Cave Notes

Cave Notes

Material Information

Cave Notes
Series Title:
Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology
Alternate Title:
Caves and karst: Research in speleology
Cave Research Associates
Cave Research Associates
Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Geology ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )


General Note:
The Hûrendô Caves of Kyûshû, Japan / Hajime S. Torii -- Analytical reviews -- Annotated bibliography. Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15) were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In 1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells hardbound copies of the material to support its activities.
Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Location:
Windy City Grotto Collection, 1961-2013
Original Version:
Vol. 3, no. 3 (1961)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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Resource Identifier:
K26-00637 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.637 ( USFLDC Handle )
13708 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0008-8625 ( ISSN )

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CAVE NOTES Publication of Cave Researr.h Associates Volume 3, No.3 May/June. 1961 THE HURENDO CAVES OF KyUSHU. JAPAN by Hajime S. Torii" The Hurendo caves are two in number: the Old and the New. The Old Cave 1s one of the moat famous 1n Japan. The author has surveyed and collected 1n the New Gave, where he discovered a new species of rain-worm (Pheretlma torii Ohfuchl) and other cave animals. This report describes some of the features of both caves and specimens from New Cave. The caves are situated about 250 meters apart at Tomar1, Kawan~borl Village, Ohnosun, Oita prefecture. They have formed in steep-dipping light-grey to White limeetone of the northwest terminus of the Chlchlbu Paleozoic strata. The Old Cave opens in the bottom of a valley, While the New Cave entrance 11es 100 meters higher. The Old Cave** was found in February 1926 by members of the Jlko Young Menls AS8ociation of Kawanobori Village. It ie about 420 met ere long and horizontal. The development of stalactites, stalagmites, columns, draperies and other ,limestone 'deposits is extraordinary, and they have been carefully preserved. The cave is divided into three 8eo17


CAVE NOTES Allen B. Kaplan editor CAVE NOTES is a publioation of Cave Research Associates, presenting short articles relating to spekeckogy and karst studies, with reviews and discussion of recent work in this field. Contributions in the form of articles or letters are weloomed. All contributions submitted should be typed, double-spaced with at least a one-inch margin. Subscriptions to CAVE NOTES are available for $1.00 per year (six issues) or on exchange. Mid-year subscrlptionB receive the earlier numbers of that vokune Correspondenoe, contributions, and subscriptions to CAVE NOTiS should be addreeeect tOI CAVE llESEARrn ASSOCIATlill, 19l1A Berkeley Way, Berkeley 4, California. @ Copyright 1961, Caw Research Associates. tiona; namely, "xtn Sakai" (Clolden ,",orId); "Gin Sakai II (Silvery World); and "Ryugu Jo" (Dragon's Palace). The Kin Sakai takes ita name from the light brown or golden color found over the entire surface of its deposits. Numerous strangely shaped stalactites are present. The Gin Sekai, in contrast, exhibits a pure White, shining surface, although it too contains numerous bizarre stalagmites stalactites, and wall draperies. There are several drapery "waterfalls" in this section. Numerous clay stalagmites, termed "Doro Rakan" (Clay Bhuddists), are found on the floor. A larger stalagmite group, the Ran Sh~ho (Elegant Mountains), takes on a bluishWhite coloration, and i9 14 meters in circumference. Also of interest is the RyGgo no Sotetsu (Cycads of Dragon Palace), a 45 0 forking stalagmite (Fig. 3.), originally inclined by an earthquake and SUbsequently overgrown by a new, upright stalagmite. The Mame Ish! are small defaced fragments of limestone 1n a small waterhole whose surface 1s covered with calcareous sinter. Straw stalactites of 50 em. length and 6 mm. diameter may be observed. There is also a small elliptical sinter-pond 0.8 x 0.36 meters with calcite orystallizat~on on its edges. The New Cave was found in March 1926 by the same group that discovered the Old Cave. Its total extent is about 82 meters and it runs horizontally. The entrance is an elliptical ponor on th~ top of the mountain, the opening being 1.5 x 0.6 meters with a drop of 10 meters. The floor of the cave is partly limestone and, in places, muddy clay. It terminates in a small pond with a clay bottom. Like the Old Cave, this one ia also finely decorated with stalactites and etalagm1tes having fanciful names. Within the cave is a pit down which many kinds of animals once fell to thelr death. The bone pile at the bottom 1s called "Oni no Iwaya" (Grotto of the Devil) 18


~. The Ebi.u (the Embracin8 God. of Wealth) "(~e,"," !. tt. lO!J in the New C ..... ';~"\'? -,,'. .;...f';", ~" \ .' ...'!? !4" .1. T~ ~. The R;yiigii no rs:;:etsu (Cycads of the Dragon PaJ.a.ce) in the Old Cave. The skeletal material still remaining inside New Cave includes the following: W11d boar (Ino.h1sh1) Sus scrora leucomyatax Temmln~k Japanese deer (S1ka) CervuB nippeD nippon Temmlnck Japanese macaque (Saru) Mscaca fUBcata fUBcata Blyth Raccoon-dog (Tanuk1) NYctereutes procyonldes vlverrlnus Temmlnck The l1v1ng an1mals found 1n New Cave 1nclude the rare spec1es of rain-worm discovered by the author and later named Pheretlma torl1 by Dr. Sh1nryo Ohfuch1. Th1s worm 1s between 37 mm. and 43 mm. 1n length and has 77 to 83 body segments. JUdg1ng from the hab1t or th1s an1mal or 11v1ng on the surraces or wet mud and 11me stone rather than under the Boll, and because of its reduced body p1gmentat1on and the ract that 1t 1s known only rrom Oave env1ronments, it 1s considered to be a trogloblte. 19


Other animals found deep inside the cave are: the cave cricket, Diestrammena (Atacnycines) sp.; the toBa. Bufo vulgaris laponicus Schlegelj and the enails, Aesists' '~kobens18 Schumacher and ButtS;. Euhadra hickonls Kobert, Hemlphaedusa graolllsplra Moellendorf, and Cyclophorus herklotsi von Martins. * * ANALYTICAl REVIEWS DEERE, DON U. An evaluation of the factors influencing the stability of a large underground cavity. Appendix: LANGHAAR, H. L. & A. P. BORESI. Stress concentration factors in an elastic medium. Report for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Albuquerque Opera';" tions Office. Nov. 15, 1959. This study, originally initiated by nuclear requirements for cavern construction, has direct application in the understanding of natural cavern formation and breakdown. It has interesting theoretical implications concerning cavern development. As Deere points out, rock at any given depth, may ordinarily be considered as being initially in strese equilibrium (i.e the sum of the stresses acting at a given point is zero.). It is useful, however, to examine a constant, K, which is defined as horizontal stress divided by vertical stress. In homogenous rocks K may also be found by the expression: K = Y/I-Y where Y is the Poisson ratio. In an excavated cavern the stresses about a given opening are strongly dependent on this ratio. Four common ranges of K are commonly recognized. K:,: 0 is the condition of no lateral restraint, which is usually found only in shallow rock traversed by numerous vertical joints. A condition of lateral restraint in which .25 ~ K ~ 1.0 is that most commonly encountered. The hydrostatic condition of K = 1 implies equal stress in all di~ rect1ons. The only common material relevant to cave and karst discussion that exhibits ,this property is rock salt (Y= 0.5). More recently it has been recognized that rocks may have a residual stress such that K > 1.0. Deere states that K may reach values as high as 3 for a strong, jointed rock. This would seem to apply to limestone terrains and, 1n particular, to an eroded karst terrain. The paper and the shapes as a function constructed when K = the region of K = 2, wben .25 ;; K ;; .50. appendix present various optimum construction of K and Y. For example, a spherical cavern is 1. The oblate ellipsoid (flattened) is used in and the prolate ellipsoid (football shaped) I suggest that these considerations may also apply to cavern development, and indeed playa major role, if we start with solution along a given joint system. At zero stress, the solution and breakdown will tend to develop an opening Which corresponds to the optimum shapes for construction. The cavern shape, therefore, reflects 20


both joint pattern and stress at the time of cavern development. This in turn leads us to a possible determination of former stress conditions. For example, tall oval chambers in a flat-bedded, dense limestone might well suggest the possibility of residual stress. If th~ existence of that stress' were bot confirmed in the present by field measurement, and in particular~ 'if'wal~ breakdown seemed extensive, it might imply extensive karst erosion. It Beems probable that solution and breakdown act in harmony in this manner. rather than in opposition as implied by DaVies (DAVIES, WILLIAM B. Mechanics of cavern breakdown. National Speleological Society Bulletin 13, p. 36-43. Dec. 1951.). This approach upholds the view that a period of drainage is a time of major change, since stress conditions are drastically altered for K # 1. A period of re-solutlon may impose similar alterations. It Beems that we must add this factor throughout the multiple and complex cycles that join to produce a cave, and in this manner we move just a bit further from our original simple picture of cavern development. Raymond deSaussure, C.R.A.' BRETZ, J HARLEN. Bermuda: a partially drowned, late mature Pleistocene karst. Geological Society of America Bull. 71, p. 17291754. Dec. 1960. The Bermuda Islands are a truncated volcanic oone, whose summit has been covered With marine limestones and carbonate dune sandstones, or eolianites, intercalated with residual Bolls. The map of Bermuda is shaped like a fish hook. The book and the eye are made up of shallow sounds and harbors not over sixty feet deep. Nine-tenths of the land surface today is a karst topography. of sinkholes, marshy solution valleys, and cavee extending down to a uniform body of salt water which rises and falls with the tides. There is no fresh ground water to be found. A notable feature of these caveR 1s the ocourrenoe of speleothe~B both above and below water. Some in Crystal Cave have been discovered by dlvers at depths of sixty feet. These SUbmerged speleothems have long aroused speculation about past stages of lower sea level. In this recent work Bretz collaborated with H.A. Lowenstam, whc has been studying Bermuda geology, and R.V. Ruhe, Who analysed the paleosols, to produce a reinterpretation of the Islands' landscape and a tentative correlation of geologic events with the Pleistocene world calendar. The report tollows a preliminary paper puplished ~arlier (BRETZ, J HARLEN. origin of Bermuda caves. National Speleological Society Bull. vol. 22, part 1, p. 19-22. Jan. 1960. ). I summarize som~ of the findings here. Bretz interprets the eolianites and 90ils reversely to Sayles (SAYLES, R. W. Bermuda during the Ice Age. Amer, Acad;of Arts and SQi~nQes Proc vol. 66, p. 382-467. 1931.) in believing that .. 21


the dunee are a coastal effect only, and the carbonate sandstones, therefore, were deposited during periods of high sea level. The soUs are the residues of solutional degradation of the land surfaoe, an effeot which he maintains occurred during pluvial times of high ground water and low sea level. It was during these pluvial episodes (primarily Kansan and Illinoian) that the caves were dissolved out of the limestone by ground water, and the surface karst forms developed, mainly due to oave collapse. Bretz also concludes that the sounds and harbors are drowned extent ions of the collapsed cave systems; that 1s to say, 3/4 of the islands' surface has been reduced below the present seQ level by past cavemaking processes. From the features of the caVeS themselves Bretz reads a correlative evolution. He sees an episode of prim.1tive tube enlargement and development of Bub-water-table passages, which even during low sea level were deeply drained so that stalactites could form in air. With rising sea level the caves with their speleothems were,re-submerged, tqis time by salt water, and collapsed areas became flooded, forming marshes and sounde. iVhile he does not specify what drained the caves during the pluvial episode that produced them, suspect that this effect would come about as the underground channels grew in volume, providing more space to contain water at lower levels. Although Bretz emphasizes the divergence between his cave interpretation and that of Swinnerton (SWINNERTON, A.C. The caves of Bermuda. Geological Magazine. vol. 66, p. 79-84. 1929.), I find here more similarity than conflict. SWinnerton ascribes the principal role in cave solution to descending and laterally moving ground water. Bretz, on the other hand, argues for his traditional deep-solution hypothesis. To me this difference in depth of origin i8 1es8 significant than their concurrenoe in the belief that the caves formed along or below a freah-water-table during a plUVial episode when sea level lay much lower than at present. Bretz admits that his conclusions will provoke controversy, for if they prove true, then we must Buspect a very powerful role for solution in other localities. I think that it is for geologists who have worked in Bermuda to contest or reinforce the arguments, and we may look forward to the promised reports of Ruhe and Lowenstarn to cast more light on this facet of Pleistocene history. Arthur L.;e, C.R.A. * * 22


ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY SMI'lH, ALLYN C. A new species of Negomphix from California. California Academy of Sciences, Occasional Papers, #28, Nov. 1, 1960. A collection of epigean snafLe taken in total darkness in Natural Bridge Cave) Trinity County by R. deSaussure is described, recording a new species and a new g~us from the state. LUND.ELIUS, ERNEST L. Jr. MylohyuB nasutus, Long-nosed Peccary of the Texas Pleistocene. Texas Memorla.1 Museum. Bulletin, #1, p, 1-40. Apr. 1960. This is a review of the North American Pleistocene peccaries with a description of the Friesenhahn Cave series. A faunal list and bibliography of this significant Texas cave deposit is included, PARMELEE, PAUL W. A repent find of jaguar bones in a Tennessee cave. Tennessee AcadeIllY of Sciences, Journal, vol. 36, #1, p, 81-B5. 1961. Two specimens of Panthers augusta taken from a cave in Hamilton County comprise the fourth record from southeastern Tennessee. They suggest that a sizable population of these jaguars formerly inhabited the Cumberland Plateau. GRADZINSKI, R. & R. UNRUG. Uwagi 0 powstawaniu nacieku grzybkowego w jeektnech, Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego Rocmic, vol. 30, #3, p, 273-287. Jun. 14, 1960. One type of cave coral was shown to be formed by capillary now of solution through the structure to the outer surface by" an experiment in which the base of a specimen was immersed in a solution of magnesium sulfate after which small crystals of hydrous magnesium sulfate formed on the heads of' the speleothems. The cave coral was composed of fibrous crystals perpendicular to the surface which are inferred to be pseudororphlc after aragonite. ERD, RICHAHD C. & SEDlOUR a, GREENBERG. Minerals of Indiana. Indiana Geologi_ cal Survey Bull. 18, 73 p 1960. A review of Indiana minerals which discusses minerals identified from eight caves including a new occurrence of hydromagnesite in Marengo Cave. BRETZ, J HARLEN & S.E. HARRIS, Jr. Caves of Illinois". Illinois State Geological. Survey Report of Investigations 215, e:t p, 1961. This report describes and discusses the cave areas of Illinois and over 50 specific caves' and other limestone reajuree of the,e There is a chapter briefly outlining sane cave theory and relating it to the general features and geologic history of Illinois. 23


TDUCLE, D.W. & W.W. MILSTEAD. Sex ratios and population density in hibernating ~. American Midland Naturalist, vo.L, 63, #2, p, 327-334. Apr. 1960. Three gypsum caves in the Texas Panhandle, Panther, Walkup, and Sinkhole Caves, were studied to determine population densities and sex ratios of Myotis valifer dnceutue The percentage of males drops in all three caves in late winter and early spring, but the sexes are nearly equal in late autunm. and early winter. Data was interpreted using the Lincoln and Hayne indices, the former being the most applicable. MILSTEAD, W.W. & D.W. TnIKLE. Seasonal occurrence and abundance of bats (Chiroptera) in northeastern Texas. Southwestern Naturalist, vo.L, 4, #3, p 134-142Oct. 24, 1959. Twelve species of bats were investigated for their zoogeographical affinities and seasonal occurrence from 1956 to 1959. Most of the records were obtained in caverns, caves, buildings, and crevices. NUN:E:l JIMENEZ, ANTONIO. La Caverna del Sol. INRA (Havana), Ano 2, #3, p 5867. Harch 1961. A popular account, illustrated with color photographs, of the discovery of a significant Cuban cave containing speleothems and pictographs. RENAUL't, PHILIPPE. Role de 11 erosion et de la corrosion dans Ie creusement dtun reeeau kar-stdque Revue de GeoIOOrphologie Dynamique, lie Annee #1-4, p. 1-4. Jan.-Apr. 1960. Remarks on seasonal geochemical variations affecting solution of limestone undermantle and in caves. Factors influencing solution rate and saturation are discussed brieny with several cave examples. KIRWAN, J.L. Caves in the Gatineau District of Quebec. Canadian Geographical Journal, vol. 62, #3, p. 100-105. Har. 1961. A semi-popular geological and pictorial description of Lusk and LaFleche Caves, in linErstone of the southern boundary of the Canadian shield. 24

The Hrend Caves of Kysh, Japan / Hajime S. Torii --
Analytical reviews --
Annotated bibliography.
Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and
Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15)
were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In
1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete
sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells
hardbound copies of the material to support its


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