Cave Research Foundation Annual Report

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report
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Annual reports describing the activities of the Cave Research Foundation.
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(2001-2003)
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Annual Reports 2001-2003 Cave Research Foundation 177 Hamilton Valley Road Cave City, Kentucky 42127

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The Cave Research Foundation (CRF) is a private non-profit organization incorporated in 1957 under the laws of the Commonwealth ofKentucky. Its purpose is to: Facilitate research, management, and interpretation of caves and karst resourees Form partnerships to study, protect and preserve cave resources and karst areas Promote the long-term conservation of caves and karst resources Editors: Patricia Kambesis Hoffinan Environmental Research Institute Western Kentucky University 1906 College Heights Blvd. Bowling Green Kentucky 42101 Hawkins River at the Amos Hawkins Formation, Mammoth Cave Cover l a yout and photo : Gary Berdeaux Elizabeth Winkler 238 Tyler Court Smiths Groves, Kentucky 42171 Cave Research Foundation 2001-2003 Annual Repowby the Cave Research Foundation, Inc. Permission is granted to reproduce this material for scientific and educational use only For information contact CRF 177 Hamilton Valley Road Cave City, KY 42127-45424 ISBN 978-0-939748-59-4 Published by Cave Books 4 700 Amberwood Drive Dayton Ohio 45424

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Table of Contents Cave Research Foundation Activities 2001 200 1 Highlights ........ ............... ...... ..... ..... .............. ........ ....... . ....... ........ ... ........ ..... ...................................................... 9 Hamilton Valley Research Station Update .................................................... ............................................................... 12 Operation Area Reports ... . ... ........................................... ................ ... .... ............... ........ ....... ...... .... ... ............ .......... 15 Lava Beds National Monument Report ... ..... .... ............... . . ........... .... ..... ... ........................... .... ... .......... .... ........... 15 Eastern Operations Accomplishments ................................................................................................................ ...... 15 Ozarks Operation Area ... ... .... ....... ...... ..... ... ........ ... . ............ .... ... ... ..................................... ..... ................. . ....... 17 Sequoia and Kings Canyon and Mineral King Operation Area ......... ............................................... . .... .... ............ 22 Southwest Operation Area . ...... ... . ...... ......... ......... ...... .... ..... ............. ............ ... .... . ........... ... ................ ... ...... .... 23 Archeology CRF Archeological Project Update, 1995-2001 ... ... .......... ... ................... .... ..... ... ........... .... ...... ....... ...... .... . . ..... ... ... 24 The Yalahau Archaeological Cave Survey ...................................................... ......................................................... LfJ Biology Biological Inventory in the Missouri Ozarks ...................... .... ...................... .... .............................. ...... ......... ..... ...... 19 Cartography / GIS Cartography at Lilburn Cave, CA 1998-2001 ......... ..... .... ...... ............... ............................. .... ........ ....... ... ... ............ 32 Development and Testing of Three Componentsof the Process of Transferring Digital Cave Survey Data from the Cave Research Foundationto Mammoth Cave National Park ......... .... ............... 36 Geoscience Updated Stratigraphic Section in Mammoth Cave National Park ............................................................................. 45 Sedimentology of the Redwood Canyon Karst ........................................ .................. .............................................. 48 Transport and storage of trace metals in a karst aquifer:An example from Fort Campbell, Kentucky ... .......... ............. . ..... ....... ................... .................... ................................. ..... ... ... 50 Temporal Links Between Climate and Hydrology: .................................................................... .... ............................ 54 Insights from Central Texas Cave Deposits and Groundwater ................................................................................. 54 Roppel Cave: Activities ofThe Central Kentucky Karst Coalition ............ ...... ............................................................. 60 Cave Books Report 2001 .................. .... ...................... ... ................................................................................................ 62 Cave Research Foundation Activities 2002 2002 Highlights ............................................................. ....................... .......... . ............ .............. ........ . .... ................... 65 The 2002 Cave Research Foundation Karst Fellowship Competition ........................................................................... 67 Operation Area Reports Ozarks Operation .Cave Inventory, Mapping and Management ........... .................................................................. 72 Eastern Operations Accomplishments ... ..... ... ... ..... . ..... ....................... ... .................... ... ..................... ..................... 72 Southwest Operation: Guadalupe Escarpment & Fort Stanton Range Carlsbad Caverns National Park (CCNP) . ..... ..... ......... . ..................... ..... ............................................ ... ............ . 75

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Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks .. ........ .... . .... . . .................... ............. ... ... ....... .... .... .... .................... 76 Lava Bed s Operation Area . ..... ........ ...... ... ...... ... ... ... . ... ............. ...... ...... ................ . . .... .... .... .... .... ... . ... ...... 78 Archeology CRF Archeological Project Update 2001 -2 002 . .... . . ............. . .... ........... ............ ... .... .................... ......... . ............ &l Biology For a ging Ecology of The Cave Cricket Hadenoecus subterraneus : Effe c ts of Climate Ontogeny, and Predation ....... ... ...... .............. .... . ...... ....... ....... . ........... .... ... ........ ... .... .... ....... . ...... ... . ................. 82 Baseline Mapping and Biological Inventory of Cav e s on the Mark Twain National Fore s t Mi s souri . ...... ... ...... . .... .... ......... . ... ..... ... ....... .... ......... ....... ...... .... . . ........ ........ 83 C artography R e dwood C anyon Cartography Summary ......... . ........ ...... . .............. .... ................ . ..... ..... .................. ......... ...... 86 G eosci e nc e Re c ords of Climate Change in Central North America From dD v ariations in speleothm fluid inclu si ons ... .......... . 'ifl Cave Research Foundation Activities 2003 2003 Highlights .. ..... .......... . .... .... ....... ...... .... . ......... ...................... .... . ..... .... .... ........ . ... .... ...... . . ... ....... ............ ... 95 Hamilton Vall e y L a nd Management Symposium .... ......... ...... ........ ........ ............................ ....... ... .... .................. .... 'E H a milton Valley R esear c h Station ... ...... ........ ... .... .... ... ... ... .... . ..... .... .... ... . .... .... . ..... ... .......... ... . . ... ........ . . ..... 'E His t ory of th e Cave Research Foundation and Hamilton Valle y .... . ........... .... . . .......... ........ ....... .... ... ...... .... .... ... 101 H a milton Valle y Cultural Resourc e Management: What s the Po i nt ? .... .... . .............. .... .......... ..... ... ..... ... ....... ........ 105 H a milton Valley R e s e arch Station Report ...... ... . ..... .......... ....... . ... ................................... ....... .......... ... ....... ....... . 107 Bi o logy Syst e matics Of The North American Subterranean Amphipod Genus Bactrurus (Crangonyctidae) . . . . .... . . . .... 110 Bri e f Overview of Coleopteran Fauna at Hamilton Valley ....... . ....... ........ .... ........... ...................... . ... ...... .... .... 112 Ecology The Ecological Foundation for Prescribed Fire in the Mammoth Cave Area with Special Reference to Hamilton Valle y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Geoscience Microsampling and Isotopic Analysis of Adjacent Fluorescent/Non-Fluorescent Band Couplets in a Midwestern Speleothem ....... .............. . . . . . ..... ..... . ..... .... ....... . ................ ....... .... .......... 122 Sedim e ntology of the Redwood Canyon Karst Kings Canyo n National Park .......... ................... 124 International Program Th e C hina Karst Env iron e mt Project .... ....... . .......................... . ............... . .... ........... ............. 125

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report 2001-2003 Cave Research Foundation Activities 2001

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Cave R esearc h Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Cave Research Foundation Directors 2001 Patricia Kambesis President Rick Toomey Fellowships & Grants Program Paul Cannaley Treasurer MickSutton Peter Bosted Secretary Phil DiBlasi Dick Maxey Chuck Pease International Projects National Personnel Officer Chris Groves Operation Area Managers Eastern Operation Area: Dave West Lava Beds Area: Janet Sowers Ozark Operation Area: Scott House Southwest Operation Area: Barbe Barker Sequoia and Kings Canyon/Mineral King Operation Area: John C. Tinsley Hamilton Valley Director: Elizabeth Winkler Newsletter editor: Paul Nelson Mapping near Edna s Dom e area of Mammoth Cave, Kentucky Photo: Pat Kambesis 8

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 2001 Highlights Annual Meeting The 67th Meeting of the Cave Research Foundation Board was held after the National Cave Management Symposium in Tuscon, Arizon oel Despain was elected as a new director on the Board Rick Toomey was elected to serve as the next President. The following CRF members were elected to become Fel lows of the foundation: George Crothers, Daniel Gregor, Paul Nelson,David McKenzie and Matt Mezdilo CRF Fellowships and grants program. A total of eleven ap plications were received for the program five were selected to received awards. The individuals and research abstracts are summarized below : Carbon chemistry of an alpine karst stream, Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks Joel Despain Western Kentucky University MS Karst Research Fellowship: $3500 Caves and karst provide many benefits to both people and wildlife including water supplies, habitat, and recreational opportunities. Karst also provides another unseen benefit to the biosphere. Karst naturally sequesters atmospheric car bon. Atmospheric carbon concentrations (in the form or car bon dioxide) have been steadily increasing since the initia tion of industrial production more than 200 years ago The amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere has grown even more rapidly in the 20th century due to increased car, plane, power generation and industrial reliance on fossil fuels In recent decades increasing atmospheric carbon con centrations has been closely linked to climate change, par ticularly rising average planetary temperatures. It has been generally assumed that carbonate chemistry in all natural waters and karst areas led to the retention of 50 % geologically derived carbon and 50 % atmospherically de rived carbon (e .g. Berner et al., 1983; Meybeck, 1987; Berner and Lasaga, 1989; Probst et al., 1994; Amiotte Suchet, P. and J.L. Probst, 1993, and 1995; Liu et al., 1998). However, recent work by Groves and Meiman in the temperate Mammoth Cave karst, Kentucky (Groves and Meiman, 2000) and previous chemical analysis by Plummer, et al. (Plummer, Wigley and Parkhurst, 1978) has produced results that vary from the as sumed 500/o/50% ratio. Alpine karst systems operate under the chemical constraints oflow water temperature and generally weak ionic solutions However, carbon dioxide is more soluble in cold, natural wa ters, leading to lower pH values in alpine systems (due to the carbonic acid formed by the carbon dioxide dissolved in wa ter) This contrasts sharply with the chemistry of temperate karst systems where warm water leads to stronger ionic con centrations, but sometimes lower carbonic acid concentra tions Thus, this study seeks to determine the actual amount of sequestered carbon in the discharge of the alpine Tufa Falls Spring over the course of one year Tufa Falls Spring drains two karst basins and adjoining lands covering some 7 square kilometers (as shown by previous dye tracing). The basins reach elevations of more than 3,600 meters, while the spring lies at an elevation of approximately 2,400 meters. Instrumentation to monitor the spring's chem istry lies some 150 meters downstream from the resurgence. Recorded parameters include stage (calibrated with salt slug discharge tests), pH, conductivity, and temperature Grab samples for cation and anion analysis are also made on a regular basis to determine various ion concentrations rela tive to conductivity With the help of the Cave Research Foundation, in a year this project will have gained an understanding of the actual an nual chemistry of an alpine karst stream. It is hoped that this information will have broader implications for the role that karst systems play in sequestering atmospheric carbon and moderating potential climate change Comparative systematics of subterranean amphipod crustaceans in the families Hadziidae and MeUtidae Thomas R Sawicki, Old Dominion University-Ph.D Project Summary: Due to their morphological similarities, the taxonomic status of the amphipod families Hadziidae and Melitidae is uncertain These similarities may be due to a shared common ancestor, indicating the two families should be synonymized, or due to convergent evolution which would suggest that the current taxonomic separation of the families is warranted. In order to help solve this problem, I am cur rently working on a molecular analysis of the two families using the mitochondrial gene cytochrome Oxidase III. Con current with the molecular work is a significant amount of alpha taxonomy, as there are many undescribed species within the Hadziidae. 9

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Cave organisms and the evolution of visual pigments: mysid shrimp as model organisms Megan Porter Brigham Young UniversityPhD Project Summary: While biospeleologists have long specu lated on the regressive evolution of eye loss in highly adapted cave organisms, only recently have cavernicoles played a prominent role in the investigation of visual pig ment evolution Visual pigments consist of the protein and associated receptors responsible for the detection of light, making vision possible Additionally, the wavelength oflight that visual pigments can detect differs between species. In this study, the wavelength of absorption and evolution of the visual pigment gene (opsin) will be investigated in three genera of mysid shrimp containing cave-adapted species : Antromysis, Mysidium, and Troglomysis. Because the cave adapted species in each genus are from independent cave invasions, these genera provide independent replicates of the evolutionary experiment of eye loss. In terms of visual pigments, these cave-adapted species offer the opportunity to investigate the effect of the loss of functional constraint (i.e., no light) on the evolution of a gene Because these genera also contain species found in surface environments, direct comparisons of the visual pigment gene between an cestral (eyed) and derived (cave-adapted eye loss) states can be made. The objectives of this research include establishing the evo lutionary relationships between the cave and surface spe cies being investigated and evaluating the relationship among environment (light or lack thereof), the evolution of the opsin gene, and the wavelengths oflight each species is capable of detecting. Visual pigments are proteins that be long to a large family of receptors that have been identified as critical in cellular communication systems, including the detection of hormones, neurotransmitters, odorants, and photons. Due to the exaggeration of non-light requiring modes of perception in cave organisms, this class of recep tors has the potential to be a profitable area of research for biospeleologists However very little is understood about these cellular communication systems in cave orga nisms, particularly subterranean invertebrates This study will elu cidate the evolutionary processes of visual pigments in a group of cave invertebrates and their surface relatives By elucidating the mechanisms controlling the tuning of visual pigments to different wavelengths in mysid shrimp this study will provide a framework for testing opsin evolution in other orgamsms 10 Stable carbon isotope values from bat guano in the examina tion of precipitation and vegetation changes in arid Mexico Christopher M. Wurster Syracuse UniversityPhD The use of stable carbon isotope values from bat guano in the examination of precipitation and vegetation changes in arid Mexico his study aims to test the hypothesis that carbon isotope values of guano from 2 species of bats, the lesser long-nosed bat and the Mexican free-tailed bat, preserve a record of dietary intake, which reflects surrounding vegeta tion In the arid regions of western Mexico, an increase in terrestrial vegetation biomass utilizing the Calvin cycle for photosynthesis (C3 vegetation) over plants utilizing Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM vegetation) is highly correlative with precipitation anomalies associated with El Niiio events. This is significant because C3 vegetation has a distinctive carbon isotopic signature compared to CAM plants, which may be recorded in guano deposits Because the diet of the lesser long-nosed bat and the Mexican free tailed bat strongly reflects available vegetation, an experi ment is designed to test whether quantitative estimations of precipitation and C3/CAM vegetation ratio can be discerned from guano isotope values of carbon. This study will serve as a calibration for Holocene guano deposits that could yield long-term information on the strength and frequency of El N iiio as well as climate change from a region where tradi tional paleoclimate methods cannot be applied. Paleoclimate records in water extracted from speleothem calcite Feride Serefiddin McMaster UniversityPhD This research seeks to further refine existing improvements to the extraction of fluid inclusions and find additional prox ies for climate change using new techniques. Speleothems from Reed's Cave (South Dakota), Rat's Nest Cave (Alberta), Vancouver Island and California are being used to develop a paleoclimate history for western North America. Fluid inclu sion analysis will complement existing isotope data from speleothems which have been dated using uranium-series dating Hydrogen isotope variations will be measured by ex tracting fluid inclusion water from the speleothem calcite The objective is to extract fluid inclusion water to measure the composition of paleoprecipitation and to calculate tem perature changes from key periods in the Quaternary period. Paleotemperature reconstruction is a significant advance in the use of speleothems for quaternary research. The oxygen isotope paleothermometer provides important data, but a complementary technique to confirm these results is not yet

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 available. This research proposes to develop a paleothermometer from the hydrogen isotope record in fluid inclusions and possibly the hydrogen present in the calcite lattice. Besides the water present in inclusions, additional water is obtained by heating the speleothem calcite to over 800C; this suggests that water strongly bound to the cal cite, a type of lattice water The isotopic fractionation be tween this water and that of fluid inclusions may provide an additional paleothermometer. This could provide an additional proxy record for climate model calibrations. 11

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Main bulding at Hamilton Valley Research Station Photo: Pat Kambesis Hamilton Valley Research Station Update Elizabeth Winkler At this writing, the CRF national headquarters and research station at Hamilton Valley have been in operation just shy of20 months. The good news is that, so far, nothing has exploded, erupted, caved in or completely failed on us (well .. except a temporary problem with the water system), and thus far, the bills have been paid. We have been able to rent the facility to a variety of groups and individual scientists, so our income base has expanded beyond CRF expeditions, though CRF Eastern Operation continues to be our primary and most significant tenant. We have also rented the facility a number of times to the Central Kentucky Karst Coalition, a CRF affiliate for their project work in Roppel Cave Summer of2001, a group of CRF members raised money for the facility by running an informal post-NSS Convention camp at HV raising over $300. Finally, although we hope never to repeat this usage, HV served as a staging area during the rescue from Sides Cave of CRF member Chris Groves CRF has been able to support the work of other caving, karst and environmental groups through rental of the facility Our first tenants were many of the attendees of the Mammoth Cave Science Conference (2000) In addition, the National Speleological Society (NSS) Mammoth Cave Restoration Field Camp filled both bunkhouses for two days 12 in October 2000, and later in the same month, the Hoffman Institute (headed by CRF BOD member Chris Groves) spon sored three Chinese researchers from the Guanxi Karst Tour ism group form The People's Republic of China. In August of200 I, the Ohio Coleopterist Society, (CRF member Dick Maxey) stayed at the facility and studied the beetles of the area. We have also become a resource for university geology classes from many states as well. In March 200 l, Dr John Mylroie, Mississippi State University, brought his graduate level Karst Processes class, 18 students, to the facility for a 3-day course. He wrote after the trip that they thoroughly enjoyed using the facility. He came back for a week in July with nine high school earth science teachers. In March 200 l, Dr. Jonathan Martin of the Department of Geological Sciences at the University of Florida brought his graduate Hydrologic Processes class to look at karst hydrogeologic features around the Mammoth cave area for three days. Two university geology classes from Eastern Kentucky University and Memphis State University spent the weekend in October of 200 l the same weekend as the Leonid Meteor shower. I was there that weekend as well working on the building Many of us took sleeping bags out into the grassy area in front of the main building and watched the glorious meteor shower all night. In November, Dr. Daryl

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Granger brought his geomorphology class from Indiana on his annual field trip to Mammoth Cave We have been able to support the work of individual re searchers and students as well, both CRF and non-affiliated people. For instance Rick Toomey and Mona Colburn (CRF) stayed at the facility in January, March and May (200 l) while working on a CRF/Mammoth Cave National Park/Illinois State Museum joint research project. Six members ofCRF stayed at the facility while attending the Western Kentucky Karst workshop last summer as well. The facility also hosted CRF member Mike Yocum and several members of his crew while he was completing his Safety Video Project for Mammoth Cave National Park. Finally, one of Patty Jo Watson's Master's students, Angela Gordon, has been studying, un der the direction of CRF member George Crowthers, a stand of plants found in Hamilton Valley called "rattlesnake mas ter" They have been working with HV Land Management Manager Roger McClure to ensure the protection of this stand (see Dr Watson's article this volume for more informa tion). As part of Red Watson and Roger McClure's original vision, we have also made HV available for rental to individual CRF members and their families as a beautiful get-away place Many members have taken us up on this opportunity includ ing Jeff Middleton and his family, Don Coons, Pat Kambesis, George Crowther Naoko Yokohama and many others includ ing myself. It is a glorious view from th e balcony into the valley below especially at sunset and dawn when deer and wild turkey can be seen cavorting about. We are not as yet completely self sufficient, but we are get ting much closer to that goal. At present, our most costly expenditures are our insurance and paying off the last $40,000 of the construction debt. Our insurance runs in the neighbor hood of$1 0,000 a year. We have explored many options and other companies, but have been unable to find any way or reducing that expenditure, and in future years this cost is likely to keep increasing. There are two basic reasons why this cost is so high: l) our distance from the nearest fire station (which is unlikely to change unless Cave City finds the need to build one west of the city) ; and 2) the fact that we are on well water which insurance companies do not con sider reliable nor provide sufficient pressure. That is also unlikely to change One local resident tried to get a petition passed to bring city water out Park Ridge Road but was un able to get enough support for the project. Other expenditures: gas, electricity, phone, and supplies are all quite reasonable. We are fortunate that we have three HV supply officers who work to get us good deals on things we need : Alan Welhausen (kitchen supplies), Bob Osburn (office supplies and equipment) and Dick Maxey (cleaning sup plies). We are also looking at ways to reduce utility expenses For example, Roger McClure, Land Management, has been planting trees up close to the buildings to provide shade and lessen the need for electricity. Sue Hagan has been promot ing ecologically sound living habits, like encouraging people to open windows and enjoy fresh air rather than depending on noisy air conditioners Furthermore, many of our needed supplies, furniture, and equipment have come from the gen erous donations of our member s (too numerous to mention them all here) but I will mention a few who have given a great deal of time and effort : Joyce Hoffmaster, Erik and Courtney Sikora, Matt Mezydlo, Sue Hagan, Gary Berdeaux, Janice Tucker, Daniel Gregor, Roger and Shannon Smith, Dick Maxey Roger McClure, Fred Schumann, Charles Fox Bonni e and John DeLong, Elizabeth and Ed Klausner, and Tom Brucker. Finally, we have saved an incredible amount of money from the labor of individual members whose expertise in electrical work, carpentry, painting, building, plumbing, trail building etc. have been generously donated at expedition weekends and special work weekends. S e veral people have gone well beyond the normal call of duty in this area and must be thanked here: the group who paid for and built the utility building (Dick M a xey Richard Zopf, Cheryl Early Joyce Hoffinaster, Daniel Gregor Dave Hanson and Shiela Sands). Roger McClure (assisted by Rick Nelson John Feil, Stan Sides a nd Jack Freeman) has been taking care of the land itself When we can keep him and the tractor out of the sinkholes Roger keeps the la.IId bushhog g ed and wisely manages all of the federal and stat e programs with whi ch we are involved The s e programs generate a significant amount of funding for HV. Last year they brought in about $3500 Bunkhouses at Hamilton Valley Photo : Pat Kambesis 13

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 A number of projects and plans have been put into effect that are working towards that goal. For example, CRF BOD mem ber Dr. Chris Groves of Western Kentucky University has instituted a campaign to university geology departments across the United States to promote the facility as a research station and conference center. One of goals as laid out in the original HV Plan is "to provide a means for the CRF to further its established goals of support for research, education, and conservation of caves, karst areas, and karst resources. The availability and use of the HVRC will facilitate these goals". Chris's efforts for us are certainly in line with this objective. At the end of200 I, I initiated a Capital Campaign to eliminate the remaining debt of $41,000 on the HV buildings. Since then, almost 40 members have donated $15,000 towards that goal. I have written an additional request published in the April CRF Newsletter At the beginning of the summer, a fol low up request will go out to members who have not as yet donated. We have received donations both large and small all of which are important as we get closer to eliminating this debt. Without the obligation of this debt, which accounts for almost 35% of our major monthly costs (rough monthly costs: electricity $300, insurance $850, loan payment $625), we would 14 be in good shape financially with the increase in rental occu pancy. Blessedly, a maintenance fund of $15,000 has been estab lished through the ongoing generosity of Roger McClure, Cave Books, and Red Watson to cover the replacement of major equipment and/or damage to the building. I expect the first major replacement that will need to be done is an over haul of our water system which went down for a couple of days this last month. Fortunately, Richard Zopfwas on the property at the time and knew what to do to keep the system from further breaking destruction until it could be repaired. So, we have a great deal to feel good about with this venture. It has taken many years of discussions, planning, fund rais ing, and implementation, carried out by what I have described to others as a large group of folk with "well defmed person alities", to get us this lovely and useful research center. We have not always agreed on the the little things, or even the big things, but we have been able to put aside our differ ences to achieve a wonderful testament to our perseverence and commitment to our passion and our work.

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Cave Re se arch Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Operation Area Reports Eastern Operations Accomplishments Dave West, Eastern Operation Manager Cave Research Foundation, Eastern Operations Accomplishments August I 2000-August 31, 200 I During this period Eastern Operations fielded Seventy-six (76) parties into various objectives within Mammoth Cave National Park. This effort accounted for Three Thousand, One Hundred Eighty Seven person hours of labor in support of projects in Cartography (2483), Lesser Cave Inventory (392), Paleontology ( 168), Photo Documentation (82), Narra tive Description (39), and Hydrology (23). Eastern Opera tions has also assisted the CKKC with its continued work in Roppel Cave with logistical support Data support has been provided, through the Cartography Program, to Stephen Thomas for development of elevation maps, a project for a class paper in Dr. Art Palmer's "Karst Geology" course at WKU. Data support has also been provided through the Cartography and GIS pro grams to Mr Scott Recker for his project to identify and map existing boreholes into the cave, as well as information to Mr. Michael Adams, NPS, for inclusion in a park handbook All operations have moved from the Park's facility at Maple Springs to the Foundation's new facility at Hamilton Valley. This has significantly reduced the necessity of late operat ing hours for use of the Green River Ferry by expedition participants and freed the park's facility for use by other groups In August of 200 I, our annual meeting with the representa tives of the Mammoth Cave National Park was held and future goals were discussed and agreed upon. An effort wi II be made to assist the park with providing radio-location data to tie the in-cave surveys to the surface features more defini tively This will allow the park's GIS database to tie together better as well. The park will provide Eastern Operations with some funding as part of this work. Funding is also being provided to the Cartography program to upgrade its com puter hardware to help improve the digital output of its car tographers, and allow easier integration of the map sheets into the GIS database. Lava Beds National Monument Report William C. Devereaux Co-Operations Manager Our project year begins October I and ends September 30 of each year This allows us to make our annual report to the Lava Beds, New Mexico (LABE) staff for the Thanksgiving weekend annual meeting The period also coincides with the weather patterns that dictate our research rhythms. This report will detail the projects that I am responsible for, as well as detailed numbers from a spreadsheet that I use to keep track of people, projects, and expeditions This coming year, I hope to expand the sheet back into previous years to quantify our work since 1990. The year we call 2001 saw 35 people work on 10 different projects over 27 expeditions while contributing 1502 hours of work in the Monument. Those hours do not include the hours those people spend getting to and from LASE, drafting 15

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Cav e Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 maps, working on COMPASS files, building or repairing equipment writing reports, composing and responding toemails from each other or the LABE staff Those hours also do not reflect the hours that Park staff (both permanent and seasonal), Seasonal Conservation Associates (SCAs), and volunteers who went on trips with us to support our work There were also local National Speleological Society (NSS) cavers who gave us materials and assistance. The success of this project belongs to people who care about this Monu ment and the caves herein The projects that I worked on this last year were a Compre hensive File Review, Ice Level Monitoring, GPS Location and Monument Installation, and Cave Reconnaissance In ventory In January 200 I The Resource Division Chief, Chuck Barat, asked me to go through the file folders and give him an assessment of their completeness. It sounded simple, so I said "Of course I spent the next six months, on seven trips to review 459 files and give him a report. Each cave file is supposed to have four key documents in it and the recon card has 12 critical pieces of information that are supposed to be written three for the cave name Later, the three files are compared with the base station to get a differential location The soft ware makes a scatter plot, and a printout is viewed to see if the is tight enough to make the location within a one em circle. If the answer is yes, then we declare it good If not, we go back and start over When the UTM coordinates of the three sessions are accepted, then the Monument staff put the location into the GIS system One of the new wrinkles in both GIS data gathering and cave mapping here, is to tie the brass monument and the GPS location one meter above it to the published cave map Many cave maps are dated from the 1930s to last year. They obviously do not have the monu ment or GPS location on them. We are trying to do that as we go There is a separate project to work on that correction. This year we did 14 GPS fixes and installed 28 new monu ments The last project I can report on for this report is Cave Recon naissance Inventory This project also started long before 16 CRF became a player at Lava Beds NM. What we did in 1988 was define the project, create standards and an inventory form/card, train our people how to use the form, and work with the Monument staff on how to apply it. Many of the other projects use the "card" as a starting point for their work. It is the most basic document that must be completed when a cave is found, recorded, studied, or marked. Mike Sims created the project, invented the form, and trained most of in its use. The form is a joint form called LABE, CRF 5/93. The card comes in two forms. The two-sided card is 5" x 7". The one-sided version is 8.5" x 11 We found that the card version often did not get the flip side filled out. So the single sheet with both card sides on the front meant that all the data got filled in the first time to the cave The "short" inventory consists of 19 specific items in four categories that the field researcher looks for in the cave during their first visit. They can circle the "Yes" or "No" symbol and make remarks to the side of the entry. They look for bats, pictographs, access problems, formations, ice, etc. The card is a living document. It is filled out in pencil and is updated as new information comes to light. This year we made 43 new cards and fixed 40 older ones No report would be complete with credit given to some of the CRF JVs who make the projects happen. Dr. Janet Sowers is the overall Principle Investigator who makes the project stay on track Fred Douglas and David Kuhne! have been with me on many of the trips and made my progress possible Dr. Bill Broekel and his family have stepped forward and taken on a lot of mapping and recon duties this year. Iris Heusler came on board as a mapper, a team leader, and now a Co-PI for the mapping project. Veda DePape built the meter sticks and com pass wands that we use in mapping and entrance photogra phy This year saw her move to Pennsylvania and join up with the Mammoth folks. Their gain, our loss. Amy Ponsetti took on the GIS project as it begins. Lava Beds Personnel: Janet Sowers, co-Project Manager, Technical Director; William C. Devereaux co-Project Mangager, Field Director; Mike Sims: Principal Investigator Cave gating projects; Bruce Rogers, Principal InvestigatorCave mapping; Bill and Peri Franz: Principal Investigators for virtual reality cave tour

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Ozarks Operation Area Cave Inventory, Mapping and Management Scott House Fieldwork in the Pioneer Forest photo by Scott House Once again Cave Research Foundation's (CRF) work in the Ozarks focused on the Lower Ozarks area, an area of south east Missouri so unique and well-preserved that it has been named by The Nature Conservancy as one of the world's "Last Great Places" This area lies on the southeast flank of the Ozark Plateau and is characterized by clear, spring fed rivers, as well as a large area of karst development in mostly Ordovician and Cambrian dolomites This area includes the drainage basins of the Current, Jacks Fork, Eleven Point and Black Rivers Most of our active projects, at present, lie within this area In 1999, the CRF Foundation's Board of Directors approved the merging of the Missouri and Fitton Cave (Arkansas) projects together into a new Ozarks Operation Area. This will help the Foundation by merging two areas that frequently share personnel and will aid both project areas by adding personnel and expertise to our portfolio Buffalo National River CRF began coordinating an effort in Fitton Cave back in the early 1980s A map was produced in 1990 showing much of the surveyed cave. Our major goal at Fitton Cave is to create a new map series which will include all the presently sur veyed passages. Protocols and standards for this new s eries have been worked out in conjunction with Bureau of Natural Resources (BNR) cave specialist Chuck Bitting, and work is now focusing on completing and analyzing the data set. We expect drafting work to proceed as soon as this data phase is fmished Pete Lindsley and Terry Holsinger are working on the data In the meantime, we intend to focus on smaller caves within Buffalo National River. There are a large number of smaller caves that need inventory and survey and we expect to work on this in the coming year In addition we are coop erating with BNR in the creation of improved databases for their cave management program. A cartography and planning meeting was held in May of 1999, and meetings with BNR took place in October and November a s well. An action plan for getting the Fitton maps updated has been drafted A number of trips were taken in 1998 and 1999 to tie up sur veys in the cave establish entrance and radio point loca tions, and ftx survey problems. In addition, one small cave Cave X was surveyed. Mark 1\vain National Forest The Mark Twain National Forest (MTNF) consists of 1. 7 mil lion acres of land, mostly in southern Missouri. Work by the Foundation on the Forest has been ongoing since 1986 There are approximately 380 known caves on MTNF land. Ele ven Point Distric t Most of the Foundation's work has been on an area known as the Eleven Point Doniphan District. The Eleven Point River, a National Wild and Scenic River, flows through the area which is only some 25 miles west of the Current River The work within this area has been mostly biological inven tory (covered in a separate article within this annual report, see Sutton) that was initiated in response to proposed lead mining activities Numerous caves within this projec t area have been surveyed and i nventoried The Phase One report this work was published by the Mis souri Speleological Survey as Volume 33 of Mi ssouri Speleology The work on Phase Two has been completed by Mick Sutton and his completed report has been delivered to 17

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 the MTNF and is slated for an upcoming issue of Missouri Speleology. Phase Three has since been begun and is con tinuing. Other Districts Survey work, under the leadership of Steve Irvine, continues on Crocker Cave, a mile-long muddy cave in south-central Missouri; several trips were taken there in 1998 and 1999 One new priority of the Forest Service is for us to do assess ments of caves in high-A TV-traffic areas of the Forest. This work is getting underway CRF was awarded a United States Forest Service Certificate of Achievement for our work in Missouri. The Forest Service estimates that our cooperative and volunteer work in Mis souri has saved the government $300,000 Database work for the MTNF was funded in 1998. This is an ongoing cooperative effort with the Missouri Speleological Survey and MTNF. We have purchased and distributed cop ies of the FileMaker Pro program and template. Updates of data are being forwarded to the Forest Service We are enjoying working with the Forest's new cave special ist, Neil Babik, who has accompanied crews on several trips. Ozark National Scenic Riverways The Ozark National Scenic Riverways consists of approxi mately 80 000 acres along the Current and Jacks Fork Rivers in southeast Missouri A long term CRF project here has increased the number of known caves from 80 in 1980 to over 300 in 200 I, over 200 of which have also been surveyed Survey and inventory continue on Riverways lands when time permits : several small caves were surveyed in 1998 and 1999 while a number of other locations were checked. Anum ber of cave maps from previous years were completed. A two year-long biologic study of Round Spring Cave by Mick Sutton was completed. One of the most interesting find ings was the identification of life cycles of the cave sala mander (E lucijiJga) and how it interacts with the grotto salamander (T spelaeus) Mick Sutton and Scott House continue to participate in the OZAR Cave Management Team We had four meetings in 1998 and 1999 ; this team works out particulars of cave man agement including monitoring, research permits, and other activities We continue to map caves and assemble all data for the Riverways The data is in FileMaker Pro format and is being integrat e d into the state files. An ongoing major effort is the successful integration of data from a five-year NPS archaeo logical survey of certain caves within the Riverways New cave location s and improved locations for others have re-18 suited from this effort. This process is not yet finished and will still require additional field trips to verify cave locations. We created and modified a database for monitoring caves in the Riverways. As part of this, procedures and protocols were also identified and standardized. Mick Sutton and Scott House held a workshop for NPS personnel at the Powder Mill facility in 1998. This workshop included classroom discus sions and a field experience. During the two seasons since, the rangers took monitoring trips to 80 priority caves using the forms and database that we created in cooperation with theNPS. The Foundation completed a bio-inventory project involv ing stream censuses in wet caves along the lower Current River. As part of this project, we also mapped these caves. The census work has been completed and all but one survey were finished as well The remaining cave has not been fm ished due to a bat colony that we first identified three years ago From time to time, CRF cooperates with the NPS Interpretive Division by providing guide service for specialized tours in Round Spring Cave. An Arc View extension to allow the easy import and display of cave locational data was created by Eric Compas. A nice feature ofthis extension is the automatic retrieval of digital topographic maps as the scale or location of the base view changes The Riverways continues to fman cially support our work in the Lower Ozarks area by allowing us year-round the use of a field facility at Powder Mill (Owls Bend). Pioneer Forest Pioneer Forest is a privately-held forest of approximately 180,000 acres in the Lower Ozarks. CRF has been involved in survey and inventory of caves (of which there are about 1 00) located on these lands. In addition, we have been providing services to the forest in the form of data and cave manage ment. Specifically, we have integrated additional data into the database and provided that information to Pioneer For est. Field trips in the past two years have confirmed the pres ence of a fairly large winter colony of endangered bats in one of the larger caves in Pioneer Forest. Since this cave receives ever-increasing visitation, we have suggested management strategies that are scheduled to be implemented Missouri Department of Conservation CRF continues to map and help inventory caves owned by the Missouri Department of Conservation, an agency that manages state forest lands and wildlife. We also continue to provide services to the Department in the form of coopera tive data management and consultation.

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Powder Mill Creek Cave Powder Mill Creek Cave is a large, transitional cave (phreatic passages currently being modified by ground water move ment) located in the Lower Ozarks area less than a mile from the Current River. Although within the legislated bound aries of the Ozark Riverways, it is actually owned and man aged by the Department of Conservation The cave is closed except for research and harbors an increasing number of Indiana bats in the winter. CRF has been surveying the cave for the past twelve years, and it is now nearly eight miles in length. Draft copies ofthe map were provided to a researcher in the Missouri Department of Natural ResourcesGeologi cal Survey for the purpose of creating an Arc View base map for a sedimentation study. In addition, the electronic data was used to create an Arc View overlay which was provided to the Department of Conservation Doug Baker has led the survey effort here, ably assisted by George Bilbrey and oth ers. We continued several other projects on Department land: -Several smaller caves on Department land have been or are in the process of being surveyed and inventoried These include Shop Hollow Cave, Spring Hollow Cave, Forester Cave, and others, mostly in Shannon County near the Cur rent River These are all new discoveries, mostly in remote areas. Forester and Shop Hollow are still being surveyed. -Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, and Scott House participated in the Department's Cave Policy Advisory Committee -Scott House wrote a natural areas nomination for the De partment on the Sunklands. The Sunklands is a large (6,000 acres) area of giant sinkholes, forests, losing streams, big springs, caves, and at least one natural arch All of this is owned by two agencies and one private landowner. CRF has been instrumental in the survey and inventory of caves in this area. -A new major gray bat colony was found by CRF in the Lower Ozarks area. -Scott House taught a three day speleology course for educators in 1998. He was assisted by Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, and the Department's cave bi ologist, Bill Elliott. In 1999 the course was repeated and taught by Scott House and Bill Elliott. A spele ology workshop for cavers was held in August of 1999: Scott House and Bob Osburn taught an in troduction to cave mapping while Mick Sutton and Bill Elliott taught the basics of cave ecology. Ap proximately 25 people attended Sue Hagan and Bill Elliott helped teach a 20-woman caving course Round Spring Cave, Photo by Scott House and Richard Young for the Department's Becoming an Outdoors Woman (BOW) program. All of these workshops were made possible and funded by the Missouri Department of Conservation. They were all held at the Department's Presley Conservation Center in Shan non County. Missouri Department of Natural Resources Division of Geology and Land Survey CRF continues to work with the DNR/DGLS and the Missouri Speleological Survey on cooperative cave files The DGLS and MSS maintain three sets of cave files covering the entire state; one set of these are reposited in St. Louis where CRF provides housing for them CRF continues to work with the DGLS on updating its computer database of state caves. The eventual goal is to merge the agency databases with the rest of the Missouri files and enhance those files to provide additional querying capabilities. Division of Parks CRF has undertaken a new survey of Fisher Cave, a large show cave in Meramec State Park. Par-19

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Cav e Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 tially surveyed several times previously Fisher is a well-deco rated, historic cave that is shown to visitors by lantern light. We began our survey in September 1999 and have already completed nearly 4000 feet. Nearby, Paul Hauck is surveying a smaller upland sink cave, also in Meramec State Park. Meramec State Park is a large park of several thousand acres located along the Meramec River 60 miles southwest of St. Louis. Missouri Speleological Survey The MSS works to collect all cave info in the state. We cooperate fully : -Maps and reports are turned in to the MSS and are archived by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources. -We help publish Missouri Spe/eology We provided two manuscripts to MS in the past two years One of these, The Wild Caves of Benton County written by Matt Beeson, was published this year The other is the Phase 2 MTNF report by Mick Sutton Scott House is currently serving as Vice-President of the MSS -We coordinated a Cave Resource Committee meeting in volving most of the interested agencies as well as the MSS and Missouri Cave and Karst Conservancy -We ar e leading the way by facilitating the development of a new type of state cave database. At one time, the state cave database was maintained by the DNRIDGLS. Eventually, how ever, support for the program was withdrawn; at that point it became obvious that the material could not even be read. The code for that data was broken and integrated into two new databases: the Speleo Information Database (SID) and a FileMaker Pro version. SID was conceptualized by Joel Laws and programmed by Joe Ditto These two also managed to get the data into the FileMaker format which was then im ported into a database created by Scott House. The FileMaker version has the ability to be split up into manageable county units. We have "farmed out" these counties to individuals in the MSS to enter additional data (the original data only had locational information) As these counties get completed, they are re-integrated into the main database In addition, proto cols w ere worked out with DNRJDGLS for the MSS to take over the verification of new cave information and assignment of cave identification numbers Joel Laws and Scott House lead that effort, assisted by a number of other people. At present, the locational data additions and revisions are entered into both the SID and FileMaker versions Although FileMaker is more flexible and easier to use, SID offers better security and 20 has relational features that FileMaker lacks. As this project progresses our aim is to integrate these two databases into one unit that has the best features of both. -CRF members provided show and tell demonstrations at sev eral MSS meetings. Scott House demonstrated simple data bases, Joel Laws demonstrated SID, Jerry Wagner displayed USGS information, Bob Osburn's computer-generated maps were on display, Mick Sutton brought biological specimens and microscopes, and Eric Compas brought Arc View demon strations. United States Geological Survey We have been cooperating with the USGS on projects involving geologic mapping of lands around the Ozark Riverways. -Randy Omdorf of the USGS is heading this up and has been out in the field with us on several occasions. -Bob Osburn and Scott House are developing models of cave and karst development in the Lower Ozarks -We are sharing our database information with this project. -The USGS is supporting us financially with some expense money -We are mapping some privately-owned caves as part of this project, particularly Sutherland and Banker Caves The sur vey of Sutherland has now been finished -Several caves near the old Midco mine site were surveyed Private Caves -The survey of a large cave in Pulaski County is proceeding under the direction of Jim Kaufmann. The cave also has im portant paleontological remains which are being excavated with the cooperation of the Illinois State Museum. -A survey of Banker Cave in Shannon County was begun and has not yet been completed. -Other privately owned caves, such as Sutherland Cave, were surveyed in cooperation with the USGS project. Personnel and Management We continue to attract a select group of people. Folks usually start caving with us because they want to do more science-based caving. Ozark cavers are generally very pleased with the level ofCRF interaction with agencies and caving groups. The merger of our two operations areas is

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 also proving to be beneficial to attracting quality help. Occa sional government funding of our various projects and wise investment management by our CRF treasurer has given us the funding stability to perform work that we would other wise not be able to do. Lastly, a new trip report database has been created which will enable us to better track our many various projects and report on them to our sponsors in a more efficient and accurate manner. Ozarks Operation Area Operations Manager Scott House Assistant Operations Manager Pete Lindsley Personnel Danny Vann Logkeeper and Ecologist Mick Sutton Geologist Bob Osburn Environmental EngineerDoug Baker Arc View SpecialistEric Com pas Service MDC Teachers Workshop 1998 MDC Teachers Workshop 1999 Speleology Workshop 1999 Topo Map Workshop 1998 Topo Map Workshop 1999 Cartography workshop at Buffalo Cave Monitoring workshop at ONSR 21

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Sequoia and Kings Canyon and Mineral King Operation Area John C. Tinsley The SEKI operation has seen a banner year in terms of car tography, with new discoveries mainly in the southern por tion of Lilburn Cave that have a lot of folks excited, to the point that three additional expeditions have been conducted to date, in addition to the eight regularly scheduled expedi tions. Cartography: Chief Cartographer Peter Bosted reports that Lilburn Cave's surveyed length is about 29.5 kilometers ( 18. 3 miles, if you're scoring). At least a half dozen new joint ven turers have attended the expeditions this year, and have proven to be solid performers Additional exploration and cartography operations have been conducted intermittently in Mays Cave, but small cavers are requried. Sedimentology: Tinsley reports that the mild winter and pro longed cool spring season limited peak runoff to low levels. Consequently, little in-cave sediment movement occurred. GPS locations are being obtained on the karst features of Redwood Canyon, including sinkholes and swallets and creeks, in order to check the surface karst map being pre pared by Tinsley. Cave Diving: Bill Farr conducted an exploratory dive of the Upstream Rise and discovered that his dive line was not buried by sand, confirming Tinsley's assertion that little sedi ment appeared to have moved last winter. Weather and balky SCUBA regulators permitting, Bill plans a push dive of the Upstream Rise during low clear water conditions that persist in the autumn months in Redwood Canyon Bill also found an air-filled bell that had been overlooked during previous dives He may endeavor to explore that area further, although it isn't far from the entry point for the dive. Exploratory Digs: Under Brad Hacker, leads have been pushed in Pebble Pile Creek, Redwood Creek, and at several points within Lilburn Cave. Air movement suggests promise, but the boulders are large and the bedrock cracks are too small for cavers. Hydrology: The hydrology project is on hold while Jack Hess serves in his new capacity as anthrax experimental animal in Washington, D.C. Tinsley will re-establish the datalogger at Big Spring this November, to maintain the long-term monitor ing study of the karst system. Cave Restoration: Bill Frantz bas continued cleaning of the Jefferson Memorial area, with other areas being temporarily deferred. Mineral King: JeffCheraz and Roger Mortimer coordinated a major expedition on Labor Day weekend, to check the emerg ing map of White Chief Cave. Roger Mortimer returned to California for that weekend to help lead the effort. Roger will be returning to California from his year in Indiana, to his old job in the teaching program at Fresno State's medical pro gram. We will welcome him and his bride Amanda with great relief, as they are an integral part of our effort, and small projects are intrinsically fragile entities. Bill Frantz led a trip to the caves of the Timber Gap area, and Jeff Cheraz led a trip to the Cascade Creek area for ridgewalking. These trips were run as day trips out of Cold Springs Campground, located near most of the trailheads that depart from Mineral King. Southwest Operation Area Barbe Barker CRF Southwest members (51) worked a total of 1266 volunteer hours in the year 200 I in support of various ongo ing projects at Carlsbad Caverns National Park Because of 22 good communications and productive expeditions, our rela tionship with the Cave Resource Office continues to be very good

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Survey and Re-survey continues. All expeditions are orga nized around the number of approved sketchers who have signed up for any given expedition Sometimes we have as many as 6 and consequently, all of our expeditions objec tives are survey. On those expeditions were we do not have sketchers, the emphasis is on restoration The number of skilled restoration people continues to grow. Individuals take charge of a project and attend each expedi tion to work that specific area. We really cultivate and express appreciation to these people as they are the back bone of each expedition. Ongoing restoration projects in clude: Lakesofthe Clouds, Dome Room, Guadalupe Room, The Ranger Room, Texas Trail (which is now finished). Work in The Rookery is still on hold until bridges are installed over the water. This is tentatively scheduled for 2002 We continue to do Scientific and Geologic inventory for Harvey Duchene. The Mystery Room needs inventory since it was not done concurrently with survey. Training: We have several approved trainers for the Scientific And Geology Inventory and continually train new people to use the forms that DuChene has developed for use within the park. We are also teaching those involved with restoration, new techniques to expand their knowledge base for different types of impact to the cave CRF Southwest personnel continue to work at Fort Stanton Cave (volunteer hours 1576 total by 46 participants) and in the Lincoln National Forest (volunteer hours 2842 by 97 par ticipants) 23

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Archeology CRF Archeological Project Update, 1995-2001 Patty Jo Watson In the period since the last summaries were published (Crothers 2000; Watson 1996, 2000a, 2000b ), CRF Archeo logical Project research has continued in a number of differ ent directions. (l) Three publications have appeared presenting results of the Paleo fecal Research Project (Gremillion and Sobolik 1996; Kennedy and Watson 1997; Sobolik et al. 1996), which was begun in 1992 to date, sex, and analyze 12 paleo fecal speci mens (6 from Mammoth Cave and 6 from Salts Cave). All are about 2500 years old, and all btit one were deposited by males The exception may have been left by a woman, or by a pre-pubescent individual. (2) Three other articles have been published con cerning the Hourglass Cave research (Mosch and Watson 1996, 1997; Stone 1996), which focuses upon a 45-year old man who died in a high-altitude (over 3000 m) cave in the southern Rocky Mountains about 8000 years ago. Since publication of those articles, we have obtained six more ra diocarbon dates as follows (all dates are conventional C14 ages, uncalibrated): two small charcoal fragments from the passage floor near the entrance (Beta-81201, 1960 b.p. +/ 80, and Beta-81202, 2310 b.p. +/-50); two dates on charcoal smudges carefully removed from the cave wall between the entrance and the find spot of the human bones by rock art dating expert Alan Watchman, Australian National Univer sity-Canberra (CAMS 34506/UCR 3494, 1560 b.p.+/340, and CAMS 34507 /UCR 3497, 3880 b.p. +/-70); and two dates on charcoal fragments from locations between the entrance and the human bone (CAMS 34509/UCR 3495, 1690 b.p +/60, and CAMS 3451 0/UCR 3496, 1530 b.p. +/40). Hence, it is now clear that there were several prehistoric trips into Hourglass Cave, not just one. (3) In 1999, Washington University graduate stu dent Angela Gordon completed a Master's degree project centering on identification of the raw material used to make 24 the prehistoric footgear (vegetal fiber moccasins) found in Salts Cave and Mammoth Cave (Gordon 1999) During the course of her project, we were provided information by Rick Olson, Mammoth Cave National Park ecologist, about a stand of the crucial plant: Eryngium yuccifolium, "rattlesnake mas ter," or "button snakeroot." Under the direction of George Crothers, the Eryngium patch (on CRF property in Hamilton Valley) was mapped. Joan Miller, who figured out how to replicate the ancient footgear (Miller 1988), has taught anumber of us to make them, also. In collaboration with Roger McClure, we have all been keeping close watch on the Eryngium stand to learn what we can about the natural his tory ofthis important plant. ( 4) Together with several other archaeologists who are carry ing out cave archaeology in the Midsouth and Southeast, George Crothers and I have just completed a fairly compre hensive summary ofresu1ts to date (Crothers et al. In Press). (5) Shell Mound Archaeological Project research in Butler County, Kentucky, along the Green River 40 miles west of Mammoth Cave National Park was begun in the 1970s to obtain information on antecedents for the early agricultural complex so well represented in prehistoric botanical remains scattered throughout several miles of passages in Salts and Mammoth Caves (Carstens and Watson eds. 1996, Marquardt and Watson 1983, Marquardt et al. in preparation). In 1999, George Crothers completed his dissertation research at two Archaic shell mounds in the Big Bend of Green River (Crothers 1999). Subsequently, he and Darcy Morey, together with geoarchaeologist Julie Stein, began a long term investigation of geographic and geological relations between the ancient mounds and the river (Morey and Crothers 1998, Morey et al. In Press). Most recently, Crothers has undertaken conduc tivity and sediment-coring studies of the first mound to be excavated by the WPA back in the late 1930s (site 150hl, Chiggerville). This work is ongoing, with the goal oflocating an undisturbed portion of the site that could yield radiocar bon dates as well as stratigraphic information on plant and animal remains.

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 References Cited: Carstens, Kenneth C., and Patty Jo Watson, eds 1996. Of Caves and Shell Mounds. Tuscaloosa : University of Alabama Press Crothers, George M. 1999. Prehistoric Hunters and Gatherers and the Archaic Period Green River Shell Middens of Western Kentucky. Ph.D dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO. Crothers, George M. 2000. CRF Archeological Project II In P. Cannaley and P. Kambesis eds., Cave Research Foundation Annual Report 1994-1997, p. 23. Wenona, IL: Cave Research Foundation. Crothers, George M., Charles H. Faulkner, Jan Simek, Patty Jo Watson, and P. Willey. In Press. Woodland Cave Archaeology In D Anderson and R Mainfort, eds., The Woodland Southeast. Tuscaloosa : University of Alabama Press Gordon, Angela 1999. The Salts Cave Slippers : Fiber Identifi cation and Context. M.A. paper, Department of Anthropology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO. Gremillion, Kristen J., and Kristin D Sobolik 1996. Dietary Variability among Prehistoric Forager-Farmers of Eastern North America. Current Anthropology 37: 529-539 Kennedy, Mary C and Patty Jo Watson 1997 The chronol ogy of Early Agriculture and Intensive Mineral Mining in the Mammoth Cave Region, Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 59: 5-9. Marquardt, William H., and Patty Jo Watson 1983. The Shell Mound Archaic of Western Kentucky In J. Brown and J. Phillips, eds., Archaic Hunters and Gatherers in the American Midwest, pp 323-339 New York: Academic Press. Marquardt, William H Patty Jo Watson, and Mary C. Kennedy, eds. In preparation. Archa e ology of the Middle Green River Area, Kentu c ky Miller, Joan 1988. Experimental Replication of Early Woodland Vegetal Fiber Slippers Southeastern Archaeology 7: 132-137. Morey, Darcy F., and George M Crothers 1998 Clearing Up Clouded Waters : Paleoenvironmental Analysis of Freshwater Mussel Assemblages from the Green River Shell Middens, Western Kentucky. Journal of Archa e o logi cal Science 25: 907-926. Morey Darcy F., George M Crothers, Julie K Stein, James P Fenton, and Nicholas P. Herrmann. In Press. The Fluvial and Geomorphic Context oflndian Knoll an Archaic Shell Midden in West Central Kentucky. G e oarcha e ology. Mosch Cyndi J., and Patty Jo Watson 1996. The Ancient Explorer of Hourglass Cave. Evolutionary Anthropology5: 111-115 Mosch Cynthia and Patty Jo Watson 1997. An Ancient Rocky Mountain Caver. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 59: 10-14 Sobolik, Kristin D Kristen J. Gremillion, Patricia Whitten, and Patty Jo Watson 1996. Technical Note: Sex Determina tion of Prehistoric Human Paleofeces Ame rican Journal ofPhysical Anthropology I 0 I : 283-290. Stone, Anne C and Mark Stoneking 1997. Genetic Analyses of an 8,000 Year-Old Paleoindian Skeleton. Ancient Biomolecules 1 Watson, Patty 1'o 1996. The Cave Research Foundation Archeological Project: an Update In Joe Meiman, ed Proceedings of the 5" Annual Mammoth Cave National Park Science Conference, pp 171-174. Mammoth Cave, KY. Watson Patty Jo 2000a Rethinking the Prehistoric Archaeology of Salts Cave and Mammoth Cave. In Proceedings of the 8" Annual Mammoth Cave National Park Science Conference, pp. 127-129 Mammoth Cave, KY. Watson, Patty Jo 2000b. CRF Archeological Project, 1994 In P. Canncly and P Kambesis, eds Cav e Research Founda tion Annual Report 1994-1997, p 22. Wenona, IL: Cave Research Foundation. 25

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 The Yalahau Archaeological Cave Survey Dominique Risso/o Between 1995 and 2000, I directed a series of cave investiga tions in a largely unstudied portion of the northeastern Yucatan Peninsula known as the Yalahau region (figure I). My project, which was supported in part by the Cave Re search Foundation and conducted under a permit from the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) in Mexico, led the completion of a doctoral degree in anthropol ogy from the University of California, Riverside in 2001. The ongoing Ya!ahau Archaeological Cave Survey is associated with the UCR Yalahau Regional Human Ecology Project-a long-term, interdisciplinary research program focusing on the relationship between the ancient Maya and their environ ment in northern Quintana Roo. During my dissertation research, I recorded and investigated twenty caves of archaeological interest. Evidence of ancient Maya activity included deposits of pottery and other arti facts, shrines, stairways and terraces, stone basins, modifi cation of the cave interior, mining, hrakeage and removal of speleothems, and rock art It is important to note that the ancient Maya never lived in caves, and the results of my research highlight the ceremonial nature of cave use com mon throughout Mesoamerica. The caves of the Yalahau re gion were particularly intriguing given the apparent empha sis on water control and collection For the ancient Maya of the northwestern Yucatan Penin sula caves and cenotes either functioned as the primary sources of drinking water or were seasonally used as "last resorts" when all other reserves were exhausted These wa tery portals, which were imbued with sacred qualities, are as much a part of the cultural identity of the northern lowlands as they are integral components of the enigmatic karst land scape Unlike the northwestern peninsula, a range of readily available freshwater sources including wetlands and numer ous small cenotes characterizes an inland portion of northern Quintana Roo Given the relative abundance and accessibility of surface water in this area, an archaeological cave survey was de signed to evaluate the nature and extent of cave use in the Yalahau region. My primary goal was to isolate the ritual function of the caves and identify evidence of their special ized appropriation. The secondary goal was to determine the extent to which the archaeology of the region s caves could provide functional and chronological information regarding both regional settlement and the overall cultural organization 26 of the landscape. At the same time, the cave survey hoped to take advantage of ongoing investigations of surface sites by integrating their results into the analysis of cave function and chronology The most obvious question concerned the nature of cave use in a water rich environment. Given the accessibility of surface water in the region, were the caves reserved forcer emonial purposes? If so, what are the material correlates of ritualized water collection? Furthermore, what are the pos sible ernie criteria for specialized cave selection or appropria tion and how was it achieved? These were the fundamental questions that shaped the research design.If water can be easily procured at the surface via a range sources, one would expect evidence of water collection from caves to be charac teristic of more ceremonial behavior. Moreover, if water from remote and relatively inaccessible cave pools (or from drip ping speleothems) was especially valued, we should see its exploitation even in areas where alternative (that is, more accessible) water sources exist. Secondly, in caves that have been appropriated for ritual activities, we should be able to identify those natural speleological characteristics that con tributed to its selection as well as influenced (or determined) the spatial manipulation and (re )organization of the cave en-Cenc:Un Yucatan Campeche o: -N A SOkm Figure I: Location of the Yalahau region

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 \I Actun Toh I I i I Figure 2: Map of Actun Toh vironment. The abundance of accessible water in the Yalahau region, combined with the relative inaccessibility of its wa tery caves, made the region ideally suited for such a study. Provided below are brief descriptions of three caves, which exhibit patterns characteristic of ceremonial or specialized use. Actun Toh is the largest and most intensively modified cave in the survey (figure 2). A large mound of collapse de bris is located directly below the entrance shaft This mound was transformed into a terraced pyramidal structure, the basal riser of which rests atop an artificial floor. A stone altar was erected in front of the structure and a circuit of stairways and paths lead from the floor to other portions of the cave. One such stairway descends into a room where a small pool is located. A panel of five carved faces marks the entrance to the room. The co-occurrence of clearly delineated and marked paths leading to cave water is common in the region. Con trolled test excavations in Actun Toh (figure 3) produced ceramic deposits dating to the Early Classic period (approxi mately AD 350AD 600). This chronological assessment is consistent with the Megalithic architectural style of the ter raced mound. A series of stairways and landings also leads to a small pool in Pak Ch'en. The most sophisticated and diagnostic panel of rock art yet reported in the Yalahau region accompanies the route through this small and otherwise unimpressive cave Among the carved images are Codex-style depictions of Postclassic deities related to rain and the concept sacred ness (figure 4) as well as vulva motifs, which are thought to be associated with water and fertility Access into many of the watery caves in the region is diffi cult often requiring the negotiation of vertical drops and long crawlways. These water-bearing caves were neither the only nor the easiest means of water collection in the region, yet evidence of their use as sites for specialized water pro curement is clear This is best observed in the relationship between Actun Pech and its nearby wells. At the bottom of a pit, a small entrance (figure 5) provides access to a long, narrow, horizontal tunnel. This passage leads to a small inter mittent pool, 67 minto the cave. The section of tunnel lead ing to the pool is littered with pottery, and debris was piled along the walls to facilitate movement through the crawl way. The tiny ephemeral pool appears to have been the final des tination of this arduous crawlway as no evidence of cultural activity exists in the 55m of tunnel beyond the pool. Approximately 600 m from Actun Pech, is an ancient well that provides perennial access to the water table. Near this well, a cluster of residential mounds and an additional well were identified. lt seems unlikely that the ancient Maya would have ventured into Actun Pech in search of drinking water when it could have been more easily and regularly procured from local wells Rather, the water collected from Actun Pech and other caves was likely valued for its remote and sacred ongm Figure 4: A carved image ofthe deity known to Mayanists as God C, adoms the walls of Pak Ch 'en (photo by D. Rissolo ) 27

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 In all the water-bearing caves in the survey the pools appear to have structured the nature of human activity between the e ntrance and the pool itself. Fu1iherrnore, the natural layout or morphology of the caves directed or channeled human interaction with cave space, which was then reinforced by cultural modifications to the cave environment. Even in caves without pools, dripwater was often coliected from stalactites Once again, the proximity of such caves to primary water sources rules out their utilitarian role. It should also be noted that simply the presence of water in caves was important, in addition to the proces s of its extraction. Watery areas in caves were imbued with sacred qualities and often served as sites for offertory practices Water collected from caves by the ancient May a was no doubt valued for its symbolic purity and the use of this z uhuy ha (virgin water) in rain rituals remain s a strong part of modern Yucatec Maya religious tra dition. The study of caves within their regional context, which in clude other archaeological sites and topographic features, facilitates the identification and increased understanding of s uch cultural pattering The Yalahau Archaeological Cave Survey will continue to in its efforts to better articulate the relationships between caves and surface sites and reveal how the ancient Maya conceptualized, transformed, an inter acted with caves in the region. 28 Figure 5: Dominique Rissolo at the entrance toActun Pech Respirators protect against histoplasmosis, which is present in some of the caves in the region (photo by K.R Heidelberg).

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Biology Biological Inventory in the Missouri Ozarks by Mick Sutton This report briefly summarizes CRF's (Cave Research Foun dation) biological inventories in caves of the Missouri Ozarks from 1998 through 2001 Within this time frame, CRF inven tory crews visited a total of 55 caves and one mine. A total of 640 records were added to CRF's Missouri cave fauna data base, representing 130 taxa (not all of them identified to spe cies level). Most of the field work took place in caves on the Mark Twain National Forest (MTNF), with substantial addi tional contributions from caves owned by the Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR), Missouri Department of Conser vation (MDC), and a few privately owned caves Mark Twain National Forest The caves visited ranged from tiny (20ft.) to about a mile in length Much of the work was concentrated, as in previous years on caves of the Eleven Point District of the Lower Ozarks physiographic division This is the most cavernous district on the MTNF, but by the end of the period, a large majority of its caves had been mapped and inventoried A report was completed outlining work on 60 caves within the Eleven Point District (Sutton, 1998), and a modified and up dated version of this will be published in Missouri Speleol ogy (in press). A dozen or so smaller and widely scattered caves remain to be visited on the District. A rare undescribed springtail, Arrhopalites new sp had been previously collected from Saltpeter Hollow Cave, but further specimens were requested by taxonomist Ken Christiansen By setting a dung bait station, we were eventually able to collect several additional specimens. One biologically interesting area was around Fremont in Carter County, where there are some moderately long stream caves Camp Yarn Cave housed, in addition to a routine assemblage of terrestrial invertebrates, some unusual troglobitic milli pedes. Chordeumatid cave millipedes are common in the Ozarks, the species being Tingupa pal/ida more than 95% of the time, with occasional appearances by several rarer spe cies, but the Camp Yarn millipedes were undescribed species of Chaetaspis, a polydesmid. Chaetaspis had been collected from only one other Missouri cave, Tumbling Creek (Ozark Underground Laboratory) in Taney County, more than 100 miles from Camp Yarn The Tumbling Creek specimen is being described by Julian Lewis, who also examined the Camp Yarn specimens. Unfortunately, the only male specimen from Camp Yarn was one molt short of maturity, so the millipede is at a taxonomic impasse for now. The millipedes in nearby Turley Cave were the common Tingupa pal/ida, but a rare terrestrial isopod, Amerigoniscus sp., had been previously reported from Turley and neighboring Mosquito Caves. Dur ing the present inventory, several visits to both of these caves failed to reveal the rare isopod No major new bat colonies were recorded on the MTNF but we continued to document the exceptionally prolific popula tions of pipistrelles in certain caves, with very high popula tion densities in Slave Cave, a small cave in the Little Hurri cane Creek (Eleven Point) drainage While coverage of Eleven Point District caves approached saturation two projects in southwestern Missouri were in stigated Both arose from concerns over the effect of increas ing levels of off-road vehicle traffic on the MTNF. In the Chadwick an;a of Christian County there is a network of de veloped ORV trails together with an unofficial network of illicit trails CRF crews inventoried (and mapped where needed) the ten known caves plus one previously unknown The few accessible cave streams showed a depauperate stream fauna, perhaps not unrelated to the colder than nor mal water temperature during this cold-weather inventory i.e the underground water sources appear to be very local. In the Cassville District, Barry County, there is another area where legitimate heavy use afforest roads by ORV enthusi asts is leading to a proliferation of unauthorized trails The area contains several dozen caves, and CRF crews are still in the process of visiting these for biological inventory and mapping where necessary The typical species make-up is a bit different from what we have been used to seeing in the Lower Ozarks though with a good deal of overlap. One rarity that showed up was the troglobitic isopod Ca e cidot e a stilodactyla, taking the place of the familiar C. antricola or salemen sis in one cave A rarity that did not show up, per haps fortunately was a recorded den of copperheads in Currey Cave The late March visit was perhaps early enough that the snakes were still in inaccessible winter quarters. One in teresting cave receiving casual caver traffic is Radium Cave, where a complex network of often wet passages have been 29

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 ope ned up by extensive sediment excavation; in addition two artificial shafts have been bored into the cave, all in a futile effort to discover and mine radioactive minerals" that have long been rumored to exist there. A lot of debris from the mining efforts remains preserved in the cave. The Rolla-Houston MTNF district was briefly visited to in ventory a couple of caves i n the area of a planned bum, and a long stream cave in the Salem-Potosi District, Cave Hollow Cave, wa s mapped and inventoried. Ozark National Scenic Riverways The bioinventory program outlined in the 1997 CRF Annual Report was compfeted Like the MTNF bioinventory, this program arose from concern over the potential long-term ef fects of mineral exploration within the watersheds of the Cur rent and Eleven Point Rivers A group of stream caves, most of them already mapped were visited to obtain baseline data on their biological community make-ups. Although the main focus wa s on aquatic ecology, terrestrial communities were also examined One item of interest was the presence of troglobitic crayfish (Cambarus hubrichti) in Big Spring the largest s pring in the Ozarks A small talus cave behind the huge vauclusian rising gives access to a fragment of the spring feeder channel ; baiting here was successful in attract ing a single crayfish The most biologically interesting and diverse caves were two caves with summer colonies of gray bats Coal bank Cave was already mapped and its bat colony fairly well documented Shop Hollow Cave, in a wild and remote woodland setting on MDC land within the ONSR boundary, on the other hand, had only scanty information. The cave, still incompletely mapped and explored, contained a large, previously unre corded, gray bat colony, numbering at least 10,000. As in the case of several other summer gray bat caves in the Lower Ozarks significant numbers (I OOs) of gray bats also overwin ter in the summer colony cave Since caves on this project received multiple inventory visits over several seasons, we were able to document in both Shop Hollow and Panther Spring Caves large population fluctua tions in the common troglophilic snail Fontigens aldrichi Among the more unusual faunal records was one for river otter (Lutria c anad e nsis) in Coalbank Cave, attested by dis tinct prints and scat near the downstream siphon leading to the Current River. We have one other record of otters using a Current River cave The multi-season study of the e cology ofONSR's large show c av e, Round Spring Cavern was wrapped up, and remaining bait s tation s removed Seasonal and successional fluctua tion s in terrestrial cavemicole populations were recorded (pa-30 per in preparation). An unsolved question arising from the project is the nature of the marked population fluctuations of cave and grotto salamanders. The cave is a cave salamander breeding site, and our results seem to suggest that egg-lay ing takes place in an "unorthodox" setting-broad, shallow pools with deep silt substrates Unrelated to this inventory project, half a dozen other caves and shelters within ONSR, some of them not previously re corded were inventoried in concert with mapping trips The largest and most significant biologically was Mose Prather Cave, which contains a summer gray bat colony and hiber nating Indiana bats. The pit entrance also provided some biological excitement in the form of two live iflethargic cop perheads. Paleontologists Rick Toomey and Mona Colburn carried out a parallel paleo-inventory ; their most unusual fmd was a small collection of human bones in stream gravel. Missouri Department of Conservation In addition to the MDC caves visited as part of the NSR inventory, a fairly large new" cave, Forester Cave, turned up It is still not completely mapped, but its biology has been recorded in collaboration with MDC cave specialist Bill Elliott There was a biological inventory trip in Powder Mill Creek Cave to introduce Bill to the biology of this very long stream cave, which is still being mapped by CRF crews. As part of an educational project, Susan Cave, a mile-long stream cave in Washington County, was inventoried. CRF is assisting MDC in guiding tours of the cave for both the gen eral public and for outdoor education professionals, with an emphasis on cave biology and conservation. One interesting find was a small, previously overlooked hibernating colony of Indiana bats. CRF members have been assisting MDC and US Fish and Wildlife Service personnel in inventorying Missouri s larg est colony of Indiana bats (Myotis soda/is) in Pilot Knob Mine, an abandoned and somewhat unstable iron mine in Iron County. The site of the hibemaculum itself has proved elusive and inaccessible, but extensive bat use of the mine is documented by harp-trap sampling at the entrance every fall, at a period when the bats are swarming prior to hibernation. In addition to the lndianas, significant numbers oflittle brown and long-eared bats also use the mine. In October 2001, the main mine entrance was gated to supplement the oft-breached fence around the site, which is a National Wildlife Refuge. CRF has also been cooperating with MDC by adding pub lished and unpublished inventory records to a statewide cave biology database developed by MDC's Bill Elliott. As a sepa rate part of this small-grant project, a number of voucher

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 specimens of cave invertebrates were archived at the Enns Entomology Museum at the University of Missouri. Pioneer Forest and other private caves A CRF geology party entering Cookstove (aka Squaredance) Cave on the privately-owned Pioneer Forest in Shannon County came across what appeared to be a twilight-zone colony oflndiana bats Follow-up visits, with CRF assisting MDC bat specialist Rick Clawson, confirmed that the cave is a significant M. soda/is hibernaculum, with about I 000 bats using both the twilight zone and a dark zone site. Some spill over from this colony also occurs in nearby Holmes Hollow Cave, where ORV traffic (within the cave!) is causing con cern Cookstove Cave itself is very heavily visited by casual cavers and cave-for-pay groups, and Pioneer staff are trying to gain some control over unauthorized ORV use throughout the area. CRF cavers and others led by Jim Kaufmann carried out an archeological project in a large privately owned cave along the Gasconade River in Pulaski County (the cave remains anonymous owing to delicate land-owner relations) Analmost entire skeleton of a short-faced bear was removed from a remote setting, with individual bones and bone groups encased in plaster for safe passage out of the cave and for study and storage at the Illinois State Museum We also documented that the cave contains a major gray bat summer colony, a small number of hibernating Indiana bats, and by far the largest population we have seen of the troglophilic spider Cicurina cavemicola, associated with the bat guano piles. Biological inventory took place in Banker Cave a stream cave in Shannon County owned by a member of the MTNF staff. The most significant find here was a specimen of the tiny troglobitic spider Islandiana new sp We have documented this undescribed species in five previous Lower Ozark caves, but this was the first mature male we had collected, making it far more useful taxonomically The specimen supplements the only other male lslandiana new sp. ever collected, from Taney County's Tumbling Creek Cave (again!). The spiders are being examined by taxonomist Don Buckle References Sutton Michael 1998 Baseline mapping and biological inventory of cave s on the Mark Twain National Forest Doniphan-Eleven point District, Missouri: Phase 2. I 05 pp. Report prepared for US Forest Service, August 21, 1998. Ibid. 200 I. Geography and Biology of Caves on the Mark Twain National Forest Doniphan-Eleven Point District, Mis souri : Phase 2. Missouri Speleology (in press) 31

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Cartography/GIS Cartography at Lilburn Cave, CA 1998-2001 Peter Basted Overview The Cave Research Foundation (CRF) began a project to improve the cartography of Lilburn Cave in 1980. The origi nal goal was to re-sketch the major passages in this three dimensional maze cave, located in a band of marble in Red wood Canyon, in Kings Canyon National Park, California. It soon became apparent that the previous survey of7.8 miles had overlooked numerous side passages, and by the end of 1997 the length stood at about 16.5 miles Understanding the cave has been greatly improved since the early 1990's by using a quadrangle map system, where verti cal elevation is used to divide each area into as many as five layers. Approximately two miles of new survey was added in 1998-200 I, with most of the new leads found by carefully checking recently complete maps About 1000 new stations were used, for an average shot length of approximately 10 feet. We also re-surveyed about3000 feet, mostly to improve loop closures and improve sketches, but sometimes by mis take. There were 73 survey trips into Lilburn over this four year period, spread over five to ten expeditions per year. Almost half of the trips occurred in 2001. The official length of Lilburn is now 18.47 miles (29.72 km), and the vertical ex tent remains unchanged at500 feet (152m). A major effort was made to get caught up on the quadrangle maps over the past four years We are now have a working version of all of the approximately 83 quadrangles (including three new ones due to new discoveries), aud 80% of these are completely up to date. Less than one mile remains to be drafted onto the remaining 20' Vo. The following sections give more detail, one a year-by-year basis. 1998 This was a slow year with the CRF fielding onJy four expedi tions involving cartography: May 27-28 July 3-4, October 31, and November 7 The unusually wet winter precluded access to the cave before Memorial Day, and even on that weekend we tramped through snow for a 6 5-mile-long hike rather than the usual 5 miles to the research cabin. There 32 were a total of eight survey trips into Lilburn Cave, with a total of 1215 feet of new passage being surveyed using 111 stations. ln addition, about six stations were re-surveyed by mistake on the November trip. Several questions marks were checked and found to be too short or tight to survey. Three ofthe July survey trips were to the new area in the very southern end of the cave, discovered late last year. Even in July, it was a very wet trip to get through the Yellow Floored Domes and past the Mousetrack turnoff to climb up to this muddy breakdown and phreatic tube area. Two pits (each about 40' deep) were dropped and a waterfall could be heard ahead through boulders A return trip in October found much dryer conditions. No way on could be found through the boulders at the base of the second 40' pit, but following the main canyon southwards from the room between the two pits led to a series of good sized rooms, and several other deep pits with quite strong breezes blowing out of them. Careful rigging will be needed to descend these safely, due to large quantities of unstable breakdown. We called this new area Southern Comfort because it is cold, tight, and muddy, and a bottle ofthe so-named liquor sounded very good at the time. Another July trip found new passage at the end of the Pandora Complex, which came within a few feet of con necting to a new section of the Underworld surveyed on the sole May trip. Some new passage was found in the Clay Palace beyond a tight squeeze It connected to a larger pas sage which later study of the map revealed to be un-sur veyed, so more potential remains here as well. Finally, some mop-up survey was done in the Attic, and one team spent a day checking the complicated Schreiber Complex, but did no surveying. 1999 There were nine survey expeditions to Redwood Canyon between October 1998 and October 1999. There were 22 sur vey trips into Lilburn Cave, netting a total of about 3400 feet of new passage in 340 stations, and 800 feet of resurvey in 80 stations. The largest portion of new survey (1400 feet) was in the Southern Comfort area, first found in late 1997. Pushing

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 through some tight crawls in late 1998 led to a series oflarger rooms, which were pushed in 1999 to the top of an impressive pit. A rappel to the water-filled bottom revealed that this is Slash-down dome, the southern-most point in the cave, only reachable from the bottom when water levels are extremely low. A lead heading south from the top of the pit will require a bolt climb to access. Several side passages were also sur veyed, including one that connects to the Mousetrack area Also in the southern end of the cave, low water levels have permitted easier access to the Thanksgiving Hall area, where over 700 feet have been surveyed and several good le a ds remain heading away from known cave The third biggest area of activity was the Schreiber Complex and Clay Palace where the availability of newly completed quads allowed re vealed several overlooked leads. The map of May's cave had been considered finished except for one small lead, which on a quick inspection trip in February led to a substantial new section Survey marks indicated that at least part of this was known to the 1970s survey project led by Ellis Hedlund. A couple of rather tight squeezes are involved, but near the bottom of the cave, the passage can get as large as 20 feet tall and 5 feet wide. A small stream flows into a tight crawl that could be enlarged by removing rocks when the water flow is sufficiently low. This might lead to a connection with Lilburn about 100 feet away The new area was mapped in four survey trips for 680 feet in 81 stations, more than doubling the length of the known cave. Several leads remain. 2000 Slow but steady progress was made during the year 2000 Nine survey trips in Lilburn Cave netted 1166 feet of new survey using 127 stations, and 550 feet of replacement sur vey using 46 stations. A loop in Mays cave was surveyed in a single trip for 80 feet in 14 stations No trips were made to Cedar Cave this year. A surface survey was made to locate a blowing dig site in Pebble Pile Creek. The Memorial Day weekend was the most productive with five survey trips. Checking an area near the Yellow Floored Domes revealed two interesting side leads, one large but intimidating due to large, unstable granite boulders the other tight but opening to a small room with a promising dig site. A party checking Pandorals Passage mopped up about 300 feet in side leads, one of which had a previously unrecorded small stream. In the north part of the cave, short surveys added 70 feet to the Great Central, and 55 feet to the Attic Attic. A replacement survey of a confusing section of the Schreiber Complex was begun in May, and continued in June Also in June, a tight canyon was pushed in the 2 by 2 Com plex. This was surveyed in August for 65 feet. The most interesting discovery was made on the Labor Day expedi tion. Low water finally allowed a party to reach the new area above Thanksgiving Hall. Continuing the previous yearl s survey, 340 feet was added in a pleasant series of canyons and breakdown rooms heading north-east into a blank part of the map. The survey stopped at a 50-foot tall canyon with a flowing stream : possibly the Pebble Pile creek The area is cold, wet, and breezy, but has good potential for future exten sions. Progress was also made on the project to install easily read able survey markers at major passage intersections, to aid researchers to tie their studies to known locations in the cave. 2001 Great progress was made during the year 2001. A total of34 survey trips into Lilburn Cave, spread over 10 expeditions netted 5465 feet of new survey using 583 stations, and 1030 feet of replacement survey using 84 stations This is the most new survey in a single year since the CRF project began in 1980. The average new survey shot length of9.3 feet is only 25% below the average for the entire cave (12.1 feet), showing that much of the new passages are reasonably large, at least for California A single trip to Mays cave may have found some new pas sage, but the explorers were not sure. No trips were made to Cedar Cave this year, nor were any surface surveys done. The most new footage came from the area above Thanksgiv ing Hall, which includes the newly-named Prize in theNarrows and Outback areas. These areas fall in previously blank quadrangle maps, so serve to increase the "footprint" of Lilburn Of particular interest is a large deposit of a green mineral, possibly malachite. There are also some nicely deco rated flowstone areas. A new route to this area was found from Hog Heaven, allowing access withouthaving to wait for the water levels in Thanksgiving Hall to recede sufficiently to reach Porn's Chimney A total of 1600 feet was surveyed in five survey trips in the Outback area Several leads remain; most requiring vertical gear. Trips to this most remote section of Lilburn were long and tiring averaging about 12 hours in duration. Below the Outback, a team pushed the upstream end of Thanksgiving Hall through a very tight constriction to find 180 feet of small stream passage in a tall canyon An upper level filled with extremely loose breakdown was not surveyed. It would be interesting to dye-trace this small stream: is it an infeeder or an overflow route of the main river? The next largest area of new survey came from pushing a tight breakdown choke above the West Stream. This led to 33

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 LILBURN CAVE KINGS CANYON NATION PARK, CALIFORNIA THANKSGIVING HALL CLAY PALACE 500 FEET SCHREIBER COMPLEX CLAY PALACE UPSTREAM DIVE PROFILE VIEW SOUTH SEAS COPYRIGHT 2000 P BOSTED, C.R.F. the Grand Foyer and Opera House, which are relatively large rooms filled with breakdown blocks that are sometimes more than 15 feet long There are many mazey side passages as well The entire area is less than 100 feet below the surface, as evidenced by many granite boulders and granitic sand. A vertical connection was also made using an 80 foot rope down to "That Room", near the Hex Room. A total of890 feet was surveyed in five survey trips in the Opera House area. The discovery trip was spent widening the tortuous route through the breakdown, and an additional trip re-surveyed much of main loop finding several errors that fixed the initial 35-foot mis-closure. The Attic-Attic area also saw a lot of activity, especially early in 2002, with 600 feet surveyed in five trips. These were mostly small passages, found by working from the newly available Attic-Attic quads (D.3.M and D.3 .U).lt was also discovered that TG 1-20 stations exist in the cave, but there is not record 34 of this survey. If it cannot be found, these passages will need to be re-surveyed. Many small question marks remain in this area. Two trips were made to the Pandora's complex, with a bold climb yielding 220 feet. This followed a small seasonal stream, which was observed to come from a high lad in the terminal room. This room is almost directly below the Historic en trance, which has a small stream of similar size that flows in the spring, so a dig was done near this entrance, below the ladder, that quickly led to a tight fissure passage. This was surveyed in two trips to connect to the new Pandora's room after 290 feet, using several ropes. The very low water levels in the fall inspired eight trips to the Enchanted River, where a 1450 feet of new survey was found, mostly following leads from the original 1984 survey that we

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 were reminded of by the recent availability of these quad rangles. Two good leads remain: one was pushed for over I 00 feet with no end in sight. By using the shortcut via the Clay Palace, and rigging the 15-foot falls with a rope, it was possible to stay mostly dry above the waist on these cold, wet trips. A trip to River Pit netted 140' of new passage, with leads remaining Vertical gear is recommended for a return trip. A trip to Mud Heaven and Southern Comfort via Mousetrack found 170 feet of new passage. A strong breeze indicates a surface connection somewhere in this area. A good possibil ity for finding this is a climb at the top of Mud Heaven Shaft (which was left rigged with doubled 30-year-old Goldline that seems to be still use-able). Three trips were partially dedicated to find loop closure prob lems in the Schrieber complex and the Elevator. Three major problems were fixed. Development and Testing of Three Componentsof the Process of Transferring Digital Cave Survey Data from the Cave Research Foundationto Mammoth Cave National Park Mike Yocum Introduction Determining best management strategies and practices for the karst ecosystem partially encompassed by the boundary of Mammoth Cave National Park (MCNP) requires the inte gration, analysis, query and display of various types of data from a range of scientific disciplines. A principal software product used by MCNP staff to perform these tasks is Arc View, a GIS (geographic information systems) product. A key component in the integration of many of the MCNP's databases is the cave survey data set that has been collected by the Cave Research Foundation (CRF) over a period of some 40 years. The cave survey data set is the framework to which many other data sets both surface and sub-surface must be related in order to understand and assess numerous resource management responsibilities incumbent upon MCNPstaff. At the beginning of this project CRF cave survey data did not exist in a format compatible with Arc View, there did not existmetadata1 describing the transmitted data, nor did MCNP have a procedure for tracking it as it was transferred The goals of this project were I) to develop and test proce dures for converting CRF survey data to Arc View format, 2) to determine which data items and manipulations are most significant in maximizing the accuracy of the data in order to provide appropriate metadata, and 3) to develop a framework and procedures for recording the content and status of CRF cave survey data as it is conveyed from CRF to MCNP Method The first stage of the project was to assemble a team ofknowl edgeable, professionally experienced personnel to review and evaluate the status of original digital data sets, possible trans fer procedures, and potential metadata items. For the most part, discussion took place via email. Some telephone con versations and tace-to-face meetings took place among a few of the participants The second stage was creation of a digital database of sur face features and surveyed cave passages to be included in the investigation A study area was chosen in consultation with staff at MCNP s Division of Science and Resources Management and personnel from CRF's Eastern Operations Cartography Program. The area selected was that part of the cave system between the Historic and Violet City entrances of Mammoth Cave For surface features, the selected files included geospatial data in four commonly available formats: OEM, DLG, DRG, and DOQQ2 In its GIS applications, Park standards for pro jection, datum and units are UTM, NAD27 and meters. The geospatial data files were obtained in, or converted to, these standards. 35

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Cave survey data files for passages within the study area were obtained from CRF's Eastern Operations Cartography Program. They were available in formats corresponding to software that had been used by CRF personnel :Y. Compass, CML (Cave Map Language) SMAPS and Walls. Each of these programs features some form of ASCII output. Data in these files was in a confidential coordinate system devised by CRF many years earlier at the request of the Park adminis tration in order to protect sensitive locational information from misuse should anyone gain unauthorized access. Aller survey data in each format had been collected for the study area it was processed using each of the respective programs. Any data items or processing procedures that were problematic, or wer e deemed important for insuring the accuracy of the final data set, were noted. Only two programs, Walls and Compass, allow conversion to Arc View shapefile format.3 Walls exports shapefiles directly Compass plot files can be converted to shapefiles using CaveTools, an Arc View extension. Output !rom SMAPS and CM L cannot be converted to shape files without first being converted to either Walls or Compass. The most complete data set was in SMAPS format. It was imported into both Compass and Walls, where it was con verted from the CRF coordinate system to UTM, NAD27 meters, with copies of the data in the original CRF coordi nates being retained. Conversion to shapefiles was then performed on all four of these data sets, and the results reg istered to a DOQQ of the study area. Using results of the registration, along with insights gained from discussions among project team members, an FGDC compliant metadata set was constructed An expanded shapefile format, containing supplementary cave survey at tributes requested by MCNP or suggested by team members, was also created. A framework for tracking transferred data was proposed. CRF's map production at Mammoth Cave has been orga nized hy the Cartography Program into a series of map sheets that cover the extent of the cave, each sheet being assigned to a CRF cartographer. Map production as a whole is charted on a map sheet index that shows all of the maps and their relation to each other and the Mammoth Cave system. The proposed framework for tracking CRF digital data transfers is to assign each station in the delivered station shapefile to the appropriate map sheet. Discussion In the context ofGIS, the tcnn"legacy data" is applied to data pn:viously collected without reference to use in GIS applica-36 lions. Often it has been collected over an extended period of time, for many different purposes, and may be stored in a variety of formats. Conversion and integration of legacy data sources into current GIS applications are common tasks for every project that seeks to tum existing feature data into functional GIS information. Typically, legacy systems use different data structures, software architectures, and even different computing environments.4 GIS is a relatively new field and data transfer technology is often limited. Much of the work may have to be done manually. In either case, whether automated or manual, reconciliation of legacy data is a complex process, and the amount of money spent on it each year runs into many hundreds of millions of dollars. A review of some of the challenges and strategies applicable to importing legacy data is helpful to anyone planning to imple ment GIS in their work.5 6 .7 g Fortunately, conversion ofCRF's legacy data did not require the substantial re-engineering that is often the only viable alternative for many federal, state, and municipal agencies. A project team able to contribute its time and professional ex pertise was adequate for the tasks that needed to be accom plished Members of the project team were chosen for their specific professional experience or administrative responsibilities in cartography or GIS, and their differing viewpoints about data processing issues. The qualifications of each team member relevant to this particular undertaking are briefly summarized below. Aaron Addison is a cave surveyor familiar with automated cartography as well as having extensive professional experi ence with the MicroStation suite ofCAD/GIS products Larry Fish is a cave surveyor and computer programmer who is the author of the Compass cave survey data processing pro gram. Gary Fisher is a caver employed with the USGS, where he worked for many years on converting geospatial data to the SOTS format. David McKenzie is a computer program mer, mathematician and cave surveyor who is the author of the Walls cave survey data project management program. Bob Osburn is a cave surveyor who is CRF's Chief Cartogra pher for Mammoth Cave Mel Park is a cave surveyor and computer programmer who is the author of the CML cave survey data management program. Bernie Szukalski is the author of Cave Tools, a cave survey data conversion utility, as well as a product manager at ESRI, the GIS firm that pro duces ArcView Mike Yocum is a caver with professional experience in importing legacy data into Arc View, as well as being the Director ofCRF's GIS Resource Development Probrram. This group carried out an extended email discussion over a period of approximately eight months Additional detailed,

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report2001-2003 software-specific discussions between some of the members continued for over two years Given their collective level of knowledge, lengthy experience, and differing viewpoints regarding these topics, members expectably engaged in pro tracted discussions that served to highlight key issues and points of contention, without always agreeing on best meth ods or procedures for producing the highest quality data In particular, although loop closure statistics were agreed upon as key indicators of survey quality, there was no con sensus as to the best method of performing these calcula tions Measurement and processing of passage dimensions was another instance in which no unanimous position was reached. (Passage dimensions, commonly referred to as LRUD, are measurements of the distance from a survey sta tion to the left wall, right wall, ceiling, and floor ) On occasion, the discussion drifted into areas more relevant to data collection and data processing than data transfer. Data collection and data processing are topics familiar to most cave surveyors and cartographers They are the fre quent subject of debates that have lasted for many years, with no indication of ending or reaching consensus Al though useful in providing a context for some questions that could arise during data transfers, the data collection and data processing discussions did not directly contribute a great deal to achieving the goals of the project. Work might have proceeded more efficiently had the Principal Investigator re focused the group on the task at hand more frequently The study area was chosen not only because of its rel evance to MCNP projects, but also because CRF survey data for this part of the cave is tied to the Walker bench marks, which provide a reliable set of control points In 1935 and 1936, H D. Walker of the US Geological Survey estab lished a horizontal and vertical control net by running a tran sit traverse, and subsequent leveling lines along the same route, in Mammoth Cave In addition to in-cave benchmarks, the net extends to the surface at several entrances As a result oflater surface triangulation conducted in the area, the original Walker data were corrected in 1972 to incorporate a datum shift The results were published in 1973.9 Although a few errors have since been discovered in the Hosley publi cation, the Walker benchmarks represent the most reliable subsurface survey data for Mammoth Cave to date They are the foundation to which CRF survey data is joined. One development not anticipated at the start of the project occurred when it was learned that many ofCRF's Mammoth Cave cartographers were changing data processing software Most had used SMAPS for years, and many now were adopt ing Walls One or two began using Compass. It was not within the scope of the project to evaluate or recommend survey data processing software but simply to examine the output of the software in use and bring to light key issues involved in converting that output to GIS format. As a result of cartographers choosing new software the final phase of the project focused in more detail on the shapefiles produced by Walls. Conversion of survey data from its native format to Walls, Compass, CML, SMAPS, or any other software formatand conversion from any one of these formats to any other one of them raises questions about the conversion process since there is no standard for selection of data fields that will be included in the conversion. Nor, for any given data field, are there standards for how it will be parsed and translated Each software author has chosen what he believes to be relevant or manageable data, but each differs in his choices. Each author has also chosen what he believes to be the best pro cessing algorithms, but again differ in choices It thus be comes crucial to know the processing and conversion his tory of any shapefile since both processing and conversion algorithms may differ from program to program and signifi cantly alter the output. The raw data-to-GIS shapefile "transformation pathways" are different for Compass and Walls. While both programs permit internal conversion to a projection datum and units (e.g., UTM NAD27 meters), conversion to shapefile format is performed differently The output from Compass is a plot file in ASCII format. This file is read by CaveTools, which con verts it to a shapefile. Walls creates a shapefile directly without the need for additional manipulation by a conver sion utility. To date, no problems have arisen using the SMAPS-Walls shapefile route, but an example that appeared in a SMAPS COMPASS-Cave Tools-shapefile conversion will serve toil lustrate the potential for results to be radically affected by the conversion processes During a transfer of data from the CRF coordinate system, the Historic Entrance of Mammoth Cave (along with the rest of the cave passages in the associ ated file) was displaced by over 3,000 feet. Larry Fish discov ered the causes of the problem, use of two different stan dards for definition of a foot in Compass, combined with a rounding error in CaveTools Although these errors have since been corrected in the software the question is worth examining in some detail because it dramatically demonstrates that seemingly trivial differences can drastically affect final results Below is part ofFish's explanation The problem you are seeing occurs because we are multiply ing very large numbers by values in the range of tens of millions of feet for the UTM coordinates For example, the difference between the conversion constant I am using and the one Bernie is using is: 37

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 3.28083989501312-3.2808 = 0.00003989501312 This is a very small number, but not compared to the large UTM values. If you multiply this very small difference by the large UTM values, the difference is surprisingly large: 13496183.399 0.00003989501312 = 538.43 meters I ran into a similar problem a few weeks ago because I was using the International Foot (0.3048) in some parts of COM PASS and the "US Survey Foot" (0.30480060960 1) in other parts of the program. My logic was that the Survey Foot would be more accurate for geographic measurements. How ever, that 0.000000609601 difference was enough to cause an eight-meter discrepancy in the data.10 In an article published in Compass and Tape, Fish notes: Multiple conversions can make any conversion prob lems worse For example, if you convert a UTM co ordinate to feet using the US Survey Foot and then convert back using the International Foot, you will cause an error, not just a units discrepancy. This is most likely to happen if you are using differing soft ware packages that support different units. Each transfer can cause increasing errors.11 The Mammoth Cave data that was so spectacularly displaced was originally in SMAPS feet, which were converted to Com pass feet (prior to Fish's correction of Compass code), then converted to Arc View meters (prior to Szukalski 's correction ofCaveTools code). Fortunately, because the resulting dis placement was so conspicuous, it brought the problem to light. Fish notes, "I have done a lot of research on this issue. The problem is more pervasive than I had thought and it appears to affect ALL cave survey programs and ALL GIS software." 12 His Compass and Tape article should be required reading for anyone using different software packages to work with their data, or anyone converting data from one set of units to another. Even after all such data conversion errors have been cor rected, there still remain the different algorithms by which different programs process data This became strikingly ap parent when four survey data shapefiles were registered to a geodata file. The process began with a single CRF data set. It was im ported into both Compass and Walls, where it was converted fTom the CRF datum and feet to UTM, NAD27 and meters by each program Copies ofthe data in the original CRF datum 38 and units were retained in both Walls and Compass. There were then two Walls sets of the data (in both CRF and UTM datums) and two Compass sets of the data (in both CRF and UTM datums). Conversion to shapefile format was performed on all four of these data sets, and the results superimposed on a DOQQ of the study area. (Figure 1) All survey data files were regis tered to a Walker benchmark located near the Violet City entrance to Mammoth Cave (Figure 2) Comparison of the differing locations of the converted cave passage line plots to known and well-defined surface fea tures made it graphically clear that data processing algo rithms also play a key role in the final result. Although a single original CRF data set in SMAPS was the source file fed into each transformation pathway, variations of approxi mately l 00 feet over a linear distance of approximately 8,000 feet were noted in the final locations of cave passages in relation to points on the DOQQ image (Figure 3), depending on datum and software. Nor do problems of working with different data sets begin and end with cave survey and GIS software It has long been known that the geodata files to which cave survey data may be registered for use in GIS applications are not in alignment with each other. Figure 4 shows a section of a DOQQ in which are visible the Park's visitor center, a couple of lots and other facilities. Over this are yellow lines traced around some of the same features on a DRG for the same area. The "Y" is a standard symbol for a cave entrance, and denotes the location of the Historic Entrance to Mammoth Cave on the DRG The blue triangle labeled "IT 1 H 1972" is a location on the cave floor beneath the drip line at the mid point of the entrance passage, established by the Natural Sciences Resource Study Group in 1972 during work on the Walker benchmark netY The red dot is the author's "eye ball" estimate of where the entrance "really" is on the OOQQ. Cave survey data can be tied in to or registered with surface data at various stages in the data collection and conversion process. Surface data can be collected specifically as an extension of the underground survey net. Existing surface data can be incorporated into legacy or newly created cave survey data. A shapefile created from cave survey data can be registered to a geodata file that contains surface data of varying degrees of precision and accuracy.1415 However, in order for the result to be useful for management purposes requiring both high accuracy and high precision, the surface data set to which the subsurface data is to be matched must be chosen in advance since existing standard surface data formats are not themselves precisely or accurately aligned with each other. Cave survey data registered to one format, e.g., DOQQ will not be in registration with

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Figure 1 :DOQQ of study area Figure 3 Discrepancy in cave passage locations Figure 2 Registration to Violet City Entrance of Mammoth Cave Figure 4: DOQQ with Park Visitor Center overlayed on cave passage 39

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Cave R e sear c h Foundation Annual Report-200I-2003 other formats, e.g., DRGs, DLGs, or DE Ms Before embarking on any major project, selection of a final standard surface data set becomes a priority. To provide inforn1ation that might assist in the surface data sele c tion process, as well as offering useful metadata about the cave survey data and complying with federal metadata requirements David McKenzie and the author created an expanded shape file format for use with Walls. (Appendix I) The expanded format allows users to access metadata di rectly within ArcView. In addition, it contains a field -Sheetname that assigns each station in a processed station shapefilc to the appropriate CRF map sheet. This allows MCNP to track the content and status of CRF cave survey data as it is conveyed from CRF to MCNP. Finally, the shapdiles produced by Walls can be p a rsed by SMMS, MCNP's current standard metadata management software, to produce FGDC compliant metadata. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the most critical problems when utilizing cave survey data for resourc 7 management at Mammoth Cave National Park currently arise not in data collection, but in data management-including data processing. A crucial component of data management is metadata that is relevant to the data sets being manipulated and integrated, including a history of any previous data manipulation. Data management should also include thoughtful and careful long term planning for final data uses and needs since these will partly determine appropriate data transformations Acknowk>dgemcnts I would like to thank the members of the project team, who were tolerant of my ignorance, patient with my slowness to grasp obvious facts, and forgiving of my lapses in memory. They were : Aaron Addison, Larry Fish, Gary Fisher, David McKenzie, Bob Osburn, Mel Park, and Bernie Szukalski. I would also like to thank Teresa Leibfreid and John Fry of the Division of Science and Resources Management at Mammoth Cave National Park, who went out of their way to work with my dillicult schedule for the sake of the project. Finally, 1 would lik e to single out David McKenz ie wh o displays a rare attention to detail and an admirable dedication to not just getting a _job done, but getting it done correctly. 40 I "Metadata" is data about data. It is data that describes the content, quality, condition, and other characteristics of data. Federal agencies are required by Executive Order 12906 (April II, 1994) to include metadata with all digital geospatial data. Executive Order 12906 also established the National Spatial Data Infrastructure and adopted the FGDC (Federal Geographic Data Committee) Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata to provide a consistent approach and format for the description of data characteristics. The stan dard, and an electronic workbook are available at: http:// www.(f!dc.gov/metadata!metadata.html 4 6 7 10 I I OEM is an acronym for Digital Elevation Model, DLG is an acronym for Digital Line Graph, DOQQ is an acronym for Digital Orthophoto Quarter Quad, and DRG is an acronym for Digital Raster Graphic Compass is available at: http ://fountainware.com/ compass/ Walls is available at: http ://davidmck.home. texas .net/ walls / Peters D., System Design Strategies, Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands CA. 2001. Nabil, A. and Gangopadhyay, A., Databas e Issu e s in Geographi c Information Syst e ms. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Norwell MA. 1997 Groot, R. and McLaughlin, J. Geospatial Data Infrastructure: Concepts, Cases and Good Practice Oxford University Press New York, NY. 2000. URISA, GIS Database Concepts: A Tutorial Urban and Regional Information Systems Association Park Ridge, IL. 1999. Hohl, P GIS Data Conversion: Strategies, Tech niqu e s and Management Onward Press, Albany, NY. 1998. Hosley, R.J ., Bench Marks in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, Natural Sciences Resource Study Group, 1973 Fish L., Email: August 2 2000 Fish, L. "The International Foot versus the U.S. Survey Foot or the case of the Galloping Caves" C ompass and Tape, Vol. 15, Issue 2, No. 50, p.l3. Fish, L., Email : April 18, 200 I

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 I) Hosley, R. J., Bench Marks in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, Natural Sciences Resource Study Group, 1973,p.4 15 U. S. Geological Survey, Standards for Digital Raster Graphics: National Mapping Program Technical Instructions. 14 U.S. Geological Survey, Standards for Digital Orthopohotos : National Mapping Program Technical Instructions. APPENDIX I DESCRIPTION OF WALLS CAVE SURVEY SHAPEFILESFOR MAMMOTH CAVE NATIONAL PARK VERSION DATE: 2001-06-15 This document describes the data set that will be supplied periodically to Mammoth Cave National Park by the Cave Research Foundation Each named file set (indicated below by the "filename" prefix) will consist of at least four shapefile assemblies and a separate metadata table containing information about the set as a whole The current version of this document will also be supplied A. Field Description CAVENO CAVENAME CAVEAREA SURVEYNAME FSBNUMBER DATAFILE DATAHIST SURVEYDATE FR_NAME TO NAME LENGTH AZIMUTH INCLINE CTR EAST CTR NORTH CTR ELEV ATTRIBUTES LINE TYPE Field Name NAME etter> X y z LEFT RIGHT UP DOWN LRUD_AZ VECTOR DATA(SHAPEFILEATTRIBUTESFILENAME_ V.DBF) Field Name Field Type Field Size Text 4 Number assigned by MCNP (metadata table field value) Text 64 Name or project title associated with cave (tracked by MCNP). Text 128 Name hierarchy associated with vector s location in cave See Note I. Text 48 Letters (often just one) identifying survey where vector measurements were recorded Alternatively, it can be a l ong survey title See Note 2 Text 4 Field survey book number if applicable See Note 2. Text 8 Base name of raw survey data file containing defined vector. Text 128 Data processing history (metadata table field value) Number 8 Date of vector measurement, format YYYYMMDD. Text 17 Name of 'FROM' station. See NAME in station table and Note 4 Text 17 Name of 'TO' station Number 10.2 Length of measured vector in meters. Number 6.2 Azimuth of TO station from FROM station (grid North degrees) Number 6 2 Incline of vector from FROM station to TO station (degrees) Number 12.2 UTM NAD27 casting of vector's midpoint. Number 12.2 UTM NAD27 northing of vector's midpoint. Number 12. 2 Elevation ASL of vector's midpoint in meters. Text 40 Named vector attributes separated by vertical bars. See Note 3 Text 8 A string identifying an assigned line style in Walls SURVEY STATIONS (SHAPE FILE ATTRIBUTES-FILENAME_ S.DBF) Field Type Text Number Number Number Number Number Number Number Number Field Size Field Description 17 Station name. Usual fonnat for MCNP : < FSB No.>
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and DOWN. SHEETNAME Text Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 10 Name of sheet on CRF Index of Map Sheets (not yet initialized by Walls). ADDITIONAL SHAPEFILES The survey station shapcfilc described above contains one record for each established location in the project, including the "fixed" control points. (The latter arc not represented in the vector shapefile except possibly as FR _NAMEs and TO_ NAMESs of compass and tape survey measurements.) The shape file export function of Walls can optionally provide two additional shapefiles involving smaller subsets of stations. As themes in Arc View, they can be used to mark and/or label special categories of stations, such as benchmarks and entrances. Flag shapefile: Survey data files can define any number of named station attributes: Cave Entrance, Benchmark, Walker BM, etc. The station-attribute pairs arc submitted as a separate shapefile with base name filename_F. This corresponds to the FLAGS shapefilc export option of Walls. There can be multiple attributes per station. The flag attribute table has the first four fields of the station attribute table plus a 64-character FLAGNAME field. Note shapefile: Long descriptions can also be assigned to particular stations. Station-description pairs are submitted as a separate shapefile set with base name filename_N. This corresponds to the NOTES shapefile export option of Walls. There is at most one such description per station. The note attribute table has the first four fields of the station attribute table plus a 64-character NOTE field. METADATATABLE(FILENAME_.DBF) The metadata table, filename _.dbf, is a customizablc one-row table that conveys information about the content of the shapefiles as a whole. Its structure and content is defined in a text file, filename_.def, which Walls processes just prior to shapefile export. The particular .dcf tile that was used to generate the table will also accompany the shapefiles. The following table structure is an example of what might be produced. Note that the first five fields are always present and that FILENAME, PROC _DATE, and SURVEY_ SW will be automati cally assigned values by the export function. Field Name Field Field Size Field Description Type CAVENO Text 4 Required: Unique number assigned by MCNP (duplicated in vector shapefile). FILENAME Text 8 Required: Base name for the shapefiles (GIS theme) transferred to MCNP. PROC DATE Number 8 Required: Date survey data file was converted to shapefiles (YYYYMMDD). DATAHIST Text 128 Required: Data processing history (duplicated in vector shapefile). See Note 5. SURVEY SW Text 40 Required: Name of cave and version. GIS SW Text 40 Name of GIS software and version. HORZ UVE Number 8.2 Horizontal component unit variance estimate. See Note 6. HORZ LOOPS Number 8 Horizontal component loop count. VERT UVE Number 8.2 Vertical component unit variance estimate. VERT LOOPS Number 8 Vertical component loop count. NOTES I. The shapcfilc export function of Walls supplies for each survey vector a hierarchical area name based on named branches of the project tree. Whether or not a given branch node contributes to the hierarchy is a property setting labeled ''Name defines segment". The area name is stored in the CAVEAREA field, where vertical bars separate name components. Example: Historic Section I Albert's Dome I Beyond Henry's. 2. The SURVEYNAME field value is obtained from the title assigned to the survey data file (not the actual file name), which is indicated in Walls as a project tree lcaftitlc. In CRF projects, the title will typically be a number followed by one or more letters, such as "1320A,B". The numeric prefix, in this case, will be interpreted as the field survey book (FSB) number while the remaining text is considered the survey name. If the leaf title contains no numeric prefix then the shapefilc's FSBNUMBER field is blank. 3. The AITRIBUTES field of the vector shapctllc contains a list of "flag-like" properties that may have been assigned. In Walls, the attribute names arc not predctlncd but arc created and assigned by #Segment directives in the data files. The attributes are anything considered important by the surveyors or data manager ("Surface", "Underwater", "Needs resurvey", etc.) and can control how surveys 42

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 are displayed on maps Like the CAVEAREA field, the ATTRIBUTES field contains a list of names separated by vertical bars. 4 Except in special cases (e.g., Walker benchmarks like TT8W), the MCNP station names should conform to the CRF naming convention () In Walls projects, a name can also have a prefix qualifier, delimited by a colon, to ensure uniqueness across a project with multiple caves or sub-projects (Example : HISTORIC:TT8W.) Unprefixed names are limited to 8 characters in length while prefixes technically can be up to 128 characters long Having concluded that prefixes of 8 characters or less will be sufficient if needed at all, we have chosen a 17-character field length for station names in MCNP shapefiles. 5. The length ofthe metadata table's DATAHIST field can be made larger than 128; however, only the first 128 characters will be used as a vector shapefile attribute. The shapefile's DATAHIST field has a fixed length of 128 6. The unit variance estimate (UVE) is a consistency measure closely analogous to sample variance. It should correlate with expected survey accuracy when there is a sufficient number of surveyed loops. Smaller UVEs arc better. The best cave surveys typically produce UVEs with values less than 2.0. The loop counts measure the significance ofUVEs and allow those from different data sets 43

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Geoscience Updated Stratigraphic Section in Mammoth Cave National Park Arthur N. Palmer and Margaret V Palmer Department of Earth Sciences,State University of New York On the basis of field work during the past decade, we have updated the stratigraphic column for the Mammoth Cave System beyond the one we published earlier (Palmer, 1981 ), by clarifying certain names and adding the beds below the Horse Cave Member (see Figure 1 ) These beds were mapped in Log s don River in Mammoth Cave, and correlations were made with the strata exposed in the entrance sinkhole of Hidden River Cave in the nearby town of Horse Cave The Hidden River sinkhole extends from approximately the top of the Lost River Chert (at the local road level) to at least 15m below the bottom of the section in Mammoth Caye (level of the cave stream below the sinkhole). We are still examining the details of the Hidden River column, and this information will be available soon The first stratigraphic column for Mammoth Cave National Park was distributed in 1975, based on hand-level surveys of Crystal Cave and on correlations in major passages else where in the Mammoth Cave System (Palmer, 1975). Occa sional updates have been made since (e.g. Palmer, 1981 ), es pecially in the names of units These were not errors; they simply reflect the uncertainty of correlation from where the units were first described. To choose a single example: the Karnak Member of the Ste. Genevieve Limestone was first described in Karnak, Illinois (it has nothing to do with the Ruins of Karnak in Mammoth Cave) But whether the beds attributed to the Karnak in Mammoth Cave represent exactly the same rock interval that was described in Illinois is very hard to establish. Over distance, the beds change in thick ness rock type, and time interval of deposition. We based our correlation on published work in surrounding areas, most notably that ofPohl ( 1971 ). The USGS geological maps for Kentucky are among the best in the country, and it is possible to obtain a map of the geol ogy covering any topographic quadrangle in the state The Mammoth Cave Geologic Quadrangle (Haynes, 1964) gives v ery little information, even as to how to distinguish be tween the three major limestones (the St. Louis, Ste. G e nevieve and Girkin), and no mention is made of the indi vidual members within these fonnations. None of the geo-44 logic mappers (even CRF member Pohl) seem to have ven tured into the cave for stratigraphic information or at least they make no mention of having done so. A glance at the chaotic stratigraphic column on the Mammoth Cave Quad rangle shows how difficult it is to make sense of the isolated patches of rock exposed at the surface. Within the caves, the entire section is clear Of the nearby geologic quadrangles, the Cub Run map to the north of Mammoth Cave has the most detailed stratigraphic information (Sandberg and Bowles, 1965). Until recently, we have identified the individual members within the Girkin on the basis of this map. With this interpretation, the Beaver Bend Member occupied about half of the Girkin. Later, more careful (but unpublished) work in the Horse Cave area by Garland Dever of the Kentucky Geological Survey showed the Reelsville Member to occupy much of what Sandberg and Bowles called the upper Beaver Bend. As a result, the Sample Member had to be moved downward to what we once called the BB2 unit of the Beaver Bend. What was originally considered the Sample became simply a sandy unit within the Reelsville Name changes in the stratigraphic column have only affected the upper Girkin members, which appear in only a few places in the system (the most accessible being Collins Avenue in Crystal Cave and the descent from the New Entrance in Mam moth Cave). These changes are shown in Table 1. So it goes in the stratigraphic name game. Our goal at Mam moth Cave is not to advance the science of stratigraphy, but simply to assign usable names to recognizable strata so that the various beds can be traced easily throughout the cave area Knowing the stratigraphic position of a passage helps to explain how it fits into the system. For example, Cleaveland Avenue in Mammoth Cave is located at exactly the same rock interval as the Lost Passage in Crystal Cave (the Jl unit of the Ste Genevieve) Is that why the passages look so simi lar? Yes and no Their bedrock walls and ceilings have the same pleasant sandy appearance because that is the nature of the J l unit. Both passages are tubes with elliptical cross

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c 0 E 0 LL c :g 0 ::J 0 _J U5 Cave Research Foundation Annual Report 2001-200 3 .... I .. : z=- I -. . . o.P ;;r -.:.: :..::--1 ' . 1/;) i !; i !T,i; ,-, .. - "1 I -.. [ / ..://1;1;/ !./1 /. -i . ; App rox i mate depth be l ow base of Big Clifty feet me t ers -0 -Om -20 -10m -40 -60 -20m -80 -1 00 -3 0rn -120 -40m -1 40 -1 60 SOm --180 -200 -60m 220 -?Om 240 260 -80m 280 -90m 300 --320 -100m 3 4 0 360 -110 m 380 Lithol ogic sy mbols D micrite (m i croscopic crystals) CJ sparite (macroscopic ayslals) [8:J sand sized gra i ns (oo i ds. fossil fragments etc ) [B] large lossrls (> 5 mm) f7:!:7;1 dol omite. dolomi li<:: li mestone limestone intradast s impure fria b le :imes t one D sha le. shaly li mestone qua rt z nodules (rep l acemen t o r primary evaporites) Lid ;::;: : : : ; quartz sandstone chert uncon f ormity From stra!!graphic map[Mg leveling surveys i n Mammoth Cave b y AN Pa l me r and t.1 V Pa l mer 1970 1998 This column is designP.d for macroscopic roell. i dentificatio n in ttnt freld Petrogmph1 c ann i r .tarpretations 'Ire s h n w n o n more de t ailed stra ti gtaphi:.; col umns In the Hrsloric SociiOll of Milmmolh Cave. the G1rkin ;md upper Slc. Gcncvrcve mcmtlcrs ;uc roughly hall as th1ck as shown here Un ts below 95 mare expcsed in Mammoth Cave only near thP. conrl uence of Logsdo n and H awkr n s Rrvor s S\rrttlgraphn: nomenc lature u sed horn 1s wrth usage wrttun the l l1oo:s Bas 1 n ( e g Swann. 1964 ) Designat ion of Girk i n members follows the usage of the USGS mapplllg program {ccept fer th at o! Sandborg and Bowles 1965. who t ho Sampl e Mu:nber atlho posrt10n or the R2 um l olthe Rools v rlle) l:x::ation of the S i c Genevieve I St Lows oonlalt and rden!lf t cabo n of me:ntleffi wt!h r n thrt Sill Genew wr: nnct St_ loui S a m ccmpalrbiA wrth of Poll! eccpl for the addilron o f the Lcvrns Mcrntlcr On USGS geol ogrcal quadrangles the Ste St. lows contact is mapt>ed al appmmatcly fhe top of what is shown here as the Corydon Chert Cnrrnlatsve wtth lhe Popcom Samjstof'<:1 Bt.>d of lnOI ;'IOa Tl1e LO'.>I Rrvcr Chon of Elrod { 1B!J9) IS now ycneralt y k nown as the l os t HfVN C h ert Hed Wooason ( 1981) proposod !his unl\ rH; tho Coryrlon Cher1 of lt'lt! St Lours A N Po1rnf>f 1 9 9 8 Figure 1 : Stratigraphic column for limestone s exposed in the Mammoth Cav e System 45

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 1974 1981 2001 Beech Creek Beech Creek Beech Creek find it is not so simple as it might appear. The units vary in thickness and composition from place to place, and many different beds resemble each other without close scrutiny. The only way to sort out the different units is to measure a large interval of beds and then to find the best match with the strati graphic column. A good way to start is to examine places where the beds have already been de scribed, for example along the tour routes in Mam moth Cave (see Palmer, 1981). The greatest dis crepancy with the generalized stratigraphic col umn shown here is in the Historic Route, where the Girkin and upper Ste Genevieve are com pressed to about half their thickness, compared with elsewhere in the system Also in that area the F3 unit of the Ste. Genevieve is about twice as thick as elsewhere, and chert is much sparser in the upper St. Louis. Upper Elwren Elwren Elwren Upper Reelsville Reelsville Reelsville (R3) Lower E lwren Sample Reelsville (Rl) Lower Reelsville Beaver Bend (BB3) Reelsville (R I) Samp l e Beaver Bend (BB2) Sample Beaver Bend Beaver Bend (BB I) Beaver Bend Table I: Change in stratigraphic names in the upper Girkin Formation of the Mammoth Cave System (Palmer, 1974, 1981, and present update) sections, but they formed at different times at different lev els. The well-bedded nature of these beds helped to give the passages their wide, low cross sections, although a great many other units within the limestone sequence could also have had a similar influence. The formation and member names on the stratigraphic col umn were established elsewhere by other workers, mainly in Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri We added the subdivisions of members (F I F2, etc ) to indicate clearly identifiable units that can be traced throughout the Mammoth Cave System. These have no formal status and should not be used out of context. It is likely that most of them become indistinguish able at distances beyond a few topographic quadrangles from Mammoth Cave Many people have made use of the stratigraphic column over the years to help understand why passages look the way they do, to establish their altitudes, and to correlate them with other passages throughout the system. They usually 46 A detailed description of the strata will be published soon, so that those who wish to make their acquaintance can iden tify them more easily We spend so much time crawling through them that it is appropriate, as with friends, to recog nize them by name. References Cited Haynes, D.D., 1964, Geology of the Mammoth Cave Quadrangle, Kentucky: U S Geological Survey, Map GQ-351. Palmer A.N., 1975, A guide to the limestone formations of Mam moth Cave National Park: Yellow Springs, Ohio, Cave Research Foundation, 13 p. Palmer, A.N., 1981, A geological guide to Mammoth Cave Na tional Park : Teaneck, N J., Zephyrus Press, 210 p Sandberg, C.A., and Bowles, C. G, 1965, Geology ofthe Cub Run Quadrangle, Kentucky : U .S. Geological Survey, Map GQ-386

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Sedimentology of the Redwood Canyon Karst John C. Tinsley The karst of Redwood Canyon lies in the Grant Grove section of Kings Canyon National Park It contains more than 60 sinkholes, three caves including Lilburn Cave, and a major Vauclusian ebb-and-flow spring (Big Spring). These elements comprise a single karst system containing a 3-dimensional maze more than 18 miles in mapped length. The karst is devel oped as a mantled karst, situated wholly within the eastern part of the Redwood Mountain roof pendant, a highly meta morphosed suite of rocks intruded by Mesozoic plutonic rocks of the Sierra Nevada mountains. Scientists of the Cave Research Foundation have conducted research, monitoring, and mapping studies of the sediments of the karst for more than 25 years. Several aspects of the karst's sedimentology have been studied during the past couple of decades. These topics include studies of the rates of sediment yield to the sinkholes above ground during the past 700 years, the prov enance or source characteristics of the sediment mapped in the channels of surface streams and subsurface deposits in Lilburn Cave, the impact of a single sinkhole collapse on the hydrology of the cave and spring system, and the response of the cave to various levels or intensities of runoff events. The studies of sediment yield to sinkholes depend on the presence in plugged sinkholes of a volcanic ash deposit that was erupted about A.D. 1240 from the Deadman Dome area of the Inyo Craters volcanic chain in the eastern Sierra Nevada near Mammoth Lakes resort Owing to westward-directed winds that prevailed at the time of the eruption, this tephra made it across the Sierran crest where it is preserved in alpine meadows as a distinct layer, and it comprises a buried identi fiable marker bed in some sinkholes of Redwood Canyon. Hand-powered auger equipment readily intersects both the tephra and its post-depositional sediment cover in the sink holes, and the volumes of tephra and post-tephra sediment are readily computed from isopachous maps of the sinkholes, and the results compared to aspects of the karst including drainage basin area and slope. Sinkholes that have been "leaky" or that have collapsed since the tephra was depos ited do not yield reliable results. About 10 of the sinkholes have a decent stratigraphic record useful for the purpose of this study. Contrasts in rock types within Redwood Creek basin provide useful keys indicating the source of sediment within the passages of Lilburn Cave. The main surface stream, Redwood Creek, flows mainly south towards the Kaweah River. Red wood Creek's tributaries from the north and west drain a basin that is dominantly underlain by non-carbonate meta morphic rocks (mainly schists, hornfels, and quartzites) of the Redwood Mountain pendant; tributaries from the east side of the drainage come off Big Baldy mountain, an 8000foot-high Cretaceous granite pluton Consequently, sediment along Redwood Creek's modern channel contains 70% meta morphic lithologies, in contrast to the nearly pure granitic sand and gravel deposits of the drainages that emanate from Big Baldy Within the cave, these lithologic contrasts are preserved and enable investigators to determine which pas sages have received water and sediment from Redwood Creek, which passages have retained apparently an exclusive east ern tributary association, and which passages preserve an interplay between the two source rock associations In 1989, a portion of the bed of Pebble Pile Creek, a westward draining tributary to Redwood Creek, dropped into Lilburn Cave in the general area of the Yellow Floored Domes. The minimum volume of sediment dumped into the cave was esti mated to amount to 140 cubic yards by surveying the volume of the new sinkhole preserved in the bottom of Pebble Pile Creek The estimate is a minimum because an undetermined volume of sediment was shed from the precipice along the north side of Pebble Pile sink. The effect within the cave was to cause subterranean Redwood Creek to aggrade vertically about 10 feet from the Z-Room to the South Seas. There was a corresponding 1 0-foot rise in the standing water level of the South Seas sump during episodes oflow discharge in the late summer and autumn. These new conditions persisted for nearly 8 years, until the El Nino winter of 1996-1997 At that time, substantial early season snow was melted by warm in tense rains (the proverbial "Pineapple Express" condition in California weather parlance), and the cave was filled with water such that about 130 feet of head was applied to Big Spring. This was sufficient to construct a low fluvial terrace in Redwood Creek downstream of Big Spring; the sediment was derived mainly from Lilburn Cave via Big Spring, on the basis of grain size, composition, and spatial association. Within the cave during the 1982-1983 El Nino win ter, a sediment wave at least I 0 meters in amplitude went through the Z-Room area, as recorded by a static sediment 47

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 sampler During the next two years, the aggraded sediment in lower Lilburn Cave that was derived from Pebble Pile sink was eroded progressively away By 1999 conditions within the cave were back to pre-1989 conditions. In 1999, the Pebble Pile sink also wa s re filled such that water flowing into the sink could flow out the lower end of the reach, once again dis playing an integrated thalweg. For the preceding decade the entire water and sediment discharge of Pebble Pile creek had been trapped by Pebble Pile Sink Thus, we have docu mented an example of a sinkhole "cycle that has had a dura tion of about I 0 years. Other subdued scars along Pebble Pile creek probably record similar sequences of geomorphic events, but these have not been dated or studied in any detail. The wall of Pebble Pile sink continues to decline, and headward migration of the sinkhole lip is threatening to ex cise the present course of Redwood Canyon trail. Several mature conifers have contributed their undermined carcasses to the sinkhole, with more to come. Lilburn Cave is a wonderfully dynamic natural laboratory in which to study, monitor, and document sinkhole develop ment and evolution, and sediment transport processes above and below ground. Transport and storage of trace metals in a karst aquifer: An example from Fort Campbell, Kentucky Dorothy J Vesper Introduction: The overall purpose of this study was to provide a more comprehensive understanding of how and when metals and contaminants are transported and stored in karst aquifers The study evaluates both the water and sediment quality in springs The focus of the water quality investigation was metal and contaminant transport to two springs at Fort Campbell Kentucky. The focus of the sediment chemistry investigation was to evaluate the accumulation and specia tion of metals in different types of springs in a similar geo logic setting In combination, the water quality and sediment studies a s sess the impacts from upgradient contamination. Given their down gradient location, springs are the most likely location for human and ecological receptors to be exposed to subsurface cont a mination in a karst ground water basin Understanding the spring water quality variability and the potenti a l of sediment contamination is necessary if the con sequences of contamin a tion are to be understood Further more, this knowledge furthers our ability to predict which springs ar e the most vulnerable and, thus, to protect their water resources Site Background The data were coll e cted are on and near the Fort Campbell Am1y Base. The base is located along the KentuckyTennes s ee bord e r approxim a t ely 65 km northwest ofNashville, Ten-48 nessee (Figure Ia) and encompasses approximately 430 km2 Of that, approximately 80 percent is used for ranges and is largely undeveloped Over 30 perennial springs have been identified within an area of approximately 250 km2 around the base (Figure 1 b) The area surrounding Fort Campbell is largely agricultural with some commercial and industrial uses The region is located on the Western Highland Rim of the Nashville Basin and is underlain by the limestones of the Mississippian St. Louis and Ste. Genevieve formations (K.lernic, 1966a; K.lernic, 1966b) The Ste Genevieve is found in the topographically high areas and largely consists of thick bedded limestone with thinner beds of dolomite Discontinu ous layers of chert and fossils are present. The St. Louis Formation outcrops primarily in the waterways and topo graphic lows to the south It is thin to thick bedded, dolo mitic, argillaceous, silty, and fossiliferous. Ball chert and cor als are profuse in some layers. Numerous caves have been found and surveyed in the area around Fort Campbell (Mylroie, 1984). The Glover cave area, located east of the base along the West Fork of the Red River has two major cavesGlover and Twin Level. As of 1981, the two caves had a reported survey length of over 4,500 m (Mylroie, 1978, 1981 ). Between 0 and 30m of unconsolidated materials are present above the limestone. This regolith consists of an upper layer of reddish brown clays and a lower layer of gravely clay (Arthur D. Little Inc 1997). Chert nodules are commonly found at the regolith-rock contact.

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Water Chemistry Study Water samples were collected from Bea ver and Millstone Springs in 1999 and 2000 and from Eagle Spring in 2000 (Figure 1 b). The samples were collected at intervals ranging from 0.5 hour to 12 hours; closely spaced intervals were used initially and when the springs were undergoing rapid changes and widely-spaced intervals were used as the springs neared baseflow con ditions. Data collected concurrently with the water samples include precipitation stage specific conductance (SpC), tem perature, turbidity pH and alkalinity ( a ) Stage SpC and temperature data were col lected by Ewers Water Consultants Inc. The water samples were analyzed for to tal organic carbon, anions, and metals Figur e 1 ( a ) L oca t ion o f F o rt Ca m p b e ll (st a r), (b) L oca t io n s o f s pr i ng s and ap p r oxi ma t e g roun d w a t er b asins o n and n ea r Fort Ca mpbell. The samples collected during 2000 were analyzed for both digested metal concentrations and filtered metal concentrations so that the contribution of sediments to the total metal transport could be e v aluated. The samples were filtered using dedicated tortuous path, 0.45? m cartridge filters The 1999 data from Beaver Spring provide the best illustra tion of how various chemical concentrations change during storms because it has a small basin (approximately 2 km2), a fast response to storms (approximately 8 hrs from storm to crest of hydrograph), and highly variable water chemistry. As expected, the Ca concentration decreases during storms when fresh recharge water mixes with the high-Ca baseflow water (Figure 2). The coincidence of this minima with the stage peak suggests that the physical hydrogeology of this basin is vadose conduit flow-dominated, and has a strong component of quick-input recharge. The nitrate concentration has a temporal variation similar to the Ca. Both constituent concentrations are controlled by dilution, but their sources differ. While Ca is present due to the dissolution of the carbonate bedrock, the nitrate is more likely to be present due to the use of fertilizers Similar changes in nitrate have been observed in springs in Kentucky Iowa, and Arkansas and have been attributed to storage of nitrate at the epikarst and its gradual release into the aquifer during baseflow conditions (Hallberg et al. 1985; Iqbal and Krothe, 1995; Peterson et al., 2002). The suspended sediment transport over a storm is illustrated by the change in the AI concentration and trace metal trans port is illustrated by the change in the Pb concentration (Fig ure 2). These concentrations are from digested samples and thus they indicate the total material being transported re gardless of whether it is in the solid-phase, colloidal, or dis solved form The similarity of the chemographs and the high regression coefficient for the Al-Pb linear correlation (R2 = 0.94), indicate that the sediment and trace metal transport is coupled Other trace metals-As, Cr, and Ni -have similar chemograph s and r dationships to Al. When the spring water samples are filtered, both the non-carbonate major metal (AI Fe, Mn) and trace metals concentrations decrease signifi cantly further supporting that their transport is linked to sedi ment movement. Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations also increase during storm events (Figure 2). The most likely s ource of the TOC is that it is flushed from the land surface and injected into sinkholes The coincident rise of the AI, trace metal and TOC chemographs point to a surface origin for all Under standing the variation in TOC i s important from an ecological perspective Springs are known to be nutrient poor and this variability may affect spring biota (McCabe 1998) A limited number of volatile organi c compound (VOC) data were available for comparison via the Fort Campbell spring monitoring program (Arthur D Little Inc., 200 I) Chloroform and trichloroethene (TCE) were detected at low concentra tions at Beaver Spring during 1999 (Figure 2). The data sug gest that the concentrations are either nearly constant or decrease slightly during storm events Both compounds are capable of existing as dense, non-aqueous phase liquid s (DNAPL) within the aquifer It has been suggested by Loop and White ( 200 I) that DNAPLs will continuous release low concentrations ofVOCs into the ground water. The VOC data from Beaver Spring agree well with Loop and White's sug gested conceptual model. 49

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Spring Sediment Chemistry Study 126. 2 ::::1 (f) 2 Sediment samples were collected ... from four springs at Fort Campbell. The c 0 126 1 springs are significantly different in terms of > .!!! geomorphology and sediment type : Beaver w Spring is a gravity spring from a rock outcrop QJ en and is lined with gravel and cobbles Eagle (f) 126 0 Spring is a steephead spring located adja-16 cent to a major creek and has scoured its base :J 12 down to hard-packed native clays, Gordon 0) ... Spring is a shallow circular spring with or-E ganic materials mixed with fossiliferous quartz :::> c gravel and Quarles Spring is a decanting cir-E :::> cular rise pit that collects fine-grained sedi-<{ ments in the spring and spring run. 0 J The bulk sediments were analyzed for grain 8 size distribution, TOC, cation exchange ca-u 6 pacity, and total digestible The sedi-ments were also submitted to a sequential E 4 1-'6 extraction procedure that identifies the chemi--o ro2 cal fraction in which the metals are bound f5 2 Theprocedure(Quevauvilleretal., 1993; 1994) operationally defines the fractions as ex changeable, carbonate-bound, oxide-bound, organically-bound, and residual. This information is essential in understanding environmental impacts because metal toxicity and bioavailability are a function of metal chemical form (Luoma, 1983; 1989). Total trace metal concentrations in the sediment and soil samples could not be correlated to TOC, percent sand, ex change capacity or any other specific metal. This suggests that the trace-major metal relationships commonly found in the digested water samples (suspended sediments) cannot be applied to either the source soils or the accumulated sedi ments in storage at the spring. The sequential extraction data indicate that some metals are consistently found in a single fraction in both soils and sedi ments while others vary considerably location to location For example, AI and Si are both almost solely present in the residual (mineral) form regardless of the sample location. An interest i ng distinction occurs between Fe and Mn Mn is more variable between fractions than is Fe and both are more variable at Quarles Spring that in the other springs The sedi ment s depth (up to 18 inches) and the presence of organic contaminants are likely to create a reducing environment in the sediments at Quarles. This environment allows for the extract ion of metals from their residual form and their redistri-50 500 100 < 4 50 E 80 E u en E 400 :::> ;::; (.) 60 ro Cl. (f) (.) 350 40 300 9 ,! 7 en ... QJ 6 z 5 175 5 176 0 176 5 177.0 J uti an DatE 1999 Figure2 : Hydrograph data bution into other chemical forms Hence the local conditions (particularly the contamination) and the spring's geomorphol ogy (which enhances sediment accumulation) influence the final speciation of the redox-controlled metals in the sedi ments. The trace metals show a similar range ofbehaviors. While Cr and Ni appear to be primarily present in the mineral form, Cd and Pb are more likely to be split between several fractions The preliminary analysis does not suggest a clear control on how the metals are bound at each location. However, the metals are unlikely to be controlled by Fe and Mn oxides a common location for metal accumulation in natural settings Summary The downgradient impacts of contamination in karst settings are most likely to be found at springs. At springs with vari able water chemistry, the impacts can be acute but dramatic. In contrast springs that accumulate sediments may also ac cumulate metals and pose a chronic risk to spring ecosys tems. Sediment accumulation is believed to be controlled by

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 the spring geomorphology and the ability of the spring to scour or flush itself of fine-grained material. Once metals are deposited in spring sediments, their chemical form can be altered from that oftheir source materials. Acknowledgements Components of this study were supported financially by U .S. Army Research Office, The Cave Research Foundation, The Clay Minerals Society, Sigma Xi the Scientific Research Soci ety; the Geological Society of America; and the Krynine Fund of the Pennsylvania State University Department of Geo sciences. We would like to thank the Fort Campbell Environ mental Restoration Office, the Hunt Family and the Clark Fam ily for spring access We would also like to thank Dr. Ralph Ewers and Peter Idstein of Ewers Water Consultants for the continuous monitoring data; Robin Guynn, Mary Kay Amistadi and Scott Atkinson for analytical help; and Jim Rice, Caroline Loop, S Cheree Stover, Peter Idstein, and Jerry Dorsey for field assistance. References Arthur D. Little Inc 1997 Hydrogeologic Report, Prepared for the U.S. Army Environmental Center, Cambridge, MA. Arthur D. Little Inc., 2001. Water and Sediment Quality of the Springs at Fort Campbell, Kentucky. 2000 Hydrogeologic Characterization Program, Submitted to the Fort Campbell Public Works Business Center, Environmental Division Hallberg, GR., Libra, R D and Hoyer, B.E., 1985 Nonpoint source contamination of ground water in karst carbonate aqui fers in Iowa. Perspective s on Nonpoint Source Pollution Proceedings. 109-114. Iqbal, M .Z. and Krothe, N.C 1995 Infiltration mechanisms re lated to agricultural waste transport through the soil mantle to karst aquifers of southern Indiana, USA Journal of Hydrology, 164: 171-192 Klemic, H., 1966a. Geologic Map of the Hammacksville Quad rangle, Kentucky Map GQ 540, U.S Geological Survey Klemic, H., 1966b Geologi c Map of the Oak Grove Quadrangle Kentucky. Map GQ-565, U .S. Geological Survey Loop, C.M and White, W.B., 2001. A conceptual model for DNAPL transport in karst ground water basins. Ground Wate 1 ; 39(1): 119-127 Luoma S., 1983 Bioavailability of trace metals to aquatic organ isms Sci e nce of the Total Environment, 28: 1-22 Luoma S N., 1989 Can we determine the biological availability of sediment-bound trace elements? H y drobiologia, 176/177: 379-396. McCabe, D.J., 1998. Biological communities in springbrooks In: L. Botosaneanu (Editor) Studi es in crenobiology: the biology of springs and springbrooks. Backhuys, Leiden, Netherlands, pp 221-228 Mylroie, J E (Editor), 1978 W es tern K e ntucky Speleological Sur vey Annual Report 1978, Murray Kentucky Ill pp Mylroie, J.E (Editor), 198; W es tern Kentuc/..y Sp e leological Sur vey Annual Report 1981 Murray Kentucky ill pp Mylroie, J.E (Editor), 1984 W es tern K e ntucky Speleological Sur vey Annual Report 1982 and 1983 Murray Kentucky Ill pp. Peterson, E W., Davis, R K Brahana J .V. and Orndorff I-I.A., 2002 Movement of nitrate through regolith covered karst terrane, northwest Arkansas. Journal of Hydmlogy 256: 35-47. Quevauviller, P. et al. 1994 Evaluation of a sequential extraction procedure for the determination of extractable trace metal contents in sediments Fresenius J. Anal. Chern., 349: 808-814 Quevauviller, P., Ure A., Muntau, H. and Griepink, b., 1993. Im provement of analytical measurements within the BCR Programme : single and sequential extraction procedures applied to soil and sediment analysis . Intern. J. Environ Anal. Chern 51: 129-134 51

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Temporal Links Between Climate and Hydrology: Insights from Central Texas Cave Deposits and Groundwater by MaryLynn Musgrove Introduction Relatively little is know regarding how groundwater evolves over time (e g., decades to millennia) yet this knowledge pro vides a framework for assessing the controls of factors such as climatic variations on aquifer and karst development, long term patterns of recharge and changes in flow regimes An improved understanding of the links between hydrology and continental climatic fluctuations has far-reaching contribu tions to many aspects of Earth and environmental science including processes important for water management and wa ter quality Carbonate cements deposited from groundwater in caves (speleothems) may provide continuous temporal sequences of growth and corresponding records of aquif((r and karst development, groundwater geochemistry, and paleoclimatic parameters Speleothems are precisely datable over a range of time scales for the Pleistocene and Holocene. Temporal changes in groundwater over recent geologic time may be utilized to understand mechanisms and time scales of varia tions in groundwater chemistry and their relation to climatic and hydrologic factors. Speleothem samples and temporal series of cave dripwaters were collected across central Texas from multiple caves de veloped in Cretaceous carbonates. A regional sampling cov erage facilitates discerning local variations at individual sites versus regional variations Integrated geochemical techniques (including Sr, U, C and 0 isotopes, and Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca values) provide constraints on paleoclimatic and paleohydrologic changes in central Texas that may be re corded in cave dripwaters and speleothems on different time scales, as well as the complexities associated with such records Hydrologic and Geologic Setting The Edwards aquifer region of central Texas is developed in karstified Cretaceous limestone The study area encompasses the Edwards (Balcones Fault Zone) aquifer and includes por tions of two other regional aquifer systems, the Edwards Trinity (Plateau) aquifer and the Trinity aquifer (Fig. 1). The Edwards Plateau is a distinct physiographic region character ized by unique climatic, vegetational geologic, and pedogenic characteristics (Kastning 1983 ; Abbott & Woodruff, 1986) 52 Many studies have investigated the development of the aquifer, fluid hydrodynamics, groundwater geochemistry, and the aquifer s water balance (e.g., Clement & Sharp, 1988; Sharp, 1990; Oetting eta!., 1996; Sharp & Banner, 1997). Rainfall, which may vary significantly from year to year, is the primary source of aquifer recharge. Natural discharge occurs via springs within the fault zone. The Edwards Plateau is exten sively karstified with many caves with active speleothem depo sition Regional historical records detail the relationship be tween rainfall, recharge, and discharge in the aquifer and indicate a clear link between rainfall and effective moisture which may be controlling the growth of cave speleothems well as modem dripwater variability. Soils are developed from underlying limestones and are gen erally thin and stony, consisting of calcareous clay and clay loam (Godfrey eta!., 1973). Although there are local varia tions, the soils and vegetation across the region are similar (McMahan et al., 1984; Godfrey et al. 1973). Small orlocal scale differences, however, in the stratigraphic settings, geo morphologic settings, and soil cover of the caves may con tribute to differences in dripwater and speleothem geochem istry Speleothem Geochronology and Growth Rates The development of high-precision thermal ionization mass spectrometric techniques for uranium-series geochronologic measurements has resulted in significant advances in ob taining high-resolution records of sea level change, terres trial and marine climate, and the calibration of the 14C time scale(e g.,Edwardsetal., 1987, 1993,& 1997;Wmogradetal 1992; Dorale eta!., 1998) Studies of calcite deposited from groundwater in caves (speleothems) and fracture-fills have demonstrated their potential to record high-resolution changes in groundwater chemistry, hydrology, and paleoclimatic variables (Winograd eta!., 1992; Gascoyne, 1992; Doraleet al., 1998; Bar-Matthews etal., 1997; Banneret al., 1996). Speleothems are precisely dateable over a range of time scales for the Pleistocene and Holocene. In contrast with many terrestrial climate proxies that lack temporal and/or spatial continuity, speleothem records may provide continu ous temporal and spatial sequences of growth, and corre spondingly, records of aquifer and karst development and paleoclimatic parameters

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 I I I j---1 I I ,' 26 Coastal 28" 32" recharge arealunoonf 1ned aquifer = catchment area '-, confined aquifer I I I --county borders / --badwate r hne 1 ,---........_ average annual precip itation (inches) e study area cave k>cation s Figure 1. Hydrologic zones of the Edwards (Balcones Fault Zone) aquifer of central Texas, and cave and sample locations. Precipitation contours are from Larkin and Bomar (1983). The badwater line defines the down-dip limit of potable water in the aquifer ( l 000 mg/L). Study area cave locations, noted by filled circles are: l) Inner Space Cavern, 2) Double Decker Cave, and 3) Cave Without a Name, 4) District Park Cave, 5) Natural Bridge Caverns, 6) Indian Creek Cave, 7) Kickapoo Cavern and 8) Devil's Sinkhole The majority of the caves are described in Elliott and Veni (1994) and Kastning (1983) Water samples from Inner Space Cavern (I) and, particularly, Natural Bridge Caverns (5) were studied in the most detail and temporal sequences of samples were collected from these caves Results of the data from these two caves are focused on in the text. Regional aquifer map after Burchett et al. ( 1986) and Brown et al. ( 1992) A detailed geochronology and growth rate history of four central Texas stalagmites from three caves that are up to 130 km apart on the eastern portion of the Edwards Plateau pro vides a record of temporal changes in hydrology and climate (Musgrove et al., 2001) Fifty-three geochronologic ages were determined by mass spectrometric uranium-thorium and uranium-protactinium analyses The accuracy of the ages and the closed-system behavior of the speleothems are indi cated by inter-laboratory comparisons, concordancy of230Th and 231Pa ages, and the results that all ages are in correct stratigraphic order Over the 71 ,000-year record the stalag mites have similar growth histories with periods of relatively rapid and slow growth (Fig 2). The growth rates vary over nearly three orders-of-magnitude, with three periods of rapid growth from 72-60 ka, 39-33 ka, and 24-12 ka These growth rate shifts correspond in part with global glacial-interglacial climatic shifts. Paleontological evidence indicates that around the Last Gla cial Maximum (20 ka) climate in central Texas was cooler and wetter than at present. This wetter interval corresponds with the most recent period of increased growth rates in the speleothems, which is consistent w i th conditions necessary for speleothem growth The temporal shift in wetness has been proposed to result from a southward deflection of the jet stream by the presence of a continental ice sheet in central North America. This mechanism may also have governed the two earlier intervals of fast growth in the speleothems (and inferred wet1er climate). Compared with the Last Glacial Maxi mum, however, ice volwne was lower and temperatures in central North America were higher during these earlier glacial intervals The potential effects oftemporal variations in pre cession of the Earth's orbit on regional effective moisture may provide an additional mechanism for increased effective moisture coincident with the observed intervals of increased speleothem growth The all exhibit a large drop in growth rate between 15 and 12 ka, and very slow growth up to the present consistent with drier climate during the Holocene These results illustrate that speleothem growth rates can reflect the regional response of a hydrologic system to regional and global climate variability. 53

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 The ce ntral Texas speleothem growth rate record represents the first continuous regional climate record for central Texas extending beyond the last glacial period. Variability in indi vidual stalagmite samples indicates the necessity of an ap proach that integrates data from multiple samples and mul tiple sites in order to distinguish a response to regional vari ability versus local conditions. Variations in growth rates provide a framework within which to evaluate the influence of climatic variations on aquifer and karst development, long term patterns of recharge, and changes in hydrologic flow reg1mes. Geochemistry of Vadose Zone Ca\' e Dripwaters Although the major element chemistry of phreatic groundwa ter systems has been well studied, many basic processes of groundwater evolution in karst terrains, such as vadose zone chemical evolution and the influence of soil composition on water chemistry, are still largely unexplored. Although cli mate variability must play a fundamental role in hydrology (e g., Barron et al., 1989; Blum and Ere!, 1995; Wadleigh et al., 1985; Gascoyne, 1992), the specific mechanistic !nterdepen dence of climatic, hydrologic and geochemical processes is not well understood. Previous work in the Edwards aquifer (e.g., Oetting 1995) has investigated regional processes of phreatic groundwater geochemistry and provides an ideal framework within which to examine temporal and spatial controls on vadose processes. A four-year study of central Texas soils, vadose waters (i.e., cave dripwaters) and phreatic groundwaters offers new in sights into controls on vadose groundwater evolution, the relationship between vadose and phreatic groundwaters, the temporal influence of climate on groundwater evolution, and the fundamental influence of soil composition on groundwa ter geochemistry Integrated variations in Sr isotopes and trace elements (Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios) of multiple drip waters and soils from different caves, as well as phreatic ground waters provides the potential to distinguish I) be tween local variability and regional effects, and 2) a frame work for understanding the links between climatic and hy drologic processes. This work has specifically focused on water samples collected from Natural Bridge Caverns in Coma! County, Texas, and, to a lesser extent, Inner Space Cavern in Williamson County, Texas (Fig I). The Sr isotope compos1hon of vadose cave dripwaters (mean R 7SrfH6Sr = 0.7086) and phreatic ground waters ( R 7SrfH6Sr = 0.7079) generally falls between values for host carbonates (M7SrfH6Sr = 0. 7076) and exchangable Sr in overly ing soils (R7SrfH6Sr = 0. 7089). Dripwaters have lower Mg/Ca and Sr /Ca ratios, and higher H 7SrfH6Sr values than phreatic groundwaters. Drip water 87SrfH6Sr values inversely correlate 54 E Ol ro J'l . E E QJ 0 .01 r. e (.') 0 .001 CWN I __ _4 ___ ,) Age (ka) 30 40 50 60 70 80 . ISS2 1 -----------------. ' I DDS2. i ; ; \ i I ... I ', \ \ Marine 0180 Stage 3 4 5 l l1 . :: 'It! --' I : I -d i L : ---DDJ)IJ i I : L. ______ _j : ' 1---------------ISS2 0 0001 L___._1_t_O_L__j20L->._3.LO Age (ka) Figure 2. Growth rate histories for four central Texas stalagmites for the last 72 ka. 2a. Growth-layer 230Th age versus depth of the growth layer from the stalagmite tip. The slope of the line for each sample represents the growth rate. Steeply sloping portions of the curves correspond to fast growth rates, whereas flat portions of the curves correspond to slow growth rates in the stalagmites. 2b. Calculated growth rate versus time for the last 72 ka The stepped nature of the curves is a conse quence of interpolating constant growth rate between dated intervals. Shaded bands represent glacial inter vals (marine oxygen isotope stages 2 and 4) based on the time divisions of Imbrie et al. ( 1984 ) The stalagmite records, from three caves up to 130 km apart on the Edwards Plateau, contain consistent shifts in growth rates that correspond to global glacial/interglacial cli mate shifts.

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 a 0 8 J 0 6 o, Range of DrtpwatetS I OA f-.-:-.,. + .. 4. ... .. . 0 2 Phreatic Groundwaltrs 6<103 SriCa NB-Otlpwaters e FEP eEL I$-Otlpwaters ;, Si-rter iiit:tap '' ST-casc. .:iP!-ess &ws ;;.sa t c : :i\" b 0 .35 NB-Drlpwa!tR 030 IS-Orlpwaters 0 .25 "' \2 0 2 U C) 0 .15 010 0 .05 0 Sxlol Sr/Ca Figure 3. Mg/Ca vs. Sr/Ca ratios for Edwards aquifer system components: (a) phreatic groundwaters (triangles), and (b) dripwaters and soil leachates from Natural Bridge Caverns (NB) and Inner Space Cavern {IS). Note scale differ ence between (a) and (b). Shaded box in (a) marks area ex panded in (b). Shaded boxes in (b) denote the range ofMg/ Ca and Sr/Ca in soilleachates from the two caves (NB : Mg/ Ca==0.17to0.08, Sr/Ca=0.41 to0.95x103. IS: Mg/Ca==0.05 to 0.12, Sr/Ca x103 = 0.40 to 0.91xl03). Soilleachates represent exchangeable Sr in soils near cave recharge zones. Symbols for NB (circles) and IS (squares) represent different dripwater sites within the caves, which were resampled multiple times over the course of the study. Dripwater locations within the caves are detailed in Musgrove (2000). Regional phreatic groundwaters (a) exhibits a similar trend as the dripwaters of increasing Mg/Ca with increasing Sr/Ca, but range to mark edly higher values. Phreatic groundwater data from Oetting ( 1995) and Musgrove (2000). with both Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios. Mass-balance modeling and geochemical relationships suggest that variations in fluid compositions are predominantly controlled by: 1) vadose groundwater residence times, and 2) water-rock interaction with overlying soils and host aquifer carbonate rocks. Con sistent differences in dripwater geochemistry (i.e., 87Srf86Sr, Mg/Ca, and Sr/Ca) between individual caves are similar to differences in soils above the caves (Fig. 3). While these differences appear to exert significant control on local fluid evolution, geochemical and isotopic variations suggest that the controlling processes are regionally extensive. Temporal variations in 87Sr/86Sr values and Mg/Ca ratios of dripwaters over the four-year interval appear to reflect changes in both aquifer and climatic parameters, which are a function of rain fall amounts. Changes in vadose flow routes as a function of rain fall-recharge is a mechanism by which these parameters in groundwater geochemistry may vary temporally by 1) receiv ing varying fluxes of dissolved constituents from geochemi cally distinct sources (i.e., soils versus host limestones), 2) fluctuations in residence time, and 3) different water-rock interaction pathways. In this model, groundwater migration is predominantly along slow seepage routes during periods oflow rainfall, which results in relatively long residence times in the host limestones. During high-rainfall periods, the ca pacity of seepage routes is exceeded and groundwater mi gration is dominated by low residence time conduit flow along paths of enhanced permeability. Geochemical and Isotopic Constraints on Late Pleistocene to Holocene Speleothems Aquifers may be strongly influenced by regional and global scale phenomena and thus, may represent unique archives of paleoclimate (Fontes et al., 1993; Shuttleworth, 1999). Geochronologic constraints on growth rates and the timing of growth phases in speleothems have provided insight into the timing of glacial/interglacial periods and related variables such as precipitation and effective moisture (e.g., Baker et al. 1993, 1995; Genty andQuinif, 1996, Musgrove etal., 2001) Variations in carbon and oxygen isotopes in speleothems have been used to assess paleoclimatic conditions such as temperature, rainfall, and vegetation (Gascoyne, 1992; Bar Matthews et al., 1997 and 1999; Dorale et al., 1998; Winograd et al., 1992). Pollen and organic matter contained in speleothems may provide insight into vegetation and soils (e.g Brook et al., 1990; Lauritzen et al., 1990; Baker et al. 1996) Trace elements and strontium isotopes yield informa tion about paleohydrology and the balance of rainfall-recharge (Banner et al., 1996; Roberts et al., 1998) 55

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Tempoml geochemical variations in central Texas speleothem Sr and U isotopes, and Mg/Ca ratios, are consistent with major aspects of regional and global climate records of glacial-interglacial climatic shifts. The timing of geochemical fluctuations in the speleothems, as well as the inferred pro cesses that they reflect, are generally consistent with I) growth rate variations in the same speleothems, 2) indepen dent paleontological evidence for the region, and 3) aspects of global climate records. In spite of complexities of regional and local variability across the broad area of the Edwards Plateau, groundwater migration during the Pleistocene and Holocene shifted between higher and lower permeability path ways as a function of rainfall-recharge. This rainfall-recharge hydrologic model indicates that variations in geochemical parameters in cave dripwaters and speleothems are linked, via paleoclimatic and hydrologic processes over multiple (yearly to millennia!) time scales. These results have implica tions for other paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic terrestrial records preserved in speleothems. Variability in individual samples indicates that data from multiple samples and/or sites is necessary to distinguish regional variability versus local conditions Local variations in parameters such as lithology, soils, vegetation and climate may contribute to gyochemical differences in speleothem samples from across the region. However, the consistency of regional geochemical trends in parameters such as strontium, carbon and oxygen isotopes, and Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios, combined with results of water rock interaction models suggest that the controlling pro cesses affecting speleothem geochemistry are regionally ex tensive. REFERENCES Abbott, P L., & Woodruff, C M., Jr., eds 1986, The Balcones Escarpment Geology, Hydrology, Ecology and Social Develop ment in Central Texas, Geological Society of America, 200 p. Baker, A Barnes, W. L., & Smart, P L. 1996, Speleothem luminescence intensity and spectral characteristics: Signal calibra tion and a record ofpaleovegetation change, Chemical Geology, v. 130, p 65-76. Baker, A., Smart, P. L., & Edwards, R. L., 1995, Paleoclimate implications of mass spectrometric dating of a British flowstone, Geology v 23, p. 309-312. Baker, A., Smart, P. L., & Ford, D. C., 1993, Northwest European palaeoclimate as indicated by growth frequency variations of secondary calcite deposits, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 100, p 291-301. Banner, J. L., Musgrove, M Asmeron, Y Edwards, R. L., & Hoff, J. A 1996, High resolution temporal record of Holocene ground-water chemistry: Tracing links between climate and hydrol ogy, Geology, v. 24, p. 1049-1053. Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A., & Kaufman, A ., 1997, Late Quaternary Paleoclimate in the eastern Mediterranean region from stable isotope analyses of speleothems at Soreq Cave, Israel, Quaternmy R ese arch, v 47, p. 155-168. 56 Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A., Kaufman, A., & Wasserburg, G. J., 1999, The Eastern Mediterranean paleoclimate as a reflection of regional events: Soreq Cave, Israel, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 166, p. 85-95. Barron, E. J., Hay, W. W., & Thompson, S., 1989, The hydrologic cycle: A major variable during earth history, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 75, p. 157174. Blum, J. D., & Ere!, Y 1995, A silicate weathering mecha nism linking increases in marine 87Srf86Sr with global glaciation, Nature, v. 373, p 415-418. Brook, G. A., Burney, D. A., & Cowart, J. B., 1990, Desert paleoenvironmental data from cave speleothems with examples from the Chihuahuan, Somali-Chalbi, and Kalahari deserts, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 76, p. 311329. Brown, D S., Petri, B. L., & Nalley, G. M., 1992, Compila tion of Hydrologic Data for the Edwards Aquifer, San Antonio Area, Texas, 1991, with 1934-91 Summary, Edwards Underground Water District Bulletin 51, 169 p. Burchett, C. R., Rettman, P. L., & Boning, C. W., 1986, The Edwards AquiferExtremely Productive, But. . A Sole-Source Water Supply for San Antonio and Surrounding Counties in South-Central Texas, U. S. Geological Survey and Edwards Underground Water District, San Antonio, TX, 38 p. Clement, T. J., & Sharp, J M., Jr., 1988, Hydrogeochemical facies in the bad-water zone of the Edwards aquifer, Central Texas, Proceedings of the Ground Water Geochemistry Conference, Na tional Water Well Association, Dublin, Ohio, p. 127-149. Dorale, J. A., Edwards, R. L., Ito, E., & Gonzalez, L. A., 1998, Climate and vegetation history ofthe mid-continent from 75 to 25 ka: A speleothem record from Crevice Cave, Missouri, USA, Science, v. 282, p 1871-1874. Edwards, R. L., Beck, J. W., Burr, G. S., Donahue, D. J., Chappell, J. M.A., Bloom, A. L., Druffel, E. R. M., and Taylor, F. W., 1993, A large drop in atmospheric 14C/12C and reduced melting in the Younger Dryas, documented with 230Th ages of corals, Science, v.260,p. 962-968. Edwards, R. L., Chen, J. H., & Wasserburg, G. J., 1987, 238U-234U-23DTh-232Th systematics and the precise measurement of time over the past 500,000 years, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 81, p. 175-192. Edwards, R. L., Cheng, H., Murrell, M. T., & Goldstein, S. J ., 1997, Protactinium-231 dating of carbonates by thermal ioniza tion mass spectrometry: Implications for Quaternary climate change, Science, v. 276, p. 782-786. Elliott, W R., & Veni, G., eds., 1994, The Caves and Karst of Texas 1994 NSS Convention Guidebook, National Speleological Society, Huntsville, AL, 342 p. Gascoyne, M., 1992, Palaeoclimate determination from cave calcite deposits, Quaternary Science Reviews, v. 11, p. 609-632. Genty, D., & Quinif, Y., 1996, Annually laminated sequences in the internal structure of some Belgian stalagmites-Importance for paleoclimatology, Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 66, p. 275-288. Godfrey, C. L., McKee, G., S., & Oakes, H 1973, General Soil Map ofTexas, Texas Agricultural Experimental Station, Texas A & M University, in cooperation with the Soil Conservation Service,

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 U .S. Department of Agriculture Imbrie, J., & Imbrie, K. P., 1979, Ice Ages: Solving the Mystery, Enslow Publishers, Short Hills, NJ, 224 p Kastning, E. H., Jr 1983, Geomorphology and Hydrogeology of the Edwards Plateau Karst, Central Texas, Vols. I and 2, unpub lished Ph D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 656 p. Larkin, T. J., & Bomar, G W., 1983, Climatic Atlas of Texas, Texas Department of Water Resources, Austin, TX, !51 p. Lauritzen S E Lovlie, R., Moe, D & Ostbye, E., 1990 Paleoclimate deduced from a multidisciplinary study of a half-mil lion-year-old stalagmite from Rana, Northern Norway, Quat e rnary Research, v 34, p. 306-316 McMahan, C A Frye, R. G, & Brown, K L., 1984, The V e getation Types of Texas Including Cropland, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Wildlife Division, Austin, TX, 40 p. Musgrove, M. 2000, Temporal links between climate and hydrology : Insights from central Texas cave deposits and ground water, unpublished Ph.D Dissertation, University of Texas at Aus tin, Austin, TX, 432 p. Musgrove, M Banner, J. L., Mack, L. E., Combs, D. M., James, E W., Cheng, H., & Edwards, R. L., 2001, Geochronology of late Pleistocene and Holocene speleothems from central Texas; Implications for regional paleoclimate, Geological Society of America Bulletin, v 113, p. 1532-1543 Oetting, G. C., 1995, Evolution of fresh and saline groundwaters in the Edwards aquifer : Geochemical and Sr isotopic evidence for regional fluid mixing and fluid-rock interaction, unpub lished M.A Thesis University ofTexas at Austin Austin, TX 204 p Oetting, G. C Banner, J L., & Sharp, J M. Jr., 1996 Geochemical evolution of saline ground waters in the Edwards aqui fer central Texas : Regional stratigraphic, tectonic and hydrody namic controls, Journal of H y drology, v 181, p 251-283 Roberts, M S., Smart, P L., & Baker, A., 1998 Annual trace element variations in a Holocene speleothem, Earth and Plan e tat y Scien c e L e tt e rs v 154, p 237-246 Sharp, J. M Jr., 1990, Stratigraphic geomorphic and struc tural controls of the Edwards aquifer, Texas, U .S. A in Simpson, E S., and Sharp, J. M Jr., eds. International Asso c iation of Hydrog e ologists, S e lected Pap e r s from th e 28th International Ge o logical Congress, Heise, Hannover, v. I, p. 67-82. Sharp, J. M., Jr., and Banner, J. L., 1997 The Edwards aquifer : A resource in conflict, GSA Today v 7, p. 1-9 Shuttleworth, W. J 1999, New worldwide hydrological ini tiative needed, Eos Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v 80 p. 103. Wadleigh M A Veizer J., & Brooks, C 1985 Strontium and its isotopes in Canadian rivers: Fluxes and global implications Geochimi c a et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 49 p 1727-1 7 36. Winograd, I. J., Coplen T. B Landwehr J. M Riggs, A R., Ludwig, K R., Szabo, B J., Kolesar P T., & Revesz K. M 1992 Continuous 500,000-year climate record from vein calcite in Devils Hole, Nevada, Sci e nce, v. 258, p. 255-260 57

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Roppel Cave Cave Research Foundation supports and participates in the ongoing work at Rappel Cave that the Central Kentucky Karst Coalition is doing in Rappel Cave. In 2000, CRF entered into an official partnership with the CKKC in order to pursue our. . Activities of The Central Kentucky Karst Coalition by Jim Borden The Central Kentucky Karst Coalition continues to be active in the survey and exploration in and around the caves of Toohey Ridge, just east of Mammoth Cave National Park. Although the year 200 I was not a banner year for survey, many leads promising leads were found throughout the cave. We had about three months of access problems; that, com bined with other personal issues, conspired to keep trips subdued for the year. For the year, we surveyed 1 02 miles (in contrast, 2 07 and I. 78 miles were surveyed in 1999 and 2000, respectively). Highlights Roppel Cave, South end : In Roppel Cave, work in 200 I con tinued, albeit at a reduced rate, to find a way into the prom ised land of south Toohey Ridge The flurry of work over the last few years in the land of Dixie had tailed off without the hoped-for breakthrough Areas of Dixie were tantalizingly close to the broad sandstone expanse of south Toohey Ridge, but our efforts were continually thwarted by valley collapse and the "Great Wall" (The "Great Wall" is a long, linear col lapse feature that effectively blocks all passages going south. This occurs over a significantly long distance, but has proven to be a formidable obstacle ) A neglected inlet to Zabrok Pit, which is the southern end of the Green Eggs Dome Complex below Dixie, led to a long passage that drains the southeastern arm of the overhead valley As of this writing, exploration ends at a collapse zone with possible routes into upper level domes and passages. The southernmost point of Dixie is a large dome / waterfall that appears to lie south (beyond) of the Great Wall. A strong wind suggests that this may be the key to a breakthrough During the middle part of the year, Dick Market, Peter Zabrok, and Seamus Decker completed a sixty-foot bolt climb to the top of the waterfall. By the time they completed the climb, it was late in the trip, and there was only time for a cursory look 58 at the small passages above. Possibilities, but not the big breakthrough-yet. Roppel Cave, Other Exploration Despite the frustrations to the south, the renaissance of ex ploration continues throughout the year. Long neglected areas, lost passages, and ghost leads dominated the efforts. Since the early days of the Rappel project, there has been nearly a full turn of a generation of cavers. A fresh eye and new approach was being applied to old leads. New technologies in climbing, better understanding of the cave morpoholigies, and new determination in difficult leads opened the path of exploration. Peter Zabrok and Dick Market have been the leaders in the climbing efforts in the caves and, in addition to the Dixie climbs, they picked off one climbing lead after another In North Downey Avenue, Bibble Boulevard was uncovered at the top of a long-known climb This became too tight. In Walter Way, The Breach was climbed in the large dome just fifteen minutes from Arlie Way. This lead to a small canyon network, still unpushed. At the White River Domes in the eastern BWOB (upstream end ofTexas Canyon), upper level climbs were probed and leads remain. In the Great White North, at Fort Wilderness, Zabrok and James Wells climbed into the upper level canyon, almost connecting to the east ern end of the Ping-pong Crawl off Yahoo Avenue (six miles travel by the next closest route). Additional climbs off the Kumquat at its south end near Jakes Cave failed to yield cave. Elsewhere, the search for Borden's Lost Walking Passage at the far Northwest End (Lower Elysian Way) continued with no success (Borden reports a 14' high x 3' wide walking can yon at the end of a long passage, found in 1991 three trips have yet to find it through fourteen hundred feet of since surveyed cave) Snorkland was pushed further to the west

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 to a point above Yahoo Avenue The west end of the Grand Canal was surveyed, laying the framework for a climbing ef fort into the upper level canyons in this area. Iguana Falls off Lower Black River just south of Grand Junction, a long know tributary was pushed to an upper level walking canyon, Pon chos Paradise, that has been unpushed. Downstream Nexus Creek was connected to Upper Elysian Way. Near the Fisher Ridge Special, Bills Creek was pushed downstream through a canyon to open passage Kathleen Krawl, unpushed. Other Work GPS Work: The primary satellite caves were located with GPS and incorporated into the database. Sammy Monroe Cave (2,625 feet surveyed) was positioned over the Emerald City area (end of OZ, at the end of the Yellow Brick Road, above the eastern BWOB). Possible connection to Roppel Cave is possible via the numerous nar row, but blowing, drains below Monroe Cave's main level. WolfTree Cave, whose location was previously only vaguely known, was positioned to likely be the upstream reaches of the Death Trap (upstream Bills Creek, off the Fisher Ridge Special), 600 feet away. Wolf Tree Cave has I ,407 feet sur veyed (mostly a trunk fragment), with a low strongly blow ing drain heading north toward Bills Creek. This is a doable and worthwhile connection to complete, although useless for exploration. Upstream Bills Creek has been explored a significant distance, so it is likely that a connection is very close. Meredith Cave is above the approximate location of Borden's Lost Walking Passage, at the Northwest End. Meredith Cave ("a cave composed totally of obstacles" James Wells) is a series of drains that lead through tight passages to pos-59

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Cave Books Cave Books Report 2001 Paul Steward CAVE BOOKS is now twenty years old and still going strong! In 1981, several cavers combined their money, knowledge, and their love ofbooks to form a non-profit press devoted to the publishing of cave and karst re lated material. CAVE BOOKS, an affiliate ofthe Cave Research Foundation, was formed to do just that. Our first book was The Grand Kentucky Junction, a companion to The Longest Cave, this book provides an intimate glimpse into the personal thoughts of the seven cavers who made the connection ofthe Flint Ridge Cave System to Mammoth Cave. Since that first book, CAVE BOOKS has gone on to become the largest publisher of cave and karst books in the world. We also publish CRF annual reports, newsletters, research monographs, his torical reprints, and cave maps. Solicitation of manu scripts is an ongoing endeavor, and new items are con tinuously being added to the inventory. We recently printed our first mail order catalog, increased our pres ence with on-line book dealers, and now have our own web page < www cavebooks.com>. Publishing books is expensive To keep costs down and prices low, we depend entirely on a staff of volunteers. At present, CAVE BOOKS staff consists of Roger McClure, Publisher; Richard Watson, Editor; Paul Stew ard, Promotions; Pete Lindsley, Web Design; and David Hanson, Sales Revenue from this effort provides the primary support for many CRF Foundation programs. 60 Books published by CRF under CAVE BOOKS, (ISBN prefix 0-93978), are listed in Books In Print. CAVE BOOKS is also listed in the standard directories as a publishing house with interests in nonfiction and fiction having to do with caves, karst, and speleology. Please send inquires to: rawatson@artsci wustl.edu Or to: Red Watson, Editor Cave Books 756 Harvard Ave. St. Louis, MO 63130

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Cave Research Foundation Activities 2002

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Cave Resear c h Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Cave Research Foundation Directors Rick Toomey President 2002 Joel Despain MickSutton Paul Cannaley Treasurer Dick Maxey Peter Bosted Secretary Phil DiBlasi Chuck Pease International Projects Chris Groves National Personnel Office r Fellowships & Grants Program Patricia Kambesis Hamilton Valley Manager Operation Area Managers Eastern Operation Area: Dave West Lava Beds Area: Janet Sowers Ozark Operation Area: Scott House Southwest Operation Area: Barbe Barker Sequoia and Kings Canyon/Mineral King Operation Area : John C. Tinsley Newsletter Editor: Paul Nelson Orccnectcs in the Riv e r St1x. Mammoth Cave K e ntuck y Photo : Ri c k Olson 62

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 2002 Highlights Annual Meeting Elizabeth Winkler and Pat Kambesis On November 8, 2002, the CRF Board of Directors convened the 68th annual meeting of the Cave Research Foundation at the national headquarters at Hamilton Valley, Cave City Ken tucky. A reception was held after the meeting for all CRF members and local agency guests. On the 9th, members participated in the Hamilton Valley Land Management Symposium hosted by Sue Hagan and Mick Sutton. In addition to the symposium, members from all the operations areas participated in survey, science, and pho tography trips in Mammoth Cave as part of the Eastern Op eration project. After the conference and the cave trips, a splendid banquet was held, catered by CRF's own master chef Alan Welhausen. On the morning of the 1Oth, a general members' meeting was held First, the Operation Area managers gave short reports on the activities and accomplishments of their areas: Dave West, Eastern Operations (EO) detailed the ongoing Mammoth Cave projects which mostly support cartogra phy, but also digital photography, paleontology, and the lesser caves inventory for Mammoth Cave National Park EO is additionally assisting MCNP with sediment surveys, enhancing their public displays and educational materials, among other projects. EO is also working outside the park with projects in conjunction with Stan Sides and Gary Berdeaux at Diamond Caverns and the ACCA at Hidden River Cave. Scott House described the activities in the Ozarks OperatiOns Area, in particular, the Buffalo National River and Fitton Cave. Mick Sutton is also working in the Mark Twain Na tional Forest in Missouri doing biological inventory and cave survey. They plan to do a bat census of the endan gered Indiana Bat in the caves there. In the state parks they are continuing the survey of Fisher Cave and Devil 's Icebox Cave. They are also involved in the training of park personnel. Barbe Barker reported on Southwest operations. They have ?een actively involved in restoration projects in Guadalupes, Ill particular, Carlsbad, Guadalupe Escarpment and Ft. Stanton. The restoration work is quite time intensive. For example, it took 3 years of continual work to restore the Guadalupe Room which had been severely impacted by tour ists from earlier less protection-oriented times. In addition, scientific and geological (mineral) inventory are ongoing projects. The park and CRF personnel were trained for this by Harvey Duchene. In Ft. Stanton cave there has been a recent big breakthrough which has caused a stop in survey and exploration in that area until the park and CRF negotiate how the research will be carried out. The floor of this area is gypsum and the walls and ceiling are mud How do you work in this area without impacting the cave negatively? CRF and the park are in the process of writing the proposal to specifY how this will be done. CRF assisted in constructing a gate to protect this area (the cave is open to the public via permit). The Sequoia Kings Canyon Area projects accomplishments were presented by Peter Bosted and Joel Despain. There are two main project areas in Sequoia: Redwood Canyon and Lilburn Cave. Both of these projects are located in exquisite forested areas. Lilburn Cave requires a five mile backpack hike to the field house through the largest redwood forest left. The park service let CRF rebuild a cabin at the site for expeditions. 'This year, they fielded 50 trips into Lilburn A number of trips, led by Joel France, were dedicated to resto ration projects. John Tinsley also conducted a sediment study in Lilburn. Forty-five cartography parties worked in Lilburn cave. Lots of virgin passage was identified and mapped. They made a major discovery of over 5500 feet of canyons which they named "Happy Canyon". It's a long linear mazy cave in general with lots of small survey shots. The 2003 CRF An nual Meeting will be hosted by the Sequoia Kings Canyon Area over Veteran's Day Weekend CRF Board member Joel Despain talked about the events at Mineral King project which is run by Roger Mortimer. Min eral King is located in a large alpine valley, up in the moun tains. The caves are formed in marble rather than limestone. White Chief Cave project passed a mile of survey this year. This is a really real cold cave, about freezing which floods quite a bit, so there is limited formation development. But the passages are fairly roomy and are composed of white polished marble bedrock walls. There are some special chal lenges to this area as well-in the winter, expedition partici pants arrive on skis! 63

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 In addition to survey, other activities are ongoing as well. For example, Carol Vessey is working with the national park to develop an inventory protocol for caves. Joel Despain, who is a long distance graduate student of Chris Groves at Western Kentucky university is doing his research in the Mineral King area He is looking at the water chemistry com ing out of karst springs which have a high oxygen content. It is speculated that caves may be able to offset the rising carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Because Janet Sowers was unable to attend, Rick Toomey elaborated on the projects at Lava Beds Operation Area CRF people there have been working with the National Park Service to build a research station at Lava Beds. CRF donations include significant quantities of money and in kind donations of the architectural designs. They will be starting very soon on the construction of the building. John Tinsley will be managing the construction. They are also constructing the visitor's center as well at Lava Beds the hope is to combine the two construction projects to speed things up. In addition to this major building project, they fi. elded 31 expeditions -I 0 I person trips up from 78 the year before. In addition to survey, they have an ice level monitoring project. In addition, they have been making GPS installa tions and marking where all the cave locations. They have been performing a general inventory of the park caves and searching for new caves as well. Currently, they are working on a memorandum of agreement with the Modoc National Forest to do cave surveying and monitoring there as well. Next Pat Kambesis talked about the Hawaii project run by Don Coons and Pat Kambesis. Although Hawaii is not an official operations area, we have an informal agreement with the Hawaii Speleological society to let CRF cavers participate in its surveys. The Hawaii Cave Conservancy is a new group which Don was instrumental in getting that started. Contact Don Coons if you are interested in what is gomg on The meeting finished with a report from Cave Books, now completing 20 years of Operations. Last year Cave Books sold $44,000 dollars worth of books last year. A great deal of the profits from Cave Books have generously sup ported the operations of CRF including contributions to the CRF national endowment for science, the production and printing of the annual report, among many other 64 projects We also bid goodbye and gave many thanks to outgoing national treasurer Paul Cannaley. He is being succeeded by Roger Smith. Roger announced a new way to donate to the individual CRF Operations areas and to the other funds like the Mike Yocum and Doris and Burnell Ehman Memorial Funds For Sunday afternoon, Roger McClure provided free passes to the members to visit Diamond Caverns, and Pat Kambesis arranged for a trip to Hidden River Cave and the ACCA Museum Special thanks should be given to Pat Kambesis (Hamilton Valley Director) and Dave West (Eastern Operations Man ager) for hosting and organizing this interesting and fun 3 day event. The following individuals received CRF's Certificate of Merit Award From Eastern Operations: Bill Putnam Paul Cannaley Dave Hanson Roger McClure Mark Depoy Janet Hubner and Bosted) Brian Andrich Carter Hayward Lois Lyles Paul Nelson Charles Fox Bob Hoke Rick Nelson (support of the CRF website (treasurer) (work with HV and Cave Books) (HV and Cave Books) (MCNP) (general area support, Tinsley (trip report project) (trip report project) (Newsletter support) (Newsletter editor) (EO Saftey Officer-Computer Networkin) (Newsletter) (HV work) Fort Stanton Area (New Mexico) Gate Building of Feather Cave and the Gate into Priority 7 Area of Fort Stanton Cave: Jim Cox Ed Peyton Cal Currier Rick Reynolds Doug Woods Excellence in Gate design, building and installation Gate building and installation Gate building and installation Gate building and installation Gate Installation

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report2001-2003 The following Bureau of Land Management personnel received Certificates of merit for extraordinary effort in preservation of caves in the Fort Stanton Special Manage ment Area: Tim Kreager Paul Happel Mike Bilbo Bill Murray Frank J. Everitt Stephen Carter Carlsbad Caverns National Park: Sherry McClure Leadership, Database and Personnel Management Greg McCarty Consistency in attendance, excellence in survey and team leadership Kelli Bergthold Sara Bergthold William Payne Excellence in Restoration techniques Excellence in Restoration techniques Photographic excellence in restoration and report writing The following members were elected to Fellowship for their long-term committement to Cave Research Founda tion Paul Steward Bob Parrish John Feil Janice Tucker Damian Grindley Dale Pate The 2002 Cave Research Foundation Karst Fellowship Competition Art and Peg Palmer E ach academic year, the Cave Research Foundation (CRF) sponsors a Karst Fellowship competition, which is supported by the CRF Endowment Fund. The Foundation may award as much as $10,000 distributed among one or more Karst Research Fellowships and as one or more Grants for graduate research in karst-related fields of study. The truly excep tional proposal may receive a Karst Research Fellowship (limit $3,500.00); meritorious proposals that do not receive a Karst Research Fellowship may receive a Karst Research Grant, typically in amounts less than $2,000. 00, awarded to qualified students in the natural or social sciences. Work at e ither the Masters or Ph D. level is eligible for the awards. The Foundation attaches two conditions to these awards : The awardee will prepare a summary or progress report of th e research for publication in the CRF Annual Report If the project is short duration (2 years or less), a single final report is required Longer projects should provide yearly progress reports The Cave Research Foundation is acknowledged as a supporter of the research in any publications deriving from the research. The application procedure is as follows. As an applicant for a Karst Research Fellowship you must submit four copies of a proposal describing the study to be supported, one copy each of two letters of reference (one must be from your project supervisor/ advisor), and one copy of transcripts of undergraduate and graduate work. The body of the proposal should be no more than ten pages in length and should discuss the problem to be addressed, background, significance of the research, methods to be used, schedule for research, and a budget. In preparing the proposal it is important to remember several things Proposals will be reviewed by several karst scien tists, who may include geologists, biologists, hydrologists, archaeologists, and scientists from other disciplines Thus, proposals should be free of jargon and understandable by an interdisciplinary group of reviewers. Also, CRF is more likely to fund research that has broad significance to karst science The CRF Science grants for 2002 were handled by Peggy Palmer while Chris Groves was on sabbatical. The awards committee consisted of Ira Sasowsky, Rick Fowler, Tom Poulson and Peggy Palmer There were quite a few well writ-65

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 ten, convincing applications, so the $7000 available for the award was split among several people. The following people received awards. Patricia Kambesis, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green K Y: A systems approach for the understanding of agricultural contaminant sources and transport within a karst groundwater drainage basin (grant award, $3500). pnkambesis@juno.com Jennifer Buhay, Brigham Young University, Department of Integrative Biology, Provo UT: Molecular ecology and con servation of troglobitic crayfish in the Genus Orconnectes (grant award, $1 000). crayfish@email.byu.edu Karen Samonds, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY: The origin and evolution of extant Malagasy mammals: im plications of new Late Pleistocene fossils for reconstructing Madagascar's biogeographic history (grant award, $500) ksamonds@ic.sunysb.edu Ann Scott, University ofTexas, Austin TX: An archaeologi cal study of ancient Maya pilgrimage at Cueva de Las Pinturas (grant award, $500). mayacaver@mail.utexas edu Ht:athe;:r Jont:s, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA: Extending and refining the magnetosusceptibility event cyclostratigraphy (MSEC) record of cave sediments in Eu rope (grant award, $500). joneshl21 @yahoo.com Elizabeth Horton, Washington University, St. Louis MO: Investigation of perishable materials found with Fawn Hoof: a desiccated burial in Short Cave, Kentucky (grant award, $500) ehtorton@artsci.wustl.edu Holley Moyes, State University ofNY, Buffalo, NY : Site for mation and ritual use in Chechem Ha Cave, Belize (grant award, $500). hmoyes@anth.ucsb.edu Reports from Recipients: Molecular ecology and conservation oftroglobitic crayfish in the Genus Orconnectes Jennifer E. Buhay I collected over 300 tissue samples from cave crayfish, in cluding 126 Orconectes australis australis, 23 0. a. packardi, I 0 pellucidus, 7 0. incomptus, 23 0. inermis inermis, 25 Camhamsjonesi, and 28 Cambams hamulatus. I am also helping Dr. John Cooper with his Cambams tenebrosus re search, so I collected specimens for him from the twilight zone and from deeper in the caves to determine if there's a morphological difference with habitat and light availability. Cambams tenebrosus (a troglophile) is the ancestor species 66 for the 3 closely related Orconectes species: O.inermis, 0. pellucidus, and 0. stygocanei. I collected approximately 80 tissue samples and 30 whole specimens of Cambarus tenebrosus DNA extractions are complete for all the cave samples, and I am currently sequencing 16S data for all the samples. I've decided to include two other gene regions (Cytochrome Oxidase I and 12S) for a total of2500 base pairs for each cave sample. I'm also currently testing out microsatellite primers from other published crayfish research to detennine if they are useful for my study. I am planning a trip for this summer to collect more 0. pellucidus and 0. inermis. There is also a species in North western Alabama currently known as Procambarus pecki, only found in 3 caves along the Tennessee River. It is doubt ful that it is correctly placed in the genus Procambarus, so I will include it in my analysis. All of the cave Orconectes are erroneously placed in the genus Orconectes. They will be revised into the genus Cambarus. I presented a poster at last year's Evolution society meeting My collaborators and I presented the preliminary results of our phylogenetic examination of cave Orconectes. I will be prest:nting my cave Orconectes research this year at the NSS meeting, with focus on the phytogeography of Orconectes australis Investigation of Perishable Materials Associated with Fawn Hoof, a Desiccated Burial in Short Cave, Kentucky Elizabeth Horton The focus of my MA research has been the artifact assem blage associated with a desiccated burial discovered in Short Cave, Kentucky. "Fawn Hoof" was discovered by saltpeter miners in 1811 and described by Ebenezer Meriam, a businessman and scientist, in 1813 (Meriam in Bullitt (1845] 1985). The details provided by Meriam provoked a great deal of interest in Fawn Hoof, and she has been discussed in much of the literature, both popu lar and scientific, concerning the Mammoth Cave region (Bullitt (1845] 1985; George 1990, 1994; Meloy [ 1968] 1998; Powell 1996; Watson and Meloy 1969; Watson 1997). There has been never a full and detailed analysis of all of the material interred with Fawn Hoof that remam In curation today. The artifacts associated with Fawn Hoof are curated at the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Cam bridge, Massachusetts, and the Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. In June 2002, I aveled to both institutions

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 toe arry out a detailed nalysis of those materials. The re search emphasis was to complete a detailed attribute analy sis of the Fawn Hoof collection using current methods for textile technologies, and to collect samples for fiber analysis and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dating Addi tionally, I assessed the reliability of two historical accounts describing the discovery of the burial : Ebenezer Meriam's 1813 description (in Bullitt [ 1845] 1985) and F.W. Putnam's (1875) examination of Fawn Hoof for the Boston Society of Natural History. My intent was to deter mine whether there was support for the proposed interpretation of Fawn Hoof as a medicine woman (Powell 1996). AMS dates garnered from samples of the textiles curated at the Peabody Museum in Cambridge were instrumental in determining a chronological placement for Fawn Hoof, which as turns out, was significantly earlier than the assumed Mis sissippian date for her. At approximately 2900 BP, Fawn Hoof's burial was at the cusp of the Terminal Archaic I Early Wood land transition in Kentucky. My analysis of the artifact assemblage indicated substantial correspondence between the remaining collection and Ebenezer Meriam 's 1813 description of the Fawn Hoofburial. In addition identification of some of the materials in the collection was possible and include rattle snake skin (Crotulas horridus), Cooper's Hawk feather's (Accipiter cooperii) and beads made of the seeds of either Jack-in-the-pulpit or Green Dragon (Ariseama sp.). Inte grated with the validity of the artifact rich description pro vided by Meriam in 1815, which included a bear jaw pen dant, and a musical instrument, a whistle, as well as other items, these material identifications indicate that the sug gested interpretation ofFawn Hoof as shaman, or medicine woman, is likely. The research was presented at the 25th annual Kentucky Heritage Council's Archaeological Conference held in Lou isville, Kentucky in March of2003. This paper has also been submitted for publication in the proceedings of the conference. Chechem Ha Cave Micromorphology Study Holley Moyes The purpose of this project is to investigate ritual cave use at the ancient Maya site of Chechem Ha cave located in Western Belize Its primary focus is to examine the changes and continuities in ritual practice over time by evaluating trampling by analyzing stratigraphic profiles using micro morphology and by assessing the relative degree of usage in different areas of the cave by quantifying the amount of charcoal present in the sediment strata. A rigorous dating program will be used to place the data within secure time frames. Preliminary results from radiocarbon dating have demonstrated that the cave deposits have considerable time depth. The earliest date, 2780 rcybp, calibrates using Calib 4.2 to cal BC 917 with a two-sigma range of cal BC 1004-831 (Beta-170518). With the exception of the Pleistocene lev els discovered at Loltun Cave in Yucatan, this is the earliest radiometric evidence of cave use in the Maya Lowlands Twenty-six micromorphology samples were collected dur ing the 2002 summer field season. These were resin impreg nated and thin sections were cut from these blocks Prelimi nary analysis of the thin sections suggests that not only can trampling and charcoal density be evaluated using this method but other unanticipated valuable data are also present. For instance, by comparing the void patterns in trampled areas, it can also be argued that some trampling occurred in wet conditions whereas some occurred in dry conditions. This adds the dimension of seasonality to the data. Additionally, by evaluating the micromorphology some local paleoclimatic reconstruction may be possible. In one sample a calcium carbonate travertine-like layer is present, which suggests a very wet period in local climatic condi tions Preliminary results from the study demonstrate the utility of micromorphology and illustrate that new techniques allow archaeologists to ask different sets of questions that add new dimensions to archaeological inquiry. The origin and evolution of extant Malagasy mammals: Implications of new Late Pleistocene fossils for reconstructing Madagascar's biogeographic history Karen E. Samonds A newly discovered collection of fossil bats from Mada gascar is the focus of my dissertation research. This richly fossiliferous breccia from Anjohibe Cave has been dated at 60,000 years old, more than twice the age of the oldest known Cenozoic vertebrate fossils from Madagascar The objec tives of my dissertation are to prepare the breccia samples, identify and describe the bat fossils, and employ them as a foundation for a cladistic biogeographic analysis address ing how, when, and from where Malagasy bats originated. The fossil preparation part of this project has advanced considerably, and I have used some of the funds from CRF to buy equipment for acid preparation The lab is now fully functional, and I have two students assisting me in the lab, learning techniques of both acid preparation and fossil identification I have also started scoring morpho logical characters for my cladistic biogeographic analysis, and plan to return to Madagascar this summer to explore Anjohibe Cave. 67

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 This research is significant in that it will include the descrip tion and analysis of new bat fossils from Madagascar's Ceno zoic "fossil gap", including the identification of potential new fossil forms It is also the first attempt to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships of Malagasy bats. Understand ing their relationships, and including new fossil species, will help address broader biogeographic questions The results of this study, in the context of findings from similar studies focusing on other Malagasy plant and animal groups, will contribute a missing piece of Madagascar's complex evolu tionary and biogeographic history An archaeological study of ancient Maya pilgrimage at Cueva de Las Pinturas Ann M Scott The Cave Research Foundation provided funding to ana lyze ceramics recovered from Cueva de las Pinturas, located about 15 km south-southwest of Flores, Peten, Guatemala. A portion of the ceramic assemblage was made available for analysis during the summer of2002. Using the type-variety method, the analysis recorded data in the following attribute categories including : rim form and diameter, base diameter, vessel form, maximum thickness (rim, base, or body), lip form, and interior and exterior finish and color (using Munsell book) Paste was also examined with a I Ox eye Ioupe record ing paste texture and color (using Munsell book), presence of carbon center, and temper color, shape, type, and grain size. The analyzed ceramics were photographed using a digital camera. The majority of the ceramics feU into the Paso Caballos Waxy Wares and consisted mainly of red to orange slipped monochromes (Sierra Red) and white to light brown waxy slipped Flor Cream. Vessel forms included bowls, plates, jars, and a cup. Tecomate forms, attributed to the Middle Preclassic Joventud Red were also represented. Eight of the vessels exhibited tetrapod mammiform supports, a possible indicator of an Early Phase of the protoclassic stage. These varied in color from red to red-brown to orange brown and were classified as Aguacate Orange or Gavilan Blackon-orange depending on the surface treatment. A few protoclassic forms also appeared with a Flor Cream waxy slip. Preliminary results of the study suggest that the ce ramic assemblage dates from the end of the Middle Preclassic but is most strongly represented by Late Preclassic ceramic wares. The most interesting component is a well represented Early Phase of the Protoclassic. Contaminant Source and Transports in the Coldwater Cave Karst Groundwater Basin Patricia Kambesis Agricultural land use in areas that are located in karst ground water basins negatively impact groundwater quality because 68 karst terrains provide multiple direct hydrologic connec tions from the surface into karst aquifers The connections and rapid velocities associated with surface and subsurface flow in karst aquifers allow for contaminants to move quickly into and through a groundwater basin When groundwater returns to the surface via a spring or springs, any contami nants within the water become part of surface streams and rivers These in tum, impact water quality in areas located downstream of the spring or springs. The purpose of this study is to identifY the source and movement of agricultural contaminants in a karst groundwater basin within the context oflocal climate hydrogeology and land use. The study area is a fluvio-karst groundwater basin located in a portion of northeast Iowa and southeast Minne sota. The land use of the area includes row crop agriculture livestock operations, and homesteads. A shallow, uncon fmed karst aquifer is the primary water source for agricul tural and livestock needs and also serves as a drinking water source in some areas of the basin. Previous analyses of water quality in the region revealed that both surface streams and groundwater contained high concentrations of nitrates, bacteria, and pesticides Evaluation of water sam pling data showed that temporary degradation of water quality was significant after storm events. Long-term water quality testing documented that agricultural contaminants affected the water quality oflocal shallow water wells and impacted the drinking water supplies of the town of Decorah, Iowa, located ten km downstream of the study area Dye tracing, both qualitative and quantitative, will be used delineate the Coldwater Cave Groundwater basin and deter mine hydrologic flow paths within the basin. Investigation of basin and aquifer characteristics, and evaluation of cave map data and karst feature inventories will establish the relationship between surface and subsurface hydrogeology Water sampling and analysis will determine the quality of the surface water and groundwater within the basin. The sources of nitrates, bacteria, and pesticides will be deter mined by a variety of methods including isotopic analysis, ribotyping, and general water quality testing. Analysis of cave and surface stream temperatures, hydro graph data, and climate records will help determine the relationship between surface climate and cave climate and document the seasonal nature and event-dependence of groundwater flow and agricultural pollution. Land use will be evaluated in order to help determine the potential sources of contamina tion. It is hoped that the results of this study will identify the sources of agricultural contaminants, and how they are trans ported within the karst groundwater system.

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Extending and refining the magnetosusceptibility event cyclostratigraphy (MSEC) record of cave sediments in Europe Heather Jones Variations in the signature of magnetic susceptibility mea surements of cave sediment has been shown to be the result of pedogenic processes associated with changes in climate Deep rock shelters and cave sites are preferentially investigated rather than open-air sites. The sediments acquire their varying MS signatures due to differential weathering pro cesses outside of the cave before the sediment is deposited within the relatively undisturbed cave setting. A major goal of continuing this cave sediment research at archaeological sites is to create a paleoclimate proxy that is at a finer scale than is currently available. The cave that will be studied is Theopetra is central Greece Eli Winkler in Keyhole, Diamon Caverns, Kentucky Photo: Gary Berdeaux 69

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report2001-2003 Operation Area Reports Eastern Operations Accomplishments Dave West, Eastern Operation Manager During this period, Eastern Operations fielded 79 parties, ex pending over 3,422 hours, in support of various projects as follows: Mammoth Cave National Park (MCNP) Cartography-63 parties Small Cave Inventory-15 parties Paleontology -l party Saltpetre Inventory l party Digital Photography 1 party Dig on Stan Side's farm 1 party Diamond Caverns Survey-4 parties Hidden River Survey l party Hidden River Sediment Sampling 2 parties Obviously, many trips supported multiple objectives Our rela tionship with the MCNP has continued to improve. Additional backlog copies of archival survey notes have been provided to the park, nearly completing its set of data. Work has continued on bringing the survey data and maps into the park's GIS sys tem. The entire data set has now been entered into Compass. Much thanks to Don Coons for his tremendous effort in that work. This year Mark DePoy, the Chief of the Science and Resource Management Division, as well as Bruce Powell, the park's new Assistant Superintendent, have joined us on survey trips. Both did very well and made a terrific contribution to their respective trips. On a sadder note, we were surprised by the sudden passing ofMike Yocum from advanced lung cancer. As a former Area Manager in Eastern Operations, Mike made a terrific contribution in helping shape EO as it transitioned from an overseer ofCRF work at Mammoth Cave National Park into a Logistics Operation for any approved Research Proposal within or around the park, whether CRF driven or not. He was instrumental in helping to formulate our current operating agreement with the park, and set up lasting procedures to provide more efficient operation of the group. His work in the realm of GIS was truly ground breaking as he began the process of integrating CRF survey data and maps into a comprehensive information system He will be sorely missed. Ozarks Operation Cave Inventory, Mapping and Management By Scott House CRF Ozarks has had a very good year thus far, working on a variety of areas and projects. Buffalo National River CRF began coordinating an effort in Fitton Cave back in the early 1980s A map was produced in 1990 showing much of the surveyed cave. Our major goal at Fitton Cave is to create a new map series that will include all the presently surveyed passages Protocols and standards for this new series have been worked 70 out and work is now focusing on correcting errors, resurveying certain errors and adding survey in areas for which we may have an old map but no data. Four expeditions this year have fielded a total of ten survey crews. These crews have put in 7200 feet of survey line. Work is progressing in three areas: the southeast end of Crystal Passage, the Out Room/Roundhouse Room complex and the Bat Passage near the intersection with the East Passage Drafting is currently waiting on the resolution of some loop problems in the Bat Passage

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Expeditions have operated out of the NPS facility at Steel Creek. A new project proposal for the monitoring of temperature changes in Fitton Cave has been tentatively approved and s hould be well underway in 2003. Mark TWain National Forest The Mark Twain National Forest consists of 1.7 million acres of land, mostly in southern Missouri. Work by CRF Ozarks on the Forest has been ongoing since 1986. There are approximately 420 known caves on MTNF land. In the 1990s most of the CRF Ozarks work was on an area known as the Eleven Point-Doniphan District. However the past few years' field efforts have mostly been in other districts Several caves were inventoried and surveyed in the Cassville district of southwest Missouri. Several caves remain to be surveyed; one of which we have started but not complete d The concern in this area is with illegal use patterns including ATV use. Additionally, one cave (Crocker Cave) w a s inventoried on the Willow Springs District in an area that the Forest Service is trying to obtain One trip was taken to caves in the Salem District to assess affects of visitation by ATV riders. Several trips involved inventorying a cave in the Potosi District that is used by nearby educational groups for trips. CRF also provided training for trip leaders to the cave Funding from Mark Twain National Forest supported these efforts. Ozark National Scenic Riverways The Ozark National Scenic Riverways consists of approximately 80,000 acres along the Current and Jacks Fork Rivers in southeast Missouri. A long term CRF project here has increased the number of known caves from 80 in 1980 to over 320 today, over 200 of which have also been surveyed. Survey and inventory continue on Riverways lands when time permits One cave survey was initiated this year and will have to be continued in dryer conditions. Other trips were mostly in the form of volunteer support for cave monitoring, cave restoration, and educational activities Mic k Sutton and Scott House continue to participate in the OZAR Cave Management Team. Scott House has been employed on a part-time basis by the National Park Service to work on cave management issues. CRF Ozarks continues to map caves and assemble all data in conjunction with the Riverways The data is maintained in FileMaker Pro format and is constantly integrated into the state files An ongoing major effort is the successful integration of data from a five-year NPS archaeological survey of certain caves within the Riverways New cave locations and improved locations for others have resulted from this effort. This process is not yet finished and will still require additional field trips to verify cave locations. Some of this work is now being done in conjunction with the NPS. A proposal is in the works for CRF Ozarks to undertake a funded endangered bat census in the Riverways. The Riverways has several caves providing maternity and hibernation roosts for gray bats and hibernation roosts for Indiana bats Pioneer Forest Pioneer Forest is a privately held forest of approximately 180 000 acres in the Lower Ozarks CRF Ozarks has been involved in survey and inventory of caves (of which there are about 100) located on these lands In addition, we have been providing services to the forest in the form of data and cave management. Specifically, we have integrated additional data into the database and provided that information to Pioneer Forest. Missouri Department of Conservation CRF Ozarks continues to map and help inventory caves owned by the Missouri Department of Conservation, an agency that manages state forest lands and wildlife. We also continue to provide services to the Department in the form of cooperative data management and consultation. Powder Mill Creek Cave is a large, transitional cave (phreatic passages currently being modified by ground water movement) located in the Lower Ozarks area less than a mile from the Current River. Although within the legislated boundaries of the Ozark Riverways, it is actually owned and managed by the Department of Conservation. The cave is closed except for research purposes and harbors an increasing number of Indiana bats in the winter. CRF has been surveying the cave for the past fifteen years and it is now over eight miles in length. Grueling trips to the end of the survey now take upwards of fifteen hours and involve more than a mile of watercrawl one way The 2000 feet of survey gained this year required 290 person hours of work or about seven feet per person hour. Other survey projects that CRF has undertaken on MDC land remain unfinished, specifically surveys ofShop Hollow, 71

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Forester, and Crandle Hollow Cave. Hopefully, we can make some headway on these projects in 2003. One trip was taken as part of an MDC educational program encouraging women to take part in outdoor activities. CRF provided leadership and guidance for the trip Lastly one trip was taken to inventory a small cave in an important hiking trail area that is undergoing considerable use. Missouri Department of Natural Resources: Geologic Survey and Resource Assessment Division CRF Ozarks continues to work with the DNRIDGLS and the Missouri Speleological Survey on cooperative cave files. CRF continues to work with the MSS and DGLS on updating the computer database of state caves. Presently those files exist in FileMaker Pro format where outputs of data can be created in a variety of formats. State Parks Division CRF continues its new survey of Fisher Cave, a large show cave in Meramec State Park. Partially surveyed several times previously, Fisher is a well-decorated, historic cave that is shown to visitors by lantern light. Three trips this year so far have netted nearly 800 ft of survey, mostly watercrawl. Two trips have been taken to the Devils Icebox, a large (seven mile) cave in Rockbridge Memorial State Park, north of the Missouri River. Grants from the Departments of Conservation and Natural Resources are allowing us to establish census areas and protocols for studying the rare pink planarian, a species known only from this site Missouri Speleological Survey The MSS works to collect all cave info in the state. We cooperate fully : -Maps and reports are turned in to the MSS and are archived by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources. -Scott House is finishing up a two-year stint as Vice-President of the MSS. -We are leading the way by facilitating the development of the state cave database -From 1996 200 I, 87 cave maps were reposited with the Missouri Department ofNatural ResourcesGeologic Survey 72 and Resource Assessment Division. 71 of those were from CRF Ozarks, a rate of82%. United States Geological Survey We have been cooperating with the USGS on projects involving geologic mapping of lands around the Ozark Riverways. -Bob Osburn and Scott House are helping develop models of cave and karst development in the Lower Ozarks -We are sharing our database information with this project. -We are mapping some privately owned caves as part of this project. Personnel and Management We continue to attract a select group of people. Folks usually start caving with us because they want to do more science based caving. Ozark cavers are generally very pleased with the level ofCRF interaction with agencies and caving groups The merger of our two operations areas has proved to be beneficial to attracting quality help. Occasional government funding of our various projects and wise investment management by our CRF treasurer has given us the funding stability to perform work that we would otherwise not be able to do Lastly, our trip report database enables us to better track our many various projects and report on them to our sponsors in a more efficient and accurate manner. Statistical summary of work: Trips/parties: 40 People/days: 120 Man/hours in field : 1302 Survey footage : 11,389 Mileage driven: 18,904 At rates of$12/hour, $35 per diem for subsistence, and $0 32/ mile our field work alone thus far in the year has a value of over $25,000. This does not count time driving to expeditions, drafting and management work, data entry, cleaning gear, equipment costs, etc. Ozarks Operation Area Operations Manager Scott House Assistant Operations Manager Pete Lindsley Reporter and Ecologist Mick Sutton Geologist Bob Osburn Powder Mill ProjectDoug Baker

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Southwest Operation Guadalupe Escarpment & Fort Stanton Range Barbe Barker CRF Southwest has had a very productive year thus far, working on a variety of areas and projects. Carlsbad Caverns National Park (CCNP) Five Expeditions were held at CCNP this last year during the usual three and four-day holiday weekends. The breakdown of survey and restoration projects is determined and planned according to the expertise of the group on each expedition. Our relationship with the Park and Cave Resource Office continues to be good 37 people worked 1,200 hours last year Survey has continued in Lower Cave with ongoing projects by the approved sketchers of the Park We are now check ing tie-in and loop closures in order for the Park to complete the cartography of Lower Cave Scientific & Geology Inventory has yielded several more trained and qualified people this year due to three classes and in-cave training during the expeditions. Restoration projects in Lake of the Clouds, The Guadalupe Room, New Mexico Room, The Dome Room, The Rookery and Long Fellow's Bath have kept many people busy and coming back to work on projects Fort Stanton Cave Five expeditions were held during the last year at Fort Stanton Cave. Though the cave is still closed, CRF was allowed to continue expeditions in cave and surface work Overall ef forts include: Geological reconnaissance of surface karst features, resistivity studies, surface survey and measure ments, in-cave survey, ridge walking, GPS locations of seven small caves on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) prop erty, digging in Shepherd's Hut Passage, and geological stud ies in the Main corridor. Gates of Fort Stanton: CRF SW paid for a new gate for Feather Cave, which is an archeological site (archaic period). There had been repeated intrusions, and the 1973 gate was not deterring entrance into this known histoplasmosis site. The old gate was re moved, and a new one installed over the Fourth of July and Labor Day weekends. Participants in building this gate in cluded Jim & Ann Cox, Ed Peyton, Cal Currier and Rick Reynolds This same crew, with additional help from Frank Everitt and Barbe Barker, completed the installation. Accord ing to Tim Kreager, Assistant Field Manager, Resources, BLM, CRF SW contributed the cost benefit equivalent of $6,968 in material and labor donations to the BLM The material cost paid for by CRF SW was $370. 24 CRF members contributed I ,486 volunteer hours to the BLM managed Fort Stanton Range. After the discovery of the Snowy River Section in Fort Stanton Cave, during the October 2002 CRF Expedition led by John J. Corcoran, III the cave was closed until that part of the cave could be protected and an Environmental As sessment done. In April 2002, an environmental enclosure was put in place and an assessment of where to place the gate was done by BLM and CRF. After that determination was made the same gate building team, aided by 14 CRF and 20 BLM volunteer cavers from NM TX, CO, NY and Norway, hauled 1200 pounds of ce ment and 50 gallons of water to the beginning of the dig site during two 8 hour work days in Sept. and Oct. The Priority 7 gate foundation has been poured, and the gate will be built during the winter Installation of the gate will be in the spring of2003, when the bats are no longer in hibernation In the meantime, a gate built by the Cox team and installed with help from the NSS/SWR in 1994 is protecting the cave and its resources The Environmental Assessment has not been completed or sent out for public review as of this date. Corcoran, Barker, and Everitt have each had extensive input into the EA as it stands now which will allow for closure of the new section, preserving it for scientific research in a pristine environment while allowing recreational trips to resume in other parts of the cave. Our relationship with the BLM is good They continue to look to us for guidance and leadership on most projects Last year, I met with all of the Resource Specialists in the Roswell Field Office. We worked up Cost/Share Agreements totaling around $15,000 Unfortunately, due to budget cuts and money being channeled to Afghanistan, they will be put off until the next fiscal year when we will review them 73

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Summary: It is enlightening to put a dollar value on the number of hours and days we volunteer. Therefore, using the same equation the BLM used when figuring our contribution to the Feather Cave Gate, I offer the following: Fort Stanton, BLM I ,486 hrs@ GS-7 equiv. Of$16 .19 plhr : $24,058 CCNP-NPS I ,200 hrs.@ GS-7 equiv. Of$16.19 plhr: 19.428 Total Volunteer Hour Contribution by CRF SW for this period: $43,486 FSC, 28 days, 24 volunteers@ $35. per diem/day= $23,520 CCNP, 13 days, 37 volunteers@$ 35. per diem/day= 16,835 $40.355 Approximated Total ofVolunteer Value: $83,841 CRFSOUTIIWEST AREA: Area Manager-Barbe Barker CCNP Asst. Manager-Lois Lyles CCNP Survey Manager-Tim Kohtz Personnel & Database Manager-Sherry McClure Fort Stanton Research Manager-John J. Corcoran, III Fort Stanton Restoration Manager-Frank J. Everitt Lincoln Co. Manager-Dick Venters Annual Report of Operations, Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks John Tinsley The 2002 field year has been a productive one at Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. The year started slowly, with the first four expeditions cancelled owing to inclement weather (in our graying years, we seem not to mess around with Sierran storms). I guess Shakespeare was correct that old age makes cowards of us all The CRF effort in Redwood Canyon continued on four fronts, cartography (P .I. = Bosted), sedimentology (P.l. =Tinsley), cave restoration (P l. =Frantz), and hydrology (P .I. = Hess) During the late summer, Jeff Cheraz and Roger Mortimer continued cartographic andresource inventory efforts in Mineral King Main efforts are to get maps prepared for the National Speleological Society Convention which will convene early next August at Porterville, CA. CRF members will have important roles at the 2003 convention including leading cave trips, chairing the Convention itself, coordinating one of two geology field trips, and other great things of a logistical nature. Brief re views of each discipline's activities in 2002 are appended below. l 'II expand on these for the CRF Annual Report. Cartography: As usual, the cartographic effort mustered by Peter Bosted occupied most of the volunteer hours, with time spent in checking leads off of completed quadrangle maps, and new survey was added grudgingly. Then, late this summer, a large 74 new discovery mainly east of the trunk passages and sub paralleling the Meyer Parallel passage has fully engaged all cartographers for several months, and the efforts continue during low water Peter Bosted has filed reports on this ef fort that will appear in the another section of this report. Suffice it to say that more than a mile of new passage has been found, much of it between sumped reaches along the Enchanted River (the subterranean equivalent of Redwood Creek) A recently located connection to the Meyer Parallel passage will allow access to some of the new areas even during high water. Surveyed length of Lilburn Cave is just over 20 miles, I believe, in result of the recent surveys, which occupied 3/4 of the weekends between Labor Day and Co lumbus Day weekends. Sedimentology: The continuing series of mild winters with cool spring sea son that limits snowmelt rates and ensures sparse runoff has meant that essentially nothing has changed within the cave during the past three years, in terms of sediment plugs migrating here and there along the active water routes. Five sinkholes north of the Meyer entrance have shown renewed activity, but these sites are not located above Lilburn Cave proper, so are not likely to become new entrances to the present cave. They might connect with elements of the "Great

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report2001-2003 North Cave;" however, they will have a long way to go to be a viable natural entrance Robison Sink, the modest sinkhole located across the Redwood Canyon Trail in front of the field station, continues to deepen. Big Spring had a nice season of flushing that continued into early July, but the runoff lacked the high peak discharges that really tend to move the dirt around through the cave. RESTORATION: Bill Frantz continues efforts to rehabilitate the area below the Jefferson Memorial, with two trips to the area. He is preparing a sequence of Before and After photos to illustrate the progress. Hydrogeology: Long term monitoring continues via dataloggers installed at Big Spring and in Redwood Creek above the karst area. Pa rameters logged include temperature, electrical conductiv ity, stage, and pH. Jack Hess, the P.l., has taken a position as executive director of the Geological Society of America and has relocated to Boulder, Colorado. He has hopes of escap ing the clutches of his job to enjoy Redwood Canyon, but we haven't seen him on site as yet this year. Perhaps later this fall, now that GSA is over. MINERAL KING: Roger Mortimer and JeffCheraz contin ued cartographic and karst inventory work in White Chief Cave, the area's largest single cave system. This cave oc curs within a former in-holding that was added to the Park about 3 years ago, when the NPS was able to buy the prop erty from the owner. It is a marvelous example of an alpine cave, and is one in a chain of caves and karst aquifers that extend from House/Cirque Cave in the White Chief cirque to Tufa Spring, about 150 meters above the White Chief-Eagle Lake basin trailhead at Mineral King proper Future Happenings: 2003 NSS Convention, Porterville, California Our research efforts may flag a bit while we prepare to shoul der responsibilities associated with the 2003 NSS Conven tion, convening at Porterville, California, from August 4 to August 11, 2003. Lilburn is one of the featured caves, and we will be staging a post-convention field expedition, as well as two other overnight trips to the cave, one prior to the convention and one during the middle of convention week Joel Despain is in charge of cave trips, and has done a su perb job of selecting caves for the convention. The Mineral King/White Chief basin caves, owing to their alpine nature, general lack of extensive decorations, and the fact that they are covered by 20-30 ft of snow each winter that then melts and shoots great volumes of water through the caves, will be among the caves offered up for virtually unlimited pound ing during the Convention. Of course, to get there, folks will have to drive two hours from Porterville, including another hour along 25 miles of twisty bad road to the trailhead, hike 3-4 miles, then go caving. We call White Chief the local cardiac test run. If you pass that one, then there is Pan orama, higher and further south, and then the caves to the north of Mineral King across Timber Gap. Should be truly a fine experience Finally, I've agreed to be chairman of the CRF Lava Beds Building Committee, by virtue of my persistent Jack of com mon sense and inability to say "NO!" Actually I am fortu nate to have a capable committee behind me, each of whom has recent experience with remodeling on all scales from a single room to an entire house to the Oakland Museum. It is an interesting cadre of advisors We have submitted an application for a building permit two days ago and will send out for bids from general contractors this week May have to wait for spring to pour much con crete, but that will be up to the contractor Should be able to declare a winner by Thanksgiving, l hope. More on this from Janet Sowers in another section of this report 75

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Lava Beds Operation Area Lava Beds Research Center Janet M Sowers The Lava Beds Research Center is finally on its way to real ization The plans have been submitted to Siskiyou County for a building permit, and sets of plans have gone to con tractors for bids John Tinsley has taken on the job of head ing up the building committee. He has done an admirable job in seeing the plans through to completion and working with both the architect and the Lava Beds monument staff. The monument staffhas finalized the Environmental Assess ment and received NPS approval for the construction, and has completed the site preparation work If the weather cooperates and the bid process goes smoothly, the contrac tor may be able to pour the slab before freezing weather sets in. If not, we wait until spring Our bank account sits at about $154,000 We thank all of you who donated so generously, and we especially appreci ate the support of the CRF Board Field Operations Report CRF Lava Beds Bill D e v e reaux Our project year begins October 1 and ends September 30 of each year This allows us to make our annual report to the Lava Beds NM (LABE) staff for the Thanksgiving weekend annual meeting. The period also coincides with the weather patterns that dictate our research rhythms. This report will detail the projects that I am responsible for, as well as detailed numbers from a spreadsheet that I use to keep track of people, projects, and expeditions. This coming year, I hope to expand the sheet back into previous years to quantify our work since 1990. I have expanded the sheet to track people who come here to work, and quantify the num ber of trips they have been present for I have numbers for 2000, 200 I, and 2002 The year we call 2002 saw 30 people work on 10 different projects over 31 expeditions while contributing 1383 hours of work in the Monument. There were I 0 l person/trips com pared to 78 the year before Those hours do not include the hours the people spend getting to and from LASE, drafting maps, working on COMPASS files, building or repairing equipment writing reports composing, and responding to e-mails from each other or the LASE staff Those hours also 76 do not reflect the hours that Park staff (both permanent and seasonal) SCA's, and volunteers who went on trips with us to support our work. There were also local NSS cavers who gave us materials and assistance Thesuccess of this project belongs to people who care about this Monument and the caves herein. There were at least two trips that were mainly dedicated to planning for the new Re search Center Bruce Rogers has also acted as an advisor to the Staff on the new Visitor's Center that will be built this commgyear. The projects that I worked on this last year were lee Level Monitoring GPS Location and Monument Installation, General Inventory, and Cave Reconnaissance Inventory. The lee Level Monitoring project has been going on since the 1970s under the guidance of Mike Sims. I have been help ing him since about 1988 when it became a CRF project. I have now taken on the job of Principal Investigator with Mike assisting me in the final report writing for the year. This last year we made 17 measurements in eight caves during five expeditions We use a digital thermometer that measures in 111 Oths of a degree. We measure with a fiberglass tape the distance from a stainless steel screw mounted in the cave wall to the surface of the water and to the ice surface in 11 l OOth of a foot. We record the date, measurements, and a brief remark on quality of the ice, dead critters, or conditions of the room at each measuring station Between the two La bor Day expeditions, the ice floors in four have declined, whereas the floors in four have risen. Two others are still iceless The GPS Location and Monument Installation project has been going on since the fall of 1994 Each cave or 'feature' that is recorded in the files or database receives a LASE number by lava flow and sequential number. The staff marks a brass monument, and then we go install it at the cave en trance The location is written and drawn on the Reconnais sance Card The cave monument becomes the site for the GPS location session. We record three different sessions at a point two meters above the brass monument. We use a tri pod for the sub-meter antenna that is connected to the Magellan 'rover' unit. We have the base station running si multaneously with the rover unit. The file name on the rover session is labeled one, two, and, three for the cave name. Later, the three files are compared with the base station to get a differential location The software makes a scatter plot, and a printout is viewed to see if the diagram is tight enough to

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report 2001-2003 make the location within a 1 em circle If the answer is yes, then we declare it good. If not, we go back and start over. When the UTM coordinates of the three sessions are ac cepted, then the Monument staff put the location into the GIS system. One of the new wrinkles in both GIS data gath ering and cave mapping here, is to tie the brass monument and the GPS location one meter above it to the published cave map. Many cave maps are dated from the 1930s to last year They obviously do not have the monument or GPS location on them. We are trying to do that as we go There is a separate project to work on that correction. This year we did 11 GPS fixes, and installed 35 new monuments. We com pleted three entire flows Cave Reconnaissance Inventory This project also started long before CRF became a player at Lava Beds NM. What we did in 1988 was define the project, create standards, a card/form, train our people how to use the form, and work with the Monument staff to apply it. Many of the other projects use the 'card' as a starting point for their work. It is the most basic document that must be completed when a cave is found, recorded, studied, or marked. Mike Sims created the project, invented the form, and trained most of in its use The form is a joint form called LABE, CRF 5 / 93. The card comes in two forms. The two sided card is 5"x7". The one-sided version is 8 W' x 11 ".We found that the card version often did not get the flip side filled out. So the single sheet with both card sides on the front meant that all the data got filled in the first time to the cave. The 'short' inventory consists of 19 specific items in four categories that the field researchers look for in the cave during their first visit. They can circle the Yes or No symbol and make remarks to the side of the entry They look for bats, pictographs, access problems formations, ice, etc. The card is a living document. It is filled out in pencil, and is updated as new information comes to light. This year we made eight new cards, and fixed 68 older ones. The decline between last year and this year in new cards from 40 to 8 is due to the Monument Staff getting more proficient in making good cards for the caves they or we find, and also our reducing the backlog of undocumented caves This year the Monument Staff had a Cave Specialist and an assistant through the summer. They made many cards and maps that would have otherwise fallen to us to do We completed one General Inventory this year. It was actu ally begun a year ago, but it took a long time to complete, field verify the results, and get it signed and turned in No report would be complete with credit given to some of the CRF JV s who make the projects happen. Dr. Janet Sowers is the overall PI who makes the projects stay on track and keeps me focused. Fred Douglas, David and Anna Kuhnel have been with me on many of the trips and made my progress possible Dr. Bill Broekel and his family have stepped for ward and taken on a lot of mapping and recon duties this year He has also begun the process to establish a CRF / USFS MOA with the Modoc National Forest to map the caves on their property, and which lie outside the Monu ment. Iris Heusler came onboard as Co-PI for the mapping project. One of her chief missions is to eliminate the backlog of maps that are overdue. She has reduced the number from 38 to 28, with more soon to arrive at Lava Beds to be put in the flat drawers. Amy Ponsetti took on the GIS project as a favor to the Park The ultimate goal is to render 3D data on the old Water s maps for the Interpretation staff to use in the new Visitor Center. Last, but not least, Dr John Tinsley has been essential this summer in getting the Research Center project moving along He has done this while not coming up to Lava Beds even once. He has attended meetings, made phone calls, and written countless e-mails to Superinten dent Dorman and us. 77

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Archeology CRF Archeological Project Update, 2001-2002 Patty Jo Watson Research in and near Mammoth Cave National Park In October of each year, P.J. Watson presented two talks on prehistoric archeology of the Mammoth Cave System and of the information so well preserved there concerning early pre-maiz e agriculture in Eastern North America On those occasions and whenever else possible, project members monitor the stand of Eryngium yuccifolium (rattlesnake mas ter button snakeroot) at the south end of Hamilton Valley just below the CRF field station. This plant is receiving increa s ing attention by archaeologists and archeobotanists concerned with the sources of raw materials for prehistoric textiles (especially footgear) found in Salts Cave, Mammoth Cave, and other dry caves and rockshelters in the Midwest, M idsouth, and Southeast (Gordon 1999). A pre-MA graduate student at Washington Uni versity, Elizabeth Horton, supported in part by a CRF re search grant, is investigating perishable materials associ ated with Fawn Hoof," a prehistoric individual buried in Short Cave nearly 3000 years ago and found by saltpeter miners in the early 19th century (Horton 2003, Meloy 1968). She and Angela Gordon (Washington University Ph.D. can didate), together with Joan Miller (Miller 1986) and P.J. Watson, visited Short Cave in April 2002 to see the locale from which Fawn Hoof was removed nearly 200 years ago. Our visit was facilitated by Gary Berdeaux and Gordon Smith (of Diamond Caverns and CRF) who introduced us to the management staff at Diamond Caverns Resort and Golf Course, and together with the Diamond Caverns Resort guides (Georgia and Bill) accompanied us to the cave. We are grateful to all these people, and to Gary for his excel lent digital-camera images of the cave trip. In June of2002, Elizabeth Horton visited the two institutions who curate the only remains of Fawn Hoof's burial goods that are still ex tant: the Smithsonian Institution's Museum ofNatural His tory and the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnol ogy. She was able to document the relevant accessions in detail, and to obtain two small fragments for radiocarbon dating from cordage fragments at the Peabody. Also in April2002, Gordon, Horton, and Miller made careful observations of several whole or nearly whole an cient slippers stored at the Mammoth Cave National Park Curational Facility and at the Western Kentucky University 78 Kentucky Building museum. We are grateful to Bob Ward (Division of Science and Resource Management at Mam moth Cave National Park), and to Darlene Applegate and Sandy Staebell at Western Kentucky University for making these studies possible In October 2002, thanks to the assistance of CRF Expedition Leader Bob Osburn and a mapping crew led by Micaela Evans, a new map of Short Cave was produced in support of Elizabeth Horton's Fawn Hoof study The map will be an important part of Horton's MA thesis Research in Hourglass Cave, Colorado CRF Archeological Project personnel carried out archeological investigations in this high-altitude cave dur ing the late 1980s and early 1990s (see summary in Mosch and Watson 1996, 1997). During 200 l and 2002, two small samples of charcoal obtained from the findspot of the hu man remains and from a point some meters beyond the re mains, respectively, were submitted for identification prior to radiocarbon dating Chronological determinations for these two charcoal fragments (aspen and pine, respectively) are listed below, together with the previous dates we had secured from archaeological materials in Hourglass Cave. Radiocarbon determinations for Hourglass Cave (aU are conventionall4C ages b.p.) University of Arizona AA11808, human bone : AA11808, 2 d run, same sample : Univ of California, RiversideUCR3494, torch smudge UCR3495, charcoal UCR3496, charcoal UCR3497, torch smudge Beta AnalyticBeta 172282, aspen charcoal Betal72283, pine charcoal Beta 38554, human bone Beta 8120 I, charcoal Beta 81202, charcoal 7714 +/77 7944+/-84 1560 +/340 1690 +/60 1530 +/40 3880 +/70 7820+/-40 3370 +/40 8170+/ -100 1960 +/80 2310 +/50

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 As the list makes clear, there may have been as many as four prehistoric trips into Hourglass Cave. The first was about 8000 radiocarbon years ago when a ca 45-year-old man en tered the cave and died there some 300 m inside the dark zone. The cave is too wet for the kind of preservation with which we are familiar in Salts Cave and Mammoth Cave, but the bones of the ancient caver were in excellent shape. The later trips were at about 3800 radiocarbon years ago, roughly 2000 r c.y bp, and ca. 1500-1600 r.c.y bp Other than a thin scatter of charcoal ( 6 fragments of which we have dated) and at least 155 torch smudges (two of which we have dated), there are no archaeological remains beyond the partial hu man skeleton to bear witness to these putative prehistoric cave visits. It is also important to note that small bits of charcoal could have been carried along by rivulets of rain or melting snow filtering down through cracks into the cave passage. Hence, the only seemingly undeniable evidence for pre-Columbian human presence in Hourglass Cave is the human skeleton (three dates) and the two smudges (two dates), which attest to three prehistoric trips: one nearly 8000 radiocarbon years ago, one ca. 3800 r.c.y.bp, and one roughly 1500 r.c.y bp (this one has a big plus-or-minus fac tor, however). References Gordon, Angela 1999 The Salts Cave Slippers: Fiber Identification and Context. Unpublished M .A. Paper, Department of Anthropology, Washington University, St. Louis Horton, Elizabeth. 2003. Investigation of Perishable Materials Associated with Fawn Hoof, a Desiccated Burial from Short Cave, Kentucky M .A. Thesis, Department of Anthropology, Washington University, St. Louis. Meloy, Harold. 1968. The Mummies of Mammoth Cave Micron Press Shebyville, IN. 79

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Biology Foraging Ecology of The Cave Cricket Hadenoecus subterraneus: Effects of Climate, Ontogeny, and Predation Kurt Lewis Helf Cave crickets (Hadenoecus subterraneus) spend most of their time roosting on cave ceilings but will periodically leave caves throughout the year to forage on the surface. From 1995-2000, I examined the impact of abiotic and biotic factors on a hypothesized sequence of decisions H. subterraneus (hereafter, crickets) makes before and during foraging bouts on the surface. I hypothesized winter surface temperatures might reduce and/or preclude foraging bouts for crickets because they are adapted to relatively constant cave tem peratures. Indeed, I found a significant negative correlation between temperature and locomotory ability in crickets Using an electronic device to count when/whether crickets exit a cave to forage, I found significant numbers of exiting crickets were positively correlated with surface temperatures during cold months. However, during warm months, surface temperatures explained little of the variation in numbers of exiting crickets. Thus, surface temperatures in winter, likely the time when crickets' natural food is most scarce, can pre clude cricket foraging bouts I used experimental food patches to examine the effects of abiotic factors (e.g., precipitation) and biotic factors (e.g., perceived predation risk) on where crickets fed and how much food they consumed. I found significant negative correlations between numbers of crickets feeding at my food patches and average precipitation during the growing sea son. This suggested annual net primary productivity, as measured by precipitation, reduced availability of crickets' preferred food, and/or their ability to detect preferred natu ral food patches. In addition, I found significantly greater numbers of crickets used my food patches in winter than in summer; this supported ij@ inference that crickets' natural food is scarce in winter. I found crickets' highly distensible crop when full, significantly affected jumping ability in large crickets. However, a full crop did not significantly affect small crickets' jumping ability. Thus, I hypothesized that food patch distance from cave entrances would affect large crickets perceived predation risk, and so they would eat less food; juveniles would eat more food with increased patch 80 distance due to energy constraints. However, I did not find any association between the distance of my food patches from cave entrances and crickets' food intake. A posteriori, I found season significantly affected crickets' food intake. In summer, a significant interaction between crickets' food intake and the total biomass of crickets feed ing at my food patches from my food patches among my three study cave entrances suggested interspecific exploit ative competition occurred at Frozen Niagara Cave Among all three caves in winter, a significant positive correlation between total cricket biomass feeding at my food patches and their food intake suggested crickets' perceived preda tion risk was reduced with increasing numbers of conspecif ics feeding; this may be due to a reduced per capita preda tion risk or the effect of increasing numbers of foragers be ing able to better detect predators. Finally, I found cricket antipredator behavior is likely related in part to the predators frequency, density, and lethality For example, crickets egg-laying behavior has undoubtedly evolved to reduce predation pressure from a cave adapted beetle (Neaphaenops tellkampji) that specializes on finding and eating its eggs. However, cricket behavior is not af fected in any way by the presence of an orb-weaving spider (Meta ova/is) that inhabits caves, but rarely catches crick ets. In some caves, crickets must run a gauntlet of cave salamanders (Eurycea lucifuga) when exiting/entering the cave but this did not seem to affect their food intake. On the surface, crickets' food intake was apparently little affected by potential predation risk from white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) even though mouse density in creased significantly with proximity to cave entrances. Because at least three communities amongs caves in the South Central Kentucky Karst are subsidized by crickets and their foraging in the local surface habitat around cave entrances likely attracts small predators, crickets may di rectly affect the dynamics of both surface and subsurface food webs in the Mammoth Cave ecosystem.

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Baseline Mapping and Biological Inventory of Caves on the Mark Twain National Forest, Missouri Michael Sutton This report covers the period October 1, 2001 through September 30, 2002. Fieldwork during that period took place within the Cassville Salem-Potosi, Willow Springs and Eleven Point-Doniphan Districts In the Cassville District, four field trips continued the ongoing effort to assess caves potentially impacted by increasing ORV recreation in and around the Radium Creek and Rock Creek drainages. A total of six caves were visited. In the Salem-Potosi District, one heavily used cave in an area of unauthorized ATV roads was assessed, and two caves on the West Fork Black River near the Sutton Bluff ATV trail system were visited. In the Eleven Point-Doniphan District, there was a single trip to do a follow-up search for a rare, cave-adapted millipede. A bioinventory was begun of Crocker Cave, Howell County which, when its purchase by the Mark Twain National Forest takes place, will be one of the longest caves in the Willow Springs District. Cave map production has now switched completely to computer-assisted drafting Fourteen cave maps were completed and are included with this report. Details are given under "Cartography" below. Also included are six cave locator topographic maps. An updated database in FileMaker of cave fauna collected on the Mark Twain National Forest together with ecological details and the specimen's disposition is appended to this report. Detailed records for each cave visited, including biological summaries, are also appended in a FileMaker database file. Also included in the FileMaker cave file are updated records for caves whose maps have been completed. Results are summarized below for each cave. CASSVILLE DISTRICf Barry County Bear Waller Cave (BRY 093) Bear Waller Cave was inventoried and mapped on separate trips. The biological survey, conducted at a time of high water with the cave in partial flood, supplements an earlier Gene Gardner survey. The faunal count included several accidental insect species, presumably introduced by the flood waters. The stygobitic amphipod reported by Gardner was not encountered, again possibly as a result of flooding having rendered the water temporarily turbid. The mapping crew completed the cave survey, with a total of about 350ft. The map draft is in progress. Fungus Gnat Cave (Number to be assigned) This small cave in the Radium Hollow drainage was found while en route to Radium Cave. It was mapped, and a biological survey conducted. As the name suggests the most prominent wildlife were mycetophilid gnats. The cave lacks a dark, constant temperature zone. The cave has not yet been given an MSS catalog number, and the map has not yet been drawn. Horse Collar Cave (BRY 086) Horse Collar Cave is in the Williams Creek valley, part of the Rock Creek Drainage The relatively small ( 130 ft. long) cave was mapped and inventoried. The cave consists of a single short but wide passage, and contains a good deal of forest type fauna as well as more cave adapted species such as webworms and pipistrelles. The map has not yet been drawn Mushroom Rock Cave (BRY 048) This relatively small but interesting cave was inventoried. The cave contains a stream inhabited by a rare stygobitic isopod, Caecidotea dimorpha, as reported by Gardner The stygobites appeared to be confined to the farthest accessible reaches of the stream, with the surface isopod Lirceus sp. replacing it through most of the cave The stygobitic amphipod reported by Gardner was not encountered. The cave is remote from ATV roads and receives little visitation It still needs to be mapped. Radium Cave (BRY 0 16) There was a single mapping trip to begin the survey of this fairly large, complex, and historically interesting cave. A maze of small, low crawlways near the main entrance and leading past one of the artificial pit entrances was completed, and the main passage was surveyed as far as the first deep pool. Several wet-suit trips will be required to complete this survey Details of the mining history of the cave were obtained from historian Dwight Weaver, and his preliminary history of the cave is included with the appended cave report Twin Cave (BRY 053) This small stream cave is a close neighbor to Bear Waller Cave and of a similar nature. It too was inventoried and mapped on separate trips. Although shallow, it contains the relatively rare troglobitic millipede "Scoterpes" dendropus. The accessible section of stream is short, and no aquatic fauna were found. The mapping crew completed the survey (about llO ft.); the map has not yet been drawn. 81

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 ELEVEN POINT-DONIPHAN DISTRICT Carter County : Upper Camp Yam Cave (CTR 003) There was a follow-up biology trip to collect additional specimens of the very rare troglobitic millipede ( Chaetaspis sp.) encountered previously The three specimens collected were all female, resulting in no taxonomic advance. The population will be allowed to recover before a further attempt is made to obtain a mature male. SALEM-POTOSI DISTRICT Reynolds County : WestForkCaves I and2(REYOI9,REY020) The neighboring West Fork (Black River) Caves were inventoried Unusual fauna in both caves included numbers of jumping bristletails (Petrobius sp.) Also present were large numbers of alien millipedes and pill-bugs. The West Fork 2 cave stream is inhabited by stygobitic isopods, but the specimens collected were both female, resulting in no specific identification Although the caves are within an area of heavy legal and illegal ATV use and are shown on the USGS topographic map, they are fairly difficult of access and appear to be seldom visited Washington County : Estes Cave (WSH 035) This cave was visited incidentally as part of an educational effort in collaboration with YMCA of the Ozarks at Trout Lodge, but after ascertaining that it was on the Mark Twain National Forest, a follow-up biological inventory was arranged The cave is about 650 ft. long and includes an intermittent stream populated with stygobitic isopods. Among unusual fauna were diving beetles of a genus not previously recorded in Missouri caves. Another interesting result was the collection of an adult webworm fly from a dark-zone setting. Although webworms are common in Missouri caves, the adult fungus gnat appears to have been collected only once before in the State. The cave is readily visible and accessible from a dense network of(apparently illicit) ATV roads, and as a result is undergoing intensive visitation with some vandalism. There are indications that stream ecology may be suffering from heavy trampling in the more accessible parts of the cave. 82 WILLOW SPRINGS DISTRICT Howell County: Crocker Cave (HWL 037) Although the cave entrance and 80% of the passages are on private lands, the property is being acquired by the US Forest Service There was a biological inventory trip to this lengthy stream cave, examining the outer sections as far as the first main stream passage. The population of stygobitic isopods in this stream was exceptionally dense, suggesting a relatively high-nutrient environment. Stygobitic amphipods occur in the entrance area pools. Large numbers of cave salamanders occurred in twilight, suggesting the possibility that the cave is a breeding site for the species. Numerous bear beds were found, complimenting the earlier observation of a black bear skeleton in a deep cave site. Pipistrelle numbers were surprisingly high for summer, and a few patches of concentrated bat guano suggest occasional use by small numbers of colonial bats CARTOGRAPHY Cave maps completed during this period were drawn using Adobe Illustrator software. Print-outs of map sheets together with a CD of the maps in .jpg format are included with this report Larger caves with stream passages were drawn in two versions, one with standard cave symbols, and the other with color representing certain floor features (sediments, pools, streams). The following cave maps were completed : AVADISTRICT Christian County: Camp Ridge (CHR172); Camp Spring (CHR207) CASSVILLE DISTRICT Barry County: Currey (BRY087) 2 sheets, one showing underlying passage; Twilight Joint (BRY080); Panther (BRY008); Salamander (BRY079);

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 DONIPHAN-ELEVEN POINTDISTRICf Carter County: Mosquito (CTR032) 2 sheets, one in color; Tucker Bluff(CTR073); Tucker Spring (CTR074 ); Turley (CTR033) 2 sheets, one in color. Each sheet is in a 4-page mosaic; a printout on one large page will be provided as it becomes available. Oregon County: Beaver Spring (ORE046) 2 sheets, one in color; Long Point (0Rl25); Muddy (ORE047); Prickerbush (ORE048) Maps still to be completed include : Pole Cave in Christian County; Bear Waller Chimney Rock Fungus Gnat, Horse Collar, Twin, and White Oak Onyx Caves all in Barry County. Another innovation during this period has been the production of cave locator maps, based on software topographic maps for Missouri The locator maps show cave locations together with the route(s) used by survey crews to access the cave. Vehicular access routes are shown in blue parking places are marked with "P", and hiked routes are shown in red. Six locator maps are appended to this report, showing the locations of all caves visited during this period Appendix: WILDLIFE RECORD UPDATES. Taxonomic revisions The following recent taxonomic revisions apply to previously reported results The bats ascribed to Myotis keeni in the Phase l report are now considered to be long-eared bats M septentrionalis since the previous eastern subspecies, M. keeni septentrional is has been elevated to species level (Van Zyll de Jong 1979, 1985) Missouri populations of the Plethodon glutinosus complex (slimy salamander) are now assigned toP albagula Grohman The gastropod family Zonitidae is revised to Vitrinidae Fitzinger 1833, following Burch and Pearce, 1990. The bristletail family Malichiidae, previously reported in the order Thysanura is now considered to belong to the Microcoryphia. 83

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Cartography Redwood Canyon Cartography Summary for 2002 Peter Basted Tremendous progress was made during the year 2002 A total of 40 survey trips took place in Lilburn Cave, spread over 12 expeditions. These netted 8108 feet of new survey using 920 stations, and 573 feet of replacement survey using 63 stations This is the most new survey in a single year since the CRF project began in 1980 The average survey shot length of 8 8 feet shows that many of the new passages are reasonably large for a California cave. The official length of Lilburn is now 20.01 miles (32.30 km). The 30 km mark was passed early in the season, with the last few shots of the last survey trip passing the 20-mile mark No trips were made to the other caves in Redwood Canyon this year. Efforts in the first half of the caving season (May through July) concentrated on mopping up leads in many parts of the caves. Six: survey trips were made to the Attic and Attic-Attic, where newly updated quadrangle maps showed a plethora of small question marks. While most turned out to be too tight, several led to significant extensions This is one of the most complex areas in this 30 maze cave, and a lot of effort was spent trying to figure out how the various levels connect with each other. Malachite and azur ite were found at two new locations. Three trips to the Angels Perch were made to fix bad loops and check leads. One possibility remains for small cavers. Several trips to areas quite close to the Lilburn Entrance revealed passages overlooked by the early surveys. It was found that one of the largest passage segments in the entire cave ( 15 feet wide and about I 00 feet tall) had accidentally been left off the map! Several passages in the Canopy area were re-surveyed to fix loops closures and improve sketches. This led to the discovery of several hundred feet of previ ously unknown passages, which connected to a question mark at the top of a dome (saving the trouble of a future aid climb) A new section of cave was found in a blank part of the map by dropping down to an intermediate level in DuChene Pit. A couple of long trips to the remote Outback area (the big discovery of2001) mopped up most remaining leads although some intriguing dig possibilities remain One trip down River Pit mopped up two leads, only to reveal several more for nex:t year. The big breakthrough came on August 30, when it was fi nally dry enough to go back to last year's Enchanted River leads. Just upstream of the sump, a difficult 35-foot climb was made up to a small hole near the ceiling A nice walking 84 canyon was quickly found, and a permanent rope was set from a more convenient ledge. A hastily-organized mini-ex pedition the following weekend revealed the area to be ex tensive, and another five mini-expeditions were quickly added to the regularly scheduled Columbus Day expedition. Altogether, there were fifteen survey trips to the new area, and almost a mile of new survey was accwnulated. Survey totals ranged from 150 to almost 1000 feet per trip, in rela tively large passage, for California. The first section was called Happy World. After the map began to reveal that much of the lower level was a series of tall, narrow canyons with sandy floors, it was decided to dub the entire area Canyonlands. A large section of river passage was found that provided the missing link between the downstream sump of the Enchanted River and the upstream sump of River Pit. This newly found section of Redwood Creek was called Echo River, for the tremendous echoes in the beautiful, clean washed passage with the alternating black and white band ing that Lilburn is famous for. An upper level was also found, named Area of Low Hanging Fruit (LHF). This area is much muddier, and is noted for a large room (30 feet wide by 100 feet long) and a very confusing maze of canyons, crawlways, and interesting climbs. The most remote part of LHF (a three hour trip from the entrance) comes within ten feet of known passage in the 2 by 2 complex (only ten minutes from the entrance), but a connection proved elusive Several new deposits of mala chite were found near Happy World. Because the Enchanted River is only dry enough to get to Canyonlands a few months per season (and then only in dry years), a significant effort was made to find an alternate route. By having teams in both Happy World and the Meyer Parallel, several possibilities were identified, and eventually an obscure route was opened up through a boulder choke. Although most of the obvious leads in Canyonlands have been pushed, several small question marks remain, and strong air movement can be felt at several boulder chokes that might lead to more discoveries next year.Most of the cartography effort this year was focused on drawing up the new discov eries as they took place. Canyonlands has generated an other two quadrangles, brining the total to 84 About 90% of the quadrangles are currently up to date.

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Geoscience Records of Climate Change in Central North America From 8n variations in speleothm fluid inclusions Feride Serefiddin1 Henry P Schwarcz, Derek C. Ford, and Homer Seywerd Introduction The interpretation of oxygen and carbon isotopic variations in speleothems remains rather problematic because local and regional environmental conditions can alter the global cli mate signal (Linge et al. 2001, Serefiddin et al. 2002). The ratio ofstab1e isotopes ofhydrogen ( OD) of fluid inclusions in speleothem calcite can be used to investigate changes in precipitation and calculate paleotemperatures as an addi tional proxy to refme climate models. The isotope geochem istry of speleothems from Reed's Cave, in the Black Hills of South Dakota will be used as a proxy for climate change in this region. Modern dripwater and Holocene fluid inclusion samples will be compared to the speleothem records from the Wisconsin glacial period. A high resolution record of temperature change for the Black Hills of South Dakota will give insight on the extent of cooling in the mid-continent during the glacial period. Paleotemperature reconstructions using fluid inclusions When calcite forms in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with wa ter, we can calculate the temperature of formation from the isotopic fractionation, acw' between calcite and water, where acw = ('801'60)calcite/('801'60) The calculation of water paleotemperatures using the O'Neil eta/. (1969)'calcite-water fractionation equation 1000 In acw = 2. 78 x lQ-6 x T2 -2 8 (1) requireS knowledge of the 0180 of the drip water from which the speleothem was precipitated. We assume that this is equal to the initial d'80 of fluid inclusions trapped in the speleothem Although these fluid inclusions can be ana lyzed for both 0180 and OD, 0180 is not used because the isotopes of the calcite and the water may have exchanged following deposition of the speleothem. Instead, we calcu late the initial d180 value of the trapped water from its mea sured OD, using the appropriate meteoric water line for the period in which the sample grew. Methods The speleothems were dated using uranium-series disequi librium dating techniques (Schwarcz 1986, Dorale 2000). Crushed or powered calcite samples ranging from 200 mg for multi-collector inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MCICPMS) analysis to 2 g for thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) were prepared by anion exchange chem istry in the McMaster clean laboratory, with the addition of a 229'fh!236U spike calibrate by J. Lundberg, Carleton Univer sity. The extracted uranium and thorium components are run by single and double filament technique on a VG 354 TIMS at McMaster or on the VG MC-ICPMS at GEOTOP in Montreal. For thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), uranium and thorium are loaded on rhenium and tantalum filaments and analyzed in a VG354 mass spectrometer; the ratios of 234U/238U and 230Thf34U are used to determine the age. The precision of measurements averages 1%. For analy sis ofU and Th by MC-ICPMS, the elements are introduced into the instrument dissolved in 1% nitric acid The advan tage of MC/ICP-MS is faster throughput and higher preci sion ( < 0.5% ) The extraction of fluid inclusions employs equipment devel oped at the University ofEastAnglia Isotope Lab (Dennis et al. 2001 ). The crushing cell consists of the crushing chamber and a piston that is moved using an electromagnet. The base and tower of the cell are fitted with heaters for the removal of water before the sample is crushed to remove any atmospheric water vapor that may be present. Slices of calcite were taken along growth layers with a maxi mum thickness of 5mrn using a low speed lsomet diamond wafer saw. At least two samples were cut from each growth layer for repeat analyses. A portion of the slice weighing approximately 500 -I 000 milligrams is loaded into the cell and evacuated to a high vacuum. After the sample had been evacuated and heated at I 00 oc for 15 minutes, it was gently crushed for 15 minutes by repetitive motion of the piston During this time the crushing cell was closed off from the high vacuum pumps and opened to the U-trap. A dewar of 85

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Cave Resear c h Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 liquid nitrogen was placed under the U-trap to collect the water and C02 released during crushing After crushing, the cell was heated to 150 C under vacuum to remove all adsorbed water. After heating is complete the U-trap tem perature is increased to 120 octo release any C02 which is pumped away The cold trap is then warmed to room tem perature and water is trapped in a Pyrex tube together with 50 mg of zinc shavings ( Indiana Zn") The water is later reduced by reaction with zinc at 500 o c for I hand the hydro gen gas is analyzed on a SIRA II mass spectrometer against H2 from a laboratory standard (DTAP) The absolute dD values are calculated using the VSMOW and VSLAP refer ence waters for calibration The precision of measurements of the standard is 0 .11 o/oo. A portion of the crushed calcite was reserved for analysis of The volume of water in each calcite sample was estimated from the intensity ofthe major beam (2H signal). Capillaries containing known masses of water were used to create a calibration curve Samples that gave an intensity of less than 5 0 X I o s indicated less than 0 5 ml of water; these data were not used because they were most likely fractionated during extraction (Dennis et al. 200 I). Samples Samples were prepared for fluid inclusion analysis to evalu ate 8D and temperature variability during the Wisconsin glacial period from Reed's Cave, South Dakota. In an at tempt to produce high resolution records, sample size was reduced to I g or Jess. Speleothems 99902 (RC2) and 20000 (RC20) are two samples from Reed's Cave, South Dakota that partly grew at the same time, from 62 to 49 ka BP. These speleothems have partly divergent 8180 c records but each appears to be recording climate, (Serefiddin 2002). The analy sis of the 8D and paleotemperature calculations can test whether similar temperatures are being recorded by these two speleothems. Time resolution for each measurement ranges from 200 years during fast growth to 6300 years dur ing slow growth for sample 99902. The faster growing speleothem 20000 has a time resolution ranging from 50 years to 690 years Results: Tests of the procedure Calibration of the crushing cell and vacuum line was done by measurements ofDTAP standard water in glass capillar ies alone and with Iceland spar following the procedure of Dennis et al. (200 I) The reproducibility of samples was tested by analyzing replicates of the laboratory standard water, DTAP in capillaries together with 500 to 1000 mg pieces of 86 Iceland Spar (MEXIS) Fourteen MEXIS samples were pre pared but 3 samples produced transducer readings that indi cated they were fractionated during transfer due to incom plete recovery or desorption. The II remaining samples gave an average 8D value of -61 9%o with a range of -49 to 77 % o The difference from the mean ranges from 2%o to 14%o. The average 8D agrees with 8D value for DTAP (laboratory standard) of -58 4%o. The slightly depleted average value of -61 9 %o may result from fractionation effects from incomplete desorption of water from the calcite powder As another test of reproducibility of the method, sixteen growth layers of speleothems from Reed's Cave were ana lyzed in replicate, by analysis of slices taken as close as possible to the same level in the stalagmite. From the eleven layers which had sufficient water for isotopic analyses, four of these results agreed within the typical analytical error of3 %o. Groups of replicates are identified in the tables by color. Sample codes begin with the abbreviation for the speleothem (RC2 for sample 99902 and RC20 for sample 20000) and fol lowed by an identification number for the layer number or height from base. Overall, the difference between replicate analyses ranges from I to 27 %o. Two possible reasons for this are: a) incomplete recovery of water, resulting in isoto pic fractionation; b) non-equivalence of the supposed repli cates such that different growth periods are being averaged. Samples taken near the outer perimeter of the stalagmite may contain thousands more years of growth than a sample from the main growth axis. Results from adjacent growth layers show average differences which is comparable to estimate of reproducibility from analyses of crushed capillaries of water of less than 1 O%o. To determine ifleaks of atmospheric water vapor would con taminate samples, we attempted to collected water from the line without bringing the crushing cell and pyrex line down to vacuum. Three attempts failed to result in a measurable amount of water. We conclude that any small leaks had no effect on the isotopic values of collected water. 8D analyses can be offset if the proper zinc:water ratio is not used: the recommended ratio is of 50 mg Zn to 1 mL of water We assume that the maximum water content of the speleothem is 0.1 wt %, and with a yield close to l 00%, the sample sizes averaging 500 mg to lg will give us extracted water volumes from 0.5 to 1.0 mL. We ran capillaries filled with 0 5 mL and 1.0 mL ofDTAP water with 40 mg 50 mg and 60 mg of zinc. These quantities gave reproducible and accu rate results using standards of DTAP as small as 0 5 ml in capillaries with Iceland spar.

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Analyses of speleothems Sample weights ranged from 0 27 to 1.48 g. The number and volume of fluid inclusions varied between the growth layers so the wt% of water varied somewhat with sample size. The results of BD analyses for the crushed calcite samples in cludes only the samples that were large enough to run on the mass spectrometer. Typically, samples less that 0 5 ml in size were too small for isotopic analysis. Of the 78 samples that were crushed and transferred to the zinc tubes, only 62 had enough water to collect BD data Reed's Cave, South Dakota Cave dripwaters were sampled to determine spatial variation throughout the cave and whether there was a distinct sea sonal signal in the isotopic composition of these waters Results from oxygen and hydrogen analyses show a varia tion of up to 36o/oo in the BD values and 5o/oo in the B1 8Q for drips. This seasonal variation is well within the range ex pected for mid-continental precipitation (Rozanski eta!. 1993 ). The range from -75 to -117 o/oo generally agrees with range of -70 to -I 02 o/oo (estimated from GNIP maps) of modern pre cipitation in this area with cave drips slightly more depleted than the minimum of-102 o/oo for precipitation. The more 2H enriched waters in the range from -81 %o to -90o/oo are found in samples that were collected from cave popcorn, an evapo rative speleothem feature. These areas of the cave likely have less than 100% humidity, which makes the waters un suitable for study of equilibrium deposits. The modern drip water samples collected from the location of Wisconsin age speleothem samples 99902 and 20000 have a range of BD from -97 to -117 o/oo and d180 of -10.3 to -l5.3%o and falls slightly below the global meteoric water line (MWL). The local MWL calculated from drip water at the sample sites in the cave is BD = 8.0 d1 80 + 6.7 This is within the expected range for mid-continental site in North America Forty-five samples from the two speleothems were crushed Of these, 34 gave BD values, while II failed due to insuffi cient quantities of water. The average BD for the 34 samples is -97 4 %o with a minimum value of -150 o/oo and a maximum value of -35 %o. 01 80 values were calculated using the modMWL and a hypothetical glacial age MWL with 00 = 0. Five samples with volumes less than 0.5 mL may have been fractionated during transfer of water from crushing cell to the zinc-filled pyrex tube. Variation in dD The BD results clearly show that extraction and measure ment of fluid inclusion water is very difficult. Preliminary results give some reproducible data and result in calculated temperature shifts that can be correlated with other proxy records Analysis of small samples may also lead to unac countable errors in BD values Atmospheric circulation patterns control relative contribu tions of moisture sources of different isotopic signatures to different regions (Charles eta!. 1994, Nativ and Riggio 1990). The isotopic compositions of storm tracks in the Black Hills are determined by the relative contribution of Pacific and Gulf of Mexico air masses; the position of these air masses differs seasonally as well over long-term periods There appears to be a good connection between the trajectory of these air masses and the isotopic composition of precipita !ion. BD values from fluid inclusions can give mformahon on how the position of these air masses may have been different in the late Pleistocene although it may be difficult to distinguish these from temperature effects. The seasonal bias in the isotopic composition of recharge feeding different drip sites is likely controlled by some comof both variables. More depleted values of BD may md1cate a dominance of more depleted air masses as well as lower temperatures. The BD values for the Reed's Cave speleothems show a range of values less than the estimated range for seasonal variation in 0180 The average BD value for sample 20000 0 0 pp IS consistently lower than for sample 99902, even during coeval periods of growth. A previous paper (Serefiddin et a!., submitted) showed a similar difference in average B18Q values for these two samples and attributed this to seasonality of recharge of drip waters Sample 20000 was likely formed from drips biased to winter precipitation This also explains the lower BD values The range of BD values for sample 20000 is -65 to -150 o/oo, more depleted than range of BD for sample 99902 of -40 to -129 o/oo. There appears to be a slight enrichment of l 0 o/oo in sample 20000 between 59 and 55 ka BP. This could indicate a short-term increase in the influence of Gulf of Mexico storm tracks There is a similar enrichment of BD values in sample 99902 beginning at about 57 ka BP The 0180 < and BD values for these two speleothems agree at this point as well, which would explain the similar calculated temperatures. There is also evidence of warming in the 013C record at Crevice Cave in Missouri at this time (Dorale eta!. 1998) The chronology for the change in 99902 is less certain due to weaker age control and lower resolution resulting from extremely slow growth rates over this interval. 87

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Paleotemperatures Temperatures were calculated using the estimated 0180 of fluid inclusions ( 0180fi) and measured d180 from the pow-! ct ders collected after crushing The range of temperatures calculated for Reed's Cave use the modem MWL and esti mated glacial age MWL relationship (Harmon and Schwarcz I 98 I). Temperatures are calculated for Reed's Cave with 00 = 0 (glacial age estimate) and 00 = 6.7 (modem) Tempera tures that are less than zero and greater than modem are assumed incorrect. It is unlikely that samples in the glacial and cooler MIS 3 interglacial are greater than modem tem peratures The range of acceptable temperatures is 0 to 8 o c using the modem MWL and I to II o c using the glacial age MWL We expected all temperatures from Reed's Cave samples 99902 and 20000 to be lower than the modem value of I 0 oc. Temperatures higher than modem or below zero may be due to fractionation as a result of incomplete water recovery. Incomplete recovery of water gave both positive and nega tive offsets in replicate samples. Samples with very low yields, usually less than 0.5 ml, also gave negative offset of up to 40 o/oo in analysis of capillary + Iceland spar. This would lead to lower apparent temperatures of deposition. As noted above, the 0180 c records from the coeval period of growth in samples 99902 and 20000 show an offset in aver age 0180ct and difference in magnitude of isotopic variation. In a previous paper (Serefiddin et al., submitted) we show how differences in seasonality and flow-paths of recharge can cause such differences. Minor evaporative effects can also cause an enrichment in record with respect to the other, but because the deposits were formed in equilibrium (as proved by Hendy test), it is unlikely that evaporative/kinetic fractionation has occurred. Paleotemperatures for these records give similar values and similar direction of change (Figure 1 ). Temperatures were calculated using both the global MWL relationship and the modified glacial age MWL. The coeval part of the record shows a similar change in temperature, but the magnitude of increase is higher for sample 20000 (Figure I) We observe a temperature increase of 7 oc in sample 99902 and 8 oc in sample 20000 from 62 to 57 ka BP (Figure 1 ). After 57 ka BP temperatures decrease by 8 oc at-54 ka BP. The agreement in magnitude of temperature shift in the two coeval deposits is in striking contrast to the difference in their 0180c, records. The magnitude ofthis temperature shift may, however, be somewhat exaggerated For comparison, however, Anderson et al. (2000) observed cooling of up to l 0 oc in the Colorado Plateau at the LGM, suggesting that 88 temperature shifts of this magnitude may have occurred during the last glacial cycle Conclusions Variations in OD values over time as preserved in speleothem fluid inclusions are powerful recorders of past air mass composition and position and possibly of climate change. Late Pleistocene deposits from Reed's Cave, South Dakota show consistent depletion in 2H in fluid inclusion waters. This is evidence of cooler temperatures and in creased precipitation that may be due to changes in atmo spheric circulation from ice sheet fluctuations or global ocean temperature gradients. Maximum OD values and a possible corresponding temperature increase in both Reed's Cave speleothems is seen at 57 ka BP. A trough in OD values at 54 ka BP correlates with a cooling event in the Mediterranean and in the Devil's Hole calcite record (Bar-Matthews et al. 1999, Winograd et al. 1997) Although the OD records from Reed's Cave appear to be recording some component of global climate change, it is more useful to apply them to wards understanding local or regional climate. Higher reso lution records will be developed following more sample analy ses and may give better insight into local climates. We have analyzed two coeval stalagmites from Reed's Cave whose 0180c, values differed by up to 3 %o. If they had been deposited from water of identical isotopic composition, this would have implied a difference of at least 12 oc between their temperature of deposition, even though they were formed only a few meters apart in the same cham ber. The analysis of fluid inclusions from these two depos its confirms there was a corresponding difference in hydro gen isotopic composition of drip waters feeding these de posits, which we assume to have been correlated to corre sponding differences in 0180, and which was the reason for the difference in 0180ct between the samples. There is evidence from the paleotemperature calcu lations that there were variations in the local relationship between d180 and OD (meteoric water line) during the late Pleistocene Subzero temperatures and extreme magnitude of temperature change are calculated using the modem MWL for the Reed's Cave samples; these can only be resolved if the local MWL was changing throughout the period of these records It may not be reasonable to use a constant MWL relationship for all fluid inclusion samples in the Pleistocene. Assumptions about past MWL relationships must be made to calculate 0180 values for included waters until the 0180 of waters can be measured directly. We have also assumed that OD values are preserved over time and it remains a faithful record of OD of paleoprecipitation Unless alternative proxy records for absolute

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 12 modem MAT r -----------------------------------' 10 ,, I f 8 ,-.... u II /1 I ------, ------\ 0 6 --I 0 L / I -----\ -\ ...... 4 ;:;:, I I / I \ \ I ...... 0 p.. 2 s 0 E-o 0 -----20000-modem MWL ; -2 1--I ----20000 -glacial age MWL -----99902-modem MWL ----99902 -glacial age MWL 20000= blue --4 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 Age (ka) Figure 1. Paleotemperatures for Reed's Cave speleothems 99902 and 20000. The solid line uses the modem MWL relationship and the broken line uses the glacial MWL relationship. paleotemperatures are developed to test these models, it will be difficult to ascertain the accuracy of this assumption. The results do show promise because we see correlation between direction of temperature change in coeval deposits and with other global proxy records. Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to the Cave Research Foun dation for a grant to F Serefiddin and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (Canada) for their sup port of this research, partly through a Special Project grant "Climate System History and Dynamics" and partly through operating grants to HPS and DCF. Special thanks to Dr. P. Rowe and Dr. P. Dennis at the University ofEastAnglia for their assistance with crusher design Greg Stock and Dr Jim Zachos provided sample material from Santa Cruz and un published isotope data. Steve Baldwin, Steve Langendorf, Sammi Langendorf and cavers from the Pahasapa Grotto in the Black Hills assisted with speleothem sample collection and collected all cave water samples. References Anderson, R S Betancourt, J L., Mead, J. I., Hevly, R H. and Adam, D .P. (2000). Middleand late-Wisconsin pateobotanic and paleoclimatic records from the southern Colorado Plateau, USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 155,31-57 Bar-Matthews, M Ayalon, M., Kaufman A. and Wasserburg, GJ. (1999). The Eastern Mediterranean paleoclimate as a reflection of regional events : Soreq Cave, Israel. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 166, 85-95. Charles, C.D., Rind, D., Jouzel, J., Koster, R D. and Fairbanks, R G (1994) Glacial-Interglacial Changes in Moisture Sources for Greenland : Influences on the Ice Core Record of Climate. Science 263: 508-511 Dansgaard W. ( 1969). Stable isotopes in precipitation. Tell us 16 : 438-468 89

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report 2001-2003 Dennis, P F ., Rowe, P J and Atkinson, T. C. (2001) The recovery and isotopic measurement of water from fluid inclusions in speleothems Geochim. Cosmochim Acta 65(6) : 871-884 Dorale, J A (2000). A high-resolution record of climate and vegetation change from Crevice Cave Missouri during the last interglacial-glacial cycle. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota. Dorale J A ., Edwards, R L., Ito, E and Gonzalez, L.A. ( 1998) Climate and Vegetation History of the Midcontinent from 75 to 25 ka: A Speleothem Record from Crevice Cave, Missouri, USA S c ien ce 282, 1871-1874 Harmon, R S and Schwarcz, H.P. (1981) Changes in 2H and 1 80 enrichment of meteoric water and Pleistocene glaciation. Natur e (London) 290 : 125 128 Nativ, R and Riggio, R (1990). Precipitation in the south High Plains : Meteorologic and isotopic patterns J. Geophys Res 95: 22559-22564 Linge, H., Lauritzen, S -E. Lundberg, J ., and Berstad, I.M. (200 I) Stable isotope stratigraphy of Holocene speleothems : examples from a cave system in Rana, northern Norway Palaeogeography, Pala e oclimatology Palaeo ec ology 167, 209-224 O Neil J. R., Clayton, R N and Mayeda, T K (1969) 90 Oxygen isotope fractionation in divalent metal carbonates. J. Chem Phys Sl, 5547-5558 Rozanski, K AraguasAragua s, L., and Gonfiantini, R ( 1993). Isotopic patterns in modern global precipitation. In Climate Change in Continental Isotopic Re c ords, Geophysical Monograph 78. American Geophysical Union, Washington : 1-36 Schwarcz, H P. (1986). Geochronology and isotope geochemistry in speleothems. In Handbook of Environmental Isotope Geochemistr y (P. Fritz and J. Fontes, eds ), 271-303 Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishers. Serefiddin, F. Schwarcz, H. P ., and Ford, D.C Late Pleistocene paleoclimate in the Black Hills of South Dakota from isotope records in speleothems Submitted to Palaeogeography, Palaeocc/imatology, Palaeoecology Serefiddin, F. 2002 Paleoclimate models for western North America as inferred from speleothem isotope records Unpublished PhD Thesis, McMaster University, Hamilton Ontario, Canada. Serefiddin, F., Schwarcz, H P and Ford, D.C. (2002). Paleotemperature reconstruction using isotopic variations in speleothem fluid inclusion water. Geochim. Cosmochim Acta 66 (Sl): A697. Winograd, I. J Landwehr, J. M ., Ludwig, K R Coplen, T B., and Riggs, A. C ( 1997). Duration and Structure of the Past Four Interglacials Quaternary Research 48: 141-154. (Footnotes) 1 Primary and corresponding author; email : serefif@yahoo .com

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Cave Research Foundation Activities 2003

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Cav e Re searc h Foundation Annual R eport-2001-2003 Cave Research Foundation Directors Rick Toomey President Roger Smith Treasurer Peter Bosted Phil DiBlasi 2003 Joel Despain MickSutton Dick Maxey Chuck Pease International Projects National Personnel Officer Chris Groves Fellowships & Grants Patricia Kambesis Hamilton Valley Manager Operation Area Managers Eastern Operation Area: Dave West Lava Beds Area: Janet Sowers Ozark Operation Area: Scott House Southwest Operation Area: Barbe Barker Sequoia and Kings Canyon/Mineral King Operation Area: John C. Tinsley Secretary: Elizabeth Winkler Newsletter Editor: Lois Lyles T e rra ce d kar s t land sc ape, Hunan Provin ce China phot o : Pat Kamb e si s 92

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 2003 Highlights The 69'h Meeting of the Board of Directors of the Cave Re search Foundation took place on October 31, 2003 at Se quoia National Park, California Personnel changes: Chuck Pease has resigned as a direc tory of the Foundation and of the International Program. He has served for eight years on the Board and the Foundation appreciates his efforts CRF was a co-sponsor of the conference "Karst Hydrology and Ecosystems" which was held at Western Kentucky Uni versity in August 2003 in Bowling Green, Kentucky. CRF hosted a mid-meeting luncheon at the Hamilton Valley Re search Station and also co-sponsored field trips out of Hamilton Valley. President Rick Toomey represented CRF at a joint visioning meeting on the National Cave and Karst Research Institute Those in attendance included federal, state and university representatives, NSS, ACCA and the Karst Waters Institute The meeting covered review of management models and dis cussion on the focus ofNCKRI. Operation Area Reports: Scott House, Ozark Operation Manager, reported that they have both funded and unfunded projects. The funded projects are from the Forest Service and the National Park Service. The Forest Service agreement funding is probably going to be increased over 50% House explained that CRF worked with rangers (especially law enforcement), office personnel, maintenance etc. CRF trains rangers in recogniz ing bat species, are responsible for monitoring cave species, and take care of other cave management-related tasks. John Tinsley, Sequoia Kings Canyon Operation Manger reported that CRF help host the 2003 NSS convention and Tinsley led some of the field trips. The Lilburn Cave atlas was published. 20.5 miles mapped. Greg Stock published a field guide to the Sierran landscape geology. There is a pend ing proposal to look at nutrient cycling and proscribed bums in the area Despain, Tinsley assisting in this project. There is also a potential fire ecology grant project to which Despain and Tinsley rna apply. The objective of the project is to provide baseline data before a real bum. Protecting the cabin may be an issue. The last controlled bum was in 1978, but the fire got too hot and burned everything up except the giant sequoias, so there are thousands of them coming up The cave diving program by Bill Farr may be on hold The Park Services policy on cave diving is that another diver and full equipment (32 tanks) must be on site This exploration effort has been difficult because involves diving above 5000 feet but to depths of many hundreds of feet, so the diver must make several trips in just to leave tanks to get to the bottom and then several hours of decompression coming up. Though the results of the effort have been worthwhile, this part of the exploration may not continue for much longer Dave West, Eastern Operation Manager reported that there has been an addition of another project outside of Mam moth Cave National Park. The project is at Cumberland Gap National Monument in Kentucky The project coordinator will be Mike Crockett Pat Kambesis has taken over for Mike Yocum in serving as the liaison for the Mammoth Cave Con trol Point Project. Elizabeth Winkler continues to work on the Trip Report Database project with great success. Cindy Heazlit reported on the Lava Beds Operation on behalf of Janet Sowers who could not attend the Board meet ing CRF personnel continue to minitor ice levels locate and record cave entrances with GPS and place brass markers,4) Lava Beds and Crater Lake Heazlit: We've continued doing ice levels and brass markers. Survey work is on hold until the cartography is caught up for various caves of this project. Lots of the Park Service positions have been cut due lack of federal funding, so they have lost two positions at Lava Beds that are not being replaced. Dave Larsen is the re source management person who is going to have to cover their work The new visitors center is completed it is no longer over the cave. John Tinsley reported that they are very close to signing a contract to build the Lava Beds research center However, building costs have increase three-fold because of the war in Iraq The first bid had to be rejected. About $50,000 worth of masonry work was cut from the budget and its anticipated that building could start in five to six months CRF now has a building permit for the 1600 square foot research center If all goes on schedule, it is possible that the new center will be complete and opened by June 12, 2004 The Southwest Operation Area report was presented by Rick Toomey on behalf of Barbe Barker who could not attend the meeting. CRF is continuing to work on loop clousure prob lems in various parts of Carlsbad Cavern. They conducted three classes to teach CRF personnel how to do resource 93

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 inventories Restoration work continues in Lake of the Clouds The Guadalupe Room, and Rock of Ages. CRF has received funding from a cost share agreement to conductr restoration in Ft. Stanton Rick Toomey reported on CRF's GIS Program. Bernie Szukalski and Aaron Addison have taken over the GIS pro gram started by Mike Yocum and they are taking it in new directions They have been doing a lot of teaching to vari ous CRF areas how to use the programs. In addition, they are doing program development. They are working on a palm pilot version of GIS so one could work in cave on it for inventory. The 2004 Annual Meeting will be held at our Hamilton Valley facility at Mammoth Cave National Park. Hamilton Valley Research Station Report -2003 Pat Kamb e si s: Hamilton Valley Directo and On-site op eration s Janice Tuc k e r : Sch e duling coll ec ting f ee s Joy ce Hoffmaster : Maintenance Rog er M c Clure : Land Maintenanc e General Projects: The management team continue to keep the facilities/bunk houses and Hoffmaster House clean and in good repair; keep the trailer in good repair; maintain our roads and park ing areas keep our utility building and storage bam (in the valley) clean and organized There is now a perimeter trail in the valley which is main tained. Mowing is done on the access roads and around the barn (to keep it easily accessible), around the main facility / bunkhouses, trailer and Hoffmaster House. We are working on a digging plan for the sinkholes located in the valley Various inventory projects are being done by CRF and other volunteers (flora inventory, general cave bi ology bat count at Adwell Cave ) Sci ence and Resource Management at Mammoth Cave Na tion a l park has set up a a weather and Soil Chemical Analy sis Monitoring and anozone bio garden near the Hoffmaster Hou se. A rain gauge has been installed near the cistern for atrazine monitoring by Hoffman Environmental Research Institute Project ofWcstern Kentucky University Building maintenance included work on roof plumbing sys tem, bunk houses and rest rooms Two work weekends that 94 concentrated on major housecleaning and land maintenance This past year we have bought in $3000 from Conservation Reserve Program, Com Program, tobacco allotment, & hunt ing lease Future Plans : Continue to increase use of HV by researchers educators universities and others who share our commitment to cave. We are looking into the possiblity of an Agreement with The Nature Conservancy. They are very interested in helping CRF establish a burn program that would help restore pre selltement plant communities on our land Lilburn Cartography Summary for 2003 P e t e r Basted There were six cartography expeditions to Lilburn Cave in 2003. Survey activity was somewhat curtailed compared to 2002 due to preparations for the NSS Convention which was held in nearby Porterville CAin July During 20 survey trips, 3067 feet of new passage was surveyed using 391 stations. There was also 600 feet of re-survey using 47 stations. The most new survey was in the Canyonlands and Low Hanging Fruit areas that were the main focus of last year's surveys. There are only very tight crawls and one difficult climbing lead (with air) remaining in the area Another major area of survey activity was near the Triangular ladder, where previously known passage had accidently not been surveyed by CRF. The two leads remaining in the Outback were surveyed. Surveys were also done in the River Pit area, and more remains to be done by those willing to get cold feet. A very tight maze near the Enchanted River was surveyed for 300 feet, and the leads in Meso America (near the Attic) were polished off yielding a similar total. Four passages were found during NSS Convention -related tourist trips, and these passages were promptly surveyed during the Labor Day and Columbus Day expeditions netting another 300 feet of new survey The quadrangle maps of the cave were brought up to date for the first time, and a quadrangle map book was published for release at the NSS Convention. ln addition to the 90 quadrangle maps, drawn at a scale of 20 feet per inch, and printed on 11 by 17 inch paper, the Atlas contains a list of all the principal surveyors (more than 200 stations, a list of symbols, a list of statistics, a brief history of exploration, a

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 visual guide to the quadrangle locations, and an index of place names. The present length of Lilburn Cave is approximately 20 5 miles, or 33 0 km Certificates of Merit The following individuals and groups were presented with a Certificate of Merit: Jim Baichtal, geologist for Tongass National Forest, for years of extensive work to understand and protect globally significant karst resources in southeast Alaska. Yuan Daoxian, director of the Karst Dynamics Laboratory of the Institute of Karst Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences in Guilin. He was a founder of the Karst Institute, and has done as much as anyone in China to understand and protect karst resources, and to develop connections with karst scientists in the west, starting with the first western expedition in the late 1970s when the British surveyed Crown Cave on the Li River. He is a great ally to CRF for China work. Mike Crockett has been the spark plug at the Gap Cave project at Cumberland Gap National Historic Park, and is serving as the Project Coordinator. He has expended enormous energy (and not a little expense) to ensure the projects success. Mike's conduct has been extraordinarily professional throughout the transition from "grotto project" to CRF project Members of the Hamilton Valley Land Management Committee including Dave Hanson Joyce Hoffmaster and Janice Tucker Donna Mosesmann for servingin a leadership position at the annual Restoration Field Camp at Carlsbad Caverns National Park. Donna has taken a week of her vacation for over 10 years to devote to volunteer work for CRF during Restoration Field Camp. Lilburn Mapping Team For completing the quad map book and which won a gold medal at Cartographic Salon at the National Speleological Society annual meeting of2003. John Corcoran for his years of diligence in leading the Fort Stanton Cave Project. In the past two years John has worked closely with Mike Bilbo and others at the BLM to work out the techniques and process for exploration and survey of Snowy River : a prist i ne virgin area John has led numerous expeditions and coordinated the survey of the new areas, including publishing up to date GIS maps. Mark Scott has been very involved at Lilburn Cave for more than 7 years. He is known for leading climbs, pushing tight leads and always maintaining a jovial attitude. Mark is a generous member who regularly provides homemade beer and other alcoholic treats to CRF cavers. Mark will be the new P.l. for a CRF digging projects in the park. He has helped to set nearly 400 survey stations in Lilburn Kelly Fuhrmann, NPS Cave Specialist. Kelly Fuhrmann came to Lava Beds as a Wildlife Biologist Seasonal. From the beginning, he supported CRF research efforts to study caves, bats, magnetic anomalies, insects, moss, ferns, and ice formations Kelly recently revised and updated (from 1988) the Lava Beds Cave Management Plan to bring it into the 21st Century. He recently wrote a photographic history of Lava Beds from 1873 to 2003 using photos taken a long time ago and juxtaposed on each page photos he took this last year It clearly shows changes in vegetation since the Modoc War and through the 30's, 30's and since He has proposed to expand our work in the ice caves with studies to be funded and conducted by the Monument in core drilling and time dating of ice. He has actively supported our efforts to build a Research Center in the Monument. Kelly is an enthusiastic, hardworking indi vidual who has kept the well-being of the caves at the center of his efforts We are honored to call him colleague, friend, and fellow caver. We wish him well at Carlsbad CRFFeUows: The following individuals were elected to be CRF Fellows: Jed Mosenfelder is an active Lilburn caver known for enduring long survey trips to the remote southern areas of the cave. He has been involved at Lilburn for more than 10 years and through several moves, including overseas Jed has worked on climbs, hauled tanks for diving, and worked to maintain the CRF infrastructure on-site at Lilburn. Jed has surveyed more than 700 stations in Lilburn Merrilee Proffitt has been active at the cave for many years Her specialties have been tight leads, cave restora tion, and clean-up, hauling diving tanks, and offering to baby-sit other cavers?children She has surveyed more than 410 stations in Lilburn Merrilee has also been active in Mineral King and worked on the maps and inventories for Cirque and White Chief caves Lynne Jesaitis has been a person to be counted on at Lilburn through the years. She makes a large percentage of expeditions and often shows for spontaneous. She thrives on long trips and always maintains a smile and great attitude She has also helped with restoration projects, 95

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 climbs and dives. She has worked throughout the cave and has set more than 550 survey stations. Art Fortini has also been an active Lilburn caver for many years His specialty is climbs and he has completed many, including the lead that led to the fall 2002 Canyonlands and Low Hanging Fruit extensions He has surveyed more than 250 stations in Lilburn Ray Mansfield ofShepton Mallet, UK has been a long term, major collaborator on a CRF project, the compilation of a Mammoth Cave bibliography Ray is an internationally known cave bibliographer, and wa s for many years the editor and publisher of Current Titles in Speleology. He has a long-term fascination with Mammoth Cave and had assembled a card-index Mammoth Cave bibliography of more than 1600 references In 1993, Ray learned that Sue Hagan and Mick Sutton were compiling a Mammoth Cave bibliography and gazetteer, and he donated his entire card index to CRF. At the time, this was the most comprehen sive Mammoth Cave bibliography, incorporating all earlier bibliographies as well as a great deal of Ray's biblio graphic research That card index has been incorporated into the current 5900+ entry Mammoth Cave bibliographic database, to which Ray has continued to make substantial contributions. Recognition of Ray's role would be especially appropriate at this point, as we are about to put the bibliography up a s a searchable/ sortable database on CRF's web site. Ray will co-author that work. Bernie Szukalski has worked with the CRF GIS project for more than 6 years. He has assisted most, if not all, of our operations areas providing GIS consultation and expertise and software that he created Clean-up crew at Fort Stanton Cave, New Mexico 96

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Hamilton Valley Research Station Hamilton Valley Land Management Symposium Sue Hagan & Mick Sutton On November 9, 2002, in conjunction with the Cave Research Foundation's Annual Meeting, an all-day symposium was held on the topic of Hamilton Valley Land Management. This was the ftrst formal symposium to be held at CRF's Research Center at Hamilton Valley. The Research Center and property are the result of more than a decade of fund-raising, land acquisition, and construction. This is the culmination of dreams going back almost to CRF's founding in the 1950s. Connecting the Flint Ridge cave system to Mammoth Cave was not the only pursuit of the organization; many saw the caves as an opportunity for new karst research. From this mix of scientists and cavers, a vision grew of an organization that promoted, funded, and conducted world-class cave research, not just in the world's longest cave but everywhere-all places karstic could be a suitable laboratory. In 1990, an era in CRF history ended when the National Park Service at Mammoth Cave decided to close the original but deteriorating facilities above Crystal Cave. But another era began almost simultaneously as CRF committed to finding its own place to call home Two years later, that place was found the approximately 160 acres that have retained the name, Hamilton Valley. A worn-out tobacco farm with sev eral dilapidated buildings, it had a view cavers fell in love with on ftrst sight. The "Valley" is actually a large, complex sinkhole, or, more technically, a polje. It is known that passages of the Mam moth system run deep under the ground, but these are not accessible from the surface-yet. A small (by Mammoth stan dards) cave is located within the Valley, and several inner sinks, or ponors, in the Valley bottom, as well as potential entrances at the sandstone/ limestone contact, raise hopes for a future entrance into the big cave. The Research Center and bunkhouses on the rim of this grand sinkhole provide an operations base for ongoing CRF research and exploration activities, as well as for other groups needing a base for cave related activities--caving, courses, or simply contemplation. The expansive windows and out side balcony focus attention on the karst landscape. The Research Center is a place where ideas about karst abound. Naturally enough, some of those ideas are about how the karst should be managed. How will a major caving organization manage its own karst property, both those features on the surface and those un derneath? That was the question that went out to solicit participants to the 2002 Symposium. Early on, Dr. Tom Poulson responded to the invitation by asking some ques tions and throwing out some provocative statements for affirmation or rebuttal: 1. Should CRF manage the valley to make money (perhaps income from raising crops or hay) or are we more interested in restoring the native vegetation? 2 We can never restore a system but can revitalize it. But then, we have no accurate records of what it used to be like. So, perhaps we need to ask what we would like (e.g. keep the karst valley view). 3. Do we want to save the rare and endangered species of plants that have suffered from allowing succession toward forest to occur by suppressing fue? If so, are we willing to assume the dangers that come with fires? Do we need to acquire more property to protect the integrity of the landscape and to make a fire management plan feasible? 4. Should we leave HV alone and let nature take its course? No management amounts to mismanagement. 5. What we do about exploration, cave entrance ecology, and archeology has no bearing on management ofHV. 97

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 The symposium did not answer these questions, but they did surface periodically. An oft-recurring theme was that data collection and interdisciplinary communication is es sential for planning landscape management and for future research purposes. Before we clear areas or conduct pre scribed burns, do we know if there are rare or endangered species already struggling for survival? Removing trash from a sinkhole may seem a good idea but what if some of the detritus consists of important historical artifacts? In our haste to gain entry into a promising lead, we may not only perma nently alter, say, the biology, but we may also fail to record important paleontological data. Above all, are we certain that our actions will cause no harm to the cave system The following synopsis will give a glimpse of what went on that November day, but even the full-length versions of the talks (some still in the works) cannot convey the excitement that filled the air of the crowded room. One by one, each of the presenters conveyed something important not just about Hamilton Valley, but about managing karst landscapes ev erywhere As a caver-run organization, as an organization dedicated to cave research, there is a special obligation for managing our own property: CRF ought to get it right. Karst land management for Hamilton Valley can and should be a model of landscape management with applicability beyond CRF's borders, beyond the borders of Mammoth Cave-it can and should be a demonstration of karst management with implications for any place in the world. Clearly, caring for the surface and all that lies beneath it is important to anyone who cares about caves. Synopsis of Presentations Sue Hagan opened the proceedings with an introductory talk ("Research is our Middle Name"), then introduced the first speaker, Gene Hargrove. Gene, a professor of environ mental ethics and founder of the Journal of Environmental Ethics, was a CRF member in the 1960s. He has not been involved with CRF activities since, but connections still ex ist -e g Gene had dedicated his 1989 book to Red Watson and gives Red mention in his most recent writing. It's also Gene's doing that Turner Avenue (Benington Grotto) has become a kind of paradigm within the environmental ethics community for voluntary restraint in the visitation of fragile areas Gene's touch-stone presentation was an abstract trea tise drawing to the conclusion that arguing for conservation using principles of environmental esthetics is probably more effective than using economic arguments From the abstract to the concrete, Roger McClure, current Land Management Director at Hamilton Valley, used a thor ough slide show to summarize events leading to the pur-98 chase of Hamilton Valley and what's been done there since. His talk covered the various agricultural and leasing arrange ments that have brought in money, the volunteer labor that built buildings and cleaned up trash, and the ongoing main tenance projects. Following was Stan Sides, formerCRF Presi dent and now a neighboring landowner, who gave a well researched history on land-management politics in the Mam moth Cave area and a synopsis of Hamilton Valley property owners and neighbors. One especially pertinent piece of information was that all of Hamilton Valley falls within the first proposed boundaries for Mammoth Cave National Park-and of course CRF's property is well within the bound aries of the International Biosphere Reserve. Cave exploration and cave management policy was a recur rent theme. Current CRF President Rick Toomey discussed paleontology, and the ramifications of surface disturbance and cave exploration on paleontology (watch out not only for mastodon tusks, but the small stuff as well). Rick opined that persons digging entrances could be trained to watch for artifacts. Kurt Helf(a former Tom Poulson student, now an ecologist at MCNP) discussed entrance-area ecosystems and the effect on them of altered airflow. If entrances are to be protected from human-made disruptions to the natural ecology, it is essential that "before" and "during" documen tation be conducted during the disruptions. Rick Olson and Tom Poulson kindly presented Kathy Lavoie and Diana Northup's co-authored paper on cave microbiology The bottom line is that simple steps can be taken to minimize the impact of exploration on previously unentered passages, and data on the native microflora can be obtained easily through following some research protocols during initial entry. Pat Kambesis and Chris Groves outlined the signifi cance of Hamilton Valley with regard to the Mammoth Cave system, and the potential for cave exploration (e.g., the sink holes in the bottom of the valley are not necessarily the best places to be looking for a breakthrough). Chris strongly sup ported the theme of careful assessment before commencing disturbance of geological features, asking the tantalizing question, "Why haven't we done this before?" Archeologist Jan Marie Hemberger (in a talk co-written by Phil DiBlasi) gave a succinct and cogent argument for open ing up the land management discussion to a range of input from a variety of disciplines While an archeological survey was conducted on the site of the Research Center before construction commenced, mistakes have been made. Ex amples include a drain-field that went in without the benefit of an archeological survey, and similar lost research oppor tunities during cleanup projects. But Jan and Phil's point was not to belabor lost opportunities, some of which were probably inevitable, but to suggest that we don't lose future opportunities

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report2001-2003 Dick Maxey described his ambitions for trying to introduce the federally-listed American burying beetle on the Hamilton Valley property. This would seem to blend well with notions of prairie restoration. Dick also wowed the crowd with his sample collection of miscellaneous insects that call Hamilton Valley home. Rick Olson, Mammoth Cave ecologist and long-time CRF member, discussed various aspects ofNPS surface manage ment, particularly their use of controlled burns Rick also presented an overview of the greater Mammoth Cave bio sphere region's history which suggests that burning was used by the indigenous inhabitants prior to the arrival of European settlers in the late 1700s. Having once, as a private land owner, experienced a semi-controlled burn, Rick urged caution in the use of fire and noted that some objectives can be achieved more simply by appropriate mowing protocols The fire-management theme was taken up again by Tom Poulson who is of a mind that, ultimately, fire will be essen tial to achieve prairie, should that be a desired end (e.g mowing tends to promote grasses over forbs), or simply to promote biodiversity. Tom entertained the crowd with adem onstration of the (hypothetical) sex-linked PYRO gene and tried to get people to eat rabbit droppings All of this was a practical demonstration that current land-management prac tices are having an effect, e.g., the timing and extent of mow ing can have an effect on the diversity of both plants and wildlife. Any management plan should aim to revitalize the historic mosaic of forest, savanna, and prairie. Fire of differ ent frequencies, intensities, and timing will be a central man agement tool. Ending the symposium as it began on a philosophical note, Red Watson gave some wide-ranging comments on fund raising, and future organizational goals. Selected Papers presented at the Hamilton Valley Symposium History oftbe Cave Research Foundation and Hamilton Valley Stanley D. Sides MD. The Cave Research Foundation (CRF) has developed a won derful base and research facility on Flint Ridge overlooking Hamilton Valley. The Foundation has a long interest and involvement in this portion of Flint Ridge, the history of which is little known to most Foundation participants The goal of this paper is to make Hamilton Valley come alive from the standpoint of its people, and how they have interacted with the natural features of Hart County and Mammoth Cave National Park. Dr Patty Jo Watson and her many investigators have well documented the early prehistoric activities of native Ameri cans in Mammoth Cave, Salts Cave, natural shelters, and shell mounds in the region The first recorded historic in habitant of the region was James Sturgeon, a Revolutionary War soldier who took a military claim on 200 acres one and one-half miles from North town in the fall of 1790, probably becoming the first settler in the vicinity of Hamilton Valley The area around Hamilton Valley was transformed into cleared farms by the mid 1800's In the 1850's Henry Sell and his wife, Sarah, moved to Flint Ridge near Colossal Cavern. He ran one of the first water mills in the area. His son, Joseph G Sell married Sarah Thomas in 1876 and bought land near Salts Cave sink. Just west of nearby Ice Cave, Joe and his wife opened Sell Store Everyone had gardens and butch ered their own meat. Many had orchards The store was chiefly a source of dry goods, kerosene, vinegar spices for curing meat, stick candy for children, and farm materials. For many years the general store also served as the local post office and as a tourist information center for those going to Colossal Cave, Great Onyx Cave, Floyd Collins Crystal Cave (FCCC), and nearby Salts Cave Joe Sell and his son, L. Melvin operated a s team powered sawmill east of the store near the Park Ridge Road. Water was obtained from the dammed creek draining into Ice Cave Sawdust from the sawmill ran under the present Park Ridge Road to disappear underground into Ice Cave CRF survey ors in the S and R surveys of Salts Cave years ago reported sawdust in the passages, and the maps show a close proxim ity to Ice Cave. The Sells also operated a steam powered grist mill for mak ing corn meal, an important part of the diet of the people of the area. In the days long before refrigeration, once corn was ground, it was easily attacked by insects or became 99

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 moldy, so local people returned to the store to have their com ground every week or two. Joseph Sell ran the store with his son, Melvin, and Melvin's wife, Nellie, until their land was purchased by the Park in 1936. Joe and Melvin owned extensive Flint Ridge acreage extending to Hamilton Valley, including land now owned by CRF. This included 150 acres immediately east of Ice Cave on Flint Ridge, just outside the eventual Park boundary. Here Mel and Nellie raised three sons, Marvin, Clifton, and Mitchell. Mitchell lived in the Melvin Sell house with his mother until her death in 1966 After Mitchell's death in 1969, the farm was s old to Larry Yadon, a hunter from Louisville Marvin and Edna Sell received part of the land his grandfa ther, Joseph, had owned along the Park Ridge Road near Salts Cave, later increasing the size of their farm to I 10 acres by inheritance of land from his father's estate Hamilton Valley School was along the Hamilton Valley Road in the bottom of the valley until the mid 1920's With school consolidation, students of the area attended Chestnut Grove School at the junction of the Flint Ridge Road and Park Ridge Road Wade Highbaugh, the famed cave photogra pher, was the first teacher at the school. The school term ran from July to the first of the year, and all grades were taught in one room The NPS closed the school in the 1930 's and students were transferred to the larger school at North town As the developing Park became a reality, displaced local residents bought land just outside the Park, as did the Sells, or left Flint Ridge The Mammoth Cave Operating Commit tee allowed landowners outside the Park to move abandoned homes off Park property. Arthur Adwell was the progenitor of the large Adwell family of Hamilton Valley His second marriage was to Virgie Dennison, daughter of Eddings Dennison, the owner of Dennison Ferry on Green River Oscar Pete" Adwell told the story of how his family, including 8 children, lived for a summer in a small wooden bam that exists today in Hamilton Valley, while his father, Arthur, moved an abandoned house from near Dennison Ferry to the family farm This house still exists on CRF's property in the valley today near the road just west of the original site of the Hamilton Valley School. Water for the family was obtained from a spring that still flows, located just east of the house. Floyd Collins Crystal Cave and Great Onyx Cave on Flint Ridge were closed in 1961. CRF was allowed to remain on Flint Ridge using the Back House, the guide residence be hind the Collins House and the Spelee Hut built by Central Ohio Grotto for its Flint Ridge Reconnaissance project. Jerry Hobbs and his wife, Ida Mae, lived in the Austin House used by the National Park Service as the Flint Ridge Ranger Station Marvin and E dna Sell lived near Salts Cave. His 100 brother Mitchell, lived with his mother on the adjoining farm. Hershell Adwell, Pete s younger brother, lived on the Adwell family farm at Hamilton Valley. The Great Onyx Job Corps camp opened near Unknown Cave in June, I965. A trailer camp for faculty developed around the site of the fire tower on Flint Ridge. Soon the buildings CRF leased were being vandalized, and Floyd Collins Crys tal Cave, longest in the world, was broken into and vandal ized many times CRF no longer had a peaceful existence surveying and doing research on the Ridge. In 1967 Joe Davidson succeeded Red Watson as the third CRF presi dent. Superintendent Robert H Bendt became Park Superin tendent. CRF was still not allowed to survey in Mammoth Cave or Mammoth Cave Ridge. Nevertheless, CRF had cop ies of Quinlan's tracing of the 1908 Kamper map of Mam moth Cave. The map led to much speculation about the pos sibility of a connection between the Flint Ridge Cave Sys tem and Mammoth Cave. CRF's area of study in the Park suddenly expanded when Gordon and Judy Smith discovered Lee Cave on Joppa Ridge, Thanksgiving, 1968. CRF expanded west in the Park and began surveying important virgin cave on the far side of Mammoth Cave Ridge. As conditions worsened on Flint Ridge, the inactivity of the NPS regarding the Jobs Corps Camp--the cave pollution, noise, and continued vandalism made reluctant environ mental and political activists out of CRF cavers. The pro posed Park Master Plan and wilderness designation propos als brought heightened interest from the Sierra Club and the National Parks and Conservation Association CRF's rela tionship with Superintendent Bendt continued to deterio rate as anger over the obvious cave pollution increased A special concern for CRF was whether the NPS would force us off Flint Ridge if we prevailed in having the Job Corps leave the ridge. CRF began looking for another home away from its FCCC base. Joe Davidson, with CRF's attorney Harry Wilson from Munfordville, attempted to secure enough contributions from CRF joint venturers to purchase the Marvin Sell farm in 1969 Despite initial promises, adequate donations to pur chase the $22,000 property were not received Kay (my wife) and I were frequently visiting Harry Wilson to discuss the history of the Thomas family and their caves. Harry was interested in caving; he had taken photos for Dr. H B. Thomas on the second trip to Floyd's Lost Passage after it was "refound" in the 1940's Harry was estate attor ney for the Ada Bell Hunter Estate, and an auction of her farm along the Park Ridge and Hamilton Valley Roads was

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 scheduled on October 25, 1969. Harry called Kay and me in Lexington and suggested we bid on the 19 acre tract at the road corner as potential property for CRF's use if forced out of the Park. On a cold rainy Saturday, we drove to Flint Ridge for the auction. Sight unseen, we bid and bought the 19 acre tract of woods and a deep sinkhole valley We already knew that passages from Salts Cave ran under or very close to the property. Despite CRF's opposition to many Park policies, the Foun dation was finally granted permission to survey Mammoth Cave in 1969. Red Watson led the Memorial Day expedition, and fielded 10 parties to the Albert's Domes area of Mam moth Cave, shown on the Kamper Map as being near Q87, the closest penetration of Flint Ridge passages to Mammoth Cave Now CRF was surveying under all three ridges in the Park. CRF was still looking to move outside the Park in 1970, as expeditions were fielded with difficulty from the Spelee Hut and the Back House. In November, the Austin House was added to the CRF Use Permit. The Austin House and Collins House were initially used for German researchers Franz-Di eter Miotke and Hans Papenberg, and then Jack and Tish Hess. We had better facilities and more room, but the Job Corps Camp was still running full tilt. CRF furthered the concept of underground wilderness, as Flint Ridge, protect ing the world's longest cave, was nearly becoming a subur ban environment. Sewage pollution of the cave and cave break-ins continued. Superintendent Bendt was replaced by Joe Kulesza in February, 1971. Joe had served in the Mammoth Cave CCC camps, and was a ranger at Mammoth Cave many years before his career moved him elsewhere. Despite arresting Louisville Grotto members in the 1950's for breaking into the caves in the Park, Joe had a native liking for cavers. He was the first superintendent to recognize that cavers and their activities were important resources to manage for the good of the Park. He told us CRF could plan on remaining on Flint Ridge about another 10 years, but we would eventually be forced to leave He underestimated by l 0 years, as events unfolded In July, 1970, I left my Internal Medicine residency at the University of Kentucky Medical Center to enter the Navy ending up in Vietnam. When I returned to Flint Ridge after my tour of duty, Gordon and Judy Smith helped Kay and l build a small frame cabin on our 19 acres of Flint Ridge. I resumed caving with CRF while completing my active duty at Naval Hospital, Memphis On July l, 1972, Kay and I moved our family of two sons back to Lexington, to complete an Internal Medicine residency and begin a Hematology and Medical Oncology fellowship. I took over the reins of the Foundation from Joe Davidson, becoming CRF's 4th presi dent. I no longer needed to stay at our shack on the 19 acres on Hamilton Valley Road, since I had keys to the buildings CRF leased at Crystal Cave! Two months later, on September 9, 1972, CRF realized its dream of integrating the cave systems by connecting to Mammoth Cave. As recorded in The Longest Cave and Be yond Mammoth Cave, CRF continued its work in the Central Kentucky Karst both inside and outside the Park The Job Corps Camp remained active on Flint Ridge for ten more years. On June 9, 1982, a District Court Judge ordered the Great Onyx Job Corps Center closed, and the slow process began to transfer the camp to its present location near the far northwest corner of the Park In 1990, Superintendent David Mihalic notified CRF that our use permit would not be renewed on Flint Ridge, and we must move across the Green River to Maple Springs Re search Center. The Thanksgiving 1990 Expedition was the final CRF expedition at Floyd Collins Crystal Cave. We moved equipment and supplies to Maple Springs, and began 1991 expeditions from our new base shared with many other groups. Kay and I felt Maple Springs, on the "wrong" side of the river, would never please us, given our love for Flint Ridge I wrote a local realtor, Tony Dady, asking her to notify me if land became available near our 19 acres. In June, 1991, she wrote that the Mitchell Sell farm, currently owned by Larry Yadon, had been put on the market for potential purchase by the Amish moving into the area After several months the farm had not been purchased, so we expressed interest in the neglected farm with decrepit buildings. During the Labor Day CRF expedition, Mel Park, Jim Borden, Tom Brucker, and Richard Zopf examined the farm with me, and !later met briefly with the realtor. Kay and I favored purchasing the property as it shared a boundary with our original 19 acre property. We attended the October, 1991, CRF Columbus Day Expedition at Maple Springs Rather than caving, we met Larry Yadon at Tony Dady's house and closed on the property on October 12. We now owned the property and house previously owned by the proprietors of Sell Store. Yadon had promised to show me the location of survey mark ers along the relocated Flint Ridge road. He and I hiked in the woods, but he could find none of the markers, He had not visited his farm in 7 years due to poor health He wanted to show me a spring he felt was valuable. We struggled 101

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report 2001-2003 through the brush, wearing suit clothes, to a karst window I had never seen, one not shown on the topographic map. A stream emerged from a low cave, with a well worn animal trail to the water Thirty feet away, the water fell over a waterfall, and entered a low, brush-filled hole I asked Yadon what he knew about the cave entrance. He said, "Oh, that's nothing The spring over here is what is important!" He knew of no body ever entering the low entrance, and did not consider it a cave. Returning to Maple Springs, we celebrated our purchase with those in camp Sunday morning, Richard Zopf and I went back to the karst window, Richard removing some of the logs and limbs from the downstream hole We then hiked much of the property I had never seen. James Wells and Alan Canon were at Maple Springs and knew of our activi ties They returned the next weekend to enter the cave and found difficult virgin cave passages leading on We invited many friends to return, and on the cold wet weekend of November 23, began cleaning up the property around the buildings. Alan Canon, James Wells, Howard Kalnitz, and Richard Zopf surveyed nearly 1400 feet of wet entrance pas sage into the larger passages of the cave, now named Sides Cave We examined the buildings and decided to refurbish an un finished utility building The old Melvin Sell house was ir reparable. In the spring of 1992, we allowed the Cave City fire department to bum the house for training In January, 1992, new CRF president Ron Bridgemon, Rich ard Zopf, Mel Park, and Scott House met with Kay and me at Cape Girardeau, Missouri to determine a method by which CRF would lease part of the property for a field station. In October, Kay and I agreed with Pete Adwell that we would continue to sharecrop the tobacco base, and CRF's land needs conflicted with the best land for growing the tobacco allotment. Pete had been born on the adjacent farm in Hamilton Valley, but Hershell had owned the family farm. Pete had sharecropped our new farm, adjacent to his brother's farm, since our farm was purchased by Yadon in 1970. Roger McClure found that the Hershell Adwell farm was also on the market. In 1992, the property was purchased from Hershell's widow, Mayde II, by Roger McClure and Red and Pat Watson on behalf of the Cave Research Founda tion A small tract along the Hamilton Valley Road had been sold by the Sells to the Allen family twenty years earlier. Red and Roger later purchased this tract as an addition to the property the Foundation owns today The Ohio CRF cavers moved the Spelee Hut to Hamilton Valley, and refurbished the Tenant House for expedition use. Mick Sutton and Sue 102 Hagan began leading expeditions from the Tenant House rather than Maple Springs, beginning with the Easter, 1996 Expedition. Appeals for contributions for construction of a home re search base overlooking Hamilton Valley began in earnest. Ground was broken for the Hamilton Valley utility building on May 21, 1998. In September, 1999,AIIiance Construction of Glasgow, Kentucky began construction of the main build ing and dormitories. Dick Maxey and his building committee exhausted themselves overseeing construction details, but their dedication has resulted in the fine facility we enjoy today. Bob Osburn ran the final CRF expedition at Maple Springs over Labor Day, 2000. A month later, we celebrated the open ing of CRF's new home with the dedication on Saturday, October 7, 2000. The Foundation had come full circle, return ing to the eastern edge of Flint Ridge through the strength of the commitment of its members to recapture the dream of exploring the caves beyond the upper levels of Floyd Collins Crystal Cave Selected references: Anon (Stanley D. Sides) Oscar "Pete" Adwell (1914-2002) Cave Research Foundation Quarterly Newsletter, Vol. 30, No 2 June, 2002. p. 23. Bruce McKay The Sell Community on Flint Ridge Prior to the Formation of Mammoth Cave National Park Manuscript 1988 12 pp. James A. Ramage. Excerpts from : "The Green River Pioneers: Squatters Soldiers, and Speculators Hart County Historical Quarterly, Vol. IX, No.4, October, 1977, pp 2-10. Nellie Sell. Cave Research Foundation Tape #12 Interviewed June 3, 1964. Acknowledgement: Research for this paper and oral presentation were performed in cooperation with the National Park Service as part of research project MACA HI, "History of the Peoples and Caves of Flint Ridge, Kentucky

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Hamilton Valley Cultural Resource Management: What's the Point? Jan Marie Hemberger & Philip DiBlasi Hamilton VaUey, located within a biosphere reseiVe, is owned by the Cave Research Foundation (CRF). This ownership provides some protection to all the resource categories lo cated in and on the property but much remains to be done before CFR can credit itself with managing Hamilton Valley even in the spirit of a biosphere reseiVe There needs to be unified commitment to manage Hamilton Valley resources or the point is there is no point. Without such a commitment CRF does little more than pay lip seiVice to conseiVation principles. Let's review one resource category-cultural re sources. What is known about cultural resources at Hamilton Valley? Actually there is very little known because there has been no comprehensive cultural resource study undertaken. The only areas archaeologically investigated have been the pro posed entrance road, parking lot, septic field and building site. The latter three areas were proposed for the ridge top and do not include the ultimate location of the septic field. This work was accomplished by CRF archaeologists DiRlasi and Carstens with the help of student volunteers. The study involved the excavation of shovel tests every five meters along the proposed road and on a five by five meter grid in the area of the proposed parking lot and building site The results of this investigation were less than remarkable. The results pointed to the fact that there were no resources found in the areas where two researchers most expected to find at least some evidence of prehistoric use of the property. Sev eral standing farm structures were noted by the investiga tors but their efforts were focused exclusively on the pro posed ground disturbing activities. The balance of Hamilton Valley has not been examined for cultural resources. From cultural resource work within Mammoth Cave National Park (MCNP), and the surrounding area, we know that there is an abundance of both prehistoric and historic cultural resources in the region Watson's efforts concentrated on cave entrances and interiors Carstens examined rockshelters DiBlasi investigated historic signatures in MCNP, aborigi nal drawings in the region, and the location of the Floyd Collin's home Prentis undertook a systematic sample of part ofMCNP, looking for both prehistoric and historic cultural resources Crothers detailed in-cave cultural resource re mains and their implications and Hemberger explored the necessity and implications of cave cultural resource man agement. Armed with this information CFR should expect, until proven otherwise, to find cultural resource sites at Hamilton Valley. Look around there are plenty of examples of human utiliza tion of Hamilton Valleyfarm structures, Adwell Cave the sinks, and even our new facilities. CRF should outline man agement principles for looking for cultural resources and mechanisms for addressing them We would like to present some ideas for consideration What are the legal and ethical responsibilities of the Foun dation to the cultural resources of the property? Legally archaeology in this country is driven by Section I 06 of the National Historic PreseiVation Act of 1966 (as amended) Essentially, this law states that the federal government will consider the effects of its actions on the cultural resources for federally funded, licensed or permitted activity Since the Foundation is a private not-for-profit corporation that has not directly used federal funds for our activities on the prop erty, we have no legal obligation, to the cultural resources present, under this law. There is also a state law, the Kentucky Cave Protection Act which requires consideration of cultural resources This law was enacted to protect archaeological biological speleo logical and paleontological cave resources and it is appli cable to privately held property, such as Hamilton Valley. Crothers points out, in his capacity as the state archaeolo gist, that this law requires a permit for archaeological exca vation. While a permit is not required for "minor scientific exploration" such as digging in sinkholes to open a cave entrance, he notes the potential to damage cultural resources He suggests that an archeologist assess any suspected cul tural remains exposed through such activity. Our ethical responsibility as a leading karst and cave re search organization obligates us to integrate all aspects of karst research and conseiVation in an effort to minimize im pacts to the environment and cultural resources. In fact, our ethical responsibility was the motivating factor behind Carstens' and DiBlasi's examination of those portions of the property to be affected by initially proposed construction. For CRF and Hamilton Valley, it is imperative that cultural resources not be addressed within a vacuum. The approach needs to be integrated but flexible CRF needs to develop a vision for Hamilton Valley and set reasonable time frames for both shortand long-term goals. Next a comprehensive land 103

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 management plan for Hamilton Valley that outlines strate gies to attain these goals should be developed. This docu ment needs to integrate discussion of all planned activities and all resource categories at Hamilton Valley. Neither the vision nor the land management plan can be static. CRF needs and goals continually change, biological species come and go from the threatened and endangered list and the 1970s trash pile or the CRF national headquarters reaches 50 years of age and deserves consideration as a cultural re source A primary management principle is to know what you are managing. A comprehensive inventory for all resource cat egories needs to be accomplished across the entire prop erty This should be done before any other land altering activities are proposed or completed. This is because some of our activities have already impacted cultural resources and may have impacted other resource categories Cultural resources have been impacted by our efforts to clean the property of trash. We may have possibly impacted resources during construction of our septic field, because this area was not examined for cultural resources we may never know. This is not to say we shouldn't have removed the trash or constructed the septic field but it should have been done within the context of a management plan and with clear con sideration of the consequences of the actions on the re source Being good stewards of the land doesn't mean you need to, or that you can, save everything but that land alter ing actions are fully considered. Another key element to management is to know what activi ties are conducted on the property and to identify their beneficial, benign or adverse effects. Examples of activities would include, but not be limited to, agricultural practices, hunting, vegetative clearing or planting, demolition and construction. Examples of effects would include, but not be limited to, the removal of artifacts important to understanding trade net works, food preferences and preparation and regional tech nologies, population control and introduction of a non-na tive species. How do we address the issue of cultural resource manage ment? CRF needs to produce an integrated land management plan that addresses the needs and goals of the Foundation while considering affects to all categories of resources. To develop a cultural resource management plan as an inte gral part of a land management plan, CRF can approach our active archaeologists (DiBlasi, Carstens, Crothers, Hemberger, Wagner and Watson) and regional professionals such as Darlene Applegate at WKU To implement the actual study (or studies) any or all of these professionals can direct stu dents in the completion of the necessary field activities Without a comprehensive land management rlan any exami nation of the property by archaeologists would be nothing more than an exercise in futility The end result of such an unguided study would result in nothing more than a laundry list of cultural resources. So what's the point? We need a cultural resource manage ment plan within the context of a land management plan The vision and goals of the Foundation need to be the basis of a Hamilton Valley Land Management Plan. A view into Hamilton Valley from the front window of the Hamilton Valley Research Station, photo: Pat Kambesis 104

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Cave Re s earch Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Hamilton Valley Research Station Report Pat Kambesis The Hamilton Valley Committe consists of: Pat Kambesis: Hamilton Valley Director, On-site operations Janice Tucker: Scheduling, collecting fees Joyce Hoffmaster: Maintenance Roger McClure : Land Maintenance General Projects: Continue to keep the facilities/bunkhouses and Hoffmaster House clean and in good repair; keep the trailer in good repair; maintain our roads and parking areas, keep our utility building and storage barn (in the valley), clean and organized There is now a perimeter trail in the valley which is main tained. Mowing is done on the access roads and around the barn (to keep it easily accessible), around the main facility/ bunkhouses, trailer and Hoffmaster House. We are working on a digging plan for the sinkholes located in the valley. Various inventory projects are being done by CRF and other volunteers (flora inventory, general cave bi ology bat count at Adwell Cave ) Science and Resource Management at Mammoth Cave Na tional park has set up a a weather and Soil Chemical Analy sis Monitoring and anozone bio garden near the Hoffmaster House Simple rain gauge has been set up near the cistern for atra zine monitoring by Hoffman Environmental Research Institute Project of Western Kentucky University. Hamilton Valley was used by the following groups durin the course of the year. Eastern Operations Expeditions Central Kentucky Karst Coalition University Field trips (geology, hydrogeology) : University of Mississippi, University of Tennessee Eastern Kentucky University Purdue University Mammoth Cave Resource Management Seminar WKU-MACA University in the Park Classes (History of Exploration, Survey/Cartography, Karst Geology) Kentucky Speleological Survey meeting Hoffman Institute Karst Conference June 2003 Anthropology Retreat Upward Bound Toomey /Winkler Wedding Various research working both inside and outside of the Park Various international cavers / researchers who were in the area Building maintenance included work on roof, plumbing system, bunk houses and rest rooms Two work weekends that concentrated on major housecleaning and land maintenance including : installing/maintaining the boundary trail, installing fencing cutting trees/cedars trailer maintenance tenant house/spele-hut area work, trimming fence rows, field rows shelving & lights in utility building keeping erosion in check maintaining roadways & parking lot mowing. maintaining the "viewshed" of the valley This past year we have bought in $3000 from Conserva tion Reserve Program, Corn Program, tobacco allotment, & hunting lease. Future Plans: Kambesis plans to move into the trailer next spring. The bedroom in the main facility will be converted to an office dedicated to Eastern Operations. Continue to increase use of HV by researchers, educators, universities and others who share our commitment to cave and karst. We are looking into the possiblity of an Agreement with The Nature Conservancy They are very interested in helping CRF establish a burn program that would help restore pre selltement plant communities on our land. 105

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Biology The Pink Planarians of Devils Icebox Cave -a population study proposal Michael R. Sutton PREAMBLE Research Problem: Devil's Icebox Cave, Boone County, Missouri, contains the only known population of a large stygobitic planarian, Macrocotyla glandulosa The federal and stale conservation status of the species is S 1, G 1, G3, defined as critically imperiled (both within Missouri and globally) and found only within a restricted range (Missouri Department of Conservation, 2001 ) While there is existing information on the planarians' population density (Campbell 2002), there has been no systematic documentation of population density, seasonal variation, or population trends under controlled and reproducible conditions Structure and taxonomy: The planarian was first collected by P W. Frank It was described by Hyman (1956), and redescribed by Kenk (1975). Specimens have also been collected by Gardner ( 1986). The flatworm is eyeless, pallid in color, with variable amounts of reddish-orange pigment, has a prominent adhesive organ, and has been reported as large as 3 em in length The pink planarian 's systematic place is: phylum Platyhelminthes, class Turbellaria (flatworms), order (or suborder) Tricladida (characterized as flatworms with a three segmented intestinal tract), family Kenkiidae. M glandulosa is the type species for the genus. lt has two congeners, M /ewisi from Perry County, Missouri and M hoffmasteri from West Virginia. The Missouri species are widely separated by 200 miles through which flows the Missouri River, so all three species appear to be thoroughly isolated populations of what presumably was once a much more continuous group of related species There are references to a population of M glandulosa from Iowa, but this was spurious, and the Iowa flatworm has since been assigned to a different genus, Spha/lop/ana speophila. Species boundaries may be more firmly established than family boundaries. Ecology: The planarian probably has a mid-chain place in the cave's food web The species appears to be primarily a predator on crustaceans (amphipods and isopods) There is no evidence of predation upon the flatworm, but a reasonable hypothesis is that it is preyed upon by crayfish. The planarian shares its habitat with a diverse stream fauna which includes a number of epigean species as well as a troglophilic isopod (Caecidotea brevicauda) and a phreatobitic amphipod 106 (Bactrnrns brachicaudus) (Gardner, 1986, Elliott, 2002). The crayfish is a common epigean species, Orconectes virilis (Northern crayfish) with a widespread distribution. Conservation: The continued existence of M glandu/osa has been a matter of concern to the conservation community and to land managers. The primary threat to the flatworms' existence and the cave's biological community in general, is the potential for deterioration of the water quality Devil 's Icebox is especially vulnerable to water pollution and siltation, as the cave stream is fed by relatively open sinkholes within a broad sinkhole plain, as well as by a losing stream. Moreover, the cave's watershed adjoins the City of Columbia, and the expanding population of that city is putting considerable developmental pressure on the sinkhole plain. The portion of the watershed protected within Rock Bridge State Park is relatively minor Cave streams in this kind of setting have had an unfortunate propensity to turn into open sewers, with severely detrimental consequences for the stream ecosystem, unless development occurs with careful attention to the karst landscape. PROJECf AIMS There are two related aims : 1) Collect initial data on the population density, habitat preferences, aquatic community makeup, seasonality, and as time permits, behavior. 2) Develop protocols for quantitative inventories of Macrocotyla g/andulosa, such that minimally trained workers can produce systematically comparable counts in semi-permanent representative census areas. TIME FRAME The fieldwork will take place to from late July 2002 to July 2003. The final report is due December, 2003. Approximately six field trips will be scheduled within this time frame, omit ting the mid May to late July period in order to minimize disturbance to a gray bat maternity colony, but otherwise more or less evenly distributed. The initial trip will be con-

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 cemed primarily with the selection of suitable census plots; a minimum of two days should be committed for this trip The fmal trip may be delayed past the nominal termination date in the event of unfavorable weather All scheduled trips are subject to postponement owing to inclement weather. PROTOCOL Protocols will be developed and revised during the course of the project. Optimizing the number, size, and location of census plots together with the thoroughness of data collec tion at each plot, will be balanced with the practicalities of available person-hours. In general, thorough data collection at a limited number of sites will be the preferred method, but at least one trip for a preliminary assessment of the remainder of the cave would be useful for comparative purposes Census plots will be established in a variety of habitatse.g., downstream (surface) from the cave entrance, heavily vs. lightly traveled cave-stream passages, silt vs. rock strataand pools vs. riffles. Secondary census plots with ap proximately the same parameters as the primary sites will be set aside to survey only at the beginning and end of the project, to attempt establishing whether census procedures are themselves influencing the population. Counts will con sist of thorough searching in an upstream direction while recording the amount of search effort (number of rocks searched time spent, area searched, type of light used) Parameters to be recorded include (a) water temperature, stage and turbidity and other parameters; (b) nature of the substrate within the census plots; (c) water depth; (d) mi crohabitat context of each specimen; e) approximate length of each planarian and whether it is extended or contracted; f) other fauna within a smaller sample area for each census plot; samples of invertebrate fauna may be taken for identi fication if necessary. Field Trips will take place only in settled weather, and will have a minimum of four participants. Data management will require field notes to be copied imme diately after each trip Biological parameters will be entered into the Missouri Biospeleological Database, and a trip re port will be written closely following each trip. A final report will be completed following the completion of the project. DEUVERABLES Copies of the raw field data will be deposited at Rock Bridge State Park immediately following each field trip. A progress report will be delivered by the end of2002. The final report, due by the end of December 2003, will consist of a summary of the data collected over the course of the project, together with any conclusions, suppositions, and/ or recommendations, and a protocol for continuing inven tory of the planarians using minimally trained volunteers RESPONSIBn..ITIES The Cave Research Foundation (CRF) will : be responsible for carrying out the field work and writing the required sum maries and protocols; will consult and collaborate with other researchers studying the cave (especially with regard to hy drological research), with Department of Natural Resources staff, and with the Missouri Department of Conservation. The Missouri Department of Natural Resources will pro vide access to Devils Icebox Cave, will provide personnel for field assistance and advice, and will provide partial fund ing The Missouri Department of Conservation will provide tech nical consultation, will provide periodically updated copies of the Missouri Biospeleological Database, and will provide partial funding. Campbell, Roxie,. 2002. Pinkplanarian information; unpub lished data, dated 4/5/02. Elliott, William,. 2002. Missouri biospeleological database. Unpublished data. Gardner, James E. 1986. Invertebrate fauna from Missouri caves and springs Missouri Department of Conser vation Natural History Series no. 3; p. 7. Hyman, L.H., 1956; North American triclad turbel/aria: XV. Three new species American Museum Novitates 1808:1-14. Hyman. Libbie H 1956. North American Triclad Turbel/aria XV. Three new species American Museum Novitates No. 1808 14pp. Kenk, Roman. 1975. Fresh-water triclads (I'urbel/aria) of North America, VII. The genus Macrocotyla. Trans actions of the American Microscopical Society, 94 (3): 324-339. Missouri Department of Conservation, June 200 l. Mis souri species of conservation concern checklist, p l3 107

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Systematics Of The North American Subterranean Amphipod Genus Bactrurus (Crangonyctidae) By Stefan Koenemann1 & John R. Holsinger 1 Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, PO. Box 94766, 1090 GT Amsterdam, The Netherlands 2 Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529-0266, USA ABSTRACT Bactrurus_Hay is a relatively small generic group that inhabits caves and related groundwater habi tats in parts of eastern and central USA. Two field trips, conducted in the spring of 1999, yielded impor tant new locality records that give us a better knowl edge of the distribution of the genus. The examina tion of fresh samples as well as older collection ma terial has resulted in descriptions of four new spe cies. Based on these descriptions and redescriptions of three previously known species, the taxonomy of the genus is revised. In addition, a phylogenetic analysis using morphological data is employed to examine the relationship of Bactrurus_to 12 selected crangonyctid taxa, including its potential sister ge nus Stygobromus Cope Five epigean and hypogean amphipod taxa were chosen as outgroups for the analysis. For interspecific and intergeneric compari sons, pairwise sequence differences of the l8S (small subunit) rONA gene are given for three species of Bactrurus and three of the outgroup taxa. Based on an updated, detailed distribution map the biogeog raphy of Bactrurus is discussed with regard to pos sible dispersal and vicariant events. The evaluation of new data obtained during this study contributes to a more complete understanding of the evolution ary history of the genus. I went on 2 excursions in 1999. From March 6-13, I visited potential localities of Bactrurus in several areas in Virginia, northeastern Tennessee, and northern Alabama. A second, longer field trip took place from May 3-30. Together with a German PhD student, I sampled approximately 120 localities of Bactrurus in karst regions of northern Arkansas, southem Illinois, southern Indiana, Missouri, and northern Okla homa, and selected drain tile outlets in glacial drift fields in Illinois, Iowa, and Ohio (Figure l ). Bactrurus is a small ge nus of the amphipod family Crangonyctidae known exclu sively from North America The main objective of this study 108 Fig. l. Geographic distribution of Bactrurus in eastern and central North America. Each symbol represents approxi mately one locality record (the actual number of records may be slightly higher in some of the densely clustered areas). Open circles: B._brachycaudus; filled diamonds: B. hubrichti; filled circles:_B._mucronatus; filled triangles:_B. pseudomucronatus; dot surrounded by circle: B._wilsoni; filled square : B._ce/lulanus; open triangle:_B._angulus._The large open circle in the glacial drift area (Illinois) surrounds several localities: three are the first records for B. brachycaudus from glacial drift habitats; one is a locality occupied by both B _brachycaudus and B _mucronatus was to re-investigate the distribution and abundance of Bactrurus, and collect fresh specimens for DNA analyses. Both excursions were funded by the CRF and CCV (Cave Conservancy of the Virginias) The collection trips resulted in 3 publications (Englisch & Koenemann, 2000; Koenemann, S. & Holsinger, J.R 2001a & b). The main paper contains descriptions of four new species, Bactrurus angulus, B. pseudomucronatus, B wilsoni and B cel/ulanus (Koenemann & Holsinger, 2001a & b). Furthermore, new hypotheses regarding the biogeography and evolutionary

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 history of the crangonyctid genus Bactrurus are discussed. Based on our investigations we think that Bactrurus mucronatus, a relatively abundant and wide-spread species in the Central Lowland area, outlived the Pleistocene glacia tions in deep groundwater aquifers. Two additional papers provide the first DNA sequence analyses of subterranean amphipods, probably even subterranenan crustaceans (Englisch & Koenemann, 2000; Koenemann & Holsinger, 2000a&b). The second, 3-week excursion during May was evidently successful. Specimens of Bactrurus were found in localities of sampled regions in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri. We were generally able to collect Bactrurus from localities from which it was reported in the past. Some of these locali ties had not been re-sampled as long as 50 years. Further more, new Bactrurus localities can be reported for each re gion visited. Altogether, 29 localities have been success fully sampled. The ratio of productive sites and "empty" localities was approximately 3: 1, so that a total of ca. 90 sites were visited and sampled. In addition to Bactrurus, the fol lowing peracarid crustaceans were also collected from sev eral of these localities: Crangonyx forbesi, Gammarus troglophilus, Synurella dent at a, and several species of the isopod genera Caecidotea and Lirceus. Some of these gen era were included in the sequence analyses that we carried out at Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany, directly after the May field trip. Because the realization of the proposed project had io be modified according to available funding, we decided to fo. cus on regions where potentially new species could be ex pected or where the overlap of distribution zones of two or more species needed special investigation. For this reason, we did not visit regions in Arkansas, Kansas, Michigan and Oklahoma. Some localities in Ohio seemed to be identical with Hubricht's sample sites from the 40s. These sites were re-sampled for the first time in over 50 years. The fact that they are still inhabited by B. mucronatus is very encourag ing and indicates a stable population of Bactrurus in the glaciated farm field areas. However, in areas with increasing urbanization we were mostly unable to find any animals in typical habitats. These urban areas were either character ized by a general loss of habitats (Marion, Marion Co., OH) or by the loss of a single habitat of a previously reported endemic species, suggesting extirpation (local extinction) in these areas (Bloomington, Monroe Co., IN). Surprisingly, two species of Bactrurus, B. brachycaudus and B. mucronatus, could be found closely co-occuring in glaciated farm field areas in central-western Illinois (Figure 2). The two species were collected from drainage catchment basins less than 1 mile apart. These results certainly render a more complete picture of the biogeography of Bactrurus, Fig. 2. Two relatively abundant species of Bactrurus with widespread geographic distributions. a: Bactrurus mucronatus (15.5 mm male) from an old well near Champaign, Champaign County, Illinois. b: Bactrurus brachycaudus (19.0 mm syntype female) from Keifer Creek; St. Louis County, Missouri (from Koenemann & Holsinger, 2001). and will assist in a better understing of the evolutionary history of this group. The occurrence of Bactrurus in karst areas (Illinois and Mis souri) as opposed to glaciated farm field areas is character ized by less abundant and often isolated populations. For tunately, Bactrurus could be re-collected not only from pre viously reported caves (Equality Cave, Saline Co., IL, and Kelly Hollow Cave, Oregon Co. MO) but also from new cave habitats (Forester Cave, Shannon Co., MO) Thanks to the initiative ofDr. Bill Elliott, we had the opportunity to attend a meeting of cavers at the U.S. Geological Survey (Div. of Geology and Land Survey), Rolla, MO. Here we were also permitted to study the comprehensive archive with cave files. A brief inspection revealed several dozens of Missouri caves with potential habitats for stygobiont crustaceans, promis ing substantial discoveries for future projects. References: Koenemann, S. & Holsinger, J.R. 2001a. Systematics ofthe North American subterranean amphipod genus Bactrurus (Crangonyctidae). Beaufortia 51 ( 1 ): 1-56. Koenemann, S. & Holsinger, J.R. 2001b. The application of molecular and morphological data to the phylogenetic reconstruc tion of the subterranean amphipod genus Bactrurus (Crangonyctidae). Polish Archives ofHydrobiology 47 (3-4): 401-412. Englisch, U. & Koenemann, S (authors in alphabetical order) 2001. Preliminary phylogenetic analysis of selected subterranean amphipod crustaceans, using small subunit rONA gene sequences. Organisms, Diversity and Evolution 1: 139-145. 109

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Brief Overview of Coleopteran Fauna at Hamilton Valley Richard Maxey This paper was presented at the Hamilton Valley Symposium in November 2002. Being an entomologist, Hamilton Valley provides an oppor tunity to do long term research into the present day insect fauna on the two hundred acre property in Hart County, Kentucky, that the Cave Research Foundation owns. I have set pitfall traps baited with various items including pig dung, human dung, a combination of pig/human dung, "aged" raw chicken wings, "aged" dead mice and a combination of the chicken and mice These traps consisted of a one quart plas tic container buried in the ground with a suspended cup of one of the previously mentioned "cocktails." They were cov ered with a six by six inch Masonite board as a rain shield and then protected from four-legged predators with eigh teen by eighteen inch chicken wire secured with four alumi num gutter spikes. When traps were left for an extended period of time, antifreeze was added to preserve the cap tures. Quinine and hot pepper sauce were added to the anti freeze to prevent any animal that breached the chicken wire from being poisoned by the preservative. Animals will not eat items containing quinine and/or hot pepper sauce The extended trapping was not done until I had established that the Federally endangered American burying beetle (Nicrophorus americanus Olivier ) was not present at this time. It is a long term goal to attempt to reintroduce the American burying beetle to Hamilton Valley if the U.S. Fish and Wild life Service agree to the idea. The Service does not have a reintroduced population of American burying beetles in the southern region at this time Ohio State University, by which I am employed, has a captive breeding program that could possibly be the source for introduction. It is not possible to determine from old records if N. americanus was ever found in Hart County, Kentucky. It never was collected in large numbers, which may account for the current lack of records. Hamilton Valley, with its varied habitat, certainly could pro vide favorable niches for the beetle My trapping has con firmed very high populations of the congeneric species N. orbicollis Say and smaller numbers of N. tomentosus_Weber, N. sayi Laporte andN. marginatus Fabricius. This would indicate that possible reintroduction of N americanus is feasible. Experimental trials (per communication with George Keeney at the OSU Insectory) have shown that when both N. americanus beetle and N orbicol/is beetles were placed on a carcass, N. americanus successfully defended the car-110 cass. Based on that, it is assumed that the larger N. americanus would do so in a natural setting as well. There fore, interspecific competition is not a factor and the high numbers of the congeneric species N orbicol/is indicate a favorable habitat for burying beetles and other carrion beetles. The other carrion beetle species present at Hamilton Valley such as Oiceoptoma noveboracense(Forster), 0 inaequale(Fabricius), Necrophi/is americana(Fabricius) and Necrodes surinamensis(Fabricius) were taken in large mim bers in pitfall traps as well as coming to lights at night. A few N. orbicol/is were taken at night at black lights as well at the building lights. Speculation as to the demise of N. americanus includes in crease in artificial lighting (which disrupts navigation), in crease in edges and fence rows due to rise in agriculture which leads to the increase of scavengers such as raccoons, skunks, etc. that compete for carrion, and increase in urban ization and habitat fragmentation. Other possible factors are past deforestation, leading to the extirpation or decline of various birds and rodents including the passenger pigeon, Ecotopistes migratorius, the wild turkey, Meleagris and the ruffed grouse, Bonasa umbel/us which provided food sources as carrion. An additional problem was the use of pesticides. DDT in particular may have led to the beetles decline in the 1960s and would correspond well with when the last N. americanus was collected in Kentucky and in Ohio (1974). Thanks to the rebounding of wild turkey and ruffed grouse both in Ohio and Kentucky, the banning of DDT, and the increase in forested lands in both states, the chances are good for establishing viable populations of N. americanus in both states. In Ohio, we have introduced N. americanus for the last three years and have found at least one Fl gen eration. Their range of up to five miles makes recovery diffi cult. The vision of the reintroduction of N. americanus ex ists because it is part of the historical fauna that should be part of the natural biosphere at Hamilton Valley. Additional goals of this project have been to inventory all insects at Hamilton Valley. Methods of collection include :

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 using the above-mentioned pitfall traps as well as sugar traps. (Sugar traps consist of gallon containers hung from trees with a large cut-out in the side to admit insects and filled with a mixture of fermented brown sugar, water, yeast and a handful of soil). We have also used light trapping with sheets hung out on clothes lines with black lights and mer cury vapor lights to draw in a variety of night flying insects (many terrestrial insectivorous insects are attracted to the lights for a meal!), and field collecting off flower heads and under rocks, logs, and bark. The lights of the facility itself are a great attractant for the rich variety of moths and beetles that so far have been found there. I am preparing a species list, in some cases only to the genus or family for insects I cannot key out to species, as it will take a long time to enter it into a database. If anyone is interested in a particular species found in Hamilton Valley or has collected something unusual, let me know. Please just put the specimen in a vial with 70% alcohol (Rubbing Alco hol) with the following information written in pencil on pa per and put in a vial, not tapped to the vial. On the paper, record the State, County, location of the specific area of collection, (if Hamilton Valley, just put HV) date of collec tion, the name of the person who collected it and the habitat it was found in or on (porch, tree, a sidewalk, a path, grass, scrub, etc.) and host plant association, if known. This last information is not necessary, but it is helpful if you can take the time. These vials can be left at HV with my name on them. You will receive credit in the database as well as on speci men labels. I am always interested in insects from different localities (states, countries) for my own collection, which I use to identify insects collected. I will be doing an intensive base line survey this coming year in the prairie ( the main open parts of the valley) to determine what is there before and during any changes we may make in vegetation cover or following burns. Insects are not impacted by burns and most benefit from them. The previous grazing of cattle probably helped to maintain a quasi prairie as well as the small tobacco plots that were in the valley. The cattle acted in the same way as bison to maintain open areas by grazing and adding dung for the dung beetles. I have not collected in the valley areas and will undoubtedly find many more insects to add to the data base. One arthropod that should be at Hamilton Valley is the Caro lina scorpion, Vaejovis caroliniensis. I have found it at Sloan's Valley, Pulaski County, Kentucky in rock ledges. I would appreciate anyone who finds one at Hamilton Valley to notify me. Their sting is similar to a bee sting and they are not considered dangerous or aggressive. I have tried to collect in almost every month of the year because many beetles emerge at different times and can be plentiful at one time and totally absent at another. It is an ongoing survey that will hopefully never end even after I have hung up my nets and traps. I will update my progress in the newsletter when I fmd a really noteworthy beetle or other insect and will give updates on the possible reintro duction of the American burying beetle. I wish to thank George Keeney, The Ohio State University Insectory and Greenhouses, for his help in writing this ar ticle. I also wish to thank George Keeney, Nancy Shapiro and Cheryl Early for proofreading. Appendix: Insect list The following are the Orders and representative members of those Orders I have collected or observed in the past three years: Numerous species of the following Orders of insects : Thysanura: bristletails; Diplura: diplurans; Collembola : springtails; Ephemeroptera: mayflies; Odonata: dragonflies and damsel flies; Orthroptera: grasshoppers, katydids, crick ets, Dictyoptera : mantids, wood roaches; Phasmida: walk ingsticks; Isoptera: termites; Plecoptera: stoneflies; Dermaptera: earwigs; Psocoptera: booklice and barklice; Thysanoptera: thrips; Hemiptera: water boatmen, backswimmers, negro bugs, ambush bugs, plant bugs, stink bugs, assassin bugs, leaf-footed bugs and seed bugs : Homoptera: treehoppers, froghoppers, spittlebugs, aphids, leafhoppers, planthoppers and cicadas; Neuroptera: antlions, lacewings, dobsonflies, mantidflies and ow lilies; Coleoptera: sap beetles, ladybird beetles, flat bark beetles, handsome fungus beetles, blister beetles, pleasing fungus beetles, June beetles, chafers, rhinoceros beetles, Hercules beetles, flower beetles, shining leaf chafers, dung beetles, long-horned beetles, snout beetles, leaf beetles, tiger beetles, ground beetles, hister beetles, carrion beetles, shining fungus beetles, rove beetles, soldier beetles, lightning bugs, net winged beetles, dermestid beetles, bark-gnawing beetles, checkered beetles, click beetles, metallic wood-boring beetles, darkling beetles, stag beetles and bessbugs; Lepi doptera : butterflies and mothsmany of which I need help in identifying, there are very large numbers of moth species at Hamilton Valley and a number of them are hard to key out; Diptera: flies, again a large number that I have not worked on collecting, spending most of my time and efforts on Co leoptera; Siphonaptera: fleas, at some point, I will try to ob tain a few bat fleas which may be on the bats 111

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Ecology The Ecological Foundation for Prescribed Fire in the Mammoth Cave Area with Special Reference to Hamilton Valley Rick Olson, Ecologist Division of Science and Resources Management Mammoth Cave National Park Mammoth Cave, Kentucky 42259 . This article is adapted in part from Olson, Rick; The Ecological Foundation for Prescribed Fzre m the Mammoth Cave Area, Mammoth Cave National Park, 2000. The paper was also presented at the Hamilton Valley Symposium in November 2002. Abstract Prescribed fire is a resource tool being used at Mammoth Cave National Park, and experience there is applicable to management concerns at Hamilton Valley. Justification is based upon study of regional historical accounts paleobotanical remains in Park caves, and pollen from Jackson Pond. It is also recognized that fire can have a decided effect on the terrestrial cave ecosystem. Prescribed fire areas in the Park were selected based upon habitat modeling, current vegetation types, and proximity of sensitive cultural resources. Approximately 75% of the Park is composed of habitat types that would naturally support fire dependent or fire tolerant vegetation communities. The remaining 25% ofthe Park supports moist habitat types with vegetation that would be damaged by fire Hamilton Valley vegetation types include open area/prairie, mesic slope forest, and mesic upland, mixed, and coniferous forest. Some mixed stands are naturally glade-like. Prescribed fire areas should be selected on the basis of habitat type and current Fire should be applied to successional vegetation wtth great care, and the advice of a fire ecologist sought. Karst Landscape Overview Hamilton Valley falls within the International Biosphere of the Mammoth Cave region, a karst landscape which is characterized by subterranean drainage The Green River runs east to west through Mammoth Cave National Park and is the hydrologic base level for any cave(s) Hamilton Valley. Within the regional karst landscape, there are two historical and three functioning ecosystems. Historically, barrens bordered by savanna covered large portions of the Sinkhole Plain located south of the Park. Barrens are similar to prairie, 112 but there is evidence that these grasslands originated from fires set by Native Americans (Baskin eta!. 1999), and were not part of the tall grass prairies (Baskin eta!. 1994). Karst "valleys" within the dissected upland of the Mammoth Cave Plateau offer a similar habitat type to the Sinkhole Plain, but no historical descriptions of pre-settlement vegetation have been found. Soon after settlement in the late 1 700s, the grasslands described were largely converted to agriculture. Within the Park, barrens and savanna have been lost due to fire suppression. Other ecological components of the karst landscape are comparatively intact even though seriously distorted. by dams, the river ecosystem supports a htghly dtverse fish and invertebrate fauna (82 and 250 species, respectively) of which over 50 species are freshwater mussels. The cave ecosystem, containing both aquatic and terrestrial components, is one of the most diverse in the world with over 130 regularly occurring species. Finally, the forest ecosystem has exceptional diversity with 82 species of trees in a variety of riparian and upland communities. An unknown percentage of currently forested land in the Park been maintained as savanna and possibly some prame and Native American set fire. Diversity of plant species m the Park has almost certainly suffered due to forest succession in the absence of fire, yet over 1100 kinds of plants have been identified to date. Sorted among terrestrial communities according to habitat preferences, 203 species ofbirds, 43 species of mammals, 29 species of amphibians, and 38 species of reptiles have been reported from the Park. Data on ?ther taxa, such as terrestrial invertebrates and fungi, are lackmg. The species data for Mammoth Cave National Park is maintained in NPSpecies, a database developed by

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 the National Park Service s Inventory and Monitoring Program in 1999. Functionally, since sinking streams and cave streams are tributaries ofbase-level rivers by way of springs, they are all part of the river continuum, with the important distinction that the middle section is underground These distinct but connected aquatic ecosystems are energetically supported by in-washed organic debris from the forest/sa v anna and former barrens ecosystems Food transport is usually down gradient but natural back flooding from the river through springs into the lower cave streams is also important. A s base level rivers lower their channels, cave streams follow and leave dry upper levels. These passages become habitat for the terrestrial cave ecosystem, which is also dependent upon the forest/savanna and former barrens ecosystems for its food base. The import of food is mostly accomplished by cave crickets, bats, and packrats which feed in the forest/ savanna above, and use cave s for refuge where their guano accumulates Clearly, all of the component ecosystems within the karst landscape are functionally connected and must be managed holistically in order to realiz e our restoration goals Fire is obviously a powerful determining force in vegetation communities. Whether a given area is prairie, savanna, or forest is governed largely by fire regime, and these vegetation types define habitats, including food supply, for a broad spectrum of wildlife For the river and connected aquatic cave ecosystem vegetation determines the amounts a nd quality of water, sediment, and organic matter that enter For the terrestrial cave eco s ystem, the types and quantities of insects, fungi and plants available to bats, woodrats and cave crickets are largely determined by major vegetation types sculpted, in part, by fire Surface Habitat Types in Mammoth Cave National Park Taking regional geography and hydrology into account, a vegetation habitat cla s sification has been developed for Mammoth Cave National Park (Olson and Franz, 1998) This habitat classification combines bedrock geology slope and aspect in the Park's Geographic Information System (GIS) with a spatial resolution of 30 meters. The rationale is that for a given climate, bedrock geology largely determines soil type and whether surface or subsurface (karst) drainage prevails Soils on calcareous bedrock are pH buffered as the underlying rock is dissolved ; soils on non-calcareous rocks tend to be more acid due to the lack of buffering. Because of this the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission classifies habitats as calcareous" or "acid" based upon bedrock type, and this plan follows their convention. Due to the tendency for subsurface drainage to develop in calcareous bedrock such as limestone virtually any site will be more xeric (dry) than an equivalent site underlain by insoluble rocks such as sandstone or shale. The magnitude of this general difference appears to be minimized on the steepest exposures due to rapid surface drainage One significant attribute of the habitat map is that natural physical influences on vegetation types are made clear, and in a quantitative way that is not attainable by direct study of geological quadrangle map s (see Table 1 ) This is especially important given the complex history of cultural disturbance over the past two centuries since settlement, and the profound impact on vegetation patterns seen today. For example the vast majority of coniferous forest stands in the Park today are linked to pre-Park agriculture. Local environmental conditions amenable or inimical to fire are controlled directly and indirectly by the factors that determine habitat type About half of the habitat types in the Park are variously prone to fire ; habitat types not prone to fire are the Calcareous Mesic, Floodplain Alluvium and the two Supra-Mesic classes. At over 9000 acres the Calcareous Mesic habitat type is important for two reasons : the change in fuel type on these shaded slopes (Tim Sexton pers. com.), and the great linear extent of these habitat patches will impede the progress of fire across the landscape The major habitat type at Hamilton Valley is calcareous subxeric, which is fire prone. Small areas of acid mesic habitat support fire tolerant species, but calcareous mesic habitats do not. Condensed Vegetation Map of the Park Vegetation in the Park has been classified into seven categories and mapped based upon individual sorting of 200 Landsat satellite spectral data channels using the habitat map as a guide (Olson eta/., 2000). This vegetation classification is condensed in order to facilitate designation of fuel types for fire management. Not all categories occur at Hamilton Valley. In subxeric deciduous forest, chestnut oak and chinkapin oak sort very distinctly with sandstone and limestone substrates respectively, whereas blackjack and post oaks are less selective With periodic fire, these forest stands may have been a more open woodland or savanna in the past. Much of the relatively level plateau fragments, (locally called ridges) which will someday support oak-hickory forest and savanna, were in agricultural use prior to Park establishment. Within these mesic upland oak-hickory forests, the chemical and hydrological influence of relatively thin limestone units (calcareous subxeric habitat) interbedded with sandstone on the ridges is muted in comparison with the thick limestone beneath karst valleys. This is due to weathered sandstone 113

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Habitat Type Acreage Percent of Park Calcareous Xeric 150 <1 Calcareous Sub-Xeric 15,400 30 Calcareous Mesic 9,050 18 Calcareous Supra-Mesic 130 <1 Acid Xeric ro <1 Acid Sub-Xeric 2,500 5 Acid Mesic 20,000 40 Acid Supra-Mesic 1,000 2 Table l. Areal Extent of Habitat Classes in the Park. Habitat types in with are capable of carrying fire during the spring and fall fire seasons. These habitat types account for approximately three fourths of residuum on top of the limestone, and the limited degree of karst development possible. Mesic forests are most prominent in ravines directly connected with the Green and Nolin River Valleys, but outliers exist in karst valleys and in the bottoms of large sinkholes. In addition to beech and maple, black cherry and black walnut can be locally prevalent. Floodplain forests are characterized by sycamore, silver maple, and river birch on river banks, and box elder slightly further from the water Being superbly adapted to the highly disturbance-prone gravel bar habitat, sycamore trees are also found wherever significant disturbance has occurred, such as along roads Mixed deciduous/coniferous (and vice versa) forests in the Park are overwhelmingly successional after pre-Park pasture and row crop use. These old fields are generally located in acid mesic habitats on relatively level uplands, in calcareous subxeric habitat found in karst valleys such as Hamilton Valley, and on floodplain alluvium. In mixed xeric communities/habitat types, Virginia pine is typically associated with chestnut oak, and eastern red cedar with chinkapin oak Many of these stands appear to be virgin in contrast to the profoundly disturbed old fields. On xeric limestone sites, solutional features called rillenkarren indicate that the thin soil and exposed bedrock is not due to post-settlement erosion. The successional trajectory for old field forests is reasonably clear on the uplands (oak hickory forest/savanna), and the floodplain (sycamore-box elder elm), but in the karst valleys pre-settlement vegetation types are not known. Shingle oak is largely restricted to karst valleys, so this species may have been prevalent. Coniferous forests in the Park, like the mixed stands previously discussed, are overwhelmingly successional after pre-Park agriculture. Stands in karst valleys are dominated by eastern red cedar, and those on sandstone uplands are mostly Virginia pine, but considemble mixing occurs. Commonly on the uplands around a nucleus of coniferous forest, a zone of coniferous / 114 deciduous forest is found which is followed by a zone of deciduous/coniferous vegetation, transitional to oak-hickory forest. All elements are not present in each case, but forest succession is clearly documented In the big karst valleys, the current successional trajectory is less clear In the absence of fire, the karst valleys could easily become a subxeric oak hickory forest with mesic hollow species in the sink bottoms. Prairie in the Park is limited to small areas each no greater than 40 acres, and none can be considered actual remnants from pre-settlement times Even so, these areas are rich in prairie grasses and forbs such as big bluestem, Indian grass, goldenrod, and tall coreopsis. They serve as refuges for species marginalized by conversion of former prairie on the sinkhole plain to agriculture, and by fire suppression within and beyond Park boundaries (Seymour 1997) Other open areas in the Park are largely mown roadsides, cemeteries, and lawns around developments maintained in fescue Hamilton Valley vegetation types include open area/prairie, mesic slope forest, plus mesic upland, mixed, and coniferous forest. Some mixed stands are natural glade-like stands. Brief Descriptions ofVegetation Communities Cedar-Oak Stands In the driest limestone habitat types (calcareous xeric and sub-xeric), especially on south to west facing slopes, cedar-oak stands prevail. These are sites where eastern red cedar is not successional, and where the inherent dryness of the site is an important factor in limiting growth of deciduous trees other than drought tolerant species such as chinkapin oak and blue ash Based upon field observation of scars, fire is also a factor in limiting the invasion of more mesic species. However, given the vulnerability of eastern red cedar, fire intensity must be typically low, and the ability of cedars to grow right out of exposed limestone benches puts some distance between them and the meager fuel available.

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Ridgetop Pine-Oak Stands -Located on the dry edges of sandstone cliffs facing south to west, acid xeric habitats support nearly pure but narrow stand s of Virginia pine and chestnut oak. Analogous to the cedar-oak glades, these sites are where Virginia pine is not successional. Droughty conditions are clearly a factor in the maintenance of these stands, but the role of frre is not known. Observations in the field have failed to detect fire scars on either pines or oaks, so until the role of fire is better understood these stands should remain low on the list of priorities Oak-Hickory Forest/Savanna -On broad uplands in the Park separated by large karst valleys south of Green River oak-hickory forest covers relatively large areas of acid mesic subxeric and calcareous sub-xeric habitat types which have been minimally disturbed. For now, the goal for prescribed frre in oak-hickory forest is to reduce the invasion of frre intolerant species such as beech and maple Karst VaHey Forest/Savanna/Prairie Pre-settlement vegetation types in karst valleys south of Green River, including Hamilton Valley, are unknown, and most of these large expanses of calcareous sub-xeric habitat were farmed prior to Park establishment. Research on stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen (Dora! eta/., 1998) are needed to determine pre settlement vegetation patterns back through time. Until these data are acquired, the goal for prescribed frre in karst valleys should be limited to maintenance of isolated prairie patches, and small-scale experiments in successional stands of cedar/ pine. Mesic Slope Forests -In some instances, portions of these steep, north-facing very moist habitat types could be included within a prescribed fire unit to make the frre line safer and easier to manage, but this frre-intolerant vegetation should not be forced to burn. Fire intolerant species such as American elm and butternut, which are put at risk by exotic diseases, may become more vulnerable to infection via fire scars Archaeological Indicators of Pre-settlement Fire Miles of cave passages within the Park contain abundant artifacts left by Native Americans, mostly between 2000 and 3000 years ago. Much of this ancient material consists of plant remains from various uses, and these artifacts provide insight into some pre-settlement vegetation characteristics under similar climatic conditions. Data on pollen, recovered during archaeological investigation of Salts Cave in the Park, (Watson et al. 197 4) indicate an abundance of lambs quarters in samples dated between 3000 to 3500 years before present (BP), followed by peaks in grasses and ragweed in strata above (still probably ca. 3000 years BP) The same study revealed an increase in the occurrence of edible annual weed seeds in human paleofeces, including much lambs quarters, sunflower, sumpweed, amaranth, panic grass and maygrass These plant remains indicate that vegetation conditions other than closed canopy forest existed since light intensity on the ground would have been inadequate. Use offrre to maintain openings in the forest would be consi s tent with practices elsewhere in eastern NorthAmerica(Oison 1996). Prentice(1993) acknowledged a heavy emphasis on horticulture by prehistoric populations but did not discuss fire Three types of plant stems were primarily used for torch fuels in local caves by Native Americans: cane, false foxglove, and goldemod (Watson 1969, 1974) Olson ( 1998) noted that false foxglove was used dominantly in some Park caves and that false foxglove is partially parasitic on the roots of oak trees (Pennell 1935). Musselman and Mann (1978) induced root parasitism with other tree species, but noted that large natural populations are found at the margins of oak stands. Given this parasitic relationship and the simultaneous requirement for adequate light if plant s tems are to grow tall enough for use as torch material, oak savanna or openings bordering oak stands must have been much more prevalent than today since false foxglove is very infrequent in the Park (Seymour 1997) Oak savanna is a largely fire-dependent community, and the presence of this community type would be consistent with observations on the probable prehistoric slash and bum plant cultivation documented in the vicinity of Salts Cave. In Lawrence County, Ohio, ecological restoration via prescribed frre has resulted in significant increases in the abundance of false foxglove and other herbaceous species (Hutchinson 2000) This is consistent with the archaeological evidence at Marmnoth Cave National Parle. Cane is primarily a lowland species in the region today, being largely confined to the Green River corridor and major tributaries Watson (1969) noted cane torch remnants up to one inch in diameter, and that modem cane this size could not be found She concluded that this cane likely came from bottomland sit e s under cultivation for edible species. Olson ( 1998) pointed out that cane was once much more widespread based upon the Filson Map of Kentucky (1784), and that the growth of1arge cane in a variety of habitats would simply require less competition; especially more light. The same situation would apply to goldemod since it can only grow to a size useable for torches with adequate sunlight. Archeological remains of slippers worn by Native American miners and explorers in portions of the Marmnoth Cave System (Watson 1969; King 197 4) were often manufactured from leaves of rattlesnake master. This species is restricted to savanna and prairie communities, and is currently very limited within the Park Though it is possible that rattlesnake master was 115

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 harvested on the Sinkhole Plain and transported up to the Mammoth Cave Plateau, this species would have been much more abundant in savannas and glades on the plateau than it is today All of the food plants described above, the large plant stems used for torch materials while exploring and mining in caves, and the plants used for slipper material require more light than what is available in Park forests today In the tiny areas within the Park where these species are currently found (some actual habitat remnants and others artificial, such as roadsides), their populations are severely limited This scarcity compared with past abundance indicates that much less closed-<:anopy forest existed then compared with now, and modem suppression of frre is the most probable explanation. A full inventory of Hamilton Valley plants might provide site-specific evidence of pre-settlement fire A small patch of rattlesnake master, was found growing in the valley soon after CRF acquisition of the land; the patch has been sectioned off for protection Current management of the plot prescribes periodic mowing Historical Vegetation Descriptions Relevant to Fire The earliest historical description of vegetation on the Mammoth Cave Plateau was by Botanist Francois Michaux ( 1805) in 1802, and this was limited only to the view up from the Sinkhole Plain most likely near Dripping Springs in Edmonson County which is just southwest of the Park and Hamilton Valley : "The surface of these meadows is very even; towards Dripping Spring I observed a lofty eminence, slightly adorned with trees and bestrewed with enormous rocks, which hang over the road .. The maintenance of prairie vegetation on the Sinkhole Plain by fire is very well documented, and Michaux stated:" Every year, in the course of the months of March or April the inhabitants set fire to the grass, which at that time is dried up ... The custom of burning the meadows was formerly practiced by the natives, who came to this part of the country to hunt." Michaux s description of savanna on the Mammoth Cave Plateau at the Chester Escarpment is further supported by place names on USGS Quadrangles in the Park City and Cave City vicinity such as Bald Knob, Brushy Knob, and Huckleberry Knob The earliest description of vegetation on the plateau away from the Chester Escarpmc::nt is by Alexander Bullitt ln the introductory chapter of an 1844 visitors' guide to Mammoth Cave he wrote: "For a distance of two miles from the Cave as you approach it from the South-East, the country is level. It was, until recently a prairie on which, however, the oak, chestnut and hickory are now growing; and having no underbrush, its smooth, verdant openings present here and there no unapt resemblance to the Parks of the English ll6 nobility The two mile distance from the cave corresponds closely to the southern boundary of the Mammoth Cave Estate, which indicates land-use rather than a natural ecological origin for the former putative prairie become savanna, which is today a dense oak-hickory forest in mid to late succession. Other factors to bear in mind are that 1) this description is approximately 50 years post settlement, and 2) Mammoth Cave was intensively mined for saltpeter during the War of 1812 The process required a steady supply of firewood for the boiling furnaces, and yet more wood for prouction of fixed alkali (potassium hydroxide) used in the maufacturing process Consequently, trees were cut from many acres of land for miles around in order to meet the demand (Faust 1967). Hussey (1876) conducted a survey of plants in Barren and Edmonson Counties, and observed that Buffalo Clover (Trifolium rejlexum) "occurs in several localities between the railroad and Mammoth Cave .. .I mention it because I have never found so many specimens in any one locality before, and also to make note of the fine rose-pink color it everywhere had." DeFriese (I880) reported in his 1878 timber survey across Kentucky: "On leaving Glasgow Junction [now Park City], toward Mammoth Cave, plenty of white oak is found in the sinks; post oak black oak, scarlet oak, and red oak are found on the higher grounds, and as soon as the Chester sandstone, which caps the so-called hills, is reached, chestnut is found in great abundance. This is the first chestnut worthy of note found, and all that has been found, so far [from the Mississippi River to here], if a few bushes on the silicious limestone, near the Tennessee river, be excepted ; though doubtless all this Chester sandstone, from Hopkinsville to Glasgow Junction, would have been covered with it, but for the fires that long ago swept over this richly timbered country, year after year, and drove its choicest trees from the forests" "Again, forest frres have not denuded certain portions of the country in the neighborhood of Mammoth Cave. What is known as Doyle [or Doyel] Valley for instance, has been, for some reason, largely protected from the ravages of fire even if the entire district has not been. From the growth of chestnut I am inclined to think it has never been continuously burned over ... On the hill sides facing Doyle's Valley the trees are magnificent and white oak liriodendron, white hickory, massive chestnut, scarlet oak, red oak, black oak, Spanish oak, chestnut, ashes and redbud &c., abound. The chestnut however, is limited to the sandstone and stops abruptly when the limestone is reached descending the hill." DeFriese's conclusion that Doyel Valley experienced a lower fire frequency based upon the growth of chestnut trees is a bit confusing since he clearly states that the chestnuts were only to be found on or near sandstone substrate which is

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Vegetation I. Subxeric Deciduous Forest/Savanna 2. Mesic Upland Deciduous 3. Mesic Hollow/Floodplain Deciduous Forest 4/5. Mixed Deciduous/Coniferous Mixed Coniferous/Deciduous Forest Habitat Type Typical Species Acid SubxericCalcareous Sub Xeric *Chestnut *OakPost *OakChinquapin *OakBlackjack* OakPost Oak Acid MesicCalcareous Subxeric *White OakPignut Hickory Black Oak Calcareous MesicAcid MesicAlluviu:n ***Sugar MapleBeechBox ElderSycamore Acid MesicCalcareous SubxericAlluviurn **Red Maple **Tulip Poplar **Dogwood S weetgurnCedar/pine 6 Coniferous Forest Acid Xeric to MesicCalcareous Xeric to Subxeric Virginia Pine Eastern Red Cedar 7. Prairie/Open Area Calcareous SubxericAcid Mesic *Native Grasses and Forbs Mown Grass Table 2. Vegetation, Habitat Types, and Typical Species. Habitat type nomenclature follows the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission system (Evans 1991 ). "Acid" refers to non-carbonate bedrock, which results in acid soil, and "calcareous" refers to carbonate bedrock, which results in more alkaline soil. Xeric refers to dry areas, mesic to moist, and alluvium to river laid sediments. Fire dependent/tolerant species are shown with , assemblages (particularly limited to the valley rim. Another caveat to bear in mind is that these observations were made approximately 90 years post settlement. The observations of Michaux, Hussey, and DeFriese are especially useful. The forest on the Chester Escarpment at Dripping Springs and everywhere else today has a solid canopy, and bears no resemblance to the savanna Michaux described. Buffalo Clover is a savanna or forest edge species, and even though Hussey's survey was conducted approximately 80 years post settlement, the multiple occurrences indicate that this species, and therefore its habitat, was formerly widespread. Today, buffalo clover is "extremely rare" in the Park (Seymour 1997). In both cases, the observed botanical changes over time are consistent with the effects of fire suppression. De Friese observed the abundance of post oak (among others) in the area where Diamond Caverns is located today. Magnificent specimens of this extremely fire tolerant tree, old enough for DeFriese to have seen when he passed through, are still found nearby. As well, he was specific in pointing out where the effects of fire appeared less manifest (Doyel Valley), and in doing so clearly implied that fire effects were more general in the Mammoth Cave vicinity. Regional Fire Ecology Study of pollen cores from Jackson Pond, located about 30 miles northeast of Mammoth Cave on the Sinkhole Plain (less than a mile from the Chester Escarpment), indicated that from about 3900 years before present the region had a mix of prairie and deciduous forest. Whether the prairie had its origins in climatic change, or was the result of human actions is not known (Wilkins eta/. 1991, pp 236-7). When Michaux described the annual spring fires on the Sinkhole Plain in 1802, a primarily cultural source of ignition was apparent to him. Ray ( 1997, p.l88) acknowledged the role of Native American set fire in the maintenance of prairie and savanna, but also made a convincing argument for the importance of lightning ignited fire as a force affecting vegetation patterns in the Mammoth Cave area. Oak ecosystems in eastern North America have co-evolved with fire (Abrams 1992, Olson 1996), and the relationship between savanna and oak forest has only recently been recognized. Some compilations of the distribution and status of the oak hickory, savanna complex don't acknowledge that the type occurs in Kentucky, but more recent treatments depict the Mammoth Cave region as having been a mixture of savanna, prairie and forest. There are two fire seasons in the Mammoth Cave area, one in spring from March I 51 to May 15'\ and the other in fall from October 1" to December 15'h. Given that many herbaceous plants remain alive and even bloom into late October (Seymour 1997), fuels are not as consistently dry in fall as in the spring, and leaves do not typically finish dropping until late October. Other points favoring the spring fire season over fall are that the effects of spring fires are generally more beneficial to many types of wildlife since the seed crop of the previous growing season has already 117

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 been consumed and/or dispersed during the winter, and that nutrients from the ash are less likely to be washed away before germinating plants can absorb them The annual spring fires described on the Sinkhole Plain by Michaux would tend to propagate up the Chester Escarpment, which faces primarily south in the Mammoth Cave area. This southern aspect of the escarpment is conducive to drying fuels, and since the prevailing wind is from the south, the escarpment would function as an excellent fire ladder to the Mammoth Cave Plateau DeFriese's observation of post oak between Glasgow Junction (Park City) and the escarpment is consistent with frequent fire. E ast ofTurnhole Spring, the Park is characterized by mature k a rs t which includes the Mammoth Cave System plus other major caves, and very limited perennial surface streams. Large s egm e nts of the plateau including Joppa Ridge Mammoth Cave Ridge, and Flint Ridge are relatively level and well drained except for isolated wetlands with vernal pools, and short spring runs The only major barriers to northerly propagation of fire in thi s s ector of the Park are the shaded Calcareous Mesic s lopes described above which serve as fuel breaks where fire would be required to burn down slope into fuels with greater moisture content. Isolated patches of particularly xeric habitat on slopes with high sun exposure will also retard fire due to low amounts of fuel. Similarly, outside the southern boundary of the Park there are few barriers to fire on this highly dissected portion of the Mammoth Cave Plateau known as ''The Knobs" due to lack of surface streams, and also due to extensions of th e Sinkhole Plain into the escarpment. The s outhern edges of Woolsey and Doyel Valleys are only about two miles from the Chester Escarpment, and therefore close to a reliable annual pre-settlement ignition source. In the Park City area, fingers of the Sinkhole Plain cut into the escarpment and narrow the gap to within a half-mile. These valleys have the same karst hydrogeology that exists on the Sinkhole Plain, therefore, no surface streams are present to inhibit the spread of fire. Based upon the foregoing, it is conceivable that the annual spring fires on the Sinkhole Plain spread into these two valleys with some frequency. Unfortunately, we have no early historical information on v e g e tation or fire frequency in these or any other karst valley in the P a rk. DeFriese's conclusions on Doyel Valley did not s upport frequent fire but being roughly 90 years post settl e ment, the appearance at that time could just reflect land use preferences. An attempt to find silica phytoliths and charcoal in soil a s indicators of past vegetation type and frre regime had negative result s (Kaliz 1997) Carbon and oxygen isotope studies of speleothems in cave passages underlying these karst valleys can provide information on major vegetation type and climate (Dorale et at. 1998), and these will be pursued in the future 118 The eastern edges of Houchins Valley (including contiguous Eaton and Strawberry Valleys) and the smaller karst valley leading to Dennison Ferry are both over four miles from the Chester Escarpment, and not directly downwind from the documented annual fires on the Sinkhole Plain Therefore, it is less likely that fire from the Sinkhole Plain propagated into these valleys when compared with Woolsey and Doyel Valleys Ignitions in Houchins Valley via cultural or natural sources would easily spread up onto Flint Ridge and propagate north with the prevailing southerly winds. Ignitions from lightning are possible on any of the ridges, and lightning scars on trees are common. Considering the full range ofhabitats modeled and mapped in Mammoth Cave Nation a l Park, over 40,000 acres or about 75% of Park lands are capable of carrying fire under the normal range of weather conditions during the fire seasons. Fire Management Units and Prescribed Fire Areas To the greatest extent possible each Fire Management Unit is designed as a defensible polygon in the event of wildfire Boundaries consist of rivers ravines and roads within the Park, and the Park boundary around the outer perimeter At least one Prescribed Fire Area was selected per Fire Management Unit. The process for selection of Prescribed Fire Areas with ecological criteria was GIS-based. Only habitat types that would naturally support fire dependent or tolerant vegetation communities were included Next, vegetation was considered, and the overwhelming majority of Prescribed Fire Areas consisted of vegetation mature enough to benefit from frre Limited areas of successional vegetation were included as part of an adaptive management strategy, and fire should be applied in these areas with caution and careful study. Conclusion Consideration of fire management at Hamilton Valley should take into account such factors as current vegetation patterns expected outcomes, the potential impact on existing structures (e.g. the house in the valley), and certainly safety considerations. Some though not all, anticipated results can be mimicked by mowing practices which would certainly eliminate the risks inherent with burns. On the other hand, those risks can also be minimized by careful planning. If the Land Management Committee decides to initiate a prescribed fire program for Hamilton Valley they should start with a small section and work with professionals such as the Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources and the Nature Conservancy

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Literature Cited Abrams, M D. 1992. Fire and the development of oak forests Bioscience 42:346-353 Baskin, J., C Baskin, and E. Chester. 1994. The big barrens region of Kentucky and Tennessee : further observations and considerations Castanea, v. 59, n. 3, p. 238. Baskin, J ., C Baskin, and E Chester 1999 The big barrens region of Kentucky and Tennessee In: Savannas, barrens, and rock outcrop plant communities of North America. Edited by R. Anderson, J. Fralish, and J. Baskin Cambridge university press, p. 200 Defriese, L.H. 1880. Report on a Belt ofKentucky Timbers from Columbus to Pound Gap Geological Survey of Kentucky, Part X, Vol. V, Second Series (p. 287-348) [Reprinted 1884. Pages 171-232 in Timber and Botany B ] Delcourt, H and P. Delcourt. 1988. Quaternary landscape ecology: relevant scales in space and time Landscape Ecology, v. 2, n. I, p. 36 Dorale, J., R Edwards, E Ito and L. Gonzales 1998 Climate and vegetation history of the mid-continent from 75 to 25 ka: a speleothem record from crevice cave, Missouri, use Science, v. 282, p. 1871. Evans, M 1991. Kentucky Ecological Communities Draft Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission, Frankfort, KY. Faust, B 1967 Saltpeter Mining in Mammoth Cave, Ky. The Filson Club Incorporated, Louisville, KY, p. 73 Filson, J. 1784. Map of kentucke (sic), printed by T. Rook Hussey, John. 1876 Report on the Botany of Barren and Edmonson Counties Kentucky Geological Survey Part IT, Vol. I, Second Series, p 12. Hussey, John 1876. Report on the Botany of Barren and Edmonson Counties. Kentucky Geological Survey Part II, Vol. I, Second Series p 12. Hutchinson, T 2000 Unpublished Report on Prescribed Fire Effects at Bluegrass Ridge in Lawrence County Ohio Also, personal communication with T. Hutchinson, Research Ecologist, USDA Forest Service, 359 Main Road, Delaware OH. Kalisz, P 1997 Final report on the mammoth cave study Unpublished report on soil opal and charcoal analyses, II p King M. E 1974. The Salts Cave textiles : a preliminary account. Pages 31-40 in P.J. Watson (cd.). Archaeology of the Mammoth Cave area Academic Press, New York Meloy, H (ed ) 1985. Rambles in the Mammoth Cave during the Year 1844 by a Visitor [attributed to "Alexander Clark Bullitt"]. Cave Books. St. Louis, MO. [Originally printed in 1845 by Morton & Griswold, Louisville, KY ; catalogued in Special Collections at University of Kentucky with "John Croghan" as the supposed author.] Michaux, F.A. 1805 Travels to the West of the Allegheny Mountains in the States of Ohio Kentucky, and Tennessee [reprint]. In R.G Thwaites (ed.). 1904 Early Western Travels, 1748-1846 Volume III. Arthur Clark Co., Cleveland, OH, p. 218. Musselman, L.J., & W.F. Mann 1978. Root Parasites of Southern Forests U.S.D.A. Forest Service, General Technical Report S0-20, Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, Louisiana, p 37, 39 Olson S 1996 The Historical Occurrence of Fire in the Central Hardwoods, with Emphasis on Southcentral Indiana. Natural Areas Journal, v 16, n. 3, p 248 Olson, R 1998. Torch fuels used by prehistoric Indian cavers : their utility and botanical significance Pages 5-8 in Proceedings of Mammoth Cave National Park's Seventh Science Conference. Mammoth Cave National Park, KY. Olson, R., and M. FrdDZ. 1998. A Vegetation Habitat Classification for Mammoth Cave National Park. Pages 19-25 in Proceedings of Mammoth Cave National Park's Seventh Science Conference. Mammoth Cave National Park, KY Olson, R., M. Franz, and G Ghitter. 2000. A Vegetation Map of Mammoth Cave National Park Using Satellite Remote Sensing Data, Proceedings of the Eighth Mammoth Cave Science Conference, National Park Service (In Press) Prentice, G 1993 Archaeological Overview and Assessment of Mammoth Cave National Park National Park Service, Southeastern Archaeological Service, Tallahassee, FL, p. 12, 16, 20 Pennell, F. W. 1935 The Scrophulariaceae of Eastern Temperate North America Wickersham Printing Company, Lancaster, PA, p 382. Ray, J. A 1997. Natural vegetation patterns of the Mammoth Cave region as maintained by lightning frres and aboriginal burning prior to settlement. Pages 179-197 in Proceedings of the Sixth Mammoth Cave Science Conference, National Park Service. Seymour, R 1997 Wildflowers of Mammoth Cave National Park University Press of Kentucky, Lexington KY, p. 51, 89, 117. Sexton, T 2000. NPS National Fire Ecologist Personal communication during site visit to MCNP Watson, P.J. (ed ) 1969. The Prehistory of Salts Cave, Kentucky Illinois State Museum Reports of Investigations, No. 16, p. 33. Watson, P.J. (ed. ) 1974. Archaeology of the Mammoth Cave Area. Academic Press, New York Wilkins, GR., P.A. Delcourt, H .R. Delcourt, F.W. Harrison and M.R Turner. 1991. Paleoecology of central Kentucky since the last glacial maximum. Quaternary Research 36:224-239. Academic Press, New York 119

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Geoscience Microsampling and Isotopic Analysis of Adjacent Fluorescent/Non-Fluorescent Band Couplets in a Midwestern Speleothem Rhawn F Denniston Introduction Since the 1970s, speleothems (cave deposits such as stalag mites, stalactites, and flowstones) have been used to recon struct decadal/millennial-scale paleoclimatic changes. More recently, Shopov, Ford, and Schwarcz (1994) and Baker, Smart, Edwards, and Richards ( I993) demonstrated the (sub)annual nature of fluorescent banding in speleothems. Microsampling and isotopic analysis of sub-annual speleothem growth bands may, therefore, provide new in sight into subannual variability in some continental settings. To test this hypothesis, the uppermost portion of a single calcite stalagmite from Crystal Cave, Wisconsin, was microsampled and analyzed for stable carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios across fluorescent growth horizons (Figure 1). Origin of Fluorescence in Speleothems Fluorescence in speleothems originates from organic acids produced by plant activity in soils overlying the cave and which are incorporated into the speleothem by infiltrating meteoric fluids. Fluorescent speleothem bands (typically <200 Jlm thick) are therefore believed to represent calcite crystallization from drip-waters that infiltrated through the soil zone when plant activity was high (e.g., late springearly fall) while non-fluorescent zones delineate growth dur ing late fall early spring. This interpretation is supported by the observation that the uppermost layer of a Midwest ern stalagmite, collected in January, I992, is non-fluorescent and by ol8o and ol3c data of individual fluorescent band couplets (see discussion and figures below). Research Techniques Mosaics of fluorescent bands were constructed using laser Confocal scanning laser microscope imaging techniques at the University of Iowa Eckstein Medical Research Facility. These images were correlated with reflected light photomi crographs as maps for microsampling. Individual fluores cent and non-fluorescent bands were sampled using the microdrilling apparatus developed and maintained at the 120 University of Michigan's Stable Isotope Laboratory. Drill ing is performed laterally instead of vertically, thereby ing sampling of zones considerably narrower than the dnll bit (Dettmann & Lohman, I995). The resulting microgram sized powders were analyzed for carbon and oxygen stable isotopic ratios at the University ofMichigan using a Finnigan MAT 252 stable isotope mass spectrometer. Speleothem aBc & at8o Values as Paleoclimatic Indicators Since the pioneering work of Schwarcz et al. (1976) and Harmon et al. (1978), the oxygen isotopic composition of speleothems has been examined as a record of changing continental climate. More recently, Dorale, Gonzalez, Reagan, Pickett, and Baker (I992) linked carbon isotopic values to vegetation and attributed a rapid shift in speleothem o 18o and o I3c values to changing climate conditions in the upper Midwest at -5700 ybp. They attributed a gradual shift in o 13c values and a concomitant rapid shift in o18o values to rapid climatic change (on the scale of a few decades) and a slower (a few centuries) vegetative response (C4 to C3 veg etation). The oxygen isotopic composition of speleothem calcite re flects the 0180 (standardized 180/160 ratio) value of precipita tion and the temperature at which the carbonate precipitates from cave dripwater. When calcite is precipitated under iso topic equilibrium with dripwater in deep, poorly ventilated caves where temperatures of calcite crystallization are con stant throughout the year, the temperature dependence of precipitation 0180 values and the correlation for mean annual surface temperature (Dansgaard, 1964) can be combined into the generalized calcite-water fractionation equation (Fried man & O'Neil, I977) to yield temperature/0180 relationship of0.3%orC (Dorale et al., I992). The carbon isotopic composition of speleothems is a func tion of 013C values of carbonate bedrock hosting the cave and of soil CO produced primarily by root respiration and decay of matter (Ture, I986). Plants using the Calvin, or C photosynthetic pathway (e.g., trees, shrubs, forbs), 3 0 have average 013C values of -26o/oo PDB (Pee Dee Belemnite

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 isotopic standard), while Hatch-Slack, or C 4 pathway plants (e.g., many prairie grasses), have 013C values averaging-13%o PDB (Deines, 1980). Because 013C values of soil C02 are related to vegetation type, the carbon isotopic compo sition of speleothem calcite can record vegetation signals (Dorale eta/., 1992). Thus, as prairie replaced forest during the mid-Holocene, 013C values increased. The thin soils overlying caves in the Ozarks are incapable of significant carbon storage and thus vegetation signals are immediately translated into the subsurface and are not buffered by old, slowly decomposing soil organic material. Stalagmites, therefore, are sensitive to even subtle or short-lived veg etation changes. Results Both carbon and oxygen stable isotopic ratios dif fer between adjacent fluorescent and non-fluorescent zones (Figure 2). Both 013C and 0180 values are <1 %o lower in non fluorescent bands than in adjacent fluorescent bands Instrumental precision is capable of clearly defining these differences, however the because these bands are not vis ible under plain light and because of the moderate limita tions of this microsampling system, it is possible, and in deed likely, that at least some of these analyses incorporate more than one individual band. This homogenization would be expected to decrease seasonal differences in stable iso topic signatures. Seasonal Shifts in l)l8o The seasonal temperature range implied by the shift in o l8o values between fluorescent and non-fluorescent bands is substantially smaller than actual conditions. Homogeniza tion of infiltrating meteoric waters may be responsible, but this model would require infiltration times on the order of months. Another possibility is that fluorescent bands do not succinctly delineate seasonality. Instead, fall infiltra tion may flush organic acids from the soil zone thereby a recording in the stalagmite a more depleted isotopic compo sition than would be expected from summer precipitation Although overlap of bands during sampling is unlikely, the effect of fluorescent calcite contamination of a nonfluorescent band would be negligible because of the small volume of fluorescent bands relative to non-fluores cent bands. Therefore, any minimizing of the shift between the isotopic values of fluorescent and non-fluorescent bands must be due to artificial lowering of fluorescent 0 13c and o18o values in fluorescent bands by non-fluorescent bands. The two sources of southern Wisconsin precipita tion are Gulf and Gulf-Pacific, with Gulf-Pacific of increased importance during winter months (Simpkins, 1995) Simpkins (1995) reported a range in o18o values of -0.14 to -23.87%o with a weighted mean of -8 .02o/oo for Iowa precipitation in 1992 Despite this considerable variance, this study identi fied a strong seasonal relationship between monthly mean surface temperature and o 18o values. Precipitation o 18o = -1 Oo/oo, back-calculated using calcite 0 18o values, falls close to the lighter end of Iowa summer (-9 to -2%o) precipitation values reported by Simpkins (1992). When corrected for latitude, this value may fall well within the range of normal summer precipitation o18o values Seasonal Shifts in l)l3c The 0 13c value of speleothem calcite is controlled by the compositions and solubility's of soil C02 and the carbonate rock hosting the cave However, assuming infiltrating fluids are restricted to well-developed infiltration pathways, changes in speleothem 0 13c will be related to fluctuations in organic acid productivities in the soil zone overlying the cave. Ode et al. ( 1980) examined seasonal shifts in 0 l3c values of a Mixed Prairie (containing both C3 and C4 vegeta tion) in the Northern Great Plains. They report low ol3c values in spring, increased 0 13c values in summer, and fi nally a return to low 0 l3c values in fall. Although temporal changes in the carbon isotopic composition of infiltrating fluids may be diluted by degradation of pre-existing organic material, rapid infiltration rates or short infiltration pathways (i.e. along conduits) may preserve this ol3c signal. As dis cussed above, changes in infiltration pathways might alter water/rock interaction ratios, thereby changing fluid isoto pic compositions. In addition, a temperature-related decrease in the solubility of organic acids coupled with an increase in calcite solubility might affect ol3c values of speleothem cal cite. Although the direction and magnitude of the isotopic shift between fluorescent and non-fluorescent bands is simi lar, evaporation and kinetic effects related to accelerated out-gassing of C02 are unlikely because the speleothem is composed of dense, optically clear calcite, suggestive of slow, near-equilibrium crystallization. The enrichment ofol3c values in fluorescent bands over adjacent non-fluorescent bands may be explained by flushing of organic acids from the soil zone during warmer parts of the year when C 4 pro ductivity is high. Conclusions Preliminary isotopic investigations of adjacent fluorescent band couplets reveal a small (
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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 bands and allowing a better estimation of seasonality from speleothem calcite. The shift in oxygen isotopic values may represent seasonal changes in meteoric precipitation and/or cave temperature, although teasing the relative importance of each ofthese variables from this data set requires a better understanding of cave hydrology and the requisite studies by the cave owners are currently underway. Carbon isoto pic shifts may be linked to seasonal differences in soil or ganic matter decomposition, the activity ofC3 vs. C4 vegeta tion over the cave, or cave hydrology (affecting such vari ables as the degree of calcite saturation of the dripwater, the degree of out-gassing of C02 prior to calcium carbonate deposition onto the speleothem, etc.) References Baker A., Smart P L., Edwards, R.L., & Richards, D A (1993) Nature, 364, 518-520. Dettman, D .L. & Lohmann, K.C (1995) Journal of Sedimentary Research A-65, 566-569. Dorale, J A Gonzalez, L. A., Reagan, M K Pickett, D. A & Baker, R G ( 1992) Science, 258, 1626. Deines, P (1980) In Fritz, P. & Fontes, J (eds.) Handbook of environmental isotope geochemistry, Elsevier, New York, p. 331-406 Friedman, I. and O'Neil, J.R. (1977) In Fleischer, M (ed.) Data of Geochemistry, Chapter KK: U S Geological Survey Professional Paper 440K. Shopov Y.Y, Ford D.C and Schwarcz, H.P. (1994) Geology 22, 407-410 Simpkins, W. W. ( 1995) Journal of Hydrology 172, 185-207 Turi, B. (1986) In Fritz, P. and Fontes, J. (eds.) Elsevier, NY, p. 207. Sedimentology of the Redwood Canyon Karst, Kings Canyon National Park John C. Tinsley Monitoring of sediment movement, sinkhole development, and sinkhole evolution in Redwood Canyon, Sequoia, and Kings Canyon continued in 200 1-2002 Owing to a cool spring season that limited the rate of snowmelt in the front-country, peak levels of runoff were limited, with spring of2002 runoff registering about l foot greater amplitude in central Lilburn Cave compared to the spring of200 I season Sediment scour and fill events in Lilburn Cave were unremarkable. An un usual event was an early winter storm that dumped 12 inches of rain falling on dry ground in about 36 hours into Redwood Canyon The storm eroded much duff and leaf fall from the channels, but did not seem to cause widespread flooding in the canyon The discharge was great enough to wash a me dium-sized cedar tree across the CRF's stream monitoring station in Redwood Creek, located about I 00 m downstream from where the Hart Tree Trail crosses Redwood Creek, ef fectively destroying the sensors and cables as well as rip ping away the stage-recorder stilling tower from its moor ings Fortunately, the data logger was not damaged. This station will have to be repaired this summer. 122 The Pebble Pile sinkhole continued to stope head ward, and at its nearest point is about 12 feet from the present position of the Redwood Canyon trail that leads to Big Spring, the resurgence of Redwood Creek water from Lilburn Cave Even tually the trail will have to be relocated, but there is plenty of room to do that. Two new sinkholes were noted in the karst in 2002, and none were noted in 200 1. The National Park Service is planning to conduct a con trolled burn, or series of controlled burns in Redwood Can yon beginning in about 4-5 years. This will afford us a great opportunity to install some instrumentation and monitoring points in several sinkholes within the caves and karst, in order to observe the impacts of the burning on the caves and karst features, especially in terms of rates of sediment yield to sinkholes. This will probably be a cooperative study conducted with the cave management folks at SEK.I (Joel Despain).

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Contaminant Source and Transport in a Karst Groundwater Basin Patricia Kambesis Western Kentucky University Introduction Agricultural land use in areas that overlie karst aquifers nega tively impact groundwater quality because karst terrains pro vide multiple, direct hydrologic connections from the sur face into groundwater aquifers (White, 1988; Quinlan 1989). The connections and rapid velocities associated with sur face and subsurface flow in karst aquifers allow for contami nants to move quickly into and through a groundwater sys tem (Vesper eta/. 200 l.) When karst groundwater returns to the surface via springs, any contaminants within the water become part of surface streams and rivers (Alexander and Lively, 1995). These in turn, affect water quality in areas located downstream of the spring outputs. The purpose of this study was to identify the source and movement of agri cultural contaminants in a karst groundwater basin within the context of local climate, hydrogeology and land use. Study area The study area is located within the Com Belt region of the Upper Midwest, in northeast Winneshiek County, Iowa and southeast Fillmore County, Minnesota USA. (Fig ure 1 ). The Upper Iowa River is the regional base-level drainage of the area and it flows 60 km east to its confluence with the Mississippi River. Land use in the Upper Iowa River Watershed is predominantly agricultural in nature. Com (22%) and soybeans (19%) are the most commonly grown crops (UIRW Report 2004). Grassland and forest cover occupy 35% and 19% of the watershed respectively. The local bedrock consists of Cambrian, Ordovician, and Devonian sandstones, shales, limestones and dolostones that were deposited in a series of transgressive and re gressive cycles. The lowermost units are predominantly sandstones with shale and carbonate beds. These strata grade upward into carbonate sequences containing sub ordinate sandstones and shales. The uppermost sedi mentary sequences arc composed entirely of carbonates. Locally, the Ordovician Galena Group directly underlies the land surface and in descending order consists of the Dubuque, Wiselake, Dunlieth and the basal unit of the Decorah Formation. The rock units form the Galena aqui fer that is one of the major agricultural water sources for most ofthe region (Hallberg eta/., 1983) and to a lesser degree still serves as a water source for some of the resi dents of the area. The upper unit of the Decorah Formation is composed of calcareous shale which serves as an aquaclude that prevents shallow groundwater from entering the deeper carbonate aquifers of the region. The surface watersheds of the study area are formed within a highly karstified landscape that is drained by surface creeks and by conduit flow. A series of three dye traces that were conducted in 1986 (Wheeler 1986) identified the conduit flow route of Coldwater Cave. The cave system, which is formed in the Dunlieth Formation, is part of the the Coldwater Cave groundwater basin which underlies the Pine Creek and Cold Water Creek watersheds. Streams from both of the watersheds lose water to the Coldwater Cave System either via swallets or through stream sieves. During rain events or snow melt, sinkholes in the study area also contribute re charge to the groundwater basin. The stream passage of Coldwater Cave resurges at two spring outlets and an overflow spring. The main spring resurgences are Coldwater Cave Spring which has a dis.. J h ., FiHmore County MN -----: 2,--r-i i 1 i < nneshiek i }i Coun!y.IA j / Study Area Figure l. Study Area, Winneshiek County, Iowa and Fillmore County, Minnesota 123

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 charge rate of 549 liters/sec during base flow conditions (Koch and Case, 1974) and Carolan Spring with a discharge of !50 liters/sec. Both springs forms runs that flow to the Upper Iowa River located a kilometer to the southeast. Previous analyses of water quality results documented that both surface streams and groundwater within the basin contain high concentrations of nitrates, bacteria, and pes ticides (Upper Iowa RC&D, 2004 ). Evaluation of water qual ity data showed that temporary degradation of water qual ity is significant after storm events. Long-term water qual ity testing has shown that agricultural contaminants can affect the quality of water supplies from local shallow wa ter wells and can impact the drinking water supplies of the town of Decorah, Iowa, located 6 km downstream of the study area Both springs were used as monitoring sites during dye traces and for sampling for water quality Coldwater Cave Groundwater Basin: Between June 2002 and August 2003, karst hydrogeologic feature inventories, surface stream inventory, and ten dye traces were conducted that identified four karst groundwa ter basins in the study area There are discrete drainage divides between each basin but they can change depend ing on flow conditions The Coldwater Cave groundwater basin is the largest of the basins in the study area The Coldwater Cave groundwater basin displays allogenic and autogenic recharge. The region is mantled with quater nary sediments. that range in thickness from fifteen to twenty two meters in the northern reaches of the groundwater basin and thin to as little as two meters or less to the southwest. The mode of recharge in a particular part of the basin is a function of the thickness of the quaternary sediment that mantles it in that area Contaminant Source and Transport Land use in the Coldwater Cave groundwater basin is pre dominantly agricultural in nature This is reflected in the constituents of the groundwater. Nitrates, bacteria and pes ticides all display levels that are a function of anthropogenic interactions with the landscape. In the study area, nitrate levels usually don't exceed the I Omg/L standard set by the EPA for drinking water but are well above the natural environmental levels of2 mg/1. Ni trate concentration is related to land use. Nitrate is soluble in water so nitrate load is a function of stream discharge. Preliminary results from nitrogen isotope sampling indicate that the one of the sources of nitrates are NH4 + fertilizers. 124 Main stream passage of Coldwater Cave photo: Scott Dankof Bacteria levels range between 10 and 36 cllOO ml however can spike well into the tens of thousands during storm events. Elevated levels of bacteria also result from annual snow melt events that occur when temperatures begin to fluctuate between freezing and above-freezing. Bacteria is transported to the groundwater system by runoff events. There are 42 livestock operations in the basin including 4,003 head of beef, 860 hogs, 599 dairy and 290 heads of sheep (Upper Iowa River Watershed Report 2004). Accord ing to a farm survey conducted in 2003, over 19,000 tons of waste are generated Since most operations don't have waste storage structures, it is common practice to scrape and haul manure out to the fields throughout the year. Cur rently there are 120 homesteads in the study basin Accord ing to the Winneshiek County Sanitarian (2003), over 30% of all septic systems are not functioning properly. This can result in human sewage entering the groundwater basin Preliminary results from a ribotyping project indicate that the source of bacteria is cattle and humans (Skopec et a/ 2004). The study also showed that other animals also pro vide sources of bacteria but the small isolate sampling size did not allow a thorough identification of other bacterial sources Atrazine is a man-made substance so there are no "natural" background levels of this material in the environment. Atra-

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 zine and metabolite levels tested very low in the study area which seems unusual in an agricultural setting where 32% of row crop s are corn. However it is the location of most corn crops in the basin that can be attributed to the low levels Most of the corn is located in the allogenic part of the basin where diffuse infiltration (diffuse allogenic flow) into the ground and ultimately to the groundwater is the predomi nant mode of groundwater recharge The load of atrazine and its metabolite are a function of application season and discharge. The ratio of atrazine to its metabolite indicate that atrazine has had a long residence time in the soil allowing it to be degraded to its metabolite (Thurman & Fallon 1996) De spite the low concentrations of both atrazine and metabo lite, the pesticide load increases during the application sea son and periodically spikes after events that produce run off. Despite the fact that atrazine levels are well below the EPArninimwn levels for drinking water(3ppb) little is known about the effects on hwnans oflong-term exposure to low level mixtures of pesticide compounds, punctuated with sea sonal pulses of high concentrations Climate Climate is the main factor that drives the hydrogeology of the basin that provides the means for contaminants to get into the groundwater system, and that greatly influences contaminant loads. The behavior of the aquifer is dictated by storm events and melt water runoff. The velocity of transport of discharge and of contaminants depends on the state of hydrologic base level conditions which is a function of climate. Conclusions: The purpose of this study was to identify and quantify the source and movement of agricultural contaminants within an shallow, unconfined karst aquifer Dye tracing, both qualitative and quantitative, resulted in the delineation of the Coldwater Cave Groundwater basin and determination of hydrologic flow paths within the basin Investigation of basin and aquifer characteristics, and evaluation of cave map data and karst feature inventories established the rela tionship between surface and subsurface hydrogeology Water sampling and analysis docwnented the quality of the surface water and groundwater within the basin. The sources of pesticides, nitrates and bacterial contaminants were de termined using isotopic analysis ribotyping, and general water quality testing Review of data collected by other re searchers during different flow and climate conditions and integration of that data with the dataset for this study al lowed a comparison of groundwater flow in base and high water level conditions. Analysis of cave and surface stream temperatures, hydrograph data, and climate records confirmed the relationship between surface climate and cave conditions and illustrated the seasonal nature and event dependence of groundwater flow and agricultural pollution. Evaluation ofland use within the basin quantified the amount and type of agricultural land use within the basin. Integra tion of this information and data into a Geographic Informa tion System aided in aquifer and basin analysis, allowed further study of aquifer and basin characteristics, and re sulted in a better understanding of the relationship of cli mate, hydrogeology and land use in a fluvio-karst ground water basin Alexander, E . C, and Lively, R ., 1995, Karst-aquifers, caves and sinkholes, in Lively, R and Balaban, N ed s Text Supplem e nt to the Geologic Atlas of Fillmor e County, Minnesota Minnesota Geological Survey University of Minnesota St. Paul, MN, p 10-18 Koch D. and Case J 1974, A report on Cold Water Ca ve: A summary of research results with inclusion of information r e lated to potential dev e lopment of a new recreational facility by the State of Iowa, Iowa Geological Survey Iowa City, lA, p l8-22 Hallberg, G ; Hoyer, B ; Bettis, E.; and Libra R., 1983 Hydrogeology water quality and land management in the Big Spring Basin Clayton County,lowa Iowa Geological Survey, Iowa City, lA, p 118-120 Quinlan, J. F 1989, Groundwater-monitoring in karst terranes: recommended protocols and implicity assumptions: Las Vegas U S Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Monitoring Slystems Laboratory EPN 600/X-89/050 lOOp. Skopec, M Hall, N and Owens, K 2004 Microbial source tracking in the Upper Iowa Watershed using E coli ribotyping, http:/ /www.northeastlowarcd. CGRERReport .pdf Thurman E .M. and Fallon, J D 1996 The Deethylatrazine/ Atrazine Ratio as an Indicator of the Onset of the Spring Flush of Herbicides into Surface Water of the Midwestern United States [abst.): International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, v 65, p 203-214. Upper Iowa River Watershed Project 2005, unpublished report. Vesper, D J Loop, C. M and White, W. B. 2001, Contami nant transports in karst aquifers. Theoretical and Applied Karstology, 2001, 13-14, 101-111. White, W. B., 1988, Geomorphology and Hydrology of Karst Terrains, Oxford University Press, 464p. 125

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 International Programs The China Karst Environmental Project Chris Groves and A ian Glennon Hoffman Environmental Research Institute, Western Kentucky University lanBaren Cave Research Foundation China Caves Project Introduction An increasingly energetic collaboration between the Westem Kentucky University Hoffman Environmental Research Institute, the Cave Research Foundation, and the Institute of Karst Geology in Guilin, China is developing an infra structure to study environmental problems and solutions in southwest China's karst regions. China has extensive and spectacular karst areas, including an area that covers much of eight provinces of south China, covering 500,000 km2 and providing a home to 80 million mostly rural citizens. The beautiful tower karst areas of southwest China, typified by the famous landscape paintings and scenes from the Li River and Guilin area, are among the most well known of China's landscapes, providing the scene China's the twenty yuan note Unfortunately, karst areas provide significant envi ronmental challenges, especially with regard to water re source development. Problems are common with both water quantity and quality During a research trip to China in early 2002 we became aware of the severe, natural, metal contami nation problems in Guizhou, and have started discussions with USGS scientists who have been working on these issues. CRF first went to China in In June, 2000, Chris and Deana Groves, along with Alan Glennon, traveled to Guilin, China, in a cooperative research project between the Hoffman Environmental Research Insti tute at Western Kentucky University, the Cave Research Foundation, and the Karst Dynamics Laboratory (KDL) of the Institute of Karst Geology of the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences. With roughly 300 karst geologists, hy drologists, and graduate students in residence, the Institute is the primary karst research center in the China. It is an agency ofChina's Ministry of Land and Resources (roughly equivalent to a combination of the US Geological Survey and the US Environmental Protection Agency), and is re-126 sponsible for karst resource management. The city ofGuilin, on the Li River, has a long-standing reputation as a setting of great beauty, and has developed as a significant domes tic and international tourist destination. The economic ben efits of tourism have led Guilin to become one ofthe more prosperous regions of southern China. An important aspect of this prosperity is that it has given the region the resources to begin to concentrate on solutions to environmental prob lems. Project Background Hoffman Institute scientists and students, overlapping with CRF personnel, began working with our Chinese partners in 1994, Chris and Deana hosted Professor Zhang Shouyue, a leading karst scientist with the Chinese Academy of Sci ences in Beijing, for a week at Mammoth Cave during a US lecture tour. Professor Zhang interacted with numerous stu dents and scientists at WKU and Mammoth Cave National Park, and gave several lectures on research projects in China. In 1995, Chris and Deana visited Guilin and the KDL for the first time, where he presented results of carbonate geochem istry research in the Mammoth Cave area. While in Guilin, he also discussed UNESCO's International Geological Cor relation Program (IGCP) Project 379: Karst Processes and the Global Carbon Cycle, with the project's director and Karst Institute founder Professor Yuan Daoxian. This began a period of collaborative work in support of IGCP Project 379. During the trip, they also visited Beijing to meet with Professor Zhang at the Chinese Academy of Sciences. In 1998, a group of organizations including CRF hosted a successful international meeting ofiGCP Project 3 79 in Bowl ing Green, Kentucky. Three members from the KDL attended the Kentucky meeting along with another II 0 scientists and students from a total of 17 countries. Many of those in attendance were among the top karst scientists in their re spective countries, and the meeting was very successful in promoting the goals and results of the project. Nearly $20,000

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Karst towers along the Li River, China, photo: Chris Groves in funding was obtained from WKU, the National Park Ser vice, American Chemical Society, Cave Research Founda tion, and the Karst Waters Institute to support travel and registration expenses of students and scientists from around the world. Project Summaries The following comes from the China Environmental Series #5, published by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D C., and summarizes the organization of the various past and current projects associated with the UNESCO International Geological Correlation Program (JGCP), Project 448: "Global Correlation of Karst Geology and Relevant Ecosystems" Partners: Institute of Karst Geology, Guilin, Guangxi (Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Ministry of Land and Resources), International Association of Hydrogcologists, International Geographical Union, International Union ofSpeleology, (US) National Park Service, Cave Research Foundation, Karst Waters Institute Focus : Interdisciplinary Karst Ecosystem/Hydrogeology/ Biogeochemistry Research Funding: IGCP Project 448, Western Kentucky University, Institute of Karst Geology Status / Schedule: 2000-2004 Karst landscape/aquifer systems are formed on highly soluble rocks such as limestone, and are characterized by such features as caves, underground rivers, and large springs One of the world's great karst regions covers a half million square kilometers within eight provinces of southern China The purpose of IGCP Project #448 is to enhance international communication and cooperation among scien tists studying both the physical and biological components of karst ecosystems, including human activities. It is directed by scientists from the Institute of Karst Geology (Guilin, China), the Hoffinan Environmental Research Institute (Ken tucky, USA), and the Centro di Studio per Ia Faunistica ed Ecologia Tropicale (Firenze, Italy). A ten-day field excursion was organized through the karst areas of southwest China in September 200 I, and international conferences are planned for Spain in 2002 and Kentucky in June 2003, cooperatively with the other three primary international groups investigat ing karst issues (see Partners above) 127

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Cave Research Foundation Annual Report-2001-2003 Workshop on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for Karst Water Resources in Southwest China Partners : Institute of Karst Geology, Cave Research Foundation Focus : Analytical Tools for Water Resource Investigations Funding: Western Kentucky University, Institute of Karst Geology, Guilin, Cave Research Foundation Status/Schedule: Initiated 2000, completed with follow-up visit in 2002 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) computer technol ogy provides powerful tools for the analysis of spatial data, and is widely used in environmental, economic, and plan ning investigations. In 2000 we conducted a three-day work shop at the Institute for Karst Geology in Guilin on the use of GIS for water resource investigations. The workshop focused on analysis and visualization of three-dimensional relationships common in groundwater quality and quantity investigations usingArcview extensions. An outline manual detailing procedures for GIS analysis of karst underground river surveys was translated into Mandarin. A follow up visit to Guilin in 2002 showed that the group had obtained an impressive level of sophistication with the technology, having used it to complete several significant projects, in cluding an extensive structural karst geology analysis at the proposed site of a large airport near Guangzhou, Guangdong. UNESCO Geological Correlation Program, Project #379: "Karst Processes and the Global Carbon Cycle" Partners: Institute of Karst Geology, Cave Research Foundation, (US) National Speleological Society, Karst Waters Institute Focus: Greenhouse Gas Budgets Funding : Western Kentucky University, (US) National Park Service, Institute of Karst Geology (Guilin), American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund, National Speleological Society, Cave Research Foundation, and Karst Waters Institute Status/Schedule: The original Project period was 19951999; collaborative research evolving from the Project is ongoing Biogeochemical processes within karst areas, which cover some 12% of the Earth's land surface, consume carbon diox ide gas from the atmosphere, but the rates are not well known. Since 1995 our groups have jointly developed new method ologies for the measurement ofthe karst-associated carbon sink through seven collaborative field excursions (five US to China, two China to US) In 1998 an international confer ence of the Project in Kentucky attracted 110 scientists from 128 17 countries. 2002 we installed water monitoring equipment, conducted training on the equipment and data analysis, and began long term monitoring of the carbon sink near Yaji, Guangxi as the fifth field station of a developing global network. Project on Karst Landscape-based Tourism and Environ mental/Economic Development in Guangxi and Guizhou, China, and Kentucky, USA Partners: Institute of Karst Geology, Guilin Tourism Development Corporation Focus: Economic Development Through Landscape-Based Tourism Funding: Western Kentucky University, Karst Research Institute, Guilin Tourism Development Corporation Status/Schedule: Initiated 1998, ongoing Guanxi and Guizhou Province of southwest China and south central Kentucky both have globally important karst land scapes where spectacular surface and cave landscapes offer tourism-based economic development opportunities. Seven collaborative study groups (four US to China, three China to US) visited and met with administrators at numerous surface and cave park areas in and around Guilin and Lipu, Guangxi, and in and around Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, to learn about common resource management problems and shared solutions In 2001 we conducted a three-day English language workshop (spoken and written) at the Karst Insti tute in Guilin. Project on Environmental Issues in Guizhou, China Partners: Cave Research Foundation, Institute of Karst Geology, Guilin, Guizhou Normal University Focus: Collaborative Research into Environmental Challenges and Solutions in Guizhou Funding: Institute of Karst Geology, Cave Research Foundation, Western Kentucky University Status/Schedule: Initiated 1990, ongoing Ten collaborative study groups (seven US to China, three China to US) have taken place focusing on two interrelated issues in Guizhou: 1) water resources and karst related envi ronmental problems in the areas of Guado and Liupanshui, and 2) cave and underground river survey in Pingba and Duyun. On a 2002 American study trip to western Guizhou, we became aware of the serious natural arsenic and fluorine problems there, and have since met with scientists at the US Geological Survey working there to explore possible col laboration We also learned about environmental issues in meetings with leaders of two Liupanshui-based scientific institutes.


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