Citation
Cave Research Foundation newsletter

Material Information

Title:
Cave Research Foundation newsletter
Series Title:
Cave Research Foundation newsletter
Alternate Title:
CRF newsletter
Creator:
Cave Research Foundation
Publisher:
Cave Research Foundation
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Resource Management ( local )
Genre:
Newsletter
serial ( sobekcm )
Location:
United States

Notes

General Note:
Mihalic's management plans -- Lechuguilla cave video project needs support -- Russian speleologists meet CRF -- Operation Raleigh / Mel Park -- Red Watson receives NSS' highest honor -- Other NSS awards -- Carlsbad crickets / Diana E. Northrup -- Mammoth microbes / Karl Rusterholtz -- Conservative caving / Richard Zoph -- Expeditions: Lilburn: August 20-21 Leader, Carol Vesely -- August 27 Leader: Peter Bosted -- Guadalupes / July 2-4 Leader, Dave Logan -- Labor Day, September 3-5 Leaders, Dave and Susan Ecklund -- Missouri: July through September, 1988 / Mike Sutton -- Mammoth Cave: Geology Trip, April 4-6 -- June 14-20 Leaders - Scott House, Mel Park -- July 2-9 Leader, Pete Lindsley -- August 6 Leader, Tim Schafstall -- Labor Day, September 2-5 Leaders Mick Sutton and Sue Hagan -- Mammoth trivia -- Changing attitudes: an interview with Donald G. David / Norm Pace -- Grand Gulf / Sue Hagan -- Partners in parks / Sarah Bishop -- Book Notes: Geomorphology and Hydrology of Karst Terrains by William B. White -- Lechuguilla's mileage surpasses Carlsbad / Donald Davis -- What's happening at Roppel? / Jim Borden -- Afterword / Sue Mick -- Calendar.
Restriction:
Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Version:
Vol. 16, no. 4 (1988)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
K26-00735 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.735 ( USFLDC Handle )
11922 ( karstportal - original NodeID )

USFLDC Membership

Aggregations:
Karst Information Portal

Postcard Information

Format:
Serial

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

NOVEMBER 1988 VOLUME 16,NUMBER4 MIHALIC'S MANAGEMENT PLANS On September 2, Mammoth Cave Superintendent David Mihalic discussed with the CRF News letter editors his plans for improving NPS management at the Park Mihalic, in his eighth month at the Cave, expressed his enthusiasm for the Park: "Mammoth Cave is truly a unique area of the National Park Service and is one of the most magnificent cave resources in the world ... Mammoth Cave National Park is not merely the Mammoth Cave system, but everything on the surface as well." Mihalic's management policies are based in part on the Cave Management Plan proposed last year [see sidebar, p 4]. Although the plan still awaits official approval, it is now effectively in day to day use. Mihalic emphasized that protection of the cave requires strong public education. To provide more than simply a guided tour, he believes the Park must build on the traditions of the guide service at Mammoth Cave and the mandate of interpretation at the NPS. "Preservation is dependent not only on what we do on the surface but on what goes on beyond the National Park boundaries ... we have to ensure that the visitor leaves with a greater understanding of the relationship between the surface and the sub surface ... enough to understand the importance of sanitary landfills of the groundwater resources, the effects of pollution back home ... one of the keys to protecting the cave is to make sure that the people who visit the park and those who live near the park will help to protect the resource." He envisions the NPS working closely with others such as local civic groups, the American Cave Conservation Association in Horse Cave, Friends of the Park, and Kentucky school children, to ensure a better informed public. Referring to the volunteer groups interested in Mammoth Cave as "friends groups" he pointed out, "They all have a role to play in terms of their own specific interests ... as long as each group is trying to foster the interests of the Park, one doesn't tum away offered help." He added, "The most important special interest group has to be the caving community, and in this park the most important part of the caving community is the CRF. The question is how do we develop a hand in glove relationship. CRF is the best example of a volunteer group working collaboratively with the Park Service. The only other group that approximates it is Sarah Bishop's 'Partners in Parks', and that is modelled after CRF." Mihalic stressed that though there may have been problems in the past between CRF and MCNP, he hopes for a closer alliance "CRF has been saying for a long time that the relationship could be better ... the improvement of this relationship is one of my immediate goals." Several meetings between CRF board members and Superintendent Mihalic have already taken place and he plans to attend the CRF Annual Meeting in November. Two items on the agenda for discussion are the cartography program and the Flint Ridge field station. He admits he still is not fully informed about CRF cartography, but raises questions regarding the 1 : 600 detailed mapping project that has been underway for the past three years. "I think that CRF has purposes that fit its own internal needs. At the same time, the National Park Service also has their needs and I don't think those needs have been recognized very widely in the past.. .I want to make sure that we are not focusing on the process rather that we are focusing on the product." sees a need for input from both sides, and for an agreement on basic standards. He expressed a willingness to discuss with CRF how the detailed maps may serve as a basis for other research projects that the NPS recognizes as falling within its management plan. Continued P4 ...

PAGE 2

2 CRF NEWSLETTER Volume 16, No.4 Established 1973 Editors, Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton Route 1, Box llOA Annapolis, MO 63620 Production Manager, Richard Zopf Quarterly: Feb., May, Aug., Nov. Subscriptions $4.00 per year. Free to members and JV s. Deadline: One month before the first of the issue month The CRF NEWSLEITER is a publication of the Cav e Research Foundation, a non-profit organization incorporated in 1957 under the laws of Kentucky for the purpose of furthering re searc h, conservation, and ed uc atio n about caves and karst. For inform a tion about the CRF, write to: Ron a ld C. Wilson, CRF President, 1019 Maplewood Drive #211 Cedar Falls, IA 50613. BULLETIN BOARD ADDRESS CORRECfiONS. Moved? Missing some copies? (The New s letter is not forwarded). Send address corrections to Richard Zopf, 830 Xenia Avenue, Yellow Springs, OH 45387, with $1.00 for each back issue requested. CRF ANNUAL REPORT. Last call for submissions for the 1988 Annual R e port. Please send your contributions on cave and karst research, CRF related activities, details of papers published, talks given, etc. to Kar e n Lindsley, Route 9, Box 221, M c Kinney TX 75069. Reports may be mailed on disk as ASCII files. Contributors will receive a complimentary copy EASTERN OPERATIONS MANAGER Mel Parl<. has a new address: 1541 Peabody A venue, Memphis, TN 38104-3830. Ph : (901)-272-9393 (H), (901)-528-5984 (W). CARLSBAD MAP FOLIO: The preliminary edition of the Carlsbad Cavern maps, at a scale of 100ft: lin., are now available in book form (11 in x 17in.). The maps are of rough draft quality; this edition is being made available prior to the drafting of the more formal inked edition to spee d the distribution of information. They may be ordered from Rich Wolfert, 5930 Blanca Court, Golden, CO 80403 for $8.00 ppd. C RF Newsletter LECHUGUILLA CAVE VIDEO PROJECT NEEDS SUPPORT The Denver Museum of Natural History is making a videotape about Lechuguilla Cave, and will broadcast it over public television early this winter. We hope the show will be broadcast nationwide. The video will be used by the NPS and others to promote wilderness status for Lechuguilla Cave The caving community has a unique opportunity to help direct public policy concerning caves through financial support of the Lechuguilla Project. With pristine and spectacular caves becoming increasingly scarce, the NSS/CRF Cave Wilder ness Subcommittee is asking cavers to help towards the goal of raising $20,000 needed to produce the video Some major corporations are willing to help, but we must show our interest with our dollars in order to attract theirs. We hope that cavers will contribute at least $5,000 of the total. CRF has donated $1000; your contri butions to support the Foundation's interest in this project are welcomed. Tax deductible donations should be sent to: Development Office Denver Museum of Natural History 2001 Colorado Blvd Denver, CO 80205 Attn: Lechuguilla Project. Be sure to indicate on your check and in a short note that you are donating to the Lechuguilla Project. Look in your local TV listing after Thanksgiving, and let CRF know if it is broad cast in your area and what you think about it (write to Sarah Bishop, 4916 Butterworth Place, Washington, D.C. 20016). NSS/CRF Cave Wilderness Subcommittee. RUSSIAN SPELEOLOGISTS MEET CRF In early August, three professional cavers from the USSR made the first official Soviet speleo logical visit to the U.S.A., and CRF played host enroute. At Mammoth Cave, George Wood conducted a tour through the Austin Entrance via Pohl A venue, up Brucker Breakdown, to Turner A venue. Ron Kerbo was CRF host at Carlsbad where off-trail touring included Lake of the Clouds. Two of the Russian cavers were also given a tour of Lechuguilla Cave. It is hoped that this first visit will pave the way for future international exchanges

PAGE 3

November 1988 OPERATION RALEIGH Hardly an expedition on Flint Ridge is without an international guest or two. Last year we have hosted visitors from Belgium, Britain, Indonesia, China, and the Soviet Union-experienced cavers or cave scientists who have ties with CRF and want to experience our operations in the world's longest cave. In August and September, we filled our ranks with another kind of guest, thirty very fit and very motivated Operation Raleigh participants. These people, aged roughly 18 to 23, were pre dominantly British, but included a mix of nation alities from Asia, Europe, Australia, Africa and North America. They had contracted with Mammoth Cave National Park to spend two months, one month for each group of 14 to 18 people, in the Park, training and doing volunteer work, such as cataloging and surveying ceme teries, small cave survey and inventory north of the Green River, and cleaning up in Mammoth Cave. This was one stop in a summer spent at several locations around the world doing some rather tough stuff, learning team survival skills and pushing themselves to the limit. The highlight of their experience in Kentucky, though, was taking part in in a CRF expedition. For some of the participants, their first cave trip had taken place just days before, but like a lot of people with little or no prior experience that CRF has picked up over the years (Carol Hill and Richard Zopf come to mind) the Operation Raleigh people had natural ability and moved like pros in the cave. In August, our manpower was stretched thin, but expedition leader Tim Schafstall was able to juggle parties and get a lot done The Operation Raleigh people could read compass and do point along with the best. In September, fewer over size parties were necessary. Again, our visitors contributed as much as any JV. A lot of survey was accomplished that would not have been possible without their help. In addition to the work done and the name we made for ourselves to an international audience, for many JV s it was a rare and remembered experience. The image sticks in my mind of the look of fascination on Kentuckian Kevin Downs' face as he talked into the wee hours with a British pair whose accent, experience and outlook were anything but what one might know from Louis ville. That picture alone makes it worthwhile. Mel Park. 3 RED WATSON RECEIVES NSS' HIGHEST HONOR In the August Newsletter we reported the high honor received by Patty Jo Watson when she was elected to membership in the National Acadamy of Sciences. This time, it's Red's turn. At its annual meeting on July 1 in Hot Springs, South Dakota, the National Speleological Society awarded Professor Richard Watson an honorary life membership (one of only 27 such awarded over the lifetime of the NSS). Red was cited for distinguished contributions to speleology. He began exploring caves in 1950, and by 1954 was deeply involved in the exploration of the Flint Ridge cave system. From 1965 through 1967 Red served as president of the CRF With Roger Brucker, he published the story of the Flint Ridge Mammoth Cave connection in one of the classics of speleological literature, The Longest Cave. He has also published a novel about cave exploration, Under Plowman's Floor, and has written numerous articles on the geology of caves and karst. He is editor of CRF's pub lishing branch, Cave Books, and is described as the premier editor of cave literature in the world, having edited nearly 50 books on cave-related topics. Besides being a member of the NSS and CRF, he is active in the Speleo Club de Paris, and was recently involved in human isolation experiments in caves under the direction of French speleologist Michel Siffre. In presenting the award, NSS President John Scheltens remarked that few people have made as extensive and wide-ranging contributions to speleology as has Red Watson. Other NSS Awards Richard Watson was not the only CRF member I JV to be honored at the NSS convention. Winning medals at the cartographic salon were Carol Vesely, for her map of Cueva Inclinada, Oaxaca, Rod Horrocks, for his map of Rock Springs, Utah, and Rick Bridges and Alan Williams, who, along with Andy Lutch, produced the line-map of Lechuguilla Cave. Medals in the photo salon were won by Peter and Ann Bosted, Dave Bunnell, Bill Frantz, Ron Simmons, and Carol Vesely. Vertical prowess was exhibited by Nancy Pistole and Jim Goodbar. Congratulations to all the award winners.

PAGE 4

4 Mihalic ... cont. from page 1 Mihalic also made it clear that he intends to move the Flint Ridge operations: "The facilities were never designed for the activities carried out there, and are inadequate .. .it's not good for you guys and it's not good for the Park. Some of the problems with the Flint Ridge field station are the use of historic structures (the Collins Home and the Ticket Office), potential pollution from the pit toilets, and the deteriorating condition of the Austin House. CRF has strong ties to the Flint Ridge location going back to pre-NPS ownership and to the origins of the Foundation in the mid 19 50s A ware that the prospect of being moved off the Ridge will be unsettling to many, Mihalic announced his intention to involve CRF in planning for the change: "No one should jump to the conclusion that the options are bleak. What we do in the future is something we will have to work out together." The superintendent also discussed changes in the tour operations. As part of the Snowball Dining Room cleanup [see Newsletter Aug '88], both the Park Service and the concessionaire will make changes, such as the elimination of steam tables and electric hand dryers, to reduce humidity and minimize future damage to the gypsum snow balls. Restoration, including the removal of modern graffitti, is another high management priority. In the Historic section, the Park Service is experimenting with colored lights to reduce algal growth, and automatic switches. Under consideration is a self-guided visitor's tour to the Rotunda and back, but Mihalic was quick to point out that he is not proposing a major self-guided tour: "There are too many areas that cannot be adequately monitored." Mihalic also supports the removal of the Green River lock and dam, calling it a "detriment to the Park." In addition, he supports the replacemenrof at least one of the two ferry operations with a bridge. The ferry costs $200,000 per year to operate, money he feels could be better spent elsewhere: "The purpose of the National Park is not to provide transportation but to protect the Park." Mihalic would like to see parts of Mammoth Cave designated as wilderness He points out the falacy of the argument that surface wilderness designation automatically protects underlying caves: In the history of wilderness legislation, "Congress has consistently excluded the subsur face from protection. At Mammoth Cave, wilderness designation would apply only to the cave (not the surface), only to those parts under lying the Park boundaries, and only to those parts CRF Newsletter not already developed. Wilderness status would "prevent further development by the NPS" and would be "a recognition of the importance of the cave." He sees future expansion of recreational caving opportunities in the Park, though not necessarily in the Mammoth Cave system itself, except under special circumstances. Mammoth Cave is Superintendent Mihalic's first experience with cave resource management. He has had little experience with caves in the past ("I visited Wonder Cave and Meramec Caverns as a kid") and would like to join CRF in some of its trips. Most important from a CRF perspective, he is open to dialogue and, like CRF, values the resource highly: "I think this is one of the neatest parks in the National Park System." I MCNP Management Plan l I The Mammoth Cave Management Plan is an adjunct I to the general Resource Management Plan. The Plan still awaits approval at the Regional level, but is effectively in use. It identifies specific problems and solutions relating to all the Park's caves, and descibes a 5-year program to address the identified needs. Some of the high priority projects are : *** Continued support of the regional sewage plan Groundwater pollution originating in com munities outside the Park has a profound detrimental impact on water flowing into Mammoth Cave, and the financial assistance of the Park in setting up an adequate sewage system for the region is critical to ensure the survival of many of the Park's unique ecological communities. ***Mitigation of other threats to the ground water. Problems from chemical spills, oil seepage, etc. will continue to be monitored. Abandoned oil and gas wells in the Park, a significant source of groundwater pollution, are gradually being located and capped. Hydrological research to provide base line data will continue, with a proposed extension of the program to groundwater basins north of the Green River. *** Algal growth control. The reduction or elimination of green algae around light sources will take two approachesshort-term elimination with bleach, and long-tenn control by appropriate lighting systems ***Gate Repair. Cave gates will be monitored, and funds sought for repair where needed. ***Snowball Room Cleanup. see August Newsletter. Many of the proposed projects call for substantial CRF assistance. These include the establishment of an ecological data base and the inventory of rare or unusual species, the description and inventory of smaller Park caves and, not least, the continuing I exploration, inventory and description of the _j moth Cave System.

PAGE 5

November 1988 CARLSBAD CRICKETS Carlsbad Cavern provides an intriguing area in which to investigate community ecolooy and to study the interactions of two species of camel cricket. Since December 1984 I and a group of volunteers have been studying Carlsbad Cavern's two species of Ceuthophilus. Of the two, C.longipes is more cave adapted than C.carlsbad ensis, and was fmmerly thought to be troglobitic. To investigate differences between the two, pit fall traps have been set in three areas: Bat Cave (a guano community with many species of arth ropods), Sand Passage (an area with four insect species-the two crickets, Rhadine beetles and diplurans), and Left Hand Tunnel (with the same species composition as Sand Passage). We are documenting species diversity, the relative abundance of species in each location, and seasonal fluctuations in population numbers. Ccuthophilus carlsbadens is ... Drawing by Jim Hardy We have observed the mating habits of the camel crickets. In the insect world, as in humans, often vie for females' attention and fight with each other. While this is common in field crickets (the ones that keep you awake with their chirping), we observed little male-male interac tion in our experiments. The males check out the females with their antennae and try to induce them to mate. The females appear to demonstrate t_l. 1eir choosy nature by refusing some males. The held assistants, working under red lighting, often e ncourage the camel crickets, and the field notes read like a grade-B porno novel. The pictures aren't that exciting though. I'll never make money selling cricket porn! We have also investigated activity rhythms (who's active at what time of day), and have documented egg production and feeding habits. !he results are finalized in my thesis. One mteresting trend in Bat Cave has been the response by guano moths and tenebrionid (black) b e etles to the five-fold increase in the number of bats last year. The cycle of fluctuations in the c an:el is more complex and we are just begmnmg to discern a pattern. 5 Another interesting result was the difference in species diversity among the three areas. Left Hand Tunnel has the same species composition as Sand Passage but a different pattern of relative abundances These differences are being further explored through a censusing project in the Big Room and Left Hand Tunnel. I'm always in need of field help. Chocolate chip cookies are used as inducements. Diana E. Northrup MAMMOTH MICROBES Little is known about bacteria in caves. It is thought that most of the productivity in a cave ecosystem is microbial in nature. In addition to the production of biomass, microbes are of fun damental importance in the cycling of nutrients and the production of cofactors necessary for the growth and survival of larger organisms. Microbial biomass is produced by either carbon dioxide fixation coupled with the oxidation of simple organic or inorganic compounds, or through the use of organic compounds as both carbon and energy sources. Energy sources in the form of reduced inorganic substances (e.g. ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, ferrous iron) and organic compounds, enter the cave primarily through water flow and air currents. Because of its diverse habitats and controlled access to most areas Mammoth Cave is an ideal place to carry out basic research on the microbial ecology of caves. Larry Mallory and his trusty indentured servant (graduate student) Karl Rusterholtz plan to describe the occurence, con centration, and activity of free-living bacteria in saturated gravel, sand, silt and clay In addition isolated strains will be classified using phenetic, chemotaxonomic and genetic methods. All results will be significant in so far as a research project of this scope has never been reported. It is impossible to anticipate the specific results, but some predictions can be tested. We expect to find: 1) relatively high concentrations of bacteria, similar to that of unpolluted groundwater, 2) fairly high con centrations (> 10% ) of actively respiring cells, 3) efficient nutrient cycling, reducing the concentrations of limiting nutrients to very low levels, 4) extreme diversity among the isolated strains, 5) the occurence of unknown bacterial strains, which will be isolated and described.

PAGE 6

6 The project is expected to span 2-5 years or more. One sample site has been established near Lucy's Dome; if anyone knows of other loca tions in Mammoth Cave that have saturated sand with water percolating down from above (such as may be seen in a s hallow pool), please contact either Dr Mallory or myself at Plant and Soil Sciences Department, Stockbridge Hall, University of Massachussets, Amherst, MA 01002 Karl Rusterholtz CONSERVATIVE CAVING While virtually every jointventurer is aware of the basics of cave conservation, there are two areas in which most cavers can improve. We must continually learn new techniques to lessen our impact on the cave, and we must implement strategies to make sure those techniques are used. Motivation for t,rreater care comes from an appreciation of the cave, but there are several additional factors. We are part of a public orga nization which usually works in public caves whose protection is mandated by government; we are watched, and should set the best example. Further, we often work in exceptional caves which merit exceptional care. While we recognize the significance of the caves where we work, we are only beginning to understand them. The quality of our research depends in part on the non-destructive use of the resource. We need to understand the cave so we know what causes damage, and what features are the most sensitive. But in addition to consciously doing the least harm, we need to develop good habits so we do minimal damage when we are not thinkingprobably the biggest threat to the ca ve from the average JV is unintentional dam age. Since our very presence in the cave changes it, every trip should be designed to gather the mo s t infonnation with the least time and dist a nce underground. In the cave, there should be a constant interchange of explanation and infom1ation to encourage understanding of the passages, and to set an example of how to behave. We need to practice conservation skills in all parts of the cave, regardless of their present condition Our oper a tions in Mammoth Cave exemplify how we have worked underground and how we continue to operate with ever more concern. The present era of exploration in the Mammoth Cave area is forty years old. In the early clays, cavers left carbide and trash dumps, signs, arrows, and signatures, and there was little understanding by most people of how to minimize damage while traveling. Now there are discrete trails in heavily traveled areas, CRF Newsletter party leaders are generally skilled in finding efficient routes, and most people are cognizant of archaeological, biological, geological, hydro logical, historical, and aesthetic features. We have gone from minimal note taking and cerebral data storage to elaborate data collecting and a wide variety of permanent, accessible records. We learn to make these changes by seeing good examples, by reading caving manuals and literature, and by talking about our concerns. Many JV's come to Mammoth Cave with strong caving habits, some of which may be inappropriate. The list of ways to be a low impact caver is long, but here are some seldom mentioned helpful guidelines. *** When traveling, treat all parts of the cave equally. The good habits developed in less sensitive areas will then be automatic when needed. *** Cave as much as possible during your normal waking hours because you are most alert then. Don't cave when you are too tired to care. *** Learn as much about the cave as you can, and share that information. ***Plan trips to collect the most information with the least time and travel underground. Don't take short trips, where the ratio of travel to data collected is high *** Leave the least impact of your presence. The less you carry in, the easier it is. ***We respect that which has already been respected. Keep this circle in good order. Research enhances caving. It enables us to learn to preserve the cave. It broadens our scope of appreciation. It gives us access to the most spectacular caves of the world. It allows us to share and perpetuate magnificent experiences. It is the foundation of understanding which in tum engenders concern and conservation Richard Zopf

PAGE 7

November 1988 7 EXPEDITIONS LILBURN August 20-21 Leader, Carol Vesely Twelve participants surveyed about I 720ft in Lilburn Cave and 90ft in Cedar Cave. On Friday, one team surveyed 400ft of stream w a shed passage high in the Alto Stream area, finding some nice flowstone and a green/blue mineral deposit that was not identified. They netted about 450ft in 35 stations On Saturday, all twelve cavers entered Lilburn. Two teams travelled via the Old Entrance to the Yell ow Floored Domes area. One team conthe twin 80ft pits to the Flush Room by lowenng a survey tape with a stone tied around the end, then closed a large loop by surveying to the Mousetrack passage Finally they mapped a n e w passage back near the Yell ow Floored Domes, for a total of 520ft. The other team resurveyed a 250ft loop and added 75ft of p a ssage in another small loop. Some tight leads remain The third party added 340ft of new survey in the Attic, Attic. Two leads connected at a tall, well decorated dome room. An ascending tube in this high area was climbed to well over 50ft and it s till continues with air flow Another lead went t o a deep canyon where an unexplored passage could be seen but not reached on the other side. On Sunday, the Meyer Entrance derigging team surveyed an additional 80ft in the Crystal Crawl area. On the hike out two cavers stopped to s urvey 90ft in nearby Cedar Cave. Survey Crews:-Alto Stream Complex -P e ter B as t e d, Brent Ort, Mike Quirk; Yellow Floored Domes-l)Peter Bosted, Brent Ort, Ann Basted, Mark Tillman; 2)Joel D e spain Richard Chang Mike Quirk Phil Darling; Attic, Attic Carol Vesely, Paul N e l s on, Scott Schmitz, Jeff Jacoboski; Cedar CaveC a rol Vesely, Joel Despain. Correspondents Carol Vesely, Peter Basted August 27 Leader : Peter Bosted A second trip to Lilburn occured the following weekend when four visiting Swiss cavers were down to Redwood Canyon. Since the group included two good climbers,they decided to push leads at the south end of the cave. Ropes, climbing gear, and a boat were carried in. Unfortunately, when they arrived at the Z-room, the water level was about 10 ft higher than normal due to large amounts of sand. sand most likely comes from a huge new smkhole that opened up over the winter in Pebble Pile Creek. The high water prevented them from reaching the South Seas, which proved to be completely flooded Other high leads in the area were checked instead. Phillipe Rouiller ascended the Yell ow Floored Domes for over 120 ft to a boulder choke. A short cutaround was surveyed complete the map of this area. Since the group mcluded an excellent photographer (Urs Widmar, who produces the International Caving Calen dar), several hours were spent taking photos of the banded marble. Participants: Peter and Ann Bast e d, Phillip e Rouill e r Pierre-Yves Jeanen, Urs Widmar, Ur s i e Sommer. GUADALUPES July 2-4 Leader, Dave Logan Thirteen cavers contributed 190 hours of work during the July expedition at Carlsbad Cavern The work consisted primarily of field-checking the map quadrangles and surveying A 40ft deep pit, which had been uncovered during the cleanup of the Texas Trail in June, was descended The pit appeared to have been unentered there were no footprints It led to a large fracture, 130ft long, and three small rooms, one of which was well decorated with flowstone The passages may connect to Middle Earth via a tight passage, which would require a very small caver. The bottom of the pit contains debris presumably from the original trail building Removal of the dump may reveal more passage The ramifications amounted to 590ft of new survey. In the New Mexico Room, the balcony, excluding the Rim Room, was resurveyed. Field checking of the Middle Earth map was completed the map proved accurate, with one minor exception. The map of the Cave Pearl Room, on the other hand, while it is fairly representative, had some inaccuracies. In add ition, the map shows only the main level, not the upper and lower levels of the room. The Guadalupe Room map had some detail added and the location of the south wall was verified. An attempt was made to connect the ten-foot gap between the end of the Texas Pit Room and the end of Jim White Tunnel in Lower Cave. The

PAGE 8

8 Texas Pit Room ends in a narrow fissure with much flowstone. It continues, but proved too narrow to follow. Ridge walkers in Rattlesnake Canyon and the Lechuguilla area failed to find new caves. Labor Day. September 3-5 Leaders, Dave and Susan Ecklund Twelve people contributed 190 volunteer hours on nine trips into Carlsbad Cavern and the backcountry. Two trips were made into Carlsbad Cavern for the quarterly Cave Cricket Study. Twenty traps were set in Sand Passage, Left Hand Tunnel, and Bat Cave. Census figures were low in Left Hand Tunnel. The results from Bat Cave were lost when ringtails tore up most of the traps-the 8at Cave census will be repeated. It's hoped that the figures will verify a hypothetical two year cycle in cricket population size. Rove beetles (Staphilinidae) were still present in Bat Cave with Black Beetles (Tenebrionidae) and Guano Moth numbers dropping off. Sand Passage had some juvenile and adult crickets (Ceuthophilus longipes). One team carried a ladder to the Vegetable Garden area in Left Hand Tunnel to reach a 20ft high lead; however, the ladder turned out to be too short, so they surveyed in Left Hand Tunnel instead Two trips were made to measure an9 s ketch vertical profiles from the light in Talcum Passage to the Jumping Off Place. Another group made two trips to explore a pit near Top of the Cross. The pit was surveyed, and connected to Middle Earth. On a night trip to the visitor areas, involving almost all the expedition partici pants, several pits were measured to correct some estimated depths on the quad maps. There was a backcountry trip to resurvey Swallow Cave. About half the resurvey was completed The trip to and from the cave was demanding; the cactus has grown well this year. Survey Crews:-Cricket Study Bill Ziegler, Diana Northrup, Ken Ingham; Left Hand Tunnel Jim Hardy, Barbara amEnde, Dick Desjardins, Sue Ecklund; Talcum Passage Laura Reeves, Dave Dell, Dick Desjardin s, Dave Ecklund; Top of the CrossDic k Desjardins, Dave Dell, Dave Ecklund; Swallow Cave Barbara amEnde, Laura Reeves, Sue Ecklund, M. Thoma s, B. Thomas Note: The scheduled Guadalupes expedition for August was cancelled. CRF Newsletter MISSOURI July through September. 1988 Work continued through the dry summer on Doug Baker's Powder Mill Creek Cave project. The chert maze, off the so-called Second Water crawl, was finally completed in two trips-the last lead turned out to be a low, wet, muddy crawl, 100ft long. More tidy-up survey was done in the Windy Crawl, a major side passage. Some progress was made farther up the main stream, in the Third Watercrawl, and two short side leads 1500ft up the crawl were mapped. A 14 hour trip added about 500ft to the aptly named Hell Hole series. There was more activity in two moderately large Forest Service caves. In Kelly Hollow Cave in the southern Ozarks, an intricate series of small canyons and cutarounds that parallel the trunk passage were sorted out. This completes the main passage survey and brings the mapped length of the cave to 1470ft. Two fairly long side passages still await mapping Two crews extended the survey of the tautologically named Cave Hollow Cave, in Iron County. The large (40ft wide, 15ft high) section of stream trunk was completed, and the survey extended 500ft upstream in a much more typical Ozark stream passage multi-level, contorted, and complex. A 150ft long inlet passage containing a scenic upper level room was also mapped. The surveyed length of Cave Hollow Cave stands at 1420ft, with a lot remaining. There was a short trip to investigate a report that the downstream sump in Grand Gulf had lowered. Only 30ft of additional low-airspace passage was accessible. Another futile trip failed to tum up "Unnamed Cave #3" in Rockbridge State Park. In the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, a survey of the very wet Sluiceway Cave on the Jacks Fork was started. Incipient hypothermia cut the trip short, but the crew discovered an unreported cave nearby, and started mapping it. Another crew mapped several hundred feet of wetsuit passage in a recently reported cave near the Jacks Fork. The annual trip to Great Scott Cave in the Meramec basin took place at the end of September. This Department of Conservation cave is a major bat sanctuary (see May News letter, p3) and is open to mapping crews for only one weekend per year, between the gray bat maternity season and the Indiana bat hibernation season. A fairly large number of

PAGE 9

November 1988 gray bats were still in residence, and the mounds of fresh guano suggest that the colony is doing well. About 900ft was added to the map, evenly split between an inlet near the entrance and a trunk passage at the remotest part of the cave. The inlet was pursued for 100ft of very wet crawl way, and continues. A well decorated upper level, previously unknown to us, accounted for another 400ft. Greater Scott Hall, at the end of the notorious Dread Scott Crawl, is a large trunk fragment about 500ft long with several side passages Isolated, apparently unrelated, sections of trunk are characteristic of the cave. With the 400ft mapped here, some of the frag ments begin to form a pattern Greater Scott Hall is midway between, and aligned with, two other sections of trunk. The additions bring the mapped lenght of Great Scott to 14,040ft (2.66 miles; the 12th longest in Missouri) Mick Sutton MAMMOTH CAVE Correction. The May Newsletter reports that bla sting caps were found in Blackall A venue during the February expedition In fact, only empty blasting cap boxes were present; crews in Blackall A venue will not be at risk to life and limb Geology Trip, April 4-6 The geologic mapping of passages in the Overlook was completed, with a trip to passages off Fishhook Crawl. It will now be possible to draft the final map of Crystal Cave with cross sections and profiles showing geologic detail. A quick leveling line was run with a hand level from Cow Falls in Pohl A venue to Turner A venue, to verify geologic relationships and passage levels. Many stations in the new resurveys of these passages were tied in with the level survey, and the elevations have been sent to cartographers Scott House and Paul Hauck. There are no surprises in the leveling data, fortunately. Survey Crew:-A. Palmer, P. Palmer, S. Toombs. June 14-20 Leaders Scott House, Mel Park Twenty-three cavers attended this week-long expedition The main emphasis was the 9 continuing resurvey of major passages In Mammoth Cave Ridge three parties, led by Ted Hartman, Karla Bradshaw, and Dave Hanson, surveyed eastward along Ganter A venue from the Wooden Bowl Room for a total of about 3500ft. Two trips extended the survey for 80 stations along the main trail, while the third party mapped side passages Farther east, Doug Baker, Paul Cannaley and Dave Hanson led resurvey parties to the Pass of El Ghor and to the cutarounds in the upper level of Boone A venue Doug also led a wet suit crew in a watery survey of Echo River, mapping I 100ft between Cascade Hall and Saharan Desert. This section of Echo River averages about 4ft deep Daryle Hensel led a party to finish up the few loose ends in the gypsum maze recent! y dis covered above downstream Mammoth River. One lead, a low crawl ended too low to continue; the other, a promising stoopway, produced just one more station. A disappoint ment? Hardly They found themselves peering into one of the most beautiful collections of gypsum Daryle had ever hundreds of gypsum flowers projecting 6" from the wall, cotton swaying in the wind, 1 0" needles, conical piles of gypsum sand. Barring one or two leads for very thin cavers work in this delicate area is now complete (see map, next page) In Flint Ridge Dick Market led a party to Smith A venue as part of a continuing effort to solve the Pohl A venue Problem an error in the vertical data for the Unknown to Austin Entrance traverse. Paul Cannaley continued his survey of the Ingalls Way tangle on two trips mapping about 500ft of canyons and pits ; about half of this, including a newly discovered dome was new survey. Richard Zopf led a crew across the open spaces of Grund Trail to continue work on a description of this complex area; the speleo genesis of Grund Trail is a puzzle Jim Borden went to Colossal Cave to continue his detailed resurvey In two trips, he progressed for several thousand feet through the Wild Goose Chase and P17 Pit to the start of the Salts-Colossal Link. Mel Park led a party surveying small caves near the Doyel Valley gate and on Mammoth Cave Ridge They mapped A.L. Morrison Cave, and found that the entrance to Bluff Cave is filled in Participants: Ted Harunan Gary Leindecker, Bob Salika, Ralph Earlandson, Dave Hanson, Dick Marker, Paul Cannaley, Scott Hous e Denni s Uptegraft Doug Baker, Jim Borden Tim Schaf s tall Kar e n Wilsne Karla Brad s haw, Kevin Downs Daryle Hen sel, Clay Johnson, G e off Park, Mel Park, Kevin Ras mus, Mike Reilly, Dave W e ller, Richard Zopf.

PAGE 10

I 0 THE GYPSUM MAZE CRF Newsletter ;q=T The Gypsum Maze underlies Kentucky Avenue, and is in tum underlain by a complex_ network of channels with Belfry and Bransford Avenues. It was discovered earlier this year during the systematic survey of Mammoth Rtver and ItS associated upper level cutarounds. July 2-9 L e ader, Pete Lindsley Twenty-six JV s participated in the week-long July expedition. Primary emphasis was on the ca rtography program with additional projects involving bacteriological study of cave soils, public media pres e ntation, and maintainance work. In Blue Spring Branch, near the Violet City Entrance of Mammoth Cave, the resurvey of the main trunk was finished and several side pas sages were mapp ed The largest of these is an e nigmatic trunk fragment, entered via a small maz e from Blue Spring Branch Here, we finally discovered the mysteriou s Blue Spring; it was co nveniently labell ed by Leo Hunt (a guide from the 193 0s) No water was flowing, and the tight clrai n was clescenclecl to a small room with no a ccess ible way on. The total surveyed by three crews was 2900ft, including 540 ft of new survey in cut-arounds and mazy crawlways. Elsewhere in Mammoth Cave Ridge, the upstream end of Mammoth River was extended for an additional 550ft of wet crawl way and narrow canyon; this virgin passage is beautifully rated with clean-washed flowstone, stalact:J.tes, and draperies. It skirts the edge of Doyel Valley, in an area previously lacking in known passages The streamway continues. Under Flint Ridge, three parties entered Colossal Cave and surveyed 4150ft from the ColossalSalts Link into and along Lehrberger A venue, the main north-south mid-level trunk in Eastern Flint Ridge. New survey, involving cutarounds off the main passage, accounted for 11 OOft. One lengthy cutaround contains an interesting un descended pit, about 30ft deep, with leads visible in the bottom. Two survey teams were fielded through the Austin Entrance to work above Sand Passage off Foundation Hall. These upper level passages feed into a pit and canyon complex which will appear on the Pohl A venue map. A Hawkins River crew investigated the down stream sump. Due to the very dry summer,

PAGE 11

November 1988 water levels were low At the point of deepest penetration the 40 ft wide passage had a water depth ranging from 4ft to 7ft with an airspace of 6 inches. A diver will be needed to identify where the main water flow goes. Additional investigations revealed that 65% of the water flowing into the river near the sump came from the Right Hand Fork rather than the main passage that links with Roppel Cave. This may indicate that the main passage is essentially an extremely long overflow route. Near the upstream end of the Right Hand Fork, the crew discovered a very promising high-level lead which could conceiv ably bypass the upstream sump. On the north side of the Green River, work continued in Running Branch Cave, with the addition of 100ft of new survey and 250ft of resurvey. Surface work included a description of the trail out to Dickey Pit in Rigdon Hollow on northwest Flint Ridge The area around the Lucy's, Olivia's and Julia's Dome complex in Mammoth Cave was investi gated as a potential site for a future microbiology study by Karl Rusterholtz and Dr. Larry Mallory. A TV crew from Louisville interviewed several CRF participants and filmed a mock survey in Crystal Cave as part of a three-part series on Mammoth Cave. Acknowledgements:Thanks to Karen Lindsley for a we e k-long stint as camp manager. August 6 Leader, Tim Schafstall The August expedition was, as usual, small only 17 members and JVs were present. Atten dance was boosted, however, by 15 participants from Operation Raleigh (see article p 3). The main focus was Lehrberger Avenue, the north south trunk connecting the Colossal and Salts Cave sections of Mammoth. We hoped to get a large piece of this surveyed before the Colossal Cave bat season closure in September. There fore, three parties were sent to survey in the a rea. Tom Brucker and Jim Borden led a leap-frog survey northward along the main passage for 1900ft, and mapped 200ft of unsurveyed loops, while Mel Park's crew surveyed 1400ft of cutarounds and short leads (600ft of it new survey) along the recently mapped section of L e hrberger. The main-passage parties entered via Salts Cave, taking the Weller A venue route. Though they report the Colossal/Salts link route i s much easier, now that Colossal Entrance is 11 closed until May, Weller Avenue may be the best bet (but see Labor Day expedition report). In Mammoth Cave Ridge, Doug Baker took a crew to Pensacola Avenue to begin remapping it, corning back with 830ft of excellent survey. In Boone Avenue, Dave Weller's troop reworked some inadequate data and sketching, and sur veyed 430ft. George Wood and friends travelled to Belfry A venue to survey one station which was incorrectly tied to another survey, then finished some small leads and cutarounds in the Boone Avenue areawith a total of 150ft. All survey crews were augmented by members of Operation Raleigh, a British based group which channels its adventure sports activities to helping organizations and communities in various pro jects. The Operation Raleigh participants, although inexperienced, were in top physical condition (they go through a rigorous selection process), learned quickly, and were willing to pitch in where needed. Prior to the CRF expedi tion, they assisted the NPS in surface and below ground chores including a major cleanup of the tourist trails They eagerly took to surveying with CRF and pitched in during camp clean-up in an unprecedented way. The party leaders coped extremely well with 5-person, inexperienced crews, and brought back nearly a mile of survey while allowing the visitors to have a good time and to feel that they accomplished something. Maggie Tucker once again did an excellent job of proving that gourmet cooking does have a place at Flint Ridge. Survey Crews:-Lehrberger Ave. -l)Tom Brucker, Mike Harrod, Ralph Earlandson, Gareth Thompson*, Orlin Iron Cloud*; 2)Jim Borden, Geoff Park, Tony Hayward* Sarah Williams*, Eric O'Connor*; 3)Mcl Park, Kevin Downs Mike Reilly, Simon Banks*, Steve Priest* Pensacola Ave Doug Baker, Gary Leindecker Whitney Warren*, Hareb El Said*, Jim Bankhead *. Boone Ave.-I)Dav e Well e r Jim Gr e er N o el Burns*, Jenny Slat er*, Jerry Fant; 2)George Wood, Ted Harunan, Nichola Simpson*, Conor Heaney*, Joanne Smith*; Camp manager as s i s tants: Claire Wood, Ruth Hartman *Operation Raleigh personnel. Labor Day, September 2-5 Leaders, Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan This large expedition of 60 cavers, which included 18 guests from Operation Raleigh, worked on a wide variety of projects. In addition to Operation Raleigh, we had nine new regular JV s. The logistical problems caused by a large

PAGE 12

12 component of inexperienced peopl e were exacer bated by the threat of heavy rain which cancelled so me base-leve l trips. That the exped ition ran successf ully is a tribute to the mettle of the se inexperienced cavers, and to the ab ilities of our more seaso n ed members. Everyone was fit a nd willing, and m any a novice contributed to some t o ugh trip s On the Nort h Side, the Runnin g Branch Cave survey r esumed, with 1 050ft of high-grade trunk s urv ey Descriptive work continued in the comp l ex of canyons that constitute the Grund Trail, over, under and around Cammerer Hall. A n overnig ht narr at ive description party worked from Rose's Pass to Cathedral Domes. There was a small cave inv ento ry trip to Brook's Knob, where the r eported cave wa s found to be merely a shelter. ft did harbor a couple of big-eared bats, h owever. Trunk passage r es urvey in Mammoth Cave occupied a lot of effort. The survey of Pensacola A venue in the Hi s toric Section was completed, with I 880ft of hig h quality survey of the main passage and high-l e vel side-cuts. The Ganter Avenue survey was extended a further 1200ft and W elcome (Fox) Avenue was remapped for 770ft from its intersection with Ganter Avenue. Farther east, the gap in the Silliman A venue resurvey between Serpent Hall and Cascade Hall was filled in. The same crew made a start on mapping eas tward along El Ghor from its junction with Silliman Avenue. W ork cont inued in Blue Spring Branch with a trip to the l o ng es t side-passage. The crew com pleted the worst pm1 of the route, a low tight section. They confirmed reports of seve ral inter e sting l eads in the passage, which will absorb so m e attention yet. A crew went to Sarah Mar garet's Dome in Ro ger's Avenue to resketch the pit and canyon s urv ey. The resketch was a bust, s inc e survey stations had been washed out, but they mad e some int eres ting discoveries. The first descent of a 30ft pit at the end of the survey re vealed a wet but open drain A traverse across the top of the pit l ed to the brink of another 30ft pit. Next day, a wets uit crew returned to map the dr ain. They managed 100ft in liquid mud in low wet, windy passage before reaching the1r e ndurance limit. Conditions were starting to improv e, and the wind promises rewards for the ir e ffort. Tidy -up s urvey for the Kentucky Avenue area map k ep t a lot of crews busy. This kind of work u s uall y turn s up some int e r es ting features. Up in the attic o n e party sorted o ut loo se e nds in CRF Newsletter Woodbury Pass. At the end of a side survey, under the head of Houchin's Valley, they found continuing passage in several directions. When some small inlets quickly became torrents, they made a strategic retreat to drier areas, and crossed off leads along the canyon that underlies the main level of the Pass. Another party went to the large, enigmatic passage that underlies the Gist's Dome area of Kentucky A venue where they improved the present sketch. They went on to Morrison Avenue to pursue the tight, low-level lead discovered last year The passage opened up for 450ft of nicely decorated 3ft wide by 8ft high canyon before ending in a flowstone constriction Two crews sorted out the network of thin side cuts in the Gypsum Maze area of downstream Mammoth River. Some way below them, in Bransford Avenue, one crew mapped a section of the main West Bransford chert crawl that was bypassed by the existing survey. Elsewhere off Bransford, they mapped a small undescended pit, but found no leads at the bottom. A second Bransford Avenue crew spent a day in the com plex of low, nasty leads and cutarounds in the off-Bransford chert maze. A party went to the recently discovered upstream continuation of Mammoth River. They extended the survey past a tight spot for 200ft of continuing 3ft by 3ft crawl. One of the Operation Raleigh visitors found a tight slot in the ceiling, which opened into a complex of walking-height passages. The position of this discovery in a blank area of map at the edge of Doyel Valley, make it enticing. Along Main Cave, Phil DiBlasi led a large crew of Operation Raleigh volunteers to record historic signatures and look at a few leads They concentrated on Ultima Thule, the end of Main Cave until the early 20th century. There were surprisingly few signatures; the earliest was 1822, with most clustered around 1837-1840. They also mapped a short side loop off the main passage. In western Flint Ridge, a party worked on the last piece of Roebuck Trail to be remapped -a long low, wide section They completed most of the missing link, but were stopped just short of their objective by a very low spot. The Lehrberger Avenue epic was concluded when Tom Brucker led two crews through the intrica cies of Bedquilt Cave, to the Salts-Colossal Link area The crews split up to map towards each other along the remaining 3200ft of Lehrberger A venue trunk. When they met in the middle, a major Flint Ridge survey loop was complete.

PAGE 13

November 1988 They rearranged crews, with Tom leading one party back through Bedquilt, while Mel Park led the others through the Unknown-Salts link to the Austin Entrance, probably the first time this door-to -door traverse has been done In all about two miles of trunk passage were resurveyed, and another half mile of new survey added to the maps Most of the latter was in s mall difficult passages where footage does not a ccumulate rapidly. As a result the Kentucky A venue map now needs only a few more trips, considerable progress was made on the area maps of Rhoda's Arcade, Main Cave, Historic Mammoth, and Eastern Flint Ridge, and a variety of other projects were supported Survey Crews:-Running Branch Cave Eric Compas, Roger McClure, Karla Bradshaw, Shahid Rahman* ; Grund Trail-Rich a rd Zopf, Julie Sots ky Joe Ricklefs; Cathedral Domes George Wood, K e n Sumner, Mike Shackette; Brook's Knob Phil Di Blasi, Jan Hemberger, Ed Li s ow s ki, S y lvain Bettinelli *, Nidal AIGhaithy*, Helen-J a n e Colston Neil Gray s on* Vincent Logue*; Pensacola Ave. Scott House, L e n Butts, Greg Jones, Ian Hewitt *, Ro s amund Ebdon*; Ganter Ave. Scott House, Len Butts, Andy Porter, Ian Hewitt*, Shahid Rahman*; Welcome Ave. -Eric Compas, Greg Jones Nick Lloyd Hameed Salman ; Silliman Ave.-Bob Osburn, Lee Snead, Gary Lein decker, Emma Harris*, Hameed Salman ; Blue Spring Branch-Roger Brucker, Monica Cannaley, Dave Weller, Bob Salika, Vincent Logue ; Sarah Margaret l)Norm Pace, Andy Port e r, J e rry Fant Joe GaJewski; 2)Bob O s burn, Julie Sotsky, Jo e GaJew s ki; Woodbury Pass-George Deike, Tom Kelly, Mike Reilly, Neil Grayson*; Kentucky/Morrison George Deike, Tom Kelly, Dick Market, Bob Salika, Emma Harris*; Mammoth River Downstream -l)Kevin Downs, Lynn Brucker, Cresant Smith Ju s tin Cotton*; 2)Kevin Downs, Joe Ricklefs Mick Pimlott Rosamund Ebdon* ; Bransford Ave. -l)Dick Market, Howard Kalnitz, Mike Godfrey* Steve Buckmetter*; 2)Mel Park, Peter Gray, Lia Williams, Mick Pimlott *; Mammoth River Upstream Howard Kalnitz, Jerry Fant, Steward Webb*, Justin Cotton*; Main Cave-Phil DiBlasi, Jan Hemberger, Ed Lisowski, Sylvain Bettinelli*, Nick Lloyd*, Helen-Jane Colston,* Ng Kam*, Nidal AI Ghaithy*; Roebuck Trail Dan Raque, Paul Canna ley Andy Knight* Steward Webb*; Lehrberger Ave. -I )Tom Brucker, Lia Williams, Mike Godfrey*, Ng Kam* ; 2)Mel Park Peter Gray Gary Leindecker Andy Knight* *Operation Raleigh Thanks to Claire Wood and Mike Shackette for help in the kitch e n and to Richard Zopf Georg e Wood and Ken Sumner for maintainance work. 13 MAMMOTH TRIVIA Test your knowledge of Mammoth Cave lore and history with these few simple questions arising from the MC gazetteer project. 1) Who was the "Charlotte of Charlotte's Grotto? 2) Who really ate at Jenny Lind's Dining Table? 3) What specimen came from Specimen Avenue? 4) Which passage has been associated with both bats and birds? 5) "Grand Avenue" was renamed "Majestic Avenue", but what is it known as today ? 6) The President 's Room lies above Roosevelt Dome and Wilson Dome in the New Entrance Which president is it named for? Answers on p 19.

PAGE 14

14 CRF Newsletter CHANGING ATTITUDES: AN INTERVIEW WITH DONALD G. DAVIS by Norm Pace This is the last of three interviews with people who are prominent at the interface between cavers and the National Park Service, particularly at Carlsbad Caverns National Park The main purpose is to explore the roots of the changing attitudes of cavers and the NPS toward one another. Previous interviews were with Rick Smith, past superintendent of Carlsbad Caverns National Park (May Newsletter), and Ron Kerbo, Cave Resource Specialist at CCNP (August Newsletter). Both emphasized good respect for the caving community and an openness lO recreational caving on NPS lands. They agreed that this positive outlook toward cavers was a development of recent years and that CRF has played an important, posi tive role in that development. The present interview, with Donald G. Davis, inspects that transition from the stand point of a long-time caver in the Carlsbad area Donald Davis is probably the best-known caver in the West. He began caving in the 1950's in Colorado, and has been r e sponsible for many major discoverys in the Mountain Stales and elsewhere. Davis has published s ignificant scientific papers on cave mineralogy and speleogenesis, as well as numerous descriptions of origi nal exploration He is a Fellow of the NSS, a CRF Member, and the 1986 recipient of the NSS Lew Bicking A ward. He has caved in Carlsbad Cavern for many years, and has worked as a seasonal ranger at several western national parks over the years, including an 8-month stint as a guide at CCNP in the early '70s. People within the NPS believe that they are vastly more receptive and respectful toward cavers than they were a decade ago Do you see that attitude change and is it general throughout the NPS? I do see that change to some degree, certainly at Carlsbad Caverns I am not sure that all the cave parks are equally changed. For instance, I think that Grand Canyon National Park may remain much more conservative in its attitude than Carlsbad. What was your experience regarding NPS atti tudes toward cavers when you were a seasonal ranger and guide at Carlsbad in the early '70s? I was already caving at that time, with the Guadalupe Cave Survey, or CRF WestI forget when it changed and did not have any particular difficulty caving in the Park with them. But caving as an employee was a different story I was able to go on several employee trips during my 8 months there, but the superintendent was never willing to give me Trip Leader status, and I was actively discouraged from exploration. I suspect that policy toward Park employees has been somewhat liberalized. Employees are always in a difficult position, however. They have so much time required for their job, and their off-time often doesn't correspond with pro jects being done by outside caving groups like CRF or the Lechuguilla project. So there hasn't been a great deal of employee participation in projects in the Park, although there is more than there used to be. Could it be because people that are assigned to the Park don't have any background or interest in caves? I think that is entirely probable. Can you put your finger on some key things that have contributed to the more favorable view of cavers by the NP S? At Carlsbad Caverns, my feeling is that Ron Kerbo's advent in the Cave Specialist position was the pivotal event. He has always struck me as having a unique ability to juggle the different factions and to maintain fruitful communications among them. There seems to be a philosophical change in the NPS,from a stance of simple protectionism to one of interpretation and encouragement ofpublic use Do you see evidence of that? I wouldn't put it quite that strongly From the beginning of the NPS, by their enabling statute, they have been required to balance preservation and use by people. Interpretation has always been a major aspect of that. How ever, where caves are concerned they have recently had some far more innovative ideas about interpretation than they have in the past. Previously, interpretation was pretty much limited to guided tours. Many more themes on cave interpretation have been experimented with since that time, at least at Carlsbad. In our campfire chats over the years you have always held that the best protection for caves is secrecy. In light of that, do you think the NPS policy of encouraging caving by offering "spelunking" tours is a good thing? I wouldn't be so generalist as to say that secrecy is the "best" policy. It's just the most cost-effective policy where it can be applied, and that is only in special cases. The cave has to be discovered by a small enough group to keep it quiet. Secrecy wouldn't have worked in the case of Lechuguilla because too many people knew about it. I never have felt that spelunking tours were particularly undesirable. They generally involve people who have already appeared at the

PAGE 15

November 1988 cave for the commercial tour and have shown sufficient interest in caving to learn about the spe lunking tour. The numbers involved in the spe lunking tours are not large. Far more detri mental, I think is indiscriminate publicity to the general public on caves and caving. The CCNP administration views the Lechuguilla project as an exceptionally positiv e development in NPS-caver r e lations How do you view their handling of the project? How are th e cavers handling their end of it ? In most respects Park Service handling of the project has been good. Cert a inly it's unprece dented in the scale of the cooperation between cavers and the Park Service. My primary con ce rn and disagreement with the way the Park Service has handled the project is with the large sca le publicity I feel that is a significant mis take, which in the end will cause various, perhaps unpredictable, diffi c ulties for both the cave and the Park Service. As to the cavers, considering the complexity and the extreme challenge of the sheer magnitude of the cave and the large number of cavers in volved, I think the project has been handled rel a tively well. I do feel that some of the cavers have been less careful than they could have been. There is an impact on the cave dirty flowstone, etc.,-that ideally wouldn't have happened if people had been paying as close attention as they should have It could be a lot worse, but I still think that there could be more sensitivity on the part of some cavers. Would a fatal accident in the Lechu gu illa project have a negative impact on relations with the Park Service? I think it would have some negative impact. However, we did have an incident during the March expedition where a caver disappeared for 5 1/2 hours and was thought to be a fatality. During the tense period before we found out the caver was a ll right, one of the Park staff said that no matter what the outcome, it "would not put an end to the Lechuguilla project." I think as long as it wasn't due to sheer irresponsibility, a serious or fatal accident would be taken as an inevitability. Should the NPS try to improve relations further with cavers? If so, what can they do? Do you believe the NPS should actively s o licit caving projects o n NPS lands ? The question of improving relations with cavers is a difficult one. I really don't have an opi nion. Personally, I don't experience neg a tive 15 interactions with the Park Service where I cave now. I understand that has not always been the same elsewhere, however. I do not believe the NPS should actively so licit projects on their land unless there is some particular reason that a cave needs attention, for instance a threat to the cave that the cavers might assist in handling. Considering that the caves are nonrenewable and that any level of caving in a delicate cave has irreversible impact, we should probably wait for the cavers themselves torequest admission We need to leave something intact for future generations. How do both the NPS and the caving communit y at large perceiv e CRF? I believe that the NPS has a fairly routine and comfortable relation with CRF, at least at Carlsbad. I don't hear much from non-CRF cavers, possibly because they know I am CRF. know that in the past there were a good many NSS cavers that were inclined to think that CRF is elitist or exclusivist, a nd I suppose that is still around. However, I don't sense any ten sio n Should CRF do anything t o incr ease its v isibilit y in the caving community? For instance, CRF might encourage more articles in the NSS News have some sort of "CRF Column" in the News etc. I think CRF should do that only if we are prepared to accept considerably more applications from people wanting to be involved I don t think tha t is practical in the Carl s bad area. Wh e r e do you see CRF West goi n g over the next years? CRF West is at a turning point now Carlsbad Cavern has become increasingly difficult to find new pas sage in So the emphasis has been changing tow ard science, education, re s toration and so forth. I think that activity in Carlsbad Cavern will decline. However, CRF has already taken a promising step in instituting beneficial relations with the new administration at Guadalupe Mountains National Park, who have graciously offered CRF a new location there. So if there are significant ca ves, it will keep CRF busy for some years. If nothing pans out there that could become demoralizing Obviously, Lechuguilla is the most exciting thing going on right now and that is an independent project, although there is a lot of CRF participation. I think that CRF can come into clos e r cooperation on the project. Personally, I would enjoy seeing CRF play a l a rger role in Lechuguilla Cave.

PAGE 16

16 CRF Newsletter GRAND GULF A Missouri mapping project which began two and a half years ago under the auspices of the Missouri Speleological Survey was recently completed by Cave Research Foundation JVs. Grand Gulf, one of Missouri's newest State Parks, is a spectacular karst complex containing a forked canyon with 130ft high walls, a 250ft long natural bridge that is 75ft high by 50ft wide, a wet weather waterfall, several small caves and a terminal cave at the end of the canyon where a sump has been dye-traced nine miles to Mam moth Spring, Arkansas, second largest spring in the Ozarks. The geologic origins of the Gulf are generally attributed to collapse of the original cave (the present open chasms) along a zone of faulting. Formed in Jefferson City Dolomite (480 m. years old), the cave system may be only one or two million years old and the collapse as recent as a few thousand years. More recent in its hydro logic history was the blockage that occurred in the terminal cave when a tornado in the early 1920's sent trees and other debris into the flood prone canyon; prior to then, the cave was enterable for a longer distance. In an NATURAL BRIDGE adventurous account written in 1898, pioneer speleologist Luella Agnes Owen described her solo boat ride on a wide, deep stream, noting many blind cave fish. Our goal was first to map the four known short caves, (including the Natural Bridge and the terminal cave), and second to produce an overlay map showing the relationship of the caves to each other. The first objective was interesting enough, and we also turned up three small unreported caves, the largest of them 180ft long. The topographic overlay, though, gradually became the tail that wagged the dog. Mapping the large open-aired canyon presented a variety of challenges, not least of which was the weatherwith heavy rains, the canyon is filled to the top of the natural bridge for long periods. In drier spells, ticks, chiggers and heat caused unpleasant surveying conditions not usually encountered by speleologists. One also had to keep in mind the unthoughtfull tourist along the rim overhead who might be tempted to test the Gulfs depth with a tossed can or rock. Using a tripod-mounted Brunton and tape, we surveyed a mile up the two canyon arms, then completed a 2-mile circuit I TUNNEL We s t canyon and Natural Bridg e, from Grand Gulf 1:600 map Profile is to scale, but perspective is distorted by a large b end (towards the viewer) in the canyon floor.

PAGE 17

November 1988 through the woods around the edges. Before the map was complete, a preliminary sketch was turned over to the Missouri State Park system to aid them in what so far has been a fu tile attempt to lower the sump at the tem1inal cave. Last year, over $50,000 was spent in setting up an enormous pumping operation to take the water out of the cave and up over the canyon walls. Similar efforts are scheduled for this fall; should they be successful, we will return to explore and map Luella Owen s long lost river her description is the only testament to knowing that the best is yet to come Survey Crew: Mick Sutton (cartographer), Sue Hag a n ( project coordinator) Mark Oliver, Pam & Jerry Saberton, Bev Graves, Gary Chastain, Mark Brooks Don Dunham Tim Moran, Sandy Trembl e y, N ettie Grev e References: Thomas R. Beveridge, Geologic Wonders and Curiosities of Missouri, 1980; J Harlen Bretz, Caves of Missouri, 1956; Luella Agnes Owen, Cave Regions of the Ozarks and Black Hills, 1898 Sue Hagan PARTNERS IN PARKS CRF can boast of a new offspring Partners in Parks. I have been a joint venturer with CRF for 21 years and a member of the Board of Directors for over 8 years. My interest in the organization started with the adventure of caving and expanded to deep affection for fellow JV's, fascination with the management of the Founda tion, desire to build its national image, and finally to assessing the value of its contributions to the National Park Service. When I was President of CRF, I started looking for similar organizations working in partnership with the NPS to support multidisciplinary research or other projects. I have yet to find such an organization. I saw how successful CRF has been, and how valuable our donation of time and talent is to the parks where we work. Why are others not doing similar work? Are caves so unique that other natural features cannot attract a support group such as CRF? I do not know the answers -I have simply assumed that with a little effort one can promote professional collaboration between the NPS and individuals and organizations to do the type of work we do research, resource management, and interpretation. Two years ago I started talking with the NPS Director about the desirability of such collabora-17 tion As my ideas matured I received increased enthusiasm and support from the Director and his senior staff. Finally we reached the point where who was going to pay for the venture became a barrier. So, on January 1, I declared that Part ner s In Parks existed and started to work on creating a non profit corporation I am putting together a board of directors; we are incorpo rated, we have applied for tax exemption, and now we are looking for the funds to help develop professional partnerships throughout the National Park System. Our goal is to build volunteer support groups that have the capability and interest to work with park managers. I see possibilities for all kinds of partnerships, ranging from ones very much like what CRF enjoys to a single professional working on a short-term project in one park Eventually Partners In Parks will become a source of small grants for partnership needs, such as a summer stipend for a professor and graduate students Now that I think of it, CRF is not so much the parent as the godparent of Partners In Parks. The partnerships we set up will be more like CRF offspring; Partners is the broker the en ergy that brings two potential partners together and gets their joint venture going. As partner ships developed, Partners will provide a linkage among them to help solve problems and share successes. Sarah Bishop BOOK NOTES In the August Newsletter we mistakenly reported that Karst Hydrology: Concepts from the Mammoth Cave Area had just been published The book,edited by Will and Bette White, is completed, but is not expected out until March, 1989. The book recently published is Geomorphology and Hydrology of Karst Terrains, by William B. White, published by Oxford University Press. The volume, described as "superbly illustrated" discusses karst water chemistry, the origins of caves, sedimentary in-filling, and the evolution of karst systems. The text emphasizes the chemistry of limestone solution, and includes sections on environmental problems in karst terrains. Geomorphology and Hydrology of Karst Terrains is available for $46 50 (ppd) from Oxford University Press 200 Madison Avenue New York, NY 10157-0913

PAGE 18

18 CRF Newsletter LECHUGUILLA'S MILEAGE SURPASSES CARLSBAD "In length, volume and depth it has the potential to rival--if not exceed -Carlsbad Cavern [Donald G. Davis, report to the National Park Service July, 1986, when Lechuguilla was 3,253ft long and 693ft deep ] The Lechuguill a Project expedition of August 616 added five more miles, to bring the cave's length to 21.3 miles, slightly longer than Carlsbad Cavern (20.8 miles). Participants included 72 people (counting scientists, media representatives and guests) from 18 states as well as Canada, Switzerland, and the Soviet Union. High priority was given to reexamination of the narrow pool found in late May, which had in creased the cave s vertical range to 1,501ft. The pool was judged impractical to dive The odor of hydrogen sulfide reported in May was not no ticed now, and testing failed to confirm its pres ence at the detection level of five ppm. A modest amount of new passage was found, but no deeper level or new pools. It remains unproven whether the present pool represents the regional water table. Though the total passage gained was sufficient to surpass Carlsbad Cavern in length, and miles more undoubtedly remain, most of the new segments are additions to known passage complexes and no discovery extended the cave's basic framework by more than a few hundred feet. The longest increment was in the large scale boneyard around the Mouse s Delight maze; the computer plot is now an absolute spaghetti tangle. The most exciting lead was reported near the end the expedition when one caver did a risky chmb 200ft up a steep gypsum slope into a high lead in the Prickly Ice Cube Room. At the top, he saw what seemed to be high, wide passage extending two ways; this would be south of known cave and could be very promising. No new type of cave feature was discovered, but interesting variations of known forms were ob s erved. In the upper-level hall east of the Prickly Ice Cube Room, gypsum stalagmites up to five feet high had previously been seen Some have selenite arms radiating from them, like the "chandelier stalagmites" in the Chandelier Graveyard; they are less perfect but more accessible examples of the type. The tops of the stalagmites appear degraded and reach within a foot or two of corroded bedrock ceilings; yet the selenite arms on the lower parts appear to be growing, with droplets on their tips. It is probable that water is condensing from airflow on the granular gypsum tops of the stalagmites, seeping down with dissolved gypsum, and rede positing some at the ends of the lower arms, which are thus growing at the expense of the up per parts of the same stalagmite! (Those upper parts must have grown under a different regime.) Other finds include a twin 12ft gypsum stalag mite, a 30 inch gypsum flower, and remarkable puffs of gypsum cotton, at least one larger than a human head. Attached lightly to the dark wall or hanging from threads, these evoke the image of tiny white clouds suspended in the cave air. The sulfur deposit in the Void area was examined more closely. It appears in gypsum blocks as finely granular, lemon-yellow inclusions, or as massive yellow plates or vug linings which fracture with a waxy luster. Broken fragments are plentiful in the rock powder surrounding the blocks. The air in the wide room smells noticeably of sulfur. Projecting surfaces of sulfur are frequently coated with water droplets, whereas the adjacent gypsum is free of them. This suggests two possibilities: either the sulfur is being created now by (bio?)chemistry involving ejection of water or, more probably, moisture is condensing from the air on both gypsum and sulfur, but soaks into the gypsum while remaining on the surface of the more hydrophobic sulfur Geologic researchers sampled calcite spar for isotopic analysis and wall rock for its alteration history. In the Mouse's Delight maze, where sandstone dikes, breccia and spar veins are plen tiful, one dike was seen to be sheared across, with pieces engulfed in spar; it appears that the dikes are older than the spar and breccia. The occasional red clasts that are found in the breccia elsewhere in the cave are probably pieces from broken sandstone dikes. The digging project in Big Manhole Cave, north east of Lechuguilla, was resumed. Several yards were gained following the wind. Though large rocks have proven difficult to move with hand tools, a breakthrough in Big Manhole is not im
PAGE 19

November 1988 WHAT'S HAPPENING AT ROPPEL? The Roppel section of Mammoth Cave is alive and well. Despite the Roppel entrances being closed since the fall of 1987, interest remains high. The major activity in 1988 has been the Central Kentucky Karst Coalition working with the NSS for the possible acqui s ition of land sur rounding the Weller entrance (the most conve nient of the two entrances). Most of the effort thus far has gone into the development of a s ound and workable management plan that is conducive both to protection and to continuing the programs that have made the cave what it is today. In addition, Roppel Cave can provide an opportunity for NSS members to experience a part of Mammoth Cave. The motion for NSS procurement of the property goes to vote at the October 29 NSS Board of Governor's meeting Since 1986, caving in the area has concentrated on exploration of the satellite caves. There is opportunity for expansion to the east, and several caves may provide easy access to new areas of Roppel. To the west, Monroe Cave leads via a series of drops to a canyon and tube system that overlies Roppel's Emerald City region; 20-20 60 Cave, also with multiple drops, awaits pushing Within Roppel Cave, careful probing of leads along the main travel routes near the entrance has uncovered significant amounts of passage. In addition, several discoveries that have been made on the periphery of the cave could easily lead to breakthroughs once the cave is reopened. Many JV's have been active in the project and Roppel will continue to provide an opportunity for CRF cavers to explore and survey in this fascinating 60-rnile section of Mammoth Cave. For more information regarding the possible purchase of the cave by the NSS or about the cave itself please write to either Tom Brucker or myself (21914 Huntmaster Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20879). Jim Borden TRIVIAL ANSWERS from p13 (no peeking!) 1) Stephen Bishop's wife "You might be sure I would not call anything but the prettiest after my old lady [Thomas Kite, Journal of a Trip Through Ken tucky and Visit to Mammoth Cave ,1843.] 2) This large, flat rock in Cleaveland A venue wa s or i ginally nam e d Cornelia' s Table aft e r Cornelia Adeline Ridgely (1827-1857) wife of cave owner John Croghan 's neph e w Jenny Lind, the Swedish Nightingale vis ited Mammoth Cave in 1851 but the river was up and she could not visit the "transfluvian" passages. It's not cl e ar 19 how the legend arose of Ms Lind's visit to Cleaveland Avenue, where she supposedly s ang "The Last Ros e of Summer" under the gypsum flower of the same name and ate at the Dining Table 3) Several gypsum flowers wer e removed from Specimen Avenue (aka Roger's Ave nue) for exhibition at the Chicago World' s F air of 1893 4) Great Bat Avenue" once contained bats crowded so close they res e mble a continuous black cloud." [Monogalla Gazette, 1810] Th e colony could not tol e rate constant disturbance, and disappeared The pas s a g e w as renamed Audubon Avenue in honor of John Jam es Audubon (1785-1851) the cel e br a ted ornithologi st. 5) Kentucky A v e nue. Grand A ve nue appear s on Kaemper's 1908 map. George Morri s on renamed it "Maj e stic A venue" for h i s New Entr a nce tours 6) George Morri s on president of the Mammoth Cav e Dev e lopment Company who op e ned the N e w Entran ce in 1921 in comp e tition with the Mammoth Cave E s tat e. AFTERWORD This is the sixth Newsletter since we became editors. In the rush of getting things done, we neglected to celebrate the first anniversary, so, a bit belated, we'd like to thank some of those who have helped Foremost, we wish to thank Richard Zopf. When our work is finished his is just beginning; as production manager, he's responsible for getting each issue printed and mailed out. Next in line come all who have con tributed articles. We've been fortunate to find so many people willing to write. Without you the Newsletter would be a lot slimmer. For us, part of the enjoyment has been the op portunity to meet so many interesting people and, in our role as editors, intrude into their thoughts with our questions NPS superintendents Rick Smith and David Mihalic gave us many insights into Park policy. Interviewing Roger McClure and Lewis Cutliff helped us appreciate the historical roots behind present operations George Gregory at Mammoth and Ron Kerbo at Carlsbad have been special links between CRF and NPS in providing us tips on where to find the next story. Just as important have been the many JV s who have shared with us their thoughts and concerns. As the issues have lengthened, so have produc tion costs. Some have acknowledged their appreciation through donations to the General Fund. Volunteer subscriptions are also welcome (send to Roger McClure) Your support of CRF is the greatest thanks we could receive. Sue & Mick

PAGE 20

CALENDAR MAMMOTH CA YE Thanksgiving, November 23-27 Phil DiBlasi 502-588-6724 ( W ) New Year, December 28-January 1 Howard Kalnitz 513 -72 1 -392 1 President's Day, (Leadership Training) February 17-20 Tom Brucker 615-331-3568 Upcoming trip s:-March 17-19, April21-23; May 2629; July 1-9 ; Augu s t 5-7; September 1-4; OcLObe r 6-9. First and las t dates arc arrival and d e parture date s. Notify the e xpedition leader or Operation s Manager ( Mel Park 901-272-9393) two weeks in advance. GUADALUPES Thanksgiving, November 24-27 Bruce Baker 405-234-2963 New Year, December 31-January 2 Cymli Mosc h 303-629-7418 NOLil'y Lhc expedition leader Lhe area manager (Rich Wolren, 303-278-1891 ), or the supplies coordinator (Bill Zieg l er, 505-262 -0602) at leas t one week in advance. For 19X9 dates, call Rich WolferL. MISSOURI Novemb e r 19-20; Decemb e r 17-18; January 21-22; F e bruary I 8-19; Notify ScoLL Hou se (314-287 4356 ) CAVE RESEARCH FOUNDATION r.o.nox 443 YELLOW SPRINGS, 01-1 45387 ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED Venl 401 9 Ramsgate San Antonio, TX ANNUAL MEETING The annual meeting will take place November 12-13 aL the Illini Union, University of Illinois, Champaign. For last-minute reservations, call Rick Olson (217-398-0814 ). The open meeting will take place Saturday afternoon, and will feature a presentation by Ron Bridgemon on Lhe CRF China expedition. A buffet dinner ($17.50 per person ) will be served Saturday evening Rick Bridges will give an after-dinner s lide show on Lechuguilla Cave 1989 KARST RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS Each year, the CRF awards fellowships and research grants to graduate students working on projects relating to caves and karst. The judges are see king promising or innovative topics, supported by evidence that the student has a command of the methodology. For the truly exceptional proposal, the Foundation can award a s tipend of up to $3500. Lesser s ums may be awarded as grants for meritorious proposals For full details write to: Dr John C. Tinsley, US Geological Survey, 345 Middlefi e ld Road m/ s 975, Menlo Park, CA 94025. Applications must be postmarked no later than January 1 1989 Awards will be announced by April 15, 1989. 78230 NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATION U.S. POSTAGE PAID YELLOW SPRINGS, OH PERMIT 160


Description
Mihalic's management
plans --
Lechuguilla cave video project needs support --
Russian speleologists meet CRF --
Operation Raleigh / Mel Park --
Red Watson receives NSS' highest honor --
Other NSS awards --
Carlsbad crickets / Diana E. Northrup --
Mammoth microbes / Karl Rusterholtz --
Conservative caving / Richard Zoph --
Expeditions: Lilburn: August 20-21 Leader, Carol Vesely
--
August 27 Leader: Peter Bosted --
Guadalupes / July 2-4 Leader, Dave Logan --
Labor Day, September 3-5 Leaders, Dave and Susan Ecklund
--
Missouri: July through September, 1988 / Mike Sutton --
Mammoth Cave: Geology Trip, April 4-6 --
June 14-20 Leaders Scott House, Mel Park --
July 2-9 Leader, Pete Lindsley --
August 6 Leader, Tim Schafstall --
Labor Day, September 2-5 Leaders Mick Sutton and Sue
Hagan --
Mammoth trivia --
Changing attitudes: an interview with Donald G. David /
Norm Pace --
Grand Gulf / Sue Hagan --
Partners in parks / Sarah Bishop --
Book Notes: Geomorphology and Hydrology of Karst Terrains
by William B. White --
Lechuguilla's mileage surpasses Carlsbad / Donald Davis
--
What's happening at Roppel? / Jim Borden --
Afterword / Sue & Mick --
Calendar.