Cave Notes

Material Information

Cave Notes
Series Title:
Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology
Alternate Title:
Caves and karst: Research in speleology
Cave Research Associates
Cave Research Associates
Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Geology ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )


General Note:
Analytical Reviews -- Proceedings: Secretary's note -- Annotated bibliography. Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15) were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In 1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells hardbound copies of the material to support its activities.
Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Location:
Windy City Grotto Collection, 1961-2013
Original Version:
Vol. 3, no. 6 (1961)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
K26-00640 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.640 ( USFLDC Handle )
13711 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0008-8625 ( ISSN )

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Karst Information Portal

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CAVE NOTES Publication of Cave Research Associates Volume 3. No.6 November/December, 1961 ANALYTICAL REVIEWS FRIEDMAN, GERALD M. Identification of carbonate minerals by staining methods. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology. vol. 29. #1, p. 87-97. March 1959. A detailed discussion is given ot various staining techniques, both use and proceedure. Numerous stains are suggested for distinguishing between calcite, aragonite, dolomite, magnesite, hlghmagnesian calcite, gypsum (and anhydrite by negative inference). The stains are divided into three broad categories: calcite (3 stains), dolomite and magnesite (24 stains), and gypsum (4 stains). Combinations are recommended for differentiating groups of minerals; for example, the separation of aragonite from calclte--and dolomite and gypaum--by means of a combination scheme using Felgl s Solution and Alizarine Red S. Detailed chemical proceedures are given for the preparation and use of the staining solutions. which should prove aoequate for perSODS with some previous analytical background. With patience they could be mastered by ~he neophyte. Sources of supply are given for the key ingredients. As Friedman indicates, the period of immersion in the stain for optimum results is a function of composition, porosity, grain size, and pH; consequently, care should be taken 1n the use of stain techniques, especially with a small number of sampleR. Stains would be more useful in handling large numbers of specimens after careful controls had been established. X-ray technique is one such control, and certainly one of the moat definitive. Cave workers interested in speleothem or country-rock composition should find this an extremely userul reference article that competently summarizes the literature on the Bubject. R. de5aussure, Cave Research Associates. Editor's Note: Index to Volumes 1-3: Librarians and subscribers planning to bind their copies of CAVE NOTES are advised to wait until they have received the title page and index for Volumes 1.2, and 3, now being prepared. This special supplement will be mailed to all persons subscribing to Volume 3. 41


CAVE NOTES ARTHUR L. lANGE acting editor CAVE NOTES is a publication of Cave Research Associates, presenting short articles relating to the study of caves and karst,with reviews and discussion of recent work in this field. Subscriptions to CAVE NOTES are available for $1.00 per year (six issues) or on exchange. Mid-year subscriptions receive the earlier numbers of that volume. Correspondence, contributions, and subscriptions to CAVE NOTES should be addressed to: CAVE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES, 1911A Berkeley Way, Berkeley 4, California. ~ Copyright 1961, Cave Research Associates. ANALYTICAL REVIEWS. CONTINUED r a 0 3 ,1 cu s Jl ii 1-1. A.. pen CnEJIEOJIOrH51 H !

N. A. GVOZDETSKY. The caves and surface karst forms in the western part .cr the Zeravshansky Ridge. L. A. KANAEV &. O. U. POSLAVSKAYA. The Amir-Temir cave. S. 1. GOLZ. The karst caves of central Uhstjurt. U. M. KLEINER. Sea caverns and the karst of the East Caspian coastline. S. I. ZVONAREVA. Concerning some sites of the karst distribution in the upland of Khazakhstan. V. V. NIKOLSKAYA. On some caves situated along the eastern coastline of the Khanka lake. V. G. LEBEDBV. Geomorphological observations in the karst region of the Kwangsi (South China). M. B. OORNUNG. "In search of subterranean worlds". Two interesting articles from the book have been read and summarized by Neely H. Bostick. TheBe are presented here as examples of current Soviet research in speleology. R. de3ausBure, Cave Research Associates. r. A. MaUCIlM08U'I. nO)l,3EMHbIE KAPCTOBhlE 03EPA MAKSIMOVICH. G. A. Subterranean karst lakes. p. 41-51. Cave lakes or pools are of diverse origin or, rather, represent various stages in cave development. Two general types of cave, those with predominantly horizontal circulation and those with vertical circulation, show the following karst lake stages: I. Horizontal circulation: 1) Initially the entire cave, or at least the entire lower part, is ocoupied by water. 2) In tectonically-active regions various levels in the cave give rise to waterfalls--with accompanying potholes or pothole lakes. 3) With more uplift and roof collapse or sand, silt, and gravel damming, dammed ~ originate. 4) Further lowering of water leaves window~, where in only a few places the cave extends down to give, as it were, a view to the water level. Sometimes this sta~e 1s promoted by a lower-lying "weakly-karsting" stratum. These first types of lake may be grouped together as flowin6-water lakes. 5) When the above stage is no longer possible because water l~ too deep, only lakes in depressions lined with impervious clay are possible. The level and GaCO; concentration of such non-flowing ~ are SUbject to variation, and precipitation of calcite rims 1s common where there 1s much evaporation. 43


II. Vertical circulation: 1) Vertical ehafte with clay-filled bottoms may become filled by surface water. 2 l Vertical shafts may extend down to the ground-water level. III. Special group: 1) Cave lakes may form in areas where either thermal or carbonated water rises from below up into the cave level. Examples cited in setting up the above karst lake classification are predominantly from literature on caves in Italy, France, and Yugoslavia. The second section of the article gives varied data on some caves in Eastern Europe and mentions cave lakes elseWhere, without, however, contributing additional strength to the classification. The role of evaporation in forming gours, or calcitedammed lakes, is neglected; also, I would point out that the study of karst lakes is certainly not to be confined to the subterranean, since all of the types discussed may be found as well on the surface, as in the Yugoslavian Karst. The "special gr-oup" is perhaps most common not in thermal regions but in areas where artesian water rises through gypsum, salt, or limestone strata. The dssignation of distinct karst lake types should be useful, not as "natural system", but as a good reference point for future observation of karst phenomena ln general. * * * A. B. CmynullUlIt nEll.lEPHbIE Jlb,Ubl CPE,UHErO nOBOJl)l(b51 H nPHPOJJ.A HX OBPA30BAlIM~ STUPISHIN. A. V. The cave ice of the Mid-Volga region and the nature of its formation. p. 53-61. Sublimal ice crystals as well as hydrogenic ice were studied in Malaya Syukeevskaya Cave, where ice t s not preserved through the summer. The cave studied 1s a ~~~ blind chamber sloping downward. ~0f,~. )~ In winter, thick deposits of '<' ssss "/'1 ~ hydrogenic "frozen-water fall'! ~~\\ ~/] ice form where a crack in the .< i¨,i'dolomite cel1ing near the cave mouth allows water to penetrate. Ice partly blocks the cave entrance. Sublimal ice occurs on the cave ceiling as regular hexagonal crystals one centimeter in daimeter (Figure 1 as spiraling aggregates in somewhat the form of a goblet (Figure 2), or 1n other fused forms. Data show ~Q ";'====d"M Figure 1. 44


that 8ublimal crystals form at temperatures slightly below freezing; the ice forme where relatively warm, moist air comes in contact with cold air. Apparently warm air 1s forced out of the cave at about 5 meters abovs the floor by inflowing cold air. An unusual feature is the formation of gypsum flour on the surface of ice stalactites 8S a result of evaporation in the strong air flow. The intensity of ice formation depends Figure 2. on ( 1) humidity of the upper, warmest layer of air, which contacts the ceiling at a temperature Just below freezing; (2) intensity of air circulation; (3) temperature gradient or temperature inversion with air movement; (4) time of year. Both hydrogenic and sublimal ice are most extensive in March, when the cave becomes moist from meltwater. Hydrogenlc ice was most highly mineralized (up to 1.4 gm/liter), while sublimal ice waa only slightly mineralized (up to 0.2 gm/liter). Table 3, Chemical composition of cave ice and water in the Big and Little Syukeev Caves (1949 1953) Amt of dissolved maChemical comp (.,,/ll Ice type and rerial (gm/D Date location of pH sample tosulcar.. .. bon50. 1 C, M, HC0 3 CI' solids tal fate ates Mar, 3 1949 A 1,4 1,0 0,4 7,30 972,37 290,84 0,09 151,78 5,27 1708,0 B 0,12 0,08 0,4 5,80 75,72 38,0 0,00 6,07 29,87 none Mar, a 1953 C 1,25 0,9 0,35 898,6 327 22 1360 D ...... 0,4 0,1 0,3 107,0 228 27 962 E ...... 0,20 0,15 0,05 145 43 5 22G Mar. S 1949 F ...... 1,3 1,0 0,3 966 264 sa 1625 G ...... 2,1 1,2 0,9 6,90 1190 597,38 32,1 260,62 1190 2123,0 B ...... 1,7 1,2 0,1 7,40 1195,0 408,5 0,00 133,56 14,06 2081,60 A. ~drogenic ice. Main Hall. Ice obelisk, right sidej B. Sublimal ice. Near cave eXit; C. Hydrogenic ice. Stalagmite from right cave branch; D. Qydrogenic ice. Stalactite from samei E, Sublimal ice. Crystals, ceiling in left branch; F. Stalagmite from gypsum gallery; G. Water from lake in Big Syukeev Cavej H, Water from crack in dolomite ceiling of Big Syukeev Cave, sulfur in sample, 45


Table 1. Temperature section of the Ice Cave. (11:00 A.M., March 8, 1953). Observation station ¡c Ice formation Cave entrance ..... -5.1 Floor in middle of cave chamber -4.2 Same, 2m above floor -3.2 Near ceiling, left branch of cave ..... -O.5 Floor, right branch. -2.5 Same, 2m height .... -2.2 Same, ceiling, 4m .. -1.7 End of right branch .. 0 O.7m snow cover Hydrogenic ice Sublimal crystals Thick ice crystals Hydrogenic ice columns Same Same Ice from water in fissure Two of the tables of data presented in the article are reproduced here as representing Stupishin's work more explicitly than his text. It should be noted that the cave is now inundated by a reservoir. Neely H. Bostick, New Mexico Military Institute * * secretary's Note: At the annual meeting of thfl Board of Trustees of Cave Research Associates, the following officers were elected for the term October 1, 1961 throuBh September 30, 1962: President: Arthur L. LanBe Vice-President: James F. Quinlan, Jr. Secretary: Richard E. Graham Treasurer: Wilmer B. Martin At the same meeting, Mr. Jack Donahue of the Department of Geology, Columbia University, was elected collaborator. Renewal Notice: Subscription payments for Volume 4 of CAVE NOTES are now due. The rate is #1.00 per volume; for $3.00 subscribers may order Volumes 4, 5, and 6 in advance. The supply of some back issues has now been exhausted, but persons ordering earlier volumes will be sent the outstanding numbers when they are reprinted. The bound volume of CAVE STUDIES #1-11 is available for 43.00. PROCEEDINGS 46


ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY HENDRICKSON, G. E. Sources of water in Styx and Echo Rivers, Mammoth Cave, Kentucky .!!.:.!.:. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 424D, p D41-43. 1961. Serial chemical analyses of the underground Styx and Echo Rivers and the surface Green River show that water enters Mammoth Cave from the Green River or drains into the Green from the cave, depending on whether the rainfall at the cave or the rainfall in the Green River basin is the greater. JOHNSON, NOYE M. Thermoluminescence in biogenic calcium carbonate. ~ of Sedimentary Petrology, vol. 3D, #2, p. 305-313. June 1960. Thermoluminescent age-dating and correlating of limestones are complicated by an organically-derived thermoluminescence, but the complication does not invalidate the overall method. Aragonite is eliminated from this dating technique. JOHNSON, ROBERT F., Java, Indonesia. D221. 1961. About 50 caves were examined which contain phosphate rock formed by chemical reaction between bat excretions and limestone. The phosphate rock is cream-colored, brown, or nearly black, and occurs as skeletal veinlets in cave sediment, as cement in cave breccia, and as replacements in limestone floors. & R. SUKAMTO. Cave deposits of phosphate rock U. S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 424D, in central p D2l9LIS, JOSEF. Triasowa brekcja kostna i kras kopalny w kamienolomie Stare Gliny pod Olkuszem. Kwartaln1k Geologiczny, vol. 4, p 55-74. 1960. A filled Triassic cave, 50 meters long, in Devonian limestone near 01kuaz, Poland, contains bones of continental marine reptiles. LONG, CHARLES A. vol. 42, #1, p A discussion Kansas is given. First record of the Grey Bat in Kansas. ~ 2! Mammalogy, 97-98. 1961. of cave records of Myotie grisescens and a first record for MAGUIRE, BASSETT, JR. Regressive evolution in cave animals and its mechanism. ~ ~ ~~' vol. 13, #3. p. 363-370. September 1961. The pigment of crayfish from Longhorn Caverns. Texas, which also live in surface ponds, was found to be related to algae in the diet rather than to the presence of light. Carlsbad Caverns copepods consist of an interbreeding population of blind and sighted individuals with the characters passed according to normal genetic laws. Ostracods from Valdina Cave, Texas, are killed by low levels of light, and isopods from Devil's Sinkhole, Texas lack the ability to produce pigment even in light. Three mechanisms of regression, perhaps operating together. are suggested: (1) accumulation of mutations destroying unneeded organs where the mutants are not eliminated by selection; (2) selection against unneeded organs because they waste energy; and (3) selection against unneeded organs because they incorporate unfavorable functions no longer compensated for by the advantages of the organ in a lighted environment. MEADE. GRAYSON E. The Saber-toothed cat, Dinobastis~. Texas Memorial MUliewn Bulletin, Part II, p. 23-60. September 1961. The discovery of a' complete skeleton of this least known of the North American Pleistocene saber-toothed cats from the Friesenhahn Cave, Texas has added substantially to our knowledge of habitat, prey, and relationships of this species. 47


MURRAY, R. C. Origin of porosity in carbonate rocks. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, vol. 3D, #1, p. 59-84. March 1960. Primary porosity is due to calcareous sand or gravel interstices. Dissolution of interstitial mud causes later porosity and cementation destroys it. An extensive bibliography is given. OANA, SHINYA. p. 368-372. Antei tanso doi no chikyo kagaku. ~ 12 Kogyo, vol. 13, #4, April 1960. Most cave stalactites have C 12 /C 13 5 values ranging between -0.8 and -13.2 parts per thousand, but those from Porter's Cave, Penna. have values from +1.8 to +8.4 0/00 because pyrite-derived sulfuric acid rather than soil carbonic acid dissolved the limestone. The J value for a stalactite from a concrete b uf Ld Lng is -23.8 0/ 00 also greatly different from that of cave stalactites. PARMALEE, P. W., R. A. BIERI, & R. K. MOHRMAN. cave. Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 42, #1, p. Mammal remains from an Illinois 119. February 1961. A discussion of the new prehistoric ranges of Erethizon dorsatum, the porcupine, Spilogale cf. putorius, the spotted skunk, and Neotoma floridana il1inoensis, the wood rat amongst 6000 identifiable remains from this Monroe~y ~ 24 species of mammals are listed from this cave. SEARS, PAUL B., & ArNO ROOSMA. ican ~ of Science, vol. A climatic sequence from two Nevada caves. Amer259, p. 669-678. November 1961. Fishbone and Guano Caves, cut in granite by pluvial Lake Lahontan, provide a l5,OOO-year climatic record based on their archeology, paleobotany, paleozoolog~ radio-carbon content, and the evidence they preserve of fluctuations in lake level. Human occupation began when the lake lowered to expose the caves about 9000 B.C.; a forest cover existed in the present desert area until 7000 B.C.; and camels and horses survived until 3000 B.C. SEMKEN, HOLMES A., JR. Texas. ~~ Fossil vertebrates from of Science, vol. 13, p. Longhorn Cavern, Burnet County, 290-310. September 1961. Two faunas from distinct stratigraphic units are dated as Recent. The older fauna contains extinct horse, tortoise, and younger contains the European mouse. Late Wisconsin and camel species. The SMITH, N. M., J. A. SUNDERMAN, & W. N. MELHORN. Breccia and Pennsylvanian cave filling in Mississippian St. Louis limestone, Putnam County, Indiana. Journal ~ Sedimentary Petrology, vol. 31, #2, p. 275-287. June 1961. ------Pennsylvanian shales and sandstones were deposited during MississippianPennsylvanian karst erosion. Limestone conglomerates were probably developed at the same time. Breccia is attributed to a submarine rock slump in St. Louis time rather than cavern roof collapse. STEKELIS, M. Iraq-el-Baroud; ~ Council Bulletin, vol. grotte prehistorique au lOG, #1-4, p 302-320. Mont Carmel. July 1961. Iraq-e1-Baroud Cave on Mount Carmel contains cultural material from the Neolithic, Older Mesolithic, and Upper Paleolithic. 48

Analytical Reviews --
Proceedings: Secretary's note --
Annotated bibliography.
Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and
Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15)
were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In
1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete
sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells
hardbound copies of the material to support its