Cave Notes

Cave Notes

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Cave Notes
Series Title:
Cave Notes: A Review of Cave and Karst Research
Cave Research Associates
Cave Research Associates
Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Geology ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )


General Note:
Contents: Gypsum in Silent River Cave / George D. Mowat -- Artesian holes and other vents / James H. Gardner -- Analytical reviews / Dr. Nell B. Causey, Allen Kaplan -- Proceedings -- Secretary's Note / Arthur L. Lange -- Annotated bibliography. Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15) were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In 1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells hardbound copies of the material to support its activities.
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Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation Collection
Original Version:
Vol. 2, no. 4 (1960)
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See Extended description for more information.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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K26-00632 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.632 ( USFLDC Handle )
13703 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0008-8625 ( ISSN )

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CAVE NOTES Publication of Cave Research Associates Volume 2, No.4 July/August, 1960 GYPSUM III ~ Ill'lli1l <;AYE by George D. Mowat There are three e s pe c.La.Lky noteworthy occurrences of gypsum in Silent River Cave, Grand' Canyon, Arizona. Although each type has the same crystal habit, the size and interrelationship of the crystals are strikingly different. The crystals are acicular parallel to the c axis. Almost without exception they are twinned on the 100 plane as two simple twln8~ There 1s usually a groove representing the faces of each twin where the twins join. Gypsum flowers are present in the cave, but are not described here. The type9 described below grow subaerially from the mud in the cave. The crystals grow from their bases. ~ 1 Cave rope 1s a gypsum speleothem with the appearence of unspun cotton fibers. It hangs from the walls of' the Bright Angel Passage and forms mounds and coils. One example hangs nine inches down from its point of attachment and forms a six-inch, counterclockwise call of twenty or thirty turns on a_ledge. This gypsum rope is one to two centimeters in diameter. It is made up of a myriad of acicular gypsum crystals up to 11mm. long and O.012mm. maximum width. The fibers grade down to the limit of resolution of a 300 power microscope. Scattered among these fibers are a few arrowhead-shaped twins of gypsum up to O . 3mm. in width. Cave cotton, unlike cave rope, grows from the floor in cottony mounds and masses. The location on the floor of the cave determines its different appearance from cave rope. Cave threads and needles also grow out of the mud on the floor and walla of the Bright Angel Passage. They form a network of separate crystals as long as 18 in. and as wide as 1 in. These crystals are longitUdinally striated next to the composition plane of the twins. This probably 25 A eoll of cave rope fn the Bright Angel Passage of Silent Riwr Can.


represents poly synthetic twinning between two large main twins. There is a tendency for the striations to rotate counterclockwise as viewed from the free end down to the attached end. This rotation is on the order of 3 or 4 degrees per inch and would represent a rotation of the crystallographic axes about the c axis. " " ARTESIAN HOLES AND OTHER VENTS by James H. Gardner* The circulation of surface waters downward through sink-holes or swallow-holes with gravity as the motive factor is of common occurrence. The hydraulic circulation of water upward is much less frequent but occasionally seen in action. As a sample of an active artesian flow-hole, it is impressive to observe the Blue Hole near the Pecos River at the edge of the townsite of Santa Rosa in Guadalupe County, New Mexico. This hole is roughly circular at the surface with a diameter of approximately 55 feet, and it has been sounded to a depth of 81 feet. There is a perennial flow of clear water from it at the reported rate of 3000 gallons per minute. It is in an outcrop of the Santa Rosa sandstone (Triassic). This water, upon evaporation, throws down some precipitate which is chiefly calcium sulphate, and, although not used as potable water, it 1s sufficiently pure to support fish life. It supplies a fish hatchery and contributes to the irrigation of small farma. There are other artesian springs in the locality connected with the same source which supply a number of small lakes, but attention 15 directed primarily to the Blue Hole. The source of water in this instance is unquestionably the cavernous channels in the unde~lying San Andres limestone and gypsum formation (Permian) which crops out at a higher level along the Pecos River about 15 miles to the northward and into which some of the river water sinks. The Blue Hole illustrates how water flowing upward under hydraulic force can excavate prominent pits by abrasion in sandstone and shale where the outlet originated at a local break or fracture. In this area, at higher elevations above the Pecos River, there are a number of large, rounded, open holes in the Santa Rosa form~ tion of a nature and size similar to the Blue Hole. Some of them can be seen ~ear the south side of U. S. Hi5hway 66 a few miles west of Santa Rosa. Apparently they connect with the San Andres horizon at depths of several hundreds of feet depending on surface elevations. It seems probable that several of these openings were formerly active as artesian flow holes like the Blue Hole before the Pecos River cut its valley to its present level. In this same general area there are patches of relatively soft and partially consolidated sediments of Tertiary age (Ogallala). President, Gardner Petroleum Company, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 26


In these more recent beds there are more numerous local depressions similar to those on the Staked Plains of western Texas. It is believed that these features are not related to the open holes in the outcrop of the Santa Rosa sandstone. The chimneys in the Santa Rosa, as at the Blue Hole, are not in local, closed basins of the type mentioned, and there is no pattern of surface drainage into them as is common to sinks. In this same area along the Pecos River in New Mexico there has been collapse of the shallow strata forming the cover above the cavernous beds of the San Andres limestone, and there are numerous sink-holes in addition to the flow holes of the Blue Hole type. These features have been interestingly described in a paper by E. R. Harrington (Harrington, E. R. Sinkholes, bottomless lakes, and the Pecos River. Scientific Monthly, vol. 84, #6, p.302-308. June 1957.). It is believed that Harrington failed to properly classify the Blue Hole and some of the other chimneys as exceptional cases of holes produced by artesian flow. Artesian water can be either ground water sealed under cap in recent beds or water in the older formations. Wells drilled to deep strata frequently flow connate water. Attention has been called by Paul L. Lyons (Lyons, Paul L. Geology and geophysics of the Gulf of Mexico. Tulsa Geological Society Digest, vol. 25. p.60-70. 1957) to three large deep holes in the southeast portion of the Gulf of Nex Lc o Which he states "may well be sites where salt domes. breached the sea bottom and fed salt into the sea, leaving rounded depressions more than 12,000 feet deep. II One wonders if these amazing holes could have been produced by artesian flow related to salt dome tectoni cs In considering holes or vents in which water circulates upward, the writer believes there are some conclusions to be drawn with respect to the source of water in geysers. Guide books and other literature describing the geysers in Yellowstone National Park** state that the mechanics require a spiral-like, restricted channel into which surface water collects as the source of flow when heated to steam. It seems logical to consider that the geyser water may be from deep strata which underlie the Yellowstone pyroclastic basin such as the Dakota sandstone or other horizons carrying fresh water in that area. Following a flow at Old Faithful geyser, for example, formation water may rise and stand at hydrostatic head until it is superheated and steam energy produces another flow. A gas well can flow formation water either steadily or by heads, and a steam jet can do likewise whether artificial or natural. l1hen a properly located well is drilled to water carrying strata in the vicinity of a geyser, and all upper levels are cased off, it produces a geyser of either steady or intermittent flow depending on the steam volume. The writer has not made a thorough search of pUblished literature on the subject of artesian holes, but apparently the inactive ones are not often mentioned and in Bome lnstances may be mistaken for sink-holes. The so-called "bottomless p Lt.s" wherever they occurr with standing columns of water in them without bottom outlet suggest artesian origin and a subsequent loss of hydrostatic head. ** For a. disc\Wsion of various geyuer and bot springe theories see DAY, A. L. and I. T. ALLEN. IM 'VOlcanic activity and hot !'fr:J8! Q!' Lassen Peak. Carnegie Institution of Washington. 190 p, 1925. p 154-16~ eel. 27


ANALYTICAL REVIEWS TORII, HAJIME S. A consideration of the distribution of some troglobionts of Japanese caves. (I). ~anese Journal of ~gy. vol. 12, #4, p.555-584. March 1960. This discussion of the origin and distribution of invertebrate trogloblonts of Japan 19 based on the author's investigation of about 60 caves on the islands of Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu. The invertebrates collected include 31 trogloblonts and 41 troglophiles. Special consideration 1s given to the origin of the numerous species of the diplopod genus Ep-anerchodus. Dr. Torii postulates that a widely distributed eplgean form was exterminated by some natural force, perhaps sudden intense cold following a long period of tropical climate, and that the individuals that entered caves survived and underwent rapid speciation. He goes on to say that most Japanese troglobionts have been collected from only one cave. Representative genera in this category are: OLIGOCHAETA: Darwlda, Pheretlma. PELECYPODA: Plsidum (Neopisidum); ARACHNIDA: Promincla, Theridion; DIPLOPODA: tlyleoglomeris, Ep-anerchodus, Prinornatls, ¤p~phllosoma, Antrokoreana, Lava'Q.£ill, DoI1chogJ.YP~, Sklerop.12!&p.1!¤, liy.lindogaster. INSECTA: Bldessu~, Stygeotrechus, Kurasawatrechus, Rakantrechus (Uozumitrechus), COrYp.:hlum, Machaeritea. A few trogloblonts have been collected from more than one cave within a. limited area. In this category are the follOWing representative genera: DIPLOPODA: Epanerchodus, Leucodesminus, Niponiosoma, Skleroprotopus, ~idolulus, Antrokoreana; INSECTA: Diestrammena (Atachy.clnes), Metriocamp~, Trechiama, Rakantrechus (Uozumitrechus). Dispersal by subterranean routes is possible but limited; colonization of most caves must have occurred by dispersalon the surface when climatic conditions were warmer. A few troglobionts inhabit caves on both sides of an inland sea. Representative genera in this cat.egory are: CRUSTACEA: Asellus, Pseudocraggonix; DIPLOPODA: Skleroprotopus; INSECTA: Tritomurus. Dispersal probably occurred before the waterways separated the caves. No troglobionts have been found on the Marianas and the Caroline Islands, which have been frequently SUbmerged. All cave invertebra.tes, with the exception of two trogloxenic crustaceans that are relatively widespread in the tropics, are endemic to the archipelagos of Japan, the Ryukyu Islands, and Formosa. Some of the troglobionts are spread over a comparatively wide area within the range of the caves on a specific island. It 1s almost impossible to determine the age of cave-limited fauna, with the exception of those found in lava caves and mines. The presence of troglobiontic millipede in the lava caves of Mt. Fuji, which were formed in the lava flood of about 864 A.D., proves 28


that at least some of the present troglobionts could have developed during only a few hundred years of caVe life. The possibility of very rapid evolution of certain species must be recognized. For e~ ample, the troglobiontic collembola species lives in the deserted shafts of coal mines that are no older than 150 years. Unlike subterranean water animals, which have a wide distribution and an archaic origin, troglobionts have a restricted distribution and are easily produced. The ancestors of all troglobionts were without exception trogloxenes which evolved gradually into troglophl1es until the period of their isolation in caves. Dr. Torii believes that the weakest link in his theory is the absence of full proof of a sudden climatic change. This difficulty should be met easily by the study of tree rings. A serious weakness in ~is reasoning results from his failure to distinguish between some troglophiles and troglobionts. He states, IlIf a species reaches a new caVe by surface travel, it is not by definition a true cave animal: troglobiont. IT Then he lists as a troglobiont a species, Jj;panerchodus ishidal Haga that has been collected from both a limestone cave and an eplgean site in deep mountains with the folLooang explanation: II If IiII'. Haga a opinion that this species of Diplopoda is a t.r-oglobiont is correct, the author should ID:e to consider the possible phenomenan of troglobiontic Diplopoda migrating again from cave to cave in a manner similar to that in wh Lch their ancestors removed as the next hot period of Japan's climate has already begun. ~I It is sometimes impossible to determine on the basis of morphological characters alone whether a milliped is a troglobiont or a troglophile. It can be assumed that such forms are troglobionts only after a thorough search outside caves (especially in deep litter) has failed to produce them. Not many speleologists like this kind of collecting. I hope that Torii will revise his list of troglobionts with the aid of careful epigean collections, basing tt on his definition of a troglobiont, and let us see what he has left to support his theory. Dr. Nell B. Causey University of Arkansas * JAKUCS LASZLO Neue Methoden der H8hlenforschung in Ungarn und ihre ErgebniBse. Die H8hle. Jahrgang 10, Heft 4, p.88-98. 1959. In this article Jakucs presents a single example of the application and results of a method of analysis which he and his colleagues have been applying for the past several years to a karst region of Hungary. In the case discussed, the emergence of an underground river flowing through a known cave (the Friedenshohle) was monitored for several days following a rainstorm. The following variables were measured every half hour: rate of efflux, Ca++ and 29


HC0 3 ion concentration, intensity d fluoreacein coloring, Clion concentration, and turbidity. Fluorescein and rock salt bad been introduced into a do line feeding the cave several hours brfors the rainfall began. The meaauremants were plotted against time and com~ pared with the results to be expected from simple theoretical co~ siderations and long term observations made previously. From the fact that a spike in the turbidity curve (muddy water flowing awhile) and some decrease in the Ca++ and HCO~concentratien occurred many hours before the appearanoe of the fluoresoein and salt, it was deduced that a previously unknown ramifacation of the cava must exist conducting rainwater to the spring by a shorter path than that from the dellne. This ~lfication was then duly discovered. Several similar discoveries are mentioned including that of the Friedenshohle itself, which involved the drilling of three tunnels on the basis of this type of evedence. Jakuca places his emphasis on the use of his analysis to reveal new caves and passageways. It would Beem that such measurements, which are similar to those commonly made in hydrological studies, could reveal much about the hydrology of a region, particularly if augmented by rainfall measurements and data taken at points of inflow aa well as rnltflow. A rough idea of the size of undergrOUnd reservoirs and a knowlege of the overall rate at which material is being removed from the cave by solution might be gained. Measurements of flow rates, solution concentrations, pH, etc. at various points inside a cave including water dripping and trickling over and from speleofacts could give much information about the current course of development of the cave. JakucB methodology 1s an example of a sound general approach to the collection and organization of data. The illustrative graphs in this article comprise a concise and useful representation of the data. Such is a rare thing in speleology, yet no meaningful scientific investigation can proceed without it. The fact that the Hungarian investigators consider this a revolutionary approach, and what is more, that they are right, is a sad reflection on the 8cientific competance of most speleologists. Allen Kaplan, C.R.A. * * 30


PROCEEDINGS [lQppenberg Caverns Studies: In Autumn, 1959, C.R.A. members Thomas Aley, Arthur Lange, Raymond de Seu s sur-e and Richard Graham joined with Paul Larios and Al Satava of Quincy, California in an investigation of Kloppenberg Caverns. This cave, known since 1851, is located in Plumas National Forest, Plumas County, and is one of California1g few high altitude caves. The party descended to a depth of 183 feet, the deepest of the cave, recording observations and collecting biological specimens. A second trip, a month later, supplied additional information. The investigation was made at the invitation of Mr. C. L. Peckinpah, director of the Plumas County Chamber of Commerce. Samwel Cave ~edltlon: During the months of June and July 1960, James F. Quinlan, Jr., Arthur Lange, and Richard Graham resumed their studies of Samwel Cave, Shasta County, California. Significant advances were made toward the interpretation of the cave sediments, fossil and archaeological deposits, and the geologic setting of the cave and the McCloud River Valley. Secretary~ Note: James F. Quinlan, Jr., has been appointed research secretary of Cave Research Associates. Mr. Quinlan is a geologist at the University of Texas, Austin, Texas. Arthur L. Lange, Secretary * ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY CAUSEY, NELL B. Some cavernieolous millipeds from the Cumberland Plateau. Journal Qf the Tennessee ~ Q! Science, vol. 34, #4, p.229-239. Oct. 1959. This paper is based on the results of a recent reconnaissance of over 700 caves made by Dr. T. C. Barr, Jr. Millipeds were collected in over 70 of these caves. Aside from naming four new species and one new genus, Dr. Causey analyzes the dit.ferences between the epigean and cavernicolus millipeds from the Cumberland Plateau. GATES, G.E. Earthworms of North Auerican Oavee Bulletin of :t;.M National ~'Q!!leolog1!Y ~y, vok 21, part. 2, p.77-B4. July 1959. '!'weI ve species of ear-thworms are reported from 23 United States caves and information is prov:ided about the origin and relationships of each form. The author reports that nothing is knosn about earthworms from the caves of large areas of the United States and Canada. 31


PARMALEE, PAUL W. and KARL W. JACOBSON Vertebrate remains from a Missouri cave. ~ of ~gy, ",1. 40, #3, p.401-405. Aug. 1959. This account of a recent deposit of 'ftrtebrates from Jerry Long Cave in Ralls County, Missouri, where anarnals are still being trapped by falling through the fissure cpenmg reveals a surprising number of black bear bones (at least 12 individuals) and turkey vulture bones (over 16 individuals). This situation affords direct observation of the way in which such deposita accumulate. No extinct species were encountered. CAUSEY, NEr..L B. The troglobitic milliped genus g;ygonopua (Chordeumida, ConotyLddae Trlchopetalinae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society, vol. 68, p.69-80. June 1960. The history, distribution, rrorphology, and relationship of the cave-adapted genus, Zygonop'us, is discussed, and three new species are described. One map, six figures, and keys to the troglobitic genera of Trichopetalinae and the species of ~ygQnQP.1!,¤ are included. Sa-IWARTZ, DOUGLAS W. Prehistoric man in Mantroouth Cave. Scientific American, vol. 203, #1, p.130-140. July 1960. An account is given of indian use of Mall:m>uth Cave, Kentucky, and the BUrrounddng area from the time of the gypsum miners (ca. 400 B.C.) to the arrival of the l'ffiite man. There 1s a description of the intennittent archeological studies of the cave, .end a large number of illustrative photographs, charts, and dia~rama are included. CAUMARTIN, V. Quelques aspects nouveaux de la microfiore des cavernes. AnnaJ.u de Sp~gj&, Tome XIV, faa 1-2. 1959. The latest of a series of papers by this author on the subject of edcroerganisms which inhabit cave clays. A discussion of great importance regarding the ability of bacteria to synthesize protem from clay mat-erials as well as providing food. for cave beetle larvae which should revolutionize our present ideas regarding the value of cave clay fauna. This is highly recommended read:1ng for American speleologists. WEYL, P.K. The change in solubility of calcium carbonate with temperature and carbon dioxide content. Geochimica ~ CosJOOchimica!ill, voj., 17, p.214-225. 1959. An analysis of the solubility of calcite and aragonite in cez-bonfc acid over a range of CO Z concentration and temperature, using a new apparatus, is described and results gaven, The work is of special. to karst investigators, since it is oriented toward an understanding of limestone solution and deposition. CAVE NOTES is available bimonthly for $1.00 per year, or on exchange. ~lid-year subscriptions receive the earlier issues for that volume. Subscriptions and communications should. be addressed to: Cave Research Associates, 1911A Berkeley Way, Berksley 4, California. 32

Contents: Gypsum in Silent River Cave / George D. Mowat --
Artesian holes and other vents / James H. Gardner --
Analytical reviews / Dr. Nell B. Causey, Allen Kaplan
Proceedings --
Secretary's Note / Arthur L. Lange --
Annotated bibliography.
Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and
Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15)
were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In
1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete
sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells
hardbound copies of the material to support its


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