Cave Notes

Material Information

Cave Notes
Series Title:
Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology
Alternate Title:
Caves and karst: Research in speleology
Cave Research Associates
Cave Research Associates
Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Geology ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )


General Note:
Content: Editorial: Cave closure and its causes / R. deSaussure -- Solution bevels in limestone caves / Arthur L. Lange --Annotated Bibliography. Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15) were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In 1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells hardbound copies of the material to support its activities.
Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Location:
Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation Collection
Original Version:
Vol. 6, no. 5 (1964)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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K26-00609 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.609 ( USFLDC Handle )
13107 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0008-8625 ( ISSN )

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Karst Information Portal

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CAVE NOTES A Review of Cave and Karst Research Volume 6, No.5 Septemb,,/October. 1964 EDITORIAL CA VE CLOSURE AND ITS CAUSES There have recently appeared many articles and editorials concerned with an increase in the number of caves that have been closed by their owners. Summarizing briefly, cavers have proven to be irresponsible and are no longer welcome. From its start, Cave Research Associates has actively opposed the publishing of cave lists and popularizing publicity because of their long range effects. We have been just as actively opposed by those who claimed that did not result since we could not produce detailed statistics with unambiguous evidence. The owner of a cave is probably in the best position to measure and judge the damage to his cave and to act accordingly. As can be seen, numerous owners are now making their own direct comment on the present quality and standards of Ame rdcan cavers. The argument is made that these conditions are not caused by the organized c ave r s Perhaps; perhaps not. But which groups have created cave lists and actively encouraged books to popularize caving? Have the county fair exhibitions, TV interviews, and Sunday supplement articles really discouraged the uninitiated from starting out on their own-or 'is this perhaps the source of the trouble? Unfortunately, the individuals who in the long run will actually develop speleology can only suffer from this situation, and the more so to the extent that their names are involved with the popular sport. Yet. despite the numerous cave closures, we hear no outcry against the present policies. There is no recognition and linkage of cause and effect, no attempt to hold back on cave lists and publicity. On the contrary, both are accelerating. Not too many months ago, a speleologist who was not in agreement with ou r policy of opposition to publicized caving and cave locations commented tpat only the future could tell which group was correct. I contend that his answer is already partially given by the cave owners. The past-and present-policies of American cavers have caused the current conditions. This is a first glimpse of the caving future. How is it? R. deSaussure 33


CAVE NOTES CAVE NOTES CAVE NOTES is a publication of Cave Research Associates and the Cave Research Association. Subscriptions are available for $2.00 per year (six issues) or on exchange. Mid-year subscriptions receive the earlier numbers of the volume. Correspondence, contributions, and subscriptions should be addressed to: CAVE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES, 3842 Brookdale Blvd, Castro Valley, Calif. Editor: Arthur L. Lange, Cave Research Associates Associate Editor: Ronald A. Brandon, Cave Research Association (Dept. of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois) Managing Editor: R. deSaussure, Cave Research Associates. @ Copyright 1964, Cave Research Associates. SOLUTION BEVELS IN LIMESTONE CAVES by Arthur L. Lange, Cave Research Associates Introduction: In an initial study of cave geometry (Lange, 1959), I outlined how cave structures result from a particular process acting upon specific initial structures. For example, a square inside corner undergoing uniform solution becomes rounded; a vertical planar wall subjected to a solution gradient decreasing linearly downward rotates inw-ard. as though on a lower hinge. but remains planar (Lange, 1962). Heretofore. the structures considered were all assumed to be of homogeneous composition and, in particular, unifor-m solubility. This report analyses the effects of discrete changes in the rock solubility on the shapes of cave walls dissolving in a uniform fluid. Alternating beds of different lithology, such as dolomite and limestone, commonly form. the walls of natural caves. Since rate of removal of the solid is not a property of the fluid alone or the rock alone. but is rather a relationship between the two. the effect of a stratified fluid attacking a uni> form rock may be equivalent to the effect of a uniform. fluid dissolving a stratified rock. The latter relationship will be emphasized here, because, not only is it the rno re cornIno?", but also because the rock strata Inay occur m aU orientations. Figure 1. S'tepwf ee radial solution from successive corners due to faster retreat of more soluble stratum VI' 34 Geometrical analysis: In Figure I, a vertic~l waH (Stage To) consisting of two Htho logtc units is submerged in a homogeneous dissolving fluid. The upper wall is of lesser sol~bility than the lower. Its rate of removal 1S designated v2,: that of the lower, vi: so that. v z < VI' As drawn, the lower w~l1 rec~des twice as fast as the upper (v j = 2v~) in r egrone


VOLUME 6, NO" 5 A B Figure 2. A) Initial submerged overhanging wall To, having solution rates vl~2v2' B) Solution cylinders radiating from successive corners, and their resultant planar envelope. TIle VI wall has retreated twice as far as v aaway from the contact. But at the contact an interesting occurrence takes place. As the walls retreat. an incremental right-angled inside corner tends to form (Stage T 1 ), but it cannot remain square, because the overhanging visor is now exposed to solution. According to rules previously developed (Lange, 1959, p 74-76), we regard the incipient corner as the arc of an infinitesimal horizontal circular cylinder-a source for radial solution. Successive increments in time, T~, T 3 T ol show new center-s of radial solution starting up -as the source-point migrates inward, keeping pace with the receding lower wall. The cylinders expand at the slower rate of the upper wall and tend to bevel. In actuality, the source moves continuously, ge ne r-ating point sources of radial solution. Figure 2, wherein the structure is slightly inclined, depicts a series of cylinders of solution, suggesting that the resultant form is a beveled plane dissolved into the more impervious rock. It remains to demonstrate that in the continuous case, the facet is planar. Differential analysis: To solve the problem. express the family of expanding cylinders in terms of a timestage param.eter t.l,; then solve for its envelope. The envelope of the family of c yfinders is the desired surface. Referring to Figure Z, the center of a cylinder starting at some time t i is at To Figure 3. Bevel formed as in Figure 2, with vl~4v2:. 35


CAVE NOTES A B c D E Figure 4. Various orientations of bevels formed as in Figure 2, with Vt=2V2' x = Vtti, if the process began at to.,; O. At the observing time tn' that particular cylinder has grown to a radius va (t n td. The cylinder is thus expressed by the equation (I ) Here. ti is the parameter that specifies a particular cylinder of the family. The envelope is obtained by differentiating with respect to the parameter and eliminating it by use of the resulting equation and the primitive. Differentiating. from which we may extract ti; thus, VtX v~tn v~ v! Substituting this expression for ti into (1) and reducing, re find a (x y vtt n ) 2 v i v~ v~ of which we are interested only in the negative root, since, as drawn, y is positive upwards. The envelope, therefore, becomes, (v t to x)v2 jv~ v~ y (2 ) the equation of a plane through the source at x ::: VI tnThe angle of the bevel is obtained by differentiating y with respect to x; thus, (3 ::: arctan ~. JV~ V2 (3 ) In the example of Figure z B, vi::: 2v,a, giving y so that if the lower wall (and source) migrates at a rate vi ten yea r s time (t n ::: 10) I cm/yr, in which is the equation of the wall in the example drawn. The case of VI 4v,a is drawn in Figure 3. 36


VOLUME 6, NO. 5 Mathematically, the problem just solved is analogous to that of ehip'.e waves in shallow water. The successive wavefronts of a motorboat grow radially at a constant r ate and combine to form a V-shaped wake, the envelope of all the individual circles. We are using here just one side of the "wake'! (compa r e Figure 5). Geological significance: The bevel structure derived above is a proper speleogen relating rocks -_-_-_-_-_-_-_-.....=-_-_-_-_-_-_-_ of different composition. 1£ the lower bed is the ========_======T o : more soluble, the bevel forms an overhang (Fig--:-=::::-:-=-:-:=-:-=-:-:--:-:-:-:-:-= ure 4A); if it is the less soluble, the bevel forms :....-_-_-_-_-_-:.:-_-_-_-_---:-_-_-_-...:-..: a shelf (Figure 4E). In inclined or vertical bed.---------------ding, the bevels are correspondingly rotated Figure 5. Joint bevel 1'e(Figure 4B,C,D). Where bevels form shelves. suIting from more rapid they may be indistinguishable from planes of r esolution along parting pose (Lange, 1963), and, in fact, may help to than in surrounding rock. supply the nuclei of positive slopes from which planes of repose evolve. Joint bevels: In Figure 5, an initial structure consists of the homogeneous rock ceiling (or wall, in plan view) To, split by a partly open joint, and completely submerged in a homogeneous dissolving fluid. The fluid can move into the joint faster than the rock, because of its openness, and forms a moving source, as in the case of the lithologic contact, but forming a bevel on both sides of the source. It is here completely analogous to the wake of a motorboat. Bevels formed along fractures (joints, faults, partings) may occur in all orientations. but are unlikely to be found in the floor or other slopes where residues collect in the apex and discourage solution. One may visualize the asymmetrical bevels that might flank a bedding plane joint separating two rock units of different solubilities. Hi ndc as ting: From the geometry of the bevel it should be possible to reconstruct the initial wall position. Adopting the nomenclature of Figure 6, we wish to determine the unknown distance that either wall has receded, using the rne as u r-a bl.e =--0= quantities Y (height of bevel) and W (its width). For the lower wall, X=V1tn, (4) L <;-----x v,t"--~lli Figure 6. The dimensions of a bevel. v, and since the width is the difference in retreat of the two walls, or Substituting (5) into (4) and rearranging. there results 37



VOLUME 6, NO .:; the waters to rise with an accompanying rapid though temporary} decrease in pH and hardness. ANNO, SHIRO. karst. p. A list of The plants of Graminae and Cyperaceae in the 17-22. Akiyoshi -dai the species recorded is presented. HIND, I., and K. KATUMOTO. Mushrooms found in Shuhod8 Cave. p. 23-25. Pseudocoprinus disseminatus is believed to have been introduced on bridge posts brought into the cave. Boletus pulverulentus was probably brought in by visitors or air currents. ---HIND, IWAO. Plants growing in Shuhod$ Cave. p. 26-35. Artificial lighting introduced in 1960 permi tted the growth of ferns and mus cL, but they do not form spores in the cave. A list of species is given. KURAMOTO, T. Animals attracted by the artificial lights in Akiyoshi-do Cave. I. The fauna. p. 36-48. Twenty-two species occur in artificial illumination and were studied from an ecological point of view. They are assorted into three groups: A) accidental t r-og Ioxe ne s found near the entrance; B) troglobies (sic), trogloph Ll es and habi tual t r-og Loxene.s found at depth in the cave; C) a mf x t u r-e of A and B types} found intermediately. Some forms may have changed in their food habits due to the illumination. YAGINUMA} T. Spiders from limestone caves of' Akiyoshi Plateau. p. 49-62. Twenty-four species are classified and three new species described. No morphological variations exist among the populations of different caves, suggesting that the caves might have been connected until recently. DKAFUGI, G. The cave deposit found in Kojiki-ana Cave, the Ak1yoshidai Plateau Terrace. p 63-78. A list of fauna excavated, including human remains, is pr-ovf ded with maps of the caves and photographs. KURAMOTO! T. p. 95-102. Natural environment in K$mori-ana Cave, Akiyoshi-dai karst. In 1961, this cave was adopted as an underground laboratory for research on cave animals} so that a study was made on the cave environment. It is concluded that the conditions are favorable for the rearing of cave fauna. --A.L. L. ALEY J THOMAS. Origin and Hydrology of Caves in the White Limestone of North Central Jamaica. California Univ.! Dept of Geography, Report. 29p. 196-3-.-The caves fall into three classes: qUiet-water solution, stream} and vertical caves. Evidence of uniform solution, occurrence of ceiling domes} and wall and ceiling texturing distinguish the quiet water solution caves. Stream caves are best recognized by the existence of echinoliths and passage texturing. The vertical caves are attributed to downward solution. Three hydrologic conditions-steeply inclined movement, gently inclined movement and static storage-are recognized and studied. Stream caves are the prime agents for lateral movement of ground water. The possibilities of exploiting water in long-term storage in solution caves are considered. --A.L.L. GRADZINSKI} H., and A. RADOMSKI. Types of Cuban caves and their dependence on factors controlling karst development. Academie Polonaise des Sciences, Bull., Serie des Science geologique et geographique, vol. 11, no.a, p. 151-160.1963. 39


CAVE NOTES The system of water circulation is the most decisive factor in cave development. Lithologic variations among caves is of small importance, am climate has no effect on the nature of caves. Caves having common relationships between their sources and discharge positions are similar, whether in Cuba, the Alps, or the Tatras. Some small surface forms, however! are affected by vegetation and, hence! by climate. --A.L.L. KEEFER, '.I'M. R. Wyoming. U.S. Karst topography Geological Survey in the Gras Ventre Mountains, uor thwes te r-n Professional Paper 475-B, 'p. B129-B130. 1963. Karst features are well developed in gently dipping Mississippian Madison limestone in Tosi Creek Basin. The fissures and sinkholes formed partly during ancient periods of karst development, and partly during late Pleistocene and Recent times from glacial meJ. t water flowing across, and percolating through extensi ve Ly ice-scoured and fractured limestone. --Author MEl-G, JEN. Cormnunist lation by The China. Joint present situation and future prospects of karst researchTi-li (Geography), no. 5, p. 172-177). Pe fp Lng 1962 (transPublications Research Service). Essentially u summary of karst research in China, wi th comments on its development in other countries. Karst was first studied in China 320 years ago, and in Russia, over 200 years ago. The U.S.S.R. is regarded as the most advanced country in karst research both theoretical and practical; while that of capi t a I i s t countries has been primarily theoretical. No important work has been done in the U.S.A. since that of W.M. Davis. While s cho Lar-s in capitalist countries dispute whether rate of erosion of carbonate r-ock s is more rapid in frigid or tropical zones, Pal'vyely has proved by experiment that it increases with an increase in atmospheric temperature. Further conclusions on karst development rates and forms are summarized, and the importance of karst in the constructions of reservoirs, underground factories, and national defence is stressed. Cave exp Lo r-a t I on as a popular form of exercise is reconunended by the National Committee on Athletics. --A.L.L. POCHGN, J.! M. A. CHAVlGNAC, and W. KRUMBEIN. Recherches biologiques SUI' Ie mcndmf Lch Paris Academie des Science, Comptes r-e ndu s v. 258, p 5113-5115. May 20, 1964. Moonmilk from Lascaux Cave, France, has a microflora of about the same size as the t of the average surface soil. A chief element in the microflora is the anerobic nitrogin fixer Clostridium, and a sample that has a calcium carbonate content of 96% contains 0.034% total nitrogen. A reducing environment for iron also exists in the moonmilk. --G W.M. VERSTAPPEN, H. TIl. Karst morphology of the Star Mountains (central New Guinea) and its relation to lithology and climate. Zeitschrift fur Geornorphologie, neue Folge, Bd 8, H. 1. March 1964. The divers karst features of the tropics are not related to age of terrain or climatic differences alone. An understanding of the physical properties of the rock is essential to understanding the karst. Laboratory tests on limestone samples from four local areas indicate that porosity and water-absorbing capacity of the rock may be factors that determine the occurrence of various landforms. Specific graVity, content of insoluble ma te rd a Ls and chemt ca I content of karst waters were found to be unrelated to the landforms. --T.A. Contribu tors: T.A., Tom Aley; A.L.L., A. Lange; G.W.M., George W. Moore. 40

Content: Editorial: Cave closure and its causes / R.
deSaussure --
Solution bevels in limestone caves / Arthur L. Lange
--Annotated Bibliography.
Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and
Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15)
were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In
1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete
sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells
hardbound copies of the material to support its