Cave Research Foundation Annual Report

Cave Research Foundation Annual Report

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Cave Research Foundation 1977 Annual Report Cave Research Foundation 306 Sandia Road, NW Albuquerque, New Mexico 87107


The Cave Research Foundation (CRF) is a nonprofit corporation formed in 1957 under the law s of the Commonwealth of Kentucky Its purpose is to support scientific research related to c aves and karst, to aid in the conservat i on of cave and karst wilderness features, and to assist in the interpretat i on of caves through education Steve G Wells EDITOR Bethany J Wells ASSISTANT EDITOR Editorial Staff Doug Rhodes Cal Welbourn Linda Rhode s Karen Welbourn John McLean John Patterson Pat Matzner Cover : Stream passage carved in banded marble of Lilburn Cave, King's Canyon National Park California CRF researchers are conducting detailed hydrologic, geologic, and c artographic investigations in Lilburn Cave Photo by G E Hedlund. Cave Research Foundation 1978 Printed by ADOBE PRESS Albuquerque, New Mexico


Highlights of 1977 President's Report TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 5 6 Scientific Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Cartographic Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Central Kentucky Area . . . . . . . . . . 9 Guadalupe Escarpment Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 10 Big Room Survey, Carlsbad Caverns . . . . . . . . . ... 10 Geoscience Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 12 Radon and Carbon Divide Abundances in Lilburn Cave Air, King's Canyon National Park California . .... 13 Geochronology and Paleoclimatology of Speleothems from Mammoth Cave National Park . .13 Mineralogy of the Second Parallel Passage, Cottonwood Cave, Guadalupe Mts., New Me x ico .... 14 Niter and Soda n i ter in a Lava Tube Socorro County, New Mex ico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Mineralogy of Pink Caves, Guadalupe Mountains New Mexico . . . . . .. 15 Saltpeter Caves of the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 16 Geomorphology and Hydrology of the Edwards Plateau Karst, Te xas. . . . . . . . . . .19 Geology and Mineralogy of the Mariscal Mountain Caves Big Bend National Park Texas ...................... 21 Analysis of the Structural Control of Speleogenesis in Lilburn Cave, King's Canyon National Park, California ....... 22 Speleogenesis in the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico: Gypsum Replacement of Carbonates by Brine Mi x ing ..... 22 The Mineralogy of L i lburn Cave King's Canyon National Park, California .................. .23 Sedimentology and Stratigraphy of Clastic Deposits in Lilburn Cave, King's Canyon National Park California . . .24 Regional Geomagnetic Variations as a Dating and Correlative Tool in Cave Sedimentology : Preliminar y Res ults from Lilburn Cave, King's Canyon National Park, California . . ........................ 24 Hydrology Program Fluvial Geomorphi c Responses to Groundwater Hydrology in Low Relief Karst . ....... ....... ......... 28 Groundwater Hydrology of Evaporite Aquifers in Semi arid Karst Southeastern New Me x ico . . . . ... 29 Ecology Program Fossil Packrat Middens from the Caves of the Horseshoe Mesa Area, Grand Canyon, Arizona Studies of the Cave Crayfish, Orcc;mectes inermis inermis Cope (Decapoda, Cambaridae) Part I: Growth .... 31 .31 ..33 ..33 Ecology and Evolution of Carabid Cave Beetles . . . . . . . . ..................... Ecological Genetics of Cave and Spring Isopods . ......... ..... .... . ..... . . A Tale of Two Spiders . . . . . . ....... . ... 34 Survey of the Cave Fauna of Buffalo National River, Arkansas ...... . .... 37 Survey of the Cave Fauna of the Guadalupe Escarpment Region New Mexico . .... 38 Archeology and Anthropology Program .................................................... . .... 39 ..40 Cave Research Foundation Arc heological Proje c t and Shellmound Archeological Project, 1977 History Program .................................. . .46 Historical and Cultural Aspects of Floyd Collins . ........... . . ............ .47 Saltpeter Mining Sites in Historic Mammoth Cave ........ .......... ........ . .......... .47 Evaluation of the Hauer Collection, National Park Servi c e ...... . . .... ......... 49 The History of the Peoples and Caves of Flint Ridge, Kentucky .... . ... ... ....... . .. 49 Interpretive Program and Special Projects Horseshoe Mesa, Grand Canyon National Park : Progress Report. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 Survey and Assessment of Cave Resources at Buffalo National River Arkansas . . . . . .. 52 The Lilburn Cave Project, King's Canyon National Park, California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Publications and Management ....................................... . .55 Books. . . . . . ...... ... . .... . .......... ... .... 56 Theses ........ .56 Articles . . . . . .......... .. ........... 56 Papers Given at Professional Meetings ............... ... ... .......... ..... ............... ..57 Professional Interpretive and Advisory Presentations . . . . ...... Special Publications . . . . . . . . ............. ... .. ......... . . . . 1977 Fellowship and Grants Awarded Management Structure Directors . Officers and Management Personnel .... . .............. Operating Committees . Field Operations Contributors to This Report 3 .58 59 ..... 60 .... ... .... .... 61 .61 .. 6 1 .62 . 63 .............. 64


CAVE RESEARCH FOUNDATION DIRECTORS Rondal R. Bridgemon Secretary Steve G. Wells Chief Scientist R. Pete Lindsley New Project Operations Manager Roger W. Brucker Acknowledgements January, 1978 W. Calvin Welbourn President Roger E. McClure Treasurer Charles F. Hildebolt Central Kentucky Area Operations Manager Elbert F. Bassham Guadalupe Escarpment Area Operations Manager Patty Jo Watson Many of the projects outlined in this report have been conducted within the National Park System The support and encouragement of the Superintendents and staffs at Mammoth Cave National Park, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Guadalupe Mountains National Park, King's Canyon National Park, Buffalo National River, Big Bend National Park, and Grand Canyon National Park have contributed greatly to the success of these projects, and their assistance is gratefully appreciated Dr. Thomas L. Poulson's biological research was supported in part by The National Science Foundation Dr Steve G. Wells' hydrologic research was supported in part by an RAC Grant, University of New Mexico. Field assistance from the Bureau of Land Management, Roswell District, personnel is acknowledged. Dr Patty Jo Watson's archeological research was supported in part by the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Washington University Faculty Research Grant. 4


Highlights of 19n This past year was highlighted by the initiation of three new short-term projects at Buffalo National River, Big Bend National Park, and Grand Canyon National Park These projects will provide the National Park Service with baseline data for the management of their cave resources Exploration in Flint Ridge lead to major breakthroughs in 1977. More than 3000 feet of upperlevel passage were found above Grund River Trail Waterfall Work in the Ralph's River Trail Ruth's Room area, revealed cave everywhere including a new base level stream, Blind Fish River, which terminates under Great Onyx Cave No connection yet. Work in Carlsbad Caverns National Park concentrated on a detailed survey of the Big Room of Carlsbad Caverns There were a significant number of scientific and interpretive publications during 1977. A complete list can be found later in the report including a book, two theses 36 scientific articles 5 papers at professional meetings, 5 special publications and more than 30 professional and interpretive talks during 1977. Several briefing and training sessions by CRF personnel were c onducted at Mammoth Cave National Park and Carlsbad Caverns National Park for staff and visitors 5 Ten proposals were submitted for CR F Fellowship support from a c ross the United States and Canada. One Fellowship and two grants were awarded: Fellowship "Geomorphology and Hydrology of the Edwards Plateau Karst Central T e xas". Ernst H Kastning, University of Texas. Grants Ecological Genetics of Cave and Spring Populations of I s opods from Western Kentucky Southern Illinois and Indiana." Edward Lisowski, University of Illinois "Fossil Packrat Deposits in the Horseshoe Mesa of the Grand Canyon, Arizona." Kenneth Cole University of Arizona An additional grant was awarded to Duane DePaepe for his res ear c h on the "Economic Geography of Mammoth Cave Nati o nal Park Regional Saltpetre Industry" R e sear c h proje cts at Lilburn Cave, Kings Canyon National Park are off to a good start with several reports included in this report


President's Report In 1977 the Master Plan for Mammoth Cave National Park was s igned by the Southeast R egion D i r ec t o r of the National Par k Service Th e plan is evolutionary and farsighted. When the plan was fir s t published, a CRF study team examined and analyzed it. Reserv a tion s about so me of the water and sewage utilitie s were discussed with National P ark Service officials in Atlanta A s a result, the Park s ign e d a con tr ac t w ith an ou tside water company to s upply potab l e water a nd has joined t he r eg ional 201 sewage faci l ities s tudy required by th e EPA. Th e Master Plan promises an ext ensio n of the Park Service's protection of the cave sys tem far int o the f utu re. Cave Research F oun dati on will continue to press for prompt r emova l of the Great Onyx Job Corp s Camp from Flint Ridge. Termed a dangerous intr usion" by the Master Plan, the cam p con tinues to be a sou rce of sewage pollution of the caves, an d it a lso i s a base f rom which Job Corps members con duct repeated ac t s o f th eft and vandalism against CR F facilities and personnel and r epea t ed break-ins to th e cave. A variety o f inh ouse st udies a r e in progress or nearing compl e tion While these a r e described in detail elsewhere, special note s h o uld be made of two o f these CRF formed a unique partnership with the National Park Service in undertaking an assessment of the karst resources of the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. In addit i on to c arrying on descriptive studies in the fie ld, CR F workers have attempted to encourage local cavers to 6 parti ci pate and develop a base of stewardship toward the cave resources The descr i ptive study has proceeded on schedule but th e latter objectives have proven more difficult to achieve Our approach may be wrong, or perhaps local cavers have other fish to fry Th e second project is the completion of the long-awaited Ogle Cave Symposium scheduled for early publication in the NSS Bulletin. This multi-di sci plinary study will be accompanied by a l arge map. It represents a perseverence and determination by the i nvestigators to make sure that the fruit s of research are reported, d espite obstacles. The Foundation 's Endowment Fund stands at $4300 A decision has been reached by the Fund 's trustees to reinvest the interest until the Fund reac hes a total sufficient to support the CRF Annua l Fellowship. Donations are welcome! W Cal vin Welbourn became the sixth President of CRF on No vem b e r 12 at the Foundation's Annual Meeting in St. Louis Cal succee ds Roger Brucker, who remains a Director of the Foundation Rog er E McClure was elected a Director and Tr easu r e r o f the Foundation Dr. Patty Jo Watson was elected a Dir ector o f the F ounda tion D e nnis Drum has retired as Treasurer and has joined Stanley D Sides, M D ., in retiring as a D i rector. We are grate ful for past suppor t and are confident that the new office r s and director s will continue to cha llenge the Foundation to promote innovative and risky r esea rch R oger W Bru cke r Past Pres ident


SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMS Figure 1. View towards the mouth of Slaughter Canyon, Carlsbad Caverns National Park Photo by W C Welbourn 7


Cartographic Program THE BIG ROOM SURVEY CARLSBAD CAVERNS SHOWING CONTROL POINTS AND THEODOLITE DISTANCE METER LINE FOR RADIAL SURVEY o II I' Figure 2. Control network for detailed survey of Big Room, Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico 8


Central Kentucky Areas Patricia P. Wilcox. Richard Zopf and Roger W. Brucker The Flint Mammoth Cave System, as of November 1, 1977, was 306.95 km long (190.77 miles). Of this total, the Mammoth Cave part of th e system was 150.76 km (93.70 mil and the Flint Ridge part of the system was 156.19 km (97.07 mi) On August 7, 1977, the Flint Mammoth Cave System passed the one million foot mark (304,800 m). During the 61 month period between September, 1972-when the two cave systems were linked-and November, 1977,74 .61 km (46.37 mi) of additional passageways have been surveyed The average rate of survey additions to the cave length has been 1.22 km/month (0.76 mi/mo). The overall rate of surveying is slowing down as new discoveries are found farther away from entran ces. Exploration and Survey in Flint Ridge E xp loration e fforts in 1977 yielded major breath roughs in Flint Ridge The Grund Trail Waterfall climb led to 914 m (3000 ft) of highlevel passage. Some leads remain to be explored. Systematic resurvey of the Ralph's River Trail-Ruth 's Room complex turned up new cave everywhere-2.4 km (1. 5 mil of it thi s year A new base level stream (Kulesza Creek) accounts for a mile of this It terminates directly below Stairway Crawl in Great Ony x Cave To the frustration of the explorers, no connection between the two caves has been found The newest discovery as of mid -Nove mber, 1977, has not been examined fully It appears to be a major trunk passage above Pohl Avenue perhaps on the Turner Avenue level, that leads about 90 m (300 ft) to a vertical shaft. Beyond the shaft the passage appears to head west for a long distan ce A significant segment of river passage was also disco vered in the lower levels of Salts Cave. Exploration and Survey in Mammoth Cave Surveys in Mammoth Cave encompassed the expanding network of passages above Cathedral Domes. New connections were found between Cathedral Domes and Edna's Dome, and Pilgrim Avenue Other significant surveys continued earlier surveys in Miller Avenue and Carlos' Way. Many other areas were s ur veyed as well in diverse locations A major passagewa y was discovered off Big Avenue in New Discovery. It has not yet been s urveyed. E xp loration and Survey in Great Ony x Cave A project begun and c ontinued through the year is an accurate pedestal survey of Edwards Avenue and Cox Avenue. That survey was c ompleted at the end of the year There are hundreds of feet of unmapped branches and cutarounds, a descriptive survey of junctions and passage terminations, and a connec tion with the Flint Ridge Cave System remaining to be undertaken. World Standards for Measuring Cave Length Length measurement standards used during the 7th Interna tional Speleological Congress call for total traverse length. This method in effect adds the altitude of vertical pitches and slope distance of non horizontal passages to the length of horizontal p assages to calculate grand total length. Lengths reported by the Cave Researc h Foundation are correc ted horizontal lengths, which are a by-product of survey data reduct ion for cartog raphic purposes. Thus the altitude of vertical shafts and slope distances have not been figured in, so the Flint Mammoth Cave System length is understated by world standards. 9 How much might vertical shaft altitudes add? A rough guess would b e 6000 m (20,000 ft). Since the passages are largely hOrizontal or of gentle slope, the addition of slope distances would co ntribute little to the total Cartography in 1977 The Beaver creek, Ohio draft ing facility is fully operational. Cartographers meet each Wednesday evening and have made a beginning on drafting a full set of field maps for the Flint Mammoth Cave System Field maps were drawn of the Carlos' Way area in Mammoth Cave, and Ralph's River area in Flint Ridge Field maps are compilations of individual survey plots covering a large area of the cave. Unlike computer plots, they contain cross-sections and feature detail notes, and topography superimposed. All of the field survey notebooks (nearly 1300) and their log sheets were copied in microfiche form Several sets of the survey data were distributed to mappers in Boston Pennsylvania, Kentucky and Ohio. Three microfiche readers were acquired Two weekend data processing parties brought computer files up to date for Carlos Way, Ralph's River Trail, and Cathedral Domes. Three new keypunch operators were trained William Mann and John Robinson have converted the cave data processing and plotting programs to Fortran and have increased the utility and power of the system The program now prints loop closures and schematic diagram information, w ill accept a foresight and backsight for each shot will cross reference surveys by book number, and will perform several other tasks. Future Program A program is under development to plot schematic diagrams of survey n e tworks on the Calcomp plotter A second plotter may be used to prepare maps during 1978. Also during 1978, it is exp e cte d that the computer files will be brought up to date by eliminating an 18 month backlog When the computer file is completed, a new base map will be plotted. This will serve as the base for a projected poster map of the Flint Mammoth Cave System being planned by Walter Lipton and Roger Brucker Preliminary sketches show cave passages glowing in color on five l evels, against a black background. The Proctor Cave manuscript map is nearing completion All surveys are plotted, and an issue i s planned for 1978. Pat Wil cox has resigned as Cartographer, although she will co ntinue to work on as many cartography projects as before. Richard Zopf has been appointed Cartographer with responsibility t o coordinate the effort. Cave Mammoth Flint Ridge Proctor Great Onyx TABLE 1. 19n summary of cave surveys for the Central Kentucky Karst New Survey m ft 5830.8 5098. 1 117. 7 135. 3 19,130 0 16,726.2 386.2 443. 8 Resurvey Total Length m f( km mi 961.2 3185. 8 1878.5 3,153.4 150. 76 93.7010,452 1 156.19 97.07 10.23 6 .36 6,163 0 4.47 2 .78 Total survey, October 31, 1976 through November 1, 1977, 17,207 m (56,454 7 ft) or 17.207 km (10692 mil .17 m (2356.2 ft) of th e Mammoth Cave total duplicates passageways shown on the Kaemper and Nelson maps


Guadalupe Escarpment Area W Calvin Welbourn Most of the field work in 1977 was concentrated in Carlsbad Caverns with the goal of completing survey for the 1 = 200' scale map of the Caverns. Additional survey was done in eight other caves in Carlsbad Caverns National Park. Survey was completed in six of these caves, with additional survey needed in the other two. Survey totals are listed below. Work contin ued in Three Fingers Cave (Lincoln National Forest) and Wind Cave (Bureau of Land Management) In the gypsum karst (Bureau of Land Management! southeast of Whites City one cave was surveyed and several were located Maps finished this year include Musk Ox Cave, Recluse Cave, F ence Cave, and Corkscrew Cave. Several maps are in the final stages of preparation including Jurnigan #1, Jurnigan #2, Doc Brito, and Wind Cave. The 1" = 200' scale map of Carlsbad Caverns has progressed very well with the addition of Left Hand Tunnel, Bat Cave, New Section and most of the Big Room Plans ar e to have L owe r Cave, Scenic Rooms and Main Corridor ready to add to the map soo n Survey in Edgewood Caverns (Santa Fe County, New Mexico) reached the 3.04 mile (16,076 feet) mark with no end in sight. Plans for 1978 include publishing a 1" = 200' scale map of Carlsbad Caverns, finishing and field checking several of the backcountry caves, continuing ridge walking in the backcountry, and th e comp let e cataloging and indexing of all survey data. TABLE 2 1977 Survey totals for the Guadalupe Escarpment. Carlsbad Caverns National Park Carlsbad Caverns Left Hand Tunnel Lower Cave Big Room Bat Cave Spider Cave Musk Ox Cave Goat Bell Cave 740.6 feet 2,111. 1 57,783.36 796.6 141.1 74.2 52.9 Light at the end of the Tunnel-Goat Trap Cave Recluse Cave 249.5 351.5 303.4 Fence Cave Deep Cave Scout Cave Surface Survey Carlsbad Caverns New Mexico, Eddy Co. 3,171.0 1,042.0 Total 66,817.26 feet 20,645.0 Bureau of Land Management Wind Cave 842.8 518.5 74.0 Do c Brito Cave (Surface) Squirrely Curley Cave Lincoln National Forest Three Fingers Cave New Mexico, Santa Fe Co. Edgewood Caverns Total 1,453 3 647.1 Brunton 1,324 0 Plane table and sketch 3,461. 0 Total 4,785 0 The Big Room Survey, Carlsbad Caverns Elbert Bassham The Big Room of Carlsbad Caverns was surveyed many years ago by NGS using a transit and tape for control and a plane table survey for wall detail, features and topography. About 11 years ago, Tom Rohrer extended a contro l network into the Big Room using a theodolite and very careful chaining. At a later date he c hecked and ext ended this network using a theodolite and an electronic distance meter. A resurvey of the Big Room began in March, 1977 using methods and equipment different from the usual cave survey. Utilizing Rohr er's contro l net. approximately 90% of the Big Room was surveyed from only four instrument points (Fig 2). 10 These points were occupied b y a theodolite-distance meter combination. The theodolite was used to measure a horizontal angle to the right from a line with a known azimuth and to measure a vertical angle. The theodolite has a resolution of three seconds of arc The electronic distance meter was used to measure the slope distance The distance meter has a resolution of one part in 100,000. The precision of this theodolite distance meter combination is perhaps an overkill since the location of cave walls is admittedly open to personal interpretation The capability to measure across pits pools and other perilous places quickly and precisely was the


deciding factor The method used was as follows : first, a centrally located, high point was selected for maximum visibility This point was then tied to Rohrer's control net by angles and distances. This point was then occupied by the theodolite-distance meter. An instrument-man and noteman worked at this point A targetman and sketch man traveled around the walls and trail placing the reflector target at strategically located points, usually projections or indentations of the walls and bends of the trail. These points were selected close enough to give good control for the sketch. This method also allowed great volumes of cave to be surveyed with speed and ease. On the next expedition the accuracy of the survey was visually verified in the cave and noted discrepancies were removed. This portion was then ready to be added to the final map. The survey work to date has been done on six expeditions, spaced about a month apart These expeditions have all been weekend trips where the cave was entered after the last commercial tour on Saturday night and work continued until just before the first tour Sunday morning, or exhaustion, whichever came first. Volunteer help from NPS employees has been encouraged and welcomed. The resulting experience has been fruitful in improving the CRF-NPS relationships at Carlsbad Caverns National Park 11 TABLE 3 Expedition dates and survey lengths for the Big Room in Carlsbad Caverns Date CRF NPS Survey Length (feet) 19-20 March 2 3 8335.38 2 3 April 4 1 2776.38 18-19June 7 3 6302.55 23-24 July 4 6 18,433 .55 20-21 August 9 2 12,199.45 24-25 September 10 3 9736.05 One more big overnight push with a theodolite-distance meter crew and two Brunton crews should carry the survey to the Lunch Room, thus completing the Big Room Survey


Geoscience Program Figure 3 The Great Bend (140 ) in trunk passage of Smith Grove Cave Kentucky. Cave is approximately 30 m below Sinkhole Plain s urface in th e Central Kentucky Karst. Photo by S. G Wells. 12


Radon and Carbon Dioxide Abundances in Lilburn Cave Air, King's Canyon National Park, California David J. DesMarais and Stanley R. Ulfeldt Lilburn Cave has developed in banded marble in Redwood Canyon, Kings_ Canyon National Park, California. The cave's approximately eight miles of surveyed length include lower active stream conduits and upper-level, maze-type passages. The cave temperature is typically 7C; its relative humidity is 100 percent and air circulation is generally low The radon daughter and the carbon dioxide (C02) conce ntra tions in the cave air were monitored extensively during the spring and summer of 1977. A spatially complex pattern of radon working level (W L.) values ranged from 1 2 (near an entrance) to 4 2 (a small, confined room); the average W L was 3 .2. The C02 concentrations were comparatively constant, ranging from 0.17 percent (near an entrance) to 0 .30 (in an active domepit) ; a typical concentration was 0.21 percent. Measurements of radon daughters and C02 were designed to evaluate potential sources of these gases, namely groundwater, cave sediments, forest soil and bedro ck A graphical plot of W. L versus cave passage elevation does not reveal consisten tly higher W L. values closer to the bottom level stream, suggesting that the stream's radon contribution to the entire cave is of secondary importance. Nonetheless, the W L values were consistently high in the room where the cave stream first enters the cave Th e cave sediment radon contributio n was assessed by sampling a 160 liter air pocket enclosed in a sediment pit covered with a plastic sheet. The W L. values of the air pocket at the time it was covered, one day later, and eleven days later were 2.75, 1 .16 and 0 respectively These data, together with similar results from another air pocket suggest that the cave sediments are not a sign ifi cant source of radon The radon contribution from forest soils and other biologically active deposits was assessed by comparing W L. to C02 concentrations both in the cave and in a covered pit dug in the forest soil. Carbon isotope values of the cave air C02 are very constant throughout Lilburn and are identical to the isotope value of the forest soil C02. These observations suggest that the cave C02 derives from biological activity in the forest soil. The W .L. values do not correlate with C02 levels in the cave, except near cave entrances (Fig 4). The C02 concentration in the soil pit air 0.4 'soil 0 3 0.1 6 __ near entrances April forest 6 May t!!l July o 1 234 5 RADON WORKING LEVEL Figure 4 Plot of radon W. L. versus percent C02 in Lilburn Cave air. No significant relation between these two parameters is evident, except in the vicinity of cave entrances. was very high (0.79 percent), whereas the W L value was below 0 .05. These data suggest that biological activity in the forest soil does not promote a measurable radon gas release Certain areas in the cave with high ratios of bedrock surface area to passage volume, such as maze and breakdown areas, tend to contain higher radon daughter levels This observation suggests that rock surfaces are a significant source of radon gas in Lilburn Cave. Unfortunately difficulties in quantifying this observation, together with numerous unexplainable variations in W. L in the cave as a function of time, indicate that considerable future work on the origin of the cave's radon is warranted The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Luther Perry, Howard Hurtt and others in this investigation. Geochronology and Paleoclimatology of Speleothems from Mammoth Cave National Park Russell S. Harmon During 1977 work on the geochronology and paleoclimatology of speleothems from Mammoth Cave National Park was mostly limited to the preparation of the 1974-1976 work for publication 13 A new program directed toward understanding the detailed c hronology of the Flint-Mammoth Cave System was initiated in April and will continue over the next two years


Mineralogy of the Second Parallel Passage, Cottonwood Cave, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico Carol A. Hill The Second Parallel Passage of Cottonwood Cave has an exce ptional display of cave minerals, among the most unique in the world: Sulfur Bright canary -ye llow, native sulfur (S) occurs along the left wall below the Sand Pile and also on the ceiling near the Chandelier Room. Th e Sand Pile sulfur is crysta lline (1-2mm) and occ ur s in pockets within a massive gypsum block The sulfur may b e primary, thus deposited along with the massive gypsum under l ocally r e du c ing conditions, or the sulfur may be secondary and derived from the gypsum by sulfur bacteria activity (Davis, 1973). Sulfates Gypsum Stalactites The largest gypsum (CaS04' 2H20) stalac tites in the Sec ond Parallel Passage are known collectively as the "Chandelier When f i rst discovered, the Chandelier was 4-5m long and extended almost to the passage floor; the Chandelier is now 2 3m long (the lower extremities have been vandalized: Jerry Trout, personal communication)". Gypsum Stalagmites The Chandelier stalactites have their co unterpart sta lagmites, but these have been almost covered by dirt kicked from the nearby path. Other, smaller, porous, warty l ooking gypsum stalagmites occur along the path beyond the Cha ndelier. Gypsum Crust The gypsum crust in the Second Parallel Passage i s massive g r anu lar rather than tabular or fibrous (Hill, 1976). The c rust occurs e ither as "blisters" on cave walls or as thin coatings ove r carbonate speleothems. Some of the thin coa ting have been d e posited within the past year (Jerry Trout personal communi cation). The gypsum coatings are transparent when first deposited, but then turn an opaque white. A few of the thin gypsum crusts are peeling off the sides of the carbonate spel eo thems Gvpsum Needles The gypsum needles are unusual i n that they form on cave wal/s as well as in floor soils. Floor needles are small ( a few c m), but long, thin needles (up to 1 m in length) used to occu r in these same floor soils (these long needles delicately s w a y e d as a person walked by). Gypsum needles reach 0 3m in l ength and 1 c m wide at the base in high, protected nooks and pockets. Whe n the cave passage was discovered in the early 1960' s wall needles grew up to 1.8m long. Free hanging they would b end toward the floor; upon touching the floor, they would carve a zig-zag path in the soil. Both the floor and wall needles have r egrow n since entry to the Second Parallel Passage has been restri c ted by the Forest Service. Gypsum Rop e A gypsum rope (3-4m long and 2.5cm in diameter) used to s pir a l down from a ledge and reach almost to the cave floo r There has been no regrowth ot this vandalized gypsum rope. Gypsum Flowers When the Second Parallel Passage was first discovered, gy psum flowe r s were found growing only on the right wall o f the passage and gypsum needles were found only on the l e ft wall (going into th e cave). Almost all of these o ncepresent flowers have been van dalized and no new growth has occurred A f e w exquisite flowers (10cm long) remain in a s mall r oorn beneath floor breakdown. Mas s ive Gyp su m Massive gypsum blocks, sim ilar to those in Carl s bad Caverns and many other caves in the Guadalupe M o unt ains (Hill, 1973), oc c ur in dry non dripping areas, mainly in an alcove off the Rattlesnake Room The texture of these blocks is massive granular, but in places it is locally fibrous The profuse display of s ulfate speleothems in the Second Parallel Passage may der ive from dissolved massive blocks that once existed in overlying cave passages. Epsomire Stalactites Epsomite (MgS04' 6H20) conical stalac tites and soda-straw stalactites, up to 2 Y2 m and 10cm long, respe ctively, occur in the Epsomite Room. Epsomite Stalagmites Epsomite stalagmites up to 3 Y2 m high have formed below the epsomite stalactites. The epsomite is transparent at first but becomes opaque after depositing solution s cease flowing. Epsomite Helicite An epsomite helicite 1 Y2 cm long and 0.5cm in diameter spirals horizontally outward from the side of an epsomite soda straw. This is the first reported observation of speleothem (Hill, 1976). Epsomite Flowers Epsomite flowers occur in the gypsum needle area; some of these flowers have grown approximately 10cm since July, 1975 (Jerry Trout, personal communication). Epsomire Cotton Epsomite cotton and "angel hair" fill many cave wall recesses in the winter months when humidity is low. By late spring, the higher cave humidity dissolves these delinquent speleothems. Only a few cottony mounds could be seen at the very back of wall r ecesses in May. Ground temperature in the Epsomite Room in late May was 12. 2C and relative humidity was 80%. Carbonates Typical carbonate speleothems such as stalactites, stalagmites, helictites, draperies, flowstone and rimstone shelves decorate the Lake Room and Rimstone Room of the Second Parallel Passage. The Rimstone Room is located directly underneath the entrance of the cave and descending rainwater is responsible for its actively speleothems. Shelf stone Unusual composite stalactite-shelfstone speleothems known as "coke tables" or "candlesticks" are present in the Lake Room. Solutions flowing down the sides of a stalactite form as shelfstone upon reaching a pool surface; solutions issuing from the stalactite's central tube create bulbous subaqueous shapes beneath the shelfstone. One unique "coke table" named the "wine table" used to have a candle-shaped stalagmite in its center, but the "candle" has been vandalized. Subaqueous Coral/oids A most unusual type of subaqueous coralloid resembling" Spanish moss" occurs near the Rattlesnake Room The moss-like speleothems are milk chocolate brown, porous, and very fragile-looking. Natural cross-sections reveal an inner stalactite core overlain by a porous subaqueous "war club" covering. The "Spanish moss" coralloids drape over the "war clubs" and were possibly formed from solutions oozing through the porous "war clubs." Small gypsum flowers and "angel hair" cover the "Spanish moss" in a few places. This is the first reported occurrence of this variety of subaqeous coralloid (Hill, 1976). 14 Jerry Trout, cave resource specialist for the Forest Service, was on the discovery trip into the Second Parallel Passage; all descriptions of speleothems, pre-vandalism, are referenced to Jerry Trout, personal communication


REFERENCES Dav i s D G. (1973). "Sulfur in Cottonwood Cave Nat/. Speleo/. Soc. Bull. 35(31:89-95. Hill, C A. (1973). "Mineralogy of Carlsbad Caverns and caves of th e Guadalupe Mountains." Cave Res. Found. Annual R ep. 115: 29-30 Hill C A. (1976). Cav e Minerals Natl. Speleol. Soc Huntsville, AL, 137 p Niter and Soda-Niter in a Lava Tube, Socorro County, New Mexico Carol A. Hill The Socorro County lava tube caves are l ocated approximately 60 km south of Socorro, New Mexico These tunnel caves are developed in Quaternary basalt flows and extend 2.4 km southward from a volcanic crater. The caves, once part of a single tube, have since collapsed into about six separate sections. Each segment has a roof thickness of 6-9 m. Bat guano occurs on the floor of all the caves. One cave, Main Bat Cave, presently has a large colony of bat inhabitants and was actively mined for guano between the years 1899-1902 Temperature and relative humidity in Main Bat Cave in May were 15.5 C and 43% Both niter (KN03) and soda-niter (NaN03) occur in Main Bat Cave; these minerals are either regrowths or remnants of abundant nitrates that once existed in the cave. J.R. DeMier of Las Cruces, New Mexico, reportedly told Mansfield and Boardman (1932): "I mined in one place about 125 tons of potassium nitrate that I blasted out. It looked like thick rock salt; was so pure it melted in the rocks and looked like thick syrup Niter The niter occurs as a wall crust near the floor of Main Bat Cave (along the right wall). The crust extends up to a line marking a former bat guano level. A small amount of niter also fills vesicles in the basalt just above the niter crust. The niter is massive granular, transparent and colorless to light brown (tinted by impurities from the bat guano); taste is saline and cool crystal size a v erages approximately 1 5 mm. Crystal faces are not well dev e loped due to partial disso l vement, and some of the crystals have embayed edges The niter was identified by X -ray diffraction and contains no nitrocalcite, nitromagnesite or ammonia-niter. Soda -Niter The soda-niter in Main Bat Cave along the right wall, 6 m from the cave entrance The soda-niter forms as a crystalline wall crust (0. 6-2 m off the floor) and also as two small st.alactites 1 cm and 3 cm long One small (1-2 cm) nubin-shaped stalagmite occurs directly beneath the largest stalactite. Soda-niter crust is dev eloped along small cracks in the basalt. The taste of the soda-niter is bitter, pungent and cooling; crystals (2-3 mm long) are massive granular transparent, and colorless Some of the soda niter crystals are embayed while others have "melted" together to form clumps or aggregates of crystals A few crystals show rhombohedral cleavage faces. Some concoidal fracturing was observed. No lines other than those for soda-niter were found in the X-ray pattern. REFERENCES Mansfield, G. R., and Boardman, L. (1932). "Nitrate deposits of the United States U.S Geo/. Surv Bull 838 : 107 p Mineralogy of the Pink Caves, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico Carol A. Hill The "Pink Caves" are so named for the color of their speleothems. The pink color is derived from overlying limestones wh i ch are locally pink Th e four largest pink caves are Pink Dragon, Pink Panther, Pink Palette and Damn Cave Pink Panther Cave Pink Panther Cave has an abundance of typical carbonate speleothems (stalactites, stalagmites, popcorn, draperies, flowstone and rimstone). A number of multi-tiered bell canopies also occur in the cave. In one place some cr inkl y moon milk flowstone was found overlying a crystalline calcite column Damn Cave The main mineralogic attraction of Damn Cave is a series of approximately 15-40 cm high rimstone dams These dams are sometimes comp l etely dry or filled to overflowing, depending on surface precipitation Pink Palette Cave Pink Palette Cave contains only small, desiccated speleothems. In the back chamber, past the crawl to the left, the upper hemisphere of an approximately 1 m diameter shield (palette) occurs on the cave ceiling. Pink Dragon In the terminal room of Pink Dragon Cave is an 15 impressive display of vertical shields Four of the vertical shields (80-85 from horizontal) are aligned approximately parallel to the passage direction (along a major joint trend) and one shield is oriented perpendicular to the direction of the other four shields (minor joint trend) These shields are spectacular in that they appear to "hang in thin air." Other impressive speleothems in Pink Dragon Cave are the "fried egg" stalagmites and the "moonmilk rivers," chalk-white strips of moon milk overlying crystalline calcite. One "fried egg" has an approximately 5 cm diameter yellow "yolk" surrounded by white crysta llin e calcite. Three separate geologic events are indicated by the speleothems in the terminal room of Pink Dragon Cave : 1) subaerial period the majority of carbonate speleothem growth occurred at this t i me, 2) subaqueous period underwater popcorn coated the c arbonate speleothems (a water line indicates the depth of this submergence), and 3) subaerial period most recently, subaqueous coatings have peeled awa y from the carbonate speleothems and have dropp e d to the floor In some loc ations subaerial dripstone and flowstone have covered the subaqueous growth.


Saltpetre Caves of the United States Carol A. Hill, Duane DePaepe, P. Gary Eller and Peter M. Hauer Saltpetre caves are not located uniformly throughout the United States but exist only in the Southwest. The extent of known saltpetre caves is roughly south of the Mason Dixon line, north of the four southernmost Dixie states (Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi and Florida) and east of the Mississippi River (with the exception of Missouri and northernmost Arkansas)(Fig 5). Four questionable saltpetre caves exist in Texas (see list below) but these caves are in all likelihood guano, rather than saltpetre caves (Campbell, 1925; Phillips, 1901). Saltpetre earth is not the same as bat guano in content or in origin even though both deposits contain high quantities of leachable nitrate which can be made into gunpowder by the same conversion method (Hill, in preparation) Table 4 is the first comprehensive list compiled on saltpetre caves of the United States. The authors would appreciate receiving any additions or corrections to this list. TABLE 4 Alabama Madison County Jackson County Arkansas Marion County Newton County Georgia Bartow County Illin ois Jackson County Indiana Crawford County Monroe County Orange County Washington County Lawr ence County Harrison County Kentuckv Edmonson County Rock cast l e County Hart County Wa yne County Jackson County Pulaski County Comprehensive list of saltpetre caves in the United States given according to individual state. Bath County Daniel Boone Hut Sauta Carter County Saltpetre Long Island Saltpetre Saltpetre (in Carter Caves State Park) Tumbling Rock ? County Lone Star Saltpetre Maryland Saltpetre Allegany County Saltpetre (near headwaters of Yohogany) Saltpetre Garrett County John Friend Saltpetre Washington County Hughes (near Hagerstown) Saltpetre (near Hancock) Kingston Saltpetre (foot of South Mountain) Missouri Cave Creek Dent County Saltpetre Laclede County Saltpetre Wyandotte McDonald County Saltpetre Saltpetre (near Wyandotte) Phelps County Saltpetre Sumnerville Saltpetre Pulaski County Saltpetre Saltpetre Saltpetre Saltpetre Saltpetre Coon's Ste Co. Saltpetre Buckner's Stone County Saltpetre Saltpetre (near Valeene) Texas County Saltpetre Saltpetre Maries County Saltpetre Saltpetre Callaway County Saltpetre Salts Ozark County Saltpetre Saltpetre (near Corydon) Pennsylvania Big Mouth (or Rat Cave) Bedford County Saltpetre Tennessee Mammoth Campbell County Meredith (or Saltpetre) D ixo n New Mammoth (or Cumberland Mammoth) Hundred Dome Coffee Count y Saltpetre Long' s R i ley Creek (or Duke) Cedar Springs Anderson County Springhill Saltpetre James Claiborne County Cumberland Mountain Saltpetre Short Tazewell Saltpetre Great Saltpetre (or Crooked Creek) Carter County Carter Saltpetre Owens Saltpetre Cumber land County Grassy Cove Saltpetre Forestville Saltpetre Cannon County Robinson Ridge Saltpetre (or Window) Saltpetre (east of Horse Cave) Dekalb County Overall Saltpetre (west of Horse Cave) Avant Wind Gracey Saltpetre Indian Grave Point John Roger s Cave Petre Cave 16


Fentress County Franklin County Grundy County Hawkins County Hickman County Jackson County Lincoln County Macon County Marion County Maury County Copley Saltpetre Manson Saltpetre York Zarathustra Buffalo Crownover Saltpetre Lost Cove Williams Saltpetre Hubbard Saltpetre Fultz Payne Saltpetre Woodlee Sensabaugh Saltpetre Only Saltpetre Peter Kelso Saltpetre Saltpetre (or Lick Branch) Whiteoak Saltpetre Monteagle Saltpetre Nickajack Speegle Saltpetre Hobbs Southport Saltpetre Montgomery County Bellamy Overton County Allred Saltpetre Pickett County Putnam County Roane County Robertson County Smith County Stewart County Sullivan County Union County Van Buren County Warren County Washington County Wayne County White County Wilson County Copeland Saltpetre Eastport Saltpetre Johnson Saltpetre Calfkiller Saltpetre Nash Saltpetre Petre Milligan Eblen Robertson Saltpetre Piper Bridgewater T obaccoport Saltpetre Buzzard Oaks Cane Creek Saltpetre Big Bone McElroy Henshaw Hubbards Keplinger Solomon Saltpetre Ross Creek Cave Hill Saltpetre Pits Cherry Saltpetre (or Petre) Pollard Saltpetre Anderson Valley Table 4 (continued) ? County (N. Tenn 1 Abbot Saltpetre Texas Bexar County Burnet County Uvalde County Virginia Allegheny County Botetourt County Mad iso n County Lee County Bath County Scott County Wise County Pulaski County Smyth County Rockbridge County West Virginia Pocahontas County Monroe Randolph County Logan County Greenbriar County Grant County Mineral County Hardy County Pendleton County 17 Cibolo Cave Beaver Creek Cave Frio (or Verdi) Ney Mann's Perry Saltpetre Madison Minoc Saltpetre Neil's Breathing Lawson's Kern's Crackers Neck Saltpetre Parsons Faust Saltpetre Ridge Melbane Saltpetre Little Buchanan Saltpetre (at Natural Bridge) Lobelia Snedegar's Haynes Doane Ballard Dicksans Saltpetre Crawford (or Wyner's) Fortlick Greenville Saltpetre Trout Organ Lobelia Saltpetre Schoolhouse Alta Vista Saltpetre Knights Saltpetre Seldemirige Tory's Hoffman School Spring Run Saltpetre Cave Mountain Kline Gap Cave Mountain #2 Saltpetre Dyer's Mill Run Peter Run Cave Knob


Figure 5 Distribution of saltpeter caves in the United States. REFERENCES Campbell, C A R (1925). Bats, Mosquitoes and Dollars. Stratford Co. B oston: 262 p Phillips W B (1901). The Bat guano caves." Mines and 18 Minerals, 21 :440-442. Hill, C A (in preparation) Geology and mineralogy of cave nitrates: Univ of New Mexico Masters thesis.


Geomorphology and Hydrogeology of the Edwards Plateau Karst, Texas Ernst H Kastning The Edwards Plateau of central Texas is an upland surface formed by a thick sequence of Early Cretaceous limestone units It represents the southern extremity of the Great Plains Province and covers an area measuring 300 by 600 km (Fig 61. The karst r egio n of the Plateau is comparable in size to the largest karst areas of th e United States Nevertheless the Edwards Plateau remained the on l y one of these regions where extensive study and syn thesis of karst landform development had not yet been done The present resear ch, the subject of a Ph. D dissertation in geology at the Univers ity of Texas at Austin and funded in part b y the 1977 Cave Research Foundation Fellowship is a systematic study and interpretation of the landforms of the Edwards Plateau Karst -study area \ 7 \ -'"'\ 4 8 10 \ Colorado R -\ 2 11'---\ _... AUSTIN Rio Grande \, ,./ '-,_---------.... /'-J--..... ,_(Guadalupe 12-<-.... \ Nueces '-... R \ C\\ 6 '... ') 5 \::J \ SAN ANTONIO I N 80 km Selected Areas for Detailed Investigations TEXAS I Langtry 7. Bend 2. Sonora 8. Longhorn 3. Carta Valley 9. Boerne 4 Menard 10 Georgetown 5. Indian Creek II. Austin 6 Frio Sabinal 12. New Braunfels Figure 6 Edwards Plateau Karst of centra l Texas. 19


Edwards Plateau karst. The geomorphic and hydrogeologic processes during development of surface karst and caves are under investigation. The great areal extent of the Plateau gives it a strong d i versity in topography, soil cover, and hydrogeologic and climatic settinQs The eastern and southern margin, marked by the Balcones Fault Zone escarpment, is deeply dissected The northward and western interior portions are gently rolling to moderately dissected The area is drained by six major rivers which flow toward the Gulf of Mexico The inner part of the Edwards Plateau is geomorphically youthful and the Balcones Fault Zone marginal areas are more maturely dissected Caves are generally irregular in form and short in length in much of the Plateau ; however, long caves with active stream passages are found in areas of mature topography where efficient flow to base-level springs has developed The study area is one of the most susceptible to catastrophic flooding in the U S The large size of the study area (260 km by 210 km) makes it necessary to distribute field work into two levels of investigation First, a dozen subareas within the overall study area have been chosen for detailed analysis (Fig 6 and Table 5). These smaller areas contain significant karst features, particularly important caves, for which much suitable base data such as geological maps, cave surveys, hydrogeologic information, and the like are readily available These sub-areas are distributed widely over the region and, as such, represent diverse geologic, hydrologic, and climatic settings Second supplementary s i tes, interspersed among the sub areas, are being investigated where they contribute significantly to the recognition of regional geomorphic trends or where they contain isolated karst features of exceptional interest. Present fieldwork includes mapping of caves and karst landforms Significant progress has been made to date in the Menard, Frio-Sabinal, Bend, Boerne, Austin, and New Braunfels sub-areas. Quantitative analysis of surficial fluvial networks, structural features, and slopes is underway using topographic maps and aerial photography Future work will include the study of (1) topographic position of the caves relative to valley floors, (2) the role of stratigraphic position in cave development, (3) the role of karst cover and fluvial deposits on karstif icati on and speleogenesis (4) the possible significance of speleothem deposition and redissolution in interpreting climatic factors, and (5) the roles of semi-arid or humid climates as well as severe flooding on cave evolution TABLE 5 Selected geographic areas for detailed analysis in Edwards Plateau Karst. Areas correlate with those given in Figure 6. 1. LangtrySome of the deepest caves of Texas have formed in the Devils River Formation, a complex of reefal and interr eef materials deposited on shoals bordering the Maverick Basin Important caves include Emerald Sink, Fisher's Fissure, Langtry Gypsum Cave, Langtry Lead Cave, L angtry Quarry Cave, and others. 2 Sonora-Large caves, such as the Caverns of Sonora and Felton Cave, have formed here. This area has undergone significant speleological reconnaissance in recent years, and many caves have been mapped in detail. It is typical of the semi arid western part of the study area. 3 Carra ValleySeveral large, structurally controlled caves are known from this area, including Deep, Punkin, Midnight, Dunb ar, and Red Arrow Caves. The regional setting is similar to the Sonora area and together they represent the best known areas of the western Edwards Plateau karst. 4 Menard-This is the site of Powell's Cave, the longest surveyed cave in Texas (in excess of 16 km mapped), Nearby Silvermine Cave and Neels Cave, hydrologically related to Powell's, are presently under exploration and study, and a good chance exists for an integrated cave system in excess of 32 km. Preliminary geologic examina tion shows that these caves have experienced several distinct e pisodes in development 5 Indi an Creek-Indian Creek Cave is presently Texas second longest cave (more than 6 km mapped). This cave is an important site for recharge of the Edwards Aquifer. Several other important caves are located nearby. 6 Frio Sabinal -This area is within the most dissected part of the Plateau margin The caves are generally small to moderate in size but many are located well above the present floors. There are many small karst springs at the 20 bases of hills and ridges The Balcones Fault Zone and related fracturing appear to have greatly influenced cave 7. Bend -This location is the site of several long caves genetic ally related to the inc i sion of the Colorado River. Most notable is Gorman Falls Cave Here, caves have formed in the Ellenburger Formation of Ordovician Age 8. Longhorn -Like the Bend area, caves at this locality have developed in the Ellenburger Formation However, they are located well above the present stream levels Longhorn Cavern, a Texas State Park, is the most notable example 9 Boerne-This area is largely within the Guadalupe River Drainage Basin and includes many long "base level" caves such as Cave-Without A-Name, Alzafar, Spring Creek, and Prassell Ranch Caves. Cascade Caverns, Cascade Sink Cave and Fair Hole are located in the nearby Cibolo Creek Basin 10. Georgetown Several interesting large caves have developed in this fringe area of the Edwards Plateau karst, including the extensive Inner Space Caverns This area is within the Balcones Fault Zone 11. Austin -The Austin area contains several long caves, such as Airmans Cave and Cave X Balcones faulting has allowed extensive fracture control of cave development. Airmans Cave has many mazelike sections, perhaps indicative of flood -wate r development. 12. New Braunfels-This area is located on the Balcones Fault Zone and its caves are intimately related to recharge of the Edwards Aquifer particularly along Cibolo Creek Several large caves, such as Natural Bridge Caverns and Bracken Bat Cave are located here.


Additionally, the study is (1) comparing the Edwards Plateau with other significant karst regions, (2) identifying and explaining regional trends in landforms (3) integrating the Edwards Plateau geomorphic evolution to that of adjacent regions, (4) evaluating curreJ1tl Y accepted concepts of karstification and speleogenesis as they related to the Edwards Plateau examples, and (5) applying the results of this study to environmental and water resource needs of the region. The final product of the proposed study will integrate the geomorphic history of the Edwards Plateau, and, as such, will be an important step in understanding the geomorphology of the entire central Texas region Moreover, there will be a sufficient local emphasis to enable direct application of the findings to specific parts of the plateau. This will provide basic data for further scientific studies and for water resources management of one of the country's most important karst aquifers Geology and Mineralogy of the Mariscal Mountain Caves, Big Bend National Park, Texas Karen Lindsley and Carol A. Hill Geology The dense, gray, cherty Santa Elena l imestone of the Big Bend area of Texas and Mexico contains many caves of small to medium size. In Big Bend National Park the main cave area is located along the southeastern flanks of the Mariscal Mountains near Solis In this region seven caves occur-15 m below the top of the faulted, gently dipping Santa Elena escarpment. All of the Solis caves are small (less than 61 m), most are developed along one clay filled (iron-rich kaolinite) bedding plane, and many trend along N50E vertical joints. The presence of solutional pockets throughout the caves and the lack of fluting or scalloping suggest a low gradient, phreatic origin for these caves Slow moving waters near the top of the then present water table dissolved the caves along bedding plane, vertical joint intersections. 21 Mineralogy Three previously unreported cave minerals were found in the Mariscal Mountain caves : darapskite (Na3(N03)(S04) 2H20), anhydrite (CaS04) and bassanite (CaS04' Y2 H20) Darapskite (intermixed with halite, NaCI) occurs as crusts, flowstone sta lactites, "flowers and "hair. The source of nitrate, sulfate, sodium and chlorin e for these speleothems is probably rat urine (amberat) that exists in close association with the darapskite halite The anhydrite and bassanite (with gypsum) occur as a white wall crust. Microscopic textural relationships indicate that the gypsum (CaS04 H20) dehydrated to bassanite and then to anhydrite The extremely high cave temperature (maximum of 45C) and low relative humidities (minimum of 10%) are responsible for the stabi lity of darapskite anhydrite and bassanite in the Mariscal Mountain caves


Analysis of the Structural Control of Speleogenesis in Lilburn Cave, King's Canyon National Park, California Gail McCoy Lilburn cave is developed in a lens of marble, one of several metasedimentary lithologies that presumably are correlative with the Calaveras Formation of Clark (1976), The Calaveras Formation reflects a structural and metamorphic history that includes folding, faulting and intrusion by granitic plutons of the S ierra Nevada This latter phase is represented locally by the Big Baldy granodiorite The karst in Redwood Canyon is characterized by few outcrops of marble The marble is largely buried by surficial deposits, chiefly alluvium derived from the adjacent granitic and metamorphic outcrops However, the marble and its structural characteristics are well exposed in much of Lilburn Cave. These exposures will serve as the basis for a study of structural control of speleogenesis and development of the cave. It is proposed to map the fractures exposed in the walls, floor and cei ling of the cave The location, orientation, frequency continuity and type of the fractures will be compared statistically with passage orientation, morphology, and locations of breakdown and sinkholes Of i nterest will be any changes in fracture patterns from the surface downward and from place to place within major areas of the cave. Reconnaissance trips undertaken during 1977 indicate that the proposed research is feasible, in that exposures of fractures are abundant throughout the 400 foot depth of Lilburn REFERENCE Clark, L. D (1976), "Stratigra phy of the northern half of th e Western Sierra Nevada Metamorphic Belt, California. U. S Geol Survey Professional Paper 923 : 26 p. Speleogenesis in the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico: Gypsum Replacement of Carbonates by Brine Mixing Arthur N. Palmer, Margaret V. Palmer, and J. Michael Queen Caves of the Guadalupe Mountains Carlsbad Caverns in particular have posed one of the most baffling problems of cave origin in North America Despite the application of rather conventional theories to the problem by numerous well-known geologists no adequate explanation has previously been given for the unusual and almost unique pattern of certain Guadalupe caves. Carlsbad, for insta nce consists of irregular chambers that int e rconnect in an almost haphazard way, rather like the pores in an enormous sponge Joint control is prominent, but there seems to be no true solution con du its with well-defined water sources and outlets L evels in the cave are crude at best and appear to be related more to surfaces of sediment fill within the cave than to external geomorphic control. Even the highly varied rock type has no obvious control on the cave pattern Although most of the cave is located within the massive Capi tan reef of Permain age, parts of it extend into the bedded relatively impure back-reef formations to the northwest, as well as to the reef talus that forms an apron of coarse, conso lidated breccia along the southeastern flank of the r eef. Guadalupe caves have been attributed almost exclusively to phreatic solution because of their sponge-like pattern and because the action of vadose water is limited mainly to the d e position of travertine Vadose solution features such as flutes 22 are very rare, with one exception: vadose drip holes are common within the massive gypsum that occurs in isolated, irregular patches within most Guadalupe caves. Massive gypsum is not ordinarily found ins ide limestone caves What i s its source and how does it relate to the origin of the Guadalupe caves? It has been previously assumed that the gypsum was deposited as beds within the caves, possibly (if it is feasible to consider a Permain age for the caves) at the same time as the extensive beds of Permian gypsum that fill the Delaware Basin adjoining the Guadalupe Mountains on the southeast. Recent evidence shows that these assumptions are incorrect. Geologic field work begun by J M Queen in the early 1970's in Cottonwood Cave, located within the back-reef beds showed that the gypsum contains the same textural features as the surrounding carbonates Where the gypsum has not been recrystallized, many of these internal structures such as pisolites can be traced across knife-sharp co nta cts from limestone bedrock directly into the gypsum It is clear that the limestone has been replaced by the gypsum A close look at the so-called "bedded gypsum" in the Big Room of the Carlsbad Caverns shows that most of it actually consists of isola ted blocks that have peeled off the overlying


ceiling! The gypsum contains the same textural features, including laminated breccia blocks, that occur in the limestones of the cave ceiling. Along some of the lower walls of the room, remnants of gypsum are still in place in contact with the limestone. No gypsum was found within the pores of spongework in any of the caves. In places the gypsum contains alternating light and dark bands parallel to the walls, probably representing progressive stages of gypsum replacement. Gypsum replacement had previously been observed in thin sections of rock from the Flint Mammoth Cave System Kentucky, but in rinds measured in millimeters and apparently of vadose origin. In the Guadalupes some of the gypsum is 10 meters thick It almost fills some of the passages in Cottonwood Cave Most, if not all, gypsum replacement must have taken place in the phreatic zone, as vadose water is dissolving the gypsum today It appears that the replacement actually pre-dates the cave origin. The process probably took place in the interface zone between fresh water that infiltrated into the exposed limestones and the underlying gypsum-saturated brines adjoining the Delaware Basin, according to the following reaction : CaC03 + S04 = + 2H20 -CaS04 2H20 + C03 = Irregular and perhaps isolated zones of gypsum were formed in areas of high permeability (particularly along joints) and where the geochemical environment was favorable Much of the gypsum was dissolved by fresh phreatic water as the Guadalupe Mountains were gradually uplifted (probably during the Cretaceous Period), forming the basic pattern of the major caves. Irregular, disoriented gypsum blocks were left in many places Phreatic solution of the limestone modified the outlines of the caves with features such as spongework Further uplift subjected the gypsum to solution by vadose water, which also deposited extensive speleothems in the caves. Later reflooding has caused local solution of travertine, limestone bedrock, and gypsum. The Guadalupe caves owe their basic shape to the original pattern of gypsum replacement of carbonate long before the present landscape developed, and not to any of the regimes of solutionally aggressive water to which most other caves are attributed However unorthodox, this hypothesis is perhaps the only one that adequately explains the origin of caves so unrelated to the present hydrologic setting. A more complete account of the field observations and theory is contained in the Proceedings of the 7th International Speleological Congress, Sheffield, England, p 333-336 (1977). The Mineralogy of Lilburn Cave, King's Canyon National Park, California Bruce W. Rogers and Kathleen M. Williams The Lilburn Cave System is over 12 km long and is located at an elevation of 1600 m on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada. The cave is developed in a calcitic to dolomitic marble unit in a roof pendent of Triassic!?) age. A metalliferous tactite zone occurs along the marble-granite contact. Due to this geologic setting, an unusually varied mineralogy is present in the cave. 23 Speleothemic minerals include : aragonite, azurite, birnessite, calcite goethite, gypsum, hematite, hydromagnesite, malachite, rosaite(?), and witherite(?) Petromorphic minerals include : axinite, chalcopyrite, chrysocolla, diopside, epidote, goethite, hornblende, sepiolite, sphalerite and tremolite


Sedimentology and Stratigraphy of Clastic Deposits in Lilburn Cave, King's Canyon National Park, California John C. Tinsley The objectives of this study are to describe and map the sediments in Lilburn Cave and to identify contrasts in paleohydrologic conditions, changes in environments of deposi tion and stratigraphic relationships that can be interpreted in terms of events or stages in the evolution of the karst in Redwood Canyon King's Canyon National Park, California. An integrated field and laboratory approach is envisioned, an approach firmly rooted in the theory and techniques employed in modern analyses of sedimentary basins. The distribution, nature and thickness of sediments will be mapped on base maps provided by the cartographers. Deposits are to be classified according to provenance texture lithology depositional environment and relationship to present or past hydrologic regime; where possible, relative stratigraphic designations will be proposed Redwood Canyon exposes granitic and metamorphic terranes; the provenance of sediment supplied to the cave is readily apparent from the mineralogy of cobbles, gravel clasts and individual grains of sediment. Primary and secondary sedimentary structures and paleocurrent indicators provide clues useful for comparing past to present hydrologic conditions and for inferring directions of sediment dispersal. The results to date stem from reconnaissance trips undertaken during April, July and October, 1977, to investigate the feasibility of this study and to learn to navigate the complexities of the cavern system. This investigation has shown that the distinctive, very thinkly laminated varve-like deposits of silty clay and clay are apparently the oldest sediments preserved in certain, lower portions of the cave and that these banded clays are distributed more widely than had been thought to be the case. These deposits of banded clay have been dissected by the courses of present-day streams and locally are buried by thick deposits of medium to coarse grained sand, often including gravel and cobbles, that are believed to be artifacts of present-day activity of flooding cave streams The banded clays are known to preserve a paleomagnetic record having a duration of several thousand years (D. R Packer and S R. Ulfeldt, pers comm., 1977). To the extent that the paleomagnetic data facilitate correlations between widely separated localities characterized by deposits of banded clay, the efforts to define and delineate the basin that received the clay sediments will benefit from temporal control. Arrays of chains have been buried in the sandy beds of active streams and in sandy areas known to carry flood discharges The intent is to obtain data pertinent to maximum depths of scour and fill achieved by streams during floods of various magnitudes A noteworthy aside is that this experiment can succeed only if it should ever rain again in California. Effort in the immediate future will concentrate on defining the limits of the basin in which the banded clays were deposited Comparisons of textural parameters should show trends that reflect the upper and lower limits of the basin. It is anticipated that the banded clays will become more coarse towards the source(s). The details of the appropriate conceptual model best accounting for the deposition of the banded clay deposits remain speculative It is anticipated that a map delineating the nature and extent of the clastic deposits of the central part of Lilburn Cave should be available by early 1979. This work will compliment directly the ongoing studies of the hydrology and the paleomagnetic record of Lilburn Cave. Regional Geomagnetic Variations as a Dating and Correlative Tool in Cave Sedimentology: Preliminary Results from Lilburn Cave, King's Canyon National Park, California Stanley R. Ulfeldt and Duane R. Packer The declination of the Earth's paleogeomagnetic field has been shown to exhibit regular east-west fluctuations At Lake Windermere, England, and at Lake Michigan, U S A the period of these fluctuations is 2800 years and 2090 years respectively It is believed that these fluctuations of declination are due to oscillation of the Earth's nondipole field The nondipole field exerts only regional influence and is the residual field which remains after subtraction of the main dipole field At Lake Windermere and Lake Michigan similar periodic fluctuations of inclination and intensity are not present Fine grained sediments record the direction of the Earth's magnetic field at the time of their consolidation by a process of detrital remnant magnetization. In the process of consolidation, 24 magnetic particles which are oriented by the Earth's field become fixed and record the direction of the magnetic field present at the time. As the sediments accumulate, a record of the variation of the Earth's magnetic field is produced The paleomagnetic record can be read by measuring the direction and intensity of magnetization in a series of oriented samples, a core, from the sediments. The measurement of a sample is carried out in a stepwise process of reading the magnetization with a three axis cryogenic magnetometer; cleaning the sample of possible subsequent remagnetization with an alternating field demagnetizer; and remeasuring it. The level of the demagnetization is increased at each step until the magnetic direction stabilizes.


DECLINATION 350 O 10 CORE C INCLINATION 30 INTENSITY 50 2)(10 4 emu 4 e c DECLINATION 350' O 10' CORE D 20' INCLINATION 30' h o STRATAGRAPHIC CORRELLATION INTENSITY 40' 2 .. 10 4 emu 4 .............. .::: ...... --, ----,. ":. ,-.______________________ /,/ ......... a --,. /'0, 'b ........... k .. :. ,,'.' :' /" o : .. h --"'" _.0 ....... ---CORRECTED TO HORIZONTAL BEDDING ------UNCORRECTED o STRATA GRAPHIC CORRELLATION Figure 7. Plot of declination, inclination and intensity of paleomagnetic direction against depth of cores C and D from the Hexidendron Room in Lilburn Cave. 25


Oriented cores were collected from well stratified clays and silty clays from relict passage fills in Lilburn Cave. These cores were sampled continuously at 1 em intervals. Plots of two of these cores at the 150 oe demagnetization level are shown in Figure 7. Declination fluctuations of similar form to those from Lakes Windermere and Michigan are observed in these cores. Samples from one 30 em core show at least four cycles of declination fluctuation, and samples from shorter cores from adjacent sediments contain similar fluctuations occurring at nearly the same stratigraphic positions. Fluctuations in inclination do not have as regular a period or the same period as the fluctuations of declination; however, the extremes of inclination also correlate between cores. Intensity measurements show no significant fluctuations within individual cores. The age of the Lilburn Cave deposits is not yet determined. If the period of the declination fluctuations contained in the Lilburn Cave deposits is similar to those reported elsewhere, it is possible to derive rates of sedimentation for individual deposits in the cave. It may also prove possible to correlate the deposits throughout the cave on the basis of these declination and/ or inclination variations. Both of these studies will lead to a much greater understanding of the deposition of sediment fill in caves. Also, if during further studies, material suitable for Uranium series, pollen, C14, or other age dating techniques are found, paleogeomagnetic fluctuations may provide the framework to unravel more of the cave depositional history. 26


Hydrology Program Figure 8. Ephemeral discharge and recharge points in semi-arid karst of Chosa Draw, New Mexico. Note thick layers of Quaternary alluvium overlying evaporite bedrock Photo by S. G Wells 27


Fluvial Geomorphic Responses to Ground-water Hydrology in Low Relief Karst Steve G. Wells INTRODUCTION The Geomorphic System Karst drainage basins are developed on thick sequences of carbonate rocks in the Pennyroyal Plateau of central Kentucky and on evapo rite rocks in the Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexi co. These drainage basins are characterized by integrated s urface and subsurface drainage. The headwaters of the drainage basins are drained by subaerial, or sinking streams; whereas, the lower portions of the basins are developed on low r e lief karst and are drained by solutional conduits near base level. Thes e karst basins discharge at large springs on major surface streams. The fluvial system and its associated drainage basin developed in low relief karst are delineated in Table 6 Conceptual Framework The geomorphic evolution of fluvial systems developed in karst terrain is complex because changes in the hydrologic behavior of surface and subsurface drainage affect both fluvial and solutional landforms Sinking streams discharge into subterranean drainage systems and provide a continuous source of energy for cavern development. However, changes in the hydrologic behavior of the subsurface drainage system will influence the fluvial processes and morphology of sinking streams. Thus, the concept of geomorphic feedback is applicable to fluvial drainage systems in karst: the outflow of energy of the drainage basin via ground water drainage routes also acts as an energy input to sinking streams feeding the ground-water system Time and Space Aspects Schumm and Lichty (1965) emphasize the importance of time and space considerations when evaluating cause and effect of fluvial landform development The number of independent fluvial variables increases with shorter time spans and smaller areas considere d However, this concept is difficult to apply to fluvial systems in karst because of the integration of surface and ground water drainage systems That is, over long periods of tim e (i.e. Ple i s tocene), fluvial and solutional landforms are dependent upon climatic and tectonic variations which influence base level stability. However even during shorter time periods (i.e. H o locen e), the morphology of sinking stream valleys remains dependent upon the ground-water hydrology, and the morphology of the cave system is influenced by the discharge from these sinking streams. In low relief karst, fluvial and ground water variables remain dependent upon each other with increas ingly shorter time durations Pur pose of Study Th e purpose of this study is : (1) to elucidate the interdependence of surface and ground-water drainage systems through geologic time and (2) to delineate fluvial geomorphic responses to ground-water hydrology in low relief karst of varying climatic and geologic settings This investigation is primarily concerned with ground-water effects on sinking stream g e omorphology 28 TABLE 6 Fluvial geomorphic systems in low-relief karst. GEOMORPHIC SYSTEM SINKING STREAM ... I I I BASE LEVEL CAVE ! TRUNK SURFACE STREAM = outflow of energy Process & Form [ Fluvial erosion open channel flow swallow hole blind valley { SOlutional denudation conduit flow sinkhole plain [ base level stability & lowering l alluviated or gravity spring feedback mechanism =--+ STUDY AREAS Low relief karst which is characterized by integrated surface and subsurface drainage occurs in the Pennyroyal Plateau of central Kentucky and in the Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico The low relief karst in Kentucky is developed on Mississippian carbonate strata, and the karst in New Mexico is developed on Permian evaporate strata Both study areas are characterized by surface drainage in the form of sinking streams which discharge into ground-water drainage systems. The area of the sinking streams has little karst features; whereas, the area of the ground-water drainage is characterized by numerous sinkholes. Each sinking stream terminates in a blind valley where surface water is channelized through swallow holes into the subsurface drainage Flow in the sinking streams of Kentucky is perennial for the larger watersheds Runoff in the sinking streams of New Mexico is ephemeral and flashy. RESULTS The major results of this investigation to-date are summarized below : 1. The fluvial geomorphology of sinking streams has remained dependent on the hydrologic behavior of the ground-water through the Quaternary in the low relief karst of central Kentucky and southeastern New Mexico 2. In the terminal reaches of the sinking streams the magnitude and frequency of flood events are increased as the flow capacity of the ground-water is often reached with moderate sized rainfall events. The increase in the hydraulic head causes reduction of the sinking stream flow and the development of ephemeral lakes in the terminal reaches. 3. The increase in the magnitude and frequency of overbank events on sinking streams partially explains the dramatic increase in floodplain width near the terminal reaches of the sinking streams.


4. Base level lowering In the Pleistocene affected the ground water levels and the longitudinal profiles of the sinking streams which grade to the ground-water level. Base level lowering and subterranean piracy resulted in the development of successive cave levels. Sinking streams farthest from the base level rivers project to the older, Pleistocene ground-water levels; whereas, the sinking streams closest to the major surface streams have adjusted to the lower, active ground water level. 5. Arroyo incision and complex terrace sequences in south eastern New Mexico are related, in part, to karst processes and subterranean piracy. Captured drainage results in c omplex cutting and filling of the arroyo downstream from the c aptured area. These fluvial responses accommodate the increase d dis c harge and sediment load; thus, terrace sequence s may vary in morphology and age along a given reach of an arr oy o i n low relief karst. REFERENCE S c humm S A and Lichty, R.W (1965). "Time, space and causality in geomorphology." Am. Jour. Sci. 263 : 110-19 Groundwater Hydrology of Evaporite Aquifers in Semi-arid Karst, Southeastern New Mexico Steve G. Wells Evaporite rocks of the Castile Formation (Permian age) are exposed subaerially in the semi-arid Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico Dissolution of the Castile Formation during the Quaternary has produced well-deve loped karst and an integrated subsurface drainage system. These karst aquifers are recharged by ephemeral, flashy-flow of sinking a rroyo s and by slowly percolating water from a thick cover of Quaternary deposits (Fig 8). These karst aquifers are controlled by vertical, extensional fractures in the headwater region and are controlled by bedding planes in the distal regions. Therefore, the hydraulic geometry of the solution conduits changes from high and narrow to low and wide down the groundwater slope The karst aquifers have a regional slope eastward and northward toward the base level of Black River, a tributary to the Pecos River. Vertical, extensional fractures which control groundwater flow 29 in the headwater regions occasionally tran s ect both the bedrock and overlying Quaternary deposits, thus indicating recent tectonic activity These fractures which are continuous through the bedro c k and poorly consolidated Quaternary deposits, aid in the process of piping and the development of collapse sinkholes Vertical piping produces cave systems whose ceilings are composed of the poorly consolidated Quaternary deposits rather than the evaporite bedrock The v elocity of the karst groundwater during low discharge c ondition s is approximately 0.3 m /sec. Scallop sizes are being u sed to determine the groundwater velo city during high dis c harge when the conduits are filled The spec i fic conductance o f the groundwater varies from 2100 to 2300 umhos at low flow, and the s alinity is common l y 2 5 parts per thousand Water t e mpe r atures of the groundwater range between 15 to 17 C


Ecology Program Fig ur e 9. Eastern Wood Rat (Ne otoma floridana) in its nest, at the A u stin Entrance of the F l int Mammoth Cave Sy s tem. Photo by W .C. W e lb o urn 30


Fossil Packrat Middens from the Caves of the Horseshoe Mesa Area, Grand Canyon, Arizona Kenneth L. Cole Most dry caves in the southwestern United States contain d eposits of amberat the hard e ned debris left by packrats (Neotoma sp. ) Ten c aves with amberat deposits hav e been lo c ated in the Horshoe Mesa area of the Grand Canyon Thus far four of these caves have yielded deposits of late Pleisto c ene age Pac k rats are known to collect and store a wide v ariety of ob j ects within their nests, including fragments of plants and animals living in the vicinity Portions of the nest become middens; the rat will defecate and urinate on part of the nest, sealing plant and animal fragments within a hardened deposit of crystalized urine If the m i dden is within a c ave, protected from moisture the deposit can be preserved for as long as 50,(lOO years. Because the rats collect a wide variety of plant and animal remains, each midden can contain 30 or more identifiable plant species and several animal species Since the plant fragments can be radiocarbon dated, each midden provides an e x cellent paleoecological indicator for conditions in the vicinity of the site. In addition, the dating of packrat middens provides an insight into the past stability of the cave environment and the age of cave features. Thus far, 16 Neotoma middens have been colle c ted and analyzed from the caves of Horseshoe Mesa Area Nine radio c arbon samples have been submitted from seven of the middens. Two dates on different materials from a midden found in Tse 'an Bida Cave, 14,170 470 on fir needles (A 1789l and 13,780 240 on Neotoma pellets (A-1790l, demonstrate that within the uncertainty of the radiocarbon method, this midden represents one stratigraphic event. A third comp l eted date 13,540 170 (Juniperus twigs, A 1805), falls within the same late Wisconsin time range More dates will be completed during the nex t year. Tse'an Bida Cave and Crystal Forest Cave are both on the lower fring e of the Pinyon Juniper Woodland Zone at 4700 feet (1300 m) o n steep westerly slopes The fossil record from the pac krat m i ddens ind ic ates a plant c ommunity very different from th e modern plants i n the vicini ty Around 14,700 Y B P the v egetation s urrounding Tse'an Bida and Crystal Forest Caves was dominated by Dougla s Fir (Pseudo(suga menzies/i) and White Fir (Abies conc%r), although some Pinyon-Juniper element s were also pre s ent at the site An analogous present-day plant c ommunity e x ist s today at 7300 ft (2030 m) on the west side o f Grand v iew Point The vegetational change thus represent s a 2600 ft (730 m) lowering of vegetation zones in the l a te Wi sco nsin The s tability of at least one part of Crystal Forest Cave is indi c ated b y the 13,540 Y B P date on the midden found on a low roc k bench 30 m inside the cave Three other middens from differ ent areas of the cave will provide additional information The lower entrance chamber of Tse'an Bida Cave will probably prove to be at least as stable In addition to the 13,780 year old pack rat m i dden, skulls and feces of the ext i nct Harrington's Mountain Goat (Oreamnos harringtom) have been found The mountain goat skull s first noticed by Tom and Louise Strong will provide the first direct radiocarbon date on this species since a Keratin horn sheath (a reliable material for dating) was still present on one of the skulls. In addit i on, foss i l mounta i n goat fec e s will provide data on the animal's diet. Since the animal is thought to have bee n extinct for at least 11,000 years and was only buried 3 cm in cave floor sediment it follows that lower c hambers of Tse'an Bida Cave have been stable for at least that length of time. Also, it could be assumed that the lower chamber has bee n dry, with no active carbonate deposition, for at least the 13,780 y ears that the Neotoma midden has been preserved Studies of the Cave Crayfish, Orconectes Inermis Inermis Cope (Oecapoda, Cambaridae), Part I: Growth H. H Hobbs III Growth of decapod crustaceans is somewhat s i mplif ied to s t udy as i t i s accomplished stepwise fo l lowing molting However, data concerning growth of individual crayfishes are relatively few and have resulted almost entirely from laboratory studies the works of Cooper and Cooper (1976) and Hobbs (1976) being the except i ons. Numerous parameters affecting growth make it difficult to interpret size increases and are briefl y discussed below Growth data (restricted here to "increase in carapa c e length") for the blind unpigmented, troglobitic crayf ish Orc one c(es i nermis inermis Cope were obtained from tagged individuals in Pless Cave Lawrence County, Indiana (see Hobbs, 1971 and 1973 for a description of Pless Cave ) The cave has been the site fo r popu l a t ion s tud ies of cave c rayfishes s i nce O c tober 1970, 3 1 where mark recapture procedu res have yielded data for individual cray f ish. Thus knowledge of the growth rates of troglobitic cray fish in the cave is based on the recapture of unconfined animal s in the natural habitat As these crayfish were internally tagged, the y could be recognized easily even following ecdysis. Time int e rvals between captures for each individual were neither co nstant nor predictable and growth data are based on only a single molt occurring between measurements of the carapace l ength (CLl Figure 10 summar izes these growth data for fo rty-fiv e ind i viduals of 0. i. inermis (Hobbs 1976 briefly mentioned growth based on these data) Increases were 0 2 to 3 1 mm in carapace length over a size range of 17. 0 mm to 34. 0 mm CL. For any spe c ifi c carapace length there was a wide range i n the amou n t of growth observed with e x tremes


occurring in individuals of 23 mm CL. However, the least-squares r egressions demonstrate the marked decrease in growth i n c r e ment s that o cc urs as the crayf ish increase in size. Furth ermore, the displacement between the two regressions indicates that for any given size, females tend to i ncrease in length significantly more at molting than males Th e r easons for these differences in g rowth between sexes are not fully k nown at thi s time Howeve r d ata are avai labl e to indicate ( u n published data) that breeding males are much more active than females and that they are more likely to have intraspecific contacts with both sexes th an are non-breeding males and females Increased activity, aggressive behavior and occasional "clashes" with other individuals certai nly dictate increased metabolic act i vity and thus 3 0 o ... 2 5 o "0 2 .0 0 ;;; Q.. E .. .., 1.5 0 0 V> '" 0 cs.-tu oe c: 0 .., "-N 0 U) 1 0 )-0 0 0 0 e "-0 o 0 0 0 5 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 20 25 30 3 5 Car apace Lengt h (mm) Figu r e 10. Scatt e r diagram of inc rease in size (mm) vs carapace length a t mo ltin g for male (open c ircles) and female (filled circles) Orconecres inermis inermis in Pless C ave (lines on the least squares regression) 32 increased energy demands. I n addit io n, when contacts are made between males, appendages are somet i mes lost (53 individuals-25% of tagged individuals were males with damaged appendages). Those individuals (both male and female) with dam age d or small appendages (indi cat ing regeneration) tend to grow less than healthy animals A l so, it is apparent that females are not involved in reproducing new offspring every year as is evidenced by a l ack of ann u a l maturation of reprod u ctive structures However males generally molt to F orm I (breeding stage ) during fall and early w i nter months and in the Pless Cave population, a larger number of males than females molt twice a year ind ica ting higher frequencies of ecdysis and thus greater metabolic demands Thus, due to i ncreased phys i cal activ i ty associated with the reproductive cycle, generall y higher frequencies of inj ury and molting, and production of spermato phores male energy demands appear to be higher per year than for females. These points help e x plain the occurrence of numerous females of th i s cavernicole w i th a carapace length of 30 mm or more observed in many o f the caves v i sited in southern Indiana Mor eove r in epigea n species ( i .e. Camba rus (Erebicambarus) laevis Fax on also an inhab i tant of caves) large females also a r e often more abundant than large males. Specimens smaller than 20 mm CL (immatures) are under represented in these data Regressive l ines indicate, however, that their growth increments at mo l ting are greater than for mature specimens, and they mo l t more frequently (Jeg la, 1966). H ence, small and immature specimens would be expected to be pr esent in a population only for a relatively short time follciwing detachment from the female parent. Until additional growth data are avai l able f or this trog l obitic crustacean, no attempt is made to extrapo l ate typical growth increments for precise size groups nor is an y attempt made to proje ct the longevity of this species REFERENCES Cooper, Martha R and John E Cooper (1976). "Growth and longevity in cave crayfishes." ASB Bull. 23(2) :52 (abstr.) Hobbs III, H. H (1971). "A study of the crayfishes and their epizootic ostracods i n Pless Cave, L awrence County, I ndiana." Ann. Repr Cave Res. F ound. 13:20-21. ----(1973). "The populat i on dynamics of cave crayfishes and their commensal ostra cods from southern Indiana." Ann. Rept Cave Res. Found. 15:58-59. ----(1976). "Molt cycle, s ize and growth in Orconecte s inermis inermis Cope (Decapoda : Cambaridae)." Virginia Jou r Sci. 27 ( 2) :44 (abstr.) Jegla, Thomas C. (1966). "Reproductive and molting cycles in cave cray fish BioI. Bull 130(3) : 345-358.


Ecology and Evolution of Carabid Cave Beetles Thomas C. Kane This past year's work has included a continuation of field studies on Neaphaenops tellkampfii and three of the Pseudan ophtha/mus spp as well as more detailed laboratory studies of the population genetics, feeding behavior and reproduct ive characteristics of some or all of these species The genet i c data collected to date on N. tellkampfii suggest that it has levels of variability and similarity consistent with those of surface i nvertebrates, and as such is unlike any other terrestrial cave invertebrate from central Kentucky yet studied Preliminary results on feeding for N. P pubescens and P menetriesii suggest that coexistence among these species may be maintained through size selective predation If this indeed proves to be the case, it may support the observed body size characte r d i splacement reported by Van Zant and others Ecological Genetics of Cave and Spring Isopods Edward A. Lisowski Knowledge of the population genetics of cave animals is essential to the further development and refinement of the theories of the evolution of cave animals as well as the evolution of complex, stable communities. Caves, with their simple commun i ties, are excellent natural laboratories in which to study the relationships between ecology and genetics. In a general sense, the effects of resource availability and utilization, ecological diversity, competition, and predation on the genetic structure of populations can be investigated. This investigation is studying the relationships between the genetic structure of a population and specific ecological and geographic parameters The relevant questions to be answered in this study include : (1) Do populations of aquatic cave invertebrates have lower genetic variability than populations of related epigean inve rtebrates? (2) Are there high levels of genetic similarity between conspecific geographically distant cave populations? Can the effects of gene flow and selection on these levels be distinguished? (3) What level of genetic difference exists between conge neric cave species and does this suggest that the species are monophyletic or polyphyletic in origin? and (4) What are the effects of ecological diversity and of resource availability and utilization on such aspects of genet ic structure as heterozygosity and the number of alles at a loous? I s there character displacement of allele frequ encies when congeneric cave species occur in the same stream? In order to answer the questions presented above, the following techniques of investigation are being employed: (1) Four spring populations of the epigean isopod Lirceus fontina/is Rafinesque and four cave populations of the hypogean isopods Asellus a/abamensis (Strafford, 1911) and A. stygius (Packard, 1871) are being examined (2) For each of the species, two populations from the Central Kentucky Karst one population from southern Illinois and one population from the Mitchell Plain of Indiana are being sampled. (3) Thirteen protein systems of each individual are being assayed using the techniques of gel electrophoresis The genetic variability in surface and in cave populations will be compared, and the level of genetic similarity among popu lations of th e same species and among the cave species will also be examined Competitive exclusion, niche separation and genetic d istance are of particular interest when the two hypogean species occur in the same cave stream. Thus, ecological data of each population are being collected and the effects of resource availability and utilization and of ecological diversity on genetic structure are being investigated This study will provide a firm basis for further electrophoretic studies of the evolutionary relationships of surface and cave isopods. With these additional studies it will be possible to determine if the cave isopods are monophyletic in origin or if they are the result of multiple invasions of subterranean waters by epigean forms. 33 This research is aided by a grant from the Cave Research Foundation.


A Tale of Two Spiders Thomas L. Poulson Two linyphiid spiders have a common ancestor but were res trict e d to caves at different times in the past Different histori cal and current patterns of food and physical variability, pr e dictability and rigor are constraints which have resulted evolut io narily in different patterns of bioenergetics foraging, and lif e history (Fig 11). Phane([a subterranea occurs near entrances and is fle xible in its rates of metabolism, development. and r eproduction and can be said to be a time efficient r maximizer Anthrobia monmouthia was historically faced with very restricted food supplies and now food influx is limited in its deep cave environment. It has low and relatively inflexible rates of metabolism development, and reproduction and can be said to be a res ource efficient species that minimizes its maximum l osse s I n a past CRF Annual Report (1975, p 39) I gave preliminary data on the spiders which showed body shape, egg size and number size frequency distributions and rough responses to b aiting which increased prey density This last y ear's lab studies, in c oncert with continuing field stud ies of population size and s tru c ture have given much more insight into the contrasts in s pecies biology of what I have variously c alled r+ vs r-and time v s resource effi c ient and live fast, die soon vs live slow, die late and r selected vs K selected spe cies. The major insight gained is that Phane([a is tlexible and can be alm ost as resource efficient as Anthrobia when pressed Th i s is shown in Figure 12 for metabolic efficiency and i n Figure 13 for reproduction. Figure 14 shows that Phane([a is generalized, relative to A nthrobi a in habitat, c ommunity and niche relationships The seasonal fluctuation in habitat risk and the high proportion of large predators both make the high reproductive rate of Phane([a adaptive The v ar i ability between and within caves in micro climatic risk, predation, and prey abundance and type make their flexibility adaptive al so. Anthrobia is restricted to deep cav e areas of permanently high humidity, and the substrate-community predators and prey are mu c h the same within and between caves There is no expansion of habitat i n areas where Phane([a does not occur so this habitat restriction is probably because of the thin exoskeleton that makes Anthrobia subject to desiccation The thin exoske leton can be seen b y the collapsed pedipalps and shrunken abdomen in Figure 15. The long evolutionary isolation in caves for Anthrobia has resulted in decreased fle x ibility and extreme resource efficiency as well a s in the reduced e x oskeleton and eyes seen in Figure 15. LIFE H,STORV TRADEOFF5 HISTORIC.AL t Seo.sono.l Food Pulse V4rica.bifify food flood PhUleHa. NVIRONMENTI1L CONSTR.,AINTS POPULI11/0N RESPONSES I 2 :5 'Irs mtJ.J(. !J a.;"S HISTORICAL: Food Rigor + Food Enviror)tIltn+AI sto!ifify cod flo od wet A nthrDI,,'(). IE' NVIICON Me NTAL CONSTRAINTS --' ""'-../ ./ r... / 2 3 yrS' + po PUL 11 Tlo/ll RESPONSES r 0 s '"--.... .... .. n ,,,. PPf> '3e 1--'---L-r--., . .. .. / 2 .3 yrs mi". ",ax. losses Figure 1 1 Und e r popul atio n responses r refer s to the compound interest rate of population growth, en out len in refers to effi c i e nc y of f o od c o nver s i o n and T r e f e r s t o gen er a tion time (not e how it fluctuates for Phane([a). 34


SPIDER STARVATIO N e.trtmes) I., HI(fH FOOl> .tmcn.t 1" LOW FOOD p,..e.o..f,.ed.fmLrJt p=-1.7 % .J.-' O .b) A c 0 .6"'; .d.-' 0 .4 ) Figure 12. Rate of weight loss during starvation reflects the efficiency of energy conservation. The stabilized rates are calculated for the time after 6 to 7 days The plateaus early in the experiment reflect use of fat which has a high energy yield per weight Note that Phanetta is much more variable than Anthrobia but that some individual Phanetta are as resource efficient as the average Anthrobia HABITAT COMMUNITV PA PA low high damp -I raJ cool IIII feces ., flood II I III l i tter "t drrc-II cricket I coa 'q: J flood. I sa.nd I I dry-cDld t hi9h daf -III sil -.v low LAB NUMERICAL RESPONSE. -reprodu..c..hon I .', (, , 5 PhaneHa.', '--54 .. --+ -. :I Li3 ........ .. 7 <:n W I Anfhrobio. 0 1>< .2-.. 3"/ "lit. 5-1/. "If. 71f. Clu.+c.h Figure 13. Phaneua is much more variable in its reproductive response than Anthrobia. This is partly due to decreasing clutch size with age for Phaneua This is the simplest explanation for the low curve for fall-collected Phaneua as compared to spring collected spiders shown in the left panel. Under low food rations Anthrobia does not change eff output, but, because of larger eggs is two times as efficient as Phanetta in weight of eggs produced per weight of prey eaten NICHE Prey PA PA I .... ". .... "-III lUI III II 11111 III 1111 II II III II I ,.,.....-" \ Figure 14. Phanetta (Pl is broader than Anthrobia (Al in habitat, in occurrence across component communities, and in niche relation ships. The high and variab l e reproductive response for Phanetta (Figs. 10, 12 and 14l is related to seasonal risk and to the types and abundances of predators which prey on adult spiders making their survival low and variable Their collembola prey are larger and more numerous than for Anthrobia Many of the predators that occur with Anthrobia are small and rare and as such are more important as competitors, especially with young spiders, than as potential predators 35


1r'J-tAcf / --abaomel1.. chelicerae Imad C()// Plltzl1eHa. A n-fhrDbio.. Figure 15. Scanning electron micrographs show the lack of eye remnants and thin exoskeleton, indicated by collapsed pedipalps and s hrunk e n abdomen due to vacuum preparation for SEM, in Anthrobia Both reflect the longer evolutionary isolation in the permane ntl y dark and damp deep cave zones for Anthrobia In live Anthrobia the thin exoskeleton is seen as a light body color and is impo rt a nt in restri c ting it to damp habitats 36


FIElD NUMERICAL /000 1000 a::: UJ /00 C!) 100 ::::> 10 2 10 Anfhro6ia. 36m2 l\ I \,.., >' ) J \ 'd .... 51"11 et"s ., .. / / _r'---.:."' .. ,.. '.... ... .. .. '... ...... ... ........ _-'1I..t I."""'" .. -.-_ .. I /4 "75 '76 731 '74 "75 '76 '(EARS 'food o.dded (manure. tFigure 16. The lack of tracking of induced increases in food for Anthrobia is related to the low abundance and lack of seasonality of prey that they have been exposed to evolutionarily (see text) and to the risk of adult mortality by going to prey concentrations where man y large predator s occur The prey are collembola and the predators are carabid beetles (Fig 13). This lack of flexibility, seen in Figures 12 and 13, is most evident in nature by the lack of immigration and reproduction when local prey densities are increased several hundred fold by addition of leaf litter and manure The litter and manure are applied to areas about a meter away from a wall edge, which harbors one of the best known populations of Anthrobia (Fig. 16). Under similar conditions Phanetta shows its flexibility by obvious tracking, and other predators, such as carabid beetles show a clear increase in density as collembola build up around the leaves and manure The rationalization for lack of tracking by Anthrobia is based on the lack of high reproductive rate and associated long lifespan and resource efficiency that evolved under periods of even more extreme food lack in an earlier glacial epoch. As with other long-li ved species, any extra mortality for adults will be selected against since population survival depends on adults spreading their reproductive risk through time. Thus, they avoid high prey densities because these are associated with high risk from predation. The reproductive risk must be spread because the perenniall y low food supply constitutes a severe energetic bottleneck for newly hatched spiderlings which, despite their relatively large size compared to Phanetta, cannot endure food deprivation anywhere near as long as adults This problem is evidenced both by the relatively low number of young in relation to egg case density in the field and the problems of raising young in the lab Survey of the Cave Fauna of the Guadalupe Escarpment Region, New Mexico. W, Calvin Welbourn Twelve caves were examined in the Guadalupe Escarpment Region in 1977. Ten of these had not been previously examined. Five caves were in Carlsbad National Park, three in the Lincoln National Forest, and four on Bureau of Land Management lands . With more than 65 caves in the Guadalupe Escarpment Region and 10 caves in other parts of New Mexico examined for invertebrate cave fauna, the number of species has reached to more than 125. Of these more than 100 species have been found 37 in the Guadalupe Escarpment Region. This year the manuscript on the biology of Ogle Cave and Slaughter Canyon, Carlsbad Caverns National Park was completed Work progressed slowly on the preparation of a comprehensive list of the cave fauna of the Guadalupe Escarpment Region and New Mexico Future work will be to complete a manuscript on the cave fauna of New Mexico and continue field work in the Guadalupe Escarpment Region


Survey of the Cave Fauna of Buffalo National River, Arkansas W. Calvin Welbourn Twenty-four caves and two springs at Buffalo National River wer e e x amined for cave fauna during three field trips (March, July and O c tober, 1977), The field work in March was condu c ted by Mr. Donald E. Coons Although many of the spe c imens are still being studied, there are at least 83 species, representing 4 phyla and more than 30 orders 18 of these species were vertebrates including the Grotto Salamander, Typhlotriton spela eus. Several undescribed species were found. The majority of the cave fauna were troglophiles (33%) and troglo x enes (32%), with troglobites (11 %) and accidentals making up the remainder of the animals Most of the vertebrates were trogloxenes; whereas, the majority of the invertebrate species were troglophiles and troglobites. Small samples of soil and organic material (leaves, twigs, guano, etc ) were collected for berlese apparatus. Preliminary examination of these samples indicates considerable variation in species composition between each sample. All samples contained collembola, mites and insect larva along with other inv ertebrates. Future plans are to complete identification of specimens collected in 1977. I hope to continue field work at Buffalo National River with emphasis on examining a few caves in detail. 38


Archeology and Anthropology Program Figure 17. Prehistoric footprints along Indian Trail in Jaguar Cave, Tennesse e These footprints as well as other archeological remains are under study by Dr. P. Watson and Dr. L. Robbins Photo by R Brucker and M. Elliott. 39


Cave Research Foundation Archeological Project and Shellmound Archeological Project, 1977 Patty Jo Watson In May, 1977, the combined projects received a grant (#RO-26228-77 -371) from the Nat i onal Endowment for the Humanities in support of our research in and around Mammoth Cave National Park and in the shell mound area near Logansport, Kentucky (the Big Bend of the Green River)' The pr i mary focus of our work is on the subsistence patterns of the prehistoric cavers and shellmound dwellers. We are especially interested in their use of plants because-as noted in the 1975 and 1976 CRF Annual Reports":'" the shell mound people were cultivating cucurbits (squashes or gourds ; these are tropical plants originally domesticated in Mesoamerica several thousand years earlier than they appear in Kentucky) more than 4000 years ago From the Green River shell mounds and from the somewhat later materials in the caves of Mammoth Cave National Park we have excellent evidence for prehistoric diet at the critical time period spanning the beginnings of horticulture in this region Archeological activ ities i n 1977 were considerably varied but can be summarized as follows: I. Mammoth Cave National Park At the request of Superintendent Amos Hawkins, K. Carstens, W Marquardt, and P. Watson directed archeological survey of three areas where NPS construction was scheduled to take place: two spots in the Residential Area, and the strip of territory that will be excavated to lay a water line into the Park from Park City The work was done in December, 1976, and in March and June, 1977; no archeological materials were found on the surface in any of these zones. On Decembe r 11, 1976, Mark Elliott led a photo trip into the N survey of Lower Salts (Figs 18, 19, & 20) to document the size and shape of these complex, intertwined canyon passages, most of which have been e x plored by the Indians Two radiocarbon determinations for the Mammoth Cave mummy ( Lost John") were obtained by the Smithsonian Radiocarbon laboratory and relayed to P Watson by phone (March 9, 1977) from Dr. Robert Stuckenrath : SI 3007 A matting from beneath the body SI 3007 C i ntestinal tissue 445 75 B.C A.D. 15 65 L Robbins and P Watson were given permission by Chief Interpreter Steven Smith to collect another small sample of matting to submit for chemical analysis. We suspect the preservative put onto the body may have contaminated the matting beneath Lost John and caused the discrepancy in the two dates. The matting fragment was collected on May 31 but results of the analysis are not yet available At the request of Chief Interpreter Steven Smith two of Ken Carstens' students from Northern Kentucky UniversitySheila Meuthing and April Kerley donated their expertise and several days of their time during the last week of May 1977, to reorganizing, cataloging, and stabilizing the historic and prehistoric study collections at the MCNP Visitor Center On Jun e 20, a lso at the request of Steve Sm ith, P Watson presented a slide talk on archeology of the Mammoth Cave area a t the MCNP Visitor Center 40 Figure 18. Passage in Lower Salts, Mammoth Cave National Park, in Kentucky Photo by M Elliott. On October 9, 1977, palynologist Vaughn Bryant of Texas A and M was given a guided tour of part of Upper Salts He is working on pollen from about 50 paleofecal specimens collected in Salts Cave and wanted to see the places from which they came All radiocarbon determinations in this report are uncalibrated, based on the Libby half-life and 1950 base date


Figure 19. N Survey in Lower Salts, Flint-Mammoth Cave System. Photo by M. Elliott. On November 2, 1977, the University of Georgia Radiocarbon Laboratory released (once again by phone, with a follow-up letter) a series of four radiocarbon dates on samples from archeological sites in and near MCNP. These are: UGA 1837 GRS 18 Patch Shelter UGA 1838 GRS 12 Blue Spring Hollow Rockshelter UGA 1839 GRS 21 Crumps Cave, A-4-1 UGA 1840 GRS 21 Crumps Cave, A-8-1 1425 100 B .P. A D 525 820 80 B.P A .D. 1130 1920 150 B.P. A.D. 30 2365 95 B .P. 415 B.C. Ken Carstens was pleased to find the dates were close to what he expected and hoped, on the basis of the artifacts from the sites and levels in question. I/, Northern Tennessee In November, 1976, and in February, May, June, and September, 1977, we made trips to Jaguar Cave the Tennessee cave briefly described in the 1976 Annual Report (p. 46) to continue recording the human footprints and the paleontological remains found by NSS cavers last year (Fig. 21). Ron Wilson organized the paleontological trips, and Pat Watson and Louise Robbins organized the archeological ones. Stalwart support was provided by several NSS cavers and CRF Joint Venturers, both regular and archeological. Pat and John Wilcox masterminded the first detailed mapping of the footprints on a highly successful trip (Feb 19, 1977). 41 We have now measured a total of 127 individual footprints and have casts of feet belonging to 6 different individuals (there were probably 9 of these prehistoric spelunkers). Three radiocarbon dates on bits of cane charcoal from Indian Trail (or Aborigine Avenue), as the footprint passage is called, and from the main trunk near the entrance to Indian Trail were released by the Smithsonian Radiocarbon Laboratory: SI3OO3 Indian Trail, survey 4410 75 B .P. stations 1815-1816-1817 2460 B.C SI3OO5 Tremendous Trunk between 4530 85 B.P. stations 403 and 404 2580 B.C 813006 Tremendous Trunk between 4695 85 B.P. stations 403 and 404 2745 B C Excellent photos were taken of the footprint passage by Roger Brucker with the assistance of Mark Elliott (Figs 17 and 22). We are very grateful to Bill Deane, Lou Simpson, and their caving colleagues for introducing us to this remarkable archeological situation and for providing us with guide service and maps. The owners of the land over the cave-Mr. J. C. Copley, Mr. J. L Williams, and Ms.s Lera and Loma Pilehave been exceedingly kind and hospitable. II/, Indian Cave on the Mammoth Onyx property near Horse Cave, Kentucky Thanks to the interest of Mrs. Ruth Pohl and William T. Austin, salvage excavation was carried out in a rock shelter on the Mammoth Onyx property during December, 1977. Unfortunately the deposits had been badly disturbed by vandals However, a small flotation series was recovered as well as a few sherds, numerous chert flakes, and some fragments of animal bone Near


Figure 20. Complex passages of N Survey in Lower Salts, Flint-Mammoth Cave System Photo by M Elliott. the site is a chert outcrop, probably used by the aboriginal inhabitants of the rock shelter as a source of raw material. There is s ome interest now among archeologists and physicists in trying to find source areas for specific chert fragments in archeological sites by means of trace element analyses. We are exploring the pos s ibility of obtaining such information for the MCNP area. IV. A c tivities of the Shellmound Archeological Project [SMAP] in th e Big Bend of Green River near Logansport, Kentuckv As indic a ted in the 1975 and 1976 Annual Reports, members of the CR F Archeological Project under the direction of W Marquardt and P. Watson have been carrying out work in the Big Bend that is closely related to our projects in and adjacent to MCNP On the present evidence accumulation of the well known shell mounds along the banks of the Green River some 40 to 50 mile s west of Mammoth Cave occurred prior to and during th e time of maximum prehistoric spelunking and mining in the great caves within the Park. We first began work on the shellmounds to obtain botanical remains (by flotation of the a rcheological deposits; see pp 61-63 of CR F Annual Report for 1975) that we could compare with the very interesting and detailed plant use information present in the dry caves of 42 Mammoth Cave National Park. We were very surprised when project archeo-botanists, Gary Crawford, Clark Erickson, and Richard Yarnell found fragments of cucurbit rind in several levels of the two shellmound sites we test-dug in 1972 and 1974. Our radiocarbon dates and the locations of the cucurbit remains are summarized below (Table 7). In May and June, 1977, SMAP was joined by a geo archeologist, Julie Stein, who is an advanced graduate student in the Center for Ancient Studies at the University of Minnesota. She is working on the recent (geologically speaking) history of Green River, especially in the Big Bend area, and is concerned to relate that to the depositional history of the shell mounds Her fieldwork to date (summer and early fall, 1977) includes a great deal of soil sampling on and around the mounds (Bt 5 and Bt 11; the Carlston Annis and the Russell mounds) by means of a hand-operated coring device ; much geomorphological recon noitering in and near the Big Bend; consultation with soils and geological personnel in Mammoth Cave National Park (Jim Quinlan and his assistants), Morgantown, Bowling Green, Lexington, and Louisville, and the collection of two sediment cores (each one well over 8 m in length) from the bottom of Taylor Lake (a cutoff meander of the Green River inside the Big Bend) Julie's advisor, Professor H. E Wright, Jr. directed the


TABLE7. Proveniences of Cucurbit Remains and Radiocarbon Determinations for Bt 5 (the Carlston Annis site) and for Oh 13 (the Bowles site). PRELIMINARY RESULTS: DATA NOT FINAL Site: Cucurbit Proveniences Radiocarbon Determinations & Proveniences : : : (trench and level) : (trench and level) : Bt5 A IV-9 (possible seed, id not certain) : 85-100 cm below surface : A 1-8 4040 180 B.P UCLA 1845B C 1-3 (rind frags ) 40-50 cm C 1-6 (rind frags ) 80 -90 cm C 1-20 (rind frags ) 220-235 cm C 13-7 (rind frags.) 80-95 cm C 13-8 (rind frags ) 95-110 cm C 13-11 (possible seed, id. not certain) 130-140 cm : 105-120cm 2090B.C A 1 -10 4250 80 B P UCLA 1845A 135-150 cm 2300 B C C35 75-85 cm 3530 80 B.P UCLA 2117B 1380 B .C. C13-12 4500B.P. UCLA21171 137-148 cm 2550 B C C 13-15 2515 80 B .P. UCLA2117D 161-171 cm 565 B .C. Oh13 A 3-5 (rind frags ) 65-80 cm A 3-12 (rind frags ) 160-175 cm A 3-15 (rind frags.) 200-210 cm A 2-2 1820OOB. P UCLA2117E (burial just A.D.130 below plow zone) A 3-7 93-100 cm A 3-11 140-160 cm 2420 200 B.P 470 B C 3440 80 B P 1490 B.C. UCLA 2117F UCLA 2117G ___________________________ a ______________________________ (Botanical identifications by Gary Crawford and Richard A. Yarnell; radiocarbon d e terminations are uncalibrated, and are calculated on the basis of the Libby half-life and the 1950 base date The dates were funded by a Washington University Faculty Research Grant) 43


Figure 21. Entrance to Jaguar Cave, Tennessee Photo by R. Brucker highly successful coring operation which took place October 8 1977. We do not yet know, however, how old the sediment is nor what its pollen content may be. The most recent addition to the SMAP staff is Professor David Baerreis, an environmental archeologist from the University of Wi s consin, one of whose specialties is the use of tiny snails from a r c heological sites as climatic indicators Professor Baerreis, tog e ther with several student archeologists, spent the weekend of O c tober 14-16 collecting modern snails for a comparative collection from the Big Bend region A s always, our work in the Big Bend was greatly enhanced by the enthusiastic interest and kindness of the residents of Logansport In particular, we are grateful to the owners of Bt 5 and Bt 11 Waldemar Annis and Marvin Russellfor their active c ooperation with our work and we are deeply in debt to John L. Thomas, manager of the Thomas Grocery and Postmaster of 44 Logansport, for his fathomless hospitality aid, and assistance V. Future Work We plan to continue the activities outlined in this summary report in both Mammoth Cave National Park and the Big Bend. We still have a great deal of recording of aboriginal debris to do in both Upper and Lower Mammoth, as well as some unfinished work in Salts Cave. In addition, as soon as Ken Carstens completes writing up results to date (his dissertation is scheduled for completion this year), we hope to continue archeological surface survey in and near Mammoth Cave National Park. In the Big Bend we plan to undertake further excavation at one of the shellmounds and also to pursue with Julie Stein and David Baerreis the paleo-environmental work initiated in the last few months


Figure 22. Prehistoric footprint area at end of Indian Trai l in Jaguar Cave. Tennessee Photo by R. Brucker. 45


History Program Figure 23. Cave photographer Wade Highbaugh made this photo of Floyd Collins in 1924 or 1925. The original glass negative is in the possession of Ellis Jones, Cave City, Kentucky 46


Historic and Cultural Aspects of Floyd Collins Roger W. Brucker and Robert K. Murray William Floyd Collins was born in 1887, lived his life on Flint Ridge, and died in Sand Cave in 1925. Perhaps the most widely known of Kentucky cave explorers, efforts to rescue him while trapped in Sand Cave resulted in sensational press coverage. This project is aimed at gathering together the widespread historical accounts of Floyd's entrapment, together with oral reports of Kentucky natives and others who knew Floyd. Between 1957 and 1964 CRF members James Dyer, Louise Storts, E. Robert Pohl and others conducted over 120 hours of interviews with area residents. Some 40 hours of this material relates directly to Collins, his early life, and life in general on Flint Ridge During 20 years of exploration, nearly every passage that Floyd visited in the Flint Ridge area has been revisited (Floyd wrote his name on the walls). Old photos have been located. The cave itself has been studied. What is emerging is an accurate, less sensational account based on historical research and investigation The objective is to place Floyd Collins in a cultural context of the 20's and to strip away the distortions and myths from repeated tales of his adventures. Saltpetre Mining Sites in Historic Mammoth Cave Duane De Paepe Little has been known of the areal extent of Mammoth Cave circa 1812 nitrate mining, and current investigations have been a compilatio n of fragmented data from multiple sources. Two research media were employed: primary l iterat ure search and careful field reconnaissance. Blane (1828), who probably received his information from the former superintendent of the saltpetre venture, stated that 500 pounds of saltpetre were manufactured daily at Mammoth Cave. Meriam (1844), directly involved in the nitre operations, wrote that the cave was extensively mined during the period 1810 to 1814. However, we now know that periodic cottage production had occurred in the entrance vestibule since the late eighteenth century, at which time Imlay (1797) declared that "this earth is discovered in greater plenty on the waters of Green River, than it is in any other part of Kentucky." Field observations continue in Mammoth and other park area caves to distinguish circa 1812 nitrate mining sites from later periods of excavations, which have continued into contemporary times It is expected that these studies will lead to a saltpetre mining features tax onomy, which will help to distinguish these features from other types of cultural disturbance in cavern sediments Rock stacked walls, along one or both sides of a passage mined for "petre dirt" are a diagnostic trait of saltpetre mining. At one time, essentially continuous rock stacked walls spanned the distance from Houchin 's Narrows to Methodist Church Examples are still to be found along Broadway, Cyclops Gateway and Audubon Ave. Locally, Coach Cave and Dixons Cave also exhibit this feature. Sometimes, the on-site hand sorting of loose rock fragments from the dry "petre dirt" resulted in a shallow pit, ringed with the accumulated debris Harvey's Ave and Blue Spring Branch contain this type of mining evidence, as do several other area saltpetre caves. Regarding Harve y's Ave Lee (1835) stated that "it is only remarkable for the heaps of broken stones in different places, which appear to have been sifted Mid way along Blue Spring Branch investigation was cond u cted of the extensive shallow pit mining with attendant gravel sorting beds, a consequence of soil sifting Sediments in the bottom of these excavations reacted strongly to a nitrate spot test. The shallow pit mining here is identical to sites in Harvey's Ave. with circular rock stacking The Gothic-Gratz Ave complex certainly was also 47 heavily mined but intense visitor developments have since removed any evidence. Old reports (Anon, 1816) describe a plank bridge into Gothic Ave. from Main Cave, over which workers could transport heavy sacks to the hoppers below. Meriam (1844) notes "the earth dug up in the Gothic Ave", and Bird (1837) documents the interesting account of a lost miner working in the Salts Room off Gratz Ave In the Gothic Ave extension opposite Booth's Amphitheatre, investigations in July 1977 discovered clear mattock marks, the only known nitre mining tool imprints in Mammoth Cave. The tool blade resembles those noted from Long Cave in the park and other examples from Kentucky and Indiana salt petre caves A large scale, intensive labor effort was employed in the spacious cave avenues near the leaching hoppers, with similar methods being used simultaneously by the same management in adjacent Dixons Cave. Much smaller area mining ventures, such as Forestville Saltpetre Cave, were forced to expend efforts at mining in sinuous crawlways, thus greatly impeding profitability It may be concluded that the most significant of Mammoth Cave's mining sites were in relatively close proximity to the two vat complexes Main Cave, beyond the Star Chamber, was apparently unproductive because of massive floor breakdown That new potential sites were sou ght out is illustrated by Bird (1837), who told of the miner lowered into Mammoth Dome from Little Bat Ave in search of prospective deposits An economic maxim applied to saltpetre mining mandates that leach water be transported to the collected" petre dirt," rather than conversely. In effect, the terminus of the leach water supply at the hoppers caused the location of the most significant mining sites. Only the advanced technology of the pumping stations permitted the successful application of this factor The original pre 1812 saltp etre operat ion was highly restricted, as were most nitre caves of the period, because the miners were forced to carry the bulky cave sediments to the water source, in this case at the mouth of the cavern where the original vats were located The owners of Mammoth Cave, stimulated with the profitability of their production, saw no loss in demand in the foreseeable future and were therefore prone to consider expansion of mining sites deeper into the cave. Again, the location of new leach water sources must have influenced their thinking. Following deeper


H'STORIC MAMMOTH CAVE SALTPETRE MINING SITES Hi.toric ["tra",. Figure 24. Historic Saltpetre Mining sites in Mammoth Cave. Into Main Cave, the Cataracts furnish the next possible water source and it is in this area where several mining sites were attempted. Several early accounts allude to saltpetre mining in distant extensions of the cave, and one detailed report (Anon, 1810) interestingly notes the "nitrate of lime in much greater abundance than before ... Blue Spring Branch is apparently the furthest penetration into the cave by mining activity The Side Cuts along Main Cave were documented as also being mined by Hovey and Call (1912) but all signs of these dig sites have since vanished. The locations of historic saltpetre mining sites are given in Figure 24. The survey of these saltpetre mining sites in Mammoth Cave has shown that their areal distribution corresponds rather precisely with that of the circa 1810 "Eye-Draught of the Mammoth Cave" map (De Paepe, 1976) which functioned as a prospectus to attract capital investment in an expansive exploita tion of the nitrate resources. REFERENCES Anon (1810). "The subterranean voyage, or the Mammoth Cave, partially explored The Enquirer, Richmond, Va. 6(109) : 61, 48 April 20, 1810. Anon (1816), "Mammoth Cave." Massachusetts Spy or Worcester Gazette, Worcester, Mass July 17, 1816. Bird, Robert Montgomery (1837). "The Mammoth Cave of Kentucky The Atlantic Monthly Magazine, May-June, 1837: 434-530 Blane, William N (1828). Travels Through the United States and Canada, Baldwin and Co. London : p 266. De Paepe, Duane (1976). "Survey interpretation of the Circa 1810 An eye-draught of the Mammoth Cave' map", Cave Research Foundation 1976 Annual Reoort : 49-50 Hovey Horace C and Richard E Call (1912). Mammoth Cave of Kentucky, John P Morton & Co. Louisville: 60-67. Imlay, Gilbert (1797). Topographical Description of the Western Territory of North America, Printed for Debrett, London : p 135. Lee, Edmund F (1835), Notes on the Mammoth Cave, to Accompany a Map, James & Gazlay, Cincinnati : p. 23. Meriam, Ebenezer (1844). "Mammoth Cave" New York Municipal Gazette 1 : 317-321, Feb. 21,1844


Evaluation of the Hauer Collection, National Park Service Duane De Paepe The Hauer collection represents an important assemblage of saltpetre artifacts, now housed at Mammoth Cave National Park. An evaluation of the collection in consideration of the Scope of Museum Collection Statement for Mammoth Cave was made during July, 1977 to determine interpretive and research criteria Examples of several implement types are directly applicable to the Mammoth Cave regional nitrate mining period. Among these are a short handled iron bladed mattock tool imprinted clay samples, lighting materials wooden pry bars and paddles Specific specimens were rec ommended for inclusion in future visitor interpretive diaramas i n the park. The History of the Peoples and Caves of Flint Ridge, Kentucky Stanley D. Sides In 1971, an active field program was initiated to record systematically the names and dates written in the caves of Flint Ridge and to document their exploration history. An article resulting from this effort was published in The Journal of Spelean His tory. Colossal Cavern was seemingly discovered in July of 1895, when Pike Chapman or others discovered Grand Avenue b y entering Adair-Woodson Cave and exploring beyond Colossal Dome The history of commercial development beyond Col ossal Dome however, has remained problematic A deed filed i n the Edmonson County Clerk s office on August 28, 1895, gives L W Hazen a one-third interest in Adair-Woodson Cave The owners, in consideration of Hazen' S e xploring and clearing passageways in the cave gav e this interest and also total control of commercial development to Hazen. Four months later, Hazen sold his interest to the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, embroiling all parties in litigation 49 Cav e passage s around Colossal Dome and the Pearly Pool Rout e were studied in 1977. Several significant dates were recorded at the top of the breakdown at the "Grand Avenue of Flowers" (Hovey 1912 Map, Fig. 25). Apparent commercial v i s itor names and dates can be found from August, September, and O c t o ber of 1895. No earlier dates have been found in the c ave, exc ept i n the Bedquilt area. From this it seems clear that H azen ind eed developed this section of the cave quickly, and that th e Passages in Adair-Woodson Cave were suitable for tourist tra vel i n August, 1895. V i sitors probably ended their tour at the breakdown, where their names and dates were recorded The trail was later blasted and dug beyond into the Pearly Pool Route In 1978, Adair-Woodson Cave will be e x amined for names and date s in an attempt to further decipher the history of the development of commercialization of Colossal Cavern


COLOSSAL CAVERN CRAWN BY HORACE C. HOVEY FRO M SURVEY BY EDGAR VAUGHAN AND W L MARSHALL SCALE Of FEET 100 1 5 0 200 250 3 0 0 , , Chines e Wall. 2 En/rance to New Disco v ery 3 Entrcm c e t o Wild Co ose Chase and River Region 4 Uncl e Tom s Pool S Lizard Spring 6 T Win Pits 7 Ruins of Carthage '---__ 8 e /) 8 Roc k Island !lOUT. 9 Sandsto(le Tumbledown 10 Ruins of Martinique II Regi ster A venue 12 Starry Heavens and Milky Way. 13 Bearskin Robe 14 Phosphate Mountain 15 Hull of the Creat Western. 16 Catacombs 17 Pulpit Rock. 18 Cascade Pit. 19 Pearly Pool 20 Kangaroo Bend. CRAND AVENUE 0, FLOWERS PEARLy Fig ur e 25. Map o f Col ossa l Caverns, Mammoth Cave N a ti onal P a r k drawn b y H C. H ovey in 1 9 12. 50 REFERENCES Sides, Stanley D (1971) "Early Cav e E xplo r at i o n in Flint Ridge, Kentu c k y : Col ossal Cave a nd the C ol ossa l C avern C ompany." Journ a l of Spelean History 4 : 6 3-6 9 7 4


INTERPRETIVE PROGRAM AND SPECIAL PROJECTS Figure 26. Solutionally-enlarged f racture in Cretaceous limestones Bar r a H o nda Karst, Costa Rica P hoto by S. G. Wells. 51


Horseshoe Mesa, Grand Canyon National Park: Progress Report Robert H. Buecher In March, 1977, the Cave Research Foundation started a baseline study of the caves on Horseshoe Mesa, Grand Canyon National Park. The study is to run one year and the final report is due in Mar ch, 1978. The study is intended as a comprehensive, descriptive s urvey of all the caves in a restricted area of the Grand Canyon The caves of Horseshoe Mesa are believed to be representative of those found throughout the Grand Canyon in the Redwall limestone The study is expected to provide a data base to aid in the management and preservation of caves in the Grand Canyon. At the conclusion of the project. a report will be given to the Park Service It will contain descriptions and co mparisons of: the geology and mineralogy of all of the caves in the study area, the geologic and stratigraphic controls of the caves, the archeological significance of the caves, and fauna found in the caves. Horseshoe Mesa was chosen for its accessibility, varied structural geology and known caves. It is the easy accessibility that has made the Mesa a popular spot for hikers This has led to increased management problems for the Mesa At present. 10 caves are known on, or adjacent to, the Mesa (Fig 27). Total aggregate passage is approximately 3700 feet. Survey work is concentrating on mapping all unmapped caves and upgrading exis ting maps to modern standards To date, we have mapped five caves and upgraded two of the old surveys. Surface surveys are being done to provide the exact locations of each cave and to show the physical relationships between the caves. Geology Our work is beginning to show some of the relationships between the caves and bedrock geology. With the exception of Tse-an Cho all of the caves are located in the upper Y3 of the Redwall limestone, 140 It to 160 It below the surface of the Mesa Seven caves on the west side of the Mesa are associated with a minor fault. They stretch almost continuously for 1100 feet. Parts of the ledge near these caves appear to be the remains of an old cave passage, with old cave sediments and old flowstone exposed. Archeology Eight of the caves have been examined for archeological material. All but two have shown prior use, dating from mining/tourism use in the 1890's. These include dates, wooden ladders and modifications of entrances. Only two of the caves examined have shown any evidence of prehistoric use. Split twig figurines were found in one cave in the early 1950's These figurines were dated at 3000-4000 B P. Utilized flakes and ceramic fragments were found in the talus below one of the caves Prehistoric use of the caves on the Mesa appears to have been quite selective. We hope to be able to determine the factors which attracted prehistoric man to certain of the caves. Biology Five caves have been closely examined for cave fauna Eleven species of invertebrates have been found, including cave crickets, spiders, collembola, mites, psocopteran and beetles One of the beetles is a new cave-adapted species described by Triblehorn in 1975 from specimens collected in 1953 and 1954. Results so far suggest that the cave fauna is limited by moisture rather than food input to the caves. Survey and Assessment of Cave Resources at Buffalo National River, Arkansas R. Pete Lindsley The Buffal o National River is a new park with approximately o n e half of the l ands presently owned by the National Park Service. E xcep t for a handful of caves, the cave resource at the P ark i s almo s t unknown. The objective of this project is to provide the National Park Service with accurate information on the cave resources. Data gathered on the project will be used as an essenti a l input to the management of the cave resource In this way the cave managers can both provide safety to the Park visitors a nd preserve the unique underground ecosystems c ontained within the caves. Goals o f the Buffalo River Proje ct include compiling existing dat a on th e caves from lit erature and local cavers, describing and 52 assessing the major caves, compiling a list of biological species within selected caves and providing data for each cave on a cave inve ntory form. A slide program on the cave resource has been prepared and several of the caves have been surveyed. No new major caves have been discovered. However, numerous small caves have been inventoried and the possibility of major caves being found in the future exists The majority of the caves checked have been located away from the river. By December 1977, over 40 caves and other Karst features were inventoried, biological data were gathered on 25 caves, a list of cave fauna was compiled, and 48 miles on the Buffalo River were examined for caves. Future work will be to continue the cave inventory and survey of cave fauna


m w el.-135' LAND'S END (No.8) SCALE .... ,i .. ', .. J:::::' , '. I -r-, Feet 0 100 200 HORSESHOE MESA WESTSIDE CA ,VES GRAND CANYON NATIONAL PARK PRELIMINARY MAP BELFRY (No.7) No.6 el. -130' .,. ledge IV ORY ( No.4) TUNING FORK ( NO.3) _el. -10' Figure 27. Map of Horseshoe Mesa Westside Caves in the Grand Canyon National Park rhb


The Lilburn Cave Project, King's Canyon National Park, California Stanley R. Ulfeldt Research in Lilburn Cave and the surrounding karst has been conducted under a National Park Service Natural Science Research Project from 1968 to 1976 and is continuing under Cave Research Foundation auspices Phv s ical Seuing Lilburn Cave is situated in Redwood Canyon, Kings Canyon National Park, California The Redwood Creek drainage is entirely within the park and has no habitation The cave is situated at 5200 ft elevation in the center of the canyon and drains the upper 12 sq. miles. Lilburn cave is developed in a lens of black and white banded marble that occupies about 4 sq. miles in the floor of the canyon It is bounded on the east by a granitic pluton and on the west by a metamorphic sequence, both forming ridges 2000 to 3000 feet above the canyon The known cave underlies about one fourth of the karst area and has about 8 miles of surveyed passage The depth of the system is 407 feet. Major passage development is in a north-south direction parallel to the canyon. The system is characterized by high stream canyons with many smaller 54 interconnecting passages. Most of the cave can be traversed without rigging from the traditional entrance, while the Meyer Entrance is a 40 foot p it. Big Spring, the resurgence of Lilburn Cave, is the only known ebb and flow spring with access to the upstream end via the cave. It has a base flow of 12 cfs with maximum pulse of 200 cfs Research The science program is becoming more active with three new geologic studies initiated this past season. A coordinated research program with California State University at Fresno is being undertaken, and a paleontological reconaissance of the cave has been started under this program Details on the other research projects are outlined in this annual report. Cartographic efforts have been directed toward preparing detailed base maps needed for the scientific programs. Existing computer programs are being updated to run on a new computer system, complete with plotter, donated to CRF. The total surveyed length of Lilburn Cave stands at 38,969 feet slope distance. New survey this year was 1189 feet.


PUBLICATIONS AND MANAGEMENT Figure 28. Cave c r ickets (Had enoecus subt erraneous) at the Austin E n trance of the F lint-Mammoth Cave System. Pho t o by W.C. Welbourn 55


BOOKS Meloy, Harold (1977), Mummie s of Mammoth Cave Revised ed., Micron Pub. Co., 42 pp 1 map, 8 illus THESES Jagnow, David H (1977). "Geologic factors influencing speleogenesis in the Capitan reef complex, New Mexico and Texas", MS . thesis, Un i v of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 201 p Palmer, Margaret V (1976). "Ground-water flow patterns i n limestone solution conduits", M A thesis, State Univ of New York, Oneonta, N Y., 150 p. ARTICLES Gius e ffi, S., T C Kane and W F Duggleby (in press). Genetic variability in Neaphaenops tel/kampfl! (Coleoptera : Carabidae)." Evolution Harmon, R. S H.P. Schwarcz, and D C Ford (in press) "Stable isotope geochemistry of speleothems and cave waters from the Flint Mammoth Cave System, Kentucky: Implications for terrestrial climate change during the period 230,000 to 100,000 years B P." Journal of Geology ----(in press). "Late Pleistocene sea level history of Bermuda Quaternary Research. ----(in press) "Interglacial chronology of the Rocky and Mackenzie Mountains between latitudes 40 and 62 N based upon 230Th/234U dating of calcite speleothems Canadian Journal of Earth Science ----, P. Thompson, H.P. Schwarcz, and D C Ford (in press). "Late Pleistocene paleoclimates of North America as inferred from stable isotope studies of speleothems." Quaternary Research. ----and R L Curl (in press). "Preliminary results on growth rate and paleoclimate studies of a stalagmite from Ogle Cave, New Mexico NSS Bull Hill, C.A. and P G Eller (1977). "Soda-niter in North Central Arizona Earth Cracks." NSS Bull 39(4) : 113-116 Hobbs Horton H. III (1976). "Observations on the cave-dwelling crayfishes of Indiana." Pages 405-414 in James W. Avault, Jr., ed., Freshwater Crayfish Baton Rouge, Louisiana : Louisiana St. Univ Div Cont. Ed. ---(1976). "On the troglobitic shrimps of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico (Decapoda : Atyidae and Palaemonidae)." Smith. Contnb. Zoo/., 240:1-23 (with Horton H Hobbs Jr. ) ----(1976). "Molt cycle, size and growth in Orconectes inermis inermis Cope (Decapoda: Cambaridae)." Virginia Jour. Sci., 27(2) : 44 (abstr ) ----(1976). "The reproductive cycle of Orconectes inermis inermis Cope (Decapoda : Cambar idae) in Indiana." Virginia Jour. S ci., 27(4) : 44 (abstr ) (1976). "The freshwater decapod crustaceans (Palaemonidae, Cambaridae) of the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina." Savannah River Plant Special Publication, 1 -63 (with James H Thorp and Gilbert E Anderson) ----(1977). "Allochthonous matter in caves." Bloomington Indiana Grotto Newsl ., 12(4):51 -53. ----(1977). "A review of the troglobitic decapod crustaceans in the Americas." Smith Contrib. Zool., 244: 1-183 (with Horton H Hobbs, Jr. and Margaret A. Daniel) ----(1977). "Organisms and ecosystems." NSS News 35(5) :102. ----(in press). "Biology of the cave crayfish Orconectes inermis testii (Hay) (Decapoda : Cambaridae) in Indiana." NSS Bull ----(in press). A preliminary report on the history of biospeleology in Indiana." NSS Bul/. ----(in press). Studies of the cave crayfish Or co nectes inermis inermis Cope (Decapoda : Cambaridae) Part II: Home ranges. Kastning Ernst H. (1976). "Cave hermits : vignettes of America's past Jour. Spelean History 9(1) : 17-21. ----(1977). "Cave hermits : vignettes of America's past in Werner E. (ed.), Proceedings of the 1976 NSS Annual Conv e ntion, Morgantown, West Virginia : West Virginia Speleological Survey, Morgantown, West Virginia, p. 35-37 ----(1977). Hydrologic and geomorphic aspects of karst features in the Blaine Gypsum (Permian), Red River basin, northwest Texas." In W e rner, E (ed. ) Proceedings of the 1976 NSS Annual Convention, Morgantown West Virginia : West Virginia Speleological Survey, Morgantown, West Virginia p 39-41. ----(1977). "Gran i t ic karst and pseudokarst, Llano County Texas with special reference to Enchan te d Rock Cave." In W e rner E (ed. ) Proceedings of the 1976 NSS Annua l Convention, Morgantown, West Virginia: West Virginia Speleological Survey, Morgantown W est Virginia p 43-45 ----(1977). "Lest e r H o w e's fabulous Garden of Eden Cave." In Sloane, B. (ed.), Cavers, Caves, and Caving : Rutgers Univ Press, N e w Brunswick, New Jersey p. 265-291. 56


----(1977). "Karst landforms and speleogenesis in Precambrian granite, Llano County, Texas (U.S.A.)''' In Ford, T D (ed.), Proceedings of the Seventh International Speleological Congress, Sheffield England, p 253-255. Marquardt, William and Patty Jo Watson (1977). "Current State Research : Kentucky. Shell mound Archaeological Project." Southeastern Archaeological Conference Newsletter, 19(2):4 ----(in press). "Excavation and Recovery of Biological Remains from Two Archaic Shell Middens in Western Kentucky." Bulletin of the Southeastern Archaeological Conference Meloy, Harold (1977). "Stephen Bishop, The Man and the Legend In Sloane B. (ed'), Cavers, Caves and Caving : Rutgers Univ Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey, p. 159-176 ---(1977). "Little Alice and Lost John." In Sloane B (ed.), Cavers, Caves, and Caving: Rutgers Univ Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey, pp. 159-176 Palmer, Arthur N. (1977), "Influence of geologic structure on groundwater flow and cave development in Mammoth Cave National Park, U.S.A." Internatl Assoc. of Hydrogeologists, 12th Memoirs: 405-414. ----, MargaretV Palmer, and J. Michael Queen (1977), "Speleogenesis in the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico : Gypsum replacement of carbonate by brine mixing Proc. of 7th Internatl. Speleological Congress, Sheffield, England: 333-336 ---(1977). "Geology and origin of the caves of Bermuda." Proc. of 7th Internatl Speleological Congress, Sheffield, England : 336-339. Poulson, T.L. and T.C. Kane (1977), "Ecological diversity and stability: principles and management." Proc /I Natl Cave Mgmt. Symposium. Speleobooks, Albuquerque, N M., 18-21. Poulson, T.L. (1977). "A tale of two spiders Bull Eco!. Soc. A mer. 58(2):57. Watson, Patty Jo (1977). "Prehistoric Miners of the Flint-Mammoth Cave System." Proceedings of the 6th Internat!. Congr of Speleology, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia, September 1973. Vol. VI, Sub-section Eb: 147-149. Wells, Steve G. (1977). "Fluvial Geomorphic Response to Groundwater Hydrology in Low Relief Karst." G.S .A. Abstracts with Programs 9(7) : 1220-1221. Van Zant, T., T.C Kane and T .L. Poulson (in press) "Body size differences in carabid cave beetles." Am. Nat PAPERS GIVEN AT PROFESSIONAL MEETINGS National Speleological Society Meeting. (Alpena, Michigan, August, 1977) Kastning, E.H. "Early accounts of Howe's Cave, Schoharie County, New York: a review of the pre-1900 literature." Meloy, Harold "The legend of Stephen Bishop "Historic Maps of Mammoth Cave." 7th International Speleological Congress (Sheffield, England, Sept. 1977) Kastning, E H "Karst Landforms and speleogenesis in Precambrian granite, Llano County, Texas (USA)," Geological Society of America Annual Meeting (Seattle, Washington, Nov 1977) Wells, S.G "Fluvial geomorphic response to groundwater hydrology in low relief karst." American Institute of Biological Sciences (E. Lansing, Michigan) Poulson, T .L. "A tale of two spiders." 57


PROFESSIONAL, INTERPRETIVE, AND ADVISORY PRESENTATIONS Brucker, Roger W. November, 1976. "The Longest Cave." Talk, Explorers Club, Fairborn Ohio. ----February, 1977. "The Longest Cave." Talk Kiwanis Club, Xenia, Ohio. ----March, 1977. "Ecol ogy of the Flint-Mammoth Cave System Talk, Glen H e len Assoc i ation, Yello w Sp rings, Ohio. ----March, 1977. "The L ongest Cave." Interv i ews on several L ouisvil l e radio and TV stations . ----March, 1977. "The L ongest Cave." T alk Hamilton Book Club, Hamilton Ohio ----May, 1977. Th e Mammoth Cave National Park Maste r Plan. A presentation by John P Freeman, Kip K Duchon, and R oge r W Brucker at the Southeast Region Office, National Park Service Atlanta, Georgia. ----Septembe r 1977. Th e Mammoth Cave National Park Master Plan." A discussion by Stan ley D. Side s and Roger W. Brucker with a group of citizens from P ark City, Kentucky at a breakfast meeting. ----October, 1977. "Writing The L ongest Cave." Talk, Yellow Springs Libr ary Assoc i at i on, Yellow Sp r ings, Ohio. ----November, 1977. T he Longest Cave Talk Museum of Natural History, Cincinnati, Ohio. De Paepe, Duane July 2,1977. "Saltp etre Mining in Mammoth CaveThe First American Gold Rush." Public l ecture at Mammoth Cave Nationa l P ark. Hill, Carol A. D ecembe r 10,1977 "Mineralogy and the Caver-or What to do when you see a strange mine ral on you r nex t c ave trip." Southwestern R egional, National Speleologica l Society Kane, T .C. March, 1977. "Resource Par titioning in Carabid Cave Beetles." Dept. of Biological Sciences, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, III. ---. November, 1977. "The Ecology and E vo luti o n of Cave Animals," Cincinnati Natural History Museum, Cinc inn at i OH. Me l oy, Harold May 29,1977. "Early History of Mammoth Cave." Histo r y seminar for CRF and invited National Park Ser vice personnel within M ammo th Cave, including talk s at the Entran ce, Narrows Rotunda Darnall's Way, Broadway, Goth ic, Gratz, Pensacola, Ganter, and Audubon Avenues. ----. July 16, 1977. "Saga of Mammoth Cave." Nationa l P ark Service seminar with public invited Palmer, Arthu r N July 1977. Th e story of the world's g r eates t caves." Public lectu re, Mammoth Cave National Park. November, 1977. "Speleogenetic provinces of the United States B anquet address, B oard of Governor s meeting, Nati onal Speleo l ogical Society, Saratoga, N. Y. Poulson, T L "Why is the Methusaleh Strategy so prevalent among aquatic cave animals?" Biology D epartmen t Texas Tech Univ., dis tingui shed visiting scientist ---" Models of coevolu ti o n in prey / predator systems: Cave c r ickets (Hadenoecus) and cave beetles (Neaphaenops)." Bio l ogy Depa r tment, Texas T ech. U niv., distinguished v isiting scientist. ---"Mechanisms of regressive evo luti on in cave an imals." Bio l ogy D epa r t ment T exas T ech. Univ. distinguished v isitin g scienti st. ---"Why is the Methusaleh Strategy so prevalent among aquatic cave animals?" B io logy D epartment, U of St. Louis ---"A tale of two spide rs." Zoology D epartment, U of Chicago. ---"Mechanisms of r egressive evo lution in cave animals." E vo luti o nar y Morphology Discussion Gr o up U of Chicago. ---"Biol ogy and E co logy of cave anima ls." Talk g i ven at Mammoth Cave National Park. ---"Caves as natural laborator ies: geology, mineralogy, biology, and archeology." AIBS C lub at St. Xavier College Chicago. W a t son, P .J June 20, 1977. "Ar cheology of the Mammoth Cave Area." Talk presented at the Visitor Center, Mammoth Cave N ational Park. ----. November 4 1977. "Late Archaic Shellmounds and the B eginn ings of H ortic ulture in W estern Kentucky Lectu r e presented to the Department of Anthropo l ogy, Southern Methodist University, D allas, T exas ---, David Baerr els, William Marquardt, and Diana Path October 15, 1977. "Cave Miners and Early H o r ticu l turists of Western Kentu c ky Lecture presented at the Logansport Community Center. We l bourn, W Cal vin January 1977. "Cave Fauna of New Mexico Southwestern R egion Meeting ----. May 1977. "Cave F auna of Carlsbad Caverns N ational P a rk." National Park Service Seasonal Tr aining Session, Carlsbad Caverns National Park Wells Steve G. July 1977. Th e World 's Longest Cave." Presentation given to th e Sandia Grotto Albuquerque, New Mexico 58


SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS Carstens, Kenneth (1977). "Three Springs Pumphouse : An Assessment of Damage." Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky. Manuscript report assessing damage done to the Three Springs Pumphouse rockshelter by Job Corps vandals, winter 1976-1977; 34 pages. Marquardt, William, Patty Jo Watson, Linda Gorski, and Alan May (1977). "A Cultural Resources Assessment for a Proposed Pipeline in Mammoth Cave National Park." Cave Research Foundation manuscript report submitted to the Superintendent, Mammoth Cave National Park, March, 1977. Meloy, H arold (1977). "Historic Cave Tour Mammoth Cave." (folded map with text) National Park Concessions, Inc., Mammoth Cave, Ky. Watson, Patty Jo (1976). Report to the Superintendent, Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, on an Archaeological Survey Conducted December 12 and 13, 1976, at the Proposed Location for Recreation Pavilion, Volleyball Court and Seasonal Quarters, Maintenance Area, Mammoth Cave National Park. ----(1977). "Cultural Resour ces Assessment of Proposed Small Parking Lot in Res identi a l Area, Mammoth Cave National Park." Cave Research Foundation manuscript report submitted to the Superintendent, Mammoth Cave National Park July, 1977. 59


1977 Fellowship and Grants Awarded The 1977 CRF Fellowship was awarded to Mr. Ernst Kastning Jr. of the Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas-Aust i n for his PhD dissertation research : "Geomorphology and Hydrogeology of the Edwards Plateau Karst, Central Texas Th i s study will be the first comprehensive investigation of a major karst area in the southwestern United States. Research grants were awarded to : -Mr. Edward Lisowski of the Department of Entomology, University of IIlinois-:Urbana-Champaign for his thesis research : "Ecological Genetics of Cave and Spring Populations of Isopods from Western Kentucky, and Southern Illinois and Indiana." Mr. Kenneth Cole of the Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona for his PhD research : "Fossil Pack rat Deposits in the Horseshoe Mesa of the Grand Canyon, Arizona." In 1977, an In-house Grant was given to Mr. Duane De Paepe of South Bend, Indiana, for his research : "Economic Geography of the Mammoth Cave National Park Regional Saltpetre Industry The CRF In-house Grant will be made available from time to time when researchers who are associated with CRF and are not working on degree related research need financial support. The CR F support for research this year has been significant. The Cave Research Foundation continues to be the leader in supporting karst-related dissertation and thesis research Additionally CRF has finally established an internally sponsored resear c h program to aid worthy, non-degree studies (a goal established in 1973). 60


Management Structure DIRECTORS W Calvin Welbourn President Roger E McClure, Treasurer Steve G Wells, Chief Scientist Charles F Hildebolt, Operations Manager for the Central Kentucky Area Roger W Brucker OFFICERS AND MANAGEMENT PERSONNEL Guadalupe Escarpment Area Management Personnel: Manager Personnel Cartography Field Station Finance and Supply Coordinator Log Keeper and Survey Book Coordinator Safety Central Kentucky Area Management Personnel: Manager Cartography Field Station Log Keeper Personnel Safety Vertical Supplies Supplies Lilburn Cave Project Management Personnel : Manager Cartography Personnel Safety 61 Rondal R Bridgemon Secretary R Pete Lindsley, New Projects Operations Manager Elbert F Bassham Operations Manager for the Guadalupe Escarpment Area Patty Jo Watson Elbert F. Bassham John S McLean Robert H Buecher Ron Kerbo Karen Wei bourn Robert G Babb, II Don P Morris Charles F Hildebolt Richard B Zopf Robert O. Eggers, Roger L McMillan Jennifer A. Anderson Walter A Lipton Lewis Dickinson, M D Donald E Coons Tomislav M Gracan i n Stan Ulfeldt Ellis Hedlund Luther Perry Howard Hurtt


Operating Committees Adminis tration Committee : Sets goals, identifies problems, and evaluates progress in the operation of the Foundation Present membership is: R. Pete Lindsley, Chairman Rondal R Bridgemon Roger W. Brucker Patty Jo Watson W Calvin Welbourn Steve G Wells Finan c e : Drafts Foundation budgets, provides advice to Treasurer, and seeks sources of funds to support Foundation programs Present membership is: Roger E McClure, Chairman Roger W Brucker Charles E Hildebolt Stanley D. Sides Gordon L. Smith W Calvin Welbourn Karen H Welbourn Interpr e tation and Information : Deals with the dispersal of information in a form suitable for the public. The output of the c ommittee has mainly taken the form of training sessions for guides and naturalists and the preparation of interpretive materials and trail guides for Park use. Present membership is: Thomas L. Poulson, Chairman John W Hess, Jr. Carol H. Hill William B White W Calvin Welbourn Steve G Wells C o n s ervation: Is the Foundation's liaison with all aspects of the conservation movement, including Wilderness Hearings, and maintaining contact with conservation organizations Present membership is: Roger W. Brucker, Chairman William P. Bishop Rondal R. Bridgemon Joseph K Davidson John P F,' eeman Stan ley D Sides Philip M Smith Richard A. Watson Initiative s: I s a specia l committee charged with stimulating thought about "provacative and risk" future directions. Present memb e rship is: Stanley D. Sides, Chairman Elbert Bassham Philip M. Smith Stan Ulfeldt Richard A Watson Steve G Wells 62


Field Operations Number of Number of Frequency of AREA Expeditions Field Days JV Attendance Mammoth Cave National Park 32 90 453 Guadalupe Escarpment 10 16 116 Carlsbad Caverns National Park Bureau of Land Management Lincoln National Forest Buffalo National River 7 26 37 Big Bend National Park 2 5 10 Grand Canyon National Park 5 7 26 Horseshoe Mesa 63


Contributors To This Report Dr. Elbert F. Bassham Box 437 Presidio, TX 79845 Mr. Roge r W. Brucker 445 W South College St. Yellow Springs, OH 45387 Mr. Robert H Buecher 2208 Sparkman Tucson AZ 85716 Mr. Kenneth L Cole Dept. of Geosciences University of Arizona Tuc son, AZ 85721 Mr. Duane DePaepe 1130 East Wayne, South South Bend, IN 46615 Dr. David J DesMarais Chemical Evolution Branch AMES Research Center Moffett Field, CA 94035 Dr P Gary Eller P .O. Box 47 Los Alamos, N M 87544 Dr Russell S. Harmon Dept. o f Geology Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824 Mr P e ter Hauer (Deceased) Dr. H or ton H Hobbs, III Dept. o f Biology Wittenberg University Springfield, OH 45501 Dr. Thomas C. Kane Dept. of Biological Sciences Brodie Science Complex Univer s ity of Cincinnati Cincinnati, OH 45221 Mr. Ernst H Kastning Dept of Geological Sciences Univer s ity of TexasAustin Austin, TX 78712 Ms Karen L Lindsley 5507 Boca Raton Dallas TX 75230 Mr. R. Pete Lindsley 5507 Boca Raton Dallas, TX 75230 Ms. Gail McCoy 1324 Randol Ave San Jose, CA 95126 Mr. Harold Meloy P.O. Box 454 Shelbyville, IN 46176 Dr Robert K. Murray Dept. of History 816 Liberal Arts Penn State University University Park, PA 16802 Mr. Duane R Packer Woodward-Clyde Consultants Three Embarcadero Center San Francisco, CA 94111 Dr Arthur N Palmer Dept. of Earth Sciences State University College Oneonta, NY 13820 Ms Margaret V. Palmer Dept. of Earth Sciences State University College Oneonta, NY 13820 Dr Thomas L Poulson Dept of Biological Sciences Box 4348 University of Illinois-Chicago Circle Chicago, IL 60680 Dr J. Michael Queen, Jr. Dept. of Geological Sciences University of California Santa Baraba, CA 93106 64 Mr. Edward N Lisowski Dept. of Entomology University of Illinois-Urbana-Champaign Champaign, IL 61820 Mr. Bruce W Rogers U S Geological Survey Br W Environmental Geology 345 Middlefield Road Menlo Park, CA 94025 Dr Stanley D. Sides, M D 2014 Beth Drive Cape Girardeau, MO 63701 Dr John C Tinsley U .S. Geological Survey Br. W Environmental Geology 345 Middlefield Road Menlo Park, CA 94025 Mr. Stanley R. Ulfeldt 780 W est Grand Ave Oakland, CA 94612 Dr Patty Jo Watson Dept. of Anthropology Washington University St. Louis, MO 63130 Mr. W. Calvin Welbourn 306 Sandia Road, N.W. Albuquerque, NM 87107 Dr Steve G Wells Dept. of Geology University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM 87131 Ms. Patricia P Wilcox Box 46 Cool Spring, PA 15730 Ms Kathleen M Williams 26 South 12th St. San Jose, CA 95112 Mr. Richard B Zopf 331 Jacoby St. Yellow Springs, OH 45387

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