent preservation at Arizona's Kartchner Caverns and at Lechuguilla Cave on Carlsbad Caverns National Park in New Mexico; efforts by Austin, Texas-based Bat Conservation International to change public perception; and the largely unrecognized work by thousands of other conservationists around the world to ensure that nonrenewable cave resources, including biological, geological, and cultural are available for generations to come. Public relations can be tough to get a handle on. In one respect, PR is so pervasive that it's like the air we breathe. What we say in a group setting, what we write in our newsletters, and who we try to enlist in our efforts to influence opinion are all part of the practice. How we conduct ourselves in the public domain influences how others perceive our activities. Several questions need to be answered, including when to publicize cave conservation efforts and, if so, whether the effort will be passive or aggressive. Cavers and others must be motivated to join the cause, to help complete important tasks, and to continue involvement when burnout approaches or other competing interests surface. It is important that cave conservationists vigorously advocate their worth, both to the volunteers who are perhaps

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Jorden-Public Relations their best allies and to members of the general public, whose support is greatly needed. Support must be earned in the highly competitive public arena where a wide range of causes and interests vie for sentiment and where the demands on leisure time have never been greater. Through publicity, cave conservationists can attempt to create favorable public opinion. They can inform the general public of their goals and objectives, activities, and problems. Every organization-and every cause-has PR problems, although they may not be immediately identified as such. For organized caving and cave ~ conservation, the l10ncaving public's challenge in ~ perceiving the work of conservationists and spele@ ologists must be met. To many, cavers are those who go "crawling around in holes in the ground." In one part of Mexico, cavers have had to convince local residents that they are not worshipping the devil in the pits they descend. And why save bats? That's a fair question from someone who might believe that bats inherently have rabies, Ily into big hairdos, or suck human blood. Competing interests are an issue for public relations practice. Within the organized caving community, issues of cave and bat conservation compete with exploration, the value of sport caving, cave ownership, and others. Through all of these, the National Speleological Society and other non profits have the task of motivating their own members and volunteers to identify and handle the important work before them. A broader goal of PR for the volunteer, nonprofit realm in which cave conservation resides is to make people want to join the cause, donate their time, and provide financial and other resources needed to cany on the work. Cave conservationists working through non profits and organizations financed through public appeals must maintain a climate of high acceptance so that as needs grow and increased budgets are required, more funds can be acquired. The PR Toolkit The basic toolkit of public relations includes the following attitudes, actions, and tangible tools: Ambition and determination to influence public opinion in a favorable way about the conservation group and its causes. Access to phone directories and media lists such as Editor and Publisher International Yearbook. Business cards, introductory letter, or other means of helping to legitimize and document conservation purposes. Camera or access to a photographer. Computer and access to the Internet. Telephone. Conservation-related brochures, either in stock and available from the National Speleological Society, 2813 Cave Avenue, Huntsville, Alabama 35810-4431. Access some brochures through the NSS Web site . Or tailor your own brochures to specific needs, such as cave gating. A message, or position statement, distilling the goals and objectives of the conservation group. Background sheet or backgrounder summarizing the conservation group's position statement and the message it is trying to convey to the 283 Figure 3. Norma Yolanda Rosales de Santos, Presidente Municipal of Bustamante, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, is interviewed by a Monterrey television crew at a banquet in honor of La Gruta del Palmito restoration project participants in September 200 I. A broader goal of PR for the volunteer, nonprofit realm in which cave conservation resides is to make people want to join the cause, donate their time, and provide financial and other resources needed to carry on the work.

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284 In proactive public relations it's advantageous for conservationists to have their press contacts develop working relationships with media representati ves. Figure 4. Television journalist and helicopter pilot, Bob Martin, reports for CBS and KRQE Newsl3 in Albuquerque, Ncw Mexico. He does it all-flies the chopper, handles the lights and audio, shoots the video, and reports on camera-a perfect solution for conservation-directed media coverage in caves. For this influential story on science and conservation, there was one journalist, onc belt of batteries for a video light, and three cavers. Cave Conservation and Restoration public, including press contact(s) and other pertinent, boilerplate (standardized text) infonnation on the organization and its members. Audiovisual aids, such as a PowerPoint@ presentation, analog or digital slide shows, videos, pictorial manuals, Web site, and so on, to help deliver the conservation group's message. Lists of those who can serve as volunteer publicists in the conservation organization. Community Relations For cave conservationists and members of conservation task forces in the NSS and other related organizations, a great initial challenge exists. Volunteers reside in many different communities where conservation is not a major element oflife. Here, an extensive community relations program is nceded to make residents aware of the organization's existence and conservation goals. It's a good idea to have regional representatives who should pursue these tasks: Answer fully and knowledgeably any questions from local media representatives. Periodically weigh community attitudes toward cave conservation. Listen to and evaluate any community demands upon conservationists. Equip themselves to execute positive programs designed to intcrpret concepts to the community. This provides a firm base from which any private or public disputes with community residents can be resolved fairly and efficiently. Officers and principals of conservation groups who are willing to become involved should be encouraged to speak out on public issues or participate in social developments. Press Relations In proactive public relations, it is advantageous for conservationists to have their press contacts develop working relationships with media representatives. There should be continuing formal and informal exchange of information between the organization and the media. For these high-protlle contacts, it's good to know and be known by editors and writers, who then feel free to call and ask for background on controvcrsies and issues. Without this background, in emergency situations, writers and editors who lack a perspective on the organization's work end up writing only as accurately as they can from a limited vantage. Generally, a strong relationship of trust between writer and source leads to quality news and information. However, a strong media relations program as described here requires the staffing and depth to answer immediately and well all inquiries from major press sources. When a conservationist is approached by a news reporter or representative of a media organization, the goal is to refer that person to the designated press officer or contact for the group. The press officer ideally should have some experience with the media. If none is available and the reporter is on deadline, here are some guidelines: Treat the reporter at least as

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Jorden-Public Relations well as someone who is interested in joining the conservation group. Writers are in a position to help the cause with their work product. Even in those rare occasions where a reporter might plan for some reason to write a critical article about conservation, if treated with personal courtesy, he or she may end up with material that is less damaging-the reporter is likely to write more negatively if treated curtly or boorishly. If the query is by telephone, it s proper to ask for name, affiliation, and telephone number and then answer questions ifno press officer has been designated. If the position exists, take a message and get the press officer to make the callback. Ground Rules for Press Officers Ask for a business card from the reporter to verify affiliation. Request information on the scope of the article on which the writer is working. Ifnot perso~ally familiar with the publication or news outlet, ask the writer for details, including readership or viewership. Deal in concrete, truthful answers. Good writers will cross-check facts. If you can't answer a question, say so and offer to follow up later after researching it. Remember what is said to the writer. That information is used for later follow-up with the reporter. Ask for copies of the clips, if dealing with a print journalist, or videotape when dealing with broadcast representatives. Fundamentals of Good Press Relations The people on the front lines of media contact in the conservation organization must be convinced that reporters are not out to use them. Reporters have a basic responsibility to be accurate, fair, and impartial-to present readers or viewers with a well-rounded, enlightening report. Define a clear message and stay on it with all comments. Dealings with the working press should be handled as if the media contact fully intends to continue cooperating for years to come. After establishing ground rules, shoot straight with reporters and you will be treated in kind. Print and on-air deadlines must be respected. Time is always a factor in editorial material. A wire service that once had the motto of "a deadline every minute" has in the technologically advanced new millennium refined that to "a deadline every millisecond." When writers call the NSS headquarters in Huntsville, Alabama, for information, they are usually working on a deadline. Television and radio representatives have critical deadlines, such as early-morning "drive time." Good PR meets these deadlines. Good writing in news releases is essential. There is much to be said for uncomplicated thought, simply stated. Beware of badly written, self-serving press releases. Try for imagination and freshness. Hold a press conference in a cave 285 Figure 5. A chopper hop to the cave's parking lot, three cavers, and one journalist-this was a terrific low-impact way to create a cave conservation message for television. Pictured are Diana Northup, Bob Martin, Val HildrethWerker, and Jim Werker on McKittrick Hill in New Mexico. (A fun caver note: We placed the cave permit on the windshield of the helicopter before we entered the cave.)

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286 Figure 6. This photograph of The Big Room in Carlsbad Cavern was made in 1993 during Tom Zannes' Spirit of Exploration video shoot for Carlsbad Caverns~Guadalupe Mountains Association. Cavers hauled in more than two miles of cable to power 40 movie lights placed in the Big Room. The short-term lighting mixture of daylightbalanced, incandescent, and fluorescent lights produced variations in color and enhanced the sense of depth in the video. This was the largest lighting job ever recorded in a cave for movie or video photography. Only a few large-chambered show caves in the world can handle this quantity of production gear without creating tremendous impacts on the cave environment. Cave Conservation and Restoration or at an entrance? It might be a possibility. Also, avoid overestimating the impact of one little news story in one newspaper or in one region, or quid pro quo stories-those written in exchange for advertising, as in special sections. To change attitudes in a dramatic way, nationwide media exposure is required. There's no such thing as a free lunch-or free publicity. For nonprofits and volunteer conservationists, that means donated time and plenty of legwork to prepare releases, make the telephone calls, set up interviews, and follow up. The end result of good PR is good publicity, channeled through the media at all levels-print and electronic. History The study of public relations has a long and distinguished history. Edward L. Bernays traces public relations from the beginning of time: "Men first communicated by signals, then by speech, then by writing. After writing, various types of mechanical devices were developed for conveying fact, thought, and meaning. Whenever and wherever there were such developments, they were also employed to express and mold opinion." Bernays traces the course of PR from this origin in the Dark Ages, through the early American colonies of the 1600s, and finally through the "public be damned" philosophy of the latter part of the 19th century to the "public be informed" philosophy of the early 20th century. He believes that modern PR saw its inception between 1919 and 1929, and that between 1929 and 1941 it became an accepled and acknowledged part of the general business practice. Bernays, in The Engineering ojConsent, published in 1956, said: "Public relations is the attempt, by information, persuasion, and adjustment, to engineer public support for an activity, cause, movement or institution." Perhaps the best cave-related case for PR is exemplified by bat conservation efforts. The early Romans believed bats to be creatures from the nether realms. The flying mammals were depicted in early drawings as inhabiting the underworld. They were threatening creatures, rumored to have supernatural powers, to be fcared-and sometimes killed. Now, of course, we know differently. But changing attitudes took years of slow, painstaking efforts by caver advocates and NSS members like Merlin Tuttle, founder of Bat Conservation International, to inform and educate the public. Through magazines, television, and other means, Tuttle and others have helped the public realize that bats have a beneficial place in ecology by eating many insects and pollinating many species of plants during nightly flights. In retrospect, when using Bernays' definition of public relations as a guide, such efforts have been successful in engineering public support in the ongoing tight to save bats and their habitat. Publics The issue of publics is an important one for public relations workpicking the right strategies and

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Jorden-Public Relations methods are crucial to success. Publics are both external and internaldifferent strategies and methods are used to reach and influence them. Organized caving members, boards of directors, stafT, contributors, and internal organizations make up many of the internal constituencies which must be served through publications, Web sites, benefits of dues-paying membership, and so on. On the outside, the picture becomes more complicated. The list of outside publics may include related groups such as the American Association for the Advancement of Science, community groups, government, and legislators. Primary publics must be identified and programs developed for each. As an example. legislative and governmental publics are especially important to cave conservationists. They are increasingly affected by legislation regarding state and national parks and public lands, as well as hearings and decrees by legislative committees and state, federal, and local regulatory agencies. Aggressive public relations can be useful-elrorts by the NSS were largely responsible for procuring the passage of the Federal Cave Resources Protection Act. Vulnerable indeed is a group that does not seek out an able, sensitive listening post in Washington. Conservationists need to get advance signals oflegislative matters that affect them. The purpose of public relations here is to give governmental representatives a frame of reference for evaluating and guiding their Washington activities. In state capitals, help in lobbying is crucial. Usually, success in governmental public relations requires a series of activities that may extend through many months: Fact finding Interpretation of governmental actions to ofTicers of the conservation group Counseling on management practices in light of developments Interpretation of conservationists' actions to legislators Advocacy ofa position Using legislative connections as a springboard Support for action with government Cave conservation has many parallels with the practice of environmental public relations. The general public in the United States only became aware of needs in the natural environment in the early 1960s and 1970s, although some forward-thinking people were concerned as far back as the 1940s, when the NSS was formed. The emergence of an environmental ethic in this country as well as passage offar-reaching federal and state legislation and local laws protecting wildlife, governing air and water pollution, solid waste disposal, noise, land use, and hazardous substances have had an enormous impact on the activities of business and industry. The parallels in cave conservation are numerous and include many broad environmental conservation concerns: Land use Habitat Vandalism Herbicides and pesticides Solid waste disposal Water contamination Other pollution issues Audiences include governmental officials, scientific and academic groups, 287 The issue of publics is an important one for public relations work-picking the right strategies and methods are crucial to success. Publics are both external and internal-different strategies and methods are used to reach and influence them.

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288 Audiences include governmental officials, scientific and academic groups, citizens' groups, specialized and general media, community leaders, and managers of compames. Cave Conservation and Restoration citizens' groups, specialized and general media, community leaders, and managers of companies. Printed booklets, films, and slide presentations usually are effective in telling an organization's environmental accomplishments to a general audience. However, for scientists, governmental bodies, teachers, and environmentalists, many organizations rely on face-la-face meetings in small group settings or formal presentations at seminars and symposia. In those situations, information conveyed must be complete enough for a scientist to process. The door should be left open for two-way communication. Besides seminars, symposia, and other scientific meetings, other forms of communication with the scientific community are through direct mail to well-targeted groups, articles in the semiprofessional press, personal visits to selected leaders, publication of materials in appropriate professional journals, letters to journal editors, and advertisements in such journals. In dealing with the environmental press, strive to know the editor of the publication you've targeted and the work he or she has done. Be wellversed in the subject at hand and identify news angles that can help market the message you want to convey. Steps for Environmental PR Marshal all of the available facts on the situation and prepare a PR environmental inventory. Establish an early-warning system so that the organization is not caught by surprise with restrictive legislation or other adverse developments. Prepare position papers (easy-to-use, in-depth background material) on all sides of the environmental issues. Establish and cultivate contacts with governmental, academic, environmental, and scientific groups. Set up a procedure to answer criticism immediately and forcefully. Explain and promote the positive environmental actions of the cave conservation group through every means available. Establish Credibility To establish the organization's reputation for credibility in environmental issues, successful communicators must adhere to the following guidelines: Demand strict accuracy in all materials for dissemination. Keep attuned to major developments in the conservation arena. Collect, analyze, and interpret available facts. Prepare environmental policy statements and other informational materials on matters projected to involve public attention. Prepare to challenge sensationalized attacks. Call on experts for help and assistance in communicating technical stories. Keep conservation support groups informed of environmental programs and plans. Nuts-and-Bolts Methods There are many ways to publicize cave conservation efforts and work toward influencing public opinion. Treatment of the subject here is not meant to be exhaustive. Annual or Biennial Reports Even 501(c)3 not-far-profit corporations, such as the NSS, produce reports containing financial information, mission statements, and summaries of activities for designated periods. They are used to target information for grant writing purposes as well as for legislative constituencies and other

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Jorden-Public Relations groups. Audiovisual Tools Slide shows, videos, and PowerPoint presentations are effective in communicating the cave conservation message with strong visual impact and clarity. Backgrounders The Society's Public Relations Committee uses a four-page background sheet in communications withjoumalists, prospective book authors, and others who contact it for information. Such backgrounders succinctly state the organization's purpose, history, organization, policies, activities, and services. Brochures and Pamphlets The National Speleological Society prints several four-color brochures that promote conservation of cave resources. Titles include Fragile Underground, Bats, and Lava Tubes. These brochures provide details on protecting nonrenewable cave resources and cave-dwelling animals. Guide to Responsible Caving is an NSS booklet designed to introduce people to conscientious caving practices. Brochures, pamphlets, and other related materials are distributed on request by the NSS office and can also be downloaded from the Society's Web site at . Displays and Bulletin Boards At meetings of related conservation groups, seminars, and other gatherings, static displays can be a useful way of carrying the organization's message. Photos of recent activities with accompanying captions, news releases, newspaper clippings, brief articles, and other information can be placed on upright multimedia boards. A table-top, museum-quality display about the NSS is available for events. Plan to pay shipping costs, and find information about display availability on the NSS Web site under conservation, or contact the NSS Office in Huntsville, Alabama. News Releases Preferably one page, these dispatches are prepared for faxing, mailing, or emailing to newspapers, radio and television stations, wire services, and other media outlets. A good release addresses the traditional Five Ws and If of journalism: Who. What, Where, When, Why, and How. Preferably, the lead or first paragraph of the release will include the majority of these five. Writing releases is a craft, since it is likely the most efficient and cost-effective way for a conservation group to get its message out in wide distribution. For maximum effect, it's best to identify a news angle or peg for an assignment desk. Think of it as trying to give an editor a reason why he or she should assign the release to a reporter for follow-up calls and potential development of an article or broadcast piece. A news release is always followed with telephone calls to complete the pitch and ofTer to provide more information. Newsletters and House Publications As simple as a front-and-back memorandum or as lavish as a glossy magazine, newsletters are important workhorses in PRo Publicity committees often launch campaigns within their pages. But newsletters should be more than mere propaganda vehicles. Journalistic standards such as impartiality-getting both sides of an argument-and fairness should not stop at the newsletter editor's door. Exhibiting such traits lends publications 289 Such backgrounders succinctly state the organization's purpose, history, organization, policies, activities, and services.

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290 Cave Conservation and Restoration For Immediate Release September 13, 2002 Thomas Lera, NSS Administrative VP 28 I 3 Cave Avenue Huntsville AL 35810-4413 Phone: 256-852-1300 E-mail: avp@caves.org Bat Stamp Series Issued by USPS The United States Postal Service is issuing some very attractive American Bat stamps, featuring photographs from a National Speleological Society member. The pane of 20 stamps consists of four different stamp designs featuring photographs of bats found in the continental United States: the red bat, the pallid bat, the spotted bat and the leaf-nosed bat. The photographs on the stamps and on the selvage were all taken by Dr. Merlin D. Tuttle, NSS Member # I 3020HM, of Bat Conservation International, Inc., based in Austin, Texas. The bats were released unharmed after being photographed. Tom Lera, the NSS administrative vice president and a supporter in getting these stamps approved will be on hand for the ceremony at the Congress Avenue Bridge, which shelters a bat colony. More than 2,000 people were also expected to celebrate Austin's famous winged mammals at the sixth annual, "Freetail-Free-For-AIl," sponsored by Bat Conservation International to raise awareness about the city's unique urban wildlife and to help inspire young conservationists. The Huntsville, Alabama-based Society is the nation's largest caving organization, composed of more than 12,000 members in more than 150 grottos or local chapters. The Society, founded in 1941, promotes conservation and safe exploration through training programs. The NSS motto states, 'Take nothing but pictures, leave nothing but footprints, kill nothing but time." Figure 6. Typical press release. Preferably one page, these dispatches are prepared for faxing, mailing, or emailing to newspapers, radio and television stations, wire services, and other media outlets.

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Jorden-Public Relations more credibility. Policies A written PR policy statement formalizes the conservation campaign's goals and objectives. Along with a policy statement for internal distribution, it is useful to develop such a document for public consumption. The internal communication serves as a compass to keep the group's publicists on track with a unified message-the external policy is a distillation of that desired message. One example of an external statement is the NSS conservation policy: Caves have unique scientific, recreational, and scenic values. These values are endangered by both carelessness and intentional vandalism. These values, once gone, cannot be recovered. The responsibility for protecting caves must he assumed by those 11'ho study and enjoy them. Accordingly, the intention a/the Society is to 11'orkfor the preservation 0/ caves with a realistic policy supported by effective programs for: the encouragement of self-discipline among cavers; education and research concerning the causes and prevention of cave damage; and special projects, including cooperation with other groups similarly dedicated to the conservation o/natural areas ... The policy continues, urging every NSS member to take personal responsibility for communicating the cave conservation ethic to all cave users. (See page 253 for complete text ofNSS Conservation Policy; also see NSS Preservation Policy, page 254.) Speakers' Bureaus Structured services for providing speakers on request can provide conservation volunteers another forum for discussing their views. Conservation PR plans should contain a statement of the strategies envisioned in achieving organizational objectives. Effectiveness of publicity efforts can be hard to measure. Returns often cannot be related to raw numbers in tenns of dollars spent or volunteer caver hours expended. Instead, the measure must be related to organizational objectives, especially those evolving to address the public's mood in terms of conservation awareness. Since public trends and moods are changeable, PR must be alert, flexible, and responsive to such challenges. Additional Reading Bemays EL. 1956. The Engineering a/Consent. Norman (OK): University of Oklahoma Press. 246 p. Cutlip SM, Center AH. 1978. Effective Public Relations. Englewood Cliffs (NJ): Prentice-Hall. 612 p. Lesly P, editor. 1978. Leslys Public Relations Handbook. Englewood Cliffs (NJ): Prentice-Hall. 663 p. Reilly RT. 1981. Puhlic Relations in Action. Englewood Cliffs (NJ): Prentice-Hall. 468 p. 291

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292 Cave Conservation and Restoration Geocaching and Caves: Finding a Common Ground Hazel A. Barton The sport of geocaching is an example of a Public Relations opportunity for the caving community. Geocaching is an orienteering sport. The participants use GPS (global-positioning system) units to find a specific location where a cache has been hidden. Individuals, who collectively call themselves geocachers. have placed these caches in over 150 countries, including the U.S. The geocachers post the location coordinates of their caches on geocaching Web sites. Examples of Web sites include: ; ; ; . Other geocachers then use their GPSs to tind the cache, usually a small plastic container or ammo can, which contains some kind of reward. The person who finds the cache may take one of these rewards, provided they replace it with an item of their own (hence the often eclectic "rewards"). They then sign the registcr and post comments about the cache on the Web site. Gcocaching has thousands of active participants all over the world. Geocachers pride themselves on how many locations they have found, or how many interesting geocaches they've placed. They have a motto that encourages participants to act in a conservation-minded mannerCache in, trash out. NSS Geocaching Committee Since the inception of the NSS Geocaching Committee (a subcommittee of the NSS Conservation Committee), the aim has been to address the problem of placing geocaches in sensitive and potentially dangerous caves, and to prevent the posting of sensitive cave locations on the Web. \Ve are using the same technique that cavers traditionally use to help preserve cave environments-education and outreach. Geocaching is a rapidly growing sport, practiced by many outdoor enthusiasts and conservation-minded individuals. Many of these people simply lack an understanding of cave environments-they don't know the inherent risks and the delicate nature of cave ecosystems. The intent of many cachers is to share their excitement of caves by placing caches-not to deliberately damage caves or provoke cavers. It is important that we remain objective, and not get angry at anyone who expresses an interest in caves (remember, all cavers started out as noncavers). We must continue to help geocachers understand the delicate and sensitive nature of caves. Many cavers take geocachers caving and explain why some cave environments do not constitute a good caching environment. Equally important are the elTorts to identify caves that may be conducive to caching, and to encourage the creation of virtual caches, which do not require placement ofa permanent cache. We are also suggesting that geocachers use multi-caches for caves, which prevent the placing of actual cave locations on the Web. Indeed, many cavers who are becoming geocachers are working at the grassroots level to help educate other geocachers. Despite all these positives. there have unfortunately been some negatives along the way. Tensions can get high regarding the placement of geocaches in caves, and the knee-jerk reaction of "'not in our caves" does nothing to calm the situation or help cae hers understand our concerns. In one case, out of vengeance against cavers who removed or destroyed caches, one cae her began placing caches in as many caves as he could find. This resulted in the placing of over a dozen cave locations on the Web, even going as far as to name one cache "'Vengeance Cache." Luckily cooler heads prevailed and the cacher graciously removed these caches and the Web locations. Cavers need to try and be accommodating to this new sport, just as others were to the growing sport of caving in the U.S. Geocachers arc becoming organized and participation is increasing. In some areas, we will be forced to play in the sand pit together, so now is a good a time to start figuring out how. At the initiation of the geocaching community, a caching "'ombudsman" was created to mediate between cavers and cachers when cave-cache issues arise. The ombudsman can be contacted at . Members of the NSS Geocaching Committee are fulfilling this mediating role. In the future, we would like to generate a list of caver/cacher contacts in every state. The caver contacts will help educate geocachers interested in caves about safe caving and protecting cave environments.



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Part 3-Restoration: Hildreth. Werker and Werker-Overview of Cave Restoration Section A-Introducing Cave Restoration Overview of Cave Restoration Val Hildreth-Werker and Jim C. Werker Human actions can negatively impact caves and their contents. Cave restoration efforts serve to remediate or repair damage caused by human carelessness, inadvertent actions, or intentional vandalism. Project planning for cave restoration often begins with thorough inventory and documentation of features, resources, and values. Inventory and Project Planning 293 In-cave resource inventory involves the systematic recording and archiving of scientific and cultural information found within a cave. An inventory may include data on aesthetic values, archaeology, biology, climatology, cultural material. chemistry, geolugy. history. hydrology, microbial habitats, mineralogy, meteorology, paleontology, speleogenesis, and impacts caused by human visitation. (Sce resource inventory, page 19.) When assessing a cave environment call on trained speleologists for assistance and consultation. Significant resources may be present, but visible only to the trained eye. During inventory processes, evaluate damage and potential risks to resources. Clarify the purpose of restoration. Clearly defined goals backed by careful project planning and implementation should minimize alteration of resources during cave restoration efforts. Inform all restoration personnel about the objectives and cautionary measures for each project. Do No Harm First among all restoration objectives is do no harm. Perform restoration tasks without damaging cave values. Sometimes deciding not to attempt restoration is the bcst choice. (See do no harm. page 329.) Cave restoration should focus on one of three purposes. Decisions will usually emphasize one of the following values: Restoration to a former natural condition Restoration to a previous historic period General improvement of the current aesthetic state In a show cave with decades of accumulated impact, partial restoration may be the best achievable option. Restoration to a former natural condition is more likely to be successful in a wild cave passage that is not as ecologically disturbcd. (See biology, page 33.) In karst terrains whcre sinkholes have been used as trash dumping sites, cleanup projects may help mitigate pollution and improve groundwater quality. (See sinkholes, page 381.) Volunteers Caving groups volunteer thousands of hours annually to cave and karst projects. Cavers donate their time, labor, materials, and expertise for conservation efforts. On public and private lands across the United States, Cave restoration efforts serve to remediate or repair damage caused by human carelessness, inadvertent actions, or intentional vandalism.

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294 Why Call it Cave Restoration? Val Hiidreth.Werker and Jim C, Werker How should we describe or define cave restoration? Is it clean up? Remediation? Rehabilitation? Reclamation? Rejuvenation? Renovation? Refurbishment? Revivification? Repair? Cave restoration may be described with any of these words. Most cavers use the term cave restoration. In this manual, the nitty-gritty tactics are more important than semantics. This book offers the practical how-to. In this volume, we present techniques for restoration and methods for repair in separate sections. Taking no action is also emphasized as sometimes being the best common sense solution for the conservation of a particular cave system, One section targets restoration objectives that typically involve the restoration of cave passages. Another section concentrates on restoring specific speleothem types and pertains to both show caves and undeveloped caves. And the final part of this book describes techniques for speleothem repair. Chapters include information to acquaint cavers and cave managers with how to think about, plan, and perform (Continued on next page) Cave Conservation and Restoration cavers provide significant volunteer value to cave and karst protection. (See volunteer value, page 321.) Grants, cost shares, partial reimbursements, cooperative agreements, and project contracts with caving groups may provide support for restoration projects. (See agreements, page 309.) Categories of Cave Restoration Cave restoration projects employ a variety of tasks, tools, and skills. Projects might include rubble and debris removal, sinkhole c1eanout, historic marking evaluations, spray paint cleaning, lint picking, habitat restoration, or speleothem cleaning and repair. Natural and cultural cave values can be damaged by overzealous rcstorationists; thus inventory, reconnaissance, and project planning are essential elements for any successful restoration. In wild or undeveloped caves that receive intermittent visitation, task areas and techniques are carefulfy defined and the number of cavers is usualfy limited to smalf, efficient teams with experienced restoration leaders. In caves that have high levels of visitation or historic commercial use, significant new negative impacts are less likely to occur from restoration efforts. Habitat Restoring entrance features, airflow, or hydrologic conditions may support rehabilitation of species and habitats (Aley 1989). (Sec gates, page 147; also see hydrology, page 121.) Old trash and woodpiles may be providing special habitat areas for cave species and are usually removed in stages to allow fauna to migrate to new areas and biofilms to recover. (See woodpiles, page 37 and page 72.) Lint Some restoration involves carefully removing lint and dust (garment fibers, epidermal matter, hair, and small particles of debris) from along tour trails where it accumulates, discolors formations, and provides habitat for opportunistic organisms (Jabfonsky and others f 995). (Sec lint, page 351.) Lamp Flora Algae, mosses, and other opportunistic photosynthetic organisms often' grow ncar electric lights in show caves. Historically, sodium hypochlorite solutions and other chemical agents have been used to control lamp flora; however they must be prudently applied at minimum concentration and rinsed carcfully because cave biota can bc indiscriminately killed. (See bleach, page 349.) Today, manufactured chemicals arc not recommended for cave cleaning tasks because fumes, residues, and byproducts arc harmful to biota and cave systems. Anthropogenic agents typically produce toxic byproducts through outgassing and degradation. (See anthropogenic, page 57.) Rccommendations for improved control of undesirable algac and microflora include advanced lighting technologies and wavelengths selectcd to inhibit photosynthesis. Recent experience demonstrates that lamp flora can be eliminated with properly designed, located, and controlled lighting. (See lamp nora, page 343.) Large Projects Largc projects removing rubble, artificial till, and debris usually require multi pic project days scheduled over several ycars. It may require groups of cavers working multi-day sessions to restore speleothcms covered \\lith

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Part 3-Restoration: HildrethWerkcr and Wcrker-Overview of Cave Restoration Figures 1-5. It takes many cavers to tackle the variety of restoration tasks during volunteer weekends at Cave Without a Name, Texas. Projects include digging fill material from show cave floors, sponging up muddy debris from rimstone, and cleaning delicate areas with toothbrushes. excavation sediments or to remove construction debris and artificially deposited clastic sediments from show cave chambers. (See artificial fill, page 367.) For example, in the late 1980s, tons of clay and rock were removed to restore natural floors at Wisconsin's Mystery Cave (Netherton 1993). At Caverns of Sonora in Texas, 50 or more cavers gather for annual bucket brigade projects-teams remove tons of blast rock from trail construction, yet recognize and leave the natural breakdown in place (Veni 1998). (See bucket brigade, page 303.) Labor-intensive restoration of Moondyne, a severely damaged former show cave in Australia, is an example of spectacular success in the restoration and repair of damaged tourist caves. After all the rubbish, infrastructure, and pathways were removed, the walls and speleothems \vere cleaned to appear pristine. The cave was restored to serve as a guided educational site (Bell 1993). Another example of tremendous restoration success is Hidden River Cave, located in the town of Horse Cave, Kentucky. Because the town's sewage had been deposited in the cave, the American Cave Conservation Association came to the rescue, successfully restored the cave system, and subsequently developed the site into a productive karst education program and museum. (Sec Hidden River, page 331.) (Conunued) conservation-o riented cave restoration. Many of us have reinvented the wheels of cave restoration technique each time we encountered an unfamiliar task. The field-proven information presented in this manual is a starting point for new collaborations. Techniques will evolve as new ideas emerge. Research will advance informed decisions and methods. Contact the editors of this book or go to with questions and improvements for cave restoration.

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296 Restoration leaders evaluate the degree of previous impact In a cave passage, establish practical objectives, choose remediation techniques that will avoid creating new damage, and plan methods to protect the area from further damage. Some projects require toothbrushes or tweezers while others need shovcls or power drills. Cave Conservation and Restoration Small Projects In contrast, delicate restoration projects on gypsum or cave pearls may require multiple project days or may only take a few hours of attention from one or two C3vers. Some projects require minimal time and human resources. Even a single sponge stroke may prevent a muddy boot print from becoming permanently embedded in flowstone. Rock Art, Historic Writing, Mud Glyphs, and Graffiti The history of an area may be literally written on the cave walls and should be documented and protected. Consultation with scientists, as well as historical and cultural preservation experts, is always appropriate. Document sites before erasing contemporary graffiti and removing trash. Be careful. Pictographs, petroglyphs, and historic signatures may be layercd under contemporary graffiti. Historically important mud glyphs may be easily overlooked. (See rock art, page 99; see graffiti, page 333.) Trash Removal Approach trash removal carefully. Use common sense and safety protocols. Define and communicate specific safety precautions. It is wise to consult with historical preservation experts before planning trash and rubble removal projects. Hidden under the layers of recent contemporary articles may be items of historical importance. Sensitive Area Protocols Pristine environments that need restoration deserve careful strategies. When restoring recently discovered or rarely visited chambers, cavers follow stringent minimum impact guidelines. Some protected passages require special restoration techniques and changing to fresh, clean garments. Restoration in sensitive areas with suspected microbial significance might require more specialized clean-room techniques or sterile procedures (HildrethWerker and Werker t 999). (See microbiology, page 61; also see protocol, page 427.) Trail Delineation Trails through cave passages may be clearly marked to help confine visitor impact. Even in undeveloped caves, delineating trails on durable surfaces and previously compacted routes will aid in the preservation of sediments, small floor speleothems, and invertebrate populations. Flagging tape was first used to delineate pathways in 1970, Aguzou Cave, Aude, France (Cabrol 1997). Unfortunately, iffootprints are visible beyond the designated paths, others will tend to follow and trails will expand. Footprints outside of delineated trails may be erased to restore the natural appearance of clastic sediments and other surfaces. Use gentle combing motions with lightweight nylon brushes to erase footprints without stirring up dust. Camouflage deep footprints in rock flour or sand with natural sediments and soils taken from alongside the trail. Removing visible traces of human travel tends to discourage future damage (Hildreth-Werker and Werker 1997). (See trails, page 175.) Well.Considered Decisions Restoration leaders evaluate the degree of previous impact in a cave passage, establish practical objectives, choose remediation techniques to avoid creating new damage, and plan methods to protect the area from further harm. During any cave project, unusual restoration concerns and decisions may crop up. For example, some cave surfaces are covered with thin, natural crusts that are easily scraped and marred by careless footsteps--ean this damage be restored? Speleothems in lava caves ditTer from travertine

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Part 3-Restoration: Hildreth-Werker and Werker-Overview of Cave Restoration" formations-how do restoration techniques differ? Cleaning up carbide dumps can present some dangers-what is the protocol for safe removal? Throughout this book, specific techniques are based on solid restoration concepts and research supported by common sense. Choosing to do nothing is sometimes the best decision. This manual offers guidelines-it is up to the reader to assimilate the information, create the options, and make wise choices for attempting cave restoration. Cave Restoration Tools and Materials 297 Choose appropriate tools for various restoration tasks. Some projects require toothbrushes or tweezers while others need shovels or power drills. Be sure the tool fits the task. In show caves, industrial skills and equipment are necessary for accomplishing infrastructure-related tasks such as removal or remediation of\viring, guardrails, walkways, or PCB-filled transformers. It is wise to contact hazardous waste removal experts if toxic waste is encountered during cave or sinkhole restoration. When cleaning and repairing more delicate speleothems, gentle expertise and small tools are necessary. Choose Tools to Avoid Harming Speleothems Scrub brushes with soil nylon bristles, soil absorbent sponges, surgical gloves, Oexible plastic scrapers, buckets, hand-held sprayers, water, and human perseverance are effective tools for cleaning speleothems and many cave surfaces. (See Oowstone, page 401.) Place catchments, towels, or sponge dams downslope to capture restoration runoff. All catchments should be removed from the cave and runoff water should bc disposed of properly. (See runoff water, page 339 and page 396.) Use Cave-Safe Materials Use specialized materials for long-term speleothem repair applications in cave systems. Recommended products include certain archival epoxies, museum-grade cyanoacrylate adhesives, and stainless steel support rods. Degradation and outgassing characteristics are reduced and longevity characteristics are strengthened in these relatively cave-safe products. (See speleothem repair materials, page 445.) This handbook also presents repair strategies for draperies, soda straws, helictites, gypsum crust, flowstone, rimstone dams, and even large speleothems. (See repair techniques, page 455.) Poulter (1987) and others have developed similar methods in Australia. Stay Up To Date Research is needed to better define the safest materials for cave systems. Biochemists and materials engineers should confirm materials characteristics before products are used in cave environments for the construction of infrastructure or for repair and restoration (Spate and others 1998). (See cave-safe materials, page 167.) Future laboratory studies and field monitoring will facilitate scientific analyses of degradation, outgassing, and longevity for materials typically placed in cave systems. As speleological research advances understanding of cave and karst ecological processes, restoration methods will continue to evolve and become less intrusive. Updated state-of-the-art restoration techniques will be developed based on new data. Cavers who perform restoration and repair are also defining low-impact caving guidelines. (See minimumimpact ethics, pages 263, 266.) Ifpeople will adopt improved caving ethics and learn to avoid unnecessary impacts to cave passages, then perhaps the Specialized materials are needed for long-term speleothem repair applications in cave systems. Recommended products include certain archival epOXies, museumgrade cyanoacrylate adhesives, and stainless steel support rods.

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298 Cave Conservation and Restoration need for restoration and repair will taper off. Cited References To accompany this restoration overview chapter, it was suggested we initiate the development of a comprehensive reference list to detailed information on cave restoration. The text of this overview includes numerous cross-references to restoration techniques in this volume. The additional reading list includes documents of historical significance as well as contemporary works that were not cited within the text of the chapter. Please contact the editors so we are sure to correct any omissions in future editions. Aley T. 1989. Restoration and maintenance of natural cave microclimates. NSS News 47(2):39-40. Bell P. 1993. Moondyne Cave: Development to guided adventure. Cave Management in A us/ra/asia 10:9-11. Cabrol P. 1997. Protection of speleothems. In: Hill C, Forti P, editors. Cave Minerals of the World. 2nd edition. Huntsville (AL): National Speleological Society. p 294-309. HildrethWerker V, Werker Jc. 1997. Lechuguilla restoration: Techniques learned in the Southwest. NSS News 55(4):107-113. Hildreth-Werker V, Werker Jc. 1999. Restoration, trail designation, and microbial preservation in Lechuguilla Cave. In: Stitt RR, editor. Proceedings of/he 1997 National Cave Management Symposium: October 7-10 in Bellingham, Washington. and Chilliwack and Vancouver Island. B.C .. Canada. Huntsville [AL): National Cave Management Symposium Steering Committee. p 181-189. [Also listed as 13th National Cave Management Symposium.] Jablonsky P, Kraemer S, Yett B. 1995. Lint in caves. In: Pate DL, editor. Proceedings a/the 1993 National Cave Management Symposium: Carlsbad. New Mexico. October 27-30. 1993. [Huntsville (AL)]: National Cave Management Symposium Steering Committee. p 73-81. Netherton W. 1993. Mystery Cave trails: Past, present and future. In: Jorden JR, Obele RK, editors. Proceedings of the 1989 National Cave Management Symposium: New Braunfels. Texas. Austin (TX): Texas Cave Management Association; Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. p 141-147. Poulter N. 1987. The restoration of the Jewel Casket, Yallingup Cave, W.A. Australian Caver 115:6-8. Spate A, Ilamilton-Smith E, Little L, Holland E. 1998. Best practice and tourist cave engineering. In: Smith DW, editor. Cave and Karst Management in Australasia XII. Carlton South, Victoria, Australia: Australasian Cave and Karst Management Asssociation. p 97-109. [Cave and Karst Management in Australasia. 12:97-109]. Veni, G. 1998. 1998 Sonora restoration project. The Texas Caver 43(6):8789. Reprinted in SpeleoDigest 1999:301-302. Additional Reading Aley T. 1972. Control of unwanted plant growth in electrically lighted caves. Caves and Karst 14(5):33-35. Aley T, Aley C, Rhodes D. 1985. Control of exotic plant growth in Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico. In: Vandyke JE, editor. Proceedings of the 1984 National Cave Management Symposhun \4issouri Speleol"gy 25( 1-4): 159-1 71. Bergthold L. 1997. Conservation, restoration, and low-impact caving: New approaches and attitudes. NSS News 55(3):72-73. Bitting C. 1989. Water-based cave cleaning. NSS News 47(2):42-43. Bonwick J, Ellis R, and Bonwick M. 1986. Cleaning, restoration, and redevelopment of show caves in Australia. In: Proceedings Ninth

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Part 3-Restoration: Hildreth-Werker and Werker-Overview of Cave Restoration International Congress ofSpeleology, vol2. Buecher RH. 1996. Footprints, routes, and trails. In: Rea GT, editor. Proceedings of the 1995 National Cave lvlanagement Symposium: Spring Miff State Park, Mitchell, Indiana, October 25-28, 1995. Indianapolis (IN): Indiana Karst Conservancy. p 47-50. Crisman B. 1985. Cave restoration at Carlsbad Caverns National Park. NSS News 43(5): 177-180. Douglas Jc. 1998. Discovering history in American caves. NSS News 56(9):261-63. Douglas Jc. 2001. Historic preservation at Hubbard's Cave: Inventory and management of cultural resources. In: Rea GT, editor. Proceedings of the 14th National Cave and Karst Management Symposium: Chatanooga, Tennessee, October 19-22, 1999. Chattanooga (TN): Southeastern Cave Conservancy. p 46-50. Dunlap K. 1996. Inexpensive temperature monitoring in caves. Proceedings of the 1995 National Cave Management Symposium: Spring l\1i/l State Park, Mitchell, Indiana, October 25-28, 1995. Indianapolis (IN): Indiana Karst Conservancy. p 76-87. Elliott WR. 2000. Conservation of the North American cave and karst biota. In: Wilkens H, Culver DC, Humphreys WF, editors. Subterranean Ecosystems. Ecosystems of the World 30. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Chapter 34, p 665-689. Internet. . Accessed 2006 May 6. Faimon J, Zimak J, Stelcl J, Kubesova S. 2003. Environmentally acceptable effect of hydrogen peroxide on cave lamp-flora. Environmental Pollution 122(3):417-422. Follet K. 1999. Gramti control and removal: Lessons from an urban setting. American Caves Winter: 9-15. Frith RS. 1976. Acid on-Gramti off. NSS News 34(11): 203. Fry J, Olsen R. 1999. Walkway development and construction relative to reducing visitor impact in the historic section of Mammoth Cave. In: Rea GT, editor. Proceedings of the 1999 National Cave and Karst Management Symposium: Chattanooga, Tennessee, October 19-22, 1999. Chattanooga (TN): Southeastern Cave Conservancy. p 64-72. Grobbelaar J. 2000. Lithophytic algae: A major threat to the karst formation of show caves. Journal of Applied Phycology 12:309-315. Hagan S, Sutton M. 1991. Cave restoration can cause damage. NSS News 49(6):170-171. Hazslinszky T. 1985, International Colloquium on Lamp Flora: 1()-13 October 1984. Budapest (HU): Magyar Karszt-es Barlangkutat6 Tarsulat. 155 p. Hazslinszky T. 2000. International Conference on Cave Lighting Proceedings. Budapest (HU): Hungarian Speleological Society. 164 p. HildrethWerker Y, Werker Jc. 2001. Restoration in Pellucidar. NSS News 59(3):76-77. Horrocks RD. 1994. Artificial fill removal project: Timpanogos Cave System, Timpanogos Cave National Monument. NSS News 53(4): 102107. Horrocks RD, Green DJ. 2000. Lehman lint liquidators. NSS News 58(3):72-73. Hubbard DA Jr. 1995. Cave conservation and cave clean-ups: Not always one in the same. NSS News 53(2):31. Irving D. 1989. Wind Cave Restoration Field Camp. NSS News 47(2):3436. Jablonsky PL. 1990. Lint is not limited to belly buttons alone. NSS News 48(5):117-119. Jablonsky PL. 1991. Headlines! Lint accumulations are becoming more prevalent in caves. American Caves Fall: 18. 299

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300 Cave Conservation and Restoration Jablonsky PL. 1992. Implications of lint deposits in caves. NSS News 50(4):99-100. Jameson RA. 1995. Zinc leaching from galvanized steel in Mystery Cave. Minnesota. In: Rca GT, editor. Proceedings oflhe /995 National Cave Management Symposium: Spring Mill State Park, Mite/tell, Indiana, October 25-28, /995. Indianapolis (IN): Indiana Karst Conservancy. p 178185. Kohlwey K. 1992. 1991 Timpanogos Cave restoration project. NSS News 52(1):12-13. Lemon L. 1976. Algae control and removal from cave formations. In: Aley T, Rhodes D, editors. 1976 National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings: Albuquerque. New Mexico, October 6-/0, /975. Albuquerque (NM): Speleobooks. p 64-65. Lewis J1. 1993. The effects of cave restoration on some aquatic communities [abstract]. In: 1991 National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings: Bowling Green, Kenlucky, October 23-26, /99/. Horse Cave (KY): American Cave Conservation Association, Inc. p 346-350. National Caving Association. 1999. Cave Conservation Handbook. Price, G. editor. London (UK): National Caving Association. [Softbound 1999. First published 1997 in ring bound format.] National Outdoor Leadership School. 1998. Leave No Trace Outdoor Skills and Ethics: Caving. Tuohy L, editor; Austin A, illustrator. Boulder (CO): Leave No Trace, Inc. 20 p. Internet . Accessed 2003 Apr 5. National Speleological Society, Inc. 2003. A Guide 10 Responsible Caving. Jones CJ and Anonymous, editors; Dale M, design. Huntsville (AL): National Speleological Society. 24 p. Internet < http://caves.org/ brochure/grc.pdf>. Accessed 2003 Dec 5. Meyer PJ, French JA. 1995. Cathedral Caverns: Techniques for restoration and cleaning. NSS News 53(7): 186-193. Meyer PJ, French JA. 1996. Crossings Cave: Test bed for cave restoration. NSS News 54(2-3):54-58. Netherton W. 1993. Mystery Cave trails: Past, present and future. In: Jorden JR, Obele RK, editors. Proceedings oflhe /989 Nalional Cave Management Symposium: New Braunfels. Texas. Austin (TX): Texas Cave Management Association; Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. p 141-147. Newbould RL. 1976. Steamcleaning of the Orient Cave, Jenolan. In: Hamilton-Smith E, editor. Cave Management in Australia. Broadway (AU): Australian Speleological Federation. Northup DE, Reysenbach A-L, Pace NR. 1997. Microorganisms and speleothems. In: Hill C, Forti P, editors. Cave Minerals of the World. 2nd edition. Hunstville (AL): National Speleological Society. p 261.266. Ohms M, Rogers R. 1999. Black Hills restoration camp. NSS News 57(4):99100. Olson, R. 2002. Control of lamp nora in Mammoth Cave National Park. In: Hazslinszky T, editor. International Conference on Cave Lighting Proceedings. Budapest (HU): Hungarian Speleological Society. p 131. Poulter N. 1980. Restoration, stabilization and gating of the Christmas Star Extension of Crystal Cave (WI-62), WitchclifTe, W.A. In: Proceedings 12th Conference, Australian Speleological Federalion. p 10-14. Rajczy M, Buczko K, Hazslinszky T. 1997. EfTorts for the restriction of lamp nora: Results and experiences between 1984 and 1996. In: T6th E, Horvath R, editors. Proceedings of the Research, Conservation, Management Conference Agglelek. Hungmy, / -5 May, /996. Aggtelek (HU): Aggteleki National Park Directorate. p 54. Rhodes D. 1976. Cave restoration, an impossible task? NSS News

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Part 3-Restoration: HildrethWerker and Werker-Overview of eave Restoration 34(11):200-203. Rogers N. 1995. Mammoth Cave restoration field camp. NSS News 53(2):4444. Rohde K, Kerho R. 1978. Cave restoration: An underview of correcting overviewing. In: Zuber R, Chester J, Gilbert S, Rhodes D, editors. National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings: Big Sky. Montana. October 3-7, 1977. Albuquerque (NM): Adobe Press. p 55-58. Rohde K. 1982. Cave restoration and management. In: Wilson RC, Lewis 11, editors. National Cave Management Symposia: Proceedings [for Carlsbad, New Mexico 1978 and Mammoth Cave, Kentuc/..y 1980JOregon City: Pygmy Dwarf Press. p 205-207. Rohde K. 1989. Cave restoration begins at Wind Cave. NSS News 47(2):3234. Rogers N. 1995. Mammoth Cave restoration field camp. NSS News 53(2):44. Schmitz SA. 1996. Lost Soldiers Cave restoration project. NSS News 54(2!3 ):59-63. Schaper J. 1996. Techniques and volunteer issues in the restoration of Cathedral Cave. In: Rea GT, editor. Proceedings of the 1995 National Cave Management Symposium: Spring Mill State Park. Mitchell, Indiana, October 25-28, 1995. Indianapolis (IN): Indiana Karst Conservancy. p 279-281. Spate A, Moses C. 1994. Impacts of high pressure cleaning: A case study at Jenolan. In: Henderson K, Bell P, editors. 1994. Cave Management in Austra!asia X. Carlton South, Victoria (AU): ACKMA. p 45-48. [Proceedings of the Tenth ACKMA Conierence, Rockhampton. Queensland. ACKMA 10:45-48.] Thornber N. 1953. Appendix A: Speleological code and ethics. In: Cullingford CHD, editor. British Caving: An111/roducfion to Speleology. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, Ltd. Tranel MJ. 1992. Changing to prevent change: Building a science and resource management program. NSS News 52( 1 ):22-25. Vale E. 1993. It's an open and shut cave: Plugging artificial entrances at Onondaga Cave State Park. In: Foster DL, Foster DO, Snow MN, Snow RK, editors. 1991 National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings: Bowling Green, Kentucky, October 23-26,1991. Horse Cave (KY): American Cave Conservation Association, Inc. p 129-131. Veni G. 1995. The restoration of a vandalized show cave: Cave Without a Name, Texas. In: Pate DL, editor. Proceedings q(the 1993 National Cave Management Symposium: Carlsbad, New Alexico, October 2730, 1993. [Huntsville (AL)]: National Cave Management Symposium Steering Committee. p 6572. Veni G. 1996. Primer to speleothem repair. NSS News 54(2-3):64-67. Veni G. 1997. Speleothems: Preservation, display, and restoration. In: Hill C, Forti P, editors. Cave Minerals of the World. 2nd edition. Hunstville (AL): National Speleological Society. p 301-309. Vories KC, Throgmorton D, Harrington A, editors. 2004. Proceedings of Bat Gate Design: A Technical Interactive Forum held in Austin, Texas, March 4-6, 2002. Carbondale (IL): USDOI Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois and the Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. 434 p. Proceedings available on the Internet .Accessed 2004 March 30. Watson J, Hamilton-Smith E, Gillieson D, Kiernan K, editors. 1997. Guidelinesfor Cave and Karst Protection. Gland (SZ) and Cambridge (UK): IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. 63 p. Welbourn C. 1976. Biological consideration for cave cleanup projects. NSS News 34(11):204. 301

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302 Cave Conservation and Restoration Werker JC. 1995. Formation repair. In: Pate DL, editor. Proceedings of the 1993 National Cave Management Symposium: Carlsbad, New Mexico, October 27-30, 1993. [Huntsville (AL)]: National Cave Management Symposium Steering Committee. p 61-64. Werker JC. 1996. Formation repair. NSS News 54(2-3):65-67. Werker JC. 1996. Proven techniques in repairing formations. In: Rea GT, editor. Proceedings of the 1995 Nationol Cove Monogement Symposium: Spring MiI/ Stote Pork, Mitchell, 1ndiono, October 25-28, 1995. Indianapolis (IN): Indiana Karst Conservancy. p 308-310. Werker JC, HildrethWerker V. 1999. Restoration, trail designation, and micro-bial preservation in Lechuguilla Cave. In: Stitt RR, editor. Proceedings of the /997 National Cave and Karst Management Symposium: October 7-10 in Bellinghom, Woshington, ond Chil/iwock ond Voncouver Islond, B.C., Conado. Huntsville [AL]: National Cave Management Symposium Steering Committee. p 181-189. [Also listed as 13th National Cave Management Symposium.] Werker, JC. 2004. Characteristics of materials used in cave and mine gates. In: Vories KC, Throgmorton D, Harrington A, editors. Proceedings of Bat Gale Design: A Technical Interactive Forum held in Austin, Texas. Morch 4-6,2002. Carbondale (IL): USDOI Office of Surface Mining, Alton, Illinois and the Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. 434 p. Proceedings available on the Internet .Accessed 2004 March 30.



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Part 3-Rcstoration: Veni-Buckct Brigade at Caverns of Sonora Section B-Organizing Cave Projects Bucket Brigade at Caverns of Sonora George Veni Opening a cave to the public often requires the enlargement of passages, which generates literally tons of rubble that sometimes get left in the cave. Caverns of Sonora, located near Sonora. Texas, is full of delicate, spectacular speleothems and has earned the reputation of being the world's most beautiful show cave. Though the rubble left during development wasn't particularly noticeable, the owners wanted to return the cave to as natural a state as possible. Fourteen restoration projects between 1990 and 2005 have removed over 200 tons of rubble from the cave. Each annual project required 70 volunteers as described in the following excerpt from a project report (Veni, 1998). Buckets from IJit to Entrance Shullling the buckets from the pit to the entrance was done along a rotating chain of cavers. Twenty cavers dug in the pit, with one shift often workingfrom morning until lunch, and a d{tferent ten working from after lunch until supper. The ten cavers produced enough rocks to keep everyone else busy moving the buckets (~(rubble out of the cave. The start of the haul line began with the "mules" pulling the buckets up the pit. Someone else ojl:/oaded the buckets, and passed them to another caver who carried them down to a set of truck doIlies where they ll'ere rolled o.l1to the/irst set of stairs. Three cavers passed the buckets up the stairs and into the arms of 14 caven; lined through a narrOll' section of passage to ll'here another set of dollies mvaited. After another roll through a couple of passages, the buckets were then passed up three flights of stairs, two landings, and out of the entrance where they were emptied into aflatbed truck traile,: On the following page are photos ofa typical restoration project at Caverns of Sonora in 2002. Cited Reference Veni G. 1998. 1998 Sonora restoration project. Texas Caver 43(6):87-89. Reprinted in Speleo Digest 1999:301-302. 303 Fourteen restoration projects between 1990 and 2005 have removed over 200 tons of rubble from the cave. Each annual project required 70 volunteers.

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304 Cave Conservation and Restoration Figures 1-5. Removing construction rubble from Caverns of Sonora in Texas. The annual restoration event uses a rotating chain of70 cavers. Photos show some ofthe steps in the process. Haul line pulling buckets up the pit (top left). Truck dollies rolling buckets to the stairs (top right). Chain ofcavers passing buckets up the stairs (middle left). Passing buckets up a pit (bottom left). Passing buckets along one of several corridors (bottom right).



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Part 3-Restoration: Medville-Managing Cave Conservation Projects Section B-Organizing Cave Projects Managing Cave Conservation Projects Douglas M. Medville Many cave conservation projects involve hundreds, ifnot thousands, of hours of effort. The work involved in organizing and managing cave projects is often overlooked or at least underestimated by enthusiastic volunteers. Management efforts can encompass writing proposals, obtaining funding, developing work plans, coordinating volunteer efforts, planning logistics, gathering materials, keeping financial records, reimbursing volunteers for expenses, reporting progress to the land manager or cave owner. managing interpersonal relationships among the volunteers, and reporting the final accounting for funds and hours expended. Project management is a serious effort in its own right. Seoping and Getting Started Before undertaking any cave restoration project, determine the magnitude of the project. What is to be accomplished? Define the tasks required to achieve the project goals. Is the project a one-time effort involving a few people or is it a multi-week (or longer) project in one or more caves involving people from several groups, perhaps coming from ditTerent geographic areas, a!1d requiring a variety of skills? Long-term, complex projects require more management time. The project manager or leader should evaluate the objectives of the project and define specific skills that are required. If the project involves trash pickup, for example, special skills may not be required. On the other hand, specialized technical skills will be required if the project includes speleothem repair, vertical work, removal of hazardous materials, or other such tasks. From the beginning, the project leader should define tasks and delegate responsibilities. Ownership and Proposals This seems obvious, but before getting started, project personnel must identify the cave owner or manager, discuss the details of proposed work, and obtain the owner's or manager's concurrence before initiating any work. If the cave is on public land, permission must be granted by the resource manager who is responsible for the cave. During initial interactions with the cave manager or private owner, explore the possibility of obtaining financial or other support for the conservation work. For example, the agency or owner may be able to provide housing or camping space, make a contribution for the purchase of tools and supplies, or arrange for special equipment. If the cave is on public land and special funding is available, the agency may be able to reimburse volunteers for travel expenses. To secure this level of support, especially for caves on public lands, the project manager may need to prepare a written proposal that describes the work to be done and budget requirements. If the cave manager is willing to seek agency funding, cost share agreements will benefit all involved. Frontend paper work, proposals, work plans, and budgets, will be necessary if a cost share agreement is possible. 305 The work involved in organizing and managmg cave projects is often overlooked or at least underestimated by enthusiastic volunteers.

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306 Fi~u re 1. These two cavers, Billy and June Hoffman, experienced in restoration, are cleaning a small area of trail at the bottom of a rope that ascends along a delicate climb. Conservation outreach brochures are available and can be downloaded from the NSS Web site < http://www.caves.org/ brochure/>. Cave Conservation and Restoration After the agency accepts the proposal, a written agreement is prepared. This agreement specifies the work to be accomplished, the level of effort involved, and the responsibilities of both the restoration group and the agency. For example, the agency may agree to provide tools, open gates to allow access to the cave, and provide housing or other support services. The agency may also require the group to sign permits, waivers, or volunteer agreements. Some agencies will provide liability coverage or worker's compensation in case of injury. A Memorandum of Understanding, a Cooperative Management Agreement, or a Cost Share Challenge Agreement may be required to clarify the obligations of each party. To minimize the possibility of misunderstandings about the obligations of both parties, these issues should be thoroughly explored with the land manager before beginning the project. (Sec agreements, page 309.) If the land-managing personnel have had no prior experience with cave restoration efforts. they may not be aware that caves on their district could benefit from conservation or restoration work. I f an educational process is warranted, the restoration project leaders can start by introducing the Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988, providing Q Val Hildreth-Werker copies of existing cave cleanup and restoration agreements with other agencies, and presenting a slide show that describes the problem and remediation procedures. (Sec Appendix I, Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988, page 507.) Conservation outreach brochures are available and can be downloaded from the NSS Web site < http://www.caves.org/brochure/>. The project leaders can also encourage the land manager or owner to enter the cave, see the site where the proposed work will be carried out, and observe the problems that will be corrected by restoration. If the cave is on private property, a verbal understanding of what will be accomplished may sumce. Signed liability release forms can be provided to landowners and may help them be more amenable to allowing the restoration work. As with public land managers, the restoration project leaders should explore the possibility of the landowner providing some support. For example, the landowner might offer space for parking or camping on the property, or provide a place where cavers could clean up at the end of the day's work, or arrange a meal for the group. For cave conservation and restoration projects, both on public and private land, an agreement describing the rules of engagement may be a good thing. This type of agreement typically defines: days and hours the work will take place; maximum number of people; rules of conduct; and vehicular access to the cave for transport of supplies and equipment. Open communication between the owner or land manager and the conservation project leader reassures all involved that work is progressing. The owner can provide immediate feedback to the project manager and address small problems before they become irritants and bigger problems. For example, participants may need to park in a different place, gates may need to be left open (or closed), or the owner may need to receive notification (or give specific permission) before a team shows up to work.

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Part 3-Restoration: Medville-Managing Cave Conservation Projects Specialized Skills In scoping the project, the organizer needs to identify the skills required to get the job done. Cave restoration can include a variety of tasks: lint removal, spray paint removal, speleothem cleaning and repair, rubble and fill removal, gate installation, or restoring an entrance or passage to a former natural state. For example. if a show cave is to be converted to its original state, the project may require skills in removing electrical wiring, guardrails, walkways, PCB-filled transformers, and other inirastructurerelated tasks. If the restoration objectives include repair of fragile speleothems, different expertise and tools are required. Once the goals and expertise are identified, the organizer must find people with the right skills who can commit to the planned dates and times. If twelve cavers with specific skills are expected to be present on a prearranged weekend, then that number should show up. Always arrange backups who can be called at the last minute to fill in for no-shows. Task Sizing and Allocation For larger restoration projects, tasks may be handled by a number of different teams. For example, trash pickup, graffiti assessment, and graffiti removal might require three teams, each focusing on their specific goals. Delegate responsibilities and allow team leaders to work as autonomously as possible. Accepting responsibility for task completion, or team leader buy-in, is vital to success. If the project extends over multiple weekends or if multiple tasks are scheduled simultaneously, team leaders can arrange their schedules and resources as necessary. Develop a list of objectives and scope tasks into achievable amounts. Designate people and equipment for each task. The slots lell blank will lead to a clear list of needs. Find additional volunteers and resources to fit the open slots. What Can I Do To Help? During the course of a project, people will come forward and otTer to help by giving time or providing equipment. Some will have specific things they want to do and others will just ask, "'Where do you need meT' Good project managers refer to their needs list showing open slots for people, equipment, or tasks waiting to be started or continued. Keep a list of people who offer help and note their skills and expertise. Some prefer to work outside the cave on the surface, some prefer to do administrative paperwork, some are good with computers, accounting, prefabricating parts, or welding, and some have equipment that can support the project. Keep an ear open. The reverse is also true. If the project manager needs equipment, tools, or a skill, and it cannot be located, get the word out. Sometimes there are unexpected resources among volunteers who are already helping and the need can be met. Infrastructure and Record Keeping The project leader needs to set up an infrastructure that is appropriate to the project objectives. For weekend and week long efforts, this includes providing a place to camp, appropriate toilet facilities, a place to wash up bodies and gear after the day's work, a place to prepare meals, and if funds permit, food and fluids. Iffacilities and amenities are expected to be provided by land-managing agencies pcr a written or verbal agreement, make sure, in advance, that these will be available when nceded. Communicate with the landowner or manager frequently, especially as the project dates approach. Volunteers don't want to show up on a restoration weekend and find out the owner has other plans and doesn't want to host a group of cavers. 307 NSS Conservation Task Forces Editors' Note: NSS Conservation Task Forces are created to focus on local and regional issues. The Conservation Task Force (CTF) Coordinator stands ready to lend assistance with advice and networking to any group of conservationoriented cavers who care about protecting the future of cave and karst resources. CTFs may be formed to address any cave or karst concern on public or private property. Whether a single cave or an entire region, a situation requiring secrecy or publicity-if you are involved in cave or karst conservation projects, your work may benefit from CTF designauon. Visit for information.

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308 Cave Conservation and Restoration Project Documentation and Recognition As the work proceeds, the project leadership should provide photographic and written documentation of progress. Before, during, and after pictures are effective in communicating the changes in the cave and the human effort committed to the project. Photos provide positive feedback for landowners, agencies, and cavers. Photographs can also demonstrate the groups' abilities when talking with other cave managers and owners about future projects. (See photodocumentation, page 204.) A written record of progress should also be provided to the owner or agency (and is necessary for agency agreements or other contractual relationships). Cave managers must use documentation to justify projects to their agencies, to obtain incremental funding that is dependent on progress, and to obtain funding for future efforts. Cavers use project documentation to record volunteer value for income tax records, for reimbursements, and for grant applications to fund additional work. Project leaders should also see that appropriate publicity and recognition is given at the end of the project, through grotto newsletter articles, NSS News articles, and newspaper or other media coverage. Be sure to show appreciation to all cooperators in the project: the landowner or managing agency, agency personnel or landowner family members, cave resource manager, project leaders, equipment lenders, resource providers, team leaders, as well as the cavers and other participants who did the work. While many volunteers are motivated by the self-satisfaction of doing the restoration work, most people also hope for public recognition from peers. Although motivation varies significantly among cavers, it is nonetheless important to understand this component of the volunteer psyche and set up appropriate recognition. Publish the results in caving newsletters and include a group photo. Make sure everyone's name is spelled correctly. Other recognition ideas include certificates of appreciation, project T-shirts, and tickets for show caves. After the restoration effort is complete and the volunteers have all gone home, a final report and financial accounting must be submitted for work conducted under a written contract or agreement. Completing the paperwork is an important, tedious, and often thankless task. Project management is serious business and the work is (almost) never done. If an agency is able to reimburse the restoration group for any expenses such as mileage, meals, lodging, or other costs, describe the terms in the written agreement. Assign a responsible person to keep track of expenses, hours contributed, and the overall volunteer value generated by the project. Recording the dollar value of volunteer effort enables the restoration group to receive recognition and any reimbursement detailed in agreements. (See volunteer value, page 321.) It also enables the project leader and the land manager to compare the effort delivered against the proposed activities and to compare the expenses incurred with those budgeted. For long-term, complex projects, especially where cost sharing is involved, financial management is an absolute necessity. For an agency to establish a formal agreement with a restoration group, it may be necessary to work through a recognized entity such as the National Speleological Society (NSS). Agreements are typically arranged through an NSS internal organization such as a ClValHildreth-Werker grotto, NSS Region, NSS Conservation Task Force, or NSS Conservancy. The NSS is recognized as a not-for-profit organization under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. This status may make it easier for the agency to contract with restoration groups that are affiliated with the NSS. (Sec task force sidebar, page 307.) Figure 2. Equipment for cave restoration comes from many sources. Tools are often supplied by volunteer cavers and by the landowner or managing organization. Good project managers assure that plenty of the right equipment is on hand.



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Part 3-Restoration: Goodbar-Assistance Agreements Section B-Organizing Cave Projects Assistance Agreements: Partnerships for Cave Conservation James R. Goodbar Assistance agreements can be efficient, effective management tools for cave projects and are used in fonning partnerships between agencies and caving groups. Sophisticated volunteer agreements establish affiliations between agencies and special interest groups for the benefit of public resources. As specialized legal instruments, assistance agreements address specific tasks or problems. Agreements may involve the exchange of money or provide for the mutual acceptance of services without the exchange of money. Resource managers need to know what type of agreements are available, how to implement them, and when to use these documents. This chapter introduces situations where various types of assistance agreements are beneficial and discusses the authorities to authorize them. No matter what kind of assistance agreement is used, it is important for all parties to clearly state the objectives. Two types of agreements are discussed here. The first type is an agreement in which money is exchanged. The second involves no money. Cost Sharing and Cooperative Agreements There are two basic kinds of assistance agreements in which there is a transfer of money, property, or anything of value. They are the cost sharing agreement and the cooperative agreement. Cost sharing agreements are legal instruments used to reflect a relationship between the federal government and a state or local government or other recipient when the principal purpose of the agreement is the transfer of money or other valuables to the recipient in order to accomplish a public purpose authorized by federal statute. Cost Sharing Agreements Categories of cost sharing agreements include the challenge grant and the challenge agreement. The challenge grant is used in cases where the federal government is not substantially involved, and the challenge agreement is used where substantial involvement is anticipated between the federal government and the recipient during performance of the contemplated activity. Substantial involvement occurs in situations where the terms of the agreement indicate that the recipient, during performance of the contemplated activity, can expect federal agency collaboration or participation in the management of the project. Substantial involvement is specifically described by each federal agency. (For example, Bureau of Land Management describes substantial and non substantial involvement in their Manual 1511, titled Assistance Agreements.) These two types of agreements promote cost sharing projects by requiring the recipient to obtain or provide additional funding from non federal 309 This chapter introduces situations where various types of assistance agreements are beneficial and discusses the authorities to authorize them.

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310 There are two basic kinds of assistance agreements in which there is a transfer of money, property, or anything of value. They are the cost sharing agreement and the cooperative agreement. Cave Conservation and Restoration sources at a mutually agreed upon sharing ratio. The authority by which federal agencies can entcr into these types of agreements is the Federal Grant and Cooperative Agreement Act of 1977 (P.L. 95-224), as amended by P.L. 97-258 (3 I U.S.c. Chapter 63, 6301-6308). (More detailed procedures for processing these agreements can be found in the Office of Management and Budget Circular A-I 10.) Contract or Cost Share. Cost sharing agreements do not require competitive procedures in order to award them. However, these agreements are not contracts and should not be viewed as sole source contracts or used as a way to circumvent the procurement process. If a more binding commitment is needed to ensure completion of the project and to establish more stringent remedies in case an action is not performed, then a contract should be used. An Example of Cost Sharing. A cost sharing agreement might be used if a university pays the salary of one of their research professors to conduct biological studies in a specified area and manner and if the agency provides the necessary room, board, transportation, or other appropriate funding. The amount of agency involvement would determine if the cost sharing agreement is a challenge grant or a challenge agreement. Cooperative Agreement Cooperative agreements are similar to challenge agreements with one important exception. Cooperative agreements do not require the recipient to obtain additional funding from a nonfederal source. For example. a cooperative agreement may be used to provide funds to a caving organization for the assistance they provide in inventory, mapping, and preparing files of caves located in a specified area. (See examples of cooperative agreements below and in Appendix 4, page 54 I.) Developing an Assistance Agreement Generally, money is appropriated by Congress each fiscal year for cost sharing agreements. Before entering into cost sharing agreements, money must be made available to the agencies for this purpose. The development of an assistance agreement is quite simple. There are only three partspurpose, authority, and duties and responsibilities. Purpose The purpose section should briefly describe the objectives of the agreement including any special emphasis or focus. If necessary, a list of objectives can be developed to more clearly outline the purpose. Legislative Authority The legislative authority for entering into an assistance agreement with a federal agency is cited in the authority section on agreement documents. There are several di fTerent authorities that authorize the use of assistance agreements. These authorities may be laws or executive orders and may vary depending upon the type of project entered into. Always confirm the enabling legislation for each federal agency authorizing entry into assistance agreements. Listed here are authorities that may be appropriate: Probably the single most important enabling legislation that allows the use of assistance agreements is the Federal Grant and Cooperative Agreement Act. This Act authorizes three types of instmments:

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Part 3-Restoration: Goodbar-Assistance Agreements contracts, cooperative agreements, and grants. Fish and Wildlife Conservation and Water Resources Development Coordination Act, as amended under P.L. 85-624,16 U.S.C. 661. Federal Water Project Recreation Act, as amended under P.L. 89-72. Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, as amended under P.L. 90-542, 16 U.s.c. 1282. National Trails System Act, as amended under P.L. 90-543, 16 U.S.C. 1246(h). Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended under 16 U.S.c. 1531. Duties and Responsibilities The duties and responsibilities section in agreement documents should clearly state the activities and products required of the cooperators and the agency. (For example, see the sample cooperative agreements below and in Appendix 4, page 541.) Cooperative Management Agreements A useful assistance agreement in which no funds are exchanged is the Cooperative Management Agreement (CMA). In most cases this type of agreement is tiered ofT of a broader Memorandum of Understanding (MOU). The MOU document defines cooperative relationships between two or more parties in their pursuit of mutual objectives. The terms of the CMA should be written out in sufficient detail for all parties to clearly understand what is expected. Documents should outline the mutually agreed upon plan of action between the agency and the cooperators and identify the responsibilities and performance standards that apply to each of the participants. Lost Cave The first cooperative cave management agreement entered into by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) was for Lost Cave in Carlsbad, New Mexico. This agreement was first signed in 1983 on a one-year trial basis. The cooperators were the BLM and the Pecos Valley Grotto. The agreement outlines the BLM's responsibilities of issuing permits, contacting the Grotto for trip leaders, and reviewing and approving the leader list submitted by the grotto chairman. The Lost Cave Cooperative Management Agreement is very simple, but very specific. It spells out the responsibilities of each party, what should be in the required reports, and when these reports are due. Excellent cooperation is usually achieved with this type of agreement. NSS Southwestern Region The CMA between the New Mexico BLM and the Southwestern Region of the NSS (SWR) is an example of a more comprehensive document. This agreement is more flexible and outlines broader areas of cooperation and responsibilities. It also incorporates a Group Volunteer Service Agreement. This agreement can remain in efrect for a period of five years until it needs to be reauthorized. When an authorized BLM volunteer project is conducted the participants need to sign only a participants list and not go through the additional paperwork of the Volunteer Service Agreement. This simplifies and expedites the use of volunteers. (See SWR CMA, page 313. Also see updated version ofSWR CMA in Appendix 4, page 541.) 311 A useful assistance agreement in which no funds are exchanged is the Cooperative Management Agreement (CMA). In most cases this type of agreement is tiered off of a broader Memorandum of Understanding (MOU). The MOU document defines cooperative relationships between two or more parties in their pursuit of mutual objectives.

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312 Most importantly, be specific in written agreements. Define the responsibilities of each party and what is expected of the cooperators. Cave Conservation and Restoration LOST CAVE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT The Roswell District of the Bureau of Land Management and the Pecos Valley Grotto, National Speleological Society, jointly agree to the following management plan for Lost Cave, located in Eddy County, New Mexico. This agreement can be cancelled by either party at any time by written notification. The BLM shall be responsible for issuance of recreational, educational, and scientific permits for cave visitation to Lost Cave and will contact the designated Grotto representative(s) for leaders for trips. Additionally, the BLM shall review and approve the leader list submitted by the Grotto Chairman and include the approved leaders in the BLM Volunteer Program. The Grotto shall clean up and maintain the cave, the cave gate, access within the cave, and lead permitted trips for the BLM. All recreational, educational, and scientific trips shall have a valid BLM cave permit. However, work trips shall not require permits, but a record of the work effort and participants shall be maintained. A BLM-approved trip leader shall accompany all trips, work or otherwise, to the cave. A semi-annual report of activities at the cave shall be given to the BLM on March 15 (for October to March) and September 15 (for April to September). This report shall list the trips led during the period, the level of work effort during the period, and the materials donated or consumed. The Grotto Chairman, or his/her designate, shall be responsible for adherence to this agreement and shall obtain consultation and concurrence from the BLM prior to any modification to the cave. This document was originally approved;11 March 1983. It was signed hy: R. Thomas Dillon. Jr.. Chairman. Pecos Valley Grotto, National Speleological Society on March 18, 1983; and by G Ben Korlei. Area A/anagey, Carlsbad Resource Area. Roswell District, New Mexico, Bureau of Land lv/anagement on March 16. J 983. Summary If monetary assistance is provided, use either a cost sharing agreement or a cooperative agreement: I f the cooperator plans on obtaining additional funds provided by a non federal agency, use a cost sharing agreement: If the cost sharing agreement is one in which the agency will not be substantially involved, use a challenge grant. If the agency will have substantial involvement in the project, use a challenge agreement. lfmoney is exchanged but no additional non federal funds are obtained, use a cooperative agreement. When no money or anything of value is to be exchanged, use a cooperative management agreement. Most importantly, be specific in written agreements. Define the responsibilities of each party and what is expected of the cooperators. In times of tight budgets and minimal personnel, partnerships with various user groups can make a critical difference in accomplishing cave and karst resource management goals.

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Part 3-Restoration: Goodbar-Assistance Agreements COOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT AGREEMENT BETWEEN NEW MEXICO BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT AND SOUTHWESTERN REGION OF THE NATIONAL SPELEOLOGICAL SOCIETY AGREEMENT NUMBER BLM-MOU-NM-2002-005 l. INTRODUCTION A. PURPOSE I) This Cooperative Management Agreement (CMA) is entered into between the New Mexico Bureau of Land Management (BLM), an agency of the Department of the Interior and the Southwestern Region of the National Speleological Society (SWR). The Agreement will provide for a more direct, efficient and cost effective means of cave resource management on public lands in New Mexico by providing an opportunity for the SWR to participate in cave management. 2) This CMA will allow for more comprehensive cave management activities and initiate a long-term cooperative cave management effort with the SWR to contribute to the protection and preservation of cave resources on public lands in New Mexico. As part of this agreement the SWR will participate in a Participating Management Team (PMT) as defined in section V of this Agreement. 3) This Agreement addresses general management actions related to cave resources. Site-specific projects will be addressed in separate Volunteer Service Agreements or other appropriate documents. The terms of this agreement will be applicable to all BLM/SWR site-specific projects. 4) The BLM authorized Officers are encouraged to authorize projects, agreements and activities under their jurisdiction as outlined in the Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, the National Speleological Society and the Cave Research Foundation, agreement number W0204, dated June 11, 1984. B. OBJECTIVE Through a cooperative eITort, the BLM and the SWR will work together to maintain and improve cave resources within BLM New Mexico public lands, seek and use the skills, knowledge and expertise in SWR to plan, develop and implement cave manage313

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314 Cave Conservation and Restoration ment and conservation efforts with BLM New Mexico and use volunteers and volunteer labor under a Volunteer Services Agreement or appropriate documents. C. AUTHORITY I) This Agreement is made under the following authorities: The Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 43 U.S.C. 1701 (1976) 31 U.S.C. 6301-6308 (1982) Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988 2) Direction and guidance for Cooperative Management Agreements for cave resources management is set forth in the Memorandum of Understanding between the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, the National Speleological Society and the Cave Research Foundation (1984). D. BENEFITS I) The SWR, through formal or informal interactions, will play an increased role in the management of caves located on BLM New Mexico public lands. This role would allow BLM and SWR to combine expertise and knowledge to the benefit of the cave resource. The CMA will enable the SWR to help develop and implement cave management policy, plans, and regulations. II. DEFINITIONS Assistance: Infonnation, advice, and service given to the BLM by the SWR. This assistance will be utilized if applicable in preparing documentation and policy. The BLM may decline assistance if it conflicts with the management of caves on public land. BLM New Mexico: All public lands within New Mexico under BLM administration and federal subsurface lands in Oklahoma and Texas. Cave Digs: An attempt to modify an entrance or passage to allow further exploration. Individuals involved in a dig are not covered under this agreement or any volunteer agreement. NEPA documentation and BLM authorization must be completed prior to any dig taking place in caves within the public lands in New Mexico. Cave Management Policies: Documents which create policy or set precedent, signed by BLM management are legal administrative documents. Congressional acts, Interior policies, Codes of Federal Regulations, and other policies are considered cave management policies if they relate to caves. Collections: Any item of natural or cultural makeup taken from caves is considered a collection. In order to collect any item from a cave, a collection permit must be issued by the Field Office in which the cave is located.

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Part 3-Restoration: Goodbar-Assistance Agreements Cooperative l\tlanagement Agreement: A long-term agreement between parties for joint management of specific resources. The CMA delineates each party's role in the management of areas. There can be a commitment by each party to absorb part of the cost of managing an area, but there is no transfer of funds involved. They cannot be used to authorize non competitive contracting with the cooperator. Copyright: All publications, films, slides, videos, artistic or similar endeavors, resulting under a Volunteer Service Agreement, as specifically contracted for, will become property of the United States, and such will be in the public domain and not subject to copyright laws. Development: Assistance in the creation of an idea, plan, policies or regulations, etc. Planning Efforts: Resource Management Plans, individual management plans, Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments, and other written documents in the BLM planning process. For further information see National Environmental Policy Act Handbook H-1790-1. Participating l\'lanagement Team: A work group consisting of members from the BLM, SWR, and other organizations concerned about the cave resource. The Southwestern Region representation on the PMT will be headed by the Chairman of the Southwestern Region. He or she will appoint SWR members to the PMT. All Southwestern Region PMT members must be SWR members and NSS members in good standing. BLM representatives will be designated by BLM management. This agreement does not prohibit BLM or the SWR from entering into other agreements with other parties. Project: A planned undertaking which may encompass phases of work including preparation of plans, specifications, estimates, acquisition and actual construction, treatment, rehabilitation, restoration, or maintenance. Project Leader or Official in Charge of Activity: Directs or oversees the work of the volunteer(s), provides any necessary instructions and guidance, and ensures that the volunteer(s) are aware of potential hazards. Reports all accidents, injuries and property damage to the appropriate ollicials. Public Lands: Lands managed by the BLM. These lands are also termed BLM-administered lands. Voluntccr(s): Persons who contribute their services to the BLM and receive no wages or salary for their work, although Volunteer(s) may be reimbursed by the BLM for all or a portion of their incidental expenses. 315

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316 Cave Conservation and Restoration Ill. TERMS OF AGREEMENT A. This Agreement shall be in effect for five years from the date signed. This agreement may be renewed or extended for an additional five years (not to exceed a total of 5 years) by mutual written agreement of all parties to this agreement. B. All BLM/SWR activities covered under this Agreement will be consistent with BLM's management decisions in land-use and activity plans. C. The BLM or the SWR may cancel this agreement at any time provided 3D-day written notification is given to the other party. The grounds for cancellation shall be addressed in the notification. D. The cooperating parties recognize that this Agreement cannot be used to grant the SWR or its members the right of exclusive use to any cave(s) located on public lands. E. No actions are to be taken by any member of the SWR which deal with direct regulatory or law enforcement activities. F. This Agreement shall not obligate the BLM to expend funds in excess of appropriations authorized by law, budgeted and/or approved. Activities under this agreement are dependent on the availability of adequate BLM personnel to monitor and supervise such activities. Should it be necessary to reimburse the SWR for any work that will be ordered, a contract or assistance agreement will be awarded before work is started. G. Volunteer Services Agreements, formulated in accordance with BLM Manual Section 1114, are to be used when the authorized officer for the BLM determines that cooperating personnel need to be: I) protected under the Tort Claims Act 2) subject to Workmen's Compensation 3) identified as responsible for completing specific tasks or projects. 4) reimbursed for expenses incidental to volunteer work 5) assigned to complete administrative functions for the BLM SWR Personnel working on BLM cave program projects will be covered by the 13LM Volunteer Service Agreement. Such Agreements will be renewed to correspond with the renewal/extension of the CMA. IV. AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY This section describes the general and specific areas of res pons ibility of both the SWR and BLM. A. SWR Responsibilities

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Part 3-Restoration; Goodbar-Assistance Agreements J) Assure that actions taken by any person's working under this Agreement are consistent with safe caving and Leave-NoTrace practices. 2) The project leader shall give an orientation program on safety, responsibilities, hazards, required equipment, fragile or delicate areas, emergency procedures and gate combinations to all individuals prior to entering a cave, including projects covered by the volunteer service agreement. 3) Submit to BLM a written progress report for ongoing projects within ten (10) days afier a work session. This would include session objectives, work accomplished, work to be accomplished in the next session, and an accounting of volunteer hours by individual. A final written report will be submitted to the BLM within 30 days following completion of any project. This would include project objectives, results, and recommendations, as well as a final accounting of volunteer hours. 4) Report all accidents, injuries and property damage within 24 hours after an incident in a written incident report, submitted to the appropriate BLM omce. 5) Notify the BLM Field Office in charge of a cave at least seven days in advance of any work being initiated under this agreement. 6) Ensure that SWR members are aware that they are financially responsible for loss and damage to their personal equipment and BLM equipment loaned to them for use while in volunteer status, (excluding normal wear and tear) and that SWR members are to provide their own vehicles, food, and personal caving equipment, except when provided by BLM through a Volunteer Service Agreement. B. BLM RESPONSIBILITIES The BLM will actively assist the SWR to the extent that work priorities, budget and manpower constraints allow, with achievement of mutually agreed upon tasks. BLM responsibilities include, but are not limited to, the following; 1) Prepare Volunteer Service Agreements and Project Plans for each project. 2) Supply any necessary information such as lock combinations, previous research and inventory results, maps, slides, photographs for presentation or photo copying. BLM may also provide equipment and supplies as available for major projects. 3) Provide personnel necessary for such activities as project coordination, support, and advice, if not constrained by personnel or budget. 4) BLM will provide an opportunity for the SWR to participate in 317

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318 Cave Conservation and Restoration cave resource related project planning, activity planning and resource management planning in the initial stages (scoping) as early as possible, consistent with Federal regulations. 5) Provide work space in BLM offices, when available, for SWR members working under this Agreement, including access to cave files, aerial photos and maps. 6) BLM may reimburse SWR personnel for incidental expenses when set forth by mutual agreement in project-specific Volunteer Service Agreements, Challenge Cost Share or Cooperative Agreements. V. ACTIVITIES COVERED BY AGREEMENT This Agreement allows the SWR to become involved in the following general cave management activities: A. Participating Management Team (PMT)-A work group consisting of members from New Mexico BLM offices, SWR and other cave oriented groups will meet semi-annually, or as needed, to discuss accomplishments under this Agreement. The PMT will develop work plans on a timely basis which identify volunteer projects and other cooperative ventures. Through the PMT the SWR is afforded the opportunity to provide technical assistance to the BLM in developing cave management policy program direction. The PMT will be notified in a timely manner, of national, state or district mandates or changes in policies and regulations which may affect cave management policy and procedures. B. Cave Monitoring-Cave monitoring involves such activities as establishing photo points, maintaining photo files, monitoring visitor use and periodically changing locks or lock combinations on gates. Cave monitoring may also involve the installation and maintenance of cave registers, including restocking the registers and forwarding completed pages to BLM. C. Cave Inventory-The SWR may assist the BLM in conducting inventories of caves and their contents. I neluded in the inventories will be such items as cave flora and fauna, geology, mineralogy, archaeologic or paleontologic material, rare or delicate speleothems and hazards to cavers. Cave inventories will be conducted using the BLM Cave Inventory and Classification System format. D. Exploration-The SWR may conduct exploration in known caves as well as assist in locating previously unknown caves on public land. Cave digs will be authorized under BLM permits. NEPA documentation will be completed prior to authorization of the action. Because of the risks associated with cave digs, volunteers cannot be authorized under a Volunteer Service Agreement. A report will be given to the BLM by the SWR on any passage or cave discovered with details and locations of any notable features found. If any artifacts, cultural, or paleontological resources or remains are discovered, they must remain in place and BLM must

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Part 3-Restoration: Goodbar-Assistance Agreements be immediately notified. E. Mapping-The SWR may conduct mapping work in caves on public land. If done as a volunteer project, the SWR will supply BLM with a copy of any cave map produced or updated as a result of the mapping activity, along with a copy of the mapping notes. Cave maps will be provided to the BLM on reproducible media. Cave entrance locations will be given to the BLM for caves mapped under a Volunteer Service Agreement with as much accuracy as possible. GPS coordinates may be used along with topographic maps. All cave maps will be considcred confidential and the use of these maps and locations will be treated as proprietary information for internal BLM use only. The copyright of the map remains with the SWR, (mapper/cartographer) unless the mapping was accomplished while under a Volunteer Service Agreement with the BLM. F. Cave Restoration-Cleanup or restoration projects may be conducted as needed in caves specified by BLM or upon SWR initiative. This may include, but is not limited to, speleothem restoration and cleaning, trash removal, dismantling unnecessary rock cairns or flagging tape and removal of modern graffiti. G. Cave Conservation-The SWR may assist the BLM in performing conservation activities such as designing, installing, repairing or removing cave gates and fences, marking routes in caves, as well as conservation and Leave-No-Trace training of new cavers and the general public. H. Interpretation and Education-SWR may assist BLM or give programs independently to local civic or school groups on such subjects as cave exploration, education, conservation, bats or geology. The SWR may also assist the BLM in developing environmental education programs and materials such as handouts, brochures and slide shows. Members of the SWR may be asked by the BLM to act as trip leaders. The SWR has the right to refuse any trip leader request. I. Research-SWR may conduct or arrange for scientific research in BLM caves through appropriate BLM authorizations. A copy of any findings, reports and/or publications resulting from such research will be forwarded to the BLM within six months of the end of the project. J. Other Projects-SWR may be provided an opportunity to assist BLM in the performance of other management duties or projects as approved by BLM. VI. PROPRIETARY INFORMATION A. Information specifically requestcd by BLM from members of the SWR through work as volunteers under a Volunteer Service Agreement with the BLM belongs to the Federal Government and shall be exempt from the Freedom of Information Act in accordance with the Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988. 319

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320 Cave Conservation and Restoration B. Information gathered by the SWR other than under a Volunteer Service Agreement belongs to the SWR. Any information held by the SWR but loaned to BLM to aid in resource management decision making will be treated as propriety information and shall be exempt from the Freedom ofInfonnation Act in accordance with the Federal Cave Resources protection Act of 1988. VII. PARTICIPANTS The participants to this CMA are the Southwestern Region of the National Speleological Society and the New Mexico Bureau of Land Management This document was approved in January 2002. It was signed by: Bob Rodgers, Chairman, Southwestern Region of the National Speleological Society on December 8, 200/ .. and Michelle Chavez, State Director, Bureau of Land Management, New Mexico State Office on Janumy 16. 2002.



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Part 3-Restoration: Hildreth-Werker and Werker-Yolunteer Yalue Section B-Organizing Cave Projects Documenting Volunteer Value Val Hildreth.Werker and Jim C. Werker Cavers give tremendous amounts oftime, labor, and expertise. They spend from their personal incomes to participate in survey and exploration as well as cave protection and management. The caving community is recognized for providing significant volunteer contributions to cave and karst resources on both public and private lands. Some federal officials believe the caving community contributes more consistant volunteer time and expertise than any other land-using group in the United States. But we need to document the value of caver contributions. How do we calculate Volunteer Value? Volunteer caver hours include in-cave work, preparation time, documentation time, and some travel. Why should cavers learn to record Volunteer Value? By defining and calculating volunteer value, the caving community can quantify caver contributions of stewardship, time, and expertise. Systems for documenting volunteer value are described in this chapter. Caver Volunteer Value represents extensive economic benefits to private, county, state. and federal lands. By assigning dollar values and adding up the sums, the data can be used in grant application processes, cave management proposals, and karst protection efforts. We should therefore record Yolunteer Yalue for all cave projects-survey, cartography, inventory, science, administration, restoration, cleanup, and conservation. History of Volunteer Value: Fee Demo Compromise Achieved NSS action opposing the federal Fee Demonstration Program eventually led to the development of the NSS Yolunteer Yalue Program. The U.S. Congress, supported by the Recreation Coalition, initiated Fee Demo in the early 1990s, suggesting that federal agencies design programs to collect more fees for recreational opportunities on public lands. Unexpectedly, cave programs from Region 3 of the USDA Forest Service (southwestern U.S., specifically Arizona and New Mexico) were submitted and selected as Fee Demo projects. Through persistent efforts ofNSS members and Forest Service officials, the USDA Forest Service Region 3 Cave Fee Demonstration was dropped and cavers agreed to help monitor and maintain the caves through increased volunteerism and development of a prototype Volunteer Yalue Program (Jagnow 1998). The proposed Cave Fee Demo was shown to lack cost effectiveness and to potentially put nonrenewable underground resources at great risk. Yes, the cave programs need more funding. Yes, the Fee Demo project "promised" that most of the funds would be used for cave programs-at least during the first three years of the demo-but in reality, the collected fees become federal funds that can eventually be pulled from the programs that generate them. (For example, only the proceeds from donation boxes located in visitor centers on federal lands go back, 100 percent, into on-site programs.) 321 By defining and calculating volunteer value, the caving community can quantify caver contributions of stewardship, time, and expertise. Caver Volunteer Yalue represents extensive economic benefits to private, county, state, and federal lands.

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322 Volunteer Value: Bankin~ Our Contributions to Caves and Karst Bern Szukalski Cavers encompass a broad range of expertise and skills that are applied directly to caves and karst through many types of projects. This combined volunteer effort represents considerable value in terms of the time and expertise donated by cavers toward the protection, exploration, scientific investigation, conservation, and preservation of caves. More so than any other resource-use group, cavers freely contribute their time and skills toward the betterment and understanding of speleological resources. These volunteer efforts represent significant value to caves and karst on private, state, and federal tands. The Volunteer Value program was established to document the volunteer investment of NSS cavers, and to assign a monetary value to that investment. Why is this important? (Coo6nued . Use the Wayback Machine on this comprehensive site to access federal and Recreation Coalition documents from the 19905.) Another major objection for inclusion of caves in Fee Demo is advertising and promotion. Participation in the Fee Demo Program requires that marketing strategies be initiated to advertise the fee site (or, in this case, the cave adventure) as a recreational resource. Marketing wild cave trips is reminiscent of wild river trip promotions in the Grand Canyon that led to increased visitation and liability concerns, ultimately resulting in virtual monopolization by outfitter-guide services. Most cave resources are nonrenewable and cannot be replaced. We have all seen cave resources destroyed through ignorance, inadvertence, or overuse. Because of marketing requirements, Fee Demo can be interpreted as being contrary to The Federal Cave Resources Protection Act that was passcd by Congress in 1988 to protect caves and their contents. The prospect of charging fces does not justify marketing or promoting undeveloped caves as recreational resources. Persistent resistance to cave fees convinced the Forest Service of cavers' convictions to take care of the caves. NSS President at that time, Fred Wefer, appointed Ray Keeler to chair a temporary NSS Ad Hoc Cave Fees Committee. Cavers from Arizona, Ncw Mexico, and Texas served on the committec. Concerned interaction with the Forest Service proved NSS commitment to find better solutions than Fee Demo could offer. Cavers offered increased volunteer assistance for improved cave management, and together, the NSS and the USDA Forest Service developed a Volunteer Value program. Volunteer Value Defined: Agreement Signed USDA Forest Service Region 3 agreed to set aside cave fee demonstration projects while cavers agreed to give significant in-kind volunteer contributions. Cavers agreed to contribute at least $100,000 annually in Volunteer Value to the Region 3 cave programs. Work projects \vere initiated and cavers from across the U.S. traveled to participate. But, there was no agreement in place to determine how Volunteer Value would be calculated or tallied. Jim Werker and Vallliidreth-Werker, at that time Co-Chairmen for NSS Resource Protection and Preservation, collected data from previous cost share agreements, volunteer projects, NSS Ad Hoc Cave Fees Committee e-mail discussions, USDA Forest Service (USDA-FS) volunteer programs, and federal agency guidelines. Jim Werker presented a drali proposal to the Forest Service at the 1998 NSS Convention in Sewanee, Tennessee. Jim Miller, Dispersed Recreation Program Manager for the USDA-FS in Washington, D.C., suggested additions and edits. The document was reviewed and approved by Jim Miller; Jerry Trout, USDA-FS National and Region 3 Coordinator/Cave Resources; Fred Wefer, NSS President; and Doug Medville, NSS Administrative Vice President. Thc agreement defines the monetary value of volunteer efforts. (See volunteer value agreement, page 323.) It serves as an addendum to the national Memorandum of Understanding between the USDA-FS and the NSS. The agreement establishes the foundation for developing the NSS Volunteer Value Program. Cavers are increasingly documenting their Volunteer Value for all cave projects on private, state, or federal land, worldwide.

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Part 3-Restoration: Hildreth-Werker and Werker-Volunteer Value Volunteer Value Agreement Between the USDA Forest Service and the National Speleological Society This document serves to define Volunteer Value and represents an agreement between the USDA Forest Service and the National Speleological Society. Cavers are providing volunteer services to Forest Service cave programs in lieu of Fee Demonstration Projects being applied to caves. Assigning monetary values to volunteer efforts for caves managed by the Forest Service will benefit all concerned. The purpose of this agreement is to define and clarify a Volunteer Value system that will be consistently implemented in all Forest Service cave programs. By applying this system for calculating Volunteer Value, confusion and disagreement can be avoided. This agreement has been designed with input from NSS cavers, nonaffiliated cavers, and Forest Service personnel. Through this Volunteer Value agreement for cave programs, inkind contributions from volunteer organizations, nonaffiliated volunteers, and NSS volunteers will be recorded and calculated as follows. 1. ~4Salaries" and/or volunteer hours: A. Valued at the GS5/l hourly rate for standard volunteer arrangements or minimum $10.00 per hour. B. Volunteer hours include: Travel time to the cave and/or work site, portal to portal, round trip, not to exceed work time. (Refer to I.e.) Time spent in the cave and/or work site actively involved in the project. e. Volunteer hours do not include: Time spent in activities such as sleeping, eating, and preparing food. Time spent for recreational caving. (Recreational caving should be done on other trips.) Travel time from home that exceeds the total time spent in the cave and/or work site actively involved in the project. (For example, if travel time totals 12 hours, and 8 hours of active work time at the site was accomplished, then 8 hours work time and 8 hours travel time is counted for that individual when calculating Volunteer Value.) D. When tasks require specialized professional expertise, value for "salaries" and/or hours should be assigned according to equivalent GS ratings or other definable rates. 2. Travel: A. Valued per mile at the government rate for business, to be adjusted as the government rate changes. B. Mileage should be listed to and from the site. (Mileage for all volunteers in one vehicle is listed once.) All mileage directly related to reaching the work site, portal to portal, round trip. (Mileage from home to the work site and return). All mileage for each vehicle. (Not for each person.) (Conunued on page 324) 323 (Continued) By calculating and documenting contributions we can quantify the benefits cavers provide to public land managers and private landowners. This in turn can be used for grant acquisitions, cave and karst management proposals, public policy issues, and federal land management decisions. Volunteer Value is easy to document and record. At the NSS Conservation Web site you'll find additional details on the Volunteer Value program, as well as downloadable forms. It only takes a few minutes to fill these out, and document your contributions for the benefit of all. Include documenting your volunteer efforts as part of every trip and activity, and spread the word to support the Volunteer Value program.

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324 Cave Conservation and Restoration 3. Supplies: A. All monies spent on supplies used during the project. If reimbursed, this is not counted as Volunteer Value. B. All monies spent on supplies for preparation and documentation for the project. If reimbursed, this is not counted as Volunteer Yalue. 4. Equipment: A. Yalued at $150.00 per caver for basic caving gear such as helmet and light. (Calculated one time each 3 year period or $50.00 per year.) B. All monies spent on caving equipment such as ropes, climbing gear, cameras, survey equipment, etc. Ifreimbursed, this is not counted as Yolunteer Yalue. (Re-list as equipment is replaced.) 5. Preparation and documentation: A. Time spent in organizing and preparing the project. B. Time spent completing documentation of project. This document wa.~' approved on August 6. 1998, and signed by: Jim Miller, FS National Di!>persed Recreation Program Manager; Jerry Trout, FS National & Region 3 Coordinator/Cave Resources; Fred lVeler. NSS President; and Doug Medville. NSS Administrative Vice President. Volunteer Value Worksheets for All Cave Projects In order to calculate and make tangible this asset we call Yolunteer Value, we created three simple forms for recording caver contributions. These generic worksheets are designed to be filled out in the field, electronically, or online, and can be used for documenting in-kind volunteer labor, expertise, and contributions for any cave project. General values can be assigned, or specific individual values can be inserted for specialized skills. Use Volunteer Value forms to document all cave projects-survey, cartography, inventory, science, administration. restoration, maintenance, conservation, Record in-cave work as well as preparation and documentation time. The calculation sheets are facilitating design of a national database to handle caver volunteer value data for inclusion in NSS Biennial Reports, funding and grant applications, and conservation-management issues. Template worksheets and type-in sheets are included in this volume (pages 325-328). The forms can also be accessed through the NSS Web site .Click on Volunteer Value. Cited Reference Jagnow D. 1998. History ofUSFS cave fee demo. NSS News 56(3):64-66. Additional Information and Downloadable Forms NSS Web site home page: Click on Cave Conservation, then click on Volunteer Value. Or go to: and find Yolunteer Yalue Worksheets.

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~ W ~ i ~. ;,: 0: ~ ~ ;e ~ g: 0~ ~ T ~ c g ~ ~ C NSS Tolal Total Total Total Optional: Us this space 10 record four column lotals. VOLUNTEER VALUE REPORT WORKSHEET #1SIGN-IN SHEET: PARTICIPANTS. TRAVEL. AND SUPPLIES vV< Project Title Agency ~~~~~~ Project Date(s) .Optional work column should be tallied from all WORKSHEETS(s)#2 & recorded here at end ofproje<::t ifindividuals have more traveltime than work time. Include month f dates f year Drln~ :\liIeagc Rider Trll~d -Work D,,'e Dille Supplies Cost Comments, NAME City State U Roundtrip R T llIm. retal'"". Mrl,". -,.". ... List ilCtR' for project and record lotal S notes. phone, muod p allproi<'<1 Recold once per ~eh;clc ~ Don>t include if~imbursed by agencylowner ('-mail elc L 2 J. 5. ,. 7. '" ". 13. ". '". 20. "'_,,1 T_.~I .. _._. T_._' ." ~. = ;< ~ c ~ ~ = ;;0 "" o :+ ~ ;e ~ =r ~ 'It W N U>

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Project Title (Indicate task leaders in comment space.) Agency Project Date(s) __ Include month I datcs I ycar VOLUNTEER VALUE REPORT WORKSHEET #2 TASKS AND WORK HOURS For easier record keeping, note volunteer hours on your permits, then transfer information from each permit to a copy of this fonn. Task Categories (circle if applicable): bats, biology, gates, geology, graffiti, rock art or historical signature analysis, impact mapping, meteorology, microbiology, mineralogy, preparation and documentation. restoration, research. photo documentation. photo inventory, photomonitoring, resource inventory. rigging, speleothem repair, survey and cartography, trails. other (describe): NSS \>V 2 Notes. Trip report. Or describe project. Include observations, comments, and suggestions. Cost Supplies and expenses not already listed Th;s "pace is for additional supplies/equipment no' listcd elsewhere. e,g" eop;es. postage. ele. lkln', Include Ir eIp"ndl.uno, ,,-Ill be no'mhllr..-d by al:enq "r ""ner. Datc ~ Project or Cave Name Volunteer Names Hours worked {V"luntc~., Work Ilou ""'Y ,,,dude trl"'c1,irnc: from and h, camp. either here oro" SHEET NI.) l. 2. 3. ,. 5. O. 7. ,. 9. IU. II. 12. Project Preparalion & Documentation Record total doc and prep No'e names and hour" spcnt. time in this 'pace T,,'sl h"un on tl>i. page. TOTAL \'wrk hours in column at right ~

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VOLUNTEER VALUE REPORT WORKSHEET #3 PROJECT TOTALS Tutal "'olunteer Value for Mileage Total Volunteer Vehicle ;\liIe
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328 Cave Conservation and Restoration VOLUNTEER VALUE REPORT USFS Uncoln Nf 29 September 2 October 2000 VOLUNTEER VALUE REPORT WORKSHEET #1SIGN-I:" SHEET: PARTICIPA:"TS, ROUND-TRIP TRAVEL, AND SUPPLIES Name City St Drh'er ;\lileagc Trani Projecl* Arrh'{' Depart Supply Cost Jim Werker Albq NM Driver 700 12 hrs 28 hrs 9/29/00 10102100 $12 balts monitor Val HW /oJbq NM 12 tim 28 tim 9129ffiO 10102100 \32 batts&photo Dave Hamer Tucson Al. Driver 1030 18 hrs 20 hrs 9/29/00 10101/00 $ 4 batts Phyllis Hamer Tucson Al. 18 hrs 20 hrs 9/29/00 10101100 $ 4 batts /oJlan Cobb Austin TX Dover 1110 20 tim 20 tim 9~9ffiO 10101/00 \ 4 balls Aimee Beveridge Austin TX 20 hrs 20 hrs 9/29/00 10101/00 $ 4 balts Stan Allison Carlsbd NM Driver 100 4 hrs 8 hrs 10101/00 10102100 $ 4 balts Gosia K-A Carlsbd NM 4 hrs 8 hrs 10101/00 10102100 $18 balts&pholo To~ts 2940 108 tim 152 tim $82 .Projf'C1: Indicate work lime in this category. ~1ay include traveltime from camp to project site and back 10 camp VOLUNTEER VALUE REPORT WORKSHEET #2 TASKS & WORK HOURS I\ame lIours $ Cost Explain Val HildrethWerker 6 S 5.00 preparation and documentation for trip report, photo labels Jim Werker 5 S 17.00 copies, mailing, faxes, sewing and malerials Allan Cobb 2 documentation Totals 13 $22.00 Task Categories (underline if applicable): bats, Q!Q!Qgy, gates, geology, graffiti, rock art or historical signature analysis, impact mapping, meteorology, microbiology, mineralogy, preparation and documentation, restoration, research, photo documentation, photo inventory, photomonitoring, resource inventory, lliJg!ng, speleothem repair, survey and cartography, trails other (describe): VOLUNTEER VALUE REPORT WORKSHEET #3 PROJECT TOTALS Tolal Volont...er V hid :\Iil al('" Tolall\lilraJ;:'" X RaIl,' Tolal \'olunt ... r \'alu I\1i1 age 2940 @ 32.5/ 1 955.00 Total Volunleer Tra\'d Tim Total Trani Tim X Ral Tolal Volunteer Value Trani Time 108 hrs @ 110.00 I1D8D.OD Total Volunteer Work Time Total Project Mrs Calculate Hours Tolal Volunteer Valu Proj Work 13 + 152 165@11D.OD \ 1650.00 Total Cost of Volunleer Supplies Worksheet #1 Worksheet #2 Tutal Volunteer Value Supply S for Projed Transfer supply totals 182.00 122.00 1 104.00 TOTAL VOLUNTEER VALUE FOR THIS PROJECT Add dollar amounts from four categories in last column. Record grand lotal for in-kind volunteer contribution here. (jf" Tolal Volunl er Value for Project 13789.00 Figure 4. Volunteer Value Report compiled from the three worksheets.



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Part 3-Restoration: Hildreth-Werker-Do No Harm Section C-Restoring Cave Passages Do No Harm Val Hildreth-Werker Primum non nocere. First, do no harm. All-important in cave restoration is the notion of leaving things better than we found them-while avoiding new harm to biota, habitat, or other cave resources. When considering a project-assess, plan, and avoid creating new problems. Thoroughly evaluate the restoration tasks. Carefully design the workload and crew assignments. Conscientiously avoid causing new restoration dilemmas in the cave passages. When the project is complete, clean up any leftover mess. These are simple, universal precepts. Can we actually achieve no harm when we're in a cave sopping, scrubbing, scraping, and disrupting the microcosm? The words, no harm, have a meaningful and memorable ring. It is a lofty, idealistic objective. The potential of causing no new harm is relative to the damage that has already been done, the number of visitors that have already tromped through, the fragility or durability of the resources, and the historical stewardship of a passage. Previous anthropogenic alterations within a cave will influence restoration goals and no harm objectives. Project planning includes defining what natural or historical period to target restoration along a continuum of ecosystems, anthropological impacts, and aesthetics. Many cave values are nonrenewable or irreplaceable. Some cave species and some speleothems are fragile. Subterranean ecosystems, sometimes hanging in delicate balance, may be easily disturbed. Cultural materials may be forever lost. Harm happens regardless of our best conservationdirected intentions. In many cave systems, no harm is literally impossible if humans enter. More realistically, we strive to minimize our harm-and we should recognize that whatever we do in a cave may damage the resources in some way we have not yet anticipated. In caves, causing no new harm may sometimes mean doing nothing to remediate horrible impacts. Other times, we decide to attempt restoration with sincere and well-considered efforts toward minimizing new damage to cave values. With our inadequacies acknowledged, maybe we should choose an axiom like minimize harm, but instead we use the admonition do no harm. It is a strong statement-it reminds us to reach for the depths of ideal caving ethics and informed restoration decisions. Cave safe(v ... restore softly ... and do no harm. 329 Many cave resources are nonrenewable or irreplaceable. Some cave species and some speleothems are fragile. Subterranean ecosystems, sometimes hanging in delicate balance, may be easily disturbed.

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330 Cave Conservation and Restoration



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Part 3-Restoration: Taylor-Hidden River Cave Section C-Restoring Cave Passages Hidden River Cave: A Karst Reclamation Success Story Michael Ray Taylor On September 7,1867, while en route to Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, naturalist John Muir stopped at lesser-known Horse Cave. In his book, A Thousand-Mile IVulk 10 the Gulf, Muir wrote of the place: It seems a noble gateway to ... the birthplace of ~prings and fountains and the dark treasuries of the mineral kingdom. This cave lies in a village o/the same name which it supplies lvith an abundance of cold H'atel: Cold air issues from its fern-clad lips. 1n hot weather crowds o..fpeople sit aboul in the shade a/the trees that guard it. This magnificent/an is capable of cooling evelybody in 100vn 01 once. Within 50 years of Muir's visit, Horse Cave had become one of America's most notorious examples of groundwater pollution. In the 1920s and 30s, raw sewagethick with spoiled whey from a local creamery-was piped directly into the underground stream. The "magnificent fan" spread the stench for miles, making the town virtually uninhabitable every summer for 6 decades. Chromium and other chemicals from a metal-plating factory further polluted the abundance of cold water. In 1943 the cavern, by then renamed Hidden River Cave, was closed to the public as a health hazard-at a time when cavers had spotted tantalizing unexplored passages leading from the known trails. In 1987, aner nearly 50 years of closure, the American Cave Conservation Associatiun (ACCA) located its national headquarters on the Hidden River Cave grounds and began etTorts to restore and reopen the cave. The ACCA worked with local politicians and residents to get a new regional waste treatment system constructed in order to stop the discharge of sewage into Hidden River Cave's groundwater recharge basin. 331 Figure 1. Entrance to Hidden River Cave in the town of Hurse Cave, Kentucky.

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332 In 1987, after nearly 50 years of closure, the American Cave Conservation Association CACCA) located its national headquarters on the Hidden River Cave grounds and began efforts to restore and reopen the cave. Cave Conservation and Restoration As the cave began to recover, opportunities for exploration opened up. On September 8, 1991, David Foster, Executive Director of the American Cave Conservation Association, began survey trips utilizing volunteers from the Cave Research Foundation (CRF) and the Central Kentucky Karst Coalition. "This cave may be longer than Mammoth," said an excited Foster after that first trip, echoing the sentiments of legendary caver Jim Dyer who explored but never surveyed the cave. Once beyond the restored scenic entrance, survey crews, organized by CRF volunteer Mike Yocum, followed a IS-meter (50-foot) diameter trunk passage lined with massive mud banks. For 600 meters (2,000 feet) they skirted the remains of an old wooden tourist trail. "It was a gloomy, dark place," recalled caver James Wells. "Chunks of rotting wood poked up from the mud. They crumbled at the slightest touch. The walls seemed to suck up light. But the cave was amazingly clean. We crossed a place the old-timers used to call The Cottage Cheese Swim, because of all the floating whey. I didn't see a trace of white in the water. The air smelled fine." The "cottage cheese" had vanished thanks to two new waste treatment plants, a $15 million project that diverted sewage and whey from the cave. Volunteer crews removed decades of refuse that had blocked the entrance area. The town of Horse Cave (it kept its name) supported Foster's efforts by joining in the construction of a $2 million museum devoted to caves and cave conservation. The American Cave and Karst Center opened in July 1992, and has since been visited by nearly 100,000 people. The Center uses Hidden River's unique history as an educational tool for teaching about the problems of living on karst terrains. Throughout the 1990s, Yocum's survey crews mapped over II kilometers (7 miles) of new passage in Hidden River Cave, and survey trips continue into the 21 st century. Using software that aligns the map of Hidden River Cave with satellite photographic data, a recent study was able to locate contemporary sources of groundwater pollution entering the cave stream. While the river of whey and horrible stench are distant memories, the fight to preserve karst waters is ongoing, and continues to improve with technology. The surveyed length of Hidden River Cave remains only a fraction of that of Mammoth, but its now-clean passages are likely to beckon surveyors for many years to come.



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Part 3-Restoration: Goodbar and HildrethWerker-Graffiti Section C-Restoring Cave Passages Cave Graffiti: The Writing is On the Wall James R. Goodbar and Val Hildreth-Werker We've probably all seen it, and some cfus have even tried to remove it. Viewed as unsightly and unnecessary, the ugly writing on cave walls is called graffiti. But hidden among the contemporary spray paint may be culturally significant pictographs, petroglyphs, mud glyphs, historic writing, and other markings that should be preserved. Bilbo and Bilbo describe rock art and historic writing in another chapter in this volume (page 99). Whether one graffito or many graffiti, some arc old and some are recent. Some were applied with a candle or carbide lamp. Other types are graffiti nightmares in hlack enamel paint or the rellective hot pink day-glow stull'. Regardless of how the marks were applied on cave walls, ceilings, and floors, there are basic guidelines for evaluating, documenting, and preserving or removing it. The techniques described in this chapter were developed through firsthand experience over the past quarter century. Cave environments vary tremendously from region to region-cave conditions in humid areas like the eastern U.S. are very different from the cave environments found in the arid western states. What works well in Kentucky may be ineffective in New Mexico. Methods that work in limestone caves may cause irreparable t 'tt ~;1ff:; damage to gypsum caves, and vice versa. ;f Restoration techniques are sometimes developed to fit the needs of specific sites. No technique can be recommended for all caves. Each cave must be evaluated on its own merits and restoration methods must be selected that will best serve each particular cave system. What Is Cave Graffiti? The word graffiti, strictly speaking, is a plural form. Graffito is the singular. In accordance with current usage, the term "graffiti is used in this chapter-cavcrs often find multiple incidents of scribbles, signatures, or drawings on cave walls. Collectively, these are called gratliti. (See graffiti sidebar, page 334). In caves, grafliti can be quite old and provide evidence of historical usc by early visitors. It comes in all shapes and sizes and in a variety of media. Gratliti can be drawn or written with ocher, lampblack, or spray paints. It is found 333 Figure 1. Historic names are lined up on a speleothem. The top name is Jim White, the explorer who conducted the first tours of Carlsbad Cavern. These historic signatures are protected by the National Park Service and remain intact within Carlsbad Cavern.

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334 Graffiti Versus Graffito Editors' Note: The word graffiti is listed in most contemporary dictionaries as the plural form of graffito. Graffito is defined as an inscription or drawing made on a public surface such as a wall, or on a natural or cultural surface. Thus, the plural form, graffiti, indicates several inscriptions or drawings and should be used with plural verbs. In this volume, if we were following the dictates of perfect English usage, sentences would read: "Graffiti are painted along the walls of Good Grammar Cave. One brightly colored graffito is inscribed at the remote end of the short passage and reads 'Have No Fear, Graffiti Rule." However, after much debate among reviewers, we decided to go with common current usage in the pages of this book and we wrote graffiti sentences to reflect the way cavers actually talk about graffiti. Cavers tend to say, "New graffiti is covering authentic historic signatures in Current Lingo Cave." Cave Conservation and Restoration scratched into soft surfaces. Arrows, words, names, dates, cartoons, and pictograph replicas are marked 011 cave walls with crayon, lipstick, nail polish, and permanent marking pens. Gratliti, no matter how bad it looks, is a rich part of human history. Before considering removal of any graffiti, a careful historical and cultural evaluation should be conducted. During an inventory of the cave's artifacts and features, expert archaeologists or historians should provide consultation. Sources for local expertise may be found by contacting the State Historical Preservation Office (SHPO). (See consult with experts, page 116.) The SHPO personnel are helpful aod willing to network expertise and resources. The historian or archaeologist asked to evaluate the cultural material should be knowledgeable in cave resources. There are also archaeologists, historians, and trained volunteers in the NSS who are good resources for these tasks. Check with the NSS American Spelean History Association . Following consultation, if the graffiti is deemed to have insignificant historical value, the cave managers may decide on documentation and removal. However, markings deemed historically or culturally significant should remain as they are and should not be removed, touched, or harmed in any way-historic signatures and historic or prehistoric cave art is easily damaged. (See rock art and historic writing, page 99). It is always wise to seek permission from the landowner or cave manager and request assistance in determining whether it is appropriate to remove graffiti and what portions should be left on the cave walls to preserve historical or cultural data. Laws and Regulations Laws and regulations also provide helpful guidelines for determining when to preserve graffiti. The Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 sets 100 years for the protection of cultural remains. However, 50 years is generally accepted in the field of archaeology as a date signifying historical importance. (See 50-year "rule", page 341; historic writing, page t to.) Within the federal government, each agency has specific regulations that can be cited in the prosecution of known offenders. Generally, those regulations address the Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988 or the destruction of government property. Many states also have cave protection laws that prohibit making new graffiti in caves. (See cave laws, page 217.) Beyond laws and prosecution, consider the other consequences. If historical or cultural value is in question-no matter how vague the lingering doubts-markings can always be removed later. Ifremoved before the value is determined, it's gone forever. Document Content, Style, and Media Some of the most common media for cave markings include incised or etched material, paint applied by hand, torch mark, candle smoked carbon, carbide soot, pencil, and spray paint. There are poorly understood chronological parameters for each. For example, spray paint is post \Vorld War [l, and the carbide era is between 1900 and 1970. The same is true of prehistoric natural pigments (Joe Douglas. personal communication 2003). While photographs and drawings record content and style, field notes should thoroughly document the site as well as the media and give insight to the authenticity and importance of markings. Always photograph, evaluate, and thoroughly document the content,

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Part 3-Restoration: Goodbar and Hildreth-Werker-Draffitti 335 Figure 2. Historic signatures have been vandalized with contemporary graffiti carved into the walls of Black Cave, New Mexico. Figure 4. Armed with a stiff brush, a spray bottle of water, and elbow grease, this caver is prepared to eradicate the spray painted arrow marring a cave wall. Figure 3. Historic signatures, including Robert Nymeyer's 1934 inscription, are preserved in Endless Cave, New Mexico. Figure 5. Scrubbing with stiff nylon brushes and water eliminates most carbide stains. Figure 6 (before) and Figure 7 (after). Buzz Hummel used a spray bottle, stainless steel brush, perseverance, and time to make most of this obnoxious arrow vanish. Figure 8 (before) and Figure 9 (after). After two hours of scrubbing. the big black spray painted arrow was gone.

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336 Cave Conservation and Restoration Figure 10 (before), Figure II (during), and Figure 12 (after). This caver, Chris Rollo, disgusted by the gratliti arrow spray painted on a cave ceiling, spent the bettcr part of a day scrubbing it away with water and a stainless steel brush. Does Graffiti Beget Graffiti? James R. Goodbar Perhaps the presence of graffiti invites or encourages new markings. Some sites have layer upon layer. Contemporary markings often cover important historical or cultural resources. Restorationists try to preserve historic markings. However contemporary graffiti is generally viewed as vandalism. Usually considered visually obtrusive, contemporary media may be detrimental to historical and cultural markings as well as cave biota. (See graffiti and vandalism, page 110.) style, and media of graffiti before deciding whether to remove it. Keep in mind that evidence written in contemporary grafTiti may facilitate the identification and prosecution of vandals. Use photodocumentation of offenses to pursue legal prosecution, enhance conservation education, and improve cave management. (Sec NSS Cave Vandalism Deterrence Award Commission, page 110 and page 224.) Photographs and documentation of media also provide a small measure of protection against loss of historical or cultural data through accidental removal or ignorance. (See photodocumentation, page 204.) Tools and Techniques Ifit is determined that contemporary graffiti should be cleaned otT, the type of media and substrate may indicate how difficult it will be to remove the unwanted marks. Enamel spray paint seems to be the worst offender and requires extensive scrubbing, but carbide black can onen be sprayed clean with water. Judicious application of water may help where rough rock with small cracks and declivities make it difficult for brushes to reach. Hard work, perseverance, and specialized tools arc the key factors to success. Delicate formations such as helictites, soda straws, and fragile gypsum formations require special care and treatment. Scrub Brushes Most graffiti removal efforts start with scrub brushes, water, and lots of elbow grease. Some brushes cause more harm than good, so it is important to select tools that minimize new problems. Even the softest brush can cause some damage to cave surfaces as well as biota. Removing the slightly weathered exterior surface of the wall may speed up erosion of newly exposed surfaces. Cavers should weigh biologic, geologic, and aesthetic factors to determine whether the costs are acceptable. It is important to use ne\\', clean brushes for restoration-be careful to never introduce materials/rom home projects into the cave. Make sure people wear safety glasses and other personal protection devices. Nylon or Stainless Steel Brushes. Clean nylon and stainless steel brushes are relatively safe for cave usc. Be careful not to create bristle grooves or scratch marks. Always assign an experienced graffiti scrubber to test tools. Both nylon and stainless brushes leave few environmentally damaging

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Part 3-Restoration: Goodbar and Hildreth-Werker-Graffitti residues or bristles behind. However, because some bristles will fall out and paint flecks will fly, always spread plastic under the work areas and gather the debris at the end of the day. (See restoration brushes, page 419.) Stiff, nylon-bristled brushes cause minimal damage to cave surfaces. Stainless steel brushes, when used with a light touch, work well for some surfaces. Be aware that any metal brush, stainless steel included, will leave black marks on some surfaces. Avoid Brass, Steel, or Natural Fiber Bristles. As stated above, nylon and stainless steel brushes are generally best for cave use. Stray bristles made of nylon or stainless steel arc less offensive to cave environments than bristles made of other materials. Even with catchments and careful scanning of the restoration area, some bristles are likely to escape and remain in the cave. Brass brushes leave a fine metal sheen on formations and rock. Steel wire bristles will leave black marks and break ofl' and oxidize (rust), discoloring the surrounding cave surfaces. Deteriorating steel adds ferric hydroxide and ferric oxide to the cave ecosystem. Natural fiber brushes leave bristles behind that can provide nutrients for molds, mildews, and fungi. Natural fibers may disrupt a cave's ecological balance, providing new food sources for biota and microbiota. Rotary Brushes, Grinding, and Sanding. Rotary brushes on electric drills are an option, but they have a tendency to scatter paint flakes and bristles over a large area. Rotary brushing or sanding can remove a lot of rock or flowstone in a very short time and this method should be used only if deemed appropriate. For this technique, assign a careful. gentle operatorsomeone with a good light source. exceptional close-up vision, and patient attention to detail. Always plan ahead and prepare adequate catchment procedures. Scrub Gently. In scrubbing cave surfaces, be careful to avoid removing layers of mineral. The layers uncovered may not be the same color as the layers removed. Scrubbing away mineral layers may result in a welldefined clean area in the shape of the letters just removed. Water Sprayers When it is appropriate to remove contemporary gratliti from cave walls, water can help loosen the media and clear paint flecks from the scrubbing area. Clean, chlorine-free water is the best solution. It is usually not detrimental to cave biota and does not harm most speleothems. It is safe for human use, inexpensive, and readily available. (See water sources, page 393.) For arrows and contemporary markings with the lampblack from carbide lanterns, it is important to note that water alone will usually clean off the black marks. Brushing is rarely necessary on carbide marks. (See carbide removal, page 411.) Only use new, clean products in cave environments. Always avoid introducing household cleaning chemicals, herbicides, pesticides, or other human-manufactured chemicals. (See anthropogenic chemicals, page 57.) Hand-Held Spray Bollies. Hand-held squirt bottles are easy to purchase, lise, and carry into the cave. They are easily refilled. Adjustable nozzles can be used to spray wide areas or shoot a stream to loosen and remove debris such as lampblack and flakes of pain!. (See pressurized water, page 397.) 337 Torch Marks Joseph C. Douglas When recording cultural resources in caves, look beyond graffiti to all types of wall. ceiling. and floor markings. Torch marks, tally marks, and other markings may have historic importance. Torch marks are particularly important in that they can be culturally diagnostic in certain areas of the U.S. For example, scaUered torch stroke marks made by bundles of river cane are evidence of prehistoric visitation. But large single carbon torch marks might be either historic or prehistoric in origin. If a graffiti removal project takes out the scatter of carbon marks, evidence is lost. In many dozens of caves these torch marks are the only clues into the prehistory of the site. Some bristles will rail out Paint flecks will fly. Always spread plastic under the work areas and gather the debris al the end of the day.

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338 Consult with scientists, cave owners, land managers, and knowledgeable cavers before cleaning, and select the least damaging water source for any cave restoration project. Cave Conservation and Restoration Garden Spra}'crs. Garden sprayers, in a variety of sizes up to 5 gallons, are useful tools for some graftiti projects. They commonly include a pump for creating pressure within the container. The resulting water stream is stronger and more continuous than the spray produced from a hand-held squirt bottlc. Again, designate new garden sprayers for cave restoration work (used ones may contain insecticides or other chemicals that can wipe out cave communities). Sprayers may also be used to clean mud from speleothems and trails. Bladder Ba~s. A close cousin to the garden sprayer is the bladder bag, or backpack pump used for fire fighting. The bladder bag consists of a 5gallon rubberized canvas bag with shoulder straps. Water is squirted through a hand-held trombone pump attached to the bottom of the bag. Bladder bags are used where moderate pressures and high volumes are required. Gravity Fed Water Delivery Systems. Gravity fed systems are often efficient, but first consult local cave scientists and evaluate the ecosystem before introducing significant quantities of water into a cave system. Runotfwater should always be controlled. (See cautions described in restoration runoff, page 339; also see capture runoff, page 396.) Ifdeemed appropriate, a new garden hose with a trigger nozzle is run from a water supply at the entrance. Depending on the gradient, a substantial head of water is produced and special caution must be exercised to avoid damaging delicate areas. Check that all couplings and gaskets are in good condition to prevent leakage. Avoid Delicate Speleothems. Be careful when using high-pressure water devices in areas of delicate speleothems. The pressure combined with a larger volume of water can easily break or damage fragile cave formations. Protect Invertebrates and Biofilms. While it is efficient to use large quantities of high-pressure water to help remove graffiti, there are drawbacks. Cave habitats may become flooded. Also pressurized spray can harm invertebrates and blast away microbiota. Thin biotilms of microscopic organisms living in moist or wet areas should not be sprayed or scrubbed. Pressure blasting can damage communities of microorganismsmicroOora and microfauna are often impossible to see with the naked eye. (See biofilms, page 68.) Where Should We Get Water? For cave graffiti projects, it is generally acceptable to use clean, fresh water with no chlorine and commercial chemicals. For some cave systems, distilled water may be an option, if minimal amounts are applied with short contact duration. No single recommendation is best for all caves. In caves with active streams and annual flooding, water from the cave may be the best choice for graffiti cleaning. However, be careful not to use water from isolated cave pools that are slowly refilled over geologic time. Carefully avoid cross-contamination within a cave-transporting cave water from an isolated passage to a different chamber may destroy local indigenous microbial populations. Consult with scientists, cave owners, land managers, and knowledgeable cavers before cleaning, and select the least damaging water source for any cave restoration project. (Water sources for restoration projects are discussed in depth, page 393.)

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Part 3-Restoration: Goodbar and HildrethWerker-Graffiti Always Catch Restoration Runoff Water Always collect the runoff water from gramti efforts, regardless of where the project is located in the cave. Never allow runoff to contaminate cave pools. streams, or water sources. Use large sponges, lint-free towels, environmental remediation '''pigs'', or shop vacuums to soak up or contain restoration water. Vacuuming devices must be used cautiously to assure that natural loose materials and biota are not sucked away. (See shop vacs, page 358.) When restoration water is scarce, runoff is sometimes strained and filtered back into a bucket for'reuse. However, be careful-used water may contain flecks of paint or lampblack that sbould not be left in the cave. (Sec filtering restoration water, page 415.) Runoff water may also contain lint and debris tbat sbould not be washed elsewhere in the cave. Be very cautious about deciding to introduce large quantities ofwatcr with hoses or pressure washers. The runotTis ditIicult to contain and pressurized methods generally cause graffiti byproducts, lint, and loose sediments to be redeposited elsewhere. (See restoration runoff, page 396.) Weigh the Ecological Costs Scrubbing layer upon layer of contemporary graffiti made by cave vandals is frustrating, irritating work. Understandably, innovative volunteers want to speed up the process with mechanical devices. However, assist trom powered tools is often inappropriate for cave habitats. On tbe other hand, a few caves that arc heavily tra!Ticked party sites are also playpens for graffiti vandals. The natural ecosystems and surface textures in these caves have already been severely altered. Often, the damage has occurred over many decades. Carefully evaluate the environmental costs before embarking on projects that will significantly change cave surfaces and diminish populations of the current biological communities. Several authors and reviewers of this book have tried the following methods, realize the pitfalls associated with each, and hope that advanced technology will introduce new, less destructive alternatives. Avoid Using Heat on Cave Walls Application of direct heat inside caves is not recommended. Heat damages limestone surfaces-the rock heats up and spalls ofT along with the paint. Heat should never be used on gypsum or speleothems. Direct application of heat to gypsum drives ofT water. Direct heat changes transparent selenite to wbite powder and destroys the crystals. Tbough it seems an easy solution, propane torches and other surface heating devices are not appropriate for cave walls and toxic fumes may harm cave-dwelling communities. (See fumes, page 40; also sec logistics, page 155.) Avoid Using Commercial Chemicals in Caves Historically, cavers have tried everything from oven cleaners, hot solvents, and acids, to citrus-based cleaners, soybean products, and biodegradable magic pastes. Some products will remove paint, but should not be used on cave walls-commercial chemicals and acids can damage cave life as well as the people applying tbem. Tbe fumes are harmful to humans and wildlife in the'enclosed spaces orcaves. Natural airflow carries toxins throughout the cave, disrupting or harming bat colonies and other fauna. (See materials and toxins, page 171.) Some products that claim to be environmentally safe simply do not work and labels often overstate their benefits. When analyzed in the laboratory, products commonly do not live up to their advertised claims of environ339 Portable Carbon Dioxide Powered Sprayer Val Hildreth.Werker Noble Stidham of the Lubbock Area Grotto developed a highpressure, low-volume pump in the late 1980s and published drawings for building the unit (Stidham 1989). The apparatus works much like a waterpick device. The system produces a fine jet of water at approximately 250--300 psi (1,700-2.100 kilopascal). The water is pressurized by a positive displacement piston pump powered by a small C02 bottle. Water is pulled from a container via a siphon hose. Any 4-liter (1gallon) plastic jug works well. The portable pressure sprayer device is very water-efficient and can be used in some intricate and delicate areas without causing damage. It works well on lamp-black and soot from carbide lights or candles but has little effect on spray paint. Stidham, N. 1989. A C02powered graffiti remover. NSS News 47(2):43-46.

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340 Use dental tools to gently pick and scrape off graffiti painted on difficult surfaces. This effective technique works well on gypsum bedrock and soft formations. Cave Conservation and Restoration mentally safe content. Even if a product is truly biodegradable, it may provide an unusual food source for biota that depend on the cave's natural ecosystem. (See anthropogenic chemicals, page 57.) It is always best to avoid changing the natural processes that sustain life within caves. Some forms of cave life are able to recolonize a restored cave, but not all. (For example, certain microbes may not exist beyond the pool where they currently live. If the ecosystem of that pool is destroyed by chemical contamination, that colony of organisms may be gone forever.) Usually, the safest substance to use is waler. (See sources for restoration water, page 393.) Dental Picks for Gentle Tasks Use dental tools to gently pick and scrape off graffiti that is painted on difficult surfaces. This effective technique works well on gypsum bedrock and soft formations. It is labor-intensive but the results can be impressive. Pat Jablonsky and Andrea Goodbar used stainless steel dental tools to remove day-glow hot pink names from gypsum wall crusts in Endless Cave, New Mexico. Names were etched off with dental picks and the dry paint chips were collected from the gypsum with a hand-held, batterypowered, dust-buster vacuum. The color of the gypsum underneath was a sparkling white compared to the light tan of the surrounding gypsum crust. For a more natural look, they took crushed gypsum from around the trail Figure 13. Pat Jablonsky uses a dental pick to etch otT the graffiti spray painted on gypsum crust in Endless Cave, New Mexico. Figure 14. A make-up brush and tan-colored gypsum powder serve to camouflage the white sparkling crust where spray paint was removed. Application of the gypsum dust helps match the restored site to surrounding surfaces. Figures IS (before) and Figure 16 (after). These two photos display the before and after of tedious dental pick techniques for restoring graffiti-covered gypsum surfaces.

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Part 3-Restoration: Goodbar and Hildreth-Werker-Graffiti and used a make-up brush to apply the gypsum powder to the restored area. They achieved a well-matched wall color and a cave passage that no longer invites new graffiti. What About Camouflaging Cave Graffiti? When all else fails, cover it up. Small amounts of dirt or mud from the cave floor will generally blend with the color of a cave wall if there are naturally occurring muddy surfaces. This technique can be used as a temporary measure until more volunteer time is found or a bettcr method is developed. A lightly applied natural poultice sometimes loosens the medium for easier removal during the next restoration effort. (Sec Crocketts Cave, page 116.) Camouflaging techniques are not recommended for speleothems. Dirt or mud will not stay on active formations. The crystalline micropores will become clogged. Camouflaging soil is almost always a ditferent color than the speleothem and generally looks as bad as the grafliti. The Summary and Conclusion Is Simple Contemporary cave graffiti may be removed only after professional site analysis and careful documentation. If there are no issues involving historical or cultural preservation, low-impact removal techniques may mitigate the negative impacts of grafliti. Cave biota, habitat, and all other system conditions or concerns should always be carefully evaluated before planning restoration projects. Nylon-bristled brushes and water are the safest tools for grafliti projects. Vigorous scrubbing with stifTnylon brushes along with judicious application of water generates the least negative impact on caves. More aggressive techniques increase adverse impacts to the cave and its ecosystem. Additional Reading There is an obvious lack of published material on both the techniques and philosophies concerning graffiti and cultural markings in caves. The. speleological community needs continued research and publication on these significant conservation and preservation issues. Bilbo B, Bilbo M. 1995. Management implications of historic writing and rock art in caves. In: Pate DL, editor. Proceedings of the 1993 National Cave Management Symposium: Carlsbad, New Mexico, October 2730, 1993. [Huntsville (AL)]: National Cave Management Symposium Steering Committee. p 233-264. Bitting C. 1989. Water-based cave cleaning. NSS News 47(2):42. Douglas JC. 1998. Discovering history in American caves. NSS News 56(9):261-63. Douglas JC, Smith MO, Simek JF. 2000. Identification and analysis of a Civil War soldier's name in South Carthage Cave, Tennessee. Tennessee Caver Spring: 7-13. Douglas JC. 200 I. Historic preservation at Hubbard's Cave: Inventory and management of cultural resources. In: Rca GT, editor. Proceedings of the 14th National Cave and Karst Management Symposium: Chatanooga, Tennessee, October 19-22, 1999. Chattanooga (TN): Southeastern Cave Conservancy. p 46-50. Follet K. 1999. Grafliti control and removal: Lessons from an urban setting. American Caves Winter: 9-15. 341 Fifty Year "Rule" Joseph C. Douglas The 50.year "rule" is a guideline that may be useful but is not definitive. That is, there may be 40.year-old graffiti that deserves protection. The 50-year "rule" is somewhat arbitrary. It came out of the federal government's need for a cut-off date for preservation of historic structures. Then it was applied (or misapplied?) to markings in caves. Yes, 50 years is needed for National Register status. But it is not a hard and fast rule elsewhere. Some ofthe work in contemporary history presents the dissenting position, especially Marion Smith's article (1991) on the 1968 exploration of Bull Cave, which he insists is historically important for a number of reasons despite being only 25 years past. Smith MO. 1991. The survey of Bull Cave,Tennessee: Unpublished records of the 1960s explorers. Journal of Spelean History 25(1 ):1-1 O.

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342 Cave Conservation and Restoration Frith RS. 1976. Acid on-Graffiti olT. NSS News 34( II ):203. Gillieson D. 1996. Caves: Processes, Development, and Management. Cambridge (MA): Blackwell Publishers. p 237-267. Hagan S, Sutton M. 1991. Cave restoration can cause damage. NSS News 49(6): 170-171. Hubbard DA Jr. 1995. Cave conservation and cave cleanups: Not always one in the same. NSS News 53(2):31. Newbould R. 1976. Steam cleaning of the Orient Cave, Jenolan. Cave Management in Australia, Proceedings a/the First Australian Conference on Cave Tourism. Broadway: Australian Speleological Foundation. p 87-90. Rhodes D. 1976. Cave restoration techniques. NSS News 34(11 ):202. Smith MO. 1991. The survey of Bull Cave,Tennessee: Unpublished records of the 1960s explorers. Journal of Spelean History 25( I): I-I O. Smith MO. 2003. Civil War inscriptions in caves [abstract]. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 65(3): 177. [Unpublished manuscript presented at 2003 NSS Convention in Porterville, California.] Spate A, Moses C. 1994. Impacts of high pressure cleaning: A case study at Jenolan. Cave Management in Australasia X. Carlton South, Victoria (AU): ACKMA. p 45-48. Stidham, N. 1989. A C02-powered graffiti remover. NSS News 47(2):43-46. Wei bourn C. 1976. Biological consideration for cave cleanup projects. NSS News 34( II ):204.



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Part3-Restoration: Olson-Lamp Flora Control Section C-Restoring Cave Passages Control of Lamp Flora in Developed Caves Rick Olson Lighting in developed caves should be of sufficient intensity to allow safe passage for people and visitor appreciation of the cave. Maximizing the opportunity for dark adaptation of the human eye is crucial to achieving both of these goals because, if glare is prevented, human sensitivity to light can increase by a factor of 10,000. Shielding light fixtures so that the light source is blocked from view is the single most important step toward maximizing dark adaptation. Using diffuse rather than spot lighting is probably second in importance since a bright spot has almost the same effect as a light shining directly into our eyes. What would be considered low light intensity in an office or home is considered quite adequate for the appreciation of a cave where shadow and light combine to highlight passage features. High lighting intensity in caves is undesirable for both cave conservation and energy conservation. Incidence of graffiti on passage walls tends to be higher in brightly lit areas, presumably because the inscriptions will be visible and people can see well enough to write. Heat from high intensity lighting can dry areas that would have remained moist. As the temperature rises from inefficient lighting, relative humidity drops. Adapted to humidity near saturation, cave life is highly vulnerable to desiccation compared to similar surface species, and mineral deposition may also be altered. For these reasons alone, energy efliciency in cave lighting is very important. Another major consideration in cave lighting design is the growth of cyanobacteria (formerly known as blue-green algae), algae, mosses, and other plants induced by the lights we place in cave passages. Collectively, these photosynthetic organisms growing near lights in caves are called lamp flora in Europe (or lampenjlora). The term lamp flora has been adopted in the United States. Surprisingly, Barr (1967, page 182) plus Aley and Aley (1992) have pointed out that natural populations of algae and cyanobacteria have been found in small numbers within caves. However, other than in the twilight zones of entrances, the great quantities of lamp flora found along tour trails must be considered opportunistic in cave ecosystems. Historically, lamp flora have been considered largely a nuisance, but the gross enhancement of these photosynthetic species and the measures used to control them constitute a major distortion to cave ecosystems. Opportunists Moist areas in electrically lit cave passages are especially prone to the growth of lamp flora. These growths displace the natural microflora of bacteria, fungi, and natural algae associated with moist, dark surfaces in caves. Such distortion of the cave ecosystem is often severe in passages decorated with calcite speleothems. 343 A major consideration in cave lighting design is the growth of cyanobacteria (formerly known as blue-green algae), algae, mosses, and other plants induced by the lights we place in cave passages. Collectively, these photosynthetic organisms growing near lights in caves are called lamp flora.

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344 Algae in Caves Diana E. Northup Algae are photosynthetic, single-celled plants that usually rely on sunlight to make their living. How-ever, several algal species are adapted to the low light levels of cave entrances, and may produce chlorophyll in darkness. Some algae even grow chemoorganotrophically in total darkness (some algae use chemical nutrient sources instead of sunlight). Green algae (Chlorophyta) and diatoms (Bacillario phyceae) have been extensively reported from caves. Exotic (nonnative, introduced) algal species drift into caves on air currents, enter in dripping water from surface sources, and are carried in by cave visitors. Lighted formations in show caves often display the growth of abundant lamp flora (which may consist of some combination of algae, cyanobacteria, or mosses). In show caves, human traffic carries in algae cells on boots and clothing. and if there is a little light available, the humid cave atmosphere and organic nutrients may provide happy habitats for algae. Electric lights in show caves stimulate the luxuriant growth of algae-however, in cave passages that are constantly dark, nonnative algae cells simply fail to grow and over time they die off. Cave Conservation and Restoration The metabolism of bacteria associated with calcite speleothems may facilitate mineral deposition (Northup and others 1997) and their presence is possibly crucial to maintenance of the highly valued luster of these decorations. Therefore, restoration of natural microbial populations is desirable from both ecological and aesthetic viewpoints. Preventing the growth of lamp flora via non-toxic means, such as lighting design and technology, has generally been identified as the preferred method. In Europe, the high level of cave impact caused by lamp flora has long been realized. In 1984, the first International Colloquium on Lamp Flora was held in Budapest, Hungary, and progress has been documented in subsequent meetings (Hazslinszky 1985,2000). Historic Lamp Flora Control Historically, lamp flora have been killed or removed by a variety of means including herbicides in Lehman Caves and steam in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky (Harris 1981). More recently, Grobbelaar (2000) recommended the use of atrazine among other treatments for control oflamp flora. At Kartchner Caverns in Arizona, a 12% solution of hydrogen peroxide was used with limited success. Growths returned in a month compared with three to six months for areas treated with diluted bleach (RS Toomey Ill, personal communication 2002). However, Aley (t976) found even 30% hydrogen peroxide to be inefTective, and such high concentrations are dangerous. (See hydrogen peroxide, page 349.) For many years, these unwanted growths have been controlled through periodic spraying of 5% sodium hypochlorite, which is household bleach (Aley and Aley 1992) and in Hungarian caves 5% formaldehyde has been used successfully (Rajczy and others 1997). Hmvever, use of manufactured chemicals can create ecological, aesthetic, and safety issues. (See anthropogenic chemicals, page 57.) Even when protective clothing is worn, burns to skin can occur from bleach. On cave surfaces, bleach indiscriminately kills everything contacted but docs not necessarily remove the dead biomass. (See chlorine bleach, page 349.) The result is an unsightly layer of bleached organic material that may become calcified under some geochemical conditions. Also, cave-adapted invertebrates are easily killed by bleach. The unintended side effects can be minimized by thoroughly rinsing treated sites and carefully containing runolT. Lighting Design Indirect lighting, especially the use of aisle lights to reflect illumination off the trail surface, has been efrectively used to reduce the intensity of light on undecorated passage surfaces in Mammoth Cave. Handrail-mounted lamps directed onto the trail surface have been used to advantage in Saradla Cave, Hungary. This lighting approach by itself_ however, docs not adequately display areas decorated with secondary cave minerals high above the trail surface. One strategy for limiting growth of photosynthetic organisms is to provide illumination with wavelengths that are minimally absorbed by photosynthetic pigments. The use of green light to limit growth was recommended by Harris (1981), but the poor aesthetics of this alternative was unacceptable. The use of green light was shown to limit algal growth at Cango Caves, South Africa, but was also rejected there for aesthetic reasons (Oostthuizen 1981). Grobbelaar (2000) again recommended the use of green light at Can go Caves to prevent lamp flora.

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Part 3-Restoration: Olson-Lamp Flora Control 345 A minimum impact alternative to consider is the usc of electric lanterns. No lamp flora problems have been reported from caves lit with hand lanterns, and many other development-related impacts could be avoided. However, the logistics of keeping hundreds to thousands oflanterns in operating condition for caves with high visitation are daunting. Variants of chlorophyll found in higher plants, mosses, algae, and cyanobacteria primarily absorb red and blue light (Lee 1989, page 18; Fogg and others 1973, pages 53, 146, 149, 150), and do not strongly absorb yellow light (Figure \,) Lamps emitting light in the yellow to green range were recommended by Imprescia and Muzi (1984). Most colored lights in developed caves will produce highly unnatural scenes, but since cave walls are often tinted with yellow earth tones by iron and organic acids, the visual impact of yellow light is minimal. In Mammoth Cave, visitors seldom comment on the yellow lights in place, and these comments are generally neutral. Ifsome relief from monochrome light is desired, then aisle lights can be directed onto the trail. The intensity of light reflected off the trail surface onto cave walls can easily be kept below the threshold where lamp flora will grow. Cyanobacteria are more versatile than algae, as they can utilize the full Chlorophyll Absorbtion Spectra Chlorophyll A 400 500 600 Wavelength (nm) 700 Figure I. Absorption spectra of chlorophyll. (See page 7 of color section.) Lamp Emission Spectra low Pressure Sodium Vapor 500 600 Wavelength (nm) Figure 2. Emission spectra.of yellow lamps. Gold-sleeved lamps are very similar to gold-phosphor lamps. (See page 7 of color section.) 700 ._ Ugh! Emitting Diode .v \ \ \ Gold Phosphor Auorescen!

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346 Figure 3 (before). Growth of lamp flora. Algae, mosses, cyanobacteria, and other opportunistic plants are often induced by lights placed along show cave trails. These photosynthetic species introduce major distortions to cave ecosystems. Figure 4 (after). Test area in Frozen Niagra, Mammoth Cave National Park. There is no regrowth of lamp flora after three years of illuminating this area with 595 nanometer LED lamps. (See page 7 areolor section for bOlh photos.) Cave Conservation and Restoration spectrum oflight. In particular, a pigment known as phycocyanin allows them to absorb yellow. This of course makes growth more difficult to inhibit, but light supplied in a narrow spectral band limits photosynthetic efficiency since only one of two separate photosystems is engaged (Fogg and others 1973, page 53). Types of yellow lamps include gold-phosphor fluorescent tubes, goldsleeved fluorescent tubcs, lowand high-pressure sodium-vapor lamps, and based arrays of yellow light emitting diodes (LEOs) (P Weinreb, personal communication 2000). Emission spectra for these lamps (Figure 2) largely tit in between the absorption peaks of chlorophyll shown in Figure I. Therefore, the light from these lamps will support less lamp flora than white light sources. Of these, low-pressure sodium-vapor lamps and ultra-bright LEOs have narrow emission bands that are well suited to this purpose (the width of LED emission bands is variable). Unfortunately, both types of sodiumvapor lamps attain full brightness slowly, and repeated starts greatly shorten lamp life. Moreover, Kartalis and Mais (200 I) found in Alistrati Cave, Greece, that low-pressure sodium-vapor lamps support lamp flora if light intensity is very high, likely due to the phycocyanin pigments discussed earlier. LED lamps are not as bright, but switch on instantly, are highly energy efficient, emit very little heat, no noise, and bulb life is phenomenal (100,000 hours or about 10 years continuous usage). Test Results at Frozen Niagra In a test at Mammoth Cave's Frozen Niagara section, problem arcas were photographed, cleaned with bleach, and both goldphosphor fluorescent and yellow LED lamps were installed at discrete locations. As experimen~ tal controls, some of the documented problem areas were left with existing white lamps. Aller 2.5 years of daily tours, the white lamps supported growths as expected. The goldphosphor fluorescent lamps also supported some growth of algae, moss, and cyanobacteria. This has two apparent causes. First, the emission spectrum of the gold-phosphor fluorescent lamps extends into the absorption area of chlorophyll; and second, the phosphor coating inside the tube became thin on the ends, which allowed white light through. The only wavelength that did not support lamp flora was 595 nanometers in the yellow range. The 595 nanometer yellow LED lamps successfully prevented lamp flora growth in an area that consistently had heavy infestations in the past (Olson 2002). The light intensity on a nearby rimstone dam was 50 lux (4.6 foot--candles), which is twice the maximum intensity of white light recommended by Aley and Aley (1992) for prevention of lamp flora. Aley and others (1985) found that in alcoves, algae would grow with light as dim as 17 lux (1.6 foot--candles). Mais and others (2001) of the Department of Karst and Caves at the Museum of Natural History in Vienna, Austria, discussed the possibility of using LED lamps in the show cave of Alland. They were encouraged by

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Part 3-Restoration; Olson-Lamp Flora Control the positive results in Mammoth Cave, and will pursue this avenue. LED lamps with a slightly lighter yellow hue at 592 nanometers are now available, but have not yet been tested. Conclusion In developed passages, the goal is to provide safe appreciation of the cave with minimal ecological and aesthetic impacts. This is especially ditlicult in areas prone to lamp flora. We must provide enougb light for people to maintain balance, see the trails and low ceilings, and for stafTto interpret these highly valued resources. Diffuse, general lighting can be provided by aisle lamps directed onto the trail surface, such as those recently installed in Baradla Cave, Hungary, and in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. Feature lights in areas prone to lamp flora can be wavelength limited. Given that cyanobacteria can use yellmv light at 595 nanometers, there is apparently an intensity threshold above which growth will be supported. HO\vcver, it appears possible to adequately light the cave below such a threshold. Coincidentally (and fortunately), the human eye is far more sensitive to yellow light than to the red and blue wavelengths which fuel photosynthesis. Whatever approaches are used to solve these cave management problems, we must keep our eyes open to new possibilities for reducing impacts of human use on cave ecosystems. Cited References Aley T. 1976. Recommendations for the control of plant growth in Blanchard Springs Caverns. Ozark Underground Laboratory Contract Report to Ozark-St. Francis National Forest Under PO 334-10-76. 44 p. Aley T, Aley C. 1992. Resource protection studies associated with relighting ofa portion of the historic tour route, Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. In; Report to Mammoth Cave National Park. p 11,20,34. Aley T, Aley C, Rhodes D. 1985. Control of exotic plant growth in Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico. Proceedings of the 1984 National Cave Management Symposium. Missouri Speleology 25(1-4); 159-171. Barr TC Jr. 1967. Ecological studies in the Mammoth Cave system of Kentucky. International Journal of Speleology 3; 147-204. Fogg G, Stewart W, Fay P, Walsby A. 1973. The Blue Green Algae. London; Academic Press. 459 p. Grobbelaar J. 2000. Lithophytic algae; A major threat to the karst formation of show caves. Journal of Applied Phycology 12;309-315. Harris D. 1981. The Control of Nuisance Plant Growth in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. Unpublished report to Mammoth Cave National Park. p 20. Hazslinszky T. 1985. International Colloquium on Lamp Flora: 10-13 October 1984. Budapest (HU); Magyar Karszt-es Barlangkutat6 Tarsulat. 155 p. Hazslinszky T. 2000. International Conference on Cave Lighting Proceedings. Budapest (HU): Hungarian Speleological Society. 164 p. Imprescia U, Muzi F. 1985. Light sources and the flora growth in caves illuminated for touristic purposes. In: Hazslinszky T, editor.international Colloquium on Lamp Flora: 10-13 October 1984. Budapest (HU); Magyar Karszt-es Barlangkutat6 Tarsulat. p 103-113. Kartalis N, Mais K. 2001. The influence of illumination in the Alistrati Cave, Serron, NE Greece. In; Hazslinszky T, editor. International Conference on Cave Lighting Proceedings, Held in Budapest. November 2000. Budapest (HU); Hungarian Speleological Society. p 65. Lee RE. 1989. Phycology. 2nd edition. Cambridge; Cambridge University Press. 645 p. 347 The only wavelength that did not support lamp flora was 595 nanometers in the yellow range. The 595 nanometer yellow LED lamps successfully prevented lamp flora growth in an area that consistently had heavy infestations in the past (Olson 2002).

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348 Cave Conservation and Restoration Mais K, Pavuza R, Cech P. 2001. Preliminary investigations of the "Lampenflora" in the show cave of Alland (Austria). In: Hazslinszky T, editor. International Conference 011 Cave Lighting Proceedings, Held in Budapest, Nov 2000. Budapest (HU): Hungarian Speleological Society. p 121. Northup DE, Reysenbach A-L, and Pace, NR. 1997. Microorganisms and speloethems. In: Hill C, Forti P, editors. Cave Minerals of the World. 2nd edition. Hunstville (AL): National Speleological Society. p 261. Olson, R. 2002. Control of lamp flora in Mammoth Cave National Park. In: Hazslinszky T, editor. International Conference on Cave Lighting Proceedings. Budapest (HU): Hungarian Speleological Society. p 131. Oostthuizen, H. 1981. The blue-green algae in the Cango Cave System. In: Mylroie J, editor. Proceedings 1st International Cave i\1anagement Symposium. Murray (KY): Murray State University. p 153. Rajczy M, Buczko K, Hazslinszky T. 1997. Efforts for the restriction of lamp flora: Results and experiences between 1984 and 1996. In: Toth E, Horvath R, editors. Proceedings of the "Research, Conservation. Management" Conference Aggte/ek, Hungary, 1-5 May, 1996, Aggtelek (HU): Aggteleki National Park Directorate. p 54. Additional Reading Sheps L. 1972. The effects of photoperiod and some microenvironmental factors on plant growth in Lehman Cave, Nevada. Bulletin oJthe National Speleological Society 34( I): 15-25. Dobat K. 1999. Flore de la lumiere artificielle (Lampenflora-maladie verte). [Flora in artificial light.] In: Juberthie C and Decu V, editors. Encyclopaedia Biospeloeogica. p. 1325-1335. Sources for Additional Information Rickard S Toomey III E-mail: Cave Resources Manager, Kartchner Caverns State Park PO Box 1849 Benson AZ 85602 E-mail: Peter Weinreb Vice President, Light Southwest Inc. 6509 Poza Rica NW Albuquerque NM 87107 Web site:



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Part 3-Restoration: Boston-Bleach Section C-Restoring Cave Passages To Bleach or Not to Bleach: Algae Control in Show Caves Penelope J. Boston Algal growth around lights, the infamous scourge of show caves, is a persistent problem. The use of very strong cleaning agents like chlorine bleach appeals to our desire to get rid of contaminating organisms like algae once and for all. Alas-this strategy doesn't work well because the organisms grow so quickly when given the right conditions. The only way to really correct the algae problem is to change those fundamental conditions. Periodically dousing algae with chlorine bleach only kills some of the cells for a little while-the colony quickly grows back from the cells that are not killed during bleaching episodes. Algal colonies may also grow from new cells brought in on the shoes and clothes of visitors. Chlorine bleach (sodium hypochlorite, which is regular household bleach) is a contact poison and can indiscriminately kill microorganisms and small invertebrates, even when diluted with water. Chlorine bleach also emits highly poisonous chlorine gas and leaves an oxidizing residue, even when it is dry. The gaseous chlorine is particularly dangerous to humans and bats (indeed to all animals) in closed environments with limited air circulation-like small cave passages. There are very few situations in undeveloped caves where use of chlorine bleach is justified. Sewage contamination or exotic microbial invasions that cover extensive areas may qualify as extraordinary exceptions and cautious, prudent use may be appropriate. Alternate Control Methods-Wavelength Selection In developed caves, algae management through alternative control methods is preferred. Test results to date indicate that the growth of lamp flora can be prevented through wavelength selection. Lighting with LED lamps (light emitting diodes) that emit nonpholosynlhelically aclive wavelengths (for example, 595 nanometers in the yellow region) can eliminate the challenge of algae and other lamp flora in show caves. (Olson 2002; Olson 2006, page 343 in this volume). The suggestion of using organism-inhihiling \vavelengths such as ultraviolet (UV-wavelengths that are shorter than about 360 nanometers) has been tried and may create more harm than good. UV requires extended contact times, presents serious human safety hazards, and can easily harm or kill nontarget biota (Rick Olson, personal communication 2003). Select appropriate wavelengths that fail to support algal photosynthesis and unwanted algae will not grow in show caves. Hydrogen Peroxide-A Better Option? If cleaning of algal growth is necessary, a better option than chlorine bleach may be hydrogen peroxide (Grobbelaar 2000). Reports of etTectiveness in using hydrogen peroxide (H 2 0 2 ) for removing algae are mixed. However, the primary failure of most contact disinfectants is lack of adequate exposure lime to the disinfecting agent. Contact time is crilicul 349 Periodically dousing algae with chlorine bleach only kills some of the cells for a little while-the colony quickly grows back from the cells that are not killed during bleaching episodes.

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350 A good strategy is to apply a small amount of the agent and allow it to remain in contact with the algae for a significant period of time-for example, at least 30 minutes with a 10% solution of hydrogen peroxide. Cave Conservation and Restoration with all microbial disinfecting agents (Sand 1991; Wingender and others 1998). A good strategy is to apply a small amount of the agent and allow it to remain in contact with the algae for a significant period of time-for example, at least 30 minutes with a 10% solution of hydrogen peroxide. This works better than a large amount applied for a short period of time. Additionally, it is much easier to make certain the area is thoroughly rinsed and that all residual disinfecting agent is removed from the site. When hydrogen peroxide comes in contact with surfaces, it oxidizes organic materials, much like chlorine bleach does. In sufficiently high concentrations, hydrogen peroxide is a contact poison for microbes. However, unlike chlorine bleach, the breakdown products ofH,o,are relatively harmless. Hydrogen peroxide quickly breaks down to water and oxygen, compounds that are less likely to harm cave microorganisms and are not toxic to humans. Even with the more benign bleaching characteristics of hydrogen peroxide, care should be taken to prevent it from coming in direct contact with any potential native microbial habitats (pools, muds, or speleothems). Household hydrogen peroxide is sold as a 3% solution in water, but can be purchased from chemical supply companies at up to a 30% concentration. This more concentrated solution is a potential danger to the user and must be treated with caution as per the label and the MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) that is available from NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety) online at . Summary To summarize, chlorine bleach is not the best choice for controlling algae in show caves. Other disinfecting agents with less harmful byproducts are preferred for cleaning algal growth. For long-term control of algae, the best solutions will be found through advanced lighting technologies and wavelength selection. Selection of appropriate wavelengths that fail to support algal photosynthesis can prevent unwanted algae in show caves. Cited References Grobbelaar JU. 2000. Lithophytic algae: a major threat to the karst formation of show caves. Journal of Applied Phycology 12:309-315. Olson R. 2002. Control of lamp flora in Mammoth Cave National Park. In: Hazslinszky T, editor. International Conference on Cave Lighting Proceedings. Budapest (HU): Hungarian Speleological Society. p 131. Olson R. 2006. Control of lamp flora in developed caves. In: HildrethWerker V and Werker JC, editors. Cave Conservation and Restoration. Huntsville (AL): National Speleological Society. p 343-348. Sand KE. 1991. Effectiveness of commercial germicide products against the ropy slime producing lactic acid bacteria. Journal of Food Protection 54(8):632-4. Wingender J, Griebe T, Flemming H-C. 1998. The role ofbiofilm and slime formation and the effect of chlorine, monochloramine, hydrogen peroxide, and silver on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Water Supply 16(3/ 4):207-12. Additional Reading Faimon J, Zimak J, Stelcl J, Kubesova S. 2003. Environmentally acceptable effect of hydrogen peroxide on cave lamp-flora. Environmental Pollution 122(3 ):417-422.



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Part 3-Restoration: Ilorrocks and Ohms-Lint and Dust Section C-Restoring Cave Passages Cave Lint and Dust Removal Projects Rodney D. Horrocks and Marc Ohms The cumulative nature and impact of lint and dust problems in caves has only recently been recognized, researched, and addressed. Originally noticed in show caves, lint and dust accumulations have also been observed in heavily used wild caves. Lint is not merely a benign aesthetic nuisance in caves. Lint and dust removal projects benefit caves in several ways: Restore natural conditions. Prevent unnatural speleothem dissolution. Remove artificial food sources. Eliminate unnatural odors. Restore visual scenes. Lint consists of foreign materials shed from human visitors-fibers, hair, dander, and other debris that accumulates along heavily used routes (Figure I). Dust originates from trail construction projects, trampling of unpaved trails, and material brought into the cave by visitors. Lint and dust accumulations can be removed with hand-held brushes, vacuums, or washing, depending on the substrates involved. Not only have methods been developed to restore natural conditions in caves, but techniques have also been developed to slow the accumulation and facilitate cleaning of these unnatural deposits. Attempts to restore the aesthetic appeal of developed caves occurred as early as 1960 in Jenolan Caves in Australia (Newbould 1976). Lint was recognized as an unsightly foreign material as early as 1969 at Timpanogos Cave (Horrocks 2000). However, it was not until 1977 that lint was specifically targeted as a detrimental foreign substance in caves and was identified as a major component of the dirty-appearing passages in many developed caves (Roth 1987). Test cleaning was conducted at Carlsbad Caverns in 1977 and 1986, and the first "cave lint camps" were organized in 1988 (Jablonsky 1 992a). This chapter emphasizes lint and dust removal in developed caves. However, the same techniques can be used in wild caves. Reasons for Conducting Lint and Dust Removal Projects Developed caves can only be partially restored to ~ natural conditions. Cave managers must com pro~ mise between restoring caves to pristine states and ~ causing additional negative impact. Good cave :g managers must recognize when restoration and ~ ~ z 351 Lint is not merely a benign aesthetic nuisance in caves. Lint and dust remoyal projects benefit caves in several ways Figure I. Close-up of collected lint and hair in Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Utah.

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352 Figure 2. This collection of lint, trash, and chunks of blond boot sole was gathered in the Chandelier Maze, Lechuguilla Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico. Cave Conservation and Restoration cleaning projects need to be halted. Cave managers or project leaders should stop the work, rethink the situation, and possibly retrain the restoration team before additional damage is caused. Because the impacts from lint and dust are cumulative, periodic restoration efforts are usually effective toward maintaining natural conditions in show caves. Removing unnatural lint and dust can prevent foreign materials from being cemented onto the surfaces of actively growing speleothems. The incorporation of introduced materials into secondary deposits can cause permanent discoloration and unnatural textures. In fact, accumulations of lint and dust may partially or completely obscure the natural coloration and sheen of cave surfaces. Lint has been shown to cause the dissolution of some speleothems (Jablonsky and others 1994). Lint may act as a condensation site for undersaturated cave water, and can trap carbon dioxide in or underneath the lint. Lint may also attract bacteria, yeast, molds, or algae that secrete or excrete acids that can dissolve the rock substrate (Crowle 1993a, 1993b). The accumulation of lint in humid cave environments may also result in unnatural musty odors (Moore 1993). Many caves are extremely low-energy environments with limited food sources. Natural fiber lint, hair, and skin (dander) can represent a significant artificial food source and may provide a nutrient base for microbial life (Moore and Jesser 1995). These food sources can shift the balance of nutrients that sustain cave-adapted microorganisms (Michie 1997). Biota, such as microbes, mites, beetles, and spiders have been observed in lint accumulations (Jablonsky 1992a, I 992b). Whether the organisms are native to the cave or accidentals carried into the cave by humans, populations may artificially balloon as a result of artificial food sources. (See cave microbiology, page 61). Nature of Lint and Dust Developed caves may have a dusty and dirty appearance caused by a combination of factors. In order of importance, they are listed here: Construction-generated dust Dust from tours traveling over unpaved trails Dust tracked into caves on shoes or brought in on clothes Lint accumulations Other materials shed from humans Natural dust Human visitors shed a plethora of other materials into caves (Jablonsky 1995). Lint and dust removal efforts should address most of these foreign materials: Hair Dander Skin flakes and debris Mites Microbes Shoe rubber Pet animal fur

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Part 3-Restoration: Lint and Dust-Horrocks and Ohms Lint is composed primarily of fibers from natural and synthetic fabrics. Natural cellulose-based fibers include cotton, hemp, and linen. Natural protein-based fibers include keratin, wool, alpaca, mohair, silk, and cashmere. Synthetic fibers include oil-based synthetic polymers (Michie 1997). Both natural and synthetic fibers are usually present. Old deposits of lint in caves may be almost entirely synthetic fibers. Natural libers are morc brittle and tend to shed more over time but they are often eliminated by deterioration or consumed by molds, fungi, or bacteria, resulting in concentrations of synthetic fiber lint (Jablonsky 1995). Dust is composed of silica and fine clay mineral particles ranging from 0.1 micron to 100 microns In sIze. Recognizing Lint and Dust Accumulations Due to the gradual accumulations oflint and dust Q; in show caves, long-term employees may not ~ recognize the subtle color changes and worsening ~ l' conditions associated with these deposits. These :g conditions are noticeable only when the walls near ~ trails are viewed close-up with a bright flashlight. ~ Older deposits appear as a grayish mass made up nf finely ground lint and dust. Black lights are useful in locating lint concentrations because many natural fibers are treated with optical brighteners that reflect long-wave ultraviolet (UV) light. When viewed under a black light, these fibers appear bluish-white against dark cave surfaces. Accumulation of Lint Lint accumulation is influenced by many different factors: Number of cave visitors Gravity A if movement Cave wall contours and textures Trail design Heat Humidity Generally, more visitors lead to greater deposits of lint. Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, and Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico, generate tremendous accumulations oflint in short periods of time. Observations in Lehman Caves, Nevada, showed noticeable lint accumulating one year after cleaning (Horrocks and Green 2000). Lint accumulates faster at interpretive stops, especially those where visitors sit down. More lint is produced by a combination of longer times spent at sit-down spots and the abrasive nature of clothes rubbing against benches. Lint fibers also get caught in shoe soles and are tracked throughout tour routes. Most lint initially falls directly to the floor and is then moved laterally to the edge of the trail by foot traffic. Lint also tends to concentrate on the lower portion of walls immediately adjacent to trails. Trail design and construction materials can influence how and where lint accumulates. 353 Figure 3. This strand of hairy lint was found ofT trai I near Lake Chandalar, Lechuguilla Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico.

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Trails with curbs 20to 60-centimeters (8to 24inches) high, capture a large percentage of lint falling from visitors' clothes (Jablonsky 1995) Trails with grates and underlying tarps capture a larger percentage of lint. Grated trail surfaccs must be periodically cleaned because the open sp.aces become chokcd with lint, dust, and other debris. 354 Figure 4. Along developed cave lour routes, lint is carried on air currents and will collect and mass along certain ledges. This example from Timpano-gos Cave National Monument shows thick lint deposits on a ledge. Dust can remain suspended in the air for hours or even days. Heat rising from visitors can disperse dust widely over a short period of time, causing air velocities above a tour. Cave Conservation and Restoration i "i ~ Airflow determines where lint accumulates. Over l time, trampled fibers on the trail become airborne ~ and are carried by air movement and redeposited Z on cave surfaces away from the trails. Large quantities of lint may be deposited on ledges high above a trail or on ceiling formations (Figure 4). Fibers less than 3 microns in size will become suspended immediately, without falling to the trail. These fibcrs dcsccndcd at a rate of 1 meter (3 feet) every 9 minutes in laboratory conditions (Moser 1988). Manmade entrances and tunnels may artificially increase cave airflow and compound lint problems. Lint accumulations lend to concentrate on flat or sloping shelves. Lint also accumulates on any rough surface, especially on stalactites, popcorn, helictites, spiked frostwork, or on low ceilings. [n dryer areas, accumulations will often ball up into "lint bunnies." Heat generated from lights and visitors can cause distribution, or redistribution, of lint near trails. Movement of people also causes airflow disturbances and may redistribute lint away from the trails. High humidity in caves may cause older deposits of lint to have a higher percentage of synthetic than natural fibers. Due to the hydrophilic characteristics of natural fibers, they absorb moisture and break down into simple starches that either decompose or become a nutrient source for biota (Kraemer and Yell 1992). Accumulation of Dust Although dust occurs naturally in most caves, the accumulation of natural dust away from entrances is minute and collects over long periods of time (Ohms 2002). Very strong cave winds near entrances may suck material in from the outside. Dust can also become a problem during trail construction activities such as blasting and digging. Unlike lint, dust can remain suspended in the air for hours or even days (Michie 1997). Due to air currents, dust particles less than 0.25 microns may take long periods to settle out of the air. Heat rising from visitors can disperse dust widely over a short period of time, causing air velocities of I meter per second (3 feel per second) above a tour. These currents can carry fairly heavy particles up to the ceiling and then outward away from the party. The heaviest particles fall quickly to the floor and the smaller particles become distributed evenly throughout the air (Michie 1997). The dust can become incorporated into formations where active deposition of secondary minerals is occurring. At Ngilgi Cave in Australia, every ten million visitors cause the deposition of a 3D-micron layer that is as opaque as a layer of paint and completely hides the original rock and speleothem colors (Michie 1997). In wild caves, cavers who wear dirty clothes or have dirty gear (especially dried mud) can shed 10,000 to 100,000 times as much dust as cavers who have clean clothes and gear. As these cavers start climbing over irregular terrain, the amount of dust released from fabric greatly increases. One hundred dirty cavers may spread as much dust as 1,000,000 visitors

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Part 3-Restoration: Lint and Dust-Horrocks and Ohms with relatively clean clothes on a tour trail (this does not include lint) (Michie 1997). Cavers with clean clothes will only spread the dust that is already present. Caving group size is important, as small groups of cavers stir up less dust than larger groups. Lint Camps Lint camps are a great tool for cleaning sections of a eave thoroughly and systematically. Volunteers arc often willing to travel long distances and return year after year for on-going projects. Cavers who are conservation minded, experienced, and love the resources are excellent lint volunteers. Running a successful lint camp requires a fair amount ofpreliminary work. The following details should be worked out before the project starts: Identify areas to be cleaned and techniques that will be used. Sehedule far in advanee and advertise the event widely. Find experienced supervisors and team leaders. Secure nearby lodging or camping for the participants. Put together an introductory training outline for the first morning of the camp. Purchase supplies. Several types of perks might be otTered to the volunteers: Create a food plan and find a camp cook to prepare meals. Design a project T-shirt, certificate, and a reception with the cave management and staff. Arrange for evening cave trips or other perks for participants. To accommodate everyone, provide easy trips and difficult trips. Cave trips can be for recreation, survey, or photography. In addition to the perks, the following suggestions will help keep enthusiasm high among the volunteers: If you are using local volunteers, weekend projects are ideal. Keep lint camps under three days to prevent burnout. If using volunteers from other regions, week long camps work best. Plan at least two different types of projects (for example, brushing and vacuuming lint or washing dust). Switch duties or work areas. Lint camps should start with a short introduction, a demonstration, and a short field trip into the cave. Spend only one or two total hours with these introductory activities. The participants will mostly learn "on the job" by doing the work or watching veterans (Kraemer and others 1997): The introduction should cover rules, safety issues, goals, schedules, and perks. Follow the introduction with a demonstration of the techniques that will be used. Take volunteers into a relatively clean area away from the trail and closely examine cave surfaces \",'ith flashlights, so that they can see what the areas near the trail should look like. 355 Figure 5. Lint can accumulate on formations along developed tour routes, as shown in this photo from Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Utah. Establish a ratio of 1 supervisor or team leader to every 5 or 6 lint pickers. The supervIsors rove among their workers, answering questions and providing assistance.

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356 Figurc 6. Removal of calcifying lint from wet flowstone along the visitor route in Jewel Cave National Monument, South Dakota, required the use of small tweezers and plastic toothpicks. Cave Conservation and Restoration Finally, take them into a dusty area along the trail to show not only dust, but also what new lint versus old lint looks like. Establish a ratio of I supervisor or team leader to every 5 or 6 lint pickers. The supervisors rove among their workers, answering questions and providing assistance. If too few supervisors arc appointed, the lint pickers will spread out and miss areas. It is common for workers to find coins, hair accessories, light bulbs, tickets, sunflower hulls, gum, trash, and other miscellaneous items. Remind participants that artifacts of historical importance may be encountered. Cultural artifacts include any manufactured item that is over 50 years old. (See cultural and historical preservation, page 99; see 50-year rule, page 341.) Objects found should be reported to the supervisor and work should be stopped in that area until the situation is evaluated. The state ofpreservation, historical significance, and age can help determine whether items should be collected or discarded. Before anything historically significant is removed, the date, name of discoverer, condition, and location should be recorded: If a cultural item is worthy of collection, bag it with a complete label. Number each item bag separately. Mark locations on a large-scale map. Record these data at the time of collection, even if the value is not immediately obvious. Important location data cannot be recreated at a later date. Photodocumentation may also be beneficial. Equipment and Tools Lint and dust removal projects need the following types of equipment (Jablonsky 1993; Kramer and others 1995; Horrocks 1998): Detailed map of the area to be cleaned to use for documenting the sites Camera and film or digital photography equipment to document the sites before, during, and atler the project is completed Hand-held polyester paintbrushes for gathering lint and dust, 2.5to 1 O-centimeter width (1to 4-inch) Plastic-bristled scrubbing brushes for wet areas Quartand gallon-sized zip-closure plastic bags for collecting and storing lint and dust Hand-held spray bottles Lint-free rags and sponges for catching runoff from sprayers Plastic buckets, containers 4-liter to 20-litersized (I-gallon to 5-gallon-sized) Foam-cell collector brushes to collect lint 011' delicate surfaces Tweezers for delicate areas and in between rocks Small dust pans to brush lint and dust into Plastic cups to brush lint and dust into Specialty equipment may also be necessary for successful lint projects: HEPA filter vacuum cleaner and bags (High Efficiency Particulate Air, high-filtration, wetand-dry-tank style)

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Part 3-Restoration: Lint and Dust-Horrocks and Ohms Extension cords Flowstone shoes or aqua socks for walking on tlowstone surfaces (see footwear, page 431) Backpack sprayer units with fine-mist nozzles UV black light to spot lint accumulations Respirators Each worker should have the following personal gear. Always check to find out if the project will provide masks and other safety equipment: Helmet Helmet-mounted light (brighter is better and LED headlamps are especially effective) Knee pads and elbow pads Sturdy nonmarking boots Work gloves Surgical gloves (use powder-free, non latex gloves-some people are allergic to latex) Goggles (depending on job) Ear plugs (depending on job) HErA fiiter respirator masks (depending onjob) Safety Measures For lint and dust removal projects, establish the following safety precautions. When minors (under 18) are participating as volunteers, their parents or guardians should sign a parental consent form. Adult volunteers may need to sign liability release forms. IIEPA filter respirators as well as protective gloves and clothing should be worn in dusty environments or where guano (wood rat, mouse, bat, bird, cricket) or amberat (dried wood rat urine) may be disturbed (often found near cave entrances). Dust masks may be ineffective against very small particles-you must choose the proper HEPA filters for respirators to ensure protection. Instruct personnel not to rub their eyes or face and to wash hands thoroughly be.fore eating. Ifvacuum cleaners are used, ear protection should be provided. Likewise, goggles should be available and required for some tasks. During the removal of construction-generated dust, the most common safety hazard is overfilled buckets. Overfilling can shorten the lile of buckets and cause spills. It can also result in strained muscles or back injuries. Buckets should be marked inside with a fill line that is one-third to twothirds above the bottom of the bucket and supervisors should not allow workers to exceed that mark. The weight should be geared to the smallest member of the crew or the individual in the most awkward position for carrying a bucket. If possible, individuals in assembly line crews should be of similar size. Workcrs nced to be reminded how to lift buckets without causing back strain. Lids may be used to prevent spills. Cleaning Techniques The most common tool for removing lint is a polyester-bristled paintbrush (Figure 7). A swirling or dabbing motion with a polyester brush creates static electricity that attracts the lint (Horrocks and Green 2000). Since the electrical charge in lint is eventually lost, sweeping or vacuuming may 357 Figure 7. Cami Pulham uses the static properties of a polyester brush to pick up lint in Tirnpanogos Cave National Monument, Utah.

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358 Figure 8. Ryan Brown uses a hip-mounted HEPA vacuum to pick up lint along the side of a developed trail in Je\vel Cave National Monument, South Dakota. Figure 9. A caver vacuums the lint tarp underneath an opengrate stairway in Jewel Cave National Monument. Cave Conservation and Restoration work better on old deposits. Bristles on polyester brushes do not break as often as those on other brushes. Before using any brush, check to see how well the bristles are attached. Once a brush starts to lose bristles, ~ discard it. ~ Lint picked up with brushes can be deposited in ~ zip-closure buggies by placiug the brush in the bag ~ and squeezing the bag shut with the other hand as e; the brush is pulled out. This method works best ~ when there is more lint than dust or when rough surfaces are encountered. If a lot of dust is mixed in with the lint, gently sweep the particles into plastic baggies, cups, or small dustpans. The baggies will mold to the cave surface and allow brushing directly into the bag without spilling materia!. Sweeping should be confined to small areas and care should be taken to prevent lint and dust from becoming airborne. Ifdelicate surfaces are encountered, tweezers or foam-cell collecting brushes work well. Lint pickers at Carlsbad Cavern have successfully used foam brushes (P Jablonsky, personal communication 2000). Vacuums are effective in picking up lint and dust. HEPA vacuums filter out the smallest particles and do not reintroduce particulate debris back into the cave air. A variety of attachments can be used to clean various surfaces (Figure 8). However, HErA filter vacuums are expensive, noisy, and pick up everything. For dry lint and dust, non-HEPA vacuums should be avoided, since they allow dust particles to escape and circulate back into the cave. At Jewel Cave, non-HEPA vacuums (wet-vacs and shop-vacs) were successfully used to clean the tarps underneath catwalks where the lint was wet and no dust was generated (Ohms, personal communication 2000). Flowstone, bedrock, calcified sediments, or trails with curbs are ideal surfaces for water-based methods. Theoretically, water should be applied as a final stage of cleaning, after the lint has been collected-however, waterbased methods should be avoided if there are natural loose sediments under the malerial being cleaned. (See pressurized water, page 397.) Although pressure washing can be effective (Ncwbould 1976; Jablonsky 1990, 1991; Schmitz 1996), this method introduces the disadvantage of washing everything away, including natural dust, delicate speleothems, and biota, and redepositing it elsewhere in the cave (Ressler 1988). Pressure washing uses large quantities of water and runoff is difficult to control. Wet-vacs or shop-vacs should be used to suck up excess water generated by backpack sprayers and large hand-held sprayers. Sponges and lint-free rags can soak up small amounts of run ofT and buckets can be used to capture runoff if spraying overhead. It is always important to capture restoration runoff and not simply transfer the problem somewhere that is out of sight and out of mind. (See runoff water, page 396.) Do not use water from cave pools for large spraying operations that may lower water levels and harm cave life. (See water sources for restoration, page 393.) Avoid spraying water in areas where excess water will drain into cave pools. Runoff containing lint and dust will pollute pools and artificially increase water levels. Be aware that fresh tap water may contain chemicals such as chlorine or fluoride. If tap water is allowed to stand overnight some of the chemical component may dissipate. Before using water, determine the pH. Water that is acidic will have a slightly corrosive effect which could damage delicate formations. If the water is too basic it may leave behind mineral deposits. (See restoration water, page 394-395.)

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Part 3--Restoration: Lint and Dust-Horrocks and Ohms Be extremely cautious spraying water around lights and other components of the electrical system. It is wise to shut otT the power while using water to reduce electrical risks and avoid exploding the light bulbs. Try dry methods before using water to clean an area. In \vet areas, the lint will tend to lump together and form balls or mounds. A HEPA filter vacuum cleaner may be effective in this situation but paintbrushes are worthless. A stout bathroom scrubbing brush or tweezers will also remove wet lint. Once the larger lint accumulations have been removed, water techniques may work for the final touch. Special Issues Before any work is done, it is important to shoot precleaning photographs of the area. Take close-ups and overviews. Remember to include an object for scale in photodocumentation shots. Pictures of the cleaning crew in action will document the historical aspects of the project. Post-cleaning pictures finish the photodocumentation. For the postcleaning photographs, recreate the same photograph as the precleaning pictures. (See photodocumentation, page 204-207.) If the hand-held-brush method is used to remove lint and dust, lint from specific areas can be collected and weighed with a sensitive scale. Project leaders can then determine where lint is accumulating, target future cleaning areas, and devise methods to slow the deposition or trap the lint (Horrocks and Green 2000). If a lot of dust is being swept up with the lint, it can be separated with a polyester brush and weighed (or both lint and dust can be weighed together). Techniques for removing lint must be adjusted to the surfaces being cleaned. Delicate formations (including some frostwork) can sometimes be cleaned by spraying very light mists of water on the lint and dust accumulations and then catching the resulting runoff in tarps (Horrocks and Green 2000). Acidic water could dissolve the crystals of delicate speleothems and must not be used for this type of cleaning. Some gypsum surfaces can be cleaned. Crusts can often be cleaned with hand-held paintbrushes or HEPA vacuum cleaners. A water-based cleaning technique was successfully used on gypsum in the Snowball Dining Room of Mammoth Cave (Aley 1989). (See gypsum restoration, page 419.) Trash from many cave sites is deposited in the local landfill. Dispose of lint and dust debris in the same way. Preventing or Slowing Lint and Dust Accumulations Curbs with heights of20 to 60 centimeters (8 to 24 inches) help contain lint and dust, thereby reducing accumulations beyond the trails (Jablonsky 1995; Fry and Olson 1999). Curb configurations depend on the number of visitors, characteristics of the cave, trail design, and trail construction materials. Rough-surfaced curbs have been shown to catch lint better than smooth ones (Jablonsky 1995). Trails with curbs must be cleaned regularlyotherwise the lint is ground up by foot traffic and becomes airborne (Figure 10). Trails should not be swept with a broom because sweeping reintroduces lint into the air, creates dust, and leaves bristles behind. HEPA tilter vacuums should be 359 Figure 10. An example of a lint curb along a developed cave trail in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, and the associated "lint bunnies" that collect along its edges.

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360 Figure II. In Jewel Cave National Monument, South Dakota, lint can quickly calcify into wet flowstone surfaces. Plastic toothpicks, tiny stitTbristled brushes, and foam clean-room brushes are the tools of choice for this lintpicking chore. Cave Conservation and Restoration used to clean trails with curbs. In caves without electricity, a plastic broom may be somewhat effective if short, slow strokes are used. If spraying techniques are used on trails, all waste water should be collected and removed from the cave. Ifvisitors are walking directly on unpaved cave floors, sediments may become airborne. Cement trails or raised platfonns with catchment tarps underneath are often successful in reducing lint. Walkways, bridges, and platforms made of metal grating with underlying tarps capture lint and tracked-in dirt (Figure 9). Generally, grates near an entrance are cleaned annually, and those farther in the cave are cleaned every other year. Tarps should be made of nylon and designed to be easily removed for cleaning. They should be taken outside the cave and thoroughly washed every 3 to 4 years. Where public seating is provided, the seating surface should be smooth and nonabrasive to reduce lint deposits. When construction is taking place within a cave, tarps can be hung in a passage to contain and block dust. To contain dust as it is being created, hoods may be built over equipment or mist spraying may be used in conjunction with HEPA filter vacuums. Periodic vacuuming during the project will also help control construction dust. When an artificial entrance or gate is designed, airflow and dust influx should be considered. lrno entrance existed before (that is, ifit is a new, entirely artificial entrance) the closure should be airtight or should re-create the original airflow. Ifan entrance has been artificially enlarged, the gate or door should have air spaces that equal the size of the natural aperture in order to maintain natural airflow. (See air exchange, page 262.) Several successful techniques have been developed to prevent or slow lint accumulations. Curbs, grates, and catchment tarps allow continuous lint collection and easy periodic removal (Jablonsky and others 1994). Other techniques have been developed to prevent lint fall, including misting visitors before they enter the cave. (See Kartchner Caverns, page 141.) Finally, restricting, monitoring, and training cavers can greatly reduce dust accumulations along major routes in wild caves. Cited References Aley T. 1989. Restoration and maintenance of natural cave microclimates. NSS News 47(2):39-40. Crowle F. 1993a. Lint-associated Rock Deterioration in Caves. Unpublished manuscript, cave management files, Wind Cave National Park, May 10, 1993.6p. Crowle F. 1993b. Importance of Microbes in Lint-associated Cave Mineral Erosion. Unpublished manuscript, cave management files, Wind Cave National Park, June 10, 1993.4 p. Fry J, Olsen R. 1999. Walkway development and construction relative to reducing visitor impact in the historic section of Mammoth Cave. In: Rea GT, editor. Proceedings afthe 1999 National Cave and Karst A1anagement Symposium: Chattanooga, Tennessee, October /9-22, 1999. Chattanooga (TN): Southeastern Cave Conservancy. p 64-72. Horrocks RD. 1998. Lint Camp Orientation Outline. Great Basin National Park, Cave Management files. 2 p. Horrocks RD. 2000. The HistOJY of Cave Management at Timpanogos

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Part 3-Restoration: Lint and Dust-Horrocks and Ohms Cave National Monumenl. Unpublished manuscript, Timpanogos Cave National Monument, cave management files. 3 p. Horrocks RD, Green DJ. 2000. Lehman lint liquidators. NSS News 58(3):7273. Jablonsky PL. 1990. Lint is not limited to belly buttons alone. NSS News 48(5):117-119. Jablonsky PL. 1991. Headlines! Lint accumulations are becoming more prevalent in caves. American Caves Fall: 18. Jablonsky PL. I 992a. Implications of lint deposits in caves. NSS News 50(4):99-100. Jablonsky PL. 1992b. Develop Preventive Measures/or Future Accumulations of Cave Lint. Unpublished Semi-Annual Report, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Regional Office, November 2, 1992; Second Year Extension Proposal, March 15, and October 22, 1993; and final report June I, 1994. Jablonsky PL. 1993. Investigator s Annual Report. Unpublished report, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Regional Office. March 23, 1999. Jablonsky PL. 1995. Lint in caves. In: Proceedings of the 1993 National Cave Management Symposium: Carlsbad, New Mexico, October 273D, 1993. [Huntsville (AL)]: National Cave Management Symposium Steering Committee. p 73-81. Jablonsky P, Kraemer S, Vett B. 1994. Research Topic: Develop Preventive Measures/or Future Accumulations of Cave Lint. Final report submitted to Wind Cave National Park. Kraemer S, Yett B. 1992. Semi-annual Report, Research Topic: Develop Preventive Measures for Future Accumulations oreave Lint. Wind Cave National Park, Cave Management files. II p. Kraemer S, Yett B, Petty K. 1995. Jewel and Wind Cave Lint Camp. Wind Cave National Park, Cave Management files. 2 p. Kraemer S, Yett B, Petty K. 1997. Lillt Camp Report, 1997. Wind Cave National Park, Cave Management files. 2 p. Michie NA. 1997. Alllnvestigatioll of the Climate, Carbon Dioxide, and Dust ill Jellolall Caves, N.S. w., Ph.D. Thesis. School of Earth Sciences, Macquarie University, Australia. 298 p. Moore J. t 993. Survey oJthe Biota and Trophic Interactions }vithin Wind Cave and Jev,:e/ Cave, South Dakota. Progress Report, Wind Cave National Park, 11/29/93. 35 p. Moore J, Jesser R. 1995. Survey of the Biota and Trophic Interactions within Wind Cave and Jewe/ Cave, South Dakota. Final report, Wind Cave National Park, Cave Management files. 8 p. Moser P. 1988. All the real dirt on dust. The Exploratorium Quarterly 12(1): 15-19. Newbould RL. 1976. Steam cleaning of Orient Cave, NSW, Australia. Jeno/an Caves Historical and Preservation Society Occasional Paper No 1. p 5-15. Ohms M. 2002. Dust Deposition Along the Candlelight Tow; Final Report. Wind Cave National Park, Cave Management files. 4 p. Ressler D. 1988. Thoughts About Lint-The Great Fuzz Battle Begins. Cave Management files, Wind Cave National Park. Roth J. 1987. Preliminary Survey of Lint Accumulation in Carlsbad Caverns. Unpublished manuscript, January 7, 1987. Carlsbad Caverns National Park Library. 3 p. Schmitz SA. 1996. Lost Soldiers Cave restoration project. NSS News 54(2/3): 59-63. Additional Reading Ohms M, Rogers R. 1999. Black Hills restoration camp. NSS News 57(4):99100. 361

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362 Cave Conservation and Restoration Pickard R. 1993. Particulate matter accumulations in the Aberombie Cave. Labyrinth, The Journal o/the University o/Technology. Sydney Speleological Society, no 42. p 15-30. Spate A, Moses C. 1994. Impacts of high pressure cleaning: A case study at Jenolan. In: [1998] Cave Management in Australasia X. Carlton South, Victoria (AU): ACKMA. p 45-48. [Proceedings o/the Tenth ACKMA Conference, Auckland, New Zealand. ACKMA 10:45-48.] [Cave Management in Australasia 10:45-48.] Tinsley J, Miller K, Johnson R. 1989. Monitoring and sedimentology of selected caves at Lava Beds National Monument. Abstract in: Cave Research Foundation 1991 Annual Report. p 31. Went WF. 1970. Measuring cave air movements with condensation nuclei. National Speleological Society Bulletin 32( I): 1-9. r



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Part 3-Restoration: VeniTrash and Rubble Section C-Restoring Cave Passages Guidelines for Trash and Rubble Cleanup Projects George Veni Sometimes caves and sinkholes become trash dumps. Large rubble piles from trail building are often left in show caves. Other chapters discuss detailed aspects of removing artificial fill (page 367) and cleaning out sinkholes (page 381). While much of the restoration and rubble removal at these sites is intuitive and obvious, below arc some guidelines to minimize surprises and ensure the work goes smoothly. Trash Pits and Sinkholes Trash is sometimes dumped in sinkholes or cave entrances. Working inside the cave may not be necessary, so access and removal is relatively simple. Following are some important items to consider for restoration work that involves trash removal. Gloves and shots. Everyone should wear thick leather gloves and be current on their tetanus shots. While many underplay the threat of tetanus, by the time the symptoms appear it can be fatal. Check with your doctor for other immunizations you should consider. Recycling. Decide in advance ifit is feasible to recycle the glass, aluminum, and other materials removed from the cave or sinkhole. Ifso, prepare areas and containers for sorting and temporary storage, and be sure to line up a recycling facility that will accept the materials. If possible. sort the recyclables as they are dug out of the pile-otherwise assign enough people to sort them at the top. Disposal. Arrange in advance how you will dispose of the materials. You may need to take them to a public landfill and pay a small fee. Contact the landfill first. Some only accept certain types of trash and have vehicle or load requirements. See if a public agency can be involved to waive the fee and perhaps provide a dump truck. If the trash volume is small, it could be divided between the cavers and set out with their weekly trash pickup. Interview the owner. Find out what the owner knows about the age, content, and extent of the trash. It will prove important in planning the restoration project and for the considerations listed below. How old is it? In many states, human-produced materials more than 50 years old are considered archaeological or historical artifacts (cultural artifacts). Their handling and disposal may be regulated. Contact your State Historical Preservation Office (SHPO) for advice if you suspect a dump could hold historical materia!. If possible, find an archaeologist to monitor the excavation for rare or unusual items worthy of preservation that most people wouldn't recognize. (See 50-year rule, page 341; also see SHPO page 116 and page 334.) 363 Sometimes caves and sinkholes become trash dumps. Here are some guidelines to ... minImIze surpnses and ensure the work goes smoothly.

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364 Many privately owned show caves are first developed on a shoe-string budget. Unfortunately, as trails are cut, the rubble is dumped in piles or down pits and outof-the-way passages. Cavers love to dig, but this craving must be curbed. In projects where a lot of materia! needs to be removed, many cavers will be needed to haul away the material produced by only a few diggers. Cave Conservation and Restoration Is it toxic"! Use common sense. Avoid physical contact with potential hazardous materials and fumes. If you're not sure, leave it alone, even if you must cancel the restoration project, and call a county or state inspector to assess and remove it. For recent dumps where containers of hazardous materials are more likely to be intact, use additional leak-proof containers for transport. Hazardous materials should not be disposed of with the nonhazardous trash-make disposal arrangements with the appropriate facilities. With most old trash dumps, bottles and cans have long ago leaked their chemicals into the groundwater. However, toxic substances in car batteries and other hazardous materials may still present hazards. Rubble Piles Many privately owned show caves are first developed on a shoe-string budget. Unfortunately, as trails are cut, the rubble is dumped in piles or down pits and out-of-the-way passages. Special considerations in rubble removal are covered in the following section. Three primary concerns arc essential when removing trail rubble: Exercise caution to protect the cave from additional damage. Learn from the owner if electrical or other utility lines may be hidden in the rubble. Decide with the owner how to sort and what to do with whole or broken speleothems that may be found. How to Remove Large Volumes of Materials Regardless of whether it is trash or rubble, following are some guidelines for removing large volumes o~materials. Limit the number of diggers. Cavers love to dig, but this craving must be curbed. In projects where a lot of material needs to be removed, especially if the project is conducted in a cave or down a deep sinkhole or pit, many cavcrs will be needed to haul away the material produced by only a few diggers. Buckets. For most projects, hauling debris in 20-liter (5-gallon) plastic buckets is the easiest method for transporting materials. The size of the bucket limits weight to a reasonable amount. Buckets are sturdy, hold large and small items, do not leak, and are convenient to stack, load, and transport. At least 30 buckets are needed for small projects and over 100 may be needed for large projects. At any given time, many of the buckets are in transit in or out of the cave or are waiting to be filled. Of course, plans should be made in advance for removing large or awkward items that will not fit in buckets. Partly IiII the huekets. Depending on the weight of items loaded, it may be important to till buckets only hall~way. Full buckets are often too heavy for most cavers to carry. The half-way till also works if the material is likely to spill out, or if the weight or contents are more likely to break the buckets. Don't repack huekets. Once a bucket is tilled. do not empty or repack it until it is ready to be dumped. Repacking results in extra effort. less emcient use of people, spillage throughout the cave, and more cleanup. Wheelbarrows have been used in some projects, but they can create messes in the cave. Also, time is lost loading and unloading wheelbarrows, and they are likely to damage the cave if the passages are narrow. Pass, do not carry buckets. Carrying buckets is tiring, inefficient, and creates a lot of potential for injury to cavers and caves. The most ef1icient

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Part 3-Restoration: VeniTrash and Rubble way of moving buckets over irregular terrain, like stairways in a show cave or uneven ground in a sinkhole, is to pass them, in assembly-line fashion. Place cavers about 2 to 3 paces apart. This requires a few morc people, but is easier on the people and the cave, results in faster removal of the buckets, and produces far less confusion than cavers running all over the place. Dollies. Upright or truck dollies should be used in flat-floored passages. Half-filled buckets can be stacked 3 or 4 high and wheeled quickly out of the cave or to an area where people will pass them onward. Ifpassages are narrow, a prearranged location should be established for the dollies to pass each other. Dump trucks. All removed material should be dumped into a truck and carried off for proper disposal at a landfill. If only rubble and dirt are removed, a flat-bed trailer may suffice to carry the trail rubble to a field where it can be deposited and blended with the landscape. Heavy equipment. Some excavations may be beyond what can be feasibly accomplished by human hands and buckets. Some types of work will require heavy equipment such as backhoes, skid loaders ("bobcats"), and excavators. People with specific skills and training in heavy equipment should operate it. For safety reasons-unless required for other specialized tasks-no one else should be allowed in the excavation area. Slopes (and sometimes even level surfaces) in and near sinkholes may be unstable under the weight of heavy equipment. Extreme caution is necessary. The equipment should not be fueled in the sinkhole unless there is no alternative-always take precautions to prevent spills of fuel, oil, or hydraulic fluid. To prevent damage to the natural sinkhole walls and floor, equipment operators must be careful not to dig too deeply in any single movement. Some fill can be left and later removed more carefully by hand. 365 Some excavations may be beyond what can be feasibly accomplished by human hands and buckets. Some types of work will require heavy equipment.

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366 Cave Conservation and Restoration



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Part 3-Restoration: Horrocks and Roth-Removing Artificial Fill Section C-Restoring Cave Passages Removing Artificial Fill from Developed Caves Rodney D. Horrocks and John E. Roth Artificial fill changes and potentially impacts the natural conditions of caves in undesirable ways. In developed caves, introduced fill results from disturbing natural sediments, dumping trail construction or blasting debris, or constructing artificial structures. Through a series of mitigating steps, artificially introduced debris or materials can be removed and natural features can be restored. It is important to differentiate natural cave sediments from human-caused debris and to define goals for restoring natural conditions in a cave. Safety issues, tools, and techniques for removing artificial fill are discussed in this chapter. Reasons for Conducting Artificial Fill Removal Projects Artificial fill has been introduced since caves were first developed for visitors, but it was not until the late 1970s that show cave managers recognized the need to restore natural conditions by removing unnatural materials (Rohde and Kerbo 1978). The accepted practice, described by Irving (1989), is to "remove all unnecessary. unnatural materials Irom the cave, but leave natural materials in the cave." Cave managers remove artificial fill to restore any combination of natural conditions-airflow, water flow, speleothem growth or dissolution rates, biotic communities, or visual scenes. Fill remediation projects may also remove harmful materials from and restore natural conditions to the cave environment. Artificial fill can disrupt the volume and speed of air flowing into or out of a cave. The presence of fill, excavated pits and passages, or the altering of cave entrances can lead to unnatural drying out or wetting of passages. These alterations can even cause unnatural freezing or thawing deep in caves. Where feasible. the volume and configuration of an area may be restored to the original state before the fill was introduced. On another hand, borrow pits that were dug to obtain trail construction materials may be refilled with artificial fill, as long as that fill is native to the cave or is similar to the fill that was excavated, and the locations are carefully documented. Artificial fill can alter temperatures to the extent that bats will abandon some roosts. Likewise. bats may be attracted by temperature changes where there are no historical or paleontological records of their presence. In such cases, the value of restoring natural conditions should be carefully weighed with other factors such as the species present, its vulnerability, and the availability of suitable, alternate roosting sites. Natural hydrologic flow paths can be disrupted by the presence of artificial fill, trails, or dams. These obstructions can entirely change biotic communities within a cave, as well as the flow of nutrients within the cave ecosystem. especially if formerly dry passages are flooded. Blockages may also change the nature and amounts of speleothem deposition. Speleothem 367 In developed caves, introduced fill results from disturbing natural sediments, dumping trail construction or blasting debris, or constructing artificial structures.

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368 Figure la (before, at left) and Figure I b (after, at right). Removal of artificial fill at Lenas Arbor along the Natural Entrance Tour Route in Wind Cave National Park. Fill in the center of the photo was removed. Note that dust on the surfaces of the surrounding rock is also gone. Cave Conservation and Restoration growth rates can be unnaturally disrupted when covered with artificial fill. This may lead to the cementation of the fill, which adds difficulties and dilemmas to the fill removal process. By fe-exposing a natural substrate that was covered with artificial fill, biotic communities may be restored when original surfaces or food sources are again accessible. Disrurhance of some types of natural fill may increase habitat for microbes, egg-laying crickets, and egg predators. Sometimes, the reason to restore a room or passage is largely aesthetic. Restoration projects may enhance part of a tour route and add interesting visual scenes where none existed since the initial impact (Figure 1). Various impacts may occur from construction materials that are harmful to the cave, its biota, or to people. The following materials are major targets for fill removal projects: Galvanized steel, which may leach zinc into cave waters and impact cave biota (Jameson 1995) Epoxy-covered trail chips Asphalt (carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons) Aluminum railings, which may leach aluminum into the cave in the presence of acidic water Batteries Old transformers, especially any containing PCB's (polychlorinated biphenyls) Control panels with mercury switches Before removing potentially toxic materials, consult Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for specific information about the safe handling of each substance. (See MSDS, page 70 and page 172.) Types of Artificial Fill Artificial fill is dilTerentiated from natural fill as material added to or internally disturbed by human activity in a cave. The goal during any artificial fill removal project should be to avoid disturbing any natural or in situ fill. At least two experienced people should evaluate each potential fill area. If everyone involved cannot agree that the material was the result of human activity, then the site should be left until the nature of the fill is better understood. Artificial fill usually results from one of four activities-blasting; trail projects; utility line projects; or construction projects. Typically, these projects were originally instigated to facilitate the visiting public by aiding access, providing services, or artificially enhancing visual scenes. Occasionally, these projects were conducted to create level areas for equipment or to allow returning guides to bypass tour routes.

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Part 3-Restoration: Horrocks and Roth-Removing Artificial Fill Blast debris may result from entrance enlargement, tunnel construction; ceiling expansion; platform construction; trail leveling, widening, or deepening. In the past, gravel-sized to very-large angular blocks of rock were sometimes dumped in the nearest convenient spot so that laborers would not have to haul them out of the cave. In some cases, tiny chips of rock reveal that blast debris was dumped into a convenient hole. These activities usually generated large quantities of artificial fill that may partially block existing passages and greatly reduce their volume and aesthetic appeal. Trail construction and utility line projects in show caves produce varying volumes of debris, including silt, sand, clay, gravel, or broken calcite. During construction, this material was often stuffed into every available pit or alcove along a trail. When flowstone or other speleothems are found among this type of debris, the material should stay in the cave and not be dumped outside where collecting might be encouraged. Materials that belong in the cave may be stored in a dead-end side passage (so it does not affect natural airflow), and certainly away from visitors' sight and reach. [fpossible, speleothems should be repaired and reattached in their original locations. (See speleothem repair and questions, page 441.) Broken speleothems should never be used as interpretive "touching stones" since this type of activity may lead to additional touching when visitors wonder how the other speleothems feel. Touching stones may also encourage collecting and vandalism. Trail construction projects or artificial structures in developed caves can disrupt natural conditions. Sometimes, minerals in nonnative gravels will cause potential leaching or deposition problems, or even provide artificial food sources for microbial life. Structures such as rock walls, concrete pads, artificial dams, asphalt trails, soil cements, or gates are often found in developed caves. Artificial dams can reduce habitat for some species while creating new habitat for others, both of which disturb cave ecosystems. An improperly built gate can reduce or increase airflow, impede or increase natural biota, and change air temperatures and relative humidity. Calcium hydroxide in Portland cement is very soluble and is easily dissolved and quickly redeposited as "soda straws" or "flowstone" below concrete structures. These deposits grow at an accelerated pace compared to normal calcium carbonate speleothems. Managers should attempt to keep concrete trails in the lowest part of a passage or in areas where undersaturated water does not drip or run onto the pathway. I f possible, visitor trails should not be built under actively dripping stalactites where new speleothems are apt to develop on the constructed path. I f concrete structures are built in cave passages, use high tensile strength cement with low amounts of calcium hydroxide. This type of concrete will last longer in cave environments. (See concrete, page 169; also see cuncrete products, page 476.) Recognizing In Situ Deposits Because it is often very difficult to recognize in-place, or in situ, deposits, artificial fill removal projects should be preceded by testing, and work crews should be supervised closely. As in archaeological excavations, test pits should be dug in the suspected fill to determine what has been dumped, what the natural in situ material looks like, what tools are going to be needed, and what issues may be encountered. Even a quick analysis of the types and history of naturally laid material in the cave is helpful in identifying artificial fill and from where in the cave the material was excavated. The presence of speleothems (such as popcorn lines, moonmilk deposits, cave rims, and the orientation of corallo ids) or atmospheric corrosion sites can provide information for identifying areas where fill did not naturally exist. Naturallill is often marked by a change in color. The presence of 369 During show cave development, trail construction and utility line projects produced varying volumes of debris, including silt, sand, clay, gravel, or broken calcite. This material was often stuffed into every available pit or alcove along a trai!.

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370 Figure 2. An over zealous cave restoration worker dug into these in situ (in place) sediments in the Assembly Room in Wind Cave National Park. Notice the laminations in the natural cave till, which in this case are multicolored and readily visible. Cave Conservation and Restoration speleogens (sculpted bedrock that is sometimes dissolved underneath natural fill), or a change in wall rock color may indicate that natural fill has been artificially removed, although such sediment can be removed by natural process as \vell. A number of criteria can indicate if the deposits are in situ-layering, compaction, voids, broken surfaces, tool scratching, calcite deposition, organics, and historical artifacts. Nonnally, fine-scale layering is a sure sign of in situ deposits. However, artificial layering can be created by maintenance NPS Photo Rod Horrocks workers spreading down alternating layers of sand or gravel to prepare an area for trail construction. Coarser layering can be caused by dumped materials that came from multiple sites. In such instances, coarser blasting material may be overlain by finer materials that were dumped on top, creating artificial layering. However, if fine laminations, cross bedding, or pebble imbrications are present, the layers are natural (Figure 2). Natural sediments may show varying degrees of calcification and may create weakly cemented deposits. Compaction is another good indicator of in situ materials. Fine-grained water-lain materials usually have very little air space between the grains. However, compaction can also result when a deposit has been walked on for extended periods of time. Tests pits will reveal that such compaction is less than 15 centimeters (6 inches) deep. Voids, especially those near natural walls, are often good indicators that material has been re-excavated and dumped. Pack rat nests can indicate when fill removal efforts have reached the natural floors. Sometimes the organics have decomposed from these nests, leaving only bones to indicate their former existence and the presence of in situ materials below. Undisturbed in situ rocks in caves are often covered with a thin veneer of calcite or other materials-however, fresh fractures on rocks commonly indicate the presence of artificial fill. Carbonate rocks broken during blasting and other construction activities often have a sparkly surface with small amounts of calcite dust. However, blast debris may be covered with a thin film of mud, which may be calcified and mask fractures or tool scratches. Scratches are sometimes found on rocks that have been excavated with tools. Thus, scratches, especially randomly oriented ones, are good indicators of artificial fill. Since the calcite dust produced by scratches is easily dissolved, prehistoric scratches are often not visible. The easiest fill restoration projects involve the removal of artificial fill dumped on tlowstone, calcified sediment, crusts, or stalagmites where identification of the material is more obvious. However, watch for sediments that may be deposited on calcite surfaces, mimicking artificial fill conditions. Other calcite deposits can also indicate in situ materialsexamples include floor coatings, wall coatings on rocks, and coralloids such as popcorn. Metal tools should not be used to remove fill when approaching these surfaces because the soft calcite is easily scratched. Plastic tools such as putty knives, hand brooms, and gardening hand shovels work well, depending on the material encountered (Netherton 1993). However, sometimes a thin layer of partly cemented fill or blasting mud can only be removed with dense-bristled metal brushes, which may cause minor scratching. Only clean, rust-free, nonpainted stainless steel and new nylon

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Part 3-Restoration: Horrocks and Roth-Removing Artificial Fill brushes should be used in cave projects--old ones tend to shed steel, rust, or nylon into the cave. (See restoration tools, page 406.) Lumber or burned wood may indicate the presence of artificially dumped debris. Look for squared ends and saw or axe marks on such pieces. Creosote or pressure-treated wood usually should be removed. Be caretiII not to remove cultural resources without the assistance of an archaeologist. Removal of rotting wood piles may cause population crashes among cave-dwelling species. Check wood for fauna and consult a biologist if cave-dwelling species are found. (See wood piles, page 37.) Wood may have to be removed in stages to mitigate impact to cave biota. Wood should not be removed if it will disintegrate during transport and thus provide an unnatural nutrient windfall (Lewis 1993). Buckets or bags may be used if this is a concern. The presence of recent cultural items usually indicates the presence of artificial fill. However, burrowing animals may take items into in situ materials. These objects may also fall into cracks between rocks or be washed in during flooding. Many states consider cultural objects more than 50 years old as having potential archaeological significance and an archaeologist should be consulted on the disposition of these items (more information is included below). The presence of construction debris is usually a good indication that the fill has been disturbed. Such debris may include pea gravel, sand, cement splatter, or trash. If the gravel and sand is a rock type not native to the cave and is not in a stream deposit, it is usually safe to assume it has been dumped at the site. Sharp, angular gravel or boulders with some calcite dust usually indicate blasting. Blocks of breccia are sometimes hard to distinguish from concrete. but usually will have some amount of calci tied mud, as opposed to mud-free concrete surfaces. Certain natural processes may produce materials that resemble artificial fill. lfthe project is near an entrance, piles of frost-wedged wall rock or thin layers that have spalled off speleothems may resemble artificial fill. Speleothems desiccating in domes, humidity changes on gypsum layers, or atmospheric corrosion of ceilings may leave piles of debris on the floor that resemble artificial fill. Additionally, flood events may wash material into a cave. The presence of charcoal in these flood deposits may help in determining what is natural and what is not. Special Issues It is very useful for cave restorers to include or at least have access to experts with engineering, archaeological, biological. and paleontological experience to address the many special issues encountered in artificial fill removal projects. Special concerns include cultural artifacts and grafliti, broken speleothems, cement-covered speleothems, recemented fill, destabilization, utility lines, and artificial lakes. It is common to find cultural items mixed in with artificial fill. A qualified archaeologist should determine their preservation, age, historical significance, and whether they should be collected or discarded. Cultural artifacts include any manufactured item that is over 50 years old. (See cultural resources, page 110; also see 50-year rule, page 341.) If a qualified archaeologist directs that certain cultural items are worthy of collection, they should be bagged with a completed artifact label. Mark locations on a large-scale map and record the depth items were found below the till surface. Number and bag each item separately. Record these data at the time of collect ion, even if the value is not immediately obvious-this important information cannot be accurately re-created at a later date. The presence of datable artifacts may aid in determining when overlying layers 371 It is very useful for cave restorers to include or at least have access to experts with engineering. archaeological, biological, and paleontological experience to address the many special issues encountered in artificial fill removal projects.

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372 Figu rc 3. Use a hammer drill with plug and feathers to split large blocks of rock into smaller, safer chunks of rubble. This is a low-impact technique when workers take care to contain the dust that results from drilling. Cave Conservation and Restoration of fill were dumped. Pieces of flowstone. rocks with popcorn, or wall coating mixed in with artificial fill are often found and should remain in the cave. These materials may be hand-picked from the artificial fill if they are in large pieces or sieved out ifin smaller pieces. If they arc dumped outside, they may encourage collecting, both by individuals and commercial operators. Reattach identifiable speleothems where possible. Dump remaining materials in an area of the cave that is not accessible or visible to visitors, near their origin, and where they do not impact natural airflow or clog natural hydrological drains. Thoroughly document in-cave dumping sites. Concrete was often applied directly to flowstone surfaces as sidewalks, platforms, and light shields. Concrete also can be found splattered on speleothems adjacent to paved trails or covering wire runs between transformers and light fixtures. Restoration should not be attempted if speleothems would be damaged to a degree greater than the benefits derived from restoring the natural surface. However, rapid deposition can cover over shallow scratches resulting from restoration. Concrete can often be removed with hammers, chisels, and dental picks. It may sometimes be popped off using a light blow to a chisel parallel to the contact between smooth flowstone and concrete. This technique cannot be used when bumpy surfaces, such as popcorn, are covered with concrete. Any chiseling should be done at an angle and not perpendicular to the surfaces being cleaned (Schaper 1995). If a significant amount of time has elapsed since the artificial fill was dumped, dripping water may have cemented the fill together. Ifmore than a thin film has accumulated, several questions should be asked and answered before proceeding: Is the artificial fill impeding natural airflow or hydrological drains? Is the fill preventing the growth of buried speleothems? Are there biological considerations? If the answer is yes to any of these questions. seriously consider removing the fill. When buried speleothems are encountered below a drip point, dripping water may have already cemented the fill to those speleothems and the resulting conglomeration will have to be carefully removed. Removal of artificial fill can destabilize large breakdown blocks. Carefully supervise volunteers if they dig underneath or around such rocks. I f a large block is also artificial fill, it may be broken up before becoming unstable. A hammer drill with plug and feathers is a highly effective, low-impact technique for breaking up large blocks (Figure 3). Exercise care to reduce dust caused by hammer drills. Another technique involves filling drilled holes with expanding materials. Expanding materials need to be completely removed aner they have broken up the rock. Anytime artificial fill is removed from a developed cave, workers may encounter buried utility lines, especially electric cables, water lines, or phone lines. High-voltage cables can be life threatening. Maintenance employees or

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Part 3-Restoration: Horrocks and Roth-Removing Artificial Fill the original developers should be contacted before work begins. If an electrical cable is known to be buried in a certain area, turn ofT the power before the project begins. Test all continuous wires with an electromagnetic device to make certain they are not live, and then carefully remove the artificial fill. Once found, use hand tools to uncover the wire throughout its entire length. Lines can then be bundled together and lifted, or tied out of the way so they are not stepped on or hit with metal tools as the project progresses. If an artificial lake has been built in a developed cave, the lake can be slowly drained using small tubing. Or the water might be used for cleaning and restoring muddy or soiled areas, but not relatively pristine areas. ffthis water is safe to use for cleaning, collect the restoration run-ofT and do not allow it to run onto cave floors. Avoid relocating any problem to a new place. (See restoration runoff, page 339 and page 396.) Use lint-free rags or sponges to sop up the cleaning water. Exercise care to avoid causing unnatural erosion. Equipment and Tools Before an artificial fill removal projects starts, several items should be gathered or constructed: Permits (from agency/owner) Rocking screens (detailed information below) Large-scale cave maps Parental Consent Form (if youth volunteers are used) Additional items that will be useful are listed here: Camera, film, and flash Wheelbarrows Buckets, 20-liter (5-gallon) with handles Powerful portable lights Extension cords Square-nose shovels Round-nose shovels Short-handled shovels Folding shovels Garden trowels (nonpainted metal and plastic) Push brooms Tarps When final, detailed restoration is performed after the bulk of the artificial fill is removed, the following tools may be needed: HEPA filtered vacuum cleaner with special tools to reach into cracks Hand-held squirt bottles Paint brushes (2.5to 5-centimeter width or I-inch to 2-inch) Auto part brushes (to reach into small places) Toothbrushes Rags (lint-free) and sponges Handlcd scrub brushes Some artificial fill removal projects may require specialty equipment: Breaker bars for moving large blocks Impact hammer for use with plug and feathers Plug and feathers for breaking up large blocks 373 Test all continuous wires with an electromagnetic device to make certain they are not live, and then carefully remove the artificial fill. Once found, use hand tools to uncover the wire throughout its entire length.

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374 The most common safety hazard in cave fill removal is overfilled buckets. Big, heavy buckets can easily cause strained muscles, back injuries, or bone-bmised heels. There are a number of special techniques for accomplishing artificial fill removal tasks-research and testing, documentation, tallying fill totals, excavation, transporting materials, and locating buried speleothems. Cave Conservation and Restoration Powered wheel barrows for outside use only Hammers and chisels for removing concrete Dental tools for removing cement or loose till in small spaces Quart-sized zip-closure bags for bagging artifacts-first consult with an archaeologist Artifact labels (cards for artifact bags) Permanent markers for labeling artifact bags Each worker should have the following personal gear: Helmet Helmet-mounted light Leather gloves Knee pads and elbow pads Sturdy boots Change of clothes Goggles (depending on job) Ear plugs (depending on job) Dust masks (depending on job) Safety Measures Safely is the most important aspect of cave restoration. Planning can greatly increase the safety margin at artificial fill removal projects. When youth volunteers are participating, their parents should sign a parental consent form. Volunteers may need to sign a liability release form. It is important to inspect the restoration site beforehand to look for potential safety hazards. At the excavation site, each worker should wear gloves, safety helmet, sturdy boots, and appropriate clothes (layered clothing for cold caves-layers can be removed if workers overheat). There should be at least a l-to-6 supervisor-to-worker ratio to properly oversee the progress of the excavation. The supervisors or team leaders are responsible for monitoring the safety of workers and assuring protection of cave surfaces. Make sure that no excavator is undermining sediment banks or large rocks. See that workers are wearing appropriate safety gear for individual tasks. Monitor whether workers are overtiring or overheating. Assure sufficient spacing between workers (so they are not swinging equipment and hitting each other or the walls). Buckets and wheelbarrows should be operated by individuals physically capable of handling them. No one should be tossing rocks or tools. Many cave restorers are inexperienced cavers and need to be trained in safe and conservation-oriented caving and climbing techniques. Vertical or climbing skills are needed to reach many fill sites. The most common safety hazard in cave fill removal is overfilled buckets. Big, heavy buckets can easily cause strained muscles, back injuries. or bone-bruised heels. Overfilling is hard on the buckets, and causes them to break or spill. Depending on the volunteers participating, buckets should be marked inside with a line only one-third to two-thirds above the bottom of the bucket and supervisors should be careful in seeing that workers do not exceed that mark. The weight should be geared to the smallest member of the crew or the individual in the most awkward position for carrying a bucket. If possible, individuals in assembly-line crews should be of similar size. Remind workers how to lift buckets to

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Part 3-Restoration: Horrocks and Roth-Removing Artiticial Fill 375 avoid causing back strain. The second most common safety hazard is an overtired crew. The loss of coordination in tired workers can lead to accidents. Establish a workload maximum-for example, 3 hours in the morning and 3 hours in the afternoon with plenty of breaks in between and plenty of time to exit the cave at a safe speed. One way to detect tiredness and maintain high moral is for supervisors to banter with workers up and down the line and show interest in what they are accomplishing. The third most common safety hazard is moving rocks that are too large. Blasted rock can be broken up into smaller pieces before removal. (See the section above on special issues.) Other potential hazards include the following: Insufficient work space-the surrounding space needs to be cleared of people whenever overhead tools are used. Use picks and sledgehammers with fiberglass or plastic handles because wooden ones are more likely to splinter. Overheating-high temperatures and humidity may lead to overheating in some cave environments. Respiratory diseases-use filter masks in any dusty environment. Use HEPA tilter respirators where guano (wood rat, mouse, bat, birds, crickets) or amberat (dried wood rat urine) is present. Venomous biota-exercise caution near entrances where diseasecarrying mites, rattlesnakes, or the more venomous spiders (Meta sp., black widow, brown recluse, hobo) are present. Check skin for ticks or other mites after hiking to or from a remote cave. EMT response time-an EMT should accompany each group or be able to respond within 20 minutes. Unusual odors-if any unusual or strong odors are encountered, immediately instruct all participants to leave the artificial fill removal project. The source of that odor should be determined before the group is allowed back to the site. Techniques Figure 4: A section from the restoration map along the Natural Entrance Tour Route in Wind Cave National Park. All the beforeand-after photos taken and all the cultural items collected during the restoration project were referenced to the unit numbers assigned to each deposit on this restoration map. Wind Cave Artificial Fill Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota DclJlis mapped by Jason Wall. 1Q19.12102 Drawn by Rodney D. Horrocks. 10116102 E.A N'OJ-e Artificial Fill (USIed WI order QI m~ lO le,,~l nlrner0U5) N NalUfal [m,,,,,,,,, Tour Rome A Biasi Rubble B Commercial Gravel C Asphalt o Wood E Commercial Sand F Displaced Sediments G Linl Deposits H TrashICultl.-al Materials I Concrete Capitol ~ Hall 00, IJ.~ o HOI' H'" 'A E'-'" F;''''' A,F.C,s..,,, e.F,EH'" A.B.I HU' Giants Causeway TN ~MN ","_ ~ 0&'2002 50 Feet 15 Meta'"s 25 5 10 o o

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376 Cave Conservation and Restoration Cave Restoration Weight Log A=asphall, F=fill, L=linl, W=wood, M=mixed load Dale Crew Member Material Weight Dale Crew Member Material Weight Cave Restoration Artifact Log Artifact 10 Photo" Date Location Figure 5: Log sheet examples for photos, artifacts, and weights. These tally logs are used during cave restoration projects at Wind Cave National Park. Tour Route: Recorder: Project: Description Cave Restoration Photo Log Date Photo /I Site 10 Description Tour Route: Recorder: Project: Orientation Before/After There are a number of special techniques for accomplishing artificial fill removal tasks-research and testing, documentation, tallying fill totals, excavation, transporting materials, and locating buried speleothems. A little research before a project begins can be very useful, particularly oral history interviews with anyone who remembers the restoration site prior to being filled (Netherton 1993). Before any artificial fill removal project begins, test the material to determine access issues, potential safety concerns, the extent of the deposit, the nature of the fill, what is in situ and what is not, the number of excavators and haulers needed, the tools required, and the techniques that will work for removing the debris. It is important to document an artificial fill removal project before, during, and after with photographs. When taking pictures for before-andafter sequences, the camera should be mounted on a recoverable point (from a station that will never be removed during any stage of the project). For thorough documentation, photograph with black-and white-film as well as color and digital imaging techniques. Black-and-white film and photographic prints may last longer than color films, depending on the processing and storing techniques (See photo bullets, pages 209-211.) However, color images in caves will often give more information. A digital camera can be used, but the photographer should remember that the shelflife of digital storage products is largely unknown and files may have to be transferred to new media periodically. (See archival protection, page 210.) Ifa project is completed in stages, it is good to document the extent of

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Part 3-Restoration: Horrocks and Roth-Removing Artificial Fill each period of excavation on a large-scale map (Figure 4). Keeping track of the amount offill removed is good for morale. If20liter (5-gallon) buckets are used, fill several to a predetermined level and weigh them all on a common-weight scale to arrive at an average weight for that particular type offill. Individual bucket weights will vary depending on the material being moved and the void space in the buckets. The weights of these buckets may vary between about 14 to 23 kg (30 to 50 lbs). Once the average weight is determined, one person can keep track of the number of buckets dumped into a wheelbarrow or hauled out of the cave using a simple tally sheet (Figure 5). At the end of a work session, the number of ticks can be multiplied by the average bucket weight to obtain a good estimate of the amount offill removed by a group. Artificial fill removal projects should be closely supervised by experienced cave restorers. Expertise in archaeology and paleontology is beneficial. Project directors should be ready to bring in subject matter experts. Several potential disasters may occur if workers are/not closely watchedavoid digging into in situ materials, destabilizing large breakdown blocks, damaging or not documenting historic artifacts, and spilling wheelbarrows or buckets in the cavc. Wheelbarrows should be operated only by the stronger workers. To prevent creating dust or spilling debris, wheelbarrows or buckets should not be emptied or transferred while inside a cave. Supervision should be available for each work crew, whether excavating, hauling, or screening. Each artificial fill removal project will require different excavation techniques and tools, some of which will have to be developed specifically for individual projects. When developing these techniques, consider the following issues: Worker safety Minimizing dust and flying rock chips Proximity to speleothems Tool durability /n situ materials Workers should be able to adapt different tools to a specific project. If gravel-sized material is being removed, workers can get downhill from the area being excavated, put 20-liter (5-gallon) buckets between their legs, and simply use a garden trowel or a folding shovel to pull the fill into the bucket. Whenever the natural floor is approached, (see the section above on recognizing in situ deposits), the worker should switch to carefully remov377 When large groups of volunteers are available, an assembly line is the fastest method of moving large volumes of rubble. By spacing workers an arm's length apart, 20-liler (5gallon) buckets can be passed out of an excavation, down passages to paved cave trails, and up or down stairs. Figure 6. Rocking screens are used to screen for items that should not be discarded with the artificial fill-for example, broken speleothems. fossils. and cultural materials. This project was located outside the Hansen Cave Entrance, Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Utah. Figure 7. A volunteer group hauls debris out of the cave in "assembly'-line fashion," Crews of cavers have been known to pass up to one ton of debris in 15 minutes or less using this method at Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Utah.

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378 It is also important for morale and etlicient documentation to limit projects to a workable scale. Plan small enough projects so that workers can complete final cleaning of an area and see the results. Cave Conservation and Restoration ing the fill with hand tools, or use plastic tools if speleothems are present. If concrete walkways on artificial fill are being removed, they can be broken easily by tunneling underneath and using a sledge hammer to break the surface. If historical artifacts, broken speleothems, or pieces of calcite are present in the fill, many of them can be hand pieked during careful observation while excavating. If the fill is gravel size or smaller, the remaining fill should be screened so that small historical artifacts, fossils, and pieces of calcite are not dumped outside the cave-items that tend to encourage uninvited collecting. If delicate fossils are uncovered, they can be water screened with nonrocking, fine screens (I-millimeter mesh). Large rocking screens with double handles on one or two sides work well (Figure 6). Screens can be constructed out of lumber, PYC, or fiberglass, bolts, and window screen material. When large groups of volunteers are available. an assembly line is the fastest method of moving large volumes of rubble. By spacing workers an ann's length apart, lO-liter (5-gallon) buckets can be passed out of an excavation, down passages to paved cave trails, and up or down stairs (Figure 7). If a longer distance must be crossed, the group can pass a collection of buckets, stack them up and then move the line forward, repeating the process until the paved trail is encountered. At Timpanogos Cave in Utah, volunteer crews were able to move up to a ton of fill out of an excavation site every 15 minutes using these methods (Horrocks 1994). Once the paved trail is reached, loose fill can be dumped into waiting wheelbarrows (if it doesn't create dust) and buckets can be stacked on dollies and rolled to the entrance. It is also important for morale and efficient documentation to limit projects to a workable scale. Plan small enough projects so that workers can complete final cleaning of an area and see the results of their efforts. Projects should start at peripheries and work toward the established trails to prevent further impacts in restored areas. Before starting any excavation, check the ceiling for soda straws and stalactites to help predict the location of stalagmites (stalactites may not be currently dripping). Workers at each potential stalagmite location should be cautioned to watch for that speleothem. Likewise, tlowstone on a wall or uphill from the fill can be used to predict the presence of buried flowstone surfaces. When excavating, it is always easiest to start on a tlowstone or popcorn surface-use plastic tools and work along the flows tone, removing fill as you progress deeper into the deposit. Dirty handrails and trails need to be cleaned during and after a fill removal project. Tools should be cleaned and sharpened if needed. Remove all restoration supplies that will rust or decompose in the cave. All other material stored for an ongoing fill removal project should be hidden from the sight of visitors on the developed trail. Clean mud otTthe equipment each night before leaving because some materials are difficult to remove from the tools the next day (Netherton 1993). Summary Through the mitigating steps described in this chapter, artificially introduced debris, rubble, and fill materials can be removed from the cave and natural cave features can be restored. Be certain the supervisors or team leaders can differentiate natural cave sediments from human-caused debris. In this volume, also see the brief!ist of trash and rubble guidelines describing safety, tools, and techniques (page 363).

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Part 3-Restoration: Horrocks and Roth-Removing Artificial Fill Cited References Horrocks RD. 1994. Artificial fill removal project: Timpanogos Cave System, Timpanogos Cave National Monument. NSS News 53(4): I 02-1 07. Irving D. 1989. Wind Cave Restoration Field Camp. NSS News 47(2):34-36. Jameson RA. 1995. Zinc leaching from galvanized steel in Mystery Cave, Minnesota. In: Rea GT, editor. Proceedings of the 1995 National Cave Management Symposium: Spring Mill State Park. Mitchell. Indiana. October 25-28, 1995. Indianapolis (IN): Indiana Karst Conservancy. p 178-185. Lewis JJ. 1993. The effects of cave restoration on some aquatic communities [abstract]. In: 1991 National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings: Bowling Green, Kentucky, October 23-26,1991. Horse Cave (KY): American Cave Conservation Association, Inc. p 346-350. Netherton W. t 993. Mystery Cave trails: Past, present and future. In: Jorden JR, Obele RK, editors. Proceedings of the 1989 National Cave Management Symposium: New Braunfels, Texas. Austin (TX): Texas Cave Management Association; Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. p 141-147. Rohde K, Kerbo R. 1978. Cave restoration: An underview of correcting overviewing. In: Zuber R, editor. National Cave Management Symposium proceedings: Big Sky, Montana, October 3-7, 1977. Albuquerque (NM): Adobe Press. p 55-58. Schaper J. 1995. Techniques and volunteer issues in the restoration of Cathedral Cave. In: Rea GT, editor. Proceedings of the 1995 National Cave Management Symposium: Spring Ali11 State Park, lUi/chell, Indiana, Dc/abel' 25-28, 1995. Indianapolis (IN): Indiana Karst Conservancy. p 279-281. Additional Reading Benton JM. 1995. Marengo Cave second annual restoration weekend. NSS News 53(2):41-42. Crisman B. 1985. Cave restoration at Carlsbad Caverns National Park. NSS News 43(5): 177-180. Crisman B. 1985. Pioneering cave restoration at Carlsbad Caverns. Inroad'! 47:40-43. Kohlwey K. 1992. 1991 Timpanogos Cave restoration project. NSS News 52(1):12-13. Meyer P J, French JA. 1995. Cathedral Caverns: Techniques for restoration and cleaning. NSS News 53(7): 186-193. Meyer P J, French JA. 1996. Crossings Cave: Test bed for cave restoration. NSS News 54(2-3):54-58. Rhodes D. 1976. Cave restoration: a(n) (im)possible task. NSS News 34(11 ):200-202. Rogers N. 1995. Mammoth Cave restoration field camp. NSS News 53(2):44-44. Rohde K. 1989. Cave restoration begins at Wind Cave. NSS News 47(2):32-34. Schmitz SA. 1996. Lost soldiers cave restoration project. NSS News 54(23):59-63. Tranel MJ. 1992. Changing to prevent change: Building a science and resource management program. NSS News 52( I ):22-25. Vale E. 1991. It's an open and shut cave: Plugging artificial entrances at Onondaga Cave State Park. In: 1991 National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings: Bowling Green, Kentucky, October 23-26, 199 J. Horse Cave, KY: American Cave Conservation Association, Inc. p 129-131. Veni G. 1994. The 3rd annual Caverns of Sonora restoration project. The Texas Caver 39( I ):3-4. 379

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380 Cave Conservation and Restoration Veni G. 1995. The 4th annual Caverns of Sonora restoration project. The Texas Caver 40(1 ):3-4. Veni, G. 1998. 1998 Sonora restoration project. The Texas Caver 43(6):8789. Reprinted in SpeleoDigest 1999:301-302.



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Part 3-Restoration: Fagan and Orndorff-Sinkhole Cleanup Section C-Restoring Cave Passages Sinkhole Cleanout Projects Joseph H. Fagan and William D. Orndorff Sinkholes serve as natural catchments where surface waler enters the subsurface to recharge karst aquifers. Dumping trash in sinkholes leads to contamination of groundwater systems. Improper management practices result in polluting caves and water. Over the decades, many landowners used caves and sinkholes as places to dispose of trash and sometimes even hazardous materials. Debris commonly found in sinkhole dumpsites can range from common household waste, old appliances and junk cars, to pesticide containers and dead animal carcasses. Debris from dumping frequently obstructs cave entrances that are found in sinkholes. As water flows through such an accumulation of waste, contaminants and pathogens wash into the cave environment and ultimately into drinking water supplies. Sinkhole cleanout projects are a practical way to protect caves and improve the quality of groundwater in karst aquifers. Some sinkholes tend to channel unfiltered pollutants into the subsurface more readily than others do. Sinkholes with cave entrances or ones receiving flow from active or intermittent streams are particularly vulnerable to contamination. These more sensitive sinkholes should receive a higher priority when planning and targeting clean outs. Especially valuable are projects resulting in restoration and protection of habitat for stygobitic and troglobitic fauna in cave and karst systems. (See stygobites, page 36.) Sinkhole cleanout projects can significantly help efforts to preserve biological diversity in karst regions. Landowner Involvement Landowner involvement is the most important element in organizing a sinkhole c1eanout. It is critical for the landowner to fully agree with project plans and grant legal permission before performing any work. Funding for sinkhole cleanouts usually depends on landowner participation. Unless you or your organization is willing to absorb all the costs, the landowner will be a major player in cleaning up any sinkhole dump. Landowners can apply for funding through federal and state environmental cost share programs to pay for sinkhole clean outs. Under some cost share programs, donated volunteer labor can apply toward required landowner contributions. Depending upon the specific details ofa sinkhole cleanout project. and what cost share funding program is used. the required landowner contribution might range from 0 to 50 percent. Government Assistance Government programs at various levels can fund sinkhole cleanout projects. Federal programs such as the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) and the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) may fund a cleanout if the sinkhole receives an active stream. Sinkholes with large drainage areas and significant intermittent stream flows into the groundwater may also qualify for funding under CREP. The 381 Dumping trash in sinkholes leads to contamination of groundwater systems. Improper management practices result in polluting caves and water. Landowner involvement is the most important element in orgamzmg a sinkhole c1eanout.

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382 The US Fish and Wildlife Service funds and manages sinkhole and cave cleanout projects involving federally listed species with the Partners for Wildlife Program under the US Department of the Interior. In addition to government programs, private organizations sometimes fund sinkhole clean out projects. Cave Conservation and Restoration Federal Farm Bill provides funding for the CREP and EQIP programs through the US Department of Agriculture. The US Fish and Wildlife Service funds and manages sinkhole and cave clean out projects involving federally listed species with the Partners for Wildlife Program under the US Department of the Interior. In addition to paying for implementation of particular conservation practices, some programs provide an annual rental payment to landowners who continue to maintain conservation practices as specified under a contractual agreement. Cost share rental payments are usually contingent on the sinkhole being fenced off after the cleanout. State Assistance Some states sponsor cost share and tax credit programs to assist landowners with conservation practices such as sinkhole cleanouts. On July I, 2002, the Virginia Agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs) Cost Share Program, administered by the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, adopted a Sinkhole Protection BMP. The Virginia Sinkhole Protection BMP (WQ-II) can pay up to 75 percent of the cost for a sinkhole cleanout with a maximum contribution by the slate of $2,500. Landowners in Virginia and elsewhere can also apply for financial assistance for conservation efforts through their local Soil and Water Conservation Otlice. Other agencies assisting landowners are the USDA Farm Service Agency and Natural Resources Conservation Service. Cave Conservancies In addition to government programs, private organizations sometimes fund sinkhole clean out projects. Cave conservancies such as the Cave Conservancy of the Virginias, the West Virginia Cave Conservancy, the Michigan Karst Conservancy, and the Indiana Karst Conservancy have all supported sinkhole clean outs. The Nature Conservancy of Tennessee and the Canaan Valley Institute are also involved with sinkhole c1eanout work. Much can be accomplished through cooperation between private organizations and government agencies. The Virginia Karst Program, administered under the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation Division of Natural Heritage, has coordinated many successful sinkhole cleanout projects using funds provided through outside sources, including the Cave Conservancy of the Virginias. Cleanout Costs The cost of sinkhole clean outs can range from a few hundred to many thousands of dollars. Most sinkhole projects involve coordination with excavation contractors who use heavy machinery such as backhoes, track hoes, and front-end loaders to perform the actual c1eanout work. A sanitation service or similar waste hauler usually provides transportation of the removed materials to a nearby landfill. Proper disposal of the debris removed from sinkhole dump sites usually requires segregation of recyclable materials and the payment oflandfill tipping fees. Some localities and regional public service authorities are willing to encourage sinkhole cleanout projects by waiving landfill tipping fees and may even provide heavy equipment if asked. Contractors Choice of a contractor should hinge on a company's equipment capabilities and experience as well as cost. A cheap, but unreliable contractor will cost a project far more in the long run than paying an experienced operator to do the job. Written contracts are advisable to prevent misunderstandings and to help ensure successful completion of sinkhole cleanout projects. Any contract should specify payment only for work actually performed. Be

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Part 3-Restoration: Fagan and Orndorff-Sinkhole Cleanup 383 Figure I. Sinkhole dump in Giles County. Virginia. This site includes an old trailer without any sanitation connection. (They were straight-piping the bathroom onto the ground and into the sinkhole.) Figure 3. VPI Cave Club volunteers at the sinkhole work site late in the day. Figure 2. County workers and caver volunteers walch the heavy-equipment operator performing clean out work as part of a joint venture between the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. the Cave Conservancy of the Virginias. and the VPI Cave Club Student Grotto of the NSS. Figure 4. VPI Cave Club volunteers sort out recyclable items at the \vork site. sure contractors can certify they are adequately insured-at least a half million dollars in general business liability and automobile liability coverage is usually required for contractors performing work on small government-funded projects. Employers are usually required to have workers compensation insurance as well as employer's liability insurance. Check state and local laws. Erosion and Sedimentation Control Implementation of proper erosion and sedimentation control practices is critical for every sinkhole project. Proper conservation practices \vill help Figure 5. The cleanup is substantially complete with protect the sinkhole, caves. and groundwater from some debris still left to be removed from the site and further damage. Storm water and sediment can pass transported to a landfill. directly into the karst aquifer from unstable slopes that lack appropriate vegetative ground cover. Sinkhules should have a vegetated bulTer or lilter strip around their perimeter to provide some filtration of water flowing into the subsurface. Plantings should include native species. Avoid the use of invasive species. Choose products such as erosion control matting with an eye toward minimizing adverse impacts to wildlife-the plastic netting used in some erosion control materials can trap small animals. Professional natural resource conservationists such as those working for the Natural Resources Conservation Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, and local Soil and Water Conservation Districts can usually recommend appropriate ground

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384 It is important to continue to check sinkholes after cleanouts are completed. Watch for indications of slope instability and erosion problems. Cave Conservation and Restoration cover plantings and advise what erosion control practices are appropriate for a given site. Sinkhole Protection Fence building is an important part of sinkhole protection. Semi-skilled volunteer laborers can contribute significantly to sinkhole cleanout projects during fence construction. Most cost share programs require livestock exclusion from treated areas. Livestock ought to be fenced from any sinkholes that contain cave entrances or receive active or intermittent streams. Fann animals should be excluded from streams in karst regions whenever possible. Allowing livestock direct access to streams and sinkholes can result in higher levels of nitrates and pathogens in surface streams and groundwater. The same cost share programs used for sinkhole cleanouts will sometimes pay to develop alternate water sources for cattle and will fund livestock exclusion practices. Monitoring Sinkholes It is important to continue to check sinkholes after cleanouts are completed. Watch for indications of slope instability and erosion problems. Monitor the growth and stability of ground cover plantings. Place signs at the sinkhole to help discourage further dumping. Correct any problems as quickly as possible to put a stop to any resumption of dumping and to prevent associated environmental impacts. Sinkhole News Stories Sinkhole cleanout projects are newsworthy. People who understand the direct connections between sinkhole dumps and their drinking water supply are less likely to put waste in sinkholes in the first place. Tell news correspondents the important details about the project and the reason for the clean out. 'Always give credit to the organizations involved in the project. Provide a prepared written news release to reduce the chances for tainted articles that contain misquoted statements and out-of-context casual remarks. A good news story, however, can be an invaluable tool for educating the public about the importance of protecting caves and groundwater quality in karst regions. (See public relations and press relations, page 284.) Sinkhole cleanouts can help promote cave and karst protection. For media coverage and community collaboration, choose a sinkhole project that demonstrates karst contamination, groundwater pollution, and impacts to cave resources. Partnerships between conservation groups and government agencies can provide significant resources for performing sinkhole cleanouts. To better promote conservation projects, place a strong emphasis on groundwater protection and cave habitat enhancement issues. Educating the public about the reasons for sinkhole clean outs and the resulting benefits to water quality can create a larger group of stakeholders who will work to support cave and karst protection goals. Additional Reading Fagan JH, OrndorffW. 2003. Interagency cooperative sinkhole protection and karst remediation in Virginia. In: Rea GT, editor. Proceedings of the 15th National Cave and Karst Management Symposium: Tucson, Arizona, October 16-19, 2001. Coronado National Forest; USDA Forest Service. p 10 I-I 03. Indiana Karst Conservancy. Sinkholes, Groundwate,; and Other i.\4ysteries Below Your Feet in Southern Indiana [brochure]. Internet . Accessed 2006 May4.

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Part 3-Restoration: Fagan and OrndorlT-Sinkhole Cleanup Veni G, DuChene H, editors. 2001. Living with Karst: A Fragile Foundation. AGI Environmental Awareness Series, no 4. Alexandria (VA): American Geological Institute. 64 p. Internet , . Accessed 2006 May 4. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. 2003 [2002]. Agricultural Sinkhole Protection WQ-II. In: Virginia Agricultural Best Management Practice Manual. Internet . Accessed 2006 May 4. Zokaites C, editor. 1997. Living on Karst: A Reference Guidefor Landowners in Limestone Regions. Richmond (VA): Cave Conservancy of the Virginias. 26 p. Internet . Accessed 2006 May 4. 385

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386 Cave Conservation and Restoration



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Part 3-Restoration: HildrethWerker and Werker-Pellucidar Section D-Restoring Speleothems Restoration in Pellucidar Val Hildreth-Werker and Jim C. Werker Pellucidar is a pristine, multi-level flowstone chamber in the Western Branch of Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico. Cave pearls, subaqueous helictitcs, and other delicate features were threatened by muddy corrosion residue tracked through the area. Six cavers spent four days and more than 150 caver hours cleaning the pools, pearls, and flowstone of Pellucidar. Since it is a sensitive area, Pellucidar required very clean and careful restoration techniques. Cavers wore powder-free, non latex surgical gloves throughout the project. Lightweight, white-soled flowstone shoes were spot cleaned often. In the Pellucidar area, we allowed only dust-free, lintless clothes-silky-feeling polyester, nylon, or Tyvek" suits worked well. Restoration garments were not used for travel in the cave. Dirty knee pads were secured inside zippie bags to serve as kneeling pads. Before entering the restoration area, cavers changed clothes and cleaned their helmets and lights with wet wipes. Brushes, sponges, sprayers, and collapsible buckets were tethered in vertical areas. For all rope work in the restoration area, the team wore restoration clothes and flowstone shoes. Constant dripping provided plenty of water at the site. For remediation of the muddied flowstone, we drew water with large 60-milliliter (60 cc) syringes and filled new, clean Platypus. flexible bottles. Platypus containers are easy to fold and transport in cave packs. The threads on industrial hand-held spray nozzles tit Platypus threads. Industrial sprayer mechanisms have a plastic crisscross filter that fits the bottom of the spray tube to restrain crystals and sediments from blocking the tube and nozzle. Mud and corrosion residues from old boot tracks left silt in three poolsabout 7 square meters (80 square feet) of bottom area. Jim Werker adapted a diaphragm pump for removing silt from the pools. Pool water was suctioned up with a large-volume hand pump, then filtered through soft, spongy material that was stuffed into a cut-off water bottle (clean and new, of course). The water was then circulated back into the pools. We scooped muck, cleaned flowstone, and restored four areas covered with cave pearls-about 5 square meters (50 square feet). Clean-room foam brushes worked like magnets to attract muck from around the pearls. Stainless steel tweezers and nylon toothpicks were handy. We collected grit with sparsely bristled brushes and swept the tidbits onto small, flat, nylon pan-scraping tools made for backpacking. Orange flagging tape was removed from the pristine flowstone. Solidcolored tape will "bleed" on wet flows tone surfaces. White-backed flagging (for example, red/white candy-striped flagging tape) leaves no stain if the solid white side is in contact with flowstone. The work in Pellucidar was an especially satisfying restoration experience. As the photos show, a good bit of rewarding work was accomplished. 387 Cave pearls, subaqueous helictites, and other delicate features were threatened by muddy corrosion residue tracked through Pellucidar.

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388 Figure t. A diaphragm hand pump was adapted by Jim Wecker for removing silt from the Pellucidar pools. (Lechuguilla's drip water had washed muddy footsteps across the tlowstone and into pools where the silt settled on the bottoms.) Pool water is filtered through sponge material stuffed into a clean, cut.offwater bottle. Dave Hamer is operating the pump to filter and circulate water back into the pool. (See page 12 afeolar section.) Cave Conservation and Restoration Figure 2. Sponge dams are positioned downslope as Phyllis Hamer and Aimee Beveridge restore an area of flowstone and pearls in Pellucidar. (See page 12 afeolar section.) Figure 3a (before) and Figure 3b (after). This area of pearls required extensive work over several days. Plastic toothpicks, tweezers, and other small tools worked well for this tedious job. (See page 12 of color section.)

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Part 3~Restoration: Hildreth-Werker and Werker-Pellucidar 389 Figure 4. Justin Shaw is on rope rinsing his restoration sponge off into a small dry bag tethered with a cord. (See page 13 of color section.) Figure 5 (left). The Pellucidar restoration required clean clothing and careful technique. Justin Shaw is on rope. Allan Cobb is upslope. Phyllis Hamer is working on flowstone and pearls at the top of the image. (See page 13 afeolar section.) Figure 6a (before) and Figure 6b (after). Cavers used a large-volume diaphragm hand pump to filter silt (introduced by muddy boots) out of this Pellucidar pool in Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico. (See page 13 afeolar section.)

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390 Cave Conservation and Restoration



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Part 3-Restoration: HildrethWerker-Harms and Limits Section D-Restoring Speleothems Harms and Limits Val Hildreth-Werker In cave restoration, how do we reach that lofty objective of do no harm? First. do the reconnaissance work and look at the in-cave restoration or cleanup sites. Talk about the tasks, consult with others, bounce ideas around, and figure out how to best fix it, restore it, clean it, or remcdiate the damage. Establish prudent limits before starting actual hands-on project work. During the assessment and planning process, define the spots that are ripe for harm, explore the potential limits of acceptable change, and prescribe boundaries for the restoration activities. Limit the objectives. Define reasonable goals and tasks to accomplish within the designated time frame. Limit the work areas to assure successful completion. Know your own limits. Make judgment decisions regarding the achievable limits of restoration and the expertise of the crew. In some cases, doing nothing may be the best option. In other situations, a decision for no action may result in additional damage. Consult with managers or owners and speleologists before initiating any cave restoration effort. Define limits of acceptable change. Carefully communicate what and how much. What should be left alone? How much remediation is acceptable? Detine where to stop during restoration efforts. Explore new approaches, research current management practices, and tind out how to apply prescribed techniques that are reasonably safe for caves before deciding how to clean or restore. Limits of acceptable change are usually established for recreational carrying capacities, but limits should also be determined for changes resulting from any human activity in caves. Limit techniques and tools. State the objectives, make a plan, gather the tools, and if feasible, take a minimal crew of team leaders into the cave to try out the techniques before commencing larger restoration efforts. Make major project time more efficient by doing a planning trip. Train team leaders to keep an eye on specific concerns and areas prone to new damage. Limit participation. Restoration team leaders are typically most effective when they are responsible for training and supervising only four to six cavers. Team leaders must watch out for potentially detrimental maneuvers as the cave restorers become increasingly enthusiastic or ambitious. Limit the use of chemicals. Avoid using manufactured chemicals that are inappropriate or contrary to cave conservation standards. (See anthropogenic chemicals, page 57.) 391 How do we reach that lofty objective of do no harm? Establish prudent limits before starting actual hands-on project work.

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392 Is It Natural or Introduced? Val Hildreth.Werker Before initiating cave restoration, explore these questions. Is impact caused by natural ecological processes? Or is damage human induced? If impact or change is a result of environmental phenomena, leave it alone and do not attemp restoration. If damage is obviously a result of human actions, restore it, repair it, or clean it up. What if it is not possible to determine whether impact is caused by natural forces or by human influence? For example, when there are spots of mud splattered across otherwise pristine flowstone, did the blotches drop from the ceiling or were they tracked in by human feet? If no clear answer is gained through observation or scientific information, there are three options for action Leave the area alone and do nothing Leave it alone and monitor the site to gathe data for a future decision Clean up a portion of the area and see if the impacting sediment, soil, or dilemma returns. Cave Conservation and Restoration Review safety limits. Go over site-specific safety precautions with all participants. Limit off-trail impact. It may be appropriate to limit travel routes by marking trails through the cave. Infonnative signs may also help direct appropriate behaviors_ (See trails and signs, page 175.) Establish compliance with limits. Some areas may be considered off limits during the restoration project. Team members should agree to stay away from designated protection or preservation zones. Establish monitoring projects to document the impact and compliance of future visitors Limit repeat damage. Discuss and brainstorm ideas with the restoration teams to help eliminate the need for future restoration. How can we encourage visitors to avoid repetitiously making the same mess we are cleaning up? Limit the replay of restoration Limit new impacts. Restoration projects provide surprisingly effective opportunities for promoting improved cave and karst stewardship. When properly promoted. a restoration project is an effective tool for educational outreach to user groups.



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Part 3-Restoration: Hildreth-Werker and Boston-Sources for Restoration Water Section D-Restoring Speleothems Sources for Cave Restoration Water Val Hildreth-Werker and Penelope J. Boston 393 Water is the primary cleaning agent for most speleothem restoration. Many caves contain sources for restoration water within their subterranean passages-however, for some projects water must be brought in from outside sources. Where should the water come from? How can cavers determine the best water sources for specific cave projects? This chapter proposes guidelines for choosing appropriate water sources to support cave restoration projects. Before any restoration or cleaning begins, examine the cave resources and think about how the different parts of the cave system fit together-the geology, hydrology, and biology. If scientists are actively engaged in study of the cave under consideration, consult with them. Avoid introducing chemical or microbial contaminants that might disrupt the natural ecology of a cave system. Common Sense Options No single recommendation is best for all caves. There are no hard and fast rules, and common sense must ultimately lead decision processes. In caves with active streams, restoration water may be readily available. However, if contamination results from episodic flooding, it may be harmful to transport stream water to pristine areas of the cave for restoration. In caves where isolated pools fill over geologic time, watcr may bc used in the immediate area ifnatural replenishment is sutlicient. However, transporting watcr from isolated pools to other passages may harm or destroy localized indigenous microbial populations. Water imported from surface streams and ponds is not recommended for cave restoration due to the abundance of chemical and microbial contaminants that would be introduced into a cave system. The best option is clean, constantly replenished pool or drip water (when it is available). Fresh, pure cave water from a source that receives frequent drip replenishment is not likely to introduce new chemicals or microorganisms to the targeted area if the water is collected in the immediate vicinity of the restoration site. Keep in mind-there may be unusual factors that prevent cave water from being a good source, such as leaking sewage pipes near the cave, rare or threatened species living in the proposed water source, or extreme differences in chemical or mineral composition. When collecting water frum isolated cave pools, take special care to avoid contaminating the water. Prevent the introduction of microbes from hands, clothes, boots, water bottles, and other sources. In caves with insutlicient pools or streams, capture drip water for restoration tasks. Do not abandon the collection devices and disrupt thc amount of water available to the ecological community. Lack of water may adversely afTect invertebrates and microbes living in the flow path. This chapter proposes guidelines for choosing appropriate water sources to support cave restoration projects. The best option is clean, constantly replenished cave pool or drip water.

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394 We propose the following list of best practices. The list starts with sources that are generally recognized as the best options and works down to less desirable water sources. Distilled water may increase the potential for dissolution of speleothems. Cave Conservation and Restoration Plan methods to control, contain, and dispose of all runotTwater that is generated during cave restoration projects. The categories below include restoration guidelines for choosing water sources, collecting in-cave water, and planning for disposal of the runoff. Choosing a Water Source for Cave Restoration We propose the following list of best practices. The list starts with sources that are generally recognized as the best options and works down to less desirable water sources. Choices near the top of the following list are not always available and decisions must be based on interdisciplinary assessments of ecosystem values. When choosing a water source, detemline the degree of difl'erence between the imported water and the in-cave water. Will imported water contribute to abnormal mineralization or dissolution of calcite and related minerals at the restoration site? Is the restoration water chemically aggressive? It is wise to test potential restoration water sources for chemical composition and microbial contaminants. Water chemistry should closely resemble the in situ cave water, especially with respect to pH and calcium carbonate. Recharge. Clean cave pools that receive constant recharge may provide excellent water sources for restoration. Drips. Dripping spelcothems (as well as other in-cave drip points) may produce sufficient water for restoration. Cave Sprin~s. Cave springs or cave streams may provide water sources for restoration. If water flows through a sinking stream, test for surface contaminants. Surface Springs. Surface spring water is sometimes transported or pumped directly from the source to restoration sites in nearby caves. Well Water. Well water might be used in a nearby cave for restoration. Bottled 'Vater. Bottled, filtered drinking water from a spring source or a city water supply has been carried into caves for restoration tasks when the water chemistry does not differ significantly from the water found in the cave. Filtered Tap Water. Filtered tap water from a city water supply is a less desirable choice for cave restoration. Chemical additives in municipal water supplies are intended to control microbial populations. Before using tap water for restoration, it should stand in open containers for 48 hours to allow chlorine compounds to dissipate, which will partially mitigate the deleterious effects of chlorination and other chemical additives. (Tap water, if allowed to outgas, may be a good choice for restoration along heavily impacted cave routes.) Tanker Trucks. Municipalities have used tanker trucks to transport potable water to cave entrances for restoration projects. It may be necessary to allow chlorine and other outgassing chemicals to dissipate before using the water for cave restoration. Distilled Water. Distilled watcr is hesitantly included toward the bottom of this priority list because it may increase the potential for dissolution of

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Part 3-Restoration: Hildreth-Werker and Boston-Sources for Restoration Water speleothems. Most distilled water is slightly acidic and undersaturated with calcium carbonate. Distilled water will be chemically aggressive on calcite. Abundant application and long contact times are not recommended if distilled water is used for cave restoration. Deionized \Vater. Deionized waler is similar to distilled and is not normally recommended for cave restoration. Deionized water is about pH 7 and it can be chemically aggressive against calcite speleothems. The pH for waler saturated with calcium carbonate is between 8 and 8.2. Filters. Portable backpacking filters might seem to be a promising ideabut they may clog rapidly and typically do not provide enough volume for most restoration projects. Recycle. If restoration water is in short supply, recycle it. Allow the collected restoration runoff water to stand in containers so that sediment can settle to the bottom. Carefully remove the cleanest water from the top, strain or filter it. and reuse the water to continue restoration in the same area of the cave. (See filtering techniques, page 415.) Careful evaluation of traffic in the cave passage is important before attempting to recycle restoration water. Contaminants. Do not import water from surface streams or ponds for cave restoration. The abundance of organisms, organics, and contaminants in surface streams and ponds preclude using these water sources for most cave restoration projects. As mentioned above, if water from a sinking stream flows through the cave, check it for surface contaminants before using for restoration. Collecting Water from In Situ Cave Sources 395 Collect Nearby. Where possible, collect cave water for restoration in the immediate vicinity of the restoration site. Importing restoration water from a different area in the cave (even from an adjacent chamber) may introduce contaminants and new microbial populations. Scientists have found vastly differing microbial communities in pools only a few feet apart and in adjoining passages-it is important for cave restorers to avoid crosscontamination and preserve native populations. Keep it Clean. Collect cave pool water with new or sterile syringes, new basting bulbs, a siphon hose with on-off spigot, or a very clean, disinfected pitcher. Avoid reaching out over pools-remember that skin flakes and debris (organic carbons) as well as microorganisms from surface environments are constantly falling from human bodies. (See microbes, page 74 and page 276.) Drip Sites. In caves with insufficient pools or streams, capture drip water to use for restoration. Set up buckets or funneled devices to collect restoration water between projects. Plastic or Mylar k sheeting positioned below multiple drip points may serve as adequate catchments-place funneled buckets at the low spots. Properly maintain drip collection sites and do not abandon the collection apparatus because invertebrates and microbes may be adversely impacted by reduced drip water in their habitat. Collect cave water for restoration in the immediate vicinity of the restoration site.

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396 Define protocol to capture and dispose of restoration runoff water. Never allow runoff to contaminate cave features. Cave Conservation and Restoration Capture and Dispose of Runoff Water For eaeh work site, define protocol to properly capture and dispose of restoration runoff water. Never allow runoff to contaminate pools, waler sources, travertine surfaces, or other sensitive cave features. Use sponge dams and lint-free towels to capture runoff. Squeeze waler and debris into buckets or other containers for transport and disposal. (See restoration runoff, page 339.) Pack it Out. The best option is to transport restoration run otT out of the cave for proper disposal. Designate Dump Spot. When disposal outside of the cave is not feasible, discard the runoff in designated safe locations in the cave that were scoped out during reconnaissance and preplanning. I f runoff is not removed from the cave, it is typically disposed of in heavily traveled trails under rocks where the waler can be absorbed. Take care to assure that discarded runoff is not draining into other passages that might be below a trail. Plan Collection Strategies. The large quantities of runoff generated by pressurized spray devices require more aggressive collection strategies. Wet-dry vacuums and funneled tarps may facilitate the management of restoration runoff. Usc vacuuming equipment cautiously and assure that the cave's naturally loose materials and organisms are not sucked away. (See shop-vacs, page 358.) Summary Use the best available source for restoration water. Base your choice on cave values, habitat, feasibility, and common sense. Collect all restoration runoff-the best option, when possible, is to dispose of runoff outside the cave. If water sources or runoff disposal options are unsuitable, postpone the restoration project.



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Part 3-Restoration: Hildreth-Werker and Werker-Pressurized Water Section D-Restoring Speleothems Pressurized Water for Cave Restoration Val Hildreth.Werker and Jim C. Werker Pressurized water increases efliciency for many types of cave restoration. A little water pressure helps when cleaning muddy footprints and handholds, clearing layers ofhurnan-introduced soil, dust, or mud from trails and cave features. removing destructive contemporary graffiti, and washing away lint and muck. Careful, informed reconnaissance and planning is most important for avoiding the pitfalls associated with pressurized methods. Direct pressure and flooding can harm biota, speleothems, minerals, paleo-remains, and cultural resources. Additional challenges are created by the abundant runoff water that results from high-pressure sprayers-all restoration runoITmust be collected and properly discarded. Do No Harm Pressurized water may harm or destroy natural and cultural resources. First, carefully inspect the proposed restoration site and determine whether cave values will be put at risk by introducing pressure sprays. It is always wise to ask experts to assist in the preliminary evaluation phase of restoration projects. Prudently determine the level of water pressure that is necessary for various tasks. The risk of damaging speleothems and cave surfaces increases exponentially as water pressure is increased. Exercise caution to avoid harming fragile speleothems, splattering nearby cave features, or destroying cave life with streams of high-pressure water and nooding. Define safe limits for each cave feature. Wherever possible, water from within the cave is used for restoration because water imported from the surface may be chemically aggressive and cause damage to speleothems. Cave restorationists, speleologists, and cave managers are leaning toward lower, gentler pressure sprays while searching for less harmful methods. (See water sprayers, pages 337-338 and page 398.) Initial studies at the Jenolan Caves, Australia, indicated that pressurized water was safe for cleaning durable speleothems (Bonwick and others 1986). Later, investigation with scanning electron microscopy found that the cave surfaces were suffering some damage (Spate and Moses 1993). Be conservative. Use best practice guidelines: Minimize washing. Use low-pressure water. Control the runoff. 397 Plan cautiously. Direct pressure attd flooding can harm biota, speleothems, minerals, paleoremains, and cultural resources.

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398 Figure 1. Industrial spray nozzles fit Platypus. flexible waler bottles and many commercial drinking-water bottles. These products are easy to carry and durable enough for many cave restoration applications. Cave Conservation and Restoration Water-Spray Devices The following paragraphs start with the most gentle, reliable spray devices. The list progresses through apparatus that offer increased pressure and require greater skill and care to avoid harming cave values. Hand-Held Spray Bottles. Industrial-quality handheld spray bottles (available in packages of three at large home improvement centers) usually have a plastic crisscross screen filter that fits on the bottom of the suction tube and restrains crystals and sediments from blocking the spray mechanism. Threads on the industrial spray nozzles conveniently fit the top threads of Platypus' flexible canteens and some plastic bottled waler containers. Manual Pump Bottles. Increased pressure is achieved with spray bottles that have a small, manual pressurizing pump-available through industrial catalogues. Large Pump Conlainers. Garden sprayers, up to 20liter (5-gallon) capacity, should be designated for cave restoration only. Sprayers should be clean, free of chemical residues, and never used in the garden. Manually pump pressure into the container to create a mid-force pressurized spray. lIackpack Sprayers. Backpack sprayers or bladder bags provide moderate pressures and high volumes. Some are designed for fire fighting, and water squirts through a hand-held trombone pump attached to the bottom of the bag. Others are designed for various applications. (See caarbon dioxide powered sprayer, page 339.) Gravity and Hoses. Gravity fed systems use a hose and siphon system originating from a higher elevation. Depending on the gradient, a substantial head of water may be produced that could cause considerable damage in caves. Watch for leaking couplings and gaskets on hoses that could cause damage to cave surfaces. Thorough monitoring of gravity fed systems is important for cave restoration projects. Pipes and Hoses. Ifwater pipes are installed in the passages ofa show cave, hoses with spray nozzles may be appropriate for some restoration tasks. If the water is from a chlorinated source, consider carefully whether it will be used directly from the hose, or if logistics will include first allowing the chlorine to dissipate. (See water sources for restoration, page 394.) Truck Transport. Pressure spray systems may use water that is transported to a cave entrance by a tanker truck. It may be necessary to allow chlorine and other outgassing chemicals to dissipate before using the water for cave restoration. Cavers have organized the logistics for community water trucks to deliver municipal water to cave entrances and to drop hoses down into cave passages through preexisting drill holes on the surface. Runoff Conlrol. Plan and test methods to capture, remove, and dispose of restoration runoff water. (Sec restoration runoff, page 396.)

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Part 3-Restoration: Val HildrethWerker and Werker-Pressurized Water 399 Figure 2. Use pressurized sprayers to achieve a more efficient spray. When pressurized water is applied in cave restoration, cautiously test small arcas to avoid damaging cave resources. Manual-pump sprayers are available in a variety of sizes. (Sec page 14 in color section.) Plan Carefully Figure 3. One caver is holding a sponge under the area while spraying with a pressurized bottle. Another caver has the bucket ready to capture runotf. Always be prepared to catch runoff when using any type of pressurized water for cave restoration. Before initiating pressure-spray projects. always do a reconnaissance and decision-making trip into the cave. Carefully inspect the cave for biological, mineralogical, and cultural resources that might be destroyed by restoration efforts. If pressurized water is deemed appropriate, take the time to plan wellconsidered protocols and equipment to collect and remove restoration water runoff. When using pressure sprays, constantly monitor the pressure. Always use the minimum pressure necessary for the task and avoid damaging cave features. Cited References Bonwick J, Ellis R, Bonwick M. 1986. Cleaning, restoration, and redevelopment of show caves in Australia. In: Proceedings Ninth International Congress of Speleology, vol 2. Spate A, Moses C. 1994. Impacts of high pressure cleaning: A case study at Jenolan. In: Henderson K, Bell P, editors. 1994. Cave Management in Allstralasia X. Carlton South, Victoria (AU): ACKMA. p 45-48. [Proceedings of the Tenth ACKMA Conference. Rockhampton. Queensland. ACKMA 10:45-48.J I f pressurized water is deemed appropriate, take the time to plan well-considered protocols and equipment to collect and remove the restoration water runoff.

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400 Cave Conservation and Restoration



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Part 3-Restoration: Hildreth-Werker and Werker-Flowstone and Dripstone Section D-Restoring Speleothems Flowstone and Dripstone Restoration Val Hildreth-Werker and Jim C. Werker It is easy to mar cave surfaces and leave unsightly scars on speleothems. With wise planning and careful execution, some cave features can be restored to resemble a former natural condition. Muddy tracks, boot marks, hand prints, dust, lint, carbide, muck, scrapes, and other human impacts can cause discoloration and interruption of natural speleothem growth patterns. Ideally, restoration is performed before new calcite deposition seals these human impacts into speleothems. Some cave passages can be restored to display former aesthetic beauty. Some caves can be restored to a former ecological state. This section addresses tools and techniques for cleaning and restoring durable speleothems. The gen~ral methods described here work well in most cave passages. Techniques focus on minimizing disturbance to cave-dwelling species and maintaining the natural ecological balance. Also described are specialized techniques for the restoration and preservation of pristine areas with emphasis on minimizing human disruption of the amazing diversity of subsurface microbes. Always consider how cave life and other cave values may be impacted by restoration. Check with speleologists, scientists, and cave managers to define priorities and achieve balance between aesthetics, cultural significance, speleothem growth, microbial preservation, biological concerns, and mineralogical issues. Flowstone and Dripstone ~ Spray and sponge. Gentle cleaning ~ with water and blotting with a fresh ~ sponge does not appear to harm most u. tlowstone. It is always a good idea to try test spots first. Use hand-held spray bottles and a soft sponge on fragile tlowstone. Avoid wiping sponges across llowstone surfaces because the sponges will deteriorate rapidly and particles will be distributed in the cave (Figure 2). 401 Figure I. A muddy boot print mars white flowstone. Remove muddy marks from flowstone before a new layer of calcite covers and makes the imprints permanent. Figul'"c 2. Usc water in a spray bottle and a soft, closed-cell sponge to blot up muddy prints from fiowstone surfaces. Wear non latex, powder-free gloves.

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402 Cave Conservation and Restoration Photos Cl Val Hildrelh-Wer1c.er Soft Brushes. Light brush strokes, sprayers, and sponges aid the restoration of muddied textured areas and "bathtub rings" on f1owstone surfaces. Use a brush on flows tone only when necessary and make certain the bristles are not marring the cave surface by making dents, grooves, or scratches. Longer, relatively sparsely distributed nylon or plastic bristles tend to work best for most restoration (Figure 3). Figure 3. Use light brush strokes, water sprayers, and sponges to clean textured flowstone surfaces. Be careful to test tools and avoid damaging soft surfaces. Figure 4. Pick up bits of aragonite and broken pieces of cave popcorn to avoid continued crushing and grinding into f1owstone surfaces. Remove Chunks. In areas with fragmented aragonite, crunched popcorn, or other broken speleothems, the first task is to pick up the larger chunks that have not calcited over so crushing and grinding damage does not continue. Some breakage may be repaired. However, many pieces will likely be irreparable and should be gathered and stored in a relatively safe location in the cave, away from traffic, and near the area where they were retrieved (Figure 4). Sediment. Layers of human-introduced mud and sediment require gentle digging, scraping, mopping, scrubbing, spraying, and sponging. (See Cave Without a Name photos, page 295.) Spray and Runoff. Pressurized spray devices are sometimes appropriate for cave restoration-however, the large quantity of runoff water is difficult to capture and remove. Consider whether cave biota will be heavily impacted by direct pressure and flooding. (See pressurized water, page 397-399.) Small Tools. Nylon toothpicks, stainless steel tweezers, or plastic dental tools will dislodge muck from small declivities (Figure 5). Clean Clothes. For restoration in pristine flowstone-covered rooms, clean, lint-free clothing is recommended (Figure 6). Silky feeling polyester, nylon, or Tyvek suits work well. (See clean clothing, page 427; also see flowstone shoes, page 431 and surgical gloves, page 433.) Capture Runoff. Capture all the restoration runoff water with sponge dams, lint-free towels, wet-dry vacuums, funneled tarps with buckets, and other catchment solutions (Figure 7). Squeeze water and debris from sponges and towels into buckets or other containers. Give special attention to planning the protocol for disposing of restoration runoff water. (See runoff, page 396.) Collect Grit. As a final step, it may be necessary to rinse and sponge the area. Or it may be useful to perform a final light sweep to collect grit and particles that sponges miss (Figure 8).

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Part 3-Restoration: Hildreth-Werker and Werker-Flowstone and Dripstone 403 Figure 6. Cavers wear clean, lint-free polyester clothing (silky feeling fabrics attract less dirt), flowstone shoes, and surgical or exam gloves for restoration in pristine areas. Figure 7. (below) Sponge dams help to stop and contain restoration runoff water. Figure S. Flowstone restoration tools include sponges, spray bottles, brushes, nylon picks, tweezers. syringes, zip-closure bags, and sponge dams. Figure 8. (below) Wear non latex, powder-free exam gloves. Use a flat, nylon pan-scraping tool and a brush to collect final bits of grit left on fiowstone surfaces.

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404 Figure 9. Solid colored flagging tape, such as this orange tape, will discolor wet flowstone. Use whitebacked flagging instead. (See page 14 in color section.) Figure 10. Orange flagging tape faded onto this wet flowstone. Fortunately, the discoloration was not incorporated into the calcite and the orange color was easily sponged away. (See page 14 in color section.) Cave Conservation and Restoration Tips for Flowstone and Dripstone Sponge Prep. Thoroughly rinse sponges with fresh water before using for cave restoration. Some sponges are saturated with a soapy, softening, lubricating agent during the manufacturing process. 'Vater Rinse. Rinse and disinfect all supplies between uses. Conservative disinfecting is achieved by washing restoration supplies in fresh tap water, then allowing them to dry in the sun because ultraviolet rays kill many microorganisms. Chemical Sterilization. Durable tools may be soaked in alcohol or chlorine bleach. Contact time is essential. Thorough rinsing is extremely important. Disinfecting agents must be thoroughly removed before taking supplies back into a cave-residual disinfectants can kill cave biota. Check with cave biologists before trying new ideas or products. (See anthropogenic chemicals, page 57; sterilizing and disinfecting, page 77.) Use New. In pristine or isolated areas of some caves. spelean restorationists are using fresh. new, and sometimes sterilized supplies. Autoclave. When extreme measures are required to avoid disturbing microbiota in sensitive areas, supplies can be autoclaved or steamed in a double boiler between uses. (See sterilizing. page 77.) Pure Water. Use only clean, pure water for cave restoration, as advocated throughout this book. Do not use acids, manufactured cleaning agents, biodegradable products. or anthropogenic chemicals in cave systems. (See anthropogenic chemicals, page 57; also see water sources for restoration, page 393.) Check pH. Acidic water is not used for typical flowstone restoration. It is wise to check the pH and avoid water that may be too aggressive on calcite surfaces. (See restoration water, page 395.) Flagging Tape. Solid-colored flagging tape should not come in contact with wet flowstone surfaces because the colors bleed. When color from the flagging remains on flowstone. spray with water. blot the color away with a sponge, and use light brush strokes if necessary. Color bleeding can usually

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Part 3-Restoration: Hildreth-Werker and Werker-Flowstone and Dripstone Figure 11. To avoid color bleeding, use white-backed flagging on wet flowstone surfaces. Surveyors' flagging tape is best secured on small natural protrusions. Red! white striped flagging may indicate delicate zones outside of the trail-marking tape. 405 Figure 12. Black scutT marks made by boot soles can permanently disfigure flowstone. Lugged hiking soles made of traditional Vibram~ left scars on this flowstone. Some contemporary soles are nonmarking. Test soles by striking across limestone or untreated concrete. Figure 13a (before, at left) and Figure J3b (after, at right). The soft spongy material ofa clean-room foam brush attracts soil particles and muck like a magnet. Plastic handles are preferred for cave restoration.

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406 Figure 14. Transitions are best accomplished by stepping out of boots and into flowstone shoes already positioned in the clean area (or vice-versa). Cave Conservation and Restoration be cleaned up unless the color has calcited into the flowstone surface (Figures 9 and 10). Whitebacked flagging does not bleed-for example, red/white candy-striped flagging can be used with the white side placed directly on flowslone surfaces and neatly secured on natural protrusions (Figure II). Soft Scrubbers. Black scuff marks, ifnot yet calcited into flowstone, can often be removed with an extremely soil sponge scrubby. Some restaurant-grade glassware sponges have a very soft scrubbing surface laminated on one side of ultra soil, tight-celled, foam material. Harsher dish scrubbers (marketed for nonstick pans) usually fail to remove scuffmarks and will scratch most f1owstone surfaces. Flowstone may be irreparably damaged if cavers try to scrape calcited boot marks ofT. Eventually, calcite layers camouflage the marks-some irritating boot scuffs are best left alone (Figure J 2). Foam Brushes. Foam brushes with plastic handles are manufactured as clean-room supplies and for PhotoClValHildreth-Werker painting applications. The soft foam attracts muck from small declivities and speleothems (Figure 13a). Failed Attempts. In attempt to avoid repeat restoration sessions, innovative techniques have been tried in some cave passages. Beforewarned. these ideas have been abandoned-rubber mats, long-term plastic sheeting, footbath stations-all these create extra problems, tend to become havens for fungi, and simply don't provide the expected benefit of protecting pristine flowstone areas. Simply changing from caving boots to tlowstone shoes works much better (Figure 14). (See cave-friendly footwear, page 431.) Restricted Access. Passages that are reclaimed or restored to a near pristine appearance may be marked off-limits or may be designated for tlowstone shoes and surgical gloves. (See signs, page 183-185.) Ilcstoration Kit. To clean a solitary imprint of misplaced mud left on a speleothem, a little water and a small sponge may be adequate. Science, photo, and exploration teams sometimes carry a small restoration kit for correcting inadvertent impacts. (See compact restoration kit, page 212.) Tools and Supplies for Common Cave Restoration Tasks This is a general supply list that fits most cave projects involving flowstone or dripstone restoration. Larger, bulky items may be suitable for show caves. However, small, light, compact equipment is more adaptable to travel in wild caves. Only field-tested suggestions are included below. Very Soft Sponges. Car wash sponges are adequate. Big, blue semi-tightcelled car washing sponges are designed to stay soil and absorbent, plus, the blue pieces arc easier to pick up when sponges begin to deteriorate. The

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Part 3-Restoration: Hildreth-Werker and Werker-Flowstone and Dripstone softest sponges do a better job of capturing grit and sediment-tight-celled sponges are more absorbent and act like muck magnets. A supply of new sponges should be available for every restoration trip. Surgical Gloves. Powder-free, non latex surgical gloves are recommended for most cave restoration tasks. (See gloves, page 433-435.) Hand-Held Spray Bottles. Threads on industrial hand-held spray nozzles fit the threads of flexible Platypus@ bottles and some bottled drinking water containers. The bottom tube of the sprayer mechanism has a plastic crisscross filter that restrains crystals and sediments from blocking the tube and nozzle. Garden Spra)'crs. Purchase oncto five-gallon capacity, new, clean, and free of chemical residues. Manually pump pressure into the container to create a mid-force pressurized spray. (For other spray devices see pressurized water, page 397-399.) Buckets. For tedious travel in wild caves, use collapsible or folding buckets with handles. Extra Sponges or Ljnt~Free Towels. For creating dams to catch restoration runoff water. Brushes. Palm-fitting, hand-sized upholstery brushes with raised handles to prevent scraping knuckles against tlowstone. Found in auto supply outlets. Foam Brushes. Clean-room foam pads (or foam paint brushes on plastic handles). The soft foam attracts muck from small declivities and speleothems (Figure 13a). Plastic Scrapers. Collect grit with sparsely bristled brushes (nylon bristles preferred) and sweep the tidbits onto flat, nylon pan-scraping tools made for backpacking. Small Tools for Detail Work. Fresh. new toothbrushes. Soft bristled paint brushes. Whisk brooms with plastic or nylon bristles. Nylon toothpicks, hard plastic picks, and dental tools. Variety of tweezers (plastic and stainless steel). Turkey Baster. Draw water with a new. clean turkey baster or a big 60-cc syringe and fill spray bottles. Zippie Hags. Plastic zip-closure freezer bags, especially the one-gallon and two-gallon sizes. Flagging Tape. Surveyor's flagging tape for trails and for special areas. On tlowstone. use flagging tape that is white on one side (to prevent color bleeding.) Red and white striped is often used to indicate delicate or pristine areas. (See trails and flagging, pages 178-183 and page 404.) 407

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408 Ca~e Conservation and Restoration



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Part 3-Restoration: Hildreth-Werker-Footstep Ethic Section D-Restoring Speleothems Footstep Ethic Val Hildreth.Werker Leave nothing but careful footprints 011 established trails. During the last decade of the 20th century, there was a gradual change in traditional caving ethics. In the past, when we found footsteps going into pristine territory, it was okay to put our boots right inside those imprints and follow the footprints to retrace the path. But, as more people followed, too many feet quickly expanded the footstep routes into broad trails. The footstep ethic had to change. Footsteps should not be left to invite others to follow. Today, rather than retrace steps, we gently erase them. An olftrail footstep signals the need for restoration. Erasing Footprints Remove individual muddy boot prints from flows tone with a sponge and spray boule. Remove broadly impacting tracks with morc aggressive t1owstone restoration techniques. (See pressurized water, page 397; also see flowstone techniques, page 401.) Black scufTmarks can sometimes be removed from smooth flowstone with the extremely soft scrubbing side of a restaurant grade sponge. (See scutT marks in flowstone tips, page 406.) On softer cave surfaces and cave soils, lightly comb away individual imprints with a small, nylon-bristled whisk broom. Take care not to stir up dust. (See trail maintenance, page 183.) 409 Figure l. To limit new impacts, erase inappropriate footprints that lead off trail. Leftover footprints invite others to follow. Avoid making imprints-use proper footwear and stay on durable surfaces. Figure 2. Use a lightweight whisk broom with nylon bristles to gently remove ofT-trail footsteps left in cave soils.

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410 Cave Conservation and Restoration Figure 3. Two sets of boots created these scutT marks in a narrow passage covered with cave velvet. Two pairs of feet did this irreparable damage in what was virgin passage only minutes before. This photo was made in 1993. Today, ethics have changed and cavers typically use nonmarring flows tone shoes to survey and explore delicate virgin chambers.



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Part 3-Restoration: Veni-Carbide and Soot Section D-Restoring Speleothems Carbide and Soot George Veni Soot is among the easiest stains to clean from speleothems and cave walls. In the past, cave visitors in some regions typically made carbide soot marks on cave walls with their lamp names. Be especially aware of avoiding harm to markings that have historical significance. Call in experts in archaeology and historic culture to help evaluate cave sites. (See the chapter on historic markings, page 99; also see contact experts, page 116 and page 334.) Carbide Marks Ifremoval of carbide marks or arrows is deemed appropriate, slightly pressurized water will readily remove it. Carbide soot marks left on cave surfaces can usually be squirted with a spray bottle and they will disappear with little or no scrubbing. Ifgentle brushing is required, use nothing more than soft nylon bristles. Spent Carbide Removal of spent carbide requires more care. Wear gloves to avoid caustic bums. First remove, lift, or sweep up as much carbide as possible. Chisel away old carbide deposits that have formed hardened crusts. Be careful-a crust may seal the interior carbide, which can still be reactive after as much as 35 years (Veni 1994). Do not use a vacuum cleaner, even with a fine filter, because carbide dust may enter and corrode the motor and be ejected into the cave. If the carbide sits on sediment, scoop up and remove the sediment since it will be impregnated with the carbide-remove all sediment that smells of carbidc. Where carbide rests on rocks or speleothems, after sweeping or scooping up the majority, wash away any remaining carbide by isolating small areas for cleaning and dousing them one at a time with a relatively large volume of water to dilute the exothermic reaction and minimize corrosion of the underlying surface. Place sponges, towels, and other equipment immediately downslope to capture the runoff, which should be removed from the cave and properly disposed of along with the carbide and any contaminated sediment (Veni 1997). Cited References Veni G. 1994. The 3rd Annual Caverns a/Sonora Restoration Project. The Texas Caver 39(1 ):3-4. Veni G. 1997. Speleothems: Preservation, display, and restoration. In: Hill C, Forti P, editors. Cave Minerals o/the World. 2nd edition. Hunstville (AL): National Speleological Society. p 301-309. 411 Figure 1. Although not commonly used today, carbide lamps were once the mainstay of caver lighting Take special care and wear gloves when removing old carbide dumps. Conscientious carbide cavers use a threaded plastic bottle to carry spent carbide out. Never dump spent carbide in a cave.

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412 Cave Conservation and Restoration



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Part 3-Restoration: Hildreth-Werker-Mold Kits Section D-Restoring Speleothems Mold Kits Val Hildreth.Werker In some caves, particularly environments with warmer temperatures, mold tends to grow on dropped food particles, candle wax, and any other debris left by careless cavers. The best practice is to clean it up when you find it. Otherwise, fungal spores may spread to other areas within a cave system. The components of a simple, lightweight mold cleanup kit are listed here. Pack these items in a small zippie bag: Two prepackaged antimicrobial wipes One surgical glove or a disposable food service glove Surgical mask to protect the caver from breathing fungal spores (a very important item to help avoid uncomfortable, lengthy allergic reactions after cleaning up spots of mold) Gently Gather Fungi On encountering a mold splotch in a cave passage, don the surgical mask and the glove from the mold kit. Open an antimicrobial wipe and gently lay it over the mold. Take care to avoid dispersing spores. (So-called antibacterial wipes may also provide antifungal benefit.) With the gloved hand, use the wet-wipe to gather up the mold and some of the underlying substrate. Hold the bundled wipe, pull the glove otT and draw it over the bundle in one motion to ~ contain the entire unit and minimize distribution of] Q. spores. Tie ofT the opening of the glove and secure it in a zip-closure bag (several zippies may be more secure). Remove the packaged fungi from the cave and dispose of it promptly. Avoid Dispersing Spores Do not use any kind of spray on mold found in caves. Spray devices will only serve to disperse fungal spores. Spraying diluted bleach or any other substance potentially may spread the problem and extend the fungal bloom. Instead, gently gather the atTending blotch with antimicrobial wipes, then package it and dispose of it properly. In some cave environments, dropped food particles or candle wax left on cave surfaces will provide nutrient sources for fungi. We recommend using heavy foil or some other catchment under candles and eating over a plastic bag to catch crumbs before they hit the cave noor (Figure 4). 413 Fi~ure 1. Dropped food particles provided the nutrients to fuel this ball of white fungi found in Lechuguilla Cave. Figure 2. Gently lay an antimicrobial wipe over the mold patch to avoid distributing spores. Use a light disposable glove and invert it over the wipe after scooping up the patch of fungi. To protect against breathing mold spores, wear a surgical mask when cleaning up fungi. (See page 10 in color section.)

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414 Cave Conservation and Restoration Figure 3. In some cave environments, colorful blotches of mold will grow on spilled food. Each little crumb will blossum into a fuzzy colony. (See page 10 in color section.) Fi~ure 4. Cavers should eat over plastic bags to prevent scattering food particles. Packing out crumbs deprives opportunistic organisms ofa free lunch.



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Part 3-Restoration: HildrethWerker and Werker-Filtration and Pools Section D-Restoring Speleothems Water Filtration and Cave Pool Restoration Val Hildreth-Werker and Jim C. Werker Simple filtering devices can help conserve cave waler. For light flowstonc restoration, filter the recovered runofTwater and, if appropriate, use it again for more tlowstone cleanup in the same area. Filtering methods may also be used to restore silted cave pools. Muddy footprints sometimes wash into pretty drip pools alongside cave routes, which results in human-introduced silt covering pool bottoms. Muddy tracks can be pervasive-the resulting sediment and debris is unsightly and may be disruptive to native cave organisms. Water and sediment can be pumped out, and silt can be caught in a filtering device as the water is returned to its source. Field-tested techniques are described in this chapter. Filtering Restoration Water When restoration water is in short supply, simple recycling filters are put to work. Collect restoration runoff and debris with sponges or towels. Squeeze the collected runoff into containers, and allow time for the larger particles to settle. If the water is not clear, strain it through the simple foam tilter described below. Sediment will collect around thc outcr edges of the foam filtcr. If appropriate, use the clean water that passes through tor another round of travertine restoration in the same area. Always use filtered restoration watcr in the same area it was used the first time-never transport it to other sections within a cave. 415 Figure I. To recycle cave restoration water, allow particles to settle out and then pour the cleanest water through a simple filtering device. Tips for Filtering Place used restoration water in a bucket and allow the particles to settle to the bottom. Skim clean water off the top. If necessary, filter the water to reuse for restoration. Settle. Allow particles and sediment from recovered restoration water to settle in buckets, plastic bottles, or zip-closure plastic bags propped upright. Siphon. Dip or siphon the cleanest water olrthe top. Use a clean, disinfected turkey baster or 6O-milliliter (60 cc) syringe to retrieve the clean water. Strain. Strain or filter cloudy water for reuse in the same restoration area. Be sure to remove any flecks of paint, lint, carbide, and other human-introduced debris.

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416 Figure 2. One caver can operate a small hand-held pump while directing the waler through a simple filtering device and back into the pool. The filter is made from a clean, inverted water bottle that is stuffed with soll sponge material. Figure 3. With this pool filtering device, a pair of cavers can work in tandem to direct the hose and operate the diaphragm pump. Pool water flows through a filter that captures particles and allows silt-free water to return to the pool. Both before and after are apparent in this photo. The dark area (top left) has not yet been cleaned. Cave Conservation and Restoration Make a Simple Filter For restoration in remote locations, water may need to trickle through a simple filter made of foam material compressed into a clean water bottic. Step I. Remove the bottom of a 20-ounce, 32ounce, or 2-liter bottled-water container. (Water bottles with smooth, gently sloping top sections make the best funnel filters.) Step 2. Remove the screw-top lid and stutrthe bottle three-quarters full with very soft sponge or foam material. (Avoid treated foam products since they may add unwanted chemicals to the cave system.) Step 3. Turned upside-down, the stutred bottle performs as a filtering funnel. Step 4. Silt particles and debris stop along the interface between the foam and the bottlc. Clean water passes through the foam and is caught in a container to use again as recycled restoration water. Pumping and Filtering Cave Pools Is the sediment natural or is it introduced by humans? Silt caused by natural hydrological processes is usually left as is and no alteration is attempted. However, mud, silt, and sediment sometimes enter cave pools as a direct result of human activity-produced either by surface activity or by in-cave actions. Due to human foot travel or activity, silt may collect on the bottoms of cave pools ncar trails. Removing water from puddles or pools is sometimes appropriate to mitigate sediment left by caver boots, to remediate visible mud flow caused by human activity, or to clean up debris introduced by other anthropogenic processes. A small hand-held suction pump is sufficient for vacuuming undesirable silt out of puddles and small pools. A large-volume diaphragm pump may be more efficient for bigger pools that are marred by human-introduced sediments. As described above, a sponge stutred into a cut-otrwater bottle usually provides sufficient filtration to improve the appearance. If cave biologists and management deem it appropriate, silt is filtered out and the water is circulated back into its source pool. Tips for Restoring Cave Pools eValHildrelh-Warkar Bathtub Rings. Use a sponge to remove bathtub rings that form along cave pool edges. The softest, most absorbent sponges work like dirt magnets when gently placed near the rings of sediment. Dirt Magnets. Sponges made for paint application or clean-room sponge brushes also work as dirt magnets. For pristine cave applications, plastic handles may be better than wood. Small Pools. For smaller pools and puddles, a

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Part 3-Restoration: HildrethWerker and Werkcr-Filtration and Pools hand-held suction pump with a simple water bottle filter makes an adequate silt cleaning system. Large Pools. Hand-operated diaphragm pumps are necessary for larger pools. Electric pumps may be more efficient for show caves. (If a generator is used for undeveloped caves, it should remain outside the entrance.) Pump and Filter. Place a makeshift filtering funnel at the water outflow. The filter will capture debris and silt along the edges of the foam. (See filter making above.) For some pools, nylon or Tygon" tubing is attached to the pump. Two cavers can work together to operate the device, one pumping and filtering, one directing the hose. (See Pellucidar photos, page 388.) Return. When cleaning and filtering cave pools, return the water to the pool it came from. Disinfect and Replace. Disinfect the pump and tubing before using the system in a ditferent pool, and replace the filter with new, clean, soft, spongy material. (See disinfecting, page 77 and page 404.) Summary The simple water-recycling filters described in this chapter are cavcfriendly and easy to carry in cave packs. The hand-operated pumps are surprisingly efficient. It is best to remove captured sediments from the cave. When removal is not deemed necessary, find an appropriate location under a rock along the trail. Be certain there is no passage below where runoff will create problems. Avoid cross-contamination issues. Use recycled restoration water only in the same area it came from. Always return recycled pool water back to its original source. Clean and disinfect equipment before using it in a different location. Usc new filtering material for each new site. 417 Always use filtered resloration water in the same area it was used the first timenever transport it to other sections within a cave.

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418 Cave Conservation and Restoration



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Part 3-Restoration: Werker and Hildreth-Werker-Gypsum Cleaning Section D-Restoring Speleothems Gypsum Cleaning Jim C. Werker and Val Hildreth-Werker Gypsum surfaces become soiled and discolored from contact with hands. dirty gloves. gear, garments, and boots. Clean and restore sulfate speleothems by gingerly removing the soiled crystals and layers. Be gentle with gypsum-use a light touch and minimize damage to the soft, crystalline surfaces. Techniques for Cleaning Gypsum To restore most marred gypsum surtaces, carefully brush it with light sweeping motions to gently peel ofT layers of grime. Because a heavy hand will produce unsightly grooves, special care and light strokes are most important. Catch gypsum scrapings and debris in plastic bags, pans, or buckets to avoid leaving contaminants in the cave. Cavers sometimes work on gypsum restoration in pairs. One holds a plastic trash bag under the restoration site to capture falling fragments and watches to help avoid irreparable damage. The other caver judiciously brushes the gypsum crust in repetitive sweeping motions. Frequent inspection of the restoration site with the aid of side lighting will reveal problems so the gypsum team can adjust their technique. Depending on the location and the porosity of gypsum, different procedures may be indicated. Techniques are listed here, starting with tools for the softest porous gypsum and working down to methods that have been surprisingly effective on more dense gypsum surfaces. Gruut Brushes. Tile grout brushes with stiff nylon or plastic bristles work well for cleaning soft gypsum surfaces. Metal Brushes. Gypsum crusts of medium hardness often require metal brushes. Clean, new brushes with stainless steel bristles are necessary to avoid introducing rust, organic materials, and black marks. Other metal bristle materials typically leave black streaks on cave surfaces. (See stainless steel in cave-safe materials, page 167.) Loose Bristles. Expect some bristles to break off or come loose from the brushes. Use catchments. Retrieve any stray bristles. Remove all debris from the cave. Spray and Sponge. For cleaning dense, crystalline gypsum surfaces, a spray bottle and sponge may be 419 Be gentle with gypsum-use a light touch and minimize damage to the soft, crystalline surfaces. Figure I. Jim Werker uses light strokes with a stainless steel brush to clean gypsum surfaces. In this maze passage, he easily captures scrapings in a small plastic bag. (See page lOaf color section.)

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420 Figure 3 (before and after). Use a stainless steel brush to clean dense gypsum surfaces. The brush is sitting on soiled gypsum that is not yet restored. Cave Conservation and Restoration effective. Spray water onto harder surfaces to loosen the soil, and then sponge up the grime. Avoid Water. Water is ineffective on soft gypsum surfaces-applying water to porous gypsum only seems to suck any discoloration deeper below the surface. Dentall'icks. Use dental tools to pick off especially tenacious paint or soiling, fleck by tedious fleck. (See information on dental picks and gypsum photos in the graffiti chapter, page 340.) Gypsum Tips and Precautions Stainless Steel. Stainless steel brushes are generally preferred because stainless is more corrosion resistant than other metals, thus safer for cave environments. If stray bristles are inadvertently left in the cave, stainless will do less harm. Stainless bristles are specified in industrial supplier catalogues, but are difficult to find in local hardware stores. Be Gentle. Avoid heavy-handed brushing that creates grooves. Use very light, sweeping motions and check the results often. No Touching. Cavers can avoid creating big patches of tainted gypsum handholds by using one fingertip or a gloved knuckle as a tiny point of contact to assure balance. Better yet, cavers sometimes carry surgical gloves (nonlatex, powder-free) to wear through pristine passages. (See photos, page 421; also see caving gloves, page 433-435.) Tools and Supplies for Gypsum Stainless Steel Brushes. Lightly scrape away layers of grime. Tile Grout Brushes, Stiff nylon bristles work on soft gypsum surfaces. Dental Tools, Fleck off paint and debris, bit by tiny bit. Goggles, Use eye protection. Surgical Gloves. It is best to use non latex, powder-free exam or surgical gloves. Large Plastic Trash Bags, Catch gypsum scrapings and stray bristles.

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Part 3-Restoration: Hildreth-Werker and Werker-Gypsum Cleaning 421 Figure 4a (before). The open palms of muddied gloves can make dirty blotches on sparkling gypsum surfaces. This large, dirty handhold started as a fingertip hold. Cavers should look first and touch only within small, carefully positioned soiled spots. Figure 4b (before). A single finger or the point of a knuckle for a touch of balance may help reduce further damage to this cave passage. Figure 4c (after). After cleaning the gypsum handhold, cavers now keep a pair of surgical gloves handy to wear when traveling through the Chandelier Maze of Lechuguilla Cave. Here, the caver uses a gloved knuckle to help protect the restored gypsum passage. Tarps, Plastic Sheeting, and Buckets. Large catchments may be necessary. Spray Bottle and Sponge. On dense gypsum surfaces, try spraying water and sponging away the grimy marks.

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422 Cave Conservation and Restoration



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Part 3-Restoration: Hildreth-Werker-Cave Pearls and Delicate Speleothems Section D-Restoring Speleothems Cave Pearl and Delicate Speleothem Restoration Val Hildreth-Werker Restoration of cave pearls and fragile speleothems can be a tedious labor of love. Keep in mind, most delicate speleothems cannot be cleaned or restored. It is best to act on foresight and implement precautionary measures to prevent impact in the first place. When attempting to erase human impacts from temperamental speleothems, gentle techniques are employed that require small tools, excellent close-up vision, and an artistic, ultra-light touch. Several techniques to try on the various types of fragile speleothems arc included below. Cave pearl restoration requires a difTerent set of techniques and is included as a separate category in this chapter. Restoring Delicate Speleothems Restoration of fragile or delicate speleothems requires painstaking patience. Particular techniques are very specific to the site and to the individual who is actually executing a tedious task. Restoration of fragile areas involves using best practices to find a technique that works, depending on the character of environment, the type of speleothem, and the skill of the spelean restorationist. Techniques listed here are for fragile, easily damaged speleothems such as coralloids, helictites, shelfstone, box work, soda straws, cave flowers, anthodites, frostwork, and so on. Restoration should not even be attempted on many fragile speleothem types-use good judgement. Gloves. Always use surgical or exam gloves when working near fragile spe\eothems-nonlatex and powder-free. Syringes. Syringes, in a variety of sizes, are used to vacuum dirt and particles from around the edges of delicate, wet speleothems. Or a light stream of water, pushed through a needle or tip, may wash particles from helictites, coralloids, box work, shelfstone, and other delicate travertine formations. Water Mistin~. Popcorn and other coralloids are typically durable enough to mist with cave water for removing dust and lint. Soda straws may be able to withstand gentle misting from below. (Delicate soda straws may break ifmisted from the side.) Foam Brushes. Clean-room foam brushes work like magnets to attract muck from moist coralloids, rimstone, sturdy heligmites, and shelfstone. Paint Brushes. Soft-bristled paint brushes, synthetic-fiber feather dusters, and very soft toothbrushes are good dry-cleaning tools for more durable travertine and coralloid surfaces. 423 Restoration of cave pearls and fragile speleothems can be a ledious labor of love.

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424 Cave Conservation and Restoration Figure I. This delicate aragonite probably cannot be restored. Any attempt to remove the dirt particles is likely to create more damage. Cavers should move gently and avoid dropping dust onto this speleothem in Wind Hicks Cave, New Mexico. (See page 16 in color section.) Figure 2. Imagine how easily gypsum flowers can he destroyed when cavers kick up dust or fail to look before placing a hand or foot. (See page 16 in color section.) Figure 3. Doug Feaks was one of the first cavers to view this wall of virgin aragonite in Southwinds. Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico. By defining trails and following protocols, perhaps the speleothem-covered wall can be preserved in this pristine state. (See page 16 in color section.) Figure 4. To mitigate careless impacts, muddy prints were tediously removed from the cave pearl nests of Pearlsian Gulf, Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico. Note the dark footstep smear in the center of this image-the mark of another perhaps well-intentioned, yet uninfonned caver. (See page 16 in color section.) Figure S. Dressed in a Tyvek~ suit, surgical gloves, and flowstone shoes, Gosia Allison-Kosior is restoring pearls in Pearlsian Gulf, Lechuguilla. (See page 15 in color section.) Figure 6. Syringes, foam clean-room brushes with plastic handles, and sponges are the tools for cave pearl restoration. Both before and after are apparent in this image-the left side of the tlowstone has been cleaned, and the right side still has particles of mud. (See page 15 in color section.)

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Part 3-Restoration: Hildreth-Werker-Cave Pearls and Delicate Speleothems Artist Brushes. Small, delicate artist brushes containing only a few bristles will sometimes remove particles of dust. A little static charge or a little moisture may help. Tiny Dental Tools. Nylon toothpicks and stainless or plastic dental tools may facilitate removal of small particles. Tweezers. Stainless steel and plastic tweezers arc essential tools for many delicate restoration tasks. Tiny particles of misplaced debris may be gently lifted away with tweezers and a steady hand. Cleaning particles of debris from stout cave flowers or frostwork may require only a good pair of tweezers and gentle. steady patience-however, many speleothems are entirely too delicate to attempt any kind of restoration. Air Blasts. Canned, compressed air may seem like a good idea-but canned air exerts too much pressure, breaks delicate speleothems, and causes lint and dust to become airborne. Restoring Cave Pearls Nests of cave pearls are sometimes inadvertently marred by muddy boot tracks. Though it is a time-consuming proposition, cave pearl restoration yields satisfying aesthetic rewards. However, extremely cautious techniques are recommended to avoid harming microbial communities that may live among the pearls or may even be partially responsible for the intriguing formation and luster of cave pearls. (See cave pearls, page 76.) Gentle techniques for restoring cave pearls are described here. New and Sterilc. Tools for cave pearls should be new and sterile if used in pristine areas. (lfpearls are located in heavily trafficked areas, restoration tools should at least be clean and disinfected.) Surgical or Exam Gloves. Nonlatex, powder-free gloves are essential for cave pearl restoration. Pearls located in isolated areas may require sterile gloves and sterile equipment. (See latex, page 433; also see sterilizing tools, page 77.) Hypodermic Vacuum. Use syringes to vacuum dirt particles from underneath pearls and from the bathtub rings that may form along the rims of cave pearl nests. Needles and tips are useful in creating very gentle pressure for washing and for picking up particles. Specialized Tips. A short length of hose or tubing slipped over the end of a syringe creates a soft, flexible suctioning device for the curvatures of pearl nests. Save that Watcr. Use a sterile container to reserve the water drawn from pearl pools. (For example, the plastic bubble from sterile syringe containers often makes an adequate reservoir.) Allow particles to settle to the bottom and use a syringe to return the clean water to its original pool. l\'luck Suckers. Clean-room foam brushes work like magnets to attract muck from around the pearls. Detailed Pointy Work. Tweezers gently lift away tiny particles of debris. 425

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426 Cave Conservation and Restoration Lint-Free Fabric or Paper. Small particles tend to cling to tweezers, but can be removed and captured for disposal by wiping the instrument across a lint-free surface. Sponging. New, small, ultra-soll sponges will attract dirt from around the edges of pools. Thoroughly rinse new sponges before using. (See sponges for flowstone, pages 404-407.) No Toothbrushes. Avoid using toothbrushes for two reasons-the surfaces of pearls and the linings of pearl nests may be soft and easily scratched. Also, brushing would disrupt any biofilm that may be partially responsible for cave pearl growth. (See cave pearls, page 76.) Dress for the Occasion. Flowstone shoes, Tyvek'l> suits, clean lint-free clothing, wet-wipes to remove dirt from skin and helmets, kneepads or kneeling cushions sealed in zippie bags-all these guidelines for pristine areas are important when restoring cave pearls. (See full descriptions in pristine protocol, page 427-429; also see page 78.) Tools for Cave Pearls Sterile Supplies. Use sterile supplies if the restoration area is isolated or seldom visited. Surgical Gloves. It is best to use noniatex, powder-free exam or surgical gloves. F1owstone Shoes. C/lange to light-soled flowstone shoes before entering the restoration area. Clean, Lint-Free Garments. Use breathable Tyvek suits or clean silky fabrics. Syringes. Carry a variety of sizes with needles, tips, and flexible tubing. Sterile Container. Use for reserving cave pearl water so it can be returned to the pearl nest after any remaining sediment settles out. Clean-Room Foam Brushes. The spongy foam material works like a gentle muck magnet when held against a rim of dirt. Tweezers. Both stainless steel and plastic are handy. Lint-Free Paper or Fabric. Deposit debris that sticks to tweezers or other tools onto a lint-free surface, then contain and carry it out. New, Small Soft Sponges. Hold a sponge edge alongside bathtub rings to collect dirt. Rinse new sponges thoroughly before using ncar cave pearls.



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Part 3-Restoration: HildrethWerker and Werker-Protocol for Pristitne Passages Section D-Restoring Speleothems Protocol for Pristine Passages Val Hildreth-Werker and Jim C. Werker Listed here are field proven recommendations for minimizing human impacts during caving activities. These procedures are used in pristine cave passages for exploration, survey, travel, research, restoration, and so on. The techniques described are effective both for working in and traveling through clean chambers where cavers want to avoid creating muddy tracks or introducing soils and nutrient sources. Boot soles, flowstone shoe options, and glove choices are discussed in the two chapters following this one. Use this chapter as a starting point for developing specific minimum-impact standards and transition protocols that address the specific protection needs of various cave systems. 427 Clean Cavewear To maintain underground chambers in a state more closely resembling the original virgin habitat, cavers need to prevent the human transfer of mud, cave soils, and organic carbons. Carefully plan the tasks, tools, and travel. Minimize contamination. The points below describe alternatives for cave gear and transition protocols. Surgical Gloves. Use non latex, powder-free surgical gloves when tasks require direct contact with pristine cave surfaces. (See gloves, page 433.) Illan Appropriate Foohrear. Determine what combination of footwear is suitable for the tasks-boots, boot covers, aqua socks, neoprene booties, other types of tlowstone shoes, or flowstone shoe covers. (See cave-friendly footwear, page 431.) Pull hazmat boots over thick-soled tlowstone shoes to walk through soiled areas. Slip leather gloves over surgical gloves for a muddy crawl. Cover kneepads with lightweight plastic bags for short crawls, or waterproof nylon coverlets for longer crawls. Protect packs from short mud passages with plastic or nylon bags. Carry an extra small, light pack or bag for work in pristine chambers. Wipe off Dust and Soils. Before entering a pristine area or changing into fresh garments, brush otT cave dirt and use wet-wipes to clean dust and soil from skin, helmets, lights, other gear, and garments. Remove Ilirty Kneepads. A clean pair may be carried into the cave, or the dirty travel pair can be covered for Figure I. Penny Boston is wearing clean, lint-free garments and flowstone shoes for scientific studies in Pearlsian Gulf. Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico.

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428 Cave Conservation and Restoration Figure 2. To collect water samples from a pristine cave pool, Penny Boston and Mike Spilde wear Tyvek suits, hair covers, surgical gloves, and flowstone shoes. Figure 3. When entering a muddy chamber in La Cueva de las 8arrancas, cavers wear covers on their hoots and hags over their kneepads to avoid tracking mud throughout the cave. (See page 15 in color section.) Figure 4. This caver is in a transition zone (an area designated for changing from boots to flowstone shoes). The caver has one finger poised for balance on the adjacent rock, should he need it. His dirty kneepads will also be left with the boots. Figure 5. Only one caver needs to remove dirty kneepads and change to flowstone shoes so she can step off trail into a flowstone area to perform water testing at Liberty Bell in Lechuguilla Cave. A little help from a friend facilitates the transition. Figure 6. The dots are polypropylene lint halls from fuuy caver garments. When laundering, separate polypro and nylon clothing from cottons to reduce pilling. Figure 7. A nylon sheet'is spread in the trail area and used as a staging area for scientific studies conducted in Spider Cave. Carlsbad Caverns National Park. New Mexico.

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Part 3-Restoration: HildrethWerker and Werker-Protocol for Pristitne Passages pristine tasks. Put each kneepad inside a one-gallon freezer zippie to contain dirt, lint, and debris-then use the contained kneepads as kneeling cushions (be certain the zip-closures will stay tightly sealed). 429 Change to Clean Clothes and I)acks. Before entering clean passages, it may be appropriate to take off soiled travel clothes and change to coveralls, silkies, or Tyvek@ suits. (Clean-room suits are available in paint supply outlets or through lab catalogues.) Depending on the conditions, it may work better to wear coveralls over the attire planned for the pristine passage and simply shed the coveralls before entering. For pristine areas, change to garments that are free of lint and cave dirt-silky feeling polyester, nylon, or clean-room suits made ofTyvek are lightweight and take up minimal room in cave packs. Various types ofTyvek will provide a light insulating layer for cooler temperatures, but for colder cave passages cavers may need warmer cave suits, layers, or advanced technology fabrics. Remember to include a clean pack or plastic sack for transporting gear into or through clean passages. Hair Covers. Use surgical caps, loose nylon or Iycra swim caps, or bandanas to contain hair and debris. Elastic surgical caps are made of breathable Tyvek and can be worn over or under a helmet to contain flecks of debris and strands of hair. Bandanas are available in a variety offabrics. Lycra swim caps fit tightly and may need to be stretched out before wearing under a helmet. Be Careful with Polypropylene Cavewear. Some fabrics create polypro lint balls that will fall off garments and scatter on cave surfaces. Retrieval of thousands of tiny lint balls is inefficient and irksome. To minimize lint dots, do not launder synthetic fabrics with cottons. Protect the Flowstonc. Spread out a plastic or nylon sheet as a staging area for clean items. Wipe off excess dirt and then move toward the staging area. Step out of soiled clothing onto the clean sheet. Stand or sit on the clean sheet to don gear for the pristine chamber. Listed here are field proven recommendations for minimizing human impacts during caving activities. These procedures are used in pristine cave passages for exploration, survey, travel, research, restoration, and other caving activities. Before entering a clean passage, it may be appropriate to take off soiled travel clothes and change to coveralls, silky garments, or Tyvek@ suits.

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430 Cave Conservation and Restoration



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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Buecher-Do Not Disturb Bats Section A-Identifying and Protecting Cave Resources Do Not Disturb Hibernating Bats or Nursery Colonies Debbie C. Buecher In the United States, caving has increased in popularity during the last three decades. Unfortunately, human visitation in caves, even by the most conscientious cavers, gradually leaves negative impacts. Because we love our caves there is increasing awareness among the caving community toward performing ongoing restoration or building secure gates to maintain the integrity of caves we visit. However, we must consider the negative implications that our restoration efforts may have on the cave organisms adapted to this unique environment. Roosting Sites and Nursery Colonies Bats are extremely intolerant of human intrusion into their roosting sites (Mann and others 2002, Tuttle 1979) and roost disturbance over time can negatively impact population size (Mohr 1972). (See bat sensitivity, page 40.) Some people mistakenly believe that bats can use any cave or portion of a cave as their daily roosting area. Unfortunately this is not the case (Kunz 1982). Bats choose sites because ofa constrained range of tolerant temperature and humidity requirements-conditions that help insure their survival (McNab 1982). There are two extremely critical times in a bat's life when the roosting site is particularly important, during reproduction and during hibernation (Twente 1955). The location where female bats give birth and rear their young is called a maternity roost. For most temperate bat species that use caves, mating occurs in the fall, the bats then hibernatc until late spring, \vhercupon the females begin gestation. Most bats have only one young per year, born in early-to-mid summer (depending on the species). Pups are totally dependent on "mom's" rich milk for about 4 to 6 weeks (Hill and Smith 1984). Adult female bats require a warm area of the cave with very high humidity to insure the rapid growth of their nursing (altricial) young (Betts 1997; Williams and Brittingham 1997). Whcn females with young are disturbed, there are two possible scenarios. In one case, the females may attempt to flee with their young pups attached to them. In the panic that ensues, the young that do not already fly (nonvolant) can be dropped onto the floor. Many species of bats have difficulty retrieving a fallen youngster and the pup will perish (McCracken 1989). If the females are successful in Figure t. Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) pups clustered on a eave ceiling. 43

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44 There are two extremely critical times in a bat's life when the roosting site is particularly important, during reproduction and during hibernation. Figure 2. Indiana bats (Myotis sadaUs) clustered on a cave wall. e Merlin D. Tullle, Bel Cave Conservation and Restoration flying with their young, the alternative roosting site they choose may be less optimal for the survival of the young bats. Female bats choose the best site they can find and, barring disturbance from "predatory" humans, they will be loyal to that maternity site their entire lives, as will their daughters, granddaughters, and so on (Hill and Smith 1984; Sidner 1997). Because a maternity colony is particularly vulnerable to disturbance, we must never perform restoration within a maternity site when the bats are in residence (American Society of Mammalogists 1992). Fortunately cave restoration is not usually a seasonally critical activity and can be performed when the bats have departed for the season. Winter Hibernation Another critical period in a bat's life history, when disturbance can reduce survival, is during winter hibernation. When winter arrives and the insects disappear, bats have two options available to them. They can migrate southward to an area where the insects are still somewhat abundant. Or they can sleep (hibernate) through the period of reduced food resources (McNab 1982). Bats that hibernate put on additional fat reserves in the fall in preparation for the winter months of reduced metabolic activity (McNab 1982). Once they are ready to hibernate, bats seek out a roost with an optimally cold but humid microclimate. Different species of bats require different conditions, which is why bats can be found dispersed throughout a cave that is used as a hibernaculum (Hill and Smith 1984; Tuttle and Stevenson 1978). Hibernation in bats is characterized by reduced oxygen consumption, greatly reduced heart rate (approximately 1/40th normal), and a body temperature close to the ambient cave temperature. Under these reduced metabolic rates, the bats slowly draw from their fat reserves and survive the long period of dormancy. Unfortunately, the fat reserves are finite and have evolved to last the necessary period of time the bat is asleep (Thomas 1996). Research shows that even nontactile disturbance (lights, sound, and so on) can trigger a slow arousal in a hibernating bat. It can take upwards of one hour for a bat to awaken enough to fly. In addition, it appears that the arousal of a single bat may disturb other bats asleep in the area, producing a cascading effect from one human disturbance (Thomas 1995). It is in this way that bats '''burn up" critical fat reserves each time they awaken because it takes metabolic energy to warm the bat, reserves that were intended to last throughout the winter. Studies show that the metabolic energy required for a single arousal from deep sleep is equivalent to 10 to 30 days of uninterrupted hibernation (Thomas and others 1990). Aller a number of episodes of human disturbance, a bat can literally starve to death before insects are available in the spring. Therefore, arousals can be the greatest factor in depIcting hibernation energy budgets (Johnson and others 1998). This is particularly critical for the young of that year. Once pups learn to fly and employ echolocation effectively enough to capture insect prey in flight, it is late enough in the season that it is ollen difficult to store

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Buecher-Do Not Disturb Bats adequate fat reserves to survive the rigors of hibernation (Thomas and others 1990), In fact, the first winter is such an arduous period for yearlings that there is about 45% mortality for these animals (Sidner 1997), However, for all ages, multiple disturbance episodes can result in overwintering bat mortality due to energy shortfalls, Although conservation and restoration is becoming an important aspect of caving activity in the U.S., we as cavers must always consider the cave life that may be impacted by our efforts, When caving, never jeopardize the bats, invertebrates, or other organisms that dwell in caves-it is truly their habitat that we are invading. It is our obligation to cave responsibly and to be active stewards for the resource. Cited References American Society of Mammalogists, 1992, Guidelines for the protection of bat roosts, Journol of Mammalugy 73(3):707-710, Betts BJ, 1997, Microclimate in Hell's Canyon mines used by maternity colonies of Myotis yumanensis, Journaluf Mammalogy 78(4): 12401250, Brigham RM, 1993, The implications of roost sites for the conservation of bats. Provincial Museum of Alberta Natural His/Dry, Occasional Paper Number 19, [Brandon, Manitoba] 19:361-365, Hill JE, Smith JD, 1984, Bats: A Natural HistOlY, Austin (TX): University of Texas Press, 243 p, Johnson SA, Brack Y, Rolley RE, 1998, Overwinter weight loss of Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) from hibernacula subject to human visitation, American Midland Naturalist 139:255-261, Kunz TH, 1982, Roosting ecology of bats, In: Kunz TH, editor, Ecology uf Bats, New York: Plenum Press, pi-55, Mann SL, Steidl RJ, DaltonYM, 2002, Elfects of cave tours on breeding Myotis velifer, JournalufWildlife Management 66(3):618-624, McCracken GF. 1989, Cave conservation: special problems of bats, National Speleological Society Bulletin 51 :47-51, McNab BK, 1982, Evolutionary alternatives in the physiological ecology of bats, In: Kunz TH, editor, Ecology of Bats, New York: Plenum Press, p 151-200, Mohr CE, 1972, The status of threatened species of cave-dwelling bats, National Speleological Society Bulletin 34(2):33-47, Sidner RM. 1997. Studies of bats in southeastern Arizona with emphasis on aspects of life history of Antrozous pallidus and Eptesicusfuscus, PhD Thesis, Tucson (AZ): University of Arizona, Thomas DW, Dorais M, Bergeron JM, 1990, Winter energy budgets and cost of arousals for hibernating little brown bats, Myotis lucifugus. Journal of Mammology 71 (3 ):4 75-4 79, Thomas D. 1995. Hibernating bats are sensitive to nontactile human disturbance, Journal of Mamma logy 76(3):940-946, Tuttle MD, Stevenson DE. 1978. Variation in the cave environment and its biological implications, In: Zuber R, Chester J, Rhodes D, editors, National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings: Big Sky, Montana, October 3-7, 1977, Albuquerque (NM): Adobe Press, p 108-12 L Tuttle MD, 1979, Status, causes of decline and management of endangered gray bats, Journal of Wildlife Management 43: 1-17, Twente JW 1955, Some aspects of habitat selection and other behavior of cavern-dwelling bats, Ecology 36:706-732, Williams LM, Brittingham Me. 1997, Selection of maternity roosts by big brown bats, Journal of Wildlife Monagement 6\ (2):359-368, 45 Bats are extremely intolerant of human intrusion into their roosting sites, When cavmg, never jeopardize the bats, invertebrates, or other organisms that dwell in caves-it is truly their habitat that we are invading,

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46 Cave Conservation and Restoration Additional Reading American Society of Mammalogists. 1992. Guidelines for the protection of bat roosts. Journal of Mammalogy 73(3):707-710. Bat Conservation International (BCI). BCI home page. . Direct link to full articles from Bats Online. Brown C. 1996. Bat habitat in caves: What are the caver's responsibilities? NSS News 54(23):52-53. Mohr CEo 1976. The protection of threatened cave bats. In: Aley T, Rhodes D, editors. 1976 National Cave Management Symposium Proceedings Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 6-10, 1975. Albuquerque (NM): Speleobooks. p 57 -62. Tuttle MD. 2000. Where the bats are, Part III: caves, cliffs, and rock crevices. Bats 18(1 ):6-11.



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Part 3-Restoration: HildrethWerker-Footwear Section D-Restoring Speleothems Cave-Friendly Footwear Val Hildreth-Werker In caves, use footwear with nonmarring/nonmarking soles. Employ common sense and select comfortable, durable, safe footwear for various caving activities. From light-soled atheletie shoes to durable rubber boots-the variety of specialized footwear available today makes it easy to choose appropriate shoes for most any cave environment. Boot Soles Don't wear heavy wame stampers in caves. Weight and bulk cause unnecessary travel damage and excessive trail compaction. Avoid traditional black Vibram" soles-they definitely leave marks on cave surfaces. Advanced technology has afforded Vibram the ability to offer a variety of new soles-some are described as nonmarking. Check the soles before walking across sensitive cave surfaces. For the best test, strike the soles across a block of limestone before wearing them in a cave. (See scutT marks, page 405; also see soft scrubbers, page 406.) Whether light or dark colored, many boot soles will leave scuff marks on calcite and other cave surfaces. Test all caving soles on untreated limestone or concrete. Be careful with blond rubber soles-chunks from soft soles tend to break off and leave debris in cave passages. Include an extra plastic bag to contain dirty boots through pristine areas where flowstone shoes are required. Flowstone Shoes Carry clean, lint-free tlowstone shoes with lightweight, nonmarking soles for entering pristine areas. Use water sports booties, smooth-soled athletic shoes, aqua socks, or nylon slippers. Carry a small sponge to spot-clean tlowstone shoes while caving. Choose flowstone shoes according to the nature of travel surfaces. Rough or rocky surfaces require durable flowstone soles for comfort and safety while flexible soles often give adequate protection and grip on slick, smooth surfaces. Do not travel across cave surHlces with only bare feet or socks-lint, skin flakes, blood, body oils, and microbial residents living under toenails and in skin folds should not be left on cave surfaces. Between cave trips, flowstone shoes should be laundered in a washing machine with just a touch of mild detergent. Include a plastic bag that is suitable for containing flowstone shoes that get soaked with water or soiled with cave muck. Shoe Covers When traveling through areas that have intermittent muddy floors, cover tlowstone shoes with hazmat booties. Designed to slip over shoes, the hazmat boot covers can be donned over (or removed from) tlowstone shoes 431 Common sense should guide selection of durable, comfortable, safe footwear for various caving activities.

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432 Cave Conservation and Restoration Figure I. In transition zones, step out of boots and into tlowstone shoes. Non-marking aqua socks with light soles make good footwear for many pristine cave surfaces. (Sec page 15 in color section.) Figure 2. Use non marring boots for caving. Some boot soles leave tenacious scuff marks on flowstone. Test soles by striking across untreated limestone or concrete. Figure 3. Plastic shopping bags often make adequate boot covers for short distances if cavers walk gently. David Joaquim is checking a science and monitoring station on a muddy trail in La Cueva de las Barrancas. Just outside of the trail, test tubes remain in situ to allow cultures to grow in the stable cave environment. (Sec page 15 in color section.) Figure 4. In pristine areas with intermittent mud, Harley Shaw slips hazmat boot covers over his tlowstone shoes to avoid spreading mud onto clean tlowstone surfaces. (Sce page 15 in color section.) When traveling through areas with intennitlent muddy floors, cover flowstone shoes with hazmat booties. while standing. Though durable enough to withstand mud-covered, rocky surfaces when worn over aqua socks, the hazmat covers tcnd to rip and tear when worn over normal caving boots. Simple plastic bag boot cover may be adequate for brief zones oftrave\. Two-gallon Ziploc ll freezer bags fit easily over many boot sizes and provide surprisingly durable protection and safety on most surfaces. (Hefty. bags with built-in zipping mechanisms speed up the transition process, making it easy to slip a foot in and secure the bag. However, with repeated use, the zippers stop working and it is wise to carry a pair of large elastics or Yelcro


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Part 3-Restoration: Hildreth-Werker-Gloves Section D-Restoring Speleothems Practical Caving Gloves Val Hildreth.Werker For most travel in wild caves, gloved hands are viewed as more conservation-aware than bare hands. Every touch of bare skin leaves body oils, skin fragments. microorganisms, and debris on cave surfaces. Glove Choices Leather gloves are durable and create less lint than cotton and other natural fabrics. Leather gloves are appropriate for general caving in many environments, for vertical rope skills, and for tasks that require lifting and heavy labor. However, gloves made of durable synthetic materials wear well and produce minimal lint. In wet environments, greater protection may be necessary. Glove choice is based on the nature of travel and activity in specific cave systems. Muddy hands and gloves leave ugly scars along travel routes in caves. Instead of grabbing a speleothem or a piece of wall with a big muddy palm, use the cleaner back of a knuckle or a fingertip as a small point of contact for balance. (See photos, page 421 and page 434.) Where something must be grasped as a secure hold, look for and use the most impacted spot instead of creating new muddy blobs. (Observe common sense safety measures-if a caver loses balance, it may be necessary to use the tirstavailable durable protrusion as a quick handhold.) To avoid making muddy scars in pristine passages, cavers carry lightweight synthetic gloves. Because oils and organics on our hands create damaging impacts, conscientious cavers pack extra gloves for quick access. In some caves, laminated signs that read Gloves Off mark locations where cavers are expected to remove their travel gloves and don their flowstone gloves (surgical, exam, vinyl, nitrile, disposable, or some other kind of clean handwear) (Figure 4). Synthetic gloves arc good tools for cave protection and conservation. Surgical Gloves Nonlatex, powder-free surgical or exam gloves are recommended for most cave restoration tasks and for travel through pristine cave passages. Surgical and exam gloves made of other materials-vinyl, nitrile, and other nonlatex products-are available through medical and lab suppliers, beauty and barber suppliers, food service outlets, and hardware stores. Lightweight, plastic food service gloves are adequate for quick restoration jobs like small trash or mold removal-or for sponging up an occasional footprint on flowstone. Holes and tears in lightweight surgical gloves can be a nuisance. Some cavers rarely rip their gloves while others go through several pairs a day. Heavier gloves made of nitrile or vinyl still allow dexterity, but are more durable and can be washed between trips. Only powder-free gloves should be used in caves and it is best to avoid latex products. 433 In caves, gloved hands are usually viewed as more conservation-aware than bare hands. Every touch of bare skin leaves body oils, skin fragments, microorganisms, and debris on cave surfaces.

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434 Cave Conservation and Restoration Figure I. Reduce caver impacts created by muddy gloves. Avoid reaching up to touch cave ceilings and walls when a handhold is not necessary. Figure 2. Muddy gloves leave ugly scars along cave routes Fi~ure 3. Instead of a dirty open palm, use a gloved knuckle for a single point of contact to help maintain balance. Figure 4. Along some routes, cavers are expected to remove their leather gloves and don a pair of nonlatex. powder-free surgical gloves to help kcep pristine areas clean. Glove choice is based on the nature of travel and activity in specific cave systems. Avoid Latex Products In caves, it is best to avoid contact with latex products. The term lalex usually refers to natural rubber latex, the product manufactured from a milky tluid derived from rubber trees. Proteins tlake otT from natural rubber latex gloves. Protein particles remain in cave passages and provide a nutrient source for nonnative species introduced from surface systems. Latex proteins become fastened to the glove's lubricant powder and particles become airborne when the gloves arc removed. Aerosolized particles then spread through the cave and to human mucus membranes. The most common reaction to latex is irrita11l contact dermatitis-the development of dry, itchy, irritated areas on the skin, usually the hands. This reaction is caused by irritation from wearing gloves and by exposure to the lubricant powders added to them. Allergic contact dermatitis results from the chemicals added to latex during harvesting, processing, or manufacturing. These chemicals can cause a skin rash similar to that of poison ivy. Neither irritant contact dermatitis nor chemical sensitivity dermatitis will cause an immediate, life-threatening allergic reaction. (There are several types of synthetic rubber that are sometimes also referred to as "latex." The synthetic products do not release proteins that cause allergic reactions.)

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Part 3-Restoration: Hildreth-Werker-Gloves However, people with suspected latex sensitivity (allergy) should avoid latex products because latex exposures at even very low levels can trigger severe, life-threatening allergic reactions in some sensitized individuals. Reactions usually begin within minutes of exposure, but can occur hours later and can produce various symptoms. More severe reactions may involve respiratory symptoms such as runny nose, sneezing, itchy eyes, scratchy throat, and asthma (difficult breathing, coughing spells, and wheezing). Rarely, anaphylactic shock may occur-an acute and critical condition that involves the respiratory system and requires immediate medical assistance. For additional information about latex allergy, visit the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and other safety sites at the following Web addresses. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Occupational Latex Allergies Anesth.com Search for latex allergy Family Village Home Latex Allergy University of Rochester Guidelines for Reducing Employee Exposure to Latex Acknowledgements Latex information for this chapter was collected in 2004 during phone interviews with Stephen R. Mosberg, MD, and Karmcn Hopkins, MD. The editors gratefully acknowledge their contributions and reviews. We recommend researching the Web addresses listed above for updated information. 435 Only powder-free gloves should be used in caves and it is best to avoid latex products.

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436 Cave Conservation and Restoration



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Part 4-Repair: Werker-Candle Table Revisited Section-A Introducing Speleothem Repair Candle Table Revisited Jim C. Werker Vandals tried to stcal the Candle Table from a well-knO\vn cave in New Mexico. The room of shelfstone and stalactites reminds cavers of nostalgic soda-fountain-style tables with narrow pedestals. These top-heavy "'coke tables" are arranged around a very special shelfstone speleothem that once had a candle-like formation growing from ceiling drips positioned above the center of the table. Over time, changing water levels helped form this room of unusual spelean sculptures decorated with beautiful mineral deposits. In the foreword of this volume, Ron Kerbo describes the day that vandals broke ofT the Candle Table and tried to haul it out of the cave. (See Candle Table, pages 3-5.) Ron and his friend, Joe, carefully carried the damaged speleothem along crawlways and returned it to its room of origin. They reported the vandalism to Jerry Trout who was employed by the USDA Forest Service as the first officially titled cave specialist in a federal agency. Jerry believed the Candle Table could be repaired. He knew it had been forever damaged and would never be-the same-but maybe the speleothem could again stand upright among the other calcite tables. Like most cavers, Jerry is innovative and practical. He used glue and a sizeable nail that he had on hand-he thought it might hold the Candle Table long enough to give nature a chance to form an outer coal of healing deposits. The glue didn't work. Jerry knew that I was knowledgeable about materials used in the underground tunnels at the Nevada Test Site. He asked me about adhesives that might hold better and I showed up with a selection of tools and supplies to otTer a higher probability of success. That's how I got started with speleothem repair. We fixed the Candle Table. In fact. we repaired it several times until the vandals gave up and quit kicking it over. They kicked or pried the shelfstonc speleothem with enough force to bend the stainless steel stabilizing rod that we epoxied into the skinny basco The rod bent but the archival grade epoxy held the pin firmly and the Candle Table did not budge. The formation was precariously tilted on its pin, but was not gone. For the final fix, we straightened it, used a larger diameter pin, and reinforced the outer crust at the base with a mixture of epoxy and pulverized rock. The Candle Table stands upright today, decades after the initial vandalizing break. Word got around and I started getting calls to put other speleothems back together again. Better techniques began to evolve. In this section of the handbook, we otTer methods from several cavers who have spent years developing expertise in formation repair. Proven techniques and current best practices are presented in the chapters of this section. 437 Figure I. In 1961 Bob Trout admired the unusual Candle Table speleothem before the candle-shaped formation all top was stolen. Later, the Candle Table itselfwas repeatedly vandalized and repaired.

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438 Cave Conservation and Restoration Figure 2. Jerry Trout drilled the original hole for installing a stabilizing pin in the base of the Candle Tahle. Figure 3. The Candle Table was pinned and epoxied back in its original location. ~ ~ ~ Figure 4. The outer crust of the base was reinforced with museum-grade epoxy mixed with calcite dust. I ~ ~ ~ ~ Figure 6. After several episodes of vandalism, Jim Wecker puts the finishing touches on yet another repair of the surviving Candle Table. .> Figure 5. Again, vandals tried to take the Candle Table. The stabilizing rod bent, but the cave-safe archival epoxy held the speleothem in place.



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Part 4-Repair: Hi!drethWerker-Current Best Practices Section A-Introducing Speleothem Repair Current Best Practices in Speleothem Repair Val Hildreth-Werker The following chapters present state-of-the art speleothem repair method and philosophy. The editors have reviewed techniques, evaluated concepts, and coordinated statements to describe the current best practices in repair techniques and cave-safe material choices. Cave-safe is considered a relative term and is used only to describe the best of what is known. State-of-the-art techniques and materials will change rapidly as more is understood about cave environments. Some materials that are considered relatively cave-safe today will likely lead to future improvements. Many practices of the past are now rejected because of unexpected, detrimental results (Hamilton-Smith and others 1998). The bottom line is clear-any human-introduced materia!s should be used sparingly. Best practice is standard language in business management and people are sometimes suspicious of the terminology (Spate and others !998). Why use the term current best practice for speleothem repair standards? First, adding the word current in front of best practice reminds us to always keep our eyes, ears, and minds open for improved methods. Second, the term inherently awakens the essential process of questioning, "What are the current best conservation practices?" Thus, the phrase encourages research, evolution of ideas, and advances in methodology. Current best practice in cave conservation and management is not an end product, but rather a conscious process of defining and enhancing standards. There is one constant factor in cave conservation, restoration, and speleothem repair-mistakes lead to new methods. Never view today's best practices as prescriptions for all situations. Cited References Hamilton-Smith E, McBeath R, Vavryn D. 1998. Best practice in visitor management. In: Smith OW, editor. Cave and Karst Management in Australasia XIl. Carlton South, Victoria, Australia: Australasian Cave and Karst Management Association. p 85-96. [Also in: Australasian Cave and Karst Management Association Journal. 1997. 27:33-43.] Spate A, Hamilton-Smith E, Little L, Holland E. 1998. Best practice and tourist cave engineering. In: Smith DW, editor. Cave and Karst A1anagement in Australasia Xl!. Carlton South, Victoria, Australia: Austra!asian Cave and Karst Management Association. p 97-109. 439 There is one constant factor in cave conservation, restoration, and speleothem repairmistakes lead to new methods. Never view today's best practices as prescriptions for all situations.

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440 Cave Conservation and Restoration



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Part 4-Repair: HildrethWerker and Werker-Planning and Documentation Section A-Introducing Speleothem Repair Speleothem Repair Planning and Documentation Val Hildreth.Werker and Jim C. Werker More people are visiting caves. Increased visitation generally results in more broken speleothems. Whether damaged through acts of ignorant vandalism, blatant carelessness, or inadvertent clumsiness, some of the busted formations can be repaired. As with any cave restoration project, before making decisions carefully consider the potential environmental impacts of repair materials, equipment requirements, and safety measures. The first objective in speleothem repair is to avoid creating new problems-first, do no harm. Before starting a repair project, get permission from the landowner, manager, or agency. Go into the cave, look at the site, and evaluate the poteotial problems. Talk over the repair tasks and logistics. consult with others, bounce ideas around, and make certain the broken pieces fit tightly together-then make decisions about the repair technique to usc. Is it best to repair it or leave it alone? In some cases, doing nothing at all may be the best answer. Evaluate the potential repair from all angles and become aware of materials that are safest for long-term usc in caves. Materials that are considered reasonably safe for long-tenn cave applicatioos are listed in the speleothem repair materials chapter (pages 445-450). Adhesives are notorious for introducing nasty substances into natural environments. Inexpensive adhesives may set up quickly and may appear to work okay, but the cheaper consumer glues and epoxies often have detrimental degradation characteristics, toxic outgassing, and rapid deterioration of chemical bonds. (See archival epoxies and adhesives, page 172 and page 446.) Obtain manufacturer data sheets that detail the chemical properties of repair materials. Also check the federally regulated Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) that discuss hazards and the specific safety precautions for most products and materials. (See MSDS, page 70 and page 172.) Know about the repair products you are using and ask for assistance in predicting how the product may react in cave environments. Consult with biologists, geologists, chemists, and other specialists working in speleological disciplines to ascertain the effects of various materials on specific cave environments. (See materials, page 167.) Explore These Questions Before getting to the nitty-gritty of the actual repair techniques, there are a few important questions and decisions to address. Is it natural breakage'? Most speleologists agree that speleothem pieces should be left alone if the break was caused by naturally occurring environmental changes. Repair the break if the damage was caused by human interference. 441 Before starting a repair project, get permission from the landowner, manager, or agency. Go into the cave, look at the site, and evaluate the potential problems.

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442 "If it ain't broke, don't fix it," -Collier, Beard, French, Meyer, Veni, and Werker are all advocates of this popular axiom. "If it's growing back on its own, think long and hard about repair," -French and Meyer Cave Conservation and Restoration Do the pieces actually fit each other? Most speleothem repair experts agree that orphan speleothem pieces should not be glued together to create a new formation out of un matching broken pieces. Likewise, it usually is considered unethical to add speleothems where none were naturally placed by time and deposition. \Vhat about fabricating missing chunks? It is often reasonable to restore an incomplete formation by filling in gaps with a mixture of epoxy and rock dust. However, it is usually considered inappropriate to fabricate or recreate totally missing speleothems. 'Vhat if calcite deposition prevents tight alignment'! Ifnew speleothem material has deposited on top of an old break, it may be inet1icient or detrimental to attempt repair. However, this handbook offers several pinning and fabrication techniques that have worked in reconstructing speleothem joints disfigured by light calcite deposits. Will the repaired speleothem be safe from future damage'? Should it be repaired anyway-regardless of security factors or potential for additional vandalism? Is a repair attempt worth the potential harm'? What is the probability that more damage will be caused during the repair? 'Vhat are the safety considerations? Are scaffolding and fixtures needed to raise the formation into place? Should cavers or broken pieces be tied otT for safety due to the location of the repair? Caution should prevail when repairing heavy speleothems. Evaluate location and weight before rehanging heavy stalactites. Consider liability issues before attempting repairs. Cavc dwcllers'! Will critters be affected by fumes from the adhesives or residue from the glues? Do bats use the site? Invertebrates? Other organisms? Cleanup'! Include planning for the logistics of cleanup after the project is complete. Remove all indications of the repair crew's presence. Residual effects'? Evaluate the potential residual etTects of any proposed repair. Because all materials will eventually break down and the byproducts may be harmful, minimize the use ofhuman-introduccd materials as much as possible. More Questions for the Pre-Planning Phase Always plan in advancc-before initiating the hands-on work. Reconnaissance trips set the stage for success and help prevent poor performance. Here are a few planning pointers for speleothem repair projects. Where is the speleothem located? What are the logistics of reaching the repair site? 'Vltat matcrials arc nceded'! What tools are required? Scaffolding'? Will the formation require fixtures for lifting and holding it in place until the epoxy cures? Timing'! If the repair is in a show cave with tours, timing may be important. Discuss scheduling with the cave manager so the administration agrees with and approves of the project. Is thc rcpair in an area with a lot of speleothems? Assign spotters to help the team avoid breaking more formations. What type of adhesives will work for the specific repair? Is the area wet or dry? Remember, just because an area is dry now doesn't mean it will be in the future. Personnel'! Don't arrange for more help than is required to complete the job. Extra bodies create additional safety concerns.

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Part 4-Repair: HildrethWerker and Werker-Planning and Documentation Repairing a Stalagmite on a Slope in Slaughter Canyon Cave 443 Figure l. Pieces of a stalagmite rest on the slope where this speleothem was broken in Slaughter Canyon Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park. Figure 3. A stabilization pin made of stainless steel all-thread is epoxied into the center of the upper part of the broken stalagmite. Figure 2. Since the repair is perfanned on a sloping flowstone surface, cavers and large broken pieces are secured with safety lines. Figure 4. Jim Werker drills a larger hole in the stump to receive the stainless steel pin. Figure 5. New calcite deposition on the break prevents solid mating of two pieces. Small rocks fill the gap between broken pieces and provide additional support. Figure 6. Pulverized rocks and archival epoxy form a thick, color-matched mixture for filling cracks and gaps in repaired speleothems.

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444 Cave Conservation and Restoration Repairing a Stalagmite in Slaughter Canyon Cave (continued) Figure 7. A thick mixture of rock dust and archival-grade epoxy is pushed in place with a craft stick to fill and sculpt the gap. Figure 8. Repaired with stainless stabilization pins and archival epoxy, the reassembled stalagmite again stands tall on its base of sloping flowstone. Figure 9. In Lower Cave of Carlsbad Cavern, Jim Werker used Epon 828 and Versamid 40 with a 3-inch 10-24 UNC stainless steel all-thread stabilizing pin to rchang this stalactite on June 5, 1999. Stan Allison, Cave Technician at Carlsbad Caverns National Park, assisted in the planning. (See additional pholo~ of this repair, page 468). Document Repair Sites-Before and After Usc photos and written accounts to document speleothem repair projects. Make pictures of breakage and damage, repair procedures, personnel, and completed repair sites. Use photographs for historical documentation and file them with written reports that describe the methods and materials. Include mechanical drawings to enhance reports. File the documentation in two or three separate places-historical information is useless ifnobody can find it. Always provide a file for the landowner, manager, or agency. Submit a report to the local grotto or region files. Project reports may also be submitted to the NSS library for archiving. Why should repair projects be so thoroughly documented? Before and after photographs are impressive historical documents that may be used for interpretation, research, educational outreach, protection, and funding opportunities. Photograph repair procedures to report, document, and evaluate the techniques employed. Documentation may help stewards identify the cause and make corrections if future abnormalities occur near repair sites. Reports may help in future planning for similar projects. Documentation can become a teaching aid for sharing repair how-to instructions. Future cavers may be able to check on the longevity of repairs if a few details are documented. At least take pictures, record the date, the type of adhesive used, type of pin installed (ifit has one), name of the cave and passage (ifappropriate), and names of those who participated in the repair. (See photodocumentation, page 204.) History is worthless if nobody can find it. File redundantly.



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Part 4-Repair: Werker and Hildreth-Werker-Speleothem Repair Materials Section A-Introducing Speleothem Repair Speleothem Repair Materials Jim C. Werker and Val Hildreth-Werker The materials recommended in this book are relatively safe for long-term use in caves. Based on current best practices in caves, coupled with lab analysis and several decades of practical observation in subterranean environments, the materials listed in this section are generally considered safe for speleothem repair. Keep in mind that the term cave-safe is used to describe the best of contemporary understanding. State-of-the-art techniques and materials for speleothem repair will change as knowledge advances. It is important to exchange information with others who repair speleothems a~d to make every effort to stay current. Cave-Safe Epoxies and Adhesives Cavcrs prefer to be out exploring caves, not repairing someone's speleothem accident or an act of vandalism. Cavers tend to hunt for new, sure-fire, quicker repair materials and techniques-but faster is not necessarily better. Throughout this volume, only tested archival-grade epoxies and adhesives are recommended for use in cave environments. The epoxies, bonding agents, and quick glues found in neighborhood dime stores and variety outlets are certainly easier to obtain than the archival adhesives. However, mass-market products may create a lot more harm than good. Most hardware store epoxies and quick-glues will break down rapidly and may add unwanted toxins and nutrient sources that will harm or destroy cave biota and habitat. Before choosing epoxies, hardeners, cyanoacrylate adhesives, solvents, or metal fixtures, research and understand the characteristics of the materials. (See cave-safe materials, page 172.) Don't trust the mighty marketing claims of wonder products. All glues break down over time, but archival products are formulated to do less harm than those on the general market. In the future, technological advances will introduce better products that arc safer for cave environments. Ahvays carefully research and test products before using them for cave applications. Any new product should be checked by research chemists and biologists who understand the specific cave environments where product use is proposed. Find out the physical characteristics and short-term efTects or proposed products. What are the components of the agent and how will the degradation and outgassing characteristics of the compounds affect cave-dwelling biota, ecosystems, chemistry, water quality, or the minerals of a cave system? Arrange for a cave-savvy chemist or a materials engineer to evaluate how the long-term degradation characteristics may interact with the naturally occurring chemicals and minerals of the cave. Get the manufacturer's data sheets and the federally regulated Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Understand the recommended safety precautions. 445 Throughout this volume, only tested archival-grade epoxies and adhesives are recommended for use III cave environments. Units of Measurement Editors' Note: In this chapter, dimensions for materials deviate from the standard metric! English format used elsewhere in this volume because construction materials are usually sold in English units in the United States.

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446 Photos Jerry L. Trout Figures la, I b, and Ie. To reassemble this vandalized totem, Jim Werker used a simple epoxy and stack repair method with Epon 828 epoxy and Versamid 40 curing agent. This speleothem, repaired in the mid 1 980s, still stands today in a New Mexico cave. Cave Conservation and Restoration Wise product and material choices for cave environments are based on thorough research. Call 011 speleological consultants for input about any material that is considered for long-term underground use. Use educated common sense and constantly gather infonnation about current best practices. Sometimes referred to as archival epoxies and pure cyanoacrylate adhesives, the adhesive agents listed in this chapter have been used in subterranean applications over the past several decades and appear to be relatively safe for long-term installations in cave environments. Epon@ 828 With Versamid@ or Epi-cure@ 3234 (TETA) Epon 828 epoxy has been successful in underground environments and speleothem repair for decades. Epon 828 epoxy rcsin combined with Versamid 40 curing agent will bond dry surfaces, even in humid cave environments. For wet applications or speleothems with active dripping, Versaniid 25 hardener will cure morc efficiently. Epon 828 with Vcrsamid 25 curing agent will bond underwater. The Epon family of archival adhesives will develop strong bonds with shear strengths up to 6,000 psi (41,370 kilopascal). Curing time can take 24-72 hours and sometimes longer in moist cave environments. Shrinkage is minimal. The bond is resistant to a broad range of chemicals. Mixing ratio is typically I: 1. Use one part Epon to one part Versamid (50:50 mix). However, for a more rapid drying time, use just a little more hardener for a 40:60 mix. Faster cure rates result in weaker bonds. Accelerating the drying time reduces the shear strength of the joint. A slower curing time typically increases the durability of the bond. Epon 828 and the Versamid hardeners were lab tested for long-term underground use at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site and have proved successful for speleothem repair during several decades of use and observation. The combined epoxy and curing agent mixes to a creamywhite color and viscous consistency-when dry, it is colorless or a slightly shiny, translucent yellow. These products are available from the Shell' Chemical Company and through regional chemical or plastic product suppliers. However, the Versamid curing agents are increasingly difficult to locate and fabricators in the plastics industry are recommending a Shell replacement product, Epi-cure 3234 (TETA). Epi-cure 3234 is a highly concentrated curing agent with bonding properties and archival characteristics similar to Versamid. Epi-cure 3234 (TETA) is currently the recommended hardening agent for Epon 828 and is typically mixed in a 12: 1 ratio, twelve parts Epon to one part TETA. Hoi Sluff> Super T and Special T Fast-drying cyanoacrylate adhesives are useful for repairing soda straws, helictites, thin draperies, and other delicate speleothems or small applications in caves. Hot Stuff adhesives are industrial-strength products containing a very pure form of

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Part 4-Repair: Hildreth-Werker and Werker-Speleothem Repair Materials 447 Fi~ure 2 (Versamid) and Figure 3 (TETA). Epon 828 epoxy mixed with Epi-curc 3234 (TETA) curing agent in a 12: 1 ratio is a relatively safe adhesive for cave applications. The Epan and Epi-cure products are manufactured by the Shell Chemical Company and are available through regional chemical or plastic product suppliers. Vcrsamid hardeners are also used with Epon S28. For speleothem repair, always have mixing cups, mixing sticks, and disposable gloves on hand. To ease handling the products in a cave, premeasurc both the epoxy and the hardener into small containers. Figures 4a and 4b. Hot Stuff Super T or Special T with NCF Mild Accelerator are relatively safe quick-setting adhesive products for cave applications. All Hot Stuff adhesives are industrial strength and contain a very pure form of cyanoacrylate that remains clear when it cures. Pieces are held in place with wire for curing (detail right). cyanoacrylate that remains clear \\'hen it cures. Oil is not added to lengthen shelf life (as it is in many other instant glues). Hot StufTSuper T is often used in paleontological applications and model-building activities and works well for small repairs in caves. Hot StulTSpecial T is a more viscous product that is formulatcd to fill in gaps and is extremely useful for cave applications. Both Hot Stuff cyanoacrylate adhesive products arc clear and colorless when wet or dry. In most caves, Hot Stuff cures in 30-90 seconds but bonding can be accelerated with NCF Mild Accelerator (also a Hot StufTproduct). Shear strength is weakened by accelerated curing times, but cyanoacrylate does not bond quickly in large quantities. One spritz from a spray pump bottle of NCF will cause chain reaction bonding. Hot StufT Super T, Special T, and NCF Mild Accelerator can be purchased in model-building stores, quality woodworking shops, museum supply catalogues, and through sources on the Weh. Fast-drying cyanoacrylate adhesives are useful for repairing soda sfraws, heiictites, thin draperies, and other delicate speleothems.

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448 Chromium-nickel austenitic steels, commonly known as stainless steels, are more suitable than other products for speleothem repair. Stainless steel allthread is the choice material for pinstabilization of broken speleothems. Common sense should also playa major role in selecting materials for speleothem repair applications. Cave Conservation and Restoration Stainless Steel Rods, Pins, and Wires Chromium-nickel austenitic steels, commonly known as stainless steels, are more suitable than other products for speleothem repair. Stainless is tough and highly resistant to corrosion. Longevity is ten-fold that of mild steels. Stainless steels that are not austenitic will degrade more rapidly in most cave environments. Metals that work best underground include high austenitic stainless steels, particularly types 304L, 316L, and 321. Stainless All-Thread Stainless steel all-thread is the choice material for pin-stabilization of broken speleothems. The ridges of all-thread grab and adhere better than pins made from regular round-stock stainless. Most stainless all-thread is type 304. All-thread is stocked in assorted diameters and cut to the required lengths. Installed as a stabilization rod for rehanging stalactites, all-thread will provide greater shear strength. Ifrepairing naturally leaning stalagmites, the resulting shear load is better resisted with all-thread stabilization rods. Support pins made from regular round-stock stainless are usually successful for repairing stalagmites that have minimal shear load. Consider the expansion characteristics of any material before using it to pin broken speleothems. Over time, corrosion will cause expansion, even when stabilization devices are epoxied inside of speleothems. Structural steel (also called mild or cold-rolled steel), plastic, fiberglass, wood, and nylon rods tend to expand and break apart the repaired cave formations when epoxied into the centers. Stainless is more corrosion resistant than most other materials. The corrosion-resistant characteristics of highaustenitic stainless steels minimize the potential for breakage from material expansion. What about using other metals for pinning broken cave fommtions? Aluminum is not a good choice. (See characteristics of aluminum, page 169.) Some of the other alloyed stainless steels are very strong but their interaction with cave environments has not been studied. Titanium is expensive and is sometimes alloyed with lead or other materials, but again, the interaction with cave environments is not known. There are other exotic metals and materials that might work, but they are expensive and no experience oruse in caves is documented. On the other hand, use of high-austenitic stainless steels in harsh environments has been documented for decades. Stainless materials are highly resistant, durable, and readily available. Stainless Steel Wire Stainless wire makes sense from a theoretical materials standpoint and is a good choice for some speleothem repair jobs. In practice, stainless steel wire is difficult to bend and conform to the shapes of cave formations. However, if the wire is installed as a permanent material in a repaired speleothem, it may be worth the time and aggravation to use stainless wire. Nevertheless, common sense should playa major role in selecting materials for speleothem repair applications. For example, copper wire bends easily, and while it should not be left on the outside of speleothems for long-term applications, it is extremely useful for temporarily holding epoxied seams together on repaired stalactites. Of course, copper wire should be removed as soon as the epoxy sets up, usually within a few days of application. Stainless is the best all-around metal choice for long-term applications in caves.

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Part 4-Repair: Werker and HildrethWerker-Speleothem Repair Materials What Size Support Pins? Select pin diametcr and length to fit the characteristics of the project. Determine the size of the pin according to the size and shape of the fonnation repair. If you lack experience in bolt sizing, ask for help to decide the pin dimensions. Length depends on the application. We've used pins ranging in length from 2 inches up to 12 inches (about S to 30 centimeters). The smallest pin we've used is 11I6-inch diameter (1.6-millimeter). The largest is SIS-inch diameter (I.S-centimeter). If a speleothem is no/likely to be vandalized again, use a short pin. The only real benefit a short pin provides is to prevent sliding from shear load while the epoxy cures. A longer pin provides additional strength. When you have questions, seek consultation from cavers in construction trades, civil engineers, or those experienced in speleothem repair. Repairs with Cement Products Some cement products work well for some types of repairs in cave environments. Concrete is resistant to chemical and corrosive attack, has extremely good longevity characteristics, and introduces few toxins to most cave systems because the chemical composition resembles the natural composition of some rocks and cave passages. (See concrete, pages 169-170.) If concrete products are chosen for speleothem repair projects, use high tensile strength cement with low-content calcium hydroxide. The calcium hydroxide in cement is very soluble-it will quickly dissolve, redeposit, and introduce new, unwanted "soda straws" or "flowstone" below or near cement-based structures or repairs. The concrete deposits grow at an accelerated pace compared to nonnal calcium carbonate speleothems. However, the concrete speleothem problem is reduced by using high tensile strength cement products that contain minimal amounts of calcium hydroxide. (Sec artificial till removal, page 369; also see rimstone dam repair, page 476.) Summary Choose speleothem repair materials that are considered safe for cave environments. Archival-grade adhesives, stainless steel, and cement products with low-content calcium hydroxide are some of the best options. Contact trained interdisciplinary speleologists for review when other products or materials promise cave-safe qualities. 449 Choose speleothem repair materials that are considered safe for cave environments. Archivalgrade adhesives, stainless steel, and cement products with low-content calcium hydroxide are some of the best options.

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450 Cave Conservation and Restoration Choose Cave-Safe Speleothem Repair Materials Jim C. Werker Cave-Safe Archival Epoxy Epon., Resin 828 with Versamid., Curing Agent or approved equivalent. Versamid., 40 for dry surfaces, even in humid conditions. Versamid:w 25 for wet. dripping, or underwater applications. Tctra:w is currently replacing the Versamid products. Minimal harmful outgassing. Does not support growth offungi. NOT just any ole' hardware store epoxy. Pure Form of Fast-Acting Cyanoacrylate Adhesive Hot Stuff., Super T or Special T Hot Stuff., NCF-Mild Accelerator (non-CFC). Austenitic Stainless Steel Pins and Wires Stainless steel all-thread for stabilization rods and pins. Stainless steel wire. Other materials will expand and break speleothems. For example, steel pins will rust, expand, and discolor. Cement Quik-cretew or quick-set cement. Form and sculpt by hand to match rimstone dams. Use Cave-Safe Natural Materials for Coloring Grind cave rocks and mix with approved epoxy. Test soil or dust from the cave floor for color mix with epoxy. Try natural chalks to match unusual colors. Charcoals may work for matching dark colors. Avoid oil-based materials. Test All Materials In Situ-Avoid Surprises Some products will grow fungi or introduce harmful nutrient sources for cave organisms. Test first. Some agents will become unstable in underground applications.



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Part 4-Repair: Werker-Repair Supplies and Equipment Section A-Introducing Speleothem Repair Speleothem Repair Supplies and Equipment Jim C. Werker Based on some of the information describing cave-safe repair materials in the previous chapter, this is a general supply and equipment list for speleothem repair projects. Battery-operated power tools are required for many cave repairs. If electricity is available, standard power tools and industrial extension cords may be preferred. The tools and supplies included here provide a starting point for making site-specific lists. All items are not required for every job. Equipment Tips A battery-powered drill with a steel bit is sullicient to drill holes in medium-sized speleothems with diameters up to 4 inches (10 centimeters). For large speleothem repairs, the Hilti" battery-driven hammer drill is capable of drilling larger diameter holes to a greater depth to accommodate large stabilization rods. Take special care to avoid shattering the speleothem. The hammer function should not be used on small speleothems-a hammer drill will definitely shatter any small pieces. Small battery-powered drills with steel or concrete bits work okay for drilling speleothems. Carbon steel bits last longer. However, regular steel, straight-shank twist drill bits are consistently marc successful. When using the hammer function, it is important to use bits designated for hammer drills. Have an assistant hold a large zip-closure bag under the drill to catch the drill dust. Use a can of compressed air to blow the dust out of the hole and into the zippie. There are two reasons to catch and retain speleothem drill dust and powder from drilling the holes for support pins. 451 Figure I. If a speleothem repair needs increased stabilization and strength, use a stainless steel all-thread support pin. Epoxy the pin into the upper part of a broken speleothem. A larger hole in the mating section will easily accept the pin. Half-fill the larger hole with epoxy. Drill dust is the best media to mix with epoxy for colormatching. Capturing the dust prevents it from becoming a powdery mess in the cave passage. A hard-bristled toothbrush and pocketknife are handy for digging out compacted dust frnm damp drill holes. Some sites also need to be protected from repair operations with large drop cloths, nylon tarps, or plastic sheeting. Large plastic bags can be spread out as staging areas. However, in some caves, the plastic becomes very slick if the repair crew walks on it. Think, plan, and prepare for

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452 All glues break down over time, but archival products are formulated to do less harm than those on the general market. The ridges of stainless all-thread grab and adhere belter than pins made from regular round-stock stainless. Cave Conservation and Restoration safety as well as cleanup procedures. Equipment and Materials List Adhesives Approved archival-grade epoxy. Epon' 828 epoxy resin and Versamid'" or Epi-cure" 3234 (TETA) curing agents are recommended. Use Versamid 40 catalyst for dry or humid applications or Versamid 25 catalyst for wet or dripping applications. Epi-cure 3234 is replacing the Versamid prodocts. Mix Epon 828 with Epi-cure 3234 in varying ratios depending on the conditions. Standard mix is 12: I, twelve parts Epon 828 to one part Epi-cure 3234. Both Epon and Epi-cure are made by the Shell' Chemical Company. Approved museum-quality pure cyanoacrylate adhesive. Hot Stuff" Super T, Special T, NCF-Mild Accelerator, and a cyanoacrylate solvent are recommended. Mixing cups for epoxy. Plastic specimen or medication cups provide measurement lines for quantities of resin and hardener. Craft sticks for mixing and applying epoxy. Disposable dental tools also work well. Paintbrush for applying epoxy. Usually 1/2-inch (12.5-millimeter) width works best. Surgical gloves or vinyl gloves. Nonlatex, powder-free gloves are best. Lint-free rags or disposable towels. Clean up as you go. Small bottle of isopropyl (rubbing) alcohol. Use alcohol to clean and dry the mating ends of speleothems. EasJ.-to~opcrate cigarette lighter. Avoid leaving dark residue on the speleothems ifusing a lighter to dry the mating ends. Do not overheat the speleothem pieces. Lightly dry only the broken surfaces-just enough for the adhesive to bond. ,Mortar and pestle. Pulverize rocks for the epoxy mix. Or use a thick plastic or metal bowl with rounded bottom and a ball-peen hammer for crushing rock. Drill and Pin Stainless steel all-thread. Usually 3/16-inch or 114-inch (4to 6millimeter) diameter is sufficient for supporting small to medium speleothems. Hacksaw. Cut the stainless all-thread to useful lengths. Cut PVC pipes. Magic Markers'. Thick, black indelible markers work best. Cut the tip off and position it in the center of two mating pieces to leave a guide mark for drilling. Pencils. Make pencil tick marks across joint alignments to assure a quick fit after applying the adhesive. Electric drill. Use straight-shank twist drill bits. Bits made of carbonsteel will last longer. Hammer drill for large formation repair. Find bits suitable for hammer drills. Ilrcmel1\l tool \"ith grinder and sander attachments. Use for texturing and finishing. Canned air. Blow dust otT surfaces and out of declivities. Small sponge. Clean up drill dust. Q-tips". Clean up drill dust. Small, soft paintbrush. Clean up drill dust. Toothbrush. Clean up drill dust. Drop cloths. Size depends on the repair job.

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Part4-Repair: Werker-Repair Supplies and Equipment Catching and Saving Speleothem Drill Dust 453 Figure 3. Compressed air in a can is handy for removing drill dust if the dust can be captured in a plastic bag. Figures I and 2. Large trash bags will easily capture most drill dust. I fthe powder is needed for filling cracks, gaps. or drill holes, capture and save it in a Ziploc. Figure 4. Toothbrushes are good tools to carry in speleothem repair kits. Use a toothbrush to clear the drill dust from large drill holes and to aid in the final cleanup of repair sites. Plastic ~arbage hags. Use for trash. drill dust, and surface protection. Large Ziploe' hag. Collect drill dust to use in epoxy and rock powder mixtures. Goggles. \Vear eye protection. Support and Brace \Vire. A~sorted gauges of stainless, copper, and bailing wire are handy. \Virc-cuttcrs. Pliers. Take both needle-nose and flat. Small files. Both nat and round are useful. Pockct knife or Lcatherman1\;. Inner tube. Use bicycle inner tube cut into various widths as large rubber bands. Light hungec cords. Sometimes bun gees are useful for pulling tension on the curing break joint of a leaning speleothem. Rubber hands. Include a variety of widths and lengths. PVC pipe. Determine diameter and length by size and shape of broken Drill dust is the best media to mix with epoxy for colormatching. Capturing the dust prevents it from becoming a powdery mess in the cave passage.

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454 Cave Conservation and Restoration speleothems. Assorted dimensions are useful. Shims and wedges. Wood, metal, or plastic-various sizes from toothpicks to blocks. Small jacks. Hydraulic jacks and scissors jacks work equally well. Duct tape. Assists and Safety Structural steel, pipe, lumber, and chains. Build structures to move and support large cave fonnations. Select materials to make scaffolding, gantries. frames, and A-frames. (See specialized mechanical assist devices, pages 487-490.) Clamping devices. Clamps are useful only for clamping boards or other bracing devices to mechanical assist apparatus. C-clamps, hose clamps, and other clamping devices should not be applied directly to speleothems. Come-along and chain hoist. Flagging tape. Delineate safety zones and speleothem repairs that need time to cure. Use nonbiodegradable flagging tape in caves.



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Part 4-Repair: Werker and HildrethWerker-General Repair Techniques Section B-Repairing Speleothems General Techniques for Most Speleothem Repairs Jim C. Werker and Val Hildreth-Werker This section starts with basic techniques that apply to most speleothem repair situations, and then moves from simple repairs through more complex or specialized procedures. Topics in this part of the book describe principles for repairing stalagmites, columns, stalactites, draperies, flowstone, gypsum crusts, rimstone dams. helictites, frostwork, soda straws, and other secondary cave deposits. Mating Surfaces Must Be Clean and Dry For proper bonding, the two matching speleothem surfaces must be absolutely clean and dry. Water in a spray bottle and a nylon-bristled brush will normally accomplish the cleaning task. Cave passages are usually humid, speleothem surfaces are often wet, and residual moisture may inhibit bonding. Superficially dry the surfaces with a lint-free cloth and a can of compressed air (the kind designed to blast dust and dirt from computers). Then use rubbing alcohol to swab the mating surfaces. As the alcohol evaporates, the moisture will dry enough for the epoxy to bond the pieces. Though most speleothem rcstorationists have tried heating speleothem breaks with torches to dry them out, heat is not recommended. The pieces tend to discolor and the heat often results in overdrying and spalling. If a broken speleothem is seasonally wet, schedule the repair during a drier time of the year unless new mineral deposits are quickly building on the broken joint. Marking Pieces to Facilitate Alignment When two mating pieces of speleothem are properly aligned, they snap or elick into place with satisfying assurance, like the pieces of a threedimensional puzzle. Once the click-point is located, place a few pencil tick marks across the break joint. The pencil ticks allow a quick matchup when the epoxy or cyanoacrylate adhesive is applied. Light pencil marks usually can be removed with a gloved finger. Marking for Drill Alignment What's the trick for drilling the holes so the all-thread support rod will fit properly and allow perfect alignment? Take a thick indelible felt-tip marker-black is the preferred color. Cut olTpart of the tip. Lay the black, inky chunk in about the center of the bottom section and click-fit the mating top section in place. When the pieces are separated, a nice inky dot is visible on each section. Drill on those dots. Use the dots as guide points while assistants spot the 455 This chapter covers basic techniques that apply to most speleothem repair situations. Subsequent chapters start with simple repairs and move through specialized procedttres.

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456 Figure I. Mark a tick across the break joint to create a means for quickly matching two mating pieces, especially when applying quick-setting cyanoacrylate adhesive. Pencil tick marks arc preferred when the speleothem surface Cave Conservation and Restoration drill operator to assure the drilling angles are aligned congruently for pinning the two pieces. Always drill an oversized hole in the bottom section to allow fudge room for misalignment. The larger bottom hole provides space for the stabilization pin to shill so that a perfect click~ fit can be achieved for the speleothem joint. ~ Tracing Shapes ~ When broken speleothem sections are too large ~ or too awkward to lift into place for a lest tit, use an alternate method to establish alignment. The following procedure is more tedious than the ink-dot method, and success is dependent on the speleothem shape. Drill a hole for the support pin in the broken section. Over the broken and drilled end, place a piece of tracing paper, Mylar', wax paper, plastic wrap, or Glad' Press-N-Seal'. Trace a line around the outer edge of the speleothem cross-section and mark the center of the drilled hole. Transfer the tracing media to the mating section, adjust the pattern for alignment, and drill a hole at the center mark. This tracing method is also helpful when broken pieces are strewn throughout a cave. Tracings can be carried around the cave to match up with potential mating sections. Bracing and Propping Devices All kinds of devices can brace speleothems in place while the epoxy cures. Soft copper or aluminum wire offers excellent malleability for temporarily attaching sections of small speleothems while the epoxy dries. Soft elastics serve well for very small formation repair. Any combination of copper or aluminum wire, large rubber bands, dental elastics, inner tube, upholstery hooks, PVC pipes, boards, sand bags, and duct tape can be used to secure and support attachment points while the epoxy cures. All of these materials should be removed from the cave as soon as the epoxy sets up. Only stainless steel products should be used for pennanent installations. Some of the simpler propping ideas are introduced here, and Figure 2 and Figure 3. Make sure the two mating pieces will click-fit. Cut off the tip of an inky felt-tip marker. Put the ink tip in the center of one broken speleothem piece. Click-fit the mating piece and the ink tip leaves matching dots on the two broken surfaces. The ink dots serve as guides for drilling positions.

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Part 4-Repair: Werker and Hildreth-Werker-General Repair Techniques more complex mechanical assists are included in another section of this manual (pages 487-494). Use pipe, tubing, rocks, blocks, buckets, wedges, shims, jacks, tripods, and most anything else to prop, brace, or hold speleothems in place while the epoxy fully cures. Obviously, the tool needs to fit the job. Speleothems come in all sizes and shapes and so do propping devices. Typically, the archival grade epoxies will set in 24-72 hours, depending on temperature and humidity in the cave. Small speleothems repaired with quick-setting cyanoacrylate adhesives will be secure in 30-90 seconds and are often easily held in place by hand until the adhesive dries. A few field proven ideas are included here. Rubber Bands. Large rubber bands, inner tubes with wire hooks, light bun gee cords, and assorted types of wire are all useful for supporting smaller speleothem repairs while the epoxy sets. Bungees. For top"'heavy, tilted, or leaning stalagmites, installation of a support pin is usually necessary. Stalagmites can be braced \vith bungees or circles of inner tube arranged to pull in opposing directions. Keep a tight fit at the joint while the epoxy cures. PVC Pipes. Use polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipe for bracing undemeath stalactites while the epoxy sets. Cut job-specific lengths of PVC pipe to fit between the point of the stalactite and the cave floor or flowstone surface below. The drip end of many stalactites will fit nicely into the top end of the PVC pipe, and the rigid circumference of the pipe provides constant pressure to hold the speleothem in place. PVC diameters vary according to the job. Allow the PVC brace to remain in place until the epoxy cures thoroughly. Buckets, cans, wedges, and rocks are effective for propping underneath the PVC and forcing a tight tit on the epoxy joinl. (See photos of PVC propping up repaired speleothems, page 466.) Scissors Jack. For large stalactites, first establish and mark alignment of the mating pieces, install the support rod, apply epoxy to both sides, allow the epoxy to seep into pores and become tacky, then use a padded scissors jack or similar device to hold upward force against the stalactite while the epoxy cures. (See photos of Colossal Cave stalactite repair, page 504.) Braces. Descriptions of a variety of other mechanical assists, leveraging devices, and specialized braces for delicate tasks are included toward the end of the speleothem repair section. (See mechanical assists, pages 487494.) Filling Cracks, Gaps, and Seams Larger, less delicate speleothems-stalagmites, columns, stalactites, and draperies-may have gaps, cracks, fractures, or missing chunks that can be filled with a color-matched epoxy and rock dust mixture. Use pulverized cave rocks, powder from drill-holes, cave soil, clean crystalline limestone, or find an irreparably damaged spelcothcm ncar the repair site. To achieve a workable consistency and match the speleothem color, use. crushed and powdered media mixed with an approved epoxy. Apply multiple thin layers orthe epoxy and rock dust mixture. Manually texture as each layer dries. Or use a Dremel~ tool, file, or other implemcnt to sculpt textures after the epoxy cures. Over time, active drips may further heal and cover the repaired seams and fracture sites. 457 Cave.Safe Repair Summary Epon 828 with Epi-cure 3234 (TETA) or Versa mid 40 curing agent (Versamid 25 for wet applications) Minimal harmful outgassing Does not support growth of fungi NOT just any hardware store epoxy Stainless steel support pins and wire Austenitic stainless steel all-thread for pins Steel pins rust, expand, and discolor Stainless wire for permanent installations Test all materials before using Only cave-safe natural materials for color-match. Fill Holes and Cracks Mix archival epoxy with rock dust. Used crushed rock, drill dust, or soil from the cave. Match the texture after epoxy cures. Over time active drips may heal the gaps.

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458 Figure 6. Mix drill dust or crushed rock with an approved epoxy to create color and a workable consistency for filling gaps and cracks. Cave Conservation and Restoration Figure 4. Mix archival-grade epoxy with crushed rock for filling cracks and seams. Figure 5 (left). Pulverize bits arrack and mix with archival epoxy for coloring and filling cracks and seams. Figure 7. Press the epoxy and rock dust mixture into cracks and holes. Create texture as the epoxy is curing. Color Matching Find matching rock dust color and mix with archival epoxy. Use crushed rock, drill dust, or soil from the cave. If natural chalks or charcoals are necessary, test them first. Take samples into sunlight to compare. Caving lights will misguide color vision. No synthetics, no oilsuse only natural materials for coloring. Natural Materials for Color-Matching It is best to match speleothem color by using natural substances from the cave. Soil, rock, dust, or old broken pieces from the cave are easy to obtain, crush, and use as a natural aid for color matching. Ifno in situ materials are available, other natural materials such as chalk, charcoal, or minerals from outside the cave may work for color matches. However, first check out potential chemical interactions between materials and avoid unintended results. Always test small samples of materials and make inquiries with experts. Oil-based substances will introduce toxins to cave environments and should not be used for color matching. Take samples outside in the daylight to compare the color of the cured epoxy mixture to the speleothem color, Cave lights are tricky. Color temperature variations can make rods and cones (the color sensors in human eyes) lie to the brain under cave light sources. Comparing color in daylight is the only way to achieve a close match

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Part 4-Repair: Werker and HildrethWerker-General Repair Techniques Fabricating Parts and Pieces While it may be appropriate to reconstruct sections to till in missing speleothem pieces, faux speleothems should not be installed in caves, and totally absent speleothems should not be fabricated. Current best practice philosophies in cave restoration frown on the idea of fashioning entire replacement parts for broken speleothems. Most cave managers agree that it is improper to go that far. If half of the formation is missing and the piece cannot be found, then it is better to just leave the diminished speleothem as is. Fabrication techniques should be reserved for filling gaps, cracks, holes, and seams, not for creating fantasy speleothems or fake formations. (See fabricating missing pieces, page 473.) Finishing Techniques Rather than introducing finishing products into cave environments, use texturing tools and natural materials on the epoxied seams and filled cracks to mimic the appearance of natural textures. Technical ideas and basic principles are listed here. Apply Epoxy in Thin Layer Do not apply epoxy all the way to the edges of speleothem jointsleave space for the epoxy to spread when the pieces are pressed together. Use an extremely thin layer of epoxy and try to avoid oozing at the seams. When ooze happens, remove it with lint-free rags or paper towels, popsicle sticks, surgical gloves, and other disposable tools. Veni (1997) suggests that a rag draped over a knife blade will remove early ooze from along a repair joint. After the epoxy dries, clean up any hardened ooze with liIes and sandpaper. Finishing Textures Texture the repair to mimic the natural surface by adding and sculpting successive layers with an epoxy and rock dust mixture. Each layer 459 Fabrication techniques should be reserved for Ii Iling gaps, cracks, holes, and seams, not for creating fantasy speleothems or fake formations. Fi~urc 8. Apply epoxy in an extremely thin layer on speleothem break joints. Avoid spreading it out to the edges of the broken surface. If epoxy does ooze at a crack, be prepared to mop the seam with lint-free rags, mixing sticks, and other disposable tools. Figure 9. Try to blend, camouflage, or conceal the repair joints. Texture epoxied seams with a Dremel tool, sand paper, dental picks, drill dust, soil, or sand.

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460 Texture the repair to mimic the natural surface by adding and sculpting successive layers with an epoxy and rock dust mixture. Cave Conservation and Restoration must dry before another is applied. To diminish the shiny look of dried epoxy, dust or sand is added on top as the final layer cures. Experiment with files, dental tools, utensils, and other texturing tools. Use dental tools to texture the epoxy before it completely cures. After the epoxy hardens, use a Dremel tool with a small grinder to create a matching texture and mitigate the shiny, wet appearance of cured epoxy. Avoid Paints and Surface Finishes Paints and other surface finishes will introduce toxins and should never be applied to speleothems. More information on the detrimental effects of paints and finishes is available in this volume (page 173). Additional Reading Meyer 1'1, French lA. 1995. Cathedral Caverns: Techniques for restoration and cleaning. NSS News 53(7): 186-193. Meyer 1'1, French lA. 1996. Crossings Cave: Test bed for cave restoration. NSS News 54(2-3):54-58. Veni G. 1995. The restoration of a vandalized show cave: Cave Without a Name, Texas. In: Pate DL, editor. Proceedings q(the 1993 National Cave Management Symposium: Carlsbad. New Mexico, October 2730, 1993. [Huntsville (AL)]: National Cave Management Symposium Steering Committee. p 65-72. Veni G. 1996. Primer to speleothem repair. NSS News 54(2-3):64-67. Veni G. 1997. Speleothems: Preservation, display, and restoration. In: Hill C, Forti P, editors. Cave Minerals of the World. 2nd edition, Hunstville (AL): National Speleological Society. p 301-309. Werker lC. 1995. Formation repair. In: Pate DL, editor. Proceedings of the 1993 National Cave lvlanagement Symposium: Carlsbad. New Afexico, October 27-30. 1993, [Huntsville (AL)]: National Cave Management Symposium Steering Committee. p 61-64. Werker lC. 1996. Formation repair. NSS News 54(2-3):65-67. Werker le. 1996. Proven techniques in repairing formations. In: Rca GT, editor. Proceedings a/the /995 National Cave Management Symposium: Spring Mill State Park, Mitchell, Indiana, October 25-28.1995. Indianapolis (IN): Indiana Karst Conservancy. p 308-310. Werker lC, HildrethWerker V. 2004. Stalactite repair: Large speleothem hangs again in Colossal Cave, Arizona. NSS News 62(4):98.



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Part4-Repair: Werker-Stalagmite Repair Section B-Repairing Speleothems Stalagmite Repair Jim C. Werker Most stalagmites, even totems, can be repaired if the mating pieces are available. Methods vary from simple stacking procedures to more complex repair techniques using epoxy, stabilization pins, and bracing devices. Little evidence of damage is apparent after most repairs are completed. Stack It and Hope It Heals Sometimes a really simple repair strategy works for stalagmites. Ifwater is actively dripping on broken speleothems, tit the pieces back in place and allow mineral deposition and time to take course. Epoxy and Stack At repair sites with no healing drips, or in locations where repairs may require reinforcement, clean the broken joints and use an approved archival epoxy such as Epon 1t Resin 828 with a Vers3mid llJ or Epi-cure'RJ 3234 curing agent. (See cave-safe epoxies and adhesives, pages 445-447.) Starting from the center, apply a thin layer of epoxy on the broken base or stump of the stalagmite. To avoid oozing along the seam, do not spread the epoxy all the way to the edges. Fit the upper section into place, and allow several days for thorough curing. For multiple breaks, sometimes several 461 Stalagmite Repair: Stack to Heal Simply restack the pieces. o Make sure each joint mates and conforms properly Active drips may heal the break lines. Stalagmite Repair: Epoxy and Stack First, stack the pieces and confirm the fit. Clean and dry the break joints. Apply a very thin layer of archival epoxy to the base. Align and stack. Brace if necessary. Allow time for the epoxy to set and dry. Stalagmite Repair-Epoxy and Stack Figure I. Spread a thin layer of archival epoxy on the clean, dry surface of the stalagmite stump. Figure 2. Click-tit the upper piece onto the base and allow several days for the epoxy to thoroughly cure. Figure 3. The epoxy has set and the repair is complete. The stalagmite stands again.

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462 Cave Conservation and Restoration Stalagmite Repair-Pin and Epoxy Stalagmite Repair-Pin and Epoxy broken stalagmite sections can be rcstacked during one session (Figures 1, 2, and 3). Drill an oversized ole in the base 10 facilitate alignment. Half-fill with epoxy. Drill hole to achieve a light fil for the pin. Epoxy pin into upper portion first. When a broken stalagmite is in a high-traffic or precarious area where it is likely to be damaged again, drill a center hole in the upper and lower mating sections and use an archival epoxy to secure a stainless steel stabilization pin. For tilted, leaning, or top-heavy stalagmite breaks. reinforce repairs with stainless all-thread rods. (See repair photo sequence ofa stalagmite on a slope, pages 443-444.) Make certain the broken pieces fit and align properly, clean and dry the break joints, and mark center guide dots for drilling. (For techniques on marking the pieces to facilitate alignment, see page 455.) In the upper section of the broken stalagmite, drill a hole the diameter of the stainless all-thread pin. Clean out the drill dust with canned air and a small hrush. Apply epoxy to the pin, insert the pin in the drill hole, and allow curing to begin while drilling the lower section. Drill a slightly oversized hole in the lower section, remove the drill dust. and half till the hole with epoxy. Apply a thin layer of epoxy to the broken joint of the lower piece, but avoid spreading it all the way to the edges or goo will ooze from the seam and create cleanup challenges. Fit the upper and lower pieces together and brace if necessary until the epoxy cures. Add final texturing to match or mimic the original surfaces of the stalagmite. Break Mating Speleothem Pieces John A. French and Paul J. Meyer The owner of a small commercial cave once described a simple, but questionable method of formation repair. On finding a broken-off orphan stalagmite, he would simply jam the end into a mud bank where a small hole indicated a steady drip from the ceiling. While the purist will wince at this parody of serious renovation, it illustrates a problem. It is not always possible to find a stalagmite stump that matches the upper part of the formation. On the other hand, when a match can be found, a simple set-inplace method can be the easiest type of repair. The mating parts are often easy to identify by size, shape, color, and surface texture. When placed one on the other, and adjusted, there is often a satisfying tactile feedback when the two surfaces seem to snap together. The match is obvious when the broken edges conform properly and the alignment looks and feels right. Color of the two sections may vary if they have been separated for a long time, but the surface texturesknobby, smooth, rough, pitted, and so on-should be in good agreement.

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Part 4-Repair: Werker-Stalagmite Repair 463 Figure 5. While allowing a little Lime for the epoxy in the upper piece to begin 10 set. drill a larger hole in the base of the stalagmite. Figure 7. The top joint of Ihis repair made a tight click-fit. Figure 4. After drilling a hole in the center of the upper portion of a broken stalagmite. epoxy a stainless steel all.thread stabilization pin in place with ErOll 828 and Epi-cure 3234 (TETA) curing agent. Figure 6. flall'llll the larger bottom drill hole with cave-safe epoxy. Align the top piece and check the fit. Ideally. a tight click-fit achieves a tidy scam. Ifnecessary. use an epoxy and rock dust mixture to fill cracks and gaps. (See stalagmite repair photo sequence made In Slaughter Canyon Cave, page 443.) Figure S. The bottom joint or the stalagmite had a large gap that was IIlled with an epoxy and rock dust mixture. Stalagmite Repair: Pin and Epoxy Match the pieces and adjust for a sure fit. Cut part of the tip off a black indelible fell-tip marker. Place the marker lip in the center 01 the broken base Align and set the top onto the base and check the fit-black ink marks will remain on both pieces to guide the drill. Drill the top piece to create a tight fit for the stainless all-thread Clean drill dust Irom the hole and epoxy the all-thread into the upper section Drill a slightly larger hole in the base to facilitate alignment of the two pieces Clean drill dust out and hall fill the bottom hole with epoxy Fit the top piece that already has the allthread epoxied in place Adjust until the mating pieces align in a c1ickfit. Fill the gaps and seams with a colormatched epoxy and rock dust mixture. Brace if necessary and allow time for epoxy to dry Sculpt the epoxy surfaces that are visible to match or mimic textures of the original speleothem.

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464 Cave Conservation and Restoration



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Part 4-Repair: Werker-Stalactite Repair Section B-Repairing Speleothems Stalactite Repair Jim C. Werker Most stalactite repairs require a support pin since gravity is working against the epoxy. After confirming alignment of the broken pieces, clean and dry the break joints, then make inky guide dots for drilling the holes that will receive the pin. Some speleothems also need alignment tick marks across the break joint. (See cave-safe epoxies and adhesives, pages 445-447; also see marking pieces to facilitate alignment, page 455.) General Stalactite Procedure In the upper section of the stalactite, drill a hole that matches the diameter of the stainless all-thread pin. Clean drill dust from the hole, apply epoxy to the pin, insert the pin in the drill hole, and allow curing to begin while drilling the lower section. (Some stalactite repairs will need 24 hours for the pin to begin to dry in the upper section.) Drill a slightly oversized hole in the lower section, remove the drill dust, and half fill the hole with an archival epoxy such as Epon' 828 with Epi-cure' 3234. Also apply a thin layer of epoxy to the broken joint of the lower piece, but avoid spreading the glue all the way to the edges. Fit the upper and lower pieces together and brace, prop, or wire with the methods described in illustrations on the following pages. Tiny Stal Repairs Tiny broken stalactites are easy to repair with a pure foml of cyanoacrylate adhesive such as Hot Stuff'" Super T. (See cavesafe epoxies and adhesives, page 446.) Check to make sure the pieces are clean and will snap-lit. Then apply a dot of Super T to the broken piece, attach to its mate, and hold in place for 6090 seconds. For soda straws, apply two or three miniscule dots of Super T around the edge to leave the central canal open. (See fragile speleothem repair, page 485.) Alternate Technique Sometimes, an approved cyanoacrylate adhesive is used in conjunction with epoxy, even on speleothems that require a support pin. Applied correctly, the quick-set glue can help hold the speleothem in place until the epoxy cures. For example, after half tilling the lower section drill hole with epoxy, spread a thin layer of epoxy in a circle outside of the hole, and then apply drops ofSuperT quick-setting adhesive on the inner circle adjacent to the drill hole and around the outer inside edge of the broken joint. (If a pin is required, overfilling the boltom drill hole with epoxy will result in overflow into the inner circle and will negate the effectiveness of the cyanoacrylate adhesive.) Quickly align the two broken pieces and manually hold in place until the quick-set adhesive dries. Minor bracing may be beneficial. Allow 24-72 hours for the epoxy to cure before touching the speleothem. 465 Stalactite Repair: Epoxy and Prop Apply archival epoxy (or cyanoacrylate adhesive for smaller speleothems). Brace to hold a tightfitting joint while adhesive dries. Figure 1. When stalactites are too thin to install a support pin, and when the broken section is not too heavy, try repairing the joint with an archival epoxy. Use bracing devices to assure proper mating as the adhesive cures.

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466 Cave Conservation and Restoration Stalactite Repair-Epoxy and Prop Figure 2. Brace with upward pressure and allow time for the epoxy to cure thoroughly. Steve Wilsey holds the joint in place while Sheridan Stone props the stal with a PVC pipe. Figure 5. Steve Smith and Jim Wecker first check to make sure the broken speleothem properly clickfits and mates. Figure 3. Measure the length needed for proper bracing and cut PVC pipe to size. Figure 6. After using the ink-dot marking technique, Jim Wecker drills a hole for the support pin. Figure 4. Two custom-cut PVC pipes brace stalactite repairs in Box Cave, Arizona. Figure 7. Stainless steel all-thread is epoxied into the drill hole to provide stabilization for the stalactite repair. Figure 8. A larger hole is drilled in the lower piece.

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Part 4-Repair: Werker-Stalactite Repair Stalactite Repair-Pin, Epoxy, and Prop 467 Figure 9. The lower drill hole is half filled with epoxy and positioned to receive the pin and reattach to the mating piece. Figure 11. Steve Smith and Jim Werker prepare a second stalactite for reassembly. Figure to. The repaired stalactite is supported with a PVC brace. Figure 12. Stalactites were pinned, epoxied, and braced with PVC during a speleothem repair workshop at Box Cave, Arizona. Epoxy was allowed several days to cure before cavers returned to remove the PVc. Stalactite Repair: Pin, Epoxy, and Prop Drill and install support pin Use archival epoxy and stainles steel all-thread pin Prop or brace to hold a tight-fitting joint while epoxy dries Remove propping devices after epoxy cures.

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468 Cave Conservation and Restoration Stalactite Repair-Pin, Epoxy and Wire 1. Drill, install support pin, and use soft, temporary wire. 2. Use archival epoxy and stainless steel all.thread pin. 3. Wire around the outside of stalactite to hold it in place while epoxy cures. L 4. Remove wires after epoxy ../ thoroughly cures. Break Wire Drill to fit all-thread and epoxy in place firs!. Drill larger hole to facilitate alignment. Half fill with epoxy. Secure wire until epoxy dries. Fi~ure 14. Drill the hole for a support pin in the top stal section that remains attached to the ceiling. Jim Werker is drilling to prepare a site for repair in Lower Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, NM. Figure 15. Reattach the stalactite with archival epoxy and a stainless stabilization pin. Support the repair with external wire. Clean up the epoxy ooze and drips. Figure 16. Allow epoxy to cure thoroughly before removing the external wire support.

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Part 4-Repair: Werker-Stalactite Repair Pin, Epoxy, and Wire through Small Holes 469 Drill to fit all-thread and epoxy it into upper section. 1. Drill, install support pin, and wire in place. 2. Use archival epoxy and stainless all.thread pin. 3. Drill small holes for wires on both sides of joint. 4. Support stalactite with wire threaded through small drill holes. 5. Remove wire after epoxy cures. 6. Fill small holes with epoxy and rock dust mixture. ~ o ~ Drill small holes through stalactite and wire pieces together. Remove wire after epoxy cures. Drill oversized hole in lower mating piece to facilitate alignment. Half fill with epoxy. Fi~ure 18. Install a stabilization pin if necessary and drill small holes above and below the break joint to accept supporting wires. Figure 19. Thread wires through the small holes to hold the epoxied click-fit in place. Add bracing below the stalactite. Figure 20. After the epoxy cures, remove support wires and bracing. Fill the holes with a color-matched epoxy and rock dust mixture.

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470 Cave Conservation and Restoration Pin Through Adjacent Formations Break 1. Drill holes through adjoining speleothems to support the broken piece. 2. Epoxy stainless all.thread through the adjacent formations. 3. Cut off pins, then fill holes and gaps with epoxy and rock dust mixture. Figure 22. Visible in this photo are the original drill holes made for internal stabilization pins that were used the first time the formation was repaired. Figure 24. To provide support for another broken stal in the group, we threaded stainless wire through small holes drilled above and below the break. Pins were cut otT after the epoxy dried. Drill through adjacent formations. Pin using stainless steel all-thread and epoxy. Figure 23. After vandals struck a second time, we reinforced the repair with stainless support pins installed through adjacent speleothems. Figure 25. Because these stalactites receive intermittent mud flow, we partially filled the holes and gaps with a mud mixture. Time and new deposition will continue the healing process.



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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Currie-Endangered Bat Species Section A-Identifying and Protecting Cave Resources Federally Listed Threatened and Endangered Bat Species of Importance to Caves and Mines Robert R. Currie Six North American bats are listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. All of these federally listed species arc dependent upon caves or abandoned mines during all or part of the year: The Indiana bat (J\1yotis sodali.~), a species that is currently undergoing a serious population decline, uses caves or mines for hibernation. The gray bat (Myotis grisescens) is dependent upon cold caves or mines during hibernation and warm caves or mines during the summer maternity season. The Virginia big-eared bat (COf)'llOrhinus tmvnsendii virginianus) is restricted to small populations in four eastern states and uses caves or mines year-round. The Ozark big-eared bat (COIynorhinus tmvnsendii ingem) is the rarest of the endangered bats and is dependent on caves year-round. Historically, it was found in three states, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. It has apparently been extirpated from Missouri, and only about 2,000 Ozark big-cared bats remain in Arkansas and Oklahoma. Although only one mine roost for this species is currently known, it could potentially be found in some of the abandoned mines located just south and west of its currently known distribution. The Mexican and lesser long-nosed bats (Leptonycteris nivalis and Leptonycteris curasoae yerbahuenae) are migratory nonhibernating species found in the southwestern U.S. and Mexico. Both species are integral components of southv,,'estern desert ecosystems; caves and mines provide essential roosting habitat for them. Threats to all these species include several important factors: 47 This chapter targets the conservation of federally listed bats that depend on cave and mine habitats. Figure I. Special photographic techniques record the Mexican long-nosed bat (Leptonycteris nivali.,) in flight.

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48 Figure 2. Three Indiana bats (lv/yo/is sodalis) roost on a cave wall. e Merlin D. Tuttle, BCI Cave Conservation and Restoration Roosting and foraging habitat destruction and alteration Chemical contamination of their food supply Human disturbance at their summer and winter roosts Intensive disturbance of the bats at their maternity and/or hibernation caves has increased the importance of protecting and maintaining bat access to mines. Without this protection it will be difficult to meet the long-term protection and recovery goals for these endangered species. Endangered Species Act of 1973 The Endangered Species Act was enacted in 1973, by the I DOth Congress of the United States. Seclion 2 of the Act states that the purposes of the Act are "to provide a means whereby the ecosystems upon which endangered species and threatened species depend may be conserved, to provide a program for the conservation of such endangered and threatened species ... This is a noble objective that continues to be a valid, although sometimes problematic goal for all involved in implementation of the Act. The Act defines an endangered species as "any species which is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range." A threatened species is "any species which is likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range." Critical habitat has been formally designated for some listed bats that occur in areas impacted by cave visitation and active and abandoned mine programs. Critical habitat is defined as" (i) the specific areas within the geographical area occupied by the species, at the time it is listed in accordance with the provisions of Section 4 of this Act, on which are found those physical or biological features, (I) essential to the conservation of the species and (II) which may require special management considerations or protection; and (ii) specific areas outside the geographical area occupied by the species at the time it is I isted in accordance with the provisions of Section 4 of the Act, upon a determination hy the Secretary that such areas are essential for the conservation of the species." Section 4 of the Act establishes the process the Departments oflnterior and Commerce must use in identifying endangered and threatened species, designating critical habitat, and developing recovery plans. Section 7 of the Act prohibits federal agencies from undertaking, permitting, authorizing or funding any activity that will jeopardize the continued existence of federally listed species. This Section also requires federal agencies to be

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Currie-Endangered Bat Species proactive and use their programs to enhance the status of federally listed specIes. Section 9 of the Act prohibits taking a listed species without a permit issued under Section 10 of the Act. Take is defined by regulations promulgated to implement the Act to mean "' ... to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect (a listed species), or to attempt to engage in any such conduct." Six Federally Listed Endangered Bats There are six federally listed endangered bats that occur within the continental U.S. In implementing abandoned mined land reclamation activities and other mine and cave programs, federal and state agencies must insure that all of their activities are in compliance with Section 7 of the Act and that these activities do not violate Section 9. Indiana bat (Myotis soda/is) The Indiana bat was listed on March II, 1967, as an endangered species throughout its range. Critical habitat \vhich includes most of its important hibernation sites was formally designated on September 24, 1976. A recovery plan for the species was issued on October 14, 1983. This plan is currently under revision and an Agency Draft Indiana Bat Revised Recovery Plan was published in March 1999 (US Fish and Wildlife Service 1999). The Indiana bat is a medium-sized bat with a wingspan of about 280 millimeters (II inches) and a weight 01'5-11 grams (0.2-0.4 ounce). It is differentiated from other species in the genus by its smaller foot, short toe hairs, keeled calcar, and fur texture and coloration. It occurs in the eastern U.S. from North Carolina west to Oklahoma and north to Iowa, Michigan, and Vermont. During the winter the Indiana bat hibernates in cold caves and mines, 48¡C (40-46¡F), in the central portion of its range. In summer the species disperses from its hibernation sites to form small (30-300 females with young) maternity colonies. These colonies roost under the sloughing bark of dead and dying trees and under the exfoliating bark of live trees, such as shagbark hickory. Roosts are found in riparian, bottomland hardwood and upland forests 49 Critical habitat has been formally designated for some listed bats that occur in areas impacted by cave vistitation and by active and abandoned mine programs. There are six federally listed endangered bats that occur within the continental U.S. Figure 3. Indiana bats (Myotis sodo/is) cluster together in a cave. (See page 4 of color section.)

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50 The current draft of the Indiana bat recovery plan identities a series of tasks that should determine what is causing the current decline and permit more effective recovery of the specIes. Figure 4. A gray bat (AfYOfis grisesccns) is catching an insect in flight. e Merlin D. Tuttle, BCI Cave Conservation and Restoration (Barbour and Davis 1969; US Fish and Wildlife Service 1999). Excellent photographs and generalized range maps for the Indiana bat and all of the other bats that occur in the U.S. can be found in the booklet on bats titled Bats (if the United States (Harvey and others 1999). This booklet is available, free of charge, from the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Field Office in Asheville, North Carolina. Historically, the primary threat to the species was believed to be disturbance at its hibernation sites. Early emphasis of recovery efforts was to protect these sites with suitable gates or fences to control human access and thereby eliminate disturbance. Despite these efTorts the species continues to decline. At the present time the cause of this decline is unknown. Potential explanations include currently unidentified changes with the species' summer habitat, inappropriate protection efforts at hibernation sites, and/or pesticides. The current draft of the Indiana bat recovery plan identifies a series of tasks that should determine what is causing the current decline and permit more etlective rccovery of the species. The Indiana bat has experienced a serious decline over the past 40 years. \Ve estimate that in 1960 there were approximately 808,505 Indiana bats, by 1980 the population had declined to about 589,120 individuals, and during the 1995-1997 survey period only 353,185 were found (US Fish and Wildlife Service 1999). Abandoned mines are extremely important to the continued existence of thc Indiana bat. Two abandoned mines were designated as Criticalliabitat for the species in 1976, and the species has since been found in numerous abandoned mines throughout its rangc. Most of the mines used by the species are hard rock mines or quarries. Howcver, in 1981, John MacGregor (USDA Forest Service, personal communication 1981) observcd the Indiana bat in an abandoned coal mine in Kentucky and the potential thus exists for this species to dcpend upon abandoned coal mines. Gray bat (M)'utis grisescens) The gray bat was listed on April 28, 1976, as endangered throughout its range .. No critical habitat has been designated for the spccies. The Gray Bat Recovery Plan was issued on July I, 1982 (US Fish and Wildlife Service 1982). The gray bat is slightly above average size for the genus, an,d the gray bat is easily distinguished from other members of the genus by its uniformly gray fur and the attachment point of the wing membrane to the foot. Its wingspan is about 305 millimeters (12 inches) and it weighs 5-10 grams (0.2-0.4 ounce). Thc gray bat is primarily found in the cave regions of Alabama, Kentucky, Tenncssee, Arkansas, and Missouri; however, small populations also occur in Kansas, Indiana, Illinois, Oklahoma, and Florida. The gray bat is dependent upon caves or mines all year. During the winter it primarily hibernates in cold caves in the heart of its rangc. During the summer the females disperse out to suitable warm caves and other cave-like structures. Foraging habitat is primarily along largeto medium-sized streams, rivers, and reservoirs. Although most foraging takes place over open water, the species occasionally feeds in wooded areas adjacent to their primary foraging areas (Barbour and Davis 1969; US Fish and Wildlife Service 1982).

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Part 2-Conservation, Management, Ethics: Currie-E:adangered Bat Species The primary threat to the gray bat at the time it was listed was human disturbance at its summer and winter roost sites. Other factors that caused the decline that led to its addition to the federal list incloded loss of roost sites to commercialization and reservoir construction. Persistent pesticides soch as DDT probably also played a role in the decline of the species (US Fish and Wildlife Service 1982). Since 1982 the severe declines that resohed in the federal listing of the species have been reversed by positive conservation actions undertaken by states, federal agencies, and conservation groups such as Bat Conservation International, The Nature Conservancy, American Cave Conservation Association, National Speleological Society, and their dedicated members. All appropriate agencies have taken part in this efTort but some, such as the Missouri Department of Conservation and the Tennessee Valley Authority deserve special mention. Because of these conservation activities we may be at the point where the species may qualify for downlisting to threatened status. The gray bat primarily uses caves for its roost sites. It does however, readily use manmade structures whenever these provide the right microclimate and arc protected from disturbance. Gray bats have been found roosting in abandoned coal mines, bridges, culverts, and dams. Any abandoned mine within the range of the species that has the appropriate temperatore and homidity coold support the species. Virginia big-eared and Ozark big-eared bats (COIYllorhillll.\) The genus COIynorhinus is the most distinctive group of species found in the eastern U.S. They are similar in size to the gray bat but all have distinctive, large ears that are not found on any other bats in the eastern U.S. Two subspecies of Townsend's big-eared bat (Ozark and Virginia bigeared bats) are listed as endangered. The closely related Ralinesqoe's bigcared bat (Corynorhb1lls rafinesquii) is easily distinguished by gray colored dorsal fur. Both subspecies of Townsend's big-eared bat have brownish colored dorsal for. Virginia big-eared bat (Corynorhinus Jownsendii virginian us) The Virginia big-eared bat was listed as endangered throughout its range on November 30, 1979. Critical habitat was designated at the time the species was listed and included many of its most important roost sites. A recovery plan was prepared for the species on May 8,1984 (US Fish and Wildlife Service 1984). The Virginia big-eared bat is a medium-sized bat, weighing 7-12 grams (0.2-0.4 ounce), with forearms measuring 39-48 millimeters (1.5-1.9 51 The genus Corynorhinus is the most distinctive group of species found in the eastern U.S. They are similar in size to the gray bat but all have distinctive, large ears that are not found on any other bats in the eastern U.S. Figure 5. In 2005, the Virginia big-eaJTed bat (Cm~vnorhjnl{S Jowl1sendii virginim1Us) was designated the "mcial state bat of Virginia. (See page 4 of color section.)

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52 The Virginia bigeared bat roosts in caves and mines year-round. During the winter it hibernates in cold caves and mines and during the summer the females establish maternity colonies in warm caves or mines. Cave Conservation and Restoration inches) long. Total body length is 98 millimeters (3.8 inches), the tail is 46 millimeters (1.8 inches), and the hind foot is t t mil