Cave Notes

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Cave Notes
Series Title:
Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology
Alternate Title:
Caves and karst: Research in speleology
Cave Research Associates
Cave Research Associates
Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation
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Subjects / Keywords:
Geology ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )


General Note:
Contents: Analytical reviews -- Annotated bibliography. Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15) were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In 1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells hardbound copies of the material to support its activities.
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Original Location:
Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation Collection
Original Version:
Vol. 6, no. 2 (1964)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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K26-00650 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.650 ( USFLDC Handle )
13721 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0008-8625 ( ISSN )

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CAVE NOTES A Review of Cave and Karst Resear Volume 6, No.2 Figure 1. Youthful calcite deposition in Old Mill Cave, Virginia. (Photograph by James Quinlan) ANALYTICAl REVIEWS HOLLAND, HEINRICH D., THEODORE V. KIRSIPU, J. STEPHEN HUEBNER, and URSULA M. OXBURGH. On some aspects of the chemical evolution of cave waters. Journal .Q.! Geology, vol. 72, no. I, P. 36~67. January 1964 (see also abstract on page 15, below). The chemistry of cave waters is not a subject for the uninformed. Perhaps for this reason, this vital area of investigation has not received much previous attention in contemporary American speleology. The present paper by Dr. Holland and his co-workers delves into this rather complex subject and presents interesting conclusions having direct application to cave inter9


CAVE NOTES CAVE NOTES CAVE NOTES is a publication of Cave Research Associates and the Cave Research Association. Subscriptions are available for $2.00 per year (six issues) or on exchange. Mid-year subscriptions receive the earlier numbers of the volume. Correspondence, contributions, and subscriptions should be addressed to: CAVE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES, 3842 Brookdale Blvd} Castro Valley, Calif. Editor; Arthur L. Lange} Cave Research Associates Associate Editor: Ronald A. Bz-andon Cave Research Association (Dept. of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois) Managing Editor: R. deSaussure, Cave Research Assoc La t e s @ Copyright 1964, Cave Research Associates. pr etaticn. Basically, the study arose from the investigation of the strontium/calcium relationships between cave waters and speleothems. Numerous analyses and studies, we r.e made' on samples from Indian Echo Cave, Dauphin Co., and Ca r pe nte r Cave, Northampton Cc , Pennsylvania, as well as from Luray Caverns" Page Co Virginia. As an example of the thoroughness of the report, 47 de tai led water analyses were made at Luray Caverns alone, and full attention was paid to high standards of contro l, The field techniques, problems, and equipment are described, and the reader is in effect invited, if able, -to reach a different set of conclusions. Some of the anomalies offer r ather amusing 'reading, such as those encountered in the "Dream Lake II samples, whose abnormally low values were finally resolved when it was found that the natural lake was being supplemented from the municipal water supply, a not infrequent practice at tourist caves. In the studies, the cave waters are divided, for convenience, into three phases: 1. Iriteraction~ between rain water and soil; 2. Interactions between the resulting waters and the carbonaceous rock; 3. Equilibria of these waters with the open air of the cavern. From a chemical viewpoint, the main contribution of the present work is perhaps an increased tentative value of 10 17 for the solubility product of dolomite. As a potential tool for cave research the distribution data for the calcite/aragonite equilibria and strontium inclu~ions offer the mos t promise. The emphasis upon carbon dioxide loss rather than water evaporation in the precipitation of speleothems should not be overlooked; similarly the s tr e s e upon the significance of the activity functions in dealing with the calcite equations. These are not new points, but they are as vital to the understanding of cave and calcite equilibria as is the function of carbon dioxide itself. If there is any omitted point that could be desired rn the results, it would be gas analyses at the points of collection; but, admittedly, these become extremely complex_and difficult and would of necessity have restricted the Scope of the study. In the study of the deposits, the degree of supersaturation of cave waters is concluded to be the most important mechanism in determining the miner10


VOLUME 6, NO. 2 alogy of the precipitate at Luray. The calcite/aragonite balance is appreciably shifted even under constant temperature conditions, and supersaturation appears to be more of a determinant of the chemical ratio than is temperature, in contrast to earlier hypotheses (MOORE, G. W. Aragonite speleothems as indicators of paleotemperature. American Journal Qf Science, vo.l 254, p 746-753, 1956). Examined from this viewpoint, the long known effect of strontium in stabilizing aragonite possibly might be viewed as an inclusion phenomenon rather than as an actual precipitation of aragonite below its temperature of thermodynamic stability. Clearly, the use of aragonite for determining paleotemperatures requires new evidence for its support. The mention of supersaturation deserves a mome nt'.e consideration in passing. Theoretically, one cannot have a supersaturated solution in equilibrium with its own solid. The key to this statement is the word equ ilibr ium'". If the rate of precipitation is slow, then such a solution is possible. The authors have not clarified this point, but either we are encountering a question of rate, or else the supersaturation may have been taken with respect to the pure mineral, so that the supersaturation is due to the effect of other ions in the solution. Dolomite is found not to precipitate unless exceptional conditions prevail, which explains the usual lack of this mineral in non-evaporational speleothems. In this respect, moon:rnilk-to use the popular term arising from mistranslation-is regarded as an evaporational residue, a view in accord with my own field data, and one which also se -ve s to explain why so many exotic minerals are found in this particular s pe Ieoth e m It simply represents whatever may have been in the cave waters regardless of their source. In the third phase of cave water reactions, it is pointed out that carbon dioxide may be released to the cave air as the controlling product of sp e Ieothem deposition, or that, conversely, under less frequent conditions, the solutions may absorb carbon dioxide. The dissolving caused by the former conditions may attack either the surrounding carbonaceous rock or the speleothems. In the second case, this is the phenomenon of re-solution, and in particular, local re-solution as di s tingui she d from general re-solution, in which the entire speleothem surface has been attacked by dissolving water. General r-e c eo lutionv Ie ada to compound speleofacts, the general cave structures which in this case consist of speleogens superimposed upon the surface of speleothems; for example, flutes dissolved into drapery. Local resolution I have previously interpreted as caused by thin fi.Im s of water trickling from above, a view that is still probably correct, but the mechanism of the solution is very possibly this absorption of carbon dioxide from the cave air by the percolating waters. Another surface commonly encountered in many caves is a scaly, flaking form which I have loosely termed "unde r g round weathering". In Europe, this condition is frequently attributed to frost spallation, notably around the cave entrances. In the United States, and particularly throughout the American Southwest, this explanation does not appear valid, especially when these, features are found at depth. Possible carbon dioxide absorption at moist cave walls where the water has been deposited by condensation may serve to explain this form. An example of underground weathering may be found in some inner chambers of Lehman Caves National Monument, in eastern Nevada. There is unquestionably a close relation between local re-solution and underground weathering, and the two forms are frequently in proximity in regions where general resolution is lacking. The gaur deposits noted over light cords in Indian Echo Cave stress the rapid deposition rate poa etble in caves under optimum conditions, and point 11


CAVE NOTES out the folly of attempting to assign anyone rate of deposition to cave forms. A consideration of the paper in general as it relates to the variables governing deposition also clearly indicates that no attempt should be made to ae s u rne constant conditions of deposition unless extremely clear evidence exists for the interpretation. This point has particular significance for archeological and paleontological deposits, and is reflected by the study of sample L-III-l from Lur-av, The same conclusion is further illustrated by the description of the calcite and aragonite rafts collected from the area of the "Oceent e Bathtub", An aragonite sample (LVI-Is) was collected from the surface of the water at a temperature of 15 DC. These rafts form by the crystallization of the mineral at the air/water interface and usually sink to the bottom of the pools or become attached to the sides over prolonged periods, becoming incorporated into the forrnation of 'tc rusted strands sometimes popularly termed 'Tlily pada", It may be accepted that these samples are currently ro r rmng, Elsewhere in the report, it is indicated that calcite and aragonite are Ic r rni ng simultaneously, not lonly in the same areas, but even in the same straw stalactites, facts that are in agreement with supersaturation control of mineralogical deposition. It would be interesting to see this work incorporated into the more general theoretical studies by the French at the Moulis subterranean laboratory for which I refer the reader to the series of articles by H. Roques (Annales \i¤ ~p'eleologi¤, vol. 16 through 18, 1961~1963); but even standing alone, the material of the authors' own work is well developed and documented. I think it may be safely stated that this paper makes a major contribution to cave research, both in opening new lines of interpretation, and in its questioning implications with respect to several former concepts. The future work from the sarn.e laboratory should be of considerable interest. R. deSaussure Cave Research Associates. MOORE, GEORGE W., and BRO. G. NICHOLAS. Caves. D. C. Heath. Boston, lZOp. (paperback). Speleology--the Study of 1964. This book is an introduction to the scientific aspects of speleology. It is not really a text, for it is too sketchy for a course; nor is it an adventure book or guide to the sport of caving. Cave origin and meteorology, speleothem deposition, microorganisms, cave life and evolution, and anthropology are treated in eight chapters. One page of bibliography is supplied, together with a list of tourist caves for the reader to visit. Very artful white-onblack drawings by Jack Schoenherr and neatly prepared diagrams enhance the book. All of this has been compressed into a l2Q-page package, apparently a limitation set by the publisher, to the serious detriment of the text. As a layman reading the biological chapters. I was bothered by the overcondensation of many fascinating topics. An.d as a colleague of Moore, I experienced a similar annoyance with the geological portions, but here I could perceive the trap into which the author had fallen. Specifically, in the 14 pages devoted to the complex subject of cave origin, there is not room for ideas conflicting with those of the author. There is room for Grund's water-table hypothesis and its later adaptation by Davis (who used only second-hand observations), but no space is allotted to the hydraulic analyses of O. Lehmann, the hydrological discoveries of Katzer, or the observations from a lifetime of first-hand experiences by Martel. These are but three 12


VOLUME 6, NO. 2 of the many workers who discerned in cave networks a th r-ee s di rrien ai.o n.a.I plumbing system of pipes, valves, siphons, lakes, waterfalls, and fountains involving all possible hydraulic ramifications, not merely a placid underground sea of s l ow l y moving water, like that below the water tab Le!", The near-surface theory of cave origin advocated by Swinnerton and Davies is utilized, while evidence of the deep-channel cavities documented by Moneymaker is omitted. Joints are claimed to be caused by earth tides. yet no mention of earthquake activity is made. Among the types of fractures, faults are said to be the least significant. The treatment of speleothems is more expanded and correspondingly more enlightening. Even exotic forms such as shields, cave bubbles and blisters, and cave rope are included. But in this chapter too the author tells the reader how speleothems form; he does not discuss them as topics of considerabieControversy, which they are. The chapter on meteorology is all too brief (9 pages). To me the most interesting chapter of the book is that on microorganisms. This is a rather new field of study and one that deserves more attention in the future. The authors do a good service in treating it. Except for a few unfortunate excursions into space travel and finding the cure for the comrno n cold in caves, the text is straightforwardly written. But why, with all the long-winded inane adventure books on caves appearing each year, must an earnest effort to present cave science be constrained to only 120 pages and a single school of thought? A. Lange Cave Research Associates * * * Erratum: Cave Notes, vo L, 6, no. 1, p 5: correct to read: "Dr. Ronald Read", with the e dito r!e apologies to Dr. Read and Mr. Aley. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY AUFFENBERG, WALTER. vol. 10, no. 3, p. The fossil snakes of Florida. 131-216. June 1963. In the review of Florida's fossil snake localities (Part III) discusses faunal and stratigraphic evidence for the recognition of sure and sinkhole deposits in the Ocala limestone. These sites vary Lower Miocene to Recent. Auffenberg cave, £1sin age from --R.O. BACK) WIlJ..IAM. Preliminary results of a study of calcium carbonate saturation of ground water in central F,lorida. International Assoc. Q:f ScieJ!.tJfic ijydrolQgy, Publ" vol. 8, no. 3, p. 43-51, September 1963. New chemical analyses made in the field eliminate former errors caused by the loss of carbon dioxide from ground-water samples before they could be ana13


CAVE NOTES lyzed in the laboratory. The new da ta show that ground-wa tel' is saturated with calcite between the piezometric crest in central discharge points of big springs. Deep, largely static water to ever, is sa tura ted or even supersa tura ted. generally unde rFlorida and the the south, how--G.W.M. BARNES, IVAN, and WILLIAM BACK. Dolomite solubility in ground water .!L.~. ~logical Survey, .pro.te¤lsional Ef,lper 475-0, p. DI79-D180. 1964. When a standard equilibrium constant is used, most ground water samples ap-. pea n to be supersaturated with dolomite. The authors hypothesize, however, that the samples that are exactly saturated with calcite might also be saturated with dolomite. If so, their field data suggest a new higher equilibrium constant of 2-3 X1017 --G.W.M. BOURGUIGNON, P. J and J. MGLON. Cristallisation et t an tes en g ro t te Societe Geolog!.ll.!,lg Belg..iqQ¤!, p B351-B358. August 1963,., corrosion de calcites flotAnnales, vo L, 86 J no. 6, Calcite cave rafts in Grottes de Han, Belgium, a r-e similar to s t ruc tur e s floating in the city water reservoir of Liege. Etch figures occurring on the crystals can be simulated by treatment with carbonic acid, suggesting that the cave crystals are alternately SUbjected to depoSition and corrosion. --G.W.M. BOURGUIGNON, P.} and J. MELON. Etude cristallographique d 'un p Lanche rstalagmi t.Lque friable de la grotte de Remouchamps. Societ¤' Geolog,:i,g~, J1!!.nales, vol. 86, no. 6, p. B345-B350. August 1963. A friable s ta l agm i t i o. floor covering is composed of dendritic grains, each of which is made up of calcite p La t es parallel to (l1~O) and stacked together apprOXimately parallel to the edge between (5052) and (5502). --G.W.M. CALKIN, P., and A. CAILLEUX. A quantitative study of cavernous weathering (taffonis) and its application to glacial chronology in Victoria Valley: Antarctica. '~~JtschrV~ fur Q.¤O!!1orpholggi¤, n F./ Bd 6 J H. 3/4, S. 317-324. 1962. Relative ages of mor-a Lne deposits are determined by measuring and comparing the d ept.h of hollowed-out cavities an erratic boulders of granite and gneiss. The same method is believed applicable to bedrock weathering. --A.L.L. CARSON I ROBERT J. February 1964. Tolley's Cave. Virginia Minerals, vol. 10, no. 1, p 1-6. Low, wide rooms developed first found its way into enlarged joints below a water table. Then a surface stream and cut high, narrow passages. --G.W.M. GUILDAY, JOHN E. The Pleistocene local fauna of the Natural Chimneys: Augusta County, Virginia. Carnegi¤' Muse~ Annals, vot 36, art. 9, p 87-122. 1962. The local fauna of the Natural Chimneys contains four extinct species and many animals liVing today d n the Canadian and Hudsonian life zones. In order to accomoda ta the boreal climate of 10 to 15 thousand years ago, the Canadian life zone Would have to be depressed at least 2,000 feet to reach the floor of the Shenendoah Valley. --R.G. 14


VOLUME 6, NO.2 HOLLAND, H. D., T. V. KIRSIPU, J. S, HUEBNER, and peets of the chemical evo Iut don of cave waters. no. 1, p 36-67. January 1964. The unchanging magnesium content of cave water during calcium carbonate deposition demonstrates that the deposition takes place by loss of carbon dioxide rather than by evaporation. Aragonite rather than calcite is formed where excessive supersaturation exists rather than because of the magnesium content of the water or other factors. The strontium content of calcium carbonate is dependent on the strontium content in the depositing water, but aragonite and ca jcite have different distribution coefficients such that the content in aragoni te is always nearly an order of magnitude higher than that of calcite, --G.W.M. U. M. OXBURGH, On some asJournal £! Geology! vct 72! KESSLER, HUBERT. Wasserversorgung in Karstgebieten. Deutsche Demokratische RepUblik) Geologische Gesellschaft, Berichta! Bd B, H. 3! S. 331-337. 1963. Until recently many mineral deposits in karst regions have been neglected by industry because of water problems. Long-term studies of flow! chemical content (replaced by conductivity study), temperature and bacterial counts resulted in a karst classification of six steps of water reliability, related to geologic setting. Reliability was found lowest in the regions of greatest karst development, but total flow found greatest in the most unreliable regions. Reliability correlated roughly with Ca/Mg ratio of spring water (higher Mg content in the more reliable sources). Reliability predictions in given years are found best made on the basis of precipitation distribution records rather than on total quantity data. In the Hungarian Mittelgebirge, many years of high precipitation were found to have the least reliable karst spring flow, because of uneven precipitation distribution. --N.H.B. PAPP, FERENC. mokra tische 345. 1963. Karst formen und Karsterscheinungen Republik, Geologische Gesellschaft, im g'udageb Lrge Deutsche ~Berichte, Bd 8, H. 3! S. 338Karst formation is related to tectonic history, thermal springs) precipitation) vegetation and wind. Structure of rock is most important: high pore volume yields little karst; low pore volume yields relatively greater karst. Tables relate various karst forms (positive and negative, surface and SUbsurface) to various calcareous s t r a -t a --N H. B. POWELL, RICHARD L. Alluviated cave springs of south-central Indiana. Indiana Academy Q1 Science! ~., vol. 72, p 182-189. 1962. Eight of the fifteen main karst springs of Indiana are of gravity flow. The remaining seven springs are alluviated cave springs ascending under hydrostatic head! and, in general! pre-date the pleistocene valley fill through which they rise. --R.D. ROBINSON! G. M.! and D. F. PETERSON. Notes on earth fissures in southern Arizona. Q ..¤.., Geological survey, Circular 466, 7p.! 1 Pl. 1962. Newly opened fissures in alluvium and basalt are described and illustrated. They are related to subsidence accompanying water-table Lower-ing due to irrigation. --A.L.L. 15


CiVE HOTES 3EMJTEBEI1.EHHE, TOM VI, J.13LlATEJlbCTBO MOCK,OBCK,OroYHHBEPCHTETA. EARTH ,@[.EARCH, new series, vo L, 6, 288p. Moscow University Press. 1963. Subti 't Led "Collected articles of the Moscow Society of Natura lis t s" Ibhi s volume contains the following karst articles in Russian, with Eng Ld s h summaries: N, A rB03J1EUf\HPf. GVOZDETSKY, N. A. p 192-194. M. B. JlOMOHOCOB H aonrocu KAPCTOBEAEHH~. M. V. Lomonosov and the problems of karst research, The karst conceRt of the interrelation between the leaching of carbonate rocks and cave deposits is said to have been pioneered by Lomonosov in 1763 and is a valid framework deserving to be developed today. 11. A, r B 0 3/1l:: U K H s HA CEBEPE 3APY6E)f(HO~ EBPOllbl. GVOZDETSKY, N. A. In the northern area of foreign Europe. p 222-255. The author's impressions of the geography of Scandinavia, with observations on northland ka r-s t 10, fl. KY3l1£1l0B. KAPCT YCTlOPTA. 'KUZNETSOV, JU. J. The Ustjurt Karst. p. 196-212, Eighteen karst areas are known in this region of Neogene limestone and gypsum. Karst features are best developed on structural flanks, Where subterranean waters moved fastest. The largest caves originated in the Pliocene. The area forms a specially designated "Province of Ustjurt Karst", JI. 11 MAf'YAWnl1.1711 u J. K. rJ1HTHJf0308. PE3YJlbTATbi HOBEHWI1X cnrJ1EO.nOrH l IECKHX HCCJ1E1l0BAHHPI B K,APCTOBOA nOJIOCE 3AnAllHOA rpY3HH (19,57-1960 rr.}, MAnUASHVILI I L. I. I and Z. K. TINTILOZOV. The results 01 the most speleological explorations in the ka r-s t belt of western Georgia. 221. recent p 213Summary of explorations in the Georgian karst from the Likh Range to the Psou River. Caves range from Lower Pliocene to Lower Quaternary a n age. Cave levels differ morphologically and depend on the tectonic history, Ice wells and caves in the area are also o r interest. M,M./!I.YKOB. ZHUKOV 1 M. M. Black Storms TEPMOKAPCTo HA sor-e YKPAHHbl H IIEPllblE 6YPH 1960 r. "The rmokar-st" in the southern part of the Ukraine if 1960. and the Drifted snow covered an extensive area in March 1960, and black s to ms in the following month buried the snow under a thick layer of chernozem sand. Thawing of the snow underneath the sand produced a relief similar to that of t.he rmoka r-s t of arctic regions, --A,t.t. Contributors: N.H.B., Neely Bostick; R.D., R. deSaussure; A.L.L., A. Lange; G.W.M., George W. Moore. H.G., R. Graham; 16

Contents: Analytical reviews --
Annotated bibliography.
Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and
Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15)
were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In
1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete
sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells
hardbound copies of the material to support its