Cave Notes

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Cave Notes
Series Title:
Cave Notes: A Review of Cave and Karst Research
Cave Research Associates
Cave Research Associates
Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation
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Subjects / Keywords:
Geology ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )


General Note:
Contents: Analytical reviews / Arthur L. Lange, Richard E. Graham, Allen Kaplan -- Proceedings -- Activities / R. deSaussure -- California Giant Salamander / Richard E. Graham -- Annotated bibliography -- Change of Address. Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15) were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In 1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells hardbound copies of the material to support its activities.
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Original Location:
Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation Collection
Original Version:
Vol. 2, no. 1 (1960)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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K26-00629 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.629 ( USFLDC Handle )
13700 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0008-8625 ( ISSN )

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CAVE NOTES Publication of Cave Research Associates Volume 2. No.1 January/February, 1960 Figure 1. Mooney Falls and travertine caves, Havasu Canyon. 1


ANALYTICAL REVIEWS WAMPLER, JOSEPH. Havasu Canyon, Gem of the Grand Canyon. Howell-~orth Press, Berkeley, California. 121p. 1959. (With chapters by Harold C. Bryant and Weldon F. Heald.) Karst, .bhe phenomena of drainage in soluble rock I is a twoway process. Limestone not only can be dissolved by acidulated water in underground channels, but also can deposit as Qut-ofdoors travertine, through the agency of agitation, algae action, and warm dry air. The result is a stream landscape of delicate and graceful beauty. Waterfalls glide over a scaffold of umbrellaed niches and caves, deep pools, and spillover dams or gours, fashioning a terraceway of cascades from the clay and calcite t stones, leaves, and logs carried by the flow. This is a "positive karst" of constructional forms t as contrasted with the typical excavated a i.nka panors, and caves of "negati ve karst." Travertine landscape is a neglected aspect of karst in the U.S., although it has rec.eived due attention in Europe (Prat, S. Studie o bioli thogenesi. Prague. 1929. 187p. ). The desert air and bright sun of Havasu Canyon, a tributary of Grand Canyon, Arizona, have favored the development of one of our best displays of positive karst, and Mr. Wampler's popular guidebook, with its excellent photographs and authoritative description, portrays it well. Here, Cataract Creek issues from springs at the top of the Redwall limestone and flows across the Havasupai Indian Reservation upon an alluvium floor held in place by the travertine bulwark formed by the spray from Navajo Falls. Below are the exquisite Havasu Falls and the highest of the three -Mooney Falls (196 feet) -with many intervening cascades and gours. Rimstone decorates the floor of the Redwall gorg~ in this manner almost all the way to the junction of Havasu Creek with the Colorado River. Algae and carbonates lend the water a pastel turquoise hue (Black, D. The na tura1 dams of Havasu, Canyon, Supai, Arizona. Science, n s s voL121, p. 611-612. April 22, 1955). During a recent visit to Havasu, I examined the travertine features to test a theory concerning the encrustation forms surrounding logs, rock corners, and stones (Cave Studies, #11, 1959). These, as well as the gours, which Wampler describes as a series of circle segments or scallops, with the arc downstream instead of up, as man-made dams are placed. II correspond well wi th the theoretical forms. The logs might be of value in extrapolating the past tree~ring calendar and climatic record. The guidebook describes the waterfall and dam features in detail and gives analyses of the water. The local geology and history of mining are also summarized. In their explorations, prospectors followed filled caves of the Redwall limestone-caves possibly fo~ed during a ~aleozoic karst erosion cycle and later invaded by mineralizing solutions (Cave StUdies, #1, #3, 1953). The minerals quested were silver, lead, zinc, vanadinite, and optical calcite. To one of these caves 250 feet up the Redwall cliff, prospectors erected a vertical ladder (Birdseye, R. The greatest ladder in the world. Travel. vol. 46, p.33, 48. 2


1925). The caves contain large calcite crystals coated with rUbyred vanadini te, once described by McKee (Vanadinite in the Grand Canyon. Grand Canyon Fa ture Notes. vol.4, #8, p.52. 1930). This mineral, incidentally, haa been mined also in the paleokarst of the eastern Urals (Shelley, M.B. Caves and karst of the U.S.S.R. American Caver. Bull. 16, p.4D-54. Dec., 1954). Wampler discusses the archeology of the area, including the rockshelter excavations by Douglas W. Schwartz bearing on the origin of the Havasupais. The remainder of the book, with its chapters on wildlife, touring, photography; and a valuable bibliography, contributes to its usefulness as a sourcebook as well as a guidebook. The entire book provides a good account of this enchanting primitive retreat, where speleological knowledge can be gained without venturing underground. Figure 2. Looking down upon travertine t~rraces below Mooney Falla, Havasu Canyon, Arizona. .." ,,,-------, _._ .... (. -{ .... * Arthur L. Lange * CAUSEY, NELL B. New records and descriptions of a new genus and a new species of millipede of tl1e family Striariidae (Chordeumida). '1Bfiic'0",l""o",g",i~c"a?l"-,S",o",c",i""e-,tJ.y-"o:=.f-"W"a"a",h,,,i:=.n",g"t",o",n,-"-P"r",oc",e",e",d"",in",g",,s. vol. 71, p.179-184. 1958. This review of the milliped family Striariidae contains a key to the genera, list of synonyms, locality records, and bibliography. Three genera are known. Amplari8, Striaria, and Veferaria occur in Oregon and California; striaria. is also found in the southeastern United States. In addition, Dr. Causey describes the new genus Veferaria imbrie (Loomis), new combination, and the new species Striaria shastae. Ca.Lc a te encrusted fossils of Striaria occur in the bone deposits of Samwel Cave, Shasta County, California. Q.. shastae is the largest in size for the family, commonly exceeding 25mm. It is a cave rnaco.Lous species being almost white in color with a red.uced number of ocelli. Although several striari1ds show troglobit1c tendencies, the family is most commonly found in forest humus. Since the appearance of this paper, more information and specimens of fossil.and living Striaria have been collected from Samwel Cave. Adult males are relatively rare, and only after a large series was taken did males occur. The male was unknown at the time the species was described. Additional fossil Striaria 3


were found to the present depth of four feet. In 1908, Dr. Fordyce Grinnell" Jr .. described several fossil millipeds from Potter Creek and Samwel Caves in his paper: Quaternary myriapods and insects of California. Y!!U'. California' ~. Dept. Geol. vol.5, #12, p.207-215, 1908. This material is in need of restudy. In a personal communication, Dr. Causey believes that these millipeds may not be Striaria. The situation is remdniscent of 'the large number of species of fossil millipeds in cave deposits reported by Dr. Naday Lajos. Praeglacialis Myriap~da-maradv~yok a brass6i FortyogohegyrBl. Barlangkutatas, VI. Kotet, 1-4 Fuzet, p .16-28. November 1918. It may be possible to draw evidence of climatic changes on the basis, of the .md Ll.Lpe da and molluscs so far found in the Samwel Cave. Before the taxonomic and natural history studies can be concluded for the millipeds of the family Striariidae, many problems must first be solved. Undoubtedly, as new collections are made, and adequate series of each species are completed, new changes will necessarily occur. Cave Research Associates is indebted to Dr. Nell B. Causey of the University of Arkansas for her interest and work on millipeds from our collection. Richard E. Graham FRANKE, HERBERT W. Beit~age zur Morphologie des Hohlensinters. 2; Mitteilung. Die Hllhle. Heft 3, Jahrgang 10. 1959. Franke attempts to give a mathematical description of the geometric form of stalagmites, and suggests some ways in which this might be use-ful in understanding other cave forms. After indicating that he will consider the simple case of CaCO,-charged water droplets falling on an initially flat surfaoe, and listing a number of complicating factors to be neglected, he sets forth the following as an empirical equation of stalagmite fO~: h = ae-br n in cylindrical coordinates. h is height above the floor, r is the radiUS at the corresponding height, a is a constant representing the total height of the stalagmit~, and b and n are constants deter* h c.) h. 10 1 .(2r-5) '0 .I.. ) 2 h 10 .-0.4041' B.) h = _62.l.",,25"--,..6.25 r 2 oL------'--r---===--+ .. Figure 3. Three functions resembling stalagmite form. Constants adjusted to give equal heights and half-widths. 4

PAGE 5 the slope of the surface. He then suggests that the same form should result from a point source dissolving the ceiling, and further t that more general structures might be obtained by integration over a continuous dens! ty distribution of similar poan t sources of depoei tion or solution. Unfortunately, several objections must be raised to the way in which the author attempts to carry out the otherwise worthy program he has proposed. First, if an equation is presented as a description of nature, it ought to be shown to correspond reasonably w'ell with precise measurements of actual cases. No reasons, a1 thar theoretical or circumstantial are given for choosing this function. Many other functions which also generally resemble the gross form ofstalagmites might arbitrarily be chosen in this manner: e s g h = a b + cr 2h or h = If, as proposed, a variety of structures is to be explained by generalizing from a basic process ocourring a.t a point, then the process chosen should be common to all the structures to be explained. The process of deposition or solution of calcite by water is common to most form changes in limestone eave rne Stalagmite formation involves in addition the rather complicated action of dripping water, even in the simplest, idealized case. A little consideration will show that the suggested generalization cannot be carried far with dripping water as a necessary part. In proceeding through progressively denser distributions of dripping point sources, we must eventually consider that pools or streams of watsr will form on the floor. This violates the author's condition of subaerial deposition, and in any event, the r~lative importance of factors affecting deposition rate under water differs from the case of splattering drops or thin sheets of moisture. Finally, upon reaching a continuous denai ty distribution, we are presented with the unrealistic situation of continuous sheets of falling watsr or perhaps a lake. In any case, condi tiona differ considerably from those of stalagmite formation and are not likely to result in a sum of closely packed stalagmites. Allen Kaplan PROCEEDINGS. News: -~O-n December 28, 1959, a symposium on the. origin and developme1j.t of limestone caves was held in Chicago as part of the 126th annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The Geological Society of America and the National Speleological Society cosponsored the symposium. The talks provided a representati ve cross-section of current American thinking on cave evolution, including geologic discussions on caves of Bermuda and the eastern United States, as well as quantitative studies on 5


cave distributions and growth. George W. Moore, chairman of the symposium reporte that the papers and discussions will be published by the National Speleological Society. At the same time, a second symposium on speciation and rac.iation in cavernicoles was co-sponsored by the Society of Systematic Zoology. Tsn papere were presented by leading cave biologists. The rssults of the meeting indicate a growing interest in ths subterranean biology of this country. Nany of the findings are of considerable interest not only in their application to cave biology, but also to the broader subject of evolution and adaptation of animal life to ecological si tuatiO,?-S . These papers will appear in the July, 1960, issus Of the Amer1can lIidland Naturalist. In eddition, a cheoklist of troglobioUl animals of ths United States will appear in the sams issue together with an introduction and summary. This will be the first time that such a list has been made for thie oount17. Dr. Thomas C. Berr. Jr. is to be congratulated for his fine work in orp.nizing this program. Activities: Bower Cave is a vast semi-submerged cavern dissolved along a vertically dipping marble lens looated in Mariposa County, California. The external cave resemblss a cup with SOIU liquid -a lake -in the bottom, and shallow ohambers high on the side walls. Almost the entire external cave system lies within the daylight and tWilight sone This external part of the cavs, a natural attraction of great beauty. lying slong ths old Coulterville stagscoach road into ths famed losem1 te Valley, has been known sinoethe early l850s. At the bottom of this e up extending roughly eastward, lies the underwater complex of Bower Cave angling downward at ever inoreasing depth. These previously unsuspected sections of the lake were first probed in 1953 by Jon Lindbergh together With members of Cave Research Associates, then serving With the Western Speleological Institute. The thros initial field trips sufficed only for preliminary exploration and an initial tape and Brunton Compass mapping. T,he hazards and complications resulting from the presence of but a single qualified diver caused indefinite postponement of the project in late 1953. In 1959., another more numerous group, Skin Divers Limited, from Stockton, California, became interested, and explorations were resumed in collaboration with Cave Research AssoQiates. The project is still complex; 50 0 1. water, a depth of more than 110 feet, and labyrinthian passages combine to produce a formidable challenge to the divers. Despits these difficUlties, examination has continued and underwater features have been compared with external features. A systematic stUdy of the outside cave is well advanced, and its immense twilight realm is providing rich biological material. Hydrological studies and fluorescein tests have been made which contribute to the understanding of solution conditions. In addition, the cave has been remapped with surveyor's transit to link the lake and the outside stream system. 6


When completed, the study is expected to yield information in two main categories: first, the study of a rich and complex ecology, and secondly, the study of tl;1e related parts of a subaque Qua and external solution system formed by quiet circulating waters. Cave Research Associates wishes to acknowledge the 'generous contributions of James Rice toward the scientific program at this cave. R. deSaussure California Giant Salamander: Local newspapers recently gave an account of a giant salamander from northern Cali.fornia.. Several unverified reports which have captured the imagination of many people claim that this legendary animal lives in caves and wells in the remote regions of the Trini ty Mountains. In the past, several expeditions failed to locate either the giant salamander or the caves. Howev~i', last month, a resident of Pioneer, California, claimed that a salamander exceeding eight feet was hooked, measured, and released by himself and friends. Unfortunately, they do not have photographs or specimens f'or verification. Since the Trinity MOWltains still remain one of the most :inaccessible regions in California, no definite corroboration can yet be given to this amazing story. The giant salamanders of the family Cryptobranchidae were once widespread in the Northern Hemisphere, but have long since disappeared except for Megalobatrachus in eastern Asia and Cryptobranchus from eastern North America. Coulda giant salamander be discovered in California, this would prove to be one of the most eignificant zoogeographic finds of this century. The gia:o.t salamander story is many years old. Trappers and miners have told of many encounters with this creature. However, northern California is well known for its legends such as the Shaa t a Snow Man, the, I1emurians, and lost-gold caverns. The issue would seem settled except for the remarkable capture' of a Megalobatrachus in central California back in 1939. Dr. Meyers noted that the salamander was noticeably distinct from the Asian species, but considered the ~ossibility that it was an escaped pet. (Meyers, Charlss E. An Asiatic Giant Ba.Lemande rcaught in the Sacramento River, and an exotic skink near San Francisco. Copeia. #2, p.179-180. June 8, 1951.) One possible origin for the giant salamander etcry would be that of a mistaken identity. In late summer the streams of the Trini ty Mcuntains dry up leaving shallow pools. In these pools it is likely that the Sturgeon may be trapped alcng with many other animals. Since the Sturgeon may exceed seven feet, and is common in Ncrthern California, this may possibly explain the lack of giant salamander speoimens available for scientific study. It may also explain why the giant salamander is still a legend. Richard E. Graham 7


ABNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY GUILDAY, JOHN B. & IlARTDf S. BENDER. A Recent fissure deposit in :Bedford County, Pennsylvania. Carnegie Museum Annale, voL 35, Art. 9, p, 121138. November 20, 1958. J. r.eport on Recent fauna b'om Sink #2 of the New Paris Sinkholes, Bedford County, Penne plus material from Sink #3, donated by the Pittsburgh, Ir:plorers Club and the PHtsburgh Grotto of the N'OS .5. The most interesting tind 1s that of an arrowhft8d embedded in the vertebrae of an. adult male elk Corvus canadensis. No nelf or extinct species were found. llAUW, GERALD G. & JAMES K. BAKER. Some observations of Te:z:as cave bats. Sguthwestern NaturaJist, vol. 3, p 102-106. 1959. The ~~t8 Kormoops megaloJLh.ylla, Tadarida mexicans, and ){yotia 'nlifer were ObS8rTed in association: in Valdina Farms Sinkhole, I18dina' County_ Their habits and occurrence are discussed. The Sinkhole and Webb Cave, Kinney CountY' represent two new 100a1i ty r-ecor-ds for Mormoops megaloph,ylla. HOWARD, HILDEGARDE. An ancient cormorant from Nevada. Condor, vo'l 60, p 411-413. Jlovember 1958. A nearly complete skeleton of a cormorant, Phalacrooorax attritis, 001leoted by Phil C. Orr, Director of the Western Speleological Institute, trom Crypt Cave, hrshing County. The (lepoeit surrounding the 'apecimen has been radiocarbon-dated as older than 20,000 years. Skeletal messuremen-ts show a greater similarity to the northwestern U.S. cormorants than to the present local Nevada race. !WlllISSON, TO. (Bd.) 'he Sarawak lfueeum Journal, voj 8, #12 (n.e.). 831 .p. Deoe.her 1958. AD overwhelming wealth of mat erial_ on the N1ah Caves o~ Serawak, which are themselves somewhat overwhelming. Ran~ng in scope :from an article on fOBsils from Chinese drugstores in Borneo (Prof. G. H. R. von Koenigswald) to a desC1'iption of 300,000 bats at Wiah Cave (Lord Medway), this volume oan Bcarcely be ignored bY' any serious student of cave archeology and paleontology. GIlAI!GE OF ADDRESS In line with our recent incorporation as a non-profit organization in the State of California, all Bubscriptions and communications should be addressed to, Cave Research Associates, 1911A Berkeley "81', Berkeley 4, California. CAVE NOTES is available bimonthly for 11.00 per year, or on exchange. Mid-year subscriptions receive the earlier copies for that volume. 8

Analytical reviews / Arthur L. Lange, Richard E. Graham,
Allen Kaplan --
Proceedings --
Activities / R. deSaussure --
California Giant Salamander / Richard E. Graham --
Annotated bibliography --
Change of Address.
Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and
Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15)
were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In
1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete
sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells
hardbound copies of the material to support its