Cave Research Foundation Annual Report

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report
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Cave Research Foundation
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Cave Research Foundation
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English

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Annual reports describing the activities of the Cave Research Foundation.
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Open Access - Permission by Publisher
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(1984)
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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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K26-00667 ( USFLDC DOI )
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12119 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
9780939748693 ( ISBN )

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Cave Research Foundation 1984 Annual Report Cave Research Foundation 4916 Butterworth Place, N W Washington DC 20016 USA

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The Cave Research Foundation (CRF) is a nonprofit corporation formed in 1957 under the laws of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Its purpose is to support scientific research related to caves and karst, to aid in the conservation of cave and karst wilderness features, and to assist in the interpretation of caves through education. EDITOR Karen B. Lindsley EDITORIAL STAFF John C. Tinsley R. Pete Lindsley Cover: Calcite crystals forming a wall coating in Jewel Cave, South Dakota. The long dimension of the photograph is approximately 25 em. The crystal faces have been partially redissolved by condensing moisture. (Photo by Arthur N. Palmer) Cave Research Foundation 1984 Annual Report. 1985 by the Cave Research Foundation. Permission is granted to reproduce this material for scientific and educational use. For information write to The Cave Research Foundation, 4916 Butterworth Place, N.W., Washington, DC 20016 USA ISBN 0-939748-17-7 Published by CAVE BOOKS 756 Harvard Avenue St. Louis, MO 63130 USA Printed by Albuquerque, New Mexico USA ii

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CAVE CONSERVATION The caves in which we carry out our scientific work and exploration are natural, living laboratories. Without these laboratories, little of what is described in this Annual Report could be studied The Cave Research Foundation is committed to the preservation of all underground resources. Caves are fragile in many ways. We take considerable care that we do not destroy that which we study because many of the cave features take hundreds of thousands of years to form. Also, many of the processes that formed the cave passages we travel are no longer active in these areas. People who unthinkingly take or break stalactites and other cave formations cause great and irreparable damage. Cave life, such as blind fish live in precarious ecological balance in their isolated underground environment. Disturbances, such as causing bats to fly during winter hibernation, can be as fatal as shooting them. Caves are wonderful places for research, recreation and adventure. But before you enter a cave we urge you to first learn how to be a careful and conservation-minded caver by contacting the National Speleological Society, Cave Avenue, Huntsville, AL 35810, USA, for excellent advice and guidance for novice and experienced alike. CAVE RESEARCH FOUNDATION DIRECTORS R. Pete Lindsley Secretary Roger E McClure Treasurer Elbert F. Bassham 1984 Sarah G. Bishop President Richard B Zopf iii John A Branstetter John C. Tinsley Ronald C. Wilson

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Acknowledgements Many of the projects outlined in this Report have been conducted within the boundaries of public lands The support and encouragement of the Superintendents and staffs at Mammoth Cave National Park, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Sequoia -Kings Canyon National Park Grand Canyon National Park Lincoln National Forest Buffalo National River and Ozark-St. Francis National Forests have greatly contributed to the success of these projects. Their assistance is greatly appreciated The editor wishes to thank all of the contributors to this Report with a particular note of thanks to John Tinsley, Tom Poulson and Richard Watson for their interest and suggestions. Special thanks also to Arthur Palmer, Roger Brucker and Pete Lindsley for responding to a request with some outstanding photographs. Other acknowledgements appear at the end of some reports iv

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Highlightsof1984 . ...... ......... ............................ ........... ..................................... ..... vi Scientific Programs ......... ................................................................ . . ...................... 1 Cartographic Program .................................... ........................................................... 3 Operations Manager s Report : CRF Pacific ............................................... ....................... .... 4 Lilburn Cave Cartography-1984 ...................................... . .............................. ........... .. 4 Cartography and Exploration in the Guadalupe Escarpment Area, New Mexico ........ .................................... 5 Cartography and Exploration in the Sylamore District, Arkansas ..... ................................................... 5 F i tton Cave, Arkansas Survey Project ................ ....... ....... ........ : . ........ ........ ..................... 5 Cartography and Exploration in the Mammoth Cave Region, Kentucky ................................................. ... 5 G eoscience Program ........ ... ................. ................ ...... ........................................ ..... 7 Investigation of the Hydrology of Redwood Canyon Karst ........ . ....... . ............ .......... ................... 8 Tephrochronology of Sinkhole Deposits in the Redwood Canyon Karst Sequoia and K i ngs Canyon National Parks, California .... 8 Fluvial Hydrology at Lilburn Cave, Sequoia and Kings Canyon Nat i onal Parks, Cal i forn i a .................................... 9 The Origin of Rims ..... . . .... ....... .... ........ ...... . ...................................................... 9 A Conulite Formed in Moonmilk, Carlsbad Cavern .................................................................... 11 Mineralogy of Fort Stanton Cave New Mexico .............................................. ........................ 12 V i rgin Cave Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico: A Preliminary Report on Its Geology and Mineralogy ....................... 1 3 Stratigraphy of the New Mexico and Guadalupe Rooms in Carlsbad Caverns New Mexico ............................... ... 14 The New Mexico Room as a Model of Cavern Development in the Guadalupe Mountains .............. ..................... 14 Effects of Urban Development on the Quality and Quantity of Stormwater Runoff Recharging through Caves into the Edwards Aquifer Bexar County, Texas ...... .. .................... ............ ...... . ........... ........................ 1 7 Lineaments in the Central Kentucky Karst Mississippian Plateau Region, Kentucky ...................... ... ... . ...... 17 Cave Passage Modification Changes in Relation to Lineaments, Mammoth Cave National Park Kentucky ... . .............. 19 Lithologic and Base Level Control of Cavern Position i n the Garrison Chapel Area Indiana ..... ............................ 21 Ecology Program ... .............. ................. . .......................... ............... : .... ................ 23 Nocturnal Cave Exodus and Return: Cave vs Camel Crickets ............... .... ....................................... 24 Biological Survey of Puerto Rican Caves . ..... .............. .... .................................................. 25 Cave Arthropods of Redwood Canyon Caves, Kings Canyon National Park California ......... ... ............. .......... 26 Archaeology, Anthropology and Paleontology Programs ...... ........... ............................................... 29 CRF Archaeological Project-1984 ......... ... ... ............ ... ........... ....................... . . ........... 30 Cultural and Paleontological Resources of Northwest Central Kentucky Caves ............... . ..... ..... ........ ..... .... 31 Archaeological Investigation of Bugtussle Rockshelter .............. ................. .... . ......... ................ 31 Excavation of Caves in Grand Canyon, Arizona ..... .... .................................... ...... .................... 32 G R F Fellowship and Grant Support . . . .... ..... .......... .... .... ........... ..................................... 35 1n t e rpretation and Educat i on Programs ....................................... ............ .......... .... ............. 37 H istory Program ......... ................... . ................................................................... 39 Saltpeter and Gunpowder Manufacturing in Kentucky ........................................................... ...... 40 P ublications and Presentations .. ......... ........ ....... .... ............. . ... .................... ................ 45 Published Articles and Papers . ............. .......... ........ ............... ............................... ... 46 Books and Periodicals ... .................. ................. ............ ....................................... 46 Professional Interpretive and Advisory Presentations ... .................................. .......... ................. 46 Field Trips . ........... ......... ....... ............ ....... ...... ............................................ .... 47 Service ....................................... ... .......... ... .............. .... ................................ 47 Cave Books ...... ....... .... . .............. ........... ........................ ................. .............. 48 T h e CAVE RESEARCH FOUNDATION ... .......................... ................... ............ . .............. 49 Directors, Officers and Management Personnel ..... ........................ ............................ ..... ...... 50 Operating Committees ......... ....... ........................ ...... ..................... . ... .............. 51 Contributors to this Report ....................................................................... .... .............. 52 v

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Highlights of 1984 1984 has been a very good year George Orwell' s p redictions n o t withstandi ng Maybe he d i d not have the Cave Research Foundation i n mind when he wrote his book. We are unique as a v oluntee r research organization. I believe our strength and success l i e s in th i s unusual marriage of multi-talented and h ighly professional people and their contribution of time and resources to t he v enture we call CRF S everal e v en t s head the list of notable achievements during the year. Bill Mann, a member of the Foundation who has become a highly respected computer expert has through a generous donation, helped launch a new phase in CRF' s cartography program. Patty Jo Watson, a mainstay of the Foundati on s archaeological efforts, donated her author's fee on a n article she wrote for the World Book to aid in future archaeolog ical research. Another important event was the publication of Grand Kentucky Junction, a collection of six explorers s tories of the connection of the Flint Ridge Cave S y s tem to Mammoth Cave It i s a beautifully bound volume printed on acid-free paper. Through the efforts of Roger McClure CRF' s Treasurer the Foundation now also has an 8-page illus t rated informational brochure highlighting the many f ace t s of t he Cave Research Foundation. Th e Foundati on has negoti ated several new agreements with fed era l l a n d managers Heading the list is a national agreement with the Bureau of Land Management. CRF and the National S p e leological Society jointly signed a memorandum of understa n d i ng with the BLM that recognizes contributions to the protection and management of caves on BLM lands. (Figure 1 ) This agreement allows CRF to develop specific cooperative management agreements with the BLM for individual cave areas i n the West. A second agreement was negotiated with the INiation a l P a rk Service at Buffalo National River Arkansas to produce a highly accurate map of Fitton Cave The Foundation also renegotiated use permits w i th Mammoth Cave and Carlsba d Caverns National Parks Preparations are in the final stage for a new national agreement with the National Park Service Discussions with the Park Service over the last 18 months have developed a greater understanding of mutual goals an d objectives which will be reflected in this new agreement. Discussions were held with NPS Administrators in Washington, DC concerning cave resource interpretation. CRF Chi e f Scientist Tom Poulson visited the NPS Harpers Ferry VA Center to talk with interpretation and exhibit planners concerning plan s for improvements to the interpretive exhibits at the Carlsb a d Caverns and Mammoth Cave visitor's centers. A number of suggestions have been incorporated into the planning proces s Roger Brucker participated in the Cave Managemen t Symposium, an annual event that CRF helped initiate ten yea r s ago The steering committee decided that it was time to evalua t e the purpose of the symposia and establish some goals a n d objectives for future meetings. The 46th meeting of the Board of Directors of the Research Foundation was held in St. Louis, MO, November 2 3 1984. For several years, the Board of Directors has be e !l concerned about the need to produce maps of the Mammot il Cave area for internal use, as well as for other researchers t h:J Park Service and for general publication. The Board has set a goal of producing quadrangle maps of publishable quality tv cover the entire Mammoth Cave area. As a first step towa r j reach i ng this goal CRF awarded a grant to Richard Zopf, chief cartographer for the central Kentucky area to develop t h,, mechanism for accelerating the production of maps of t h Mammoth Cave area and to establish cartographic standards. procedures and techniques to accomplish this goal. Reports t r Figure 1: From left to right: B ure au o f Land Management D irector, Robert Burford; Assistant Secretary of the Interior, Garrey Carruthers; Cave R e sea r ch Foundation President, Sarah G Bishop; and National Speleological Society President, Pau l Stevens signin g a Memorandum of Understanding on June 11, 1984. This event took place at the offices of the Department of Inter ior i n Washington, DC (Photo courtesy of the Department of Interior) vi

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the Board of Directors and the CRF cartography community on t his project will be emphasized during the 1985 Annual Meeting Superintendent Dunmire of Carlsbad Cavern/Guadalupe Mountains National Parks and Jim Wiggins, Management Assistant at Mammoth Cave National Park discussed goals for their parks and how CRF could help achieve those goals Wesley Henry from the Washington Office of the Bureau of Land Management encouraged cooperative projects between the Foundation and his agency The Cave Research Foundation awards membership to individuals who have made and who will continue to make vi i substantial contributions to the Foundation, or who have made particularly noteworthy contributions to the world of speleology. The following individuals were elected members of the Foundation in November: Thomas Alfred, Paul Blore and Kathleen Lavoie It is a pleasure to repor t on this grea t variety of projects and other activities that the Foundation has bee n invol ved in this year. They are numerous and exciting and the new year is expected to bring more of the same. Sara h G. Bishop President, Cave Researctl Foul!1lt\ila1!io1111

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viii

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Figure 2 : An amazing display of stalactites can be seen in the area of the Bell Cord Room located at the end of the Lett Hand Tunnell in Carlsbad Caverns. Many of these stalactites and soda straws" (tubular stalactites) are 3 4 feet ( 91-122 em) in length. The Bell Cord Room is believed to be formed in the upper portion of the massive member of the Capitan limestone; however, speleothems so heavily coat the walls, ceiling and floor that very little bedrock i s exposed, thus making locating the area stratigraphically difficult. (Photo by R Pete Lindsley) s c I E N T I F I c p R 0 G R A M s

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2

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CARTOGRAPHIC PROGRAM Figure 3 : A survey team works its way into the Flint-Mammoth Cave System The cavers are seen negotiating a breakdown pile which has partially blocked the passage. Breakdown consists of rock fragments (ranging in size from chips to huge blocks) that have fallen from the ceiling and walls, accumulating slowly into sometimes massive piles. The mechanism that causes breakdown varies : solution along joints and partings that hold the rock together; the wedging effect of minerals growing in fractures, and collapse when broad expanses of ceiling are left unsupported by receding waters are some examples (Photo by Roger Brucker) 3

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Operations Manager's Report: CRF Pacific John W Tinsley The efforts and achievements of the Cave Research Foundation have emphasized the continuing study and exploration of Lilburn Cave and the Redwood Canyon karst area, located within the Grant Grove section of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. Six expeditions were scheduled in pursuit of ongoing research activities. Of these, one was devoted to cave rescue exercises involving Foundation and National Park Service personnel. Two "unscheduled" expeditions were conducted to repair the water level recorded at Big Spring (Stan Ulfeldt) and to retrieve charcoal "bugs" following the Memorial Day Expedition's fluorescein dye traces. A total of 35 CRF JV's participated in 1984 and an average of 18 persons attended each expedition. Peter Bosted reports that the 1984 survey totals amount to 7500 feet (2285 m) added to the Lilburn Cave Map (scale: 1" = 20') Total passages surveyed, re-surveyed, and/or resketched exceeds 26,000 ft (7921 m). An interim map is being prepared for transmittal to the National Park Service during early 1985. John Tinsley continues his studies of erosion rates in the Redwood Canyon karst. A volcanic ash deposit erupted 700 years ago from the lnyo Craters area of eastern California has formed a useful marker bed in sinkholes of Redwood Canyon. Sediment yields estimated from the volume of post-tephra sediment preserved in sinkholes indicates that the surface of the mantled karst is being lowered at a rate of 1 to 2 em every 1000 years. Jack Hess and Mike Spiess continue studies of the stable isotope geochemistry and hydrology of the Redwood Canyon karst. Indications are that the water sources within the canyon are isotopically similar and uniform. Seasonal variations in temperature and in electrical conductivity of cave waters indicate that the tributary streams afford well-mixed water and longer residence times compared to the main stream of Lilburn Cave The karst terrain situated north of the present limits of Lilburn Cave is the locus of the greatest amount of dissolution of marble within this karst. Luther Perry reports a positive result of dye-tests linking Pebble Pile Creek to the principal Lilburn Cave resurgence at Big Spring The transit time is loosely bracketed at present, ranging from more than 3 days to less than 3 weeks. Pebble Pile Creek is the last major tributary to be conclusively linked to Big Spring. A reconnaissance investigation of arthropods from Redwood Canyon caves was conducted by Thomas S Briggs, Vincent F. Lee, and Darrell Ubick of the California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco CA. Finds include specimens of Macrove/ia hornii from Cedar and Lilburn Caves (previously unreported from caves) and an undetermined linyphiid spider which appears to be troglobitic. The remaining specimens include representatives of troglophile, trogloxene and epigean populations. Continued vigorous progress is anticipated in most of the preceeding disciplines during 1985, especially in the fields of sedimentology, hydrology and cartography. We anticipate cooperative efforts with the National Park Service as the karst resource management plan takes shape and deepening involvement in the interpretive program at Crystal Cave the show cave operated by the National Park Service in Sequoia National Park 4 Lilburn Cave Cartography-1984 Peter Bosted The survey, re-survey and re-sketching of this complex cave progressed steadily during 1984 with 30 JV's participating. The February, April and July expeditions each fielded three survey teams, the May expedition mustered five trips; the August expedition, six; and the October expedition, two. A total of 7842 ft (2389 m) of passage was surveyed, using 536 survey stations Of this, about 950 feet (289m) was passage not previously surveyed. Areas of the cave receiving the most attention were the Jefferson Memorial/Blue Passage complex, the Clay Palace area, the Attic and the Hex Room This project now counts m ore than 26,000 ft (7921 m) surveyed, with at least 14,000 ft (4265 m) of additional passage known to require re-surveying Prospe cts for finding new p(lssage are not great for large passages, but numerous small leads and mazes still await pushing and surveying. The year's efforts will be added to the master map (scale: 1 i n = 20ft) by the end of January, 1985, and an interim copy will b e submitted to the National Park Service. Peter Bosted is planning to construct a three-dimensional model of the cave, using w ire and clay. A model of Lost Soldier's Cave (scale: 1 in = 50ft) has been completed for practice to prove the feasibility of suc h a project. The three-dimensional model will serve as a interpretive tool by aiding in the visualization of the comp l e x relations among passages in maze-type cavern networks such a s Lilburn Cave Cartography and Exploration in the Guadalupe Escarpment Area, New Mexico Rich Wolfert Guadalupe Escarpment Area JV's have been quite active year, with most work centering around Carlsbad Cavern. Eight expeditions were fielded, and 16 new JV's have been recruit d bringing the total to 81 JV's active in the Guadalupe EscarpmE< 1 t Area As in past years surveying has continued to be our prim<.
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b roomstick columns at one end of the room. Located within a boneyard maze, the Rim Room has good air flow. This air movement, plus the presence of directional corrosion, suggests the existence of more cave beyond. The room is also of m ineralogical interest, containing some rare conulites. There have been several other projects and activities this year A mapping school was conducted to familiarize new JV's with the techniques of cave surveying Field support and use of CRF f acilities was provided to independent researchers conducting w ork at Carlsbad Mineralogy work has continued, with studies o f moonm i lk and beaded helictites taking place in Carlsbad and o t her caves A detailed geologic study of the New Mexico Room !1as been started. This work is expected to aid in the : m derstanding of processes of cavern development in Carlsbad :
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