Cave Research Foundation newsletter

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Cave Research Foundation newsletter
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Cave Research Foundation newsletter
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CRF newsletter
Cave Research Foundation
Cave Research Foundation
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Resource Management ( local )
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Inside: Up the river / Bob Osborn -- Earthquake damage to saltpeter works / Angelo George -- Interview with John Tinsley -- 1989 CRF fellowship awards -- New books -- Carlsbad cartography / Ron Lipinski -- Plus: All the latest on Mammoth Cave, Carlsbad, Lechucuilla and the Missouri Ozarks.
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Vol. 17, no. 3 (1989)
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AUGUST 1989 VOLUME 17,NUMBER3 CRF Newsletter


2 CRF NEWSLETTER Volume 17, No.3 Established 1973 Editors, Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton Route I Box 110A Annapolis, MO 63620 Production Manager, Richard Zopf Quarterly: Feb May, Aug., Nov. Subscriptions $5.00 per year. Free to JVs Deadline: One month before the first of the issue month. The CRF NEWSLEITER is a publication of the Cave Research Foundation, a non-profit organization incorporated in 1957 under the laws of Kentucky for the purpose of furthering research, conservation, and education about caves and karst. For information about the CRF, write to: Ron Bridgeman, CRF President, 4074 W Red wing Street, Tucson, AZ 85741. Cover: The cover shows part of Black Chambers, in the Historic section of Mammoth Cave A preliminary pencil draft of this s eries of large, upper level rooms was recently completed the first map of the area since Max Kaempcr's map of 1908 The drawing by Mick Sutton is an adaptation of a photograph by Harry Grover BULLETIN BOARD ADDRESS CORRECTIONS. Moved? Missing some copies? (The Newsletter is not forwarded). Send address corrections to Richard Zopf, 830 Xenia Avenue, Yellow Springs, OH 45387, with $1.25 for each back issue requested. CARLSBAD RESTORATION PATCH will soon be available to all cavers who have participated in the restoration project. The patch, a creation of Bruce Baker, Annelle Baker, and Ted Blaringame, costs $4.00 and may be ordered from Bill Ziegler, 1601 Rita Drive NE, Albuquerque, NM 87106 CALLING FLINT RIDGE In case of an emer gency, information from outside will be relayed to the ficldhousc through the following numbers: Daytime business hours: 502 758-2238 Weekends and nights: 502 773-4543 or 502 749-2006. Please note that these last two are the home numbers of Park Service personnel. If your family or others call these numbers, it mu s t be a true em e rgency. CORRECTION: Jim Greer (not Kevin Downs as r e ported) attended Floyd Collins burial service on March 24 CRF Newsletter FURTHER DONATIONS continue to come in for the 1989 Newsletter fund; thank you very much. Those still wishing to contribute may send their tax deductible contributions to Roger McClure, 4700 Amberwood Drive, Dayton, OH 45424. Make checks payable to Cave Research Foundation, and indicate that your donation is for the Newsletter LASER PRINTER NEEDED. A Macintosh compatible laser printer is needed by the Newsletter staff. If you have one -or know of a fantastic deal on a used model in good condition please contact the editors. Donated equipment is tax deductible. READERS WRITE Dear Friends: I have received some months ago CRF Newsletter Vol. 16, No. I, with a short note on "Phantaspeleo '87" by Scott House. Perhaps either language problems or some background noise due to the wine which is usually present during speleological events in my country produced some misunderstanding concerning the caving in Italy. In particular it is stated that "there is no central caving organization in Italy, but the Centro Nazionale di Speleologia, a compendium of groups from Umbna and adjoining states (note : not states but districts!), is similar in structure and purpose to the CRF." It is not my intention to decrease the good will of the Centro Nazionale di Speleologia, but some tens of years before its birth, the Societa Speleologica Italiana was founded in 1951. Now the SSI has nearly 1100 individual members and about 150 caving groups. With my best regards to you all. Arrigo A. Cigna, Cocconato, Italy Dear Editor: Tile efforts of the Cave Research Foundation are focused on two aspects of cave resources: exploration/ docu mentation of the physical boundaries of caves and delin eation of the biological, archaeological, etc. components of these ecosystems. In the past, CRF has been able to pursue these objectives without much interference from the federal government. However, alteration and con solidation of CRFs power base may be necessary in order to maintain access to federally owned caves and to have significant influence on the management of cave resources. In addition to a strong and active membership, there are two major elements to an effective power base: image and public support. They are obviously interdependen .t. Especially when dealing with the federal bureaucracy, It is important to appear orthodox and organized An old friend of mine once explained about changing the world; no one was going to let me in their house to redecorate it as long as they thought I looked funny And every-


August 1989 one has a tendency to count heads when they're listening to recommendations about public resources; the more grass roots support we can muster, the more impact we will have on the management of cave resources. Steps that can be taken towards improving our image and increasing public support include: 1. Establishment of a high national profile. Education about caves and CRFs role in resource management should be the goal on all levels local, state and national. Locally we need to establish relationships with school systems and service organiza tions. On the state level, agencies concerned with management of water and wildlife should be courted. On the national level, we can interface with elected officials from the localities in which caves are found, as well as members of Congressional committees who oversee environmental legislation. Networking with other national conservation groups with interests that overlap with CRFs (e.g., the Nature Conservancy, Bat Conservation International) may also be worthwhile. Finally, we must develop skills in dealing with television, radio, and newspapers. The public's concern for the environment presents a window of opportunity for CRF. 2. Establishment of a national headquarters. Our credibility would be enhanced by building a permanent structure, housing an administrative assistant to carry out the business of the organization. 3. Establishment of a permanent fund raising appa ratus. There would be immediate need for a building fund and for paying a salary. Although raising large sums of money is always challenging, it is possible if CRF has a high national profile. It is apparent that CRF has a solid foundation on which to build this effort. The membership is large, active and committed, and the history of CRFs accom plishments speaks for itself. Its leaders have strong credentials; they are articulate, professional, and have a great commitment to the organization. What's left is to step carefully but deliberately into a new era of management and organization. Penny J. Hitchcock New Superintendent at Carlsbad Wallace B. Elms has been appointed superin tendent at Carlsbad Caverns National Park. Elms, a southern New Mexico native, succeeds Rick Smith, who was promoted to Associate Regional Director for the Southwestern Region. Elms has a BA in biology from New Mexico State University. Before joining the National Park Service, he served in the US Army. With his new appointment, Elms comes full circle -he started his NPS career at Carlsbad Cavern in 1956, where he worked as a supervisory tour leader. He acquired further expertize in cave management as assistant manager in charge of Jewel Cave National Monument in 1963-1965. 3 NOTES FROM THE PRESIDENT As you have watched these distressing times in China, I'm sure you have pondered the fate of our 1990 China Expedition During Deng Xiaoping's June 9 speech to martial-law authorities, he stated that the country could remain open to Western scholars, businessmen, and tourists. In theory, then, the expedition could still be a go for next year. Recently, however, Ron Kerbo informed me that with his upcoming trip to Russia, his many activi ties regarding Lechuguilla, and with the new Carls bad Superintendent just arriving, it will be impossi ble for him to plan or lead the 1990 CRF China Expedition as had been intended. With these events in mind, I find it prudent to delay the next China trip to 1991. If any of you have a strong desire to lead this CRF expedition, please contact me soon. On June 29, I signed and submitted CRFs proposal for a 30 month cave inventory and moni toring project at Lava Beds National Monument [see May Newsletter for further information on this new project area]. Another CRF inventory project may soon be started at Great Basin National Park, Nevada. On May 20, I attended a meeting at Great Basin with the Resource Management Specialist and regional cavers to assess the cave data the Park would require to form a cave management plan, and the willingness of local cavers to work together in acquiring this data Several cavers in attendance (Dale Green, Alvin McLane, Tom Strong, and myself) have been investigating the caves in the area for over 20 years. Approximately 30 caves are found within the boundaries of the park. Included are the famous Lehman Cave and the hydrologically intriguing Baker Creek Cave System, each with about two miles of passage. Ron Bridgemon Karst Center Plans Move Ahead Much progress has been made recently towards making the American Cave and Karst Center at Horse Cave, Kentucky a reality. The city has acquired a $250,000 Community Development Block Grant, announced plans to borrow a further $227,000, and established a Board of Trustees to oversee the development. Construction may begin by late 1989. The Center will consist of three components: a national cave and karst museum the first of its kind in the US; a program of education, aimed primarily at school children; and a professional consulting service to help the public, government, and industry solve karst related problems. JVs who wish to contribute to this exciting project may become ACCA members by sending $25.00 to: American Cave Conservation Association, P.O. Box 409, Horse Cave, KY 42749.


4 CRF Newsletter RECENT EXPLORATIONS IN HAWKINS/ LOGSDON RIVER (Or, From the Bottom Up Not as Easy as it Sounds) Hawkins/ Logsdon River is a major base-level stream at the southern edge of the Mammoth Cave System. It was discovered concurrently in 1979 through Proctor Cave by CRF cavers, and through Morrison's Cave by Don Coons and others; it was named for the Mammoth Cave Superintendent (Amos Hawkins), and for the owners of Morrison's entrance (Logsdon), by the respective groups. Intensive exploration was carried out through Mor rison's, Proctor, and Ferguson entrances. These arduous trips defined approximately 12 miles of major passages between 1979 and 1980; the explo rations are nicely described by Coons and Engler1 Connections were made to Mammoth Cave in 1980, and to Roppel Cave in 1983. In late 1983, a 24 inch diameter borehole was drilled in Doyel Valley to provide access for hydro logic monitoring by James Quinlan, National Park Service geologi st. It was first used by CRF in February, 1984 its use eliminated several hours of arduous travel and fueled another round of river exploration and mapping Coons, in conjunction with Quinlan, had been preparing a map of Hawkins River at 1:12,000, and these surveys were published on the CRF poster map (1981) and map card (1985) of the Mammoth Cave System Explo ration continued through 1986, but map compilation lagged as Coons moved on to other things and CRF cartography concentrated on other areas. The cur rent cartographic effort began in the fall of 1987 the major focus is to extend the Mammoth Cave co ordinate system (based on the Kentucky State Plane) to the river and produce updated maps at the Mammoth Cave working scale of 1:600 Hawkins/ Logsdon River consists of about five miles of trunk passage (1 0 ft high and 25 ft wide on average) It flows from Roppel Cave on the north east to a sump beneath Proctor Cave on the south west, and from there to a spring at Turnhole Bend five miles away, as the crow flies. In between, the water appears briefly as Red River in Whigpistle Cave. Most major side passages enter from the southeast. These are, from the upstream end, Fritch Avenue, L-Survey, T-Survey, and the Right Fork. The Right Fork is a base-level stream, while the others are stream carrying tributaries Major effort has begun on dome climbing to find the way up into the higher dry levels that ought to be under Toohey Ridge thus far with limited success. Upstream canyons : A complex of canyons and domes, some of them large, extends from a small south-easterly side passage a short way downstream from the connection with Roppel. Only a few trips have gone there, and the area has not been fully explored or mapped. Fritch Avenue: This major lead was noted in 1980, when the river trunk was mapped past it. The first 1500 ft was mapped during 1981 and 1982, but it wasn't until 1985 that exploration again focused on the area. The first segment of Fritch A venue is a large canyon with a roughly rectangular cross section. The passage changes character about 1300 ft from the river. The large passage divides into a complex of smaller, narrower canyons, ap parently roofed by a prominent chert layer. A crawl above this layer was discovered, and the next party broke through into the canyon which constitutes the main part of Fritch A venue. The next several trips pushed the canyon (R survey) for over a mile until it ended at a dry dome with a continuation beckoning at the top. The dome was eventually defeated, and a canyon passage led onward. Excitement mounted as this canyon led up into large passages with major side leads. At about this time, disaster struck. The survey books for the canyon were withheld by aN, and effort was diverted to resurveying this crucial route. Further trips, now requiring 24 hours, pushed the south trending branch to a 40 x 40ft trunk passage. Was this the bonanza, the master Toohey system? Alas no, for it choked with massive limestone break down after only a few hundred feet, and all major leads at this upper level ended. Trips to the end have not been numerous. One walking-high lead has not been entered and several areas deserve harder pushing. Nearer the river, two side passages leading toward Toohey Ridge have been started. These continue, but may be unpleasant to push This is one of the places in Mammoth Cave where exciting passage almost certainly remains to be found, perhaps even that upper level Toohey Ridge system we keep salivating over. L-Survey: The L-survey leaves the river a few hundred feet downstream from the connection with Mammoth Cave. A small tube leads to a large canyon with a stream. The stream diverges, the passage dries out, and becomes pleasantly decorated with gypsum. This was mapped to a fill after 6000 ft during the earliest pulse of exploration in 1981. A crawl to the east was noted, but wasn't mapped until February, 1988. The trip caused excitement for two reasons. First and most important, the crawl connected to a large tube with a canyon me andering along its floor. Second, the six inches of snow which was on the ground when we entered had been melted by an additional inch of rain, and this was now entering the cave. The river was found to be several feet high and rising, necessitat ing a 12 hour wait before personnel from the sur-


August 1989 5 N 1 rERGUSON CAVE ( MI\MI10TH (9 PROt TOR C. AVE ---, C.AVE CONNEtTION THE \ I I I ) I \ \ .... ........ SUMP OO'fH HAJOR STREAMS OFIY PRSSIIG PROMISING lf face could enter to tell us danger was past The trip out through the river was faster, wetter, and more exciting than usual. Excitement about the new discovery subsided somewhat when a previous survey was discovered. Drat! The new discovery was, in fact, a mapped side passage off the T Survey, the next major _Passage downstream. The new route was an e_aster way in, and completed a loop of about 4 miles. Subsequent trips have yielded about 3000 _ft of higher level, virgin canyons. These contam a SIZable speleothem room 40 ft high and 20 ft wide,. some nice gypsum, a large dome complex, and live bats. Other leads await attention. T Survey: The T Survey consists of about three miles of very large rectangular passage with a few large leads (including the one intersected from the L survey), and some complex junction rooms. It has been visited by only one mapping party since 1983. The area likely contains more passage. Although the T -Survey is level with Hawkins at the junction it contains no stream. It contams pools, and was obviously a major conduit not long ago. The stream which abandoned it would constitute a sizable chunk of passage if it could be found. Downstream Sump and Right Fork: The downstream sump, debatably, has great potential. It was visited during the lowest water on record during the summer of 1988. At this level, the is still closed. The ceiling is apparently a beddmg plane dipping downstream at 1 to 2 'J?le Right Fork is potentially the best lead m Hawkms River. It is so named because the first party entered through Proctor via a pit at the downstream sump. On traveling upstream they found that the passage split after several hundred feet. Half or more of the water came from under the right wall, and the r \ I .!._J<9 ,, C9 '( FRITSCH '- AVENUE ' ' '\> I MLLE remainder from a large passage on the left. The passage on the left leads to the remainder of Hawkins/ Logsdon River. The Right Fork may drain as much area as the left; dye tracing shows that it drains at least part of the sinkhole plain The passage guards its secrets well, The initial 50ft has 0 to 8 inches of atr space (dependmg on water level) above deep water. After that the water remains deep but the ceiling is high, and travel, by swimming or by inner tube, is very pleasant. A deep green sump pool is the source for the water and the passage ends here except for some small side passages and a possible overflow route 25 ft above the stream. This has been mapped for 500ft and pushed 200ft farther to where it is a walking-high passage heading northeast. Pools in the passage contain blind fish, leading to the specu lation that it serves as an overflow for the sumped main stream. Recent trips were diverted by mis taken navigation, or stopped by a sump at the main junction. The last problem points out the danger inherent in the Right Fork. It was sumped when water level on the left fork was normal, or slightly low. Only a few inches rise is required to sump the passage -further, it rises quickly. Such factors demand extreme caution, and exploration will be slow regardless of what is found, unless a new entrance is part of the discovery. Surface Surveys and Radio Locations: Over the last year a lot of effort has been invested in the Mammoth Cave coordinate system to Hawkins/ Logsdon River. This required a high quality survey to the Doyel Valley Entrance from the Frozen Nia gara benchmark. Because the survey line from Doyel Valley, through the river and out is more than five miles long, we elected, With the help of Frank Reid, to set several radio locations along ... continued p.l4


6 1811 'QUAKE DAMAGED MAMMOTH CAVE SALTPETER WORKS One of the unsolved mysteries connected with saltpeter mining at Mammoth Cave is to what extent did the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes damage the processing machinery in the cave? Travelogues are silent on this subject, yet they do contain ac counts of frightened workmen, of their reluctance to re-enter the cave after the earthquake, and of rock falls in some sections of the cave According to these accounts, no one was injured nor was there damage to the machinery. Recent investigations have shown, however, that the saltpeter works were damaged. Remains of saltpeter vats and pumping lower in the Rotunda Photograph by Diana Emerson George. Our collection and review of material pertaining to part-owner Charles Wilkins' activity at Mammoth Cave provides insight into the day of the first earth quake, December 16, 1811. At 2 AM, the saltpeter workmen, along with Joseph A. Gatewood (brother to Heming Gatewood, the other part owner), and perhaps Archibald Miller (manager or agent of the saltpeter works) were working at the Second Hop pers in Booth's Amphitheater When the earth quake struck, they panicked and ran for the entrance. The earthquake caused major damage to the works-several of the hoppers were "thrown down" and the pump was "sunk ... three feet"1 Two other major earthquakes occurred, on January 23 and February 7, 1812. The February 'quake is generally considered the most destructive2 Miller refused to enter the cave after the first earthquake, and apparently remained on the surface until well into March, 1812 A workers' strike occurred after each major 'quake. The earthquakes, the strikes, and a detached management fostered a 50% decrease in saltpeter production. Apparently, the Rotunda pump tower was not repaired. It is still four feet too low to drain leachate back to the entrance3 Some repair was done to the Booth's Amphitheater hopper complex some of the hoppers have additional structural bracing. The CRF Newsletter reintroduction of V -vats at both processing sites may have been necessary to solve system failure. Production never regained its 3000 lbs. per week schedule. The cave petered out by the start of 18144 5 Angelo I. George and Gary A. O'Dell 1. Archibald McCall to E.I. duPont, March 10, 1812. Hagley Museum & Library, Wilmington. Delaware. 2. Penick, J.L. Jr., 1981. The new Madrid Earthquakes, University of Missouri Press, Columbia. 3. Mullins, M.,1986 Historic American Engineering Record, HAER KY-18, National Park Service. 4. E.l. duPont to Colonel George Bomford, November 17, 1829. Hagley Museum & Library, Wilmington, Delaware. 5. George, A. 1., 1988. Pre-1815 demise of the domestic saltpeter industry, Kentucky, Jour. Spelean Hist. 2.2.15-20. Angelo George is a consulting groundwater hydrogeologist. He has caved in Kentucky for 20 years, and is well known for his research on the Kentucky saltpeter industry Gary O'Dell lives in Frankfort, Ky., and co//aberates with Angelo on saltpeter industry research. STILL SPRING'S GIANT CAT For the past several years, Doug Baker has led the survey of Still Spring Cave, on the Mark Twain National Forest, Missouri. Until now, the identity of the site has been kept confidential in order to protect an unusual discovery. Still Spring is in a beautiful setting, in a remote comer of Douglas County. A stream emerges from a high cave entrance at the base of a bluff. Inside, the ceiling lowers, and the cave continues as a water crawl. In 1978, James Vandike led the first party to traverse the crawl, discovering a room with a small cascade and a large, dry passage heading away from the stream. In June, 1982, Jerry Vineyard, Assistant State Geologist for Missouri, noticed a number of cat tracks along the clay floor of this passage. The prints were almost 7.5 inches wide larger than those of any cat now living in North America. While identification is difficult, the most likely species is Panthera leo atrox, a late Pleistocene lion. The cat that wandered through Still Spring probably stood 4 ft high at the shoulders, and weighed close to 900lb! The tracks were flagged, but the cave's open access rendered them vulnerable to disturbance or destruction by spelunking visitors the tracks are in relatively soft mud, and are easily damaged. The site has now been secured last April, the Forest Service erected a gate some way inside the entrance. The cave is interesting in its own right. A long, dendritic complex is being explored for the first time as the survey progresses. To date, about 1. 7 miles have been mapped, making Still Spring the longest cave on the Mark Twain National Forest. Reference:Vandike, J.E ,1985. Missouri Speleology 25: 210


August 1989 7 EXPEDITIONS MAMMOTH CAVE St. Patrick's Day. March 16-20 Leader, Paul Cannaley The main goal was to complete the surface EDM/ theodolite sUIVeys from the Doyel Valley entrance to the Frozen Niagara Entrance, and from the Colossal Entrance to the radio location tack near Mammoth Cave Baptist Church on Flint Ridge. Despite rotten weather, Richard Zopfled crews to complete both traverses -a total of 6000 ft. This is a big step towards getting both the Hawkins/ Logs don River system and Flint Ridge tied to the Mammoth Cave coordinate grid. The wet weather resulted in rearranged priori ties underground. A party entered the Bedquilt entrance, and went to Austin A venue, where they mapped 1300 ft. They exited via the Salts/ Colossal Link hip deep water in Lehrberger A venue made things interesting. Most other work took place in Mammoth Cave Ridge. The high-level connection between upper Cathedral Domes and Kentucky A venue, discovered in February, was surveyed by a skinny crew, while eating, inhaling, and getting intimate with sand. Clean-up survey in this area turned up an unentered room with fine decorations, including an unusual gypsum stalactite. The party also sUIVeyed a talus maze beneath the Saddle, helping to define the "real" wall of Kentucky A venue. Down in West Bransford Avenue, another party mapped 300ft in two "nice" chert crawls. Several masochistic leads remain to be mapped in this chert maze. The South Flank trunk survey continued for 1300 ft, with the completion of Belfry A venue and the first 300 ft of Opossum A venue. Again, recent flooding made things interesting, with slick mud banks, water in part of the Hurdle Races, and three feet of water in Stevenson Avenue. The party also checked leads south of Markolfs Dome, finding that they all ended in breakdown. The replacement survey ofEl Ghor was com pleted with a 50 station traverse from Fly Chamber to Queen Victoria's Crown. Well-known areas such as this continue to turn up surprises the party found two good leads right off El Ghor, and started surveys into them. In Rodgers A venue, a party completed the long crawl way loop started in September, and did a much-needed sketch refine ment of Sarah Margaret's Dome. The weather pre cluded work on the drain lead in Sarah Margaret's Dome -the floor of the pit was covered with deep water. A photo-documentation trip went to Black Chambers, a very large room of which no photo graphs seem to exist, and to Blue Spring Branch. In the Historic section, Angelo George continued his study of the saltpeter works. His party found the end of the leachate pipe at the iron gate, confirming the conclusions of Historic American Engineering Record workers that the Rotunda pump tower could not drain to the entrance this suggests that a supplementary tower was used (see Earthquake Damage, p. 6). Finally, a biology crew went to Parker Cave to establish census areas in downstream Parker River, and to collect egg-bearing isopods to check the rate at which commensal worms infest them. High water levels cut the trip short. Thanks to Monica C.annaley and Terri Hanunond for putting together great meals Survey Crews:-Surface survey Richard Zopf, Mel Park, Tim Bums, John Walker, Ted Hartman; Bedqullt Mel Park, Stan Sides, Roger McClure; Kentucky Ave. Mick Sutton, Andy Porter, Jerry Fant; Bransford Ave. Kevin Downs, Jeff Farr, Mike Harrod; Belfry Ave.-Doug Baker, Steve Irvine, Jim Greer, Neil Hanunond; El Ghor Tom Brucker, Tom Gilleland, Mike Reilly -Rodgers Ave. Dick Market, Dan Raque, Ted Hartman; Black ChambersSue Hagan, Harry Grover, John Glascock, Penny Hitchcock; Saltpeter Works-Angelo George, Diana George, Bob Ward; Parker Cave-Jerry Lewis, Jason Arnold. March29 Kevin Downs did a preliminary surface recon naissance to try to locate the collapsed Cox Entrance on Mammoth Cave preparation for a surface survey. (A survey line to the inside of the entrance area was recently completed from Cox Avenue.) He found a candidate sink where there is a small pile of rubble, part covered with vegetation. This is at an elevation of 700 ft on the north edge of a spur off Mammoth Cave Ridge. The Cox Entrance was excavated by George Morrison in 1916, during the "Cave Wars" era. A legal challenge from the Colossal Cavern Company quickly resulted in closure, forcing Morrison to look elsewhere for an entrance. Spring. April 22 Leader, Mel Park There were three obligations for this expedition -1) to make some progress on surveying small caves, reinforcing a pattern that should be continued for the foreseeable future; 2) to work on a thorough set of objectives for resurveying in Mammoth Cave Ridge and in Colossal Cavern -in many cases,


8 drafting is fully caught up, and is waiting upon the arrival of each new survey book; and 3) to send parties into Hawkins/ Logsdon River, if the river was at all reasonable. Here's how it worked out. One party went to Running Branch Cave, north of the Green River. They surveyed 300 ft, con tributing to the effort to draft a map of that sub stantial cave At one point, a N slipped from a traverse bypassing a pool and fell right into the water. At first, the problem was dealt with in the normal manner having the caver put up with being soaked. Then dawned a new technique sun bathing In this cave, just a few minutes from the entrance, they were able to exit, warm up in the sun, then reenter and continue working. Lawton Cave, short but gorgeous, was sur veyed, as were two small caves in Hunt's Sink. Hunt's Sink Cave #2 was deemed too dangerous to bring the whole party into-it is actively filling with substantial amounts of fresh material. A sketch was made of the cave. In Mammoth Cave, one high priority job was surveying cutarounds off Ganter Avenue. A party was able to map 270 ft here, and not get quite as sooty as previous parties. They also checked side leads. In a small hole in breakdown, they found an elegant partial profile of a head with adjacent letter ing, drawn on a soot-covered rock. Phil DiBlasi's preliminary assessment, based on the nature of the drawing and the serif style block lettering, is that it is a nineteenth century product. Another crew sur veyed cutarounds off Welcome Avenue. They did an excellent job on a high priority task and returned with 700ft of survey. The Salts/ Colossal project continued with 950 ft of resurvey in Indian A venue, approached from the Dismal Valley hole in Salts Cave. There was little difficulty, save for the complete dysfunction of the clinometer The clino. data will need to be reshot at the earliest opportunity. There is cave out the Logsdon River L Survey, or the moderately old D Survey that was linked to it in February, 1988. One lead, a multi-level canyon, intersected a larger canyon before ending in a sand stone choke. Another lead resulted in a classic Mammoth Cave situation: going, walking-high cave survey until your time limit is reached, and stare at it still beckoning Altogether, 1650 ft was sur veyed Another party had similar ambitions out the Right Fork, but couldn't get into it We now know it does sump. The Green River was at 10.5 ft, if that is a factor. Parties don't go out without secondary objectives, however. A couple of miles upriver from the D-survey, they mapped 100 ft in a side passage off the T -Survey, and spent consider able effort unravelling and making a survey schematic of this interconnecting three-level maze. CRF Newsletter They also found a good looking 40 ft high dome lead. There has been some interest lately in pushing new leads in Lee Cave. Norm Pace has made a number of trips, and Jerry Fant has gone through the reports and made an impressive lead list. Jerry led a trip there and returned with 150ft of survey. If a way out of Thorsell Shafts can be found, there could be lots of new passage. The next party through Marshall A venue should make sure that the trail is adequately marked. Phil DiBlasi, Jan Hemberger, and Gary Lein decker provided surface support: Phil spent a day going through material in the Park Service library. The expedition was host to Oayton Lino, a National Park Director from Sao Paulo, Brazil, who took part in the Welcome Avenue survey. Thanks to Phil DiBlasi and Jim Borden, who arrived early and had to cope with a stinking, melted mess in the freezers caused by a power outage. Thanks also to Buz Grover, who as camp manager had to cope with the loss of food. Buz was assisted by Jenny Lake. Survey Crews :-Running Branch Cave -Richard Zopf, Dick Maxey, George Bane; Lawton Cave, Hunt's Sink Mel Park, Jim Greer, Karla Bradshaw; Ganter Ave. Dave Hanson, Joyce Hoffmaster, Roberta Burns, lemma Wise; Welcome Ave.-Tim Schafstall, John Walker, Mike Reilly, Clayton Lino; Indian Ave.-Jim Borden, Paul Cannaley, Neil Hammond, Penny Hitchcock; Logsdon River L Survey Bob Osborn, Daryle Hensel, Roger Mc Clure; Logsdon River T -Survey -Tom Brucker, Julie Sotsky, Dick Market; Lee Cave-Jerry Pant, Jeff Parr, Rick Hoechstetter, Steve Collins. Memorial Day. May 26-29 Leader, Jim Borden Dry weather and cool temperatures were a good omen for this expedition. Water levels were moderately low, so river trips were possible, and, as this was the first expedition of the year since Colossal Cavern opened for the season, there was significant effort in support of the Colossal survey. One goal was to try out several new party leaders, teamed with at least one seasoned party leader. I thought this would provide a good experience for the new individual, while mitigating any risk. In Colossal Cavern, one party began a re placement survey of Grand A venue, starting from the base of the entrance steps. They surveyed southward to where the Twin Domes loop re-enters Grand A venue, then continued the survey back through Twin Domes for a total of 2350 ft. They found an upper level trunk fragment above Grand Avenue-there is more to be found in this well known section of flint Ridge. Two parties went through the lower levels of Colossal out through the shortcut to Austin A venue. The first crew surveyed


August 1989 one of the pair of known cutovers to Lehrberger Avenue, and sorted out some of the complexities of central Austin A venue. Lehrberger A venue, alas, still had water in it from last winter's floods. The second crew had to guide another party to their objective, which limited their working time, but they still completed one of the more complex areas of Austin A venue. Another party went to Jones Shaft to begin to put together a good map of this complicated area. They worked through about half of the complex, providing a good understanding of its relationships to the upper levels. Along the way, they surveyed cutarounds left over from a previous trip. Elsewhere in lower Colossal, a party sorted out the area near the Salts Link, where Davidson Trail intersects the main River Route. They did a thorough job of surveying the levels parallel to the main river survey, reaching a point where this area can be wrapped up in one more trip. Another crew started a replacement survey for Davidson Trail, the lower level route to Jones Shaft. Their work tied a large loop in this section of Colossal. Two parties went through Dismal Valley in Salts Cave to continue the survey from Salts to wards Colossal. First order of the day was to reshoot the inclinations measured in March with a botched clinometer This party then accomplished a fair amount of new and resurvey as far as the be ginning of Weller Avenue. Although this is only a short distance, the complexities that Lower Salts is known for occupied most of their time. The second crew sorted out a few more of the complications, and drove the survey several stations into Weller A venue towards Colossal. Two parties worked in Logsdon River. Owing to delays, the first crew had to settle for a secondary objective -a promising dome along Fritsch A venue. A heroic climb showed the "gaping lead" to be only a crack, but a hole that looked like a crack from be low was in fact a decent lead The passage was deemed worthy of a return visit. The second crew continued along the canyon found off the L-Survey in April. The passage unfortunately made a jog to the south, and ended in breakdown and domes under the deepest surface valley in the area. A few leads exist, but only for climbers. Under Mammoth Cave Ridge, there were two trips to survey the prolific, dusty cutarounds off Ganter Avenue. The bulk of the cutarounds are now complete. A party went to Solitary Cave, and mapped miscellaneous leads and cutarounds near Alexander's Pit in the Coral Grove Branch. The pit still needs to be descended and surveyed. There was a trip to scout out various routes to Floyd's Lost Passage in Crystal Cave for Stan Sides' "Summer in the Park" program. Stan's crew found the cable across Bottomless Pit to be in disrepair. They skillfully replaced the cable, restoring the traverse back to within reasonable safety margins. 9 A skilled contingent of photographers went to Longs Cave to take documentary photographs for the Small Cave Inventory; in addition, the geology and lithology of the cave were investigated A sur face party was unable to locate Crow Cave, one of several small caves reported near the Frozen Niagara Entrance. Finally, there was progress towards excavating an entrance to the Khan area, on the eastern edge of the Roppel Section. About a cubic yard of dirt and rock was removed. The dig is now 14ft deep, with another 12ft or so to go before cave level is reached. If successful, the dig will provide the easternmost entrance to Mammoth Cave. Thanks to all who helped to get the right parties together on this first expedition that I have led. And special thanks to Maggie Tucker, whose camp managing made the expedition a resounding success. Survey Crews:-Grand Ave.-Fish Brooks, Bob Osborn, Hong Huynh, Jemma Wise, Harry Grover; Austin Ave. -1) Mike Reilly, Mel Park, Andy Porter; 2) Mel Park, John Walker, Greg Jones, Jim Saunders; Jones Shaft-Richard Zopf, Bob Salika, Jim Saunders; River Route -Tom Brucker, LaJuana Wilcher, Roberta Bums, Greg Jones; Davidson Trail Jim Kaufmann, Gary Leindecker, Bob De Gross (NPS), Bob Salika; Lower Salts-1) Gary Lein decker, Tim Schafstall, Ralph Earlandson, John Walker; 2) Tim Schafstall, Scott House, Andy Porter, Lisa Siddens (NPS); Fritsch Ave.-Dick Market, Peter Gray, Norm Pace; Logsdon L-Survey Bob Osborn, Dick Market, Karen Willmes; Ganter Ave. 1) Dave Hanson, Scott House, Rob Bultman, Wayne Levin, George Wood; 2) Dave Hanson, Roberta Bums, Jim Borden, Penny Hitchcock; Solitary Cave Kevin Downs, Jim Kaufmann, Karen Willmes; Crystal Stan Sides, Richard Maxey, Richard Hand; Longs Cave Tom Brucker, Ralph Earlandson, Wayne Levin, Harry Grover, George Wood; Khan Dig-1) Jim Borden, Dave Weller; 2) Richard Zopf, Dave Weller. GUADALUPES Carlsbad Caverns NP. December 31 Januacy 1 Leader, Cyndi Mosch {This report appears out of sequence.] Expedition activities included an search in the Rattlesnake Canyon area, surve)'lng m Spider Cave, and trash clean-up in the Big Room of Carlsbad Cavern. The Rattlesnake Canyon area was walked by nearly all expedition participants; the purpose was to locate and survey Stone Ranch Cave and Fissure Cave. The area has been described by Dave Jagnow as "insufficiently investigated", so opti mism was high for new discoveries. Un fortunately, no new caves were found, except for


10 a narrow fissure near the map location for Stone Ranch Cave on the Serpentine Beds quadrangle. No airflow was noted, but there was popcorn visible on the ceiling of the crevice. Since the fissure was less than eight inches wide, future investigation will necessarily be by small people. In Spider Cave, 100ft of boneyard was sur veyed. Cooler air and a noticeable breeze was felt in one area. The survey ended in a crystal coated passage too tight to enter without enlargement. Clean up of the Big Room resulted in the col lection of 50-60 pounds of garbage as well as a refuse container recovered from Bottomless Pit. Bottomless Pit still has enough trash to keep a team busy for at least a day. The trash included such items as coins (no bills!) from various countries, NPS interpretive radios, a decrepit cable ladder, drain covers, asphalt, light bulbs, etc.. A 90 ft deep pit near the Sword of Damocles yielded, surpris ingly, less than a bag full of trash. The pit and sur rounding area are now pretty clean. One of the team members was posted along the trail to explain to enquiring visitors what was happening. An area near the Lion's Tail was partially cleaned, but needs more attention, especially by the pool, where there is an abundance of scattered asphalt. An intriguing discovery was made here -a bat skeleton was found encased in 3-4 inches of dripstone in what looked like a broken drapery or stalactite. The skeleton appeared to have been exposed by the breakage. Participants:-Bill Baus, Paul Burger, Cathy Dahms, Loretta Godfrey, Rod Goke, Ted Lappin, Duke McMullen, Tim Moreland, Cyndi Mosch, Tucker Newberry, Mike Reid, Bob and Deb Stucklen, Kent Wilson, Jane Winkler, Rich Wolfert. Putnam Ridge; March 25-Apri12 No report available Guadalupe Mountains NP; Apri122-23 No report available Biology trip-May 12-20 Leader, Diana Northup The goals of the expedition were 1) the repli cation of an experiment on the bioenergetics of cave crickets, previously conducted by Kathy Lavoie and Gene Studier at Mammoth Cave; 2) visits to back country caves to examine biology in caves in an arid environment; 3) examination of the biota of Carls bad Cavern; 4) biological photography; and 5) the exchange of ideas between Drs. Lavoie and Studier of the University of Michigan, Flint, Dr. Cal Welbourne of Ohio State University, and Diana Northup of the University of New Mexico. During a stimulating and exhausting week, we achieved the following. **Weight loss experiments to examine the rate of crop emptying were carried out on 8 males and 8 CRF Newsletter females of Ceuthophilus carlsbadensis (from Bat Cave, Carlsbad Cavern), C. conicaudus (from Spider Cave), and C. longipes (from Sand Pas sage, Carlsbad Cavern). The crickets were set up in jars in the "cricket fat farm" in Left Hand Tunnel, and were weighed once or twice daily. At the end of the experiment, the crickets' crops and gonads were dissected out, and these, plus the remaining carcasses, were dried and weighed. Preliminary plots show that the more cave specialized species, C. longipes lost weight more slowly than did C. carlsbadensis. C. conicaudus appears to be closer to C. longipes in rate of weight loss. ** Backcountry caves visited included Jurnigan Cave #1, Spider Cave, and Lake Cave. Jurnigan Cave #1 although small, contains a great variety of fauna. We saw scorpions (an adult surface species and a possibly cave adapted juvenile), psocopterans (booklice relatives), isopods, crickets, and cave adapted spiders. Care should be exercised in this cave so as not to harm the fauna. Lake Cave pro vided many photographic opportunities, including pictures of mating C. longipes. No cave swallows were present, but about 100 bats were observed. The bats are not currently roosting over the lake. ** Areas of Carlsbad Cavern visited included Bat Cave, Sand Passage (for cricket collection), Main Corridor, the Big Room, and Left Hand TunneV Lake of the Clouds. The Bat Cave visit in cluded cricket collection and photography. In Main Corridor, we identified suitable substrates for ob taining samples for Berlese Funnel work. We viewed mites (Rhagidiidae) and springtails on the speleothems near Temple of the Sun, and examined the isopods and diplurans on the guano piles between the two drops at Lake of the Clouds. ** The exchange of ideas and techniques resulted in the generation of ideas for other projects and for further collaboration. In addition to the science, Studier, Lavoie, and Northup gave talks and slide shows as part of the seasonal training for new rangers. Participants:-Kathy Lavoie, Gene Studier, three of Kathy and Gene's students (Dennis, Dave, and Steve), Cal Welboume, Diana Northup, Martha Davis (a nature photographer), Amt Studier, Heather Rex, Kenneth Ingham, Bill Ziegler. Many thanks to Bill and Kenneth for planning and purchasing the food, and assisting in the setting and retrieval of cricket traps. Guadalupe Mountains NP: May 27-29 Leader, Dave Dell A small but highly motivated crew of nine attended this year's second Guadalupe Mountains National Park expedition. The purpose was to accurately relocate and make a step log to Majestic Ice Cave, Hegler Goat Cave, and Collapse Dome


August 1989 Cave. Collapse Dome Cave was found and trian gulated. Unfortunately, the other two caves still elude us, but at least we know where they're not. In the process of looldng, several miles of forereef were scoured in search of new leads The Park Service has a list of 21 known caves within the Park The descriptions and locations of each cave are incomplete and sometimes inaccurate. CRF has volunteered to relocate, prepare step logs, and survey those caves. This information will greatly help the Park Service fulfill their cave man agement requirements. The CRF coordinator for this effort is Gerry Atldnson. Participants: Ron Bridgemon, Sue Bridgemon, Ronnie Bridgemon, Dick Venters, Laura Reeves, Bill Ziegler, Karen Yager, Dave Jagnow, David Dell. MISSOURI April through June. The map of Powder Mill Creek Cave, the longest cave in the Ozark National Scenic River ways, expanded on two fronts. Two trips extended the notorious Hell Hole series for 1 000+ ft. On the first trip, the narrow, jagged canyon steadily en larged to roomy dimensions, with good walking high leads. The second trip was supposed to clean up a few of the smaller leads, but the first one took all the available time. It continued for 450 ft, at which point it split into two canyons. Both canyons continue. A third trip extended the upstream limit the "Third Water-crawl"for a further 1000 ft. This low, wet, rather miserable passage refuses to either open up or quit The new spate of survey brings the mapped length of Powder Mill Cave to 3.8 miles. Elsewhere in the ONSR, two shelters, one small cave, and 200 ft long Lost Jenny Cave were mapped. Lost Jenny Cave features a miniscule entrance and a large, 15 ft high, stalagmite. In Aliens Branch Cave, off the Jacks Fork, a party did 250 ft of mop-up survey in a series of narrow fissures in the downstream section of the cave. Scott House gave a series of educational tours of Round Spring Cavern for the NPS seasonal guide staff. Two trips extended the Kelly Hollow Cave (Mark Twain National Forest) survey for 1000 ft, bringing the mapped length to 4700 ft. The addi tional survey finished the secondary trunk, which ends in a long wall of breakdown, and extended the survey of a side passage for 750 ft. This passage is a sometimes contorted 7ft high crawl way (i.e. the 7 ft is rarely all together in the same vertical plane), heading away from known cave. Beyond the end of the survey, the passage trends lower, but continues. In Still Spring Cave (see article, p.6), a tortuous, speleothem choked tributary of the cat track 11 passage was completed with 600ft of survey This brings the surveyed length of Still Spring to 8770 ft. Elsewhere on the MfNF, several cave leads turned out to be real after a diligent search in southem Washington and Crawford Counties. No start has yet been made on mapping them. In Iron County, work resumed on Cave Hollow Cave, another moderately large dendritic stream resurgence. Some contorted high level cutarounds were sorted out. CRF crews also mapped a small, private cave 350 ft long Howard Cave in Iron County, and mapped 450ft of nicely decorated canyon to finish the survey of Blowing Cave on the Black River. With a total length of 600 ft, this is a Reynolds County giant. Despite the popularity of the entrance zone with canoeists, the scenic rear of the cave is fairly well protected by a low water crawl. Survey Crews:-Powder Mill; Doug Baker, Steve Irvine, George Bilbrey, Bruce Bird, Eric Compas, Jim Kauf mann; Current River shelters Scott House, Paul Hauck; Lost Jenny Cave Scott House, Jim Kaufmann, Karen and Reg Brister; Aliens Brimch Cave -Doug Baker, Steve Irvine; Kelly Hollow Cave -Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Steve Hagan, Mike Plununer, Jim Kaufmann, Ray Cross; Still Spring Doug Baker, Steve Irvine, George Bilbrey; MTNF Cave leads -Scott House, Doug Baker, Dave Porter; Cave Hollow Cave Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton -Howard Cave Doug Baker, Jim Kaufmann, Lindsey Chalk; Blowing Cave -Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton. fir '1& 'to &A Let:N... --r?ffl S&4NN6A /


12 CRF Newsletter INTERVIEW WITH JOHN TINSLEY We joined CRF's Western Operations Manager John Tinsley on the May Lilburn Cave Expedition. Located in the Redwood Canyon section of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks via a 5 or 8 mile hike (depending on which scenic route you take), the field station is a unique JV-constructed cabin complete with running water, solar-powered electricity, and wood stove -all the comforts of home. We arrived in time to help John mend the corner of the cabin where an incon siderate bear had tried to make a new entry. Whether working on the field station, doing surface work, or conducting cave research, it's evident that John probably like all Lilburn regulars has a special affinity for the place so that when he says "it's good to be home" you know how he feels about Lilburn. John also serves as head of the CRF science committee, and oversees the CRF Fellowship program He.worksfor the US Geological Survey as a research geologist, with emphases on earthquake hazard asses sment and quaternary stratigraphy. John and his wife, Marilyn, live in Menlo Park, California They have a five year old daughter "I hope to bring her here in a couple of years when she can better tolerate the hike and maybe take her in a few caves. Lilburn is not a good beginner's cave, though." I started caving in Missouri when I was a young teenager. I did my first mapping in parts of Devil's Icebox [one of Missouri's largest caves] about 1964 While I was an undergraduate, I did some caving with the Colorado College Mountain Oub, but I dropped out of caving for five years while I did graduate work at Stanford. I got back in with the San Francisco Bay Chapter, one of the country's largest grottos. It had a tradition of a stout instructional program, especially in the '70s and early '80s. For example, the elementary school where Janet McOurg taught, we used for vertical training, though I'm not sure the school knew that. I guess by now I'm among the "Aging Gentlemen" of the San Francisco Bay Chapter. I got involved in Lilburn chiefly through Dave DesMarais. We knew each other through the SFBC as well as professionally. This was after Stan Ulfeldt's selling the project to the CRF Board. At that time there was 20,000 ft of cave on paper and a report of about 38,000 ft surveyed. There had been project caving here since '68 when Ulfeldt org anized the Institute for Special Ecological Studies as a base to organize the exploration efforts that followed on the heels of the '66 NSS convention. Prior to '66, the NPS didn't allow overnight camping in Redwood Canyon, so you had to hike in, cave, and hike out. For the Convention, how ever, the Park Service let the cavers camp here and graded the road. After that, cavers continued to re ceive special privileges for camping one of many boosts the Park management gave the cave explorers. CRF got involved as a result of a bad political situation that threatened to end the caving altogether. The ISES leaders had not been very wise about how they dealt with the Park. They had been active here for eight years and the Park Service still did not have a complete map there were good people in ISES, but a lot of them were good starters, not good finishers. They had also been caught doing an illegal sinkhole dig, which had to be filled back in. (Even now, digging is banned outright as a result -I would like to get that amended to a more flexible policy.) The Park was pretty irate and were going to "cancel the lease". Even when CRF stepped in, the heat was still on. When Boyd Evison became Superintendent, though, he came with a knowledge of what CRF is, from his position as past head of the NPS Southeastern Region. I remember one tense meeting Dave DesMarais, Stan Ulfeldt and I had with NPS officials shortly after Evison arrived. It was clear we were speaking for our lives. We outlined what research prospects were promising and what benefits were likely to accrue to the Parks if an active research program and a coterie of cave experts were maintained. At the end, Evison stood up and said, "I'm satisfied this project ought to continue. Does anyone disagree?" There was silence, and he turned and walked out of the room. Evison was a strong sponsor of wilderness concepts and although Redwood Canyon was knocked out of the Wilderness bill, he decided he would manage it as wilderness anyway Conse quently, the Lilburn project changed complexion when, in 1980, the Park closed the road the project became smaller but stronger. When people had to hike in, it eliminated those who were addicted to driving. Dave DesMarais had put the science on a more professional footing, with schedules, antici pated products, and so on. We got the cartography in a more productive vein -we had Ellis Hedlund's old line plot and started producing a finely sketched map for the Park. We wanted to produce a good map with good floor detail. We knew early on it would have to be different from other maps in order to portray the many different levels. We are still mapping new passage. Peter Bosted has done a superb job orga nizing the cartographic efforts during the past several years. Scientific research at Lilburn preceded CRFs involvement, but the new organization resulted in an upsurge of interested people. I'm interested in anything that involves how detritus moves into and through a cave. Lilburn is nice for research like that


August 1989 because access is controlled, and it has a pristine watershed. You can do things here that you can't do under ordinary situations. A lot of the alpine caves in the Parle flush out each year and are there fore great cavers' caves no pennanent damage is done. But much of the research we do here would be adversely affected if there were unregulated public access. When Evison closed the Redwood Canyon road, he asked for proposals for a field facility to replace the old cabin, which had been built in the 1920s. We began building the new cabin in 1980. Stan Ulfeldt, who stayed on as the first project manager under CRF, put up the front money for construction materials, and Stan's father did the design. (Donations from JVs have reimbursed Stan). The Parle Service supplied cement, shingles, and an occasional mule train to haul in needed supplies. Over the next two years, the cabin was built. I remember getting the last of the roofing nailed on in a driving sleet stonn, and skating off the roof. Of course, there's always maintenance to do, like replacing the shingles this time where a bear tried to get in. Once on my way back from Big Spring, I en countered a bear racing full speed uphill at me. I knew this was it for me, but when the bear came by it just kept going. I could have touched it if I'd raised my arm. After it left, I realized how fortunate I was that the wind had been in front of me. Sight ing bears on the trail is quite common, but so far they are pretty timid. I guess that realizing you're no longer on top of the food chain is part of the Lilburn experience. The Park Service has been greatly supportive in letting us carry on our work here, but they get a great deal in return. Sequoia is a "mountain and tree park", not a "cave park", although they've got some 70 caves. The NPS gets a covey of interested experts to help them with their caves. We give public lectures, we give technical infonnation to the Crystal Cave tour guides, and we help with their publications. At Lilburn, the Park Service is in the situation of having 10 miles of cave that nobody in their employment can navigate. If they were not managing it as a research facility, they would prob ably have to have approved trip leaders and perhaps manage the cave for general access, or close it com pletely. It would not be an easy cave to manage that way. The Park has yet to finish a fonnal cave management plan, though that should come to pass soon. Although there's no written management policy, bat hibernacula are gated, and they now have a cave specialist on the staff, so they are moving in the right direction. What are the future directions for CRF here? Unless we are able to get into the "Great North Cave" [the hypothetical northern extension of Lil-13 burn] and regenerate the cartography program, I think in two or three years the science program here will be largely reduced to long-tenn monitoring, plus some spin-offs. There may then be a tempta tion on the part of the Park Service to not limit access to research programs, but if we present a program that requires restricted access, they would probably look on it favorably. I see a continued presence for CRF at Sequoia and Kings Canyon, but it will broaden to include general interpretive activities helping to insure that the Crystal Cave guides give technically accurate infonnation, and so on and we could learn something of the region's natural history by conducting studies in other park caves. Of course, there is the new Lava Beds Project in Northern California, with which many of our Ns are already involved. I like doing science in caves, be it cartography, sedimentology, or helping someone else carry out their study, first because it's intrinsically interesting, and second because anytime you go in a cave there is some damage done, so it's a question of what do you do in exchange for your impact. That's why project caving appeals to me. I still enjoy occasional "sport" caving, but it's become an important ethic to leave something behind other than a cavcr's wake. CRF has set a standard for productive caving and I'm glad to be a part of that. 1989 CRF KARST FELLOWSHIPS Each year the Cave Research Foundation spon sors a competition for graduate fellowships and grants in any karst-related field. Students enrolled in graduate studies involving aspects of karst submit proposals to the Chainnan of the CRF Science Committee. Selected members of the committee then review the proposals and rank them according to relevance and timeliness, technical competence, innovativeness, and budgetary considerations Up to $3500 can be awarded in Fellowships and grants. In 1989 the Foundation received ten fine pro posals encompassing an unusual diversity of karst related disciplines. The reviewers always have a difficult time with the evaluations when the field is diverse and topics are either multi-disciplinary or require making judgements across disciplines. Of the ten proposals, the reviewers placed three studies clearly a cut above the others, and awarded a total of $5,000 to these. A CRF Karst Research Fellowship in the amount of $2500 was awarded to Mr. Ray Kenny, Department of Geology, Arizona State University, Tempe, for his proposed research entitled Stable isotopic ratios from carbonate and chert of modern and paleo karst exposure surfaces: implications for early terrestrial microorganisms and


14 Precambrian paleoclimatic temperatures. Mr. Kenny will analyze trends in stable isotope ratios, apparently stemming from solution, reprecipitation, and silicification of weathering carbonate rocks in the presence of meteoric water and photosynthetic microorganisms. Chemical data from Precambrian carbonates suggests that 1) dissolution, reprecipit ation and silicification is characteristic of continental paleokarst surfaces; 2) photosynthesizing micro organisms may have inhabited the land surface millions of years earlier than previously thought; and 3) it may be possible to obtain climatic temp eratures for certain geologic time intervals by using isotopic "thermometers". The proposed research will sample modem karst surfaces from the Mam moth Cave area to test critical predictions of the hypotheses. A $1500 CRF Karst Research Grant was awarded to Mr. Joaquin Arroyo-Cabrales, Museum of Texas Technical University, Lubbock, for his proposed research, Taphonomy and paleo ecology of San Josecito Cave, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Mr. Arroyo-Cabrales is undertaking the study of paleontological remains from San Josecito Cave, indicative of late Pleistocene ecosystems of the Mexican Plateau. While a rich fossil assemb l age has been described by prior workers, stratigrdphic control and temporal calibration of the assemblage was poor. The proposed research will introduce stratigraphic and chronological control. Mr Arroyo Cabrales will evaluate the paleoecological data, and the taphonomic processes affecting the bones, to shed further light on the Pleistocene ecosystem. A $1000 CRF Karst Research Grant was awarded to Mr. Bruce W. Fouke, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook, for his proposed research, Dolomitization and karstification of the Seroe Domi periplatform carbonates, Aruba, Bonaire, and Curacao, Netherlands Antilles. Mr. Fouke proposes to reconstruct the composition, timing, distribution, flow paths, and selective dolomiti zation effects of Seroe Domi diagenetic fluids (fluids present in the carbonate sediments prior to and during lithification) He will evaluate the early dolomitization of ancient massive dolomites on a regional scale. The Seroe Domi area is well suited to the purpose It shows extensive karstification, has excellent three-dimensional exposures owing to tectonic uplift, and, because of its youth and partial dolomitization, affords an opportunity to test evi dence for currently active diagenetic environments in meteoric aquifers. Congratulations to all recipients. Summaries of these undertakings amounting to extended abstracts will appear in the 1989 CRF Annual Report. John Tinsley CRF Science Committee Chairperson CRF Newsletter Up The River ... continued from P 5 the trunk passage2 Surveys were run from bench marks to these points and on to other benchmarks When they are reduced and closed, final map drafting at 1:600 can be started Preparing the final map will require substantial resurvey, as it has in other parts of the cave. Cave fever from the big discovery resulted in too rapid survey with poor sketches -a situation exacerbated by failure to take inclination data for some of the main passages. Tom Brucker says, "It was total madness." Let us use this as a lesson for future big discoveries, some of them, hopefully, in the River system. It isn't as much fun to do the second or third time do it well the first time. Bob Osborn 1. Coons, D & Engler, S., "In Morrison's Footsteps", Caving International 12. July, 1981. 2. Pace, N ,CRF Newsletter February, 1989, p.6 Bob Osborn has been caving with CRF since 1987, mainly at Mammoth Cave where he is project cartographer for the Hawkins/Logsdon River area, and with the Missouri Govern ment Agencies project He holds an MS in geology, and works at Washington University, St Louis. THE UNDERGROUND READER Atlas of the Great Caves of the World, Paul Courbon, Oaude Chabert, Peter Basted, and Karen Lindsley, 370 pages, paperbound, published by Cave Books. $21.25 ppd. from Cave Books, 5222 Eastland Drive, New Carlisle, OH 45344. The first English edition of Courbon and Chabert's excellent reference work on the longest and deepest caves of the world is now available. The book, which has been extensively revised and updated (up to March 1989), was translated by Peter Basted and edited by Karen Lindsley. It includes over 200 maps, and contains information on over 2000 caves. In addition to the long and deep caves, it includes lists of less obvious records, such as the longest and deepest dye traces, the greatest vertical ascents, and the largest non limestone caves. Fairly detailed summaries are given for all of the major caves. No serious caver, armchair or otherwise, will want to be without this book. Also available from Cave Books is Karst Hydrology: Concepts from the Mammoth Cave Area, edited by William and Elizabeth White, published by Van Nostrand Reinhold, NY price approximately $45. More information on this will appear in the next Newsletter


August 1989 15 CARLSBAD CAVERN CARTOGRAPHY We have recently been working on a vertical profile of Middle Earth, which is under the floor at Top of the Cross in the Big Room The view de picted is from 2500. In this orientation, Talcum Passage is to the left, and Bottomless Pit is to the right, both out of view. The lowest levels are at the same elevation as the floor of Lower Cave. A cenote is a Mayan term for a large limestone well, where young virgins would often be sacrificed to the rain gods by hurling them into the depths Guano Cenote was named after a recent attempted sacrifice of an expedition leader. Three-D Pit was named after the multi-dimensional nature of the drop (no intended reference to the surveyors Dave Ecklund, Dave Dell, and Dick DesJardins). Computer reduction of the Carlsbad data is pro gressing. We have Brunton and Suunto data from 264 survey books entered as computer files BIG ROOM (75% of the total) The files were typed in by the Buechers, Dave Dell, and myself. In addition, files recently retrieved from John Corcoran's old computer cards comprise over 50% of the total theodolite data If anyone has a computer that run s MS-DOS and would like to type in some books, give me a call at 505-299-4603 We can exchange data by mail. Jim and Fritzi Hardy have taken the in itia tive in reducing the Carl s bad data and producing a com plete lis t of all survey points in both tabul a r and plott e d form. An important a spect of this process is the identification and correction of blunders Jim's program can handle some of this, but anyone with SMAPS or some other program, or even a rul e r and protractor, is wel come to join the blunder hunt. Ron Lipinski [Adapted from the May 1989 Guadalup e Hooter } > 160 MIDDLE EARTH PROFILE NEW DEVELOPMENTS (Sic) AT LECHUGUILLA With Lechuguilla Cave firmly established as longer and deeper than its famous neighbor, Carls bad Cavern, it should come as no great surprize that pressure is building to tum the cave into a major tourist attraction. The city of Carlsbad recently set up a Lechuguilla Study Task Force, charged with examining the full range of options for Lechuguilla, "and steps which should be pursued to maximize benefits of its discovery." The Task Force mcludes Ron Kerbo, Cave Specialist at Carlsbad Caverns NP, but none of the other members have direct experience of the cave. One of the more outmembers has proposed excavating a shaft mto the Western Borehole. On the positive side, the Task Force has been willing to listen to the voices of those cavers most directly involved with Lechu guilla, and the outcome of their deliberations is not a foregone conclusion. Meanwhile, the NSS subcommittee on cave wilderness, chaired by Sarah Bishop, continues to press for Congressional legislation to protect Lechuguilla as an underground wilderness. In March, New Mexico Senators Domenici and Bingaman introduced legislation calling for a study to evaluate the wilderness and development options. The dispute over the cave s future will partly test the theory that the cave is already protected by being within a wilderness area. In order for development to occur, designated wilderne s s will have to be decommissioned -a move which is sure to engender vigorous opposition At this point it's unclear how the individual caver can best help influence the outcome, but if you feel strongly about the future of Lechuguilla Cave, it cannot hurt to send your comments to Senators Domenici and Bingaman, U S Senate, Washington, D C. 20510 (with copies to your own Congres s ional Delegation)


CALENDAR MAMMOTH CAVE August, Aug. 5-7. Stan Sides 314-335-1469 Labor Day, Sept. 1-4. Mick Sutton & Sue Hagan 314-5462864 Columbus Day, Oct. 6-9. Richard Zopf 513-767-9222 Thanksgiving, Nov. 22-26. Phil DiBlasi 502-588-6724 (w) New Year, Dec. 27-Jan. 1. Leader to be announced. First and last dates arc ani val and departure dates. Notify the expedition leader or Operations Manager (Mel Park, 901-2729393) two weeks in advance. GUADALUPES Summer, Aug. 5-6, at Carlsbad Caverns NP. Jim Nance 915563-5208 Labor Day, Sept. 2-4, at Guadalupe Mountains NP. Dave Logan 505 983-8126 Columbus Day, Sept. 30-0ct. 8, at Putnam Ridge. Fritzi Hardy 505-345-1709 Thanksgiving, Nov. 23-26, at Carlsbad Caverns NP. Bruce Baker 405-234-2963 New Year, Dec. 30-Jan.1, at Apache Mountains Dave & Sue Ecklund 402-493-2754 Notify the expedition leader, the area manager (Dick Venters, 505-892-7370), or the supplies coordinator (Bill Ziegler, 505262-0602) at least one week in advance MISSOURI Aug. 19-20; Sept. 16-17; Oct. 21-22; Nov. 18-19. Most trips arc based at the Ozark National Scenic Rivcrways. Notify Scott House (314-287-4356) or Doug Raker (314-878-8831 ). CAVE RESEARCH FOUNDATION P.O.BOX 443 YELLOW SPRINGS, OH 45387 ADDRESS CORRECfiON REQUESTED George Yen\ 40 19 Ramsoate 5on Antonia, TX 75230 ANNUAL MEETING The 1989 annual meeting of the Cave Research Foundation will take place in Saint Louis, Missouri, Friday November 2 Saturday, November 3. The meeting will be in the Women's Building on the campus of Washington University at Clayton Road/ Big Bend Boulevard. There will be a catered banquet on Saturday evening, at a cost of armmd $15-20. The nearest motels (not within walking distance) are the Cheshire Inn and Lodge, 5306 Clayton Road (314-647-7300), and the Radisson Hotel, 7750 Carondelet Avenue (314-725-1564). The following people are willing to accommodate out of town guests: Red & Pat Watson, Scott House, Dennis and Mary Drum, Scooter & Louise Hildebolt, Don Finkel, Sheldon Helfman, George Crothers, and Sheri Turner. If you plan to attend, please notify Red Watson, 756 Harvard, University City, MO (314-862-7646) one month in advance. If you would like give a talk or present a slide show, please let Red know. [The Newsletter editors extend an invitation to those attending from out of state to spend some time before or after the meeting at our Ozark homestead, 100 miles from St. Louis. Cave trips/ canoe trips can be arranged, if desired. Just let us know in advance314-546-2864.] NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATION U.S. POSTAGE PAID YELLOW SPRINGS, OH PERMIT 160

Inside: Up the river /
Bob Osborn --
Earthquake damage to saltpeter works / Angelo George --
Interview with John Tinsley --
1989 CRF fellowship awards --
New books --
Carlsbad cartography / Ron Lipinski --
Plus: All the latest on Mammoth Cave, Carlsbad,
Lechucuilla and the Missouri Ozarks.