Cave Research Foundation newsletter

Cave Research Foundation newsletter

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Cave Research Foundation newsletter
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Cave Research Foundation newsletter
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CRF newsletter
Cave Research Foundation
Cave Research Foundation
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General Note:
Perspective of rotunda leaching station / Dan Ellison -- Readers Write: Indefence of backsights / Norm Pace -- Carlsbad is one cavern / Donald Davis -- Lilburn project hosts annual meeting / ron Wilson -- Phantaspeleo '87 / Scott House -- Survey data reduction / Eric Compas -- Expeditions: Mammoth Cave: Labor Day expedition, September 4-7, Leader, Ron Wilson: manager, Jan Hemberger -- Columbus Day, October 10-12, Leader, Mick Sutton: manager Sue Hagan -- Thanksgiving expedition, November 26-29, Leader, Phil DiBlasi: manager, Buzz Grover -- Guadalupes: Columbus Day, October 10-12, Leader, Alan Williams -- Lilburn: Halloween, October 30-31, Leader, Peter Bosted -- CRF China expedition '88 -- Lechuguilla extended to 7 miles - 1207 ft / Donald Davis -- Book Notes: Mammoth Cave saltpetre works -- Carlsbad Explained: Geology of Carlsbad Cavern and other caves in the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico and Texas by Carol A. Hill -- Interview iwth Roger McClure -- China karst conference -- Calendar.
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Vol. 16, no. 1 (1988)
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1988 --------::r::= ------CAVE SALTPETRf: WORKS.CIICA 1110-1111' --.:mt caw ...,......_ ...,. IDM:>ICW COUNTY OF l..rAc.HING STATION wo: !ZON ACTUIIi.. a' 1le lrJOCHNG IM "THIS OIWJ'I'G, tiSN:i rn:t1 NoiP A n:m_ a' n:: snt: I"'AA'11'k1Tlf CAll:. NATQ-.IAL. SITe M rT lefi-Jms: liC MCl5T HYR:IIllat:AL 1JTS (X' lA'ItUT Cl' '!He' Plft3 Iff) lH::' (X' IUDII'G "li!INK liC SIOY5 tJlOl \AT IU A Dll"'"!:ftNr .5lr!P IIi 111: LrA::HII'G lie P'* La!" \AT 15 eeltt:i Mu.cD WllH I> DII::II!Mitl ffil> "M:' WIT m:u:;H. RIGHT \AT UXIVIATt:D CIIR'TW 5 er=JI'G ASite. VOLUME 16, NUMBER 1 See "Saltpetre Works". p9.


FEBRUARY, 1988 READERS WRITE IN DEFENCE OF BACKSIGHTS I enjoyed the interview with Tony Waltham [November Newsletter]. However, I feel obliged to ralse 1ssue with his assertion that survey backsights are usually a waste of time. I argue that backsights are highly useful, even critical, when working in a large system like Mammoth. The issue boils down to one of uniformity of survey accuracy; backsights impose quality control in several ways. tl. The compass operator's detailed attention is demanded -it is embarrasing (and a pain) to repeat shots, particularly toward the end of a long trip, when one gets sloppy. 2). Poorly-skilled compass readers are identified (sometimes to their surprise) and can be helped. 3). Faulty instuments are detected, a remarkablY common experience. 4). Spurious situations, such as metal on the compass operator , or in the vicmity (pack, etc.), are detected. Backsights are worthwhile on vertical as well as azimuth. For instance, it is surprising how few know that laterally tilting a Suunto clinometer affects the slope measurement. These considerations apply particularly to the survey of a large, sprawling system such as Mammoth because hundreds of people (often of uncertain background) and thousands of survey stations are involved over manY years. Indeed, you can blow off backsights in a small cave -it probably will not matter. However, in a truly big one, backsights, both azimuth and vertical, although sometimes a hassle, temper cumulative uncertainties. Norm Pace CARLSBAD IS ONE CAVERN I noticed you had edited my cave names in the Lechuguilla article [November Newsletter] to the plural form Carlsbad Caverns. The correct form-J as established in current usage of the Park ;:;;ervice, is Carlsbad Cavern, as based on original usage in W. T. Lee's articles of the 1920s. The plural form is correct only in the name of Carlsbad Caverns National Park as a whole, in recognition of the unit's enlargement in 1930 to incorporate a number of separate "caverns". Use of the plural form for the main cavern alone seems to be a corruption resulting from confusion with the name of the whole Park. The NPS encourages use of the singular form by writers on Carlsbad Cavern, and I would recommend this be accepted as standard usage by all CRF authors. Donald Davis. [The correct form is duly noted. As an instance of the confusion, Jim White s 1932 book is titled 'The discovery and history of Carlsbad Caverns", while the text refers consistentlY to Carlsbad Cavern. MS/SH.J PAGE 2 CRF NEWSLETTER Volume 16, No.1 Established 1973 Editors, Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton Route 1, Box 110A Annapolis, MO 63620 Quarterly: Feb., May, Aug., Nov. Subscriptions $4.00 per year. Deadline: One month before the first of the issue month. The CRF NEWSLETTER is a publication of the Cave Research Foundation, a non-profit organization incorporated in 1957 under the laws of Kentucky for the purpose of furthering research, conservation, and education about caves and karst. For information about the CRF, write to: Ronald C. Wilson, CRF President, 1019 Maplewood Drive, Cedar Falls, IA 50613. LILBURN PROJECT HOSTS ANNUAL MEETING For the first time, CR F directors gathered in Fresno, California and Kings Canyon National Park for the annual members' meeting, which took place on October 8-10, 1987. Thursday afternoon was spent in meetings with National Park Service personnel; Friday was spent in closed session, during which the directors briefed each other on current projects and issues. Saturday included an open members' meeting among the big trees at Grant Grove followed by a delightful five mile backpack through the world's largest sequoia grove to the CRF field research station in Redwood Canyon. Sunday was spent in examining Lilburn Cave first hand. Directors took part in a number of projects, including water sampling and mappinq. Board actions focussed largely on reaffirmation of current goals, including support for the upcoming China expedition, publication of books and maps, cooperation with other groups

FEBRUARY, 1988 underground wilderness. James Borden, Peter Basted, and Mick Sutton were honored with election to membership in the Foundation. Directors took advantage of the opportunity to become better aquainted with California caving and cavers. Howard Hurtt, John Tinsley, Mike Spiess, and Pat Witt did a terrific job of hosting events in Fresno and organizing logistics for a productive and enjoyable meeting in the Sierras. Ron Wilson PHANTASPELEO /87 Last October I travelled to Italy as guest of the Centro Nazionale di Speleologia to address their annual gathering, Phantaspeleo '87. There is no central caving organization in Italy, but the CNS, a compendium of groups from Umbria and adjoining states, is similar in structure and purpose to the CRF. The festival attracted nearly 700 cavers from Italy and nearby nations. It was held in the Umbrian village of Costacciaro, a charming walled medieval town nestled at the foot of Mount Cucco, a cavernous block of limestone that juts 1000m above it. The CNS headquarters, in a very old building in Costacciaro includes a meeting room, auditorium, offices, Ubrary, and a luxurious dormitory. Elsewhere is a hydraulics lab for testing climbing implements and ropes. Most of the festival consisted of films and videos. In the exhibition area, I displayed many of our maps are involved. In Italy, some maps can't be put together because different groups had worked on the same cave using totally different systems. Another question concerned our funding; the audience applauded on learning that our mapping effort is privately funded

FEBRUARY, 1988 PAGE 4 EXPEDITIONS MAMMOTH CA.YE Labor DaY E xpedition. September 4-7 Leade r Ron Wilson: manager, Jan Hember ger. Thirty-nine cavers from 10 States and Br l ta10 gathered to support projects in cave htstory, art and science. Thanks to Rick Olson's coord ination efforts, biologists were especially abundant. Intensive biosurvey trai n ing took Place on a trip to Parker Cave in Cave CitY, while Tom Poulson gave an illustrated talk on terrestrial and aquatic c ave b i ology. Cave beetles were noted in an area of Great Onyx Cave where they had not been seen in over a decade emphasizing the need for continuous long-term monitoring. Photographer Wayne Levin started a cave photography pro Ject that produced exc iting i mages of White and Crystal Caves. Support for the narrative descripti on program continued along western Kentucky Avenue and at the New Entrance: a historical and cultural assessment was conducted in and around Serena' s Arbor. As usual, a great deal of effort went into Mammoth Cave cartography, Bob Osburn led a trip to Hawkins River, tidying up some of the mazy area about a mile up Fritch Avenue. They resurveYed 1000ft or so of the main l i ne which 10 thts area 1s low and continued up an unmapped ex tension which ended at a waterfall. Scott House continued the resurvey of Belfry Avenue, a major southflank trunk route. Resketching was the order of the day around Mount McKinley, and 10 a loop passage off Morrison Avenue. V isiting British caver Tony Waltham got a first hand look at CRF surveying techniques on a trip to remap far western Gravel Avenue. Work on the Ingalls Way* I Ralph Stone Hall complex continued : another crew worked at sorting out discrepancies in the Union Shafts/ Eyeless Fish Trail area off Pohl Avenue. [Ingalls Way has generally been known as "Engle Way". Recent histoncal research conclusively showed that "Ingalls" is correct.] ***** Columbus Dav October 10-12 Leader, M lck Sutton: manager Sue Hagan The expedition concentrated on bringing the Kentucky Avenue and Gravel Avenue manuscript maps closer to completion, though there was actiVity on other projects as well. Dan Raque's team mapped 800ft of wet, muddy crawl, to complete the worst part of the Hosken Trail/ Lower Gravel/ Gravel Avenue link. Discovered in 1970, the loop has never been tied together, thanks largely to the nature of the link passage (the gap shown on the poster map represents misclosure, not missing passage>. At the opposite end of the Gravel Avenue map, Tom Brucker et al mapped a dry crawl paralleling the south end of Gravel Avenue. This looped back to Gravel Avenue at the Jake's Trail Junction then continued off the map until it joined the "end" of one arm of the sub-Swinnerton network discovered last July. The new passage provides a second survey link between Gravel Avenue and the sub-Swinnerton passages. Northwest Passage got some overdue attention. Fish Brooks' crew was delayed by navigational problems, but they now thoroughly know the route down the Canyons of Absolon. They came back with 800ft of high-grade survey. This is the last of the major trunk passages of western Flint Ridge to be surveyed for the detailed map program. Paul Cannaley's crew continued work on the Ralph Stone Hall/ Ingalls Way area. They mapped 200ft of pits and canyons to complete a link between two earlier surveys. Many leads remain. Work under Mammoth Cave R i dge centered on the Bransford/ Mammoth River levels of the Kentucky Avenue map. Sue Hagan continued the resurvey of upstream Mammoth River (Hickel's Trickle>. Jim Kaufmann did some tidy-up work along the Bransford Avenue main line. Tom Cradick's crew continued mapping a long link in the intricate Bransford to Becky's Alley network. Tom notes "The passage had a lot of small detail that livened up the sketch. The old survey simply did not do Justice to this passage in terms of sketch." -nor in terms of closure.


FEBRUARY, 1988 Elsewhere, Fish Brooks resketched the north end of Fox Avenue. and Geor-9e De1ke filled in some omissions from the Morrison Avenue surveY. The 200ft of sandy crawl beyond the end of Morrison' s tour had never been mapped -it crossed back over Morrison Avenue before ending in sand fill. At the junction with Morrison's excavation, a soueeze through breakdown led to going cave, ending for now at a flowstone constriction. Mick Sutton resketched an upper loop off Robertson Avenue, then went to Belfry Avenue to tie in a link toE mmett's Ramble. George Deike led a party to resurvey the main line of Rhoda s Arcade, from Silliman Avenue to Julia's Dome. The Rodger's! Rhoda's survey line, together with the Silliman's! El Ghar tour trail, will form the main frame of a 1:600 Rhoda's Arcade area map. Rick Olson started a biological inventory of the Hawkins/ Logsdon River. Both forks of Hawkins River and the area around the Logsdon River swallow hole were examined. Bllndfish, crayfish, etc. were noted, and several invertebrates were collected for identification. Pools in the Right Fork were turbid, a possible indicator of septic tank pollution. Artificial substrates were suspended in both forks to monitor bacterial populations. Phil DiBlasi recorded historic signatures around Cleaveland Avenue, concentrating on Serena' s Arbor and Croghan Hall-the farthest end of the cave until the turn of the century. The earliest signature was 1843, two years after Stephen Bishop first entered Cleaveland Avenue. There was an interesting reference to" Nic [Bransford J, the Greatest Guide Now living 1857" -this must have been written shortly after Stephen's death. Rick Olson started a levelling survey up the New Entrance shafts to sort out the stratigraphy for a geological description -the New Entrance stairs give the tourist

FEBRUARY, 1988 note of optimism wa. s sounded, in that 11any passage in trds area could easll Y lead to Joppa tr unk or Lee cave". Work continued on the Mammoth Cave 1:600 maps. Two parties went to Hawkins River in support of Bob Osborn s map. They cleaned up many loose ends and cutarounds, and found a passage which continues as a low, wet crawl. Under Mammoth Cave Ridge, Lynn Brucker led a crew to map 500ft of grim chert crawl to finish the Bransford Avenue to Beck y' s Alley link. Scott House continued the Mai n Cave tourist trail resurvey, from MaYme' s Stoop to St. Catherine City. This will form the backbone of a new Main Cave 1 : 600 sheet. Tom Brucker led a trip to the Cathedral Domes upper levels, where they red i d some poor ties, mapped some new passage, found a good lead, and removed the old ropes from the Domes ascent. TheY used the soundest rope to exit via Florence Williams Dome. Scott House went to Fox Avenue to map 700ft of walking-high canyons, and to Kentucky Avenue to survey the old tour route from the New York Hippodrome to the Aero Bridge. In Flint Ridge, two parties went to Northwest Passage and did a 1500ft long leap-frog survey for Fish Brooks' map. Another party, led by Joseph Kaffl, resurveyed a trunk fragment off the Hosken Dra i n. Er i c Compas went to White Way to do tidy-up survey for the Mather/ Turner map. There is a lot of delicate gypsum in the area and extreme caution is advised. Tim Schafstall went to Pohl Avenue to resurvey from the Gallery Turnoff to Ruth's Room. In the same general area, Paul Cannaley went to Ralph Stone Hall to continue his efforts to document the complex of pits and canyons. No survey was accomplished, but a greater understanding of the area was obtained. Ron Wilson led into Upper Salts to look for more Indian drawings, following a hypothesis that the drawings are found in intersections leading back to the main passage. One small set of 11random" lines was identified. Angelo George led to the Pensacola Avenue area, and to an off-Park cave, to work on the lineaments and saltpetre history projects. Harry Grover photographed the Salts and Crvstal entrances, while Wayne Levin continued photographing the Frozen Niagara area. Richard Zopf finished an important PAGE 6 overland transit survey connecting the Doyel Valley and Frozen Niagara Entrancea. Rlck Olson went to Hawkins River to continue preliminary studies on the biota . GUADALUPES Columbus Day. October 10-12 Leader, Alan Williams Twelve people attended the Columbus Day Expedition. They spent 182 hours caving, and mapped over 2000ft, most of it new survey. The primary objective was field checking and filling in floor detail on the Carlsbad Cavern quadrangles. There were two trips into New Section for surveying and field checking in the upper F-fissure and Black River areas. Two trips to the Main Corridor filled in floor detail in the Devil's Spring area and defined the south wall above Iceberg Rock. One party went to the New M ex leo Room to resketch a passage off the lower southwestern edge of the room. Another party j ourneyed to the lower half of the Guadalupe Room to define detail on the massive, tilted breakdown slab which makes up the floor. Elsewhere, a party spent seven hours surveying over 800ft in a new backcountry cave, Cueva de Leon. ***** 1987 was a good year for attendance in the Guadalupe area. Including the Field Camp, there were 10 expeditions with 177 visits. The March expedition had the highest participation, with 28 attending; October was the lowest, with only seven. Seven JVs

FEBRUARY, 1988 0 500 FEET LILBURN CAVE Kings Canyon National Park, Califorma LILBURN H.;,.lloweeo. 30-31 Leader, Peter Basted. PAGE 7 Due to various problems, only three people showed up for this expeditlOn out of the twelve who originally signed up. On Friday, October 30, Ann and Peter Basted and Glen Malliet hiked in under sunny skies and began the survey of Cedar Cave, which was recently dug open after being silted shut for many Years [see November Newsletter]. We netted 320 feet in 42 stations, stopping where the cave finally opens up into larger passage with many leads. A strong breeze was noted 1n the crawlwaYs. We reached a depth of about 180 feet and were 2000' horizontallY from Lilburn Cave. On Saturday we donned our wetsuits to visit the Enchanted River

FEBRUARYP 1988 PAGE 8 LECHUGUILLA EXTENDED TO 7 MILES. -1207 FT The Lechugullla Cave, NM expedition of October 3-12, attended by 45 cavers, made discoveries even more superlative than those in August. The surveyed length was again more than doubled. to 37 ,300ft, and depth ex tended to 1207ft, third deepest in the U.S. The staight-line extent is now about 5700ft, longer than the corresponding 5000ft of Carlsbad Cavern. No major area was finished, and more leads remained at the end than at the start. Wooden Lettuce passage was mapped to the highest point in the cave, 26ft above the entrance. Other modest finds were made in the upper and middle levels, but the impressive discoveries were made in the lower levels, where t1-10 arms extend ENE and WSW, paralleling the reef front along a zone of heavily brecciated limestone. Apricot Pit, whose potential was unclear in August, led east to several thousand feet of large-scale maze, much of which lies below -1040ft. This is bounded on the north by Nirvana, a large, irregular gallery with the cave's most abundant decoration, including splendid white dripstone often set among blood-red flowstone and pools. Here lies the deepest point, -1181ft, in a lower alcove. South of Nirvana lies the Great Beyond, a breakdown room 200ft wide by 400ft long, and a low-level maze floored with ancient calcite rafts and walled bY bizarrly pitted, black-stained limestone with fields of potholes and rillenkarren. apparentlY etched by intense condensation corrosion when warm water stood at the bottom of the cave. South of the maze are other rooms up to 100ft high, incompletely explored. The western branch yielded revelations even more impressive. Above the Fortress of Chaos (the breakdown room found in August) was Pellucidar, 120ft wide by 300ft long. Here were soda straws 10-12ft long and two pools containing unique subaqueous helictites. Diamond Chamber, a low room off one end, was floored with shining solution-etched spar crystals, the residue of sparry bedrock dissolution. Beyond Fortress of Chaos, a low-level maze lined with mammilary crust was pushed WSW to the White Christmas Tree Room, where calcite-raft cones surround a lake near which almost invisible gypsum threads hang 15ft from the ceiling. From here, ascending boneyard popped into a v-junction with the most imposing corridor yet found. The south fork ascended for several hundred feet. It included three rooms more than 100ft wide, and ended at a climb which remains to be done. The main fork persisted WSW as an enormous conduit 50-150ft wide, 40-50ft high and more than 3000ft long, undulating over breakdown between the -920 and -1000ft levels. Part of this was named Winterlands for its glittering snowy gypsum, locally beset with miniature solution spires, drip pits, selenite crystal sprays, and gypsum stalagmites up to 6ft high. For hundreds of feet along the lower segments, the hall is floored with deep calcite-raft residues and lined with cloudlike mammilaries. 11Small11 side leads up to 20ft high by 10ft wide have been left unpushed. This extraordinary borehole ends in a breakdown mountain found, in the expedition's last hours, to climb 200ft into the largest room so far, estimated at 400ft wide. This barren and austere chamber seems to have large unexplored exits. Its discovery was a fitting ending for an expedition of exceptional challenge, in which ever more remarkable revelations burst forth in bewildering profusion. The longest mapping trips had cavers in the cave for 23-28 hours, and progress to remoter parts may soon require camping. There remain, however, many good leads in more accessible sections. The project is independent, but fit and vertically qualified JVs are welcome to participate, subject to space limitations; contact Rick Bridges (303-444-1962 or 449-3668>. The next expedition is scheduled for March 26 to April 4; tentative dates for the following expedition are May 21 to May 31. The National Park Service is considering seeking Congressional establishment of an 11 Underground Wilderness11 designation under which to manage the cave. This could re-open consideration of the concept for the Mammoth system and other Federal caves. Donald Davis


FEBRUARY, 1988 BOOK MAMMOTH CAVE TPETRE WORKS The cover illustration of the saltpetre operation in Mammoth Cave s Rotunda was produced bY the NPS Historic American Engineering Record. The function of HAE R is to record and preserve the industrial and engineering heritage of the United States. A team from HAER, assisted bY CRF mappers. did a detailed survey and inventory of the Mammoth Cave saltpetre works in the summer of 1986. The works are said to be the most complete example known of equipment used in the processing of cave saltpetre. The team measured each component of the processing works at the Rotunda and Booth's Amphitheater, and the pipes connecting these areas to the Historic Entrance. Architects Daniel Ellingson and Carla Hairston produced detalled engineering drawmqs of the components. from which theY reconstructed what the intact works must have looked like. Parts of the reconstruction (particularly the pumping operation of which little remains) are inevitablY speculative but the Pi cture is surprisingly complete. A detailed report bY historian Marsha Mullin tells the historY of the operation from a 1799 record of Mammoth Cave as a saltpetre s1te. through the heyday of the works during tr1 e war of 1812, to their present status as highlights of the Historic tour. The works 1.-vere abandoned about 1815. At the1r peak they may have supplied 115,000 pounds per Year ot h1gh oualitv saltpetre for qunpowder manufacturing. The document, Mammoth Cave Saltpetre Works. HAER KY 18 is due to be completed soon. Send inquiries to Division of Prints and Photographs, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., 20540. Anvone interested in this fascinating sidelight of early U.S. history should also purchase Duane De Paepe's excellent booklet, Gunpowder From Mammoth Cave , $5.75 ppd from Cave Books. Mick Sutton CARLSBAD EXPLAINED [JeologC of Cavern and other caves m the uadalufe ountains. New Mexico and Caro A. Alii. l'Jew Mexico Bureau of M lnes, 1987. 152pp. Signed copies $16.95 PPd from Cave Books Theories of limestone cave genesis by carbonic acid corrosion never seemed to flt very well the unusual form of Guadalupes caverns, with their large, irregular rooms, bli .nd Pits. lack of vadose streams. and enigmatic gypsum deposits. It has gradually G become apparent that speleogenesis in the 1 uadalupes

FEBRUARY, 1988 PAGE 10 INTERYIEW WITH ROGER McCLURE Roger McClure has been involved with the exploration and mapping of Mammoth Cave longer than any other active caver. He ls one of the few who predate the 1954 NSS Collins Crystal Cave Expedition. He is on the CRF Board of Directors as Treasurer and chair of the Publlcat10ns Committee. He is the primary organizer of the Endowment Fund. On January 3rd, in the midst of a survey trip to Mammoth Cave's Fox Avenue, we conducted the following interview. Although Roger was a bit reticent about personal achievements, it soon became evident that his legacy to CRF is great. Sue & Mick My first visit to Mammoth Cave was when I was a Boy Scout. Phil Smith and I were in the same troop. Later we were roommates in college, and we got thinking about what it would be like to do some caving. We read some books at the library and got started with mapping some small caves for the Ohio Geolog leal Survey. We visited Mammoth Cave, hitchhiking from Columbus, Ohio, to Cave City and sometimes walking from Cave CitY to the Mammoth Cave hotel, 'We'd talk to some of the guides and I remember they loaned us lanterns so we could explore some of the small caves nearby. About this time, we discovered the NSS, and we formed the Central Ohio Grotto. Roger Brucker was an airman in the Air Force and we recruited him. We first ran into Jim Dyer [manager of Crystal Cave J in Columbus when he was looking for a Job. Jim was going to take Phil, Roger .and myself to look at Floyd's Lost Passage, but he got the flu so he imposed. on Blll Austin to take us in the cave. In 1954, we applied to partake in the NSS Expedition at Crystal Cave, and they accepted us to haul supplies but, of course, we got to do some of the surveying. After the week-long expedition, the NSS had no more interest in the cave. Several of us decided there was great potential and we wanted to keep on, so we managed to talk Dr .Pohl and Bill Austin into letting us continue. There was an effort by Austin and Pohl to enhance the value of the cave, because the Park Service were interested in buying it. I went with Austin a couple of times on the Unknown Entrance trips; they had made a modification of the gate at Unknown so they could get in without it being obvious. Recently I helped resurvey that section from the inside. The climb isn't as difficult as it looks; you see a small hole that you somehow have to get to, and from down below lt look5 impossible, but once you've done it lt's not so bad. I shot compass more than anything, and Roger Brucker did book. Our techniques changed with experience. For example, one day Roger fell asleep, but it wasn't for a couple of stations that we found this out. From then on, I expected the bookkeeper to call back the numbers. The Korean War was going when 1 started college and everyone had to join the ROTC for two years. Because I wanted to finish college and because I didn't want to get drafted into the Army, 1 was in ROTC all four years. After that, I signed up and found I enjoyed fly lng so much I ended up staying 30 years. I had Just gone in the Air Force when CRF was started. Red Watson wasn't around either, but because we weren't there tor the founding meeting, they elected us as the first members. After that, I came back whenever I could. Sometimes I would fly in and buzz the Austin house; someone would drive over to the airport and pick me up. I think we had a scientific interest from the beginning. We enJoyed caving, but when we riccochetted through the cave, it was so intriguing we wanted to document it, not just sport cave through it. The organization didn't start off with professional scientists, but we wanted to support their activities. The cartography efforts were one way of doing that. For the last 15 years, I have lived close enough to regularly participate. One of my goals, and I feel I was reasonably successful, was to build up the Endowment Fund. It was started in 1974 with. a few thousand dollars. In the last six years, we have given away $24,000 for cave related. research, and we still have probably $60,000 ln the Fund. All the money has been raised by CR F people no big companies, grants, or other sources -Just CR F people donating because they care about the work being done. Bill Mann gave a substantial amount to further the cartography program, and Red Watson has been another large contributor. Various other members have been very generous. A lot of the older members aren't caving any more, but their financial condition ln life has improved and they want to stay involved and support what's going on. Cave Books really doesn't make us any money, but we do look for things that will


FEBRUARY. 1988 recover our investment. Everything has been marginally successful. .. tr1e market for cave books is small, so we hope to find things that will Interest the general public as well. Right now we are working on getting the Atlas of the Longest and Deepest Caves of the World translated from French and into publication. We're also planning a book on cave photography. It's a big job getting a major publication ready. We survive in the business because we do a lot of the work ourselves as volunteers. I haven't had a bad cave trip yet. It's a little disturbing, though, to think of the deterioration that's occurred in the places we go to-the River, Old Grandad -when we first went through these areas it was virgin cave, but through the years it's deteriorated. Some of it can't be avoided, but some of it is carelessness. Where FloYd's coffin is, there used to be a beautiful gypsum garden, but workmen destroYed it when they removed the old lighting system. Even the tourist areas have changed. Snowball Dining Room in the mid-50's really had white snowballs. I retired in the summer of 1986. MY two daughters are grown, and I have two grandchildren. My wife has been wonderful; she's supported all I've done. I'm on various boards -the National Speleological Foundation is one. Another is an aviation group-we're trying to open a former Wright Brothers cycle shop as a museum. CRF has consumed a bit of mY time through the years. You work in the cave because you enjoy it. and then you start doing some of the other things because you enjoy doing those as well. And there are some things you don't enjoy, but you do them anyway because they go along with it. I still find caving a mentally relaxing thing to do. You can leave the other world and step into a new environment. I guess I have had an interest in the highs and lows of things. I flew for the Air Force and went in the depths of the cave. MORE NSS AWARDS The following were omitted from the list of members and JVs receiving awards [November Newsletter]. *** An NSS Fellowship was awarded to Bill Yett. *** Photo Salon medals were won by Ron Simmons and Ann and Peter Basted. Other awards went to Carol Vesely, Dave Bunnell, Barbara am Ende and Horton Hobbs. Congratulations to all. PAGE 11 CHINA KARST CONFERENCE The participants of the CRF China expedition have been selected, but there is an alternative connection to the Chinese karst. The International Association of Hydrogeologists UAH) will hold their 21st Congress in Guilin, Guanxi Province, on October 10-15, 1988. Guilin is in the center of the fabulous tower karst of southern China. The theme of the meeting is "Karst Hydrogeology and Karst Environment Protection". The Congress will provide an opportunity to meet karst researchers from around the world. Topics will include regional groundwater analysis and management, water resource evaluation, prediction and prevention of sinkhole collapse, and the compilation of hydrogeological maps in karst areas. Simultaneous translation services will be available. Registration for non-IAH members is $230 before March 1 1988 and $270 thereafter. Hotels rooms are $35-$45 per night

CALENDAR Mammoth Cave Expeditions Preslr:Jent'e Febru.jry 12-15 Tom Brucker 615-331-3568

Perspective of rotunda
leaching station / Dan Ellison --
Readers Write: Indefence of backsights / Norm Pace --
Carlsbad is one cavern / Donald Davis --
Lilburn project hosts annual meeting / ron Wilson --
Phantaspeleo '87 / Scott House --
Survey data reduction / Eric Compas --
Expeditions: Mammoth Cave: Labor Day expedition,
September 4-7, Leader, Ron Wilson: manager, Jan Hemberger --
Columbus Day, October 10-12, Leader, Mick Sutton: manager
Sue Hagan --
Thanksgiving expedition, November 26-29, Leader, Phil
DiBlasi: manager, Buzz Grover --
Guadalupes: Columbus Day, October 10-12, Leader, Alan
Williams --
Lilburn: Halloween, October 30-31, Leader, Peter Bosted
CRF China expedition '88 --
Lechuguilla extended to 7 miles 1207 ft / Donald Davis
Book Notes: Mammoth Cave saltpetre works --
Carlsbad Explained: Geology of Carlsbad Cavern and other
caves in the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico and Texas by Carol
A. Hill --
Interview iwth Roger McClure --
China karst conference --


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Cras ut cursus ante, a fringilla nunc. Mauris lorem nunc, cursus sit amet enim ac, vehicula vestibulum mi. Mauris viverra nisl vel enim faucibus porta. Praesent sit amet ornare diam, non finibus nulla.


Cras efficitur magna et sapien varius, luctus ullamcorper dolor convallis. Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Fusce sit amet justo ut erat laoreet congue sed a ante.


Phasellus ornare in augue eu imperdiet. Donec malesuada sapien ante, at vehicula orci tempor molestie. Proin vitae urna elit. Pellentesque vitae nisi et diam euismod malesuada aliquet non erat.


Nunc fringilla dolor ut dictum placerat. Proin ac neque rutrum, consectetur ligula id, laoreet ligula. Nulla lorem massa, consectetur vitae consequat in, lobortis at dolor. Nunc sed leo odio.