Cave Research Foundation newsletter

Cave Research Foundation newsletter

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Cave Research Foundation newsletter
Series Title:
Cave Research Foundation newsletter
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CRF newsletter
Cave Research Foundation
Cave Research Foundation
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Resource Management ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )
United States


General Note:
Inside this issue: 1988 Annual meeting -- SE Archeological Conference / Phil DiBlasi Ken Carstens -- Mammoth Cave Survey Databases / Mel Park -- Interview with Pat and Red Watson -- Plus all the latest on the Guadalupes, Liburn, Fition Cave, Missouri, and Mammoth Cave.
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Original Version:
Vol. 18, no. 1 (1990)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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K26-00740 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.740 ( USFLDC Handle )
11927 ( karstportal - original NodeID )

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FEBRUARY 1990 VOLUME 18, NUMBER 1 CRF Newsletter M Y STER Y LOWeR CAVE LOWER CAV e INSIDE: 1988 ANNUAL MEETING SE ARCHEOLOGICAL CONFERENCE Phil DiBlasi & Ken Carstens Scoie 600 MAMMOTH CAVE SURVEY DATABASES-Mel Park INTERVIEW WITH PAT AND RED WATSON PLUS all the latest on THE GUADALUPES, LILBURN, FITION CAVE, MISSOURI, and MAMMOTH CAVE. ENTR.L.r'\CC BAT CAVE LErT HAN D T UNNEL CARLSBAD CAVERN Line Plot, November 7, 1989 Ron Lipinski, Dave Dell In the original version, colors are used to differentiate levels on the plan view and to different latitude ranges on the elevation view. The illustration is a reduced scale scale black and white rendition. GUADALUPE CURRENTS The new official length for Carlsbad Cavern is 19.1 miles, down from the previous figure of 20 8 miles. Its depth is 1037 ft. These figures are the result of an eighteen-month effort to computerize the more than 500 Carlsbad Cavern survey books. Ron Lipinski, Bob Buecher, and Dave Dell entered most of the books into the SMAPS cave mapping program. With SMAPS they were able to flag all spray shots and redundant surveys for length exclusion. The resultant length IS thus an honest length for the cave. A computer-generated skeleton map for Carlsbad Cavern is one of the benefits for the hundreds of hours Continued p.4 ...


2 CRF NEWSLETTER Volume 18, No.1 Established 1973 Editors, Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton Route l,Box llOA Annapolis,MO 63620 Production Manager, Richard Zopf Quart e rly : Feb., May, Aug Nov Subscriptions $5.00 per year Free to JVs. D e adljne : One month before the first of the issue month. The CRF NEWSLETfER is a publication of the Cave Research Foundation a non profit organiza tion incorporated in 1957 under the laws of Kentucky for the purpose of furthering research, con s ervation, and education about caves and karst For information about the CRF, write to: Ron Bridgemon, CRF President, 4074 W Redwing Street, Tucson, AZ 85741. Photo credits: p4-Phil DiBlasi; p12-Harry Grover BULLETIN BOARD ADDRESS CORRECTIONS: Moved? Missing some copies? (The Newsletter is not forwarded). Send address corrections to Richard Zopf, 830 Xenia A venue, Yellow Springs, OH 45387, with $1.25 for each back i ss ue requested. ADDRESS CHANGES: Beth and Gerry Estes: Home-1030 Gwyn Circle, Oviedo, FL 32765. 407-365-3477; Work (Beth)Florida Sinkhole Research Institute, Research Building Alpha, University of Central Florida, Orlando FL 32816. 407-281-5644 Barbara am Ende: P.O. Box 851, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 1988 CRF ANNUAL REPORT has recently been published. The report may be obtained from Cave Books, 5222 Eastland Drive, New Carlisle, OH 45344. Enquire for cost (approrimately $6-7). 1989 CRF ANNUAL REPORT: Submissions for the 1989 Annual Report are due. Please send your contributions on cave and karst research, CRF related activities, abstracts of papers given, talks presented, etc. to the eilitor, Karen Lindsley, 12 Orchard Road, Lucas, TX 75002-8061. DEADLINE IS MARCH 1. The Annual Report is not for publishing full-length articles or sc ientific papers; we seek extended abstracts, with t e xt supported by a few key illustrations and references, the whole not to exceed five double-spaced pages. Text may be s e nt on disc as ASCII files. Contributors will r ece ive a complimentary copy NEWSLETTER DONATIONS: 1990 is here S e nd your tax deductible contribution s to Roger CRF Newsletter McClure, 4700 Arnberwood Drive, Dayton OH 45424 Make checks payable to Cave Research Foundation, and indicate that your donation is for the Newsletter Beth Estes joins Florida Sinkhole Research Institute CRF JV Beth Estes has accepted a faculty position as a karst hydrogeologist with the Florida Sinkhole Research Institut e (FSRI) at the University of C e ntral Florida. The objectives of the FSRI are to coorilinate and conduct research, help establish guidelines for han dling sinkhole related problems, and publish informa tion about Florida's s inkholes The purpose is to achieve a more comprehensive understaniling of the many factors relating to sinkhole development, and to enable property owners, businesses, government, and professionals to better prevent, control, or minimize losses caused by sinkhole collapse Other research int e rests include kar s t hydrogeology and cave stuilies READERS WRITE MADDIN CREEK PETROGLYPH I am working on an analysis of the prehistoric rock graphics (petroglyphs and pictographs) of Missouri for my dis sertation. I presently have records of approximately 60 such sites; 1520% of the sites known to date in Missouri are located in caves If you know of any petroglyph or pictograph sites in Missouri, or know someone who does, I would appreciate hearing from you In your reply, please include: your name, address, and phone number; general location of site; name of U S.G .S. map in which it is located; county; general description of designs. Any information will be greatly appreciated and properly referenced. If you have extensive information on pr e historic rock graphics, I can send you a questionnaire sheet to complete Many thanks for any help you can provide Carol Diaz Granados 7433 Amherst Avenue St. Louis, Missouri 63130 314 721-0386


February 1990 CRF BOARD MEETS IN ST. LOUIS On November 3-4, the Board of Directors held their annual meeting on the campus of Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri All directors were in attendance with the exception of John Tinsley who was intimately involved in USGS' studies of the San Francisco earthquake. The Board regretfully accepted the resignation of Dr. Norm Pace No new directors were elected and the current slate of officers was reelected: Ron Bridgeman, president; Richard Zopf, secretary; Roger McClure, treasurer. Sarah Bishop was designated CRF Conservation Chairperson. Eric Compas and Dick Venters were elected to Membership based on their many contributions to the programs of the Foundation Realizing that the Maple Springs facility at Mammoth Cave will not serve CRF's long-range research goals, the Board implemented a long-term plan that will result in a privately funded world-class research facility within Mammoth Cave National Park. A new fund was established as a part of this plan. In the interim, CRF continues to work with the Park in preparing the Maple Springs facility for CRF use. Noting that there is much to be gained from cooperative research ventures with internati onal caving organizations, the Board created an Internat.IOnal Exploration fund. A CRF Karst Research Fellowship ($2,500) and two CRF Karst Research Grants (totalling $2,500) were awarded this past year. The Board approved the use of up to $6,000 from the Endowment Fund to support research awards for the coming year Thanks to the American Cave Conservation Association for their presentation at the general meeting. The Board recognizes their many efforts. Thanks also to Scott and Patty House for the Friday-night potato bash. And of course many thanks to the Red and Pat Watson for handling the meeting and banquet arrangements and for their old-timers' sbde show. A good time was had by all. The next Annual Meeting will be held in November, 1990, at University of Arizona, Tucson. Dates and details will be announced later. Ron Bridgeman, President MAMMOTH CAVE RESEARCH CENTER FUND-RAISING DRIVE At the November '89 Annual Meeting, the Board of Directors agreed that CRF and Mammoth Cave should have a research center fitting for the world's longest cave. To that end it was decided to embark on a long term project to create a world-class research center at Mammoth Cave. In a recent letter to the Mammoth Cave National Park Superintendent, Mel Park-CRFs Eastern Area Operations Manager wrote, "CRF wants a research 3 facility equal to the best found in Europe, one that will include both surface and in-cave laboratories, a research library, plus all of the space and facilities required to house and mount expeditions." This is an ambitious project and YOUR HELP IS NEEDED. A fund-raising drive at the Annual Meeting, with only 20 p eop le attending, netted close to $10,000 in donations and pledgesan excellent start. We hope you will keep the ball rolling with your donations. You may find a 5-year annual pledge more convenient than an outright donation. We also welcome ideas for obtaining support from the private sector Please send ideas and tax deductible donations or pledges to me at 4700 Amberwood Drive, Dayton, OH 45424. Roger McClure, Treasurer INTERNATIONAL EXPLORATION FUND The CRF Board of Directors created a new fund ai the Annual Meeting in St. Louis The International Exploration Fund will be used to support CRF expeditions outside the U.S A like the expedition to the People's Repubhc of Chma. hoped the Foundation can sponsor such an expedllton every 3 to 4 years. If you have proposals for an international venture please contact CRF President Ron Bridgeman. The International Exploration Fund will be supported with interest from the Bill Mann F"?d . (approximately $1,000 per year presently) and mdlVldual contributions. The Foundation will also seek corporate sponsors for those expeditions that approval. Treasurer Roger McClure IS accepung donations for this fund. MEMBERSHIP AWARDS At the CRF Board of Directors meeting on November 3, two JV's were elected Members of the Cave Research Foundation. Dick Venters has been an active participant in the Guadalupe Escarpment Area for over a decade and is presently serving his second year as CRF area manager. in the Guadalupes. He recently coordinated the highly successful Cave Restoration Camps held at Carlsbad Cavern. Eric Compas has been involved in . cartographic efforts at Mammoth Cave and m since he was fourteen. He developed a data reducuon program which has greatly augmented the current mapping efforts. Congratulations to both. CORRECTION: The article on the Khan Entrance in the November Newsletter stated incorrectly that the new entrance is on eastern Toohey Ridge. The entrance is in fact located on western Fisher Ridge.


February 1990 Patty Jo Watson Honored for Twenty-Six Years of Archeology Ken Cars/ens, symposium organizer, preserUs a cotrurle!TUJralive plaque 10 Professor W a/son. On 10 November 1989 at the Southeastern Archeological Conference, a symposium entilled 'Twenty-six years on Kentucky's Green River" was presented in honor of Pat Watson's pioneering work on the Middle Green River. The papers dealt with work in the central Kentucky karst and the Green River Shell Mounds. The symposium was organized and chaired by Ken Carstens, who presented the first paper. Ken focused on his investigations (1973-1975) of the prehistoric temporal sequence of the caves and rock shelters in and around Mammoth Cave National Park, emphasizing early plant domestication. Guy Prentice summarized three years of investigation within the Park and presemed a site distribution model based on an economic perspective Bruce Manzano evaluated the lithics (chipped stone tools) from a site in the Guide's Cemetery and another site three kilometers away. Pointing out that many discoveries in caves come from the caving community, Jan Hemberger discussed three cave archeological sites and how efforts to protect them have either failed or succeeded. Philip DiBlasi compared the Mississippian glyphs in Tennessee with the Early Woodland dmwings found in Salts, Mammoth, and Adair Glyph Caves, arguing for an early tradition of cave art Ken Tankersley discussed the prehistoric sulfate mineral mining in Mammoth and Salts cave as the use of a renewable resource (see November Newsletter). Four papers were presented on the Green River Shell Mounds. Gail Wagner discussed the ethnobotany Cheryl Claassen the malacology (mussel biology), Chris Hensley her current field investigations, and Val e rie Haskins and Nicholas Hennann the bio archcology. These avenues of research grow from and enhance Pat Watson's work in t11e region. 4 The final paper was presellled by Pat Watson, giving an overview of her work and that of others. Ken Carstens then presented Pat with a plaque, inscribed with each presenter's name, and thanked her for leading the way in archaeological research in the central Kentucky Karst. Philip DiBlasi & Ken Carstens Guadalupe Currents: Continued from p.l. .. spent at the keyboard. (see p 1) The skeleton map is a line drawing which depicts more than 5500 survey shots The next tough step will be to close the loops. Then each of the separate map quadrants can be replotted and drafted_ Exploration in Carlsbad Cavern is continuing. One area being worked in Lower Cave looks promi s ing and has great potential. Other possibilities include a high lead at the Lion's Tail and a vertical lead near the entrance to the Guadalupe Room. Dick Desjardins is our new lead coordinator for Carlsbad Cavern. His job is to locate and list all unexplored leads, which should rekindle serious exploration. Call Dick (505-344-7053) if you know of any leads. John Corcoran has been recomputing the Rohrer (theodolite) point locations in Carlsbad Cav e rn. He has found some troubling discrepancies, some of which are difficult to resolve because the data is old and sketchy. Don't be surprised if he drags you down there with a theodolite to verify and recheck a survey. The Carlsbad Cavern Restoration Project completed its fourth yearly camp and has proved to be a very worthwhile and educational project New insights into restoring highly travelled areas to near pristine condition have been gained and the volunteer cavers have learned the need for a more environmental outlook in their caving. The Lechuguilla Precision Survey, (Lechuguilla Cave Project and CRF) headed by Jim Hardy and Robbie Babb is expected to last two or three years. NB -The Precision Survey could use more volunteers. With the assistance of the LCP, biological work has started in Lechuguilla Cave, headed by Diana Northup Her crews have set cricket traps in an effort to study how human encroachment might have changed the cave's faunal habitat. Tim Moreland has become Spider Cave coordinator. Spider Cave, about half a mile west of Carlsbad Cavern, is a large cave developed in Yates Formation dolomite beds. With Tim's help we will be better able to explore and survey the cave, which we know holds a lot of opportunity. Also of interest are the week-long ridge walking expeditions to Putnam Ridge in the northwest of the Park Only a few cavelets have been found so far but the area looks promising. Jerry Atkinson is in charge of cave survey in Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas. Our work


February 1990 there is still in its beginning stages. Many of the caves have only approximate locations and have to be refound. Jerry is heading our effort to refind them, map them, and provide descriptions. In October, Dick Venters visited the Apache Mountains, Texas. Though he found nothing of sp e leological interest in the back-reef portion of the mountains, the fore-reef zone still holds pot e ntial There is a lot more to be done in the Guadalupe Area If you would like to volunteer to take charge of a project, we would love to hear from you. Dave Dell & Dick Venters Dave and Dick are respectively Chief Carto g rapher and Operations Mana g er for the Guadalupe Escarpment Area. MAMMOTH CAVE SURVEY ON COMPUTER In over thirty years at Mammoth Cave National Park, CRF has discovered the passages and collected the survey data that make Mammoth Cave by far the longest cave. This is, of course, caver's talk. The cave has been there, in all its length, some tens of thousands of years before our time and sizable portions of it were known before CRF came along. Also, much of the cave has been discovered by other groups, notably the Central Kentucky Karst Coalition (CKKC). About 90% of CRFs Mammoth Cave surveys have been transcribed to computer. Computer data processing began almost from the start and has continued ever since Until this year, the data was in three large, separate sets Not only were the sets in different formats and on different media but they were also at several locations. This summer, we collected all of it and assembled it on modem media. The data is fascinat ing to study, both to learn more about the cave and to learn about the people who worked so hard to transcribe it. The total machine-readable archive that we now have is an irreplaceable source of information. The earliest set is the CrowtherMann data. It was maintained through 1980 and encompasses the first 1300 survey books. The second set is the Ohio data, roughly survey books 1300 to 2200. The most recent set consists of files that Scott House and his Missouri cartographers have assembled. In addition, Art Palm e r has made a compilation of the Crystal Cave data (the Crowther-Mann version of the Crystal Cave data is based on Art's). Some of the Palmers' extensive level ing surveys has also been recently transcribed to com puter. The Roppel Cave data is separate the CKKC has maintained a joint consolidated database with the Fisher Ridge Cave Project, using large m a chines and modem methods The Crowther-Mann data is the earliest but in a sense it is also the most modem in that it used large computers in a professional way. It formed the basis for the views of the cave that we are used to seeing: the map cards and the poster map. The data are organized by area. Perusing it you could imagine taking a walk, for 5 example, down Turner A venue. The data are encoded in a rather complete cave mapping language, named CaveLst, that allows for the idiosyncrasies of surveying practices and for the insertion of explanatory comments We have extensive docum e ntation of the format and the Fortran source code for the programs that interpret it. Reading the comments, one appreciates the e n e r g y ex pended in extracting data from even the earlie s t surve y books. The agony of the transcribers in d e aling with smudged survey books and the care that they took ar e clearly recorded. The data lives .... POHL AVE (NORTH END) BOJK394 BLACK aNX WATEFf'ALL J DA VIOSON("B) B SZABAOOS J BASSETT( C) "NOV291008 Gavlf'f.SS 46026 'TYPED 1&73 BY WRC Dl\TE ffi1129 COJ.PASS 46026 DEClJNA. TlCN 1 5+{) 1 DECLJNA.TJCN 16 MARK182 SURVEY 386 B 15 TE381B14 '2A8N 63 0 1 1 0 6 a-w-aDFRCMS4iBY'M'M4-Wii81,TOAGFEEWITHSKETQ-l NFSB386 NOTES IN BCD<, AOCED LATER BY DENNIS DRL.M, DISAGREE. TI-lS S BEITER. END 0 2 0 5 'UU PARTY L.JI'URTAN 'M1CH aJJID THIS FEAlL Y WAS! WRC SURVEY :B4 B :U TE:B>B32 NO ELEVATJCN ffiE 5.4 1 0 1l SJBN 6.9 2 0 2 ELEVA TO 9JN125 ro 2 2 o t2 Crowther-Mann Data Ex c erpt fr om a s ur vey seg ment that was being edit e d as late as 1981 Lines that begin with an asterisk(*) are comments Data fields have a fued ord e r but s everal f o rmats were allowed CaveL s t command s such as ELEVATION and NO ELEVATION t e ll which fields are b ei n g used Most of this sample has the format: bearin g distance, left right, ceiling, floor The chief deficiency of the data is its age. The base data are below current standards: backsights are usually miss ing and estimates of vertical offset rather than inclina tion measurements were the practice. Much of the survey has been replaced indeed much of it was being replaced during the CrowtherMann period. Anoth e r shortcoming is simply that much new cave has been discovered since then. The Ohio data was assembled during the late 70's to mid 80's. The intent, as I interpret it, was to maintain a machine-readable archive. Each file contain s a single survey The data are organized chronologically, not geographically, although the location is written in clear text within each file. The files arc named according to Field Survey Book (FSB) and survey letter de s ignation. The data have been formatted to mimic the appear a nce of a survey book, an innovative idea. Program s were developed that produced line plots of short s egments of the cave. Continued p.l4 ...


6 CRF Newsletter EXPEDITIONS MAMMOTH CAVE Columbus Day. October 8-9 Leader, Richard Zopf River: A major resketch of Hawkins/ Logsdon River was begun, with Bob Osburn leading two teams through the Doyel Valley Entrance. The main aim is to provide an adequately detailed sketch, but they had to resurvey as well since most stations in this area have long ago been washed away. They taped some 6700 ft of resurvey. Another team went to Fritsch Avenue and surveyed 450 ft. of new, high-level passage. Mammoth Cave: In the Lower Robertson Avenue area, a party extended the drain found in September off the Marble Domes canyon. "Rhonda's Route" is now 280 ft. longer and shows no signs of stopping. Another party surveyed 400 ft. in breakdown maz e s under Kentucky Avenue at Gist's Dome and the Saddle, while a third party mapped 200 ft in the network of chert floored crawls off West Bransford Avenue. The seeming never ending task of surveying the Welcome Avenue cutarounds resumed, and the new survey loop started last month in Ike's Path was extended for 950 ft. along Emily's Avenue. Corrosion samples were collected from the alu minum railings around Bottomless Pit. Rick Olson will analyze the samples to see if the abundant reactions pose any threat to tourists or wildlife. Etc. Paul Richards visited several caves to study community structure in rat-guano piles. Several JV's assisted Dave Weller in securing the newly dug Khan Entrance to the Rappel section. Survey Crews: Logsdon River resurvey 1) Bob Osburn, Neil Hammond, LaJuana Wilcher, Jeff Farr; 2) Bob Osburn, Kevin Downs, Neil Hammond; Fritsch Ave.Daryle Hensel, Peter Gray, Roger McClure, Dick Maxey; Rhonda's Route Mick Sulton, Terri Hammond, Joyce Hoffmaster, Gary Varner; Kentucky Ave. Mick Suuon, Terri Hammond, Gary Varner; Bransford Ave.-Kevin Downs, Roberta Burns, Richard Hand; Emily's Ave.-Sue Hagan, Jim Greer, Joyce Hoffmaster, John Walker; Welcome Ave.-Jim Greer, Jemma Wise, John Walker; Bottomless Pit-George Gregory (NPS), Richard Zopf, Maggie Osburn; Biology Paul Richards, Mary Geraughty; Khan Entrance -Dave Weller, Sue Hagan, Harry Grover, Karla Bradshaw, and others. Thanlcsgiying. November 23-26 Leader, Phil DiBlasi Surface: Paul Hauck and Scott House took advantage of the availability of a theodolite/ electronic distance meter to survey almost three miles on Flint Ridge. In three days their crews tied Colossal Entrance to the Woodson/ Adair Entrance, continued to the Bedquilt Entrance and on toward Adwell Spring, then surveyed over to Salts Entrance and up Sells Road to the Flint Ridge road This will go a long way towards putting Flint Ridge on the Mammoth Cave coordinate grid. River: Four trips went to Hawkins/ Logsdon River One party went to the Cut-Around and mapped 700ft upstream in a sleazy, meandering crouch/ crawlway. The passage split into two inlets, which both deterio rated. One branch continues, passing some small domes, but is not promising. A second crew went to a lead up the domes at the end of Fritsch A venue In trying to fmd the domes, they discovered a small tributary passage. They eventually found the right way and discovered that the lead continued very small for at least 150 ft. The other two trips continued the high detail resketch/ resurvey of the main trunk. One party tied in Banana Pass (in the upstream overflow route) and mapped the confusing complex of large rooms in the Amos Hawkins Formation area, while the other mapped 1000 ft, including some minor cutarounds, upstream from the Waterfall. Mammoth Cave: In eastern Mammoth Cave Ridge, there was a clinometer survey to fix poorly defined ele vations in East Bransford A venue and the Cocklebur Loop. The party noted some unusual coiled gypsum speleothems in a cutaround, but the most notable dis covery was a rare occurrence of celestite, which formed sky-blue rings around numerous gypsum blisters in the CockleburS-Survey. This is not the first occurrence of celestite in Mammoth Cave, but it may be the best. Rhonda's Route, the drain from the Marble Domes U Survey, was extended for another 300ft of small, twist ing canyon. It continues as a crawl with good air flow A long crawl off the Robertson A venue high cut arounds, discovered in September, was extended for 470 ft. The crawl, which is heavily decorated with gypsum, heads towards Kentucky A venue Farther west, two parties extended the Emily's A venue resurvey for 1600 ft., and added 200 ft of high cutarounds to the map. In Welcome Avenue, a party mapped 260ft of new survey in small, sooty cut arounds, while some tidy-up in Black Chambers added 125ft. of crawlway, and filled a blank comer of the Mountain Dome map with breakdown. Angelo George led a trip to the saltpetre works and rock mining sites in the Rotunda and Audubon A venue. The mining sites were sketched and tied into the ex isting sketch of mining sites in Main Cave. There were trips with a medium format camera to photograph the aboriginal glyphs near Mummy Valley in Salts Cave and at the TB Huts and Devil's Looking Glass in Main Cave. Jerry Lewis surveyed the invertebrate community in Shaler s Brook all individuals (isopods, amphipods, flatworms) in the sample zones were counted and identified. The party noted that the terrestrial com munity that used to exist on rotting boards has been largely extirpated, since the boards have been removed.


February 1990 Small caves A party took a long walk carrying wet suits to Buffalo Creek Cave to continue mapping the wet upstream trunk. They suited up and crawled in but encountered "a major pothole in the cave of life." the passage was filled with sand 35 ft inside! They contin ued to Fort's Funnel, and found that its entrance was oc cluded with silt. The Buffalo Creek plug would be awkward to dig, but party leader Stan Sides believes it will eventually blow open by pressure from the inside since the entrance functions as an estavelle (a reversible sink/ spring). Another party inventoried the entrance of Owl Cave in Cedar Sink, where they noted historic graffiti and clam shell fragments. Buzz Grover made a special trip to do his usual magic in the kitchen Thanks, too, to Jan Hemberger. Many people helped out in the kitchen; Ted Hartman scrubbed pots and pans almost as fast as we could dirty them. Everyone helped out to make the expedition work smoothly. Survey Crews: -Surface survey 1) Scott House, Paul Hauck, Patty House, Kevin Neff, Ted Hartman, Harry Grover, John Glasscock; 2) Hauck, House, House, Roberta Burns, Jim Greer, Bob Salika; 3) Hauck, House, House, Bob Osburn Russell Odenkirk, Kim Strassburg; Logsdon River Cutaround -Norm Pace, Don Coons, Jerry Fant, John Branstetter; Fritsch Ave. Fish Brooks, Mel Park, Rick Hoechstetter; River resketch 1) Bob Osburn, Ted Hartman, Gary Varner; 2) Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Chris Groves, Ralph Earlandson; East Bransford Ave. -Tom Brucker, Jeff Snure, Eric Mast, Jemrna Wise; Rhonda's Route Mick Sutton, Neil Hanunond, Mike Reilly, Sheri Engler; Robertson Ave.-Dan Raque, Daryl Neff, Neil Hanunond; Emily's Ave. 1) Mick Sutton, Bob Salika, Ralph Earlandson, Sue Hagan; 2) Ted Hartman, Roberta Burns, Kevin Neff, Bob Salika, Jim Greer; Welcome Ave. -Jim Greer, Jerry Fant, Daryl Neff; Black Chambers: Scott House, Patty House, Paul Hauck, Bob Osburn, Russell Odenkirk, Kim Strassford; Saltpetre works Angelo George, Diana George, Richard Hand; Photography Kevin Downs, Harry Grover, John Glasscock, Richard Hand; Biology Jerry Lewis, Mari Tilford; Buffalo Creek Cave Stan Sides, Ralph Earlandson, Sue Hagan; Cedar Sink -Tom Brucker, Dan Raque MISSOURI October through December. 1989 CRF government agency work concentrated on caves of the Mark Twain National Forest. In Still Spring, the longest known cave on the Mark Twain, a crew mapped 450 ft. to finish most of the upstream survey one tributary passage remains to be explored A party returned to "Tumbling Shoal Cave" in the Irish Wilderness. The small cave turned out to be in fact Seven Pile of Rock Cave, which has a published description matching "Tumbling Shoal Cave", but no published location. We descended the 20ft pit that stopped our earlier effort but, alas, the conspicuous passage at the bottom was an illusion. The origin of the cave's odd name is unknown. 7 A trip to Kelly Hollow Cave, Oregon County, net ted 350 ft., bringing the mapped length to 5000+ ft.. The end of Bone Passage was found, a tight stream meander was mapped, and a start was made on the damp downstream drain. In an obscure comer we found a 15 ft. pit, somewhat difficult of access, which drops into a moderately large room. At least one party had found this place before-the pit was rigged with an amazing assembly of rotting wooden rungs tied together with bootlaces. A return trip with more orthodox vertical gear is planned. Cowards Hollow Cave in Carter County turned out to be a glorified rock shelter, 60 ft. deep and 150ft. long. It has seen quite a lot of local use and has a built-in rock fireplace Aliens Branch Cave, a long cave just outside the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, received a visit tidy up survey near the entrance yielded 550ft. of mostly low, wet, nasty stuff. Survey Crews: Still Spring Doug Baker, George Bilbrey, Bruce Bird; Seven Pile of Rock Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton; Kelly Hollow Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton; Cowards Hollow Scott House, Patty House; Aliens Branch-Doug Baker, Steve Irvine, George Bilbrey. GUADALUPES Carlsbad Cavern N.P.-Thanksgiving, Nov 23-26 Leader: Bruce Baker The expedition was attended by 28 cavers. The three days saw a total of 614 caving hours with all but one project completed. Diana Northup and crew photographed isopods and diplurans in Left Hand Tunnel, Big Room, and Lake of the Clouds. They also set mite traps and surveyed census points in Bat Cave and Main Corridor. Three trips to the Mystery Room worked on a high lead on the north wall. On the second trip, the crew came within five feet of reaching the lead but were stopped by a lack of hand holds and not being able to get the rope to snag a good hold. The lead was finally reached using poles to get the rope onto a better hold. The crew discovered about 250ft. of vertical and hori zontal passage. This well-decorated area is in the same joint plane as Mabel's Room and Talcum Passage. Numerous holes in the ceiling of the Mystery Room may have good potential for future expeditions. A survey to the Spiral Room was completed and virgin passage was found and surveyed for a total of 330 ft. The party found a skeleton of a ringtail. Two loops were surveyed in Koovee's Recess (all leads ended in a short distance) for a total of 350 ft. There was a short survey in the Cable Slot above Nicholson Pit; this area was field checked for future leads. The pit next to the Sword of Damocles was com pleted. The lead next to the Lions Tail was not reached because of problems with the lifting poles. The crew will attempt a different approach later.


8 Two trips went to Spider Cave to try to find the connection between the Ghost Room and the Plumber's Nightmare The attempts were unsuccessful but some resurvey was completed to help replace missing data. A rock art survey was started by Mike and Barbara Bilbo. This project will consolidate NPS records, which are from scattered sources including ridge-walking trips. Mike and Barbara walked Bat Cave Canyon looking for caves with prehistoric and historic sites The only finds were historic trash above the second natural entrance to Carlsbad Cavern. They recorded rock art on the south wall of the main Carlsbad Cavern entrance; it appears to be in desert archaic style. A lead-checking party trekked to Snake Mine (cave) It took a grueling hour to travel 130ft. into the cave, and the crew lost the backs of their shirts and pants. The cave requires small cavers and a lot of tedious work. Participants: Stan Allison, Annette & Bruce Baker, Jon Barker, Barbara & Mike Bilbo, Paul Burger, Clinton Cline, Dave Dell, Dick Desjardins, Ken Ingham, Grey Jenson, Andy Johnston, Matt Kuehnert, Thelma Leonard, Ron Lipinski, Dave Logan, Mike Mansur, Denis McKeon, Tim Moreland, Diana Northup, Jill Phillips, Steve Reames, Denise Richard, Jim Sturrock, Norm Thompson, Jim White, Bill Ziegler. Lechuguilla Precision Survey Project Leader, Fritzi Hardy Sept.30 -Oct. 7 This was the first trip of a joint project between the Lechuguilla Cave Project (LCP) and CRF. The aim is to get a high precision survey line, using state of the art instruments, along the major branches of the cave (see November 1989 Newsletter, p.5). This shake-down expedition focussed on learning to use the PTXII Total Station Instrument loaned by Pentax and refining the techniques developed by Jim Hardy and Robbie Babb After training with the equipment, the in-cave survey began, with much revision and continued learning. A brass cap was set on the hill above the entrance, near the existing one. The two points will act as the starting station pair for the "double interlocked traverse" Two survey lines are run in parallel, with foresights and backsights taken from each point to each of the two fore and back stations, ensuring very high precision. The illustration shows the complexity of the survey net. A start was made on tying the entrance stations to a surface geodetic survey. Tom Rohrer used his own theodolite to tie in the north park boundary line. Once the geodetic ties are complete, a uniform coordinate system can be generated for the caves in the park The survey began down the entrance drop. The im portance of setting up the tripods with proper visibility was driven home by the initial poor positioning of the second set of stations. The survey continued through the culvertdue to the constricted space, the survey here was restricted to a single traverse line, with the double line resuming beyond. Breakdown movement caused CRF Newsletter some problems with tripod stability. At the end of four days of in-cave surveying, the traverse was within two or three stations of Boulder Falls. Permanent stations were set where feasible, but temporary stations had to be used in many places. Owing to tripod movement, the last section of the survey will need to be re-tied to permanent stations-these points are good to "only" 0.05 ft. The earlier points are probably good to 0.01 ft. AREF-2 113 Blue Glue Survey line through Lechuguilla Entrance to the culvert. "Red" and "Blue" distinguish the two parallel survey lines AREF-2 and AREF-3 are newly set permanent stations; the remaining stations are temporary. Magnetic azimuths, recorded at each pair of sta tions, proved interesting. The magnetic declination varied by two degrees from one station to another, ex cept around the culvert, where it differed by about twelve degrees from the rest of the traverse. At one station, a magnetic azimuth variation of 14 minutes was noted over a twelve hour period. There were many favorable comments on the renovation work which has been done to the CRF cabins by the Park Service. It made the in-cave work easier knowing that there was a nice place to retire to, and it made it easier to support the cavers with adequate equipment and a lovely kitchen to work in. Survey Crews Rigging John Patterson, Bob and Debbie Buecher; Surface sur ey-Fritzi and Jim Hardy, Tom Rohrer, Duke McMullen, Bob Pape, Hillary Minich, Robbie Babb, Dick Venters, Bob Pape; Entrance drop Tom Rohrer, Hillary Minich, Bob and Debbie Buecher, Kerry Kemper, John Patterson, Dick Venters, Bob Pape, Duke McMullen, John Corcoran; Culvert John Corcoran, Hillary Minich, Kerry Kemper, John Patterson, Bob Pape, Dick Venters; Cave survey Day 3 John Patterson, Hillary Minich, Bob Pape, Robbie Babb, Kevin Kemper, Norm Thompson; Cave survey Day 4 John Corcoran, Robbie Babb, Hillary Minich, Bob Pape, John Patterson, Kevin Kemper, Tom Rohrer; Derigging-Fritzi Hardy, John Corcoran, John McLean, Neil Backstrom, Duke McMullen, Robbie Babb, John & Johners Patterson, Hillary Minich; Photography David Modisette, Norm Thompson; Surface support Krystal Patterson, Olive Rohrer, Rachel Hardy, Adrian Patterson. Report by Fritzi and Jim Hardy.


February 1990 November 19-25 Surface training featured tying the Carlsbad Cavern Control Net into the geodetic data net and surveying a reference for magnetic compass calibration at Building 6. Later, a 4600 ft. long level survey was run to the cave from a second order bench mark in Walnut Canyon First priority for the cave survey was to solve the problems from the October shake-down trip lack of permanent stations outside the culvert, lack of a double line through the culvert, and shakiness in some of the stations. The survey through and just beyond the cul vert required a great deal of care. The first try was aban doned due to high wind speed in the culvert, which ex ceeded the 65 mph capacity of the wind gauge! Next day, the wind paused for long enough to survey through. On the last day, Rick Bridges and Anne Straight rigged Boulder Falls, as it was hoped the survey would reach the drop. This proved optimistic but the line was ex tended to within three station sets of the Falls. By then exhaustion had set in and it was considered unwise to continue. Jim Hardy discovered an active sink and collapse feature about one quarter mile east of the tennis courts. Survey Crews: Training Jim & Fritzi Hardy, Robert Babb, Barbara Luke, Tom & Olive Rohrer, John Corcoran; Level Survey Tom Rohrer, Jim Hardy, Anita & Bob Jim Cave Survey Days 1&2 John Corcoran, Robert Babb, Barbara Luke, Dick Venters, Bob & Anita Pape; Day 3 Robert Babb, John Corcoran, Bob Pape, Barbara Luke, Dick Venters; Day 4-Robert Babb, Dick Venters, Barbara Luke, Dwight Deal, Jim Sturrock; Day 5 Robert Babb, Norm Thompson, John Corcoran, Bob Pape, Dick Venters, Barbara Luke. LILBURN Columbus Day Expedition. September 7-9 Ten JV's combined their persistence and talents to mount three survey parties, one experimental photo graphic party, and several surface forays to prepare the field station for winter. High on the list of priorities were several short but critical surveys that were best conducted during dry weather. The cartographic efforts coordinated by Peter Basted have gathered considerable steam and enthusiasm during the past several years because most of the work is now proceeding in areas seldom visited, in passages which show few signs of prior activity. These areas contain proportionately higher incidences of unstable rock. Of special interest was a trip to try to connect the southern end of the Pandora Passage complex with a series of tall canyons that would lead, presumably, to the upper part of Lilburn Cave near the original or Lilburn Entrance. The trip enjoys somewhat increased risks, owing to a series of tight, twisting passages that would prevent effective rescue in the event of a disabling injury in short, a typical skirmish with a complex cave developed at high vertical angles 9 The efforts were aided by fmding high leads bypass ing the tight canyons which had defeated all but the smallest of our cavers. The climbs were exposed but not excessively difficult, owing to the absence of a wa terfall that would have made sport of us during a non drought year. Unfortunately, the effort came to nought after 175ft. of survey. A chockstone weighing approx imately two tons was wedged in the drain tube at the top of a third waterfall pitch and corked tfte way onward and upward. We could see past into walking passage with no footprints on the floor, but with visions of "Raiders of the Lost Ark" dancing in our heads, we retreated to fight another day, preferably from above. Next day a party endeavored to find a way down from above, but failed to locate the objective. They did, however, fmd and survey passages that interconnected with established routes near the Bacon Rind Complex. A party sought to relocate a high, muddy, but water-free route to Thanksgiving Hall. They were thwarted by navigational uncertainties, yet managed to locate several promising leads. This remains a likely area for finding additional cave in the south portion of Lilburn. The exploration of this area has been forced to fol low alternative routes, owing to 1400 m3 of sediment derived from a new sinkhole that has developed in Pebble Pile Creek above the cave. Aggradation has caused sumps to form along the traditional stream routes. One positive result is that it has compelled us to examine higher portions of the cave. A second bene fit is that we have the opportunity to observe the efforts of the plumbing system to "clear its throat". There was a trip to photograph key localities to document the volume and distribution of sediment in passages which serve as high-water conduits for subterranean Redwood Creek. Instrumentation was prepared for the wet season's activity. Winterization of the field station was accom plished by increasing the firewood cache (downed trees are hard to fmd under 3-4ft of snow), draining the water system, topping off the solar-charged batteries, changing the cells that power the geochemical monitoring equip ment... The bear which had been marking his/ her terri tory by clawing the corners of the cabin has not been doing so lately. It has been an interesting contest between the bear and the project coordinator, who has engaged in rituals of territory-marking that would gratify some, amuse others, and shame the bashful. Will the "fix" last the winter? John Tinsley October 28-29 Leader, Peter Bosted In spite of a recent five inch snowstorm, seven cavers hiked to the cabin on Friday night. On Saturday, one team headed down to the south end of the cave.


10 They explored a lead off the Davis Exit room that soon connected back to known cave. They then surveyed several leads in the Rift. A climb through loose granite boulders led up to a new area with pristine speleothems and very gooey mud; it was named Mud Purgatory. The trip netted 570 ft. of new survey in 51 stations. Another team went to the Attic area, where over 500 ft. was mapped in a new area of small passages. Many more leads remain in the Attic. On Sunday, a party pushed upstream in the East Stream, which had stopped flowing due to the dry weather this year. They mapped 140ft. to a sumped pool. Survey Crews: South End -P. Basted, B Frantz, A. Huddleston, G. Malliet; Attic: C. Vesely, B. Farr, C. Isom; East Stream: P. Basted, B. Frantz, C Isom, G. Malliet. November 18.19 Leader, Peter Bosted The last expedition of the 1989 season had only three participants. On Saturday the trio headed to a climbing lead at the far south end of the cave. Greg Cotterman made the 20ft. climb and belayed the others up. They found themselves in a complex of small passages and split up to find the best way on. Greg went through some tight crawls to a confusing chimney complex and had difficulty finding the way back. The team decided to mop up the other leads in the area first, and soon found two connections back to the telephone line, much easier than the original route. While making a spray shot up into a high room they found a way on through a constriction. This lead to large (for Lilburn) passage heading north. They followed it for about 500 ft., through several rooms, until they stopped at a diffi cult climb. This is an interesting discovery since it lies in a previously blank part of the map. Due to the ubiq uitous gooey mud in the area, they tentatively decided to call it Hog Heaven. On Sunday the team pushed the upstream end of the West Stream, which was completely dry. They were able to advance about twelve body lengths in a ceiling channel. The total length of Lilburn Cave is now over 11.4 miles (18.4 km). Participants: Peter Bosted, Dan Clardy, Greg Cotterman Lilburn Operations, 1989 The Columbus Day expedition was more lightly attended than usual as it ran concurrently with a meeting of the Western Region of the National Speleological Society. CRF operations draw heavily from project oriented cavers who are active in the NSS. Likewise, we had scaled down our Memorial Day expedition, urging people to attend the Western Region's Speleo educational Seminar hosted by Diablo Grotto. Many JV's will be assisting the San Francisco Bay Chapter in hosting the 1990 NSS Convention at Yreka, California CRF Newsletter The down-sizing of our two largest expeditions meant that our on-site participation was down about 40% this year. However, the cave surveys totalled about one mile, or roughly the same amount as sur veyed during prior years, refleCting the success of several small, off-expedition cartographic trips. In sum, we were able to support activities vitally important to the California caving area while sustaining our Lilburn productivity John Tinsley FITTON CAVE SURVEY After more than a year of cartographic effort to bring the maps up to date, field work on the Fitton Cave, Arkansas survey resumed last summer. At an April meeting with Buffalo National Scenic River personnel a set of up to date preliminary quadrangle maps were delivered to the NPS. The expeditions are low-profile, with no formal operating agreement. The Chestnut Cabin is being used for field headquarters whenever the road up the hill is dry. The Park Service has improved the area with a good pit toilet, and they now mow the grass once or twice a year. There is no radio, phone, water, or elec tricity but there is a nice screened porch, good camping on the cabin grounds, and the beauty and quiet of the Arkansas Ozarks to enjoy. With a good baseline map set in hand, CRF is now in a position to support scientific work in the cave. There are several potential projects, encompassing min eralogy, geology, hydrology, and biology that would be of interest to qualified researchers. Anyone interested should write to Pete Lindsley (12 Orchard Road, Lucas, TX 75002-8061; 214-727-2497) or Gary Schaecher (17 Oak Ridge Ave., Maumelle, AR 72118; 501-851-3864 W). Anyone interested in leading an expedition should write or call Gary Schaecher. The first objectives for 1990 will center on the New Maze, Tennouri Helictite, and Lost Passage areas. Later, work will start in the Lower East Passage and Fitton Spring areas. The June 10 trip had five cavers from Texas, Arkansas, and Oklahoma in attendance. They started work on the south end of the New Maze area with a survey tied to Jurgan's Leap Passage. The August 12 trip fielded 15 cavers in four survey crews. Thirteen of the cavers were new, so the trip was primarily a training exercise. Two teams worked in the New Maze area, one worked in the area just below the Out Rock, and one worked the breakdown leading down to Lost Passage. A review of survey techniques following this trip resulted in an improved survey book format. On October 14, three teams were fielded; two worked in the New Maze while the third worked in the Lost Passage breakdown area. Both areas were connected to previous surveys. There are plans to return to both areas with preliminary


February 1990 maps in order to continue working on the small stuff and to enhance the map with cross sections. Participants : Terry Holsinger, Danny Sherrod, Paul Stapleton, Troy Shelton, Pete Lindsley, Gary Schaecher Mike Zawada, Hal Love Sherry Stokes, Mike Pearson, Kevin Ogle, Dawn Burrow-Hill, Don Evans, Benny Rutl e dge, Lance Lide, Sharon Lytle, Tammie Lenert, Mike Patton, Michael McMurrow, Randall Royal, Mark Porter, Clyde Merrell Nick Keathley i // f'\S aN d.iscol"\-tLf"lui.nj A opE. ra.:+; o "' on of "r )<.ne ,5'' LECHUGUILLA UPDATE Underwater Helictite Growth: a clarification Everyone likes to take credit for a good idea, but the article on Lechuguilla Cave in the last Newsletter gives me more credit than I deserve. Helictites forming under water were first observed in Lechuguilla by CRF member Donald Davis of Parachute, Colorado, and it was he who noticed the association with blocks of gypsum. He also hypothesized that the common-ion effect in a combined solution of calcite and gypsum is what triggers the deposition of calcite, the less soluble of the two minerals. My role in the study was to determine from water samples whether this hypothesis is valid. We obtained water samples from above, in, and below the helictite pool in Pellucidar, where the helic tites were first observed. Temperatures and pH were measured in the cave. Peg Palmer determined the content of major ions, and Jim Whitney of the University of Illinois measured the minor constituents and verified the sulfate content. Analysis of the data shows that the common-ion effect does indeed account for the majority of supersaturation in the pool. Sulfate probably affects the rate and shape of crystal growth, but there is no evidence that precipitation is triggered by a decrease in sulfate in the pool. More detailed accounts by Donald and myself appear in the 1988 CRF Annual Report, and a complete article coauthored by Donald, Peg, and me is in preparation for the NSS Bulletin. 11 This little episode seems to epitomize what caving is all about. What other sport or science offers so much on so many different levels? Donald deserves the honorary title of Ultimate Caver for showing how to experience all levels of caving at the same time Art Palmer Exploration: By the end of the September expedition of the Lechuguilla Cave Project the length of Lechuguilla Cave stood at 42 2 miles. A recalculation reduced the cave's depth to 1476 ft The Eastern extension, beyond the Aragonitemare climb continued to provide most of the new mileage Highlights of this intricate new area include: a region of large pools and multicolored calcite decorations, called the Boundary Waters; an active flow stone wall 150 ft high by 300 ft. wide (Firefall Hall); extremely eroded rillenkarren (Bryce Canyon); a deep slanting rift "much more unpleasant" than the notorious Apricot Pit; and a section of austere borehole the Wild Black Yonder-over 100ft. wide in places Continued exploration is being aided by the adoption of more effi cient and longer bivouac trips, running up to 80 hours. Underwater helictites (see above) were reported from three locations in the new extension. Politics: The Lechuguilla Cave Study Act and the Cave Research Institute Bill were passed by the U.S. Senate in September The bills have been introduced in the House by Congressmen Skeen, Richardson, and Schiff of New Mexico No serious oppos i tion to either bill is anticipated. The Lechuguilla Cave Study Act would authorize revision of the Carlsbad Cavern National Park management plan "to study methods to protect and interpret the internationally significant Lechuguilla Cave ... The case for managing the cave as wilderne ss appears to be strong. It is within the Carlsbad Wilderness boundaries; the Park administrators assume that it is protected under the Wilderness Act and are managing it as a cave wilderness. It is less clear what may happen if an entrance is found outside the Wilderness boundaries. Efforts to protect the cave are being coordinated by Dave Jagnow, Chair of the LCP Science Advisory Committee. The proposed research institute would "function as a center for the ... collection, analysis, and dissemination of research material related to caves in Carlsbad Caverns National Park, the Capitan Reef area, and other lands managed by the National Park Service." (Cooperative agreements for research on non-NPS lands would also be permitted). In addition, the Institute would produce educational and interpretive materials and provide for a comprehensive evaluation of cave resources [and] protec tion needs ... The act does not appropriate any funding.


12 CRF Newsletter INTERVIEW WITH PAT AND RED WATSON On December 271989, we met with PaJty Jo Watson and Richard Watson in their home in University City Missouri For three and a half decades, the W aJsons have been on the forefront of speleological activities, recognition of which was s h ow n in 1988 and 19 89 by each receiving Lifetime Member s hips in the NaJioiU.ll Speleological Society, the highest award granted by that organization. CRF continues to be a benefi c iar y of their efforts Red an early o rganizer of the Found ation, has exemplified dedicated exploration caving. He is central to CRF's publication endeavors And, as author of fic tional and non-fictioiU.ll works, he has helped to shape both the thinking of the caving community, and the non-caver's perception of speleology. Patty Jo's archeological work in the caves of Kentucky and Tennessee have placed her at the forefront of research on prehi s toric Eastern Woodlands culture, the significance of her contributions being recognized in her recent election to the National Academy of Sciences. She has an extensive bibliography of published works. Both are professors a/ Washington University; Red leaches philosophy and Patty Jo teaches archeology Their daughter, Anna, is presently doing doctoral studies at Harvard University. SHIMS What was your early involvement with CRF ? PW : I wasn t even doing New World archeology prior to this cave archeology business. I was deeply involved in Near Eastern prehistory. But there were problems; the Near Eastern governments weren t in favor of having outsiders coming in, and you can under stand il. The situation was getting rather difficult. Then when I got to the point where I had students, I had to guarantee they could get enough work done to get a Master's or a Doctor's thesis. Red got me started at Mammoth Cave in the 1950's when CRF was just getting off the ground. He had been caving while I was in the Near East and was writing me all about il. When I got back, we got married. Almost from the start I was introduced to cave archeology. RW : Phil Smith was the one who wanted to get her involved. Phil wanted scientists. He said, once CRF starts filling up with cavers, that's the end. PW: It was a desire of CRF to have as many scientists as possible. RW: There is a pretty big difference in recruiting between now and then. The way recruiting went was to get people to do things rather than to get cavers. Jack Lehrberger and Bill Austin were hard-core cavers, Phil Smith and Roger McClure had caved in high school, but a fair number of people who became very prominent weren't cavers from the starl. The Hills were just camp ing in the Park; they seemed like nice people who were interested, and they got signed up I don't know that Carol was even working on a degree then But then, nobody is a caver to begin with, so I don't know why we make so much out of that. They certainly became cavers once they got started. I had done a little bit of caving, not much, in Iowa and Minnesota and I was part of reviving the Iowa Grotto in 1951 or '52, but there weren't any big caves around there. I had never really gone caving, maybe an hour or two. In 1954, when I was in the Air Force, stationed in Columbus, I got started at Flint Ridge. On my first trip Bill Austin and Phil Smith discovered Eyeless Fish Trail. It was a long trip it was in the tradition, that I suppose is still there, of really testing newcomers, to see if they wanted to cave or not. Usually, it worked. PW: The cave archeology didn't get going full tilt until 1963. We both had our graduate schooling to complete after we got married. Red got his MS in geology in '57, before his philosophy PhD. I got my Masters at Chicago, and then we both went to Michi gan In '64 we started at Washington University and Red became president of CRF. We began spending more time at the cave than at home, or so it seems. It was every other weekend, and for weeks at a time during the summer. RW: I haven't been down to the Ridge since '81, so I don't know if it's that different or not. I know it's larger. Probably there are groups of you who know each other as well as we knew each other. For years there was a very small group who were together all the time. And our kids grew up together, they knew each other as though they were cousins. It was really an extended family. PW : In '63 we got the Illinois State Museum to start with some funding. We have Joe Caldwell to thank for that. He was Head Curator of Anthropology of the Museum and an expert in Eastern Woodland Culture. We were trying to get Joe interested in the archeol ogy of the cave so we took him to Indian A venue in


February 1990 Salts Cave Indian Avenue was this incredible passage that had not been entered since the time the Indians ex plored it; it had been discovered by Reccius and Lehrberger. We took Joe through Upper and Lower Salts-the Corkscrew, the Quarter Mile Crawl, the Quarter Mile Crouch way, and Indian Avenue, pointing out everything we could and he seemed interested. But when we got outside the cave Joe turned to me and said, "Patty, I don't ever want to go in there again You do it." Only then did we realize he didn't like being in the cave at all. That was the point, if you wanted to pin it down, at which I began to shift my focus to cave archeology. We began to get National Geographic money, ten or twelve thousand in total, though they decided not to do a feature article. It's too bad. Bill Austin s pictures were wonderful and deserved to be in National Geographic. The big claim to fame, the thing that makes arche ology in the cave so important (besides just the fact that it is there), is that it happens to have been the time when people were first cultivating plants in that region So it's serendipitous that there is preserved in these incredible cave systems a quantity and quality of archeo logical material that pertains to that period better than anywhere else in the world. The prehistoric people who explored the cave were growing two plants, a gourd-like squash and a bottle gourd, that until very recently were thought to have been first domesticated in Mexico. The squash and the gourd were used as containers rather than food but they were also growing food plants domestic sumpweed, sunflower, and goosefoot RW: If you want a major CRF contribution to science revolutionary it's in this Salts Cave/ Mammoth Cave archeological work. PW: The Eastern Woodlands used to be regarded as a real backwater, particularly for anything having to do with early horticulture. RW: I think the Park Service and, say, the National Geographic Society don't comprehend the dimension of what the work in the caves has amounted to PW: If they truly do not comprehend then its partly my fault for not getting it across to them. RW: If you wrote a popular book, with lots of drawings and pictures .... PW: I should do that. but there's so much work get done first Where is your present focus? PW: The Green River shell mounds. We went there because we wanted to know how the Mammoth Cave horticultural complex came into being. That was the nearest place we could go; the kind of information we needed does not seem to be there in the Park. We tried to find rock shelters that would have old enough 13 deposits of plant material but we were not very successful. If you persisted and were able to do a littl e dyna mite work with some big chunks of breakdown here and there .. .. But rock shelters are not as good sources as open sites; the stratigraphy is always messy whenever breakdown occurs There are some open sites in the Park but most of them are extremely shallow, and many have been virtually destroyed by cultivation. The shell mounds were known to be very rich deposits. WPA archeologists spent a lot of time there, but they didn't work on plants. We were the first to recover pre-1500 BC cultigen s in Eastern North America, and that was from one of the shell mounds We found charred pieces of gourd-like squash the same variety as in Salts and Mammo th; but the charcoal fragments in the shell mound dated to 2500 BC which is earlier than most material in the cave. We didn t find the sumpweed or sunflower, so the cultigens that were thought to be Mexican came in first. (From recent work on the taxonomy of modem squash, it now seems that the earliest domesticated squash might not have been from Mexico at all; it might have come from fur ther north). I'm nearing completion of a compilation of writings on the shell mounds. Also, the Mammoth Cave archeology book needs to be updated. AndyouRed? Your currentfocus? My main work now for CRF and caving is publica tion My position is that Americans can't write. So you have an area of human accomplishment that is re ally rather special, worthy of documentation, and it's not being done. In my estimation, it's the greatest lack in American caving. One of my jobs is to teach people to write. I worked with Bill Steele, now with Sheck Exley. I think Jim Borden's story would be great, if he would ever sit still and write it I lament that I don't get very many manuscripts, but given the amount of work that's required on them it's just as well. I don't care about the market, whether a book sells well. Look, the Grand Kentucky Junction doesn't ex plain what it is. It's on the best acid-free paper, it has hand-set type, and I made sure there are copies in the major libraries of the United States. Three hundred years from now I want someone finding that book and saying "What in the hell is this?" It's well done. That's what I'm interested in. When you were CRF President, did you have a specific agenda? RW : I think so, but I can't remember what it was. We were very busy. We certainly thought that it was important [laughing]. PW: I think those first ten years, the big struggle was legitimation. These were kids, and they were defi nitely on the outs with the establishment so when overnight they turned into something that was supposed to be a reputable scientific organization, that didn't fool


14 the Park Service officials at all it took a sustained effort to change that old reputation. That was the theme of all the fust presidents, trying to get to be legitimate. It wasn't supposed to be just cave exploration. It was scientific research and publishing. I couldn't have got done what I did without the organization Pat's NSS life membership was clearly given to her for her archeological work Red, what contribution of yours stands out as the primary reason for your award? RW: Longevity and a known personality PW : His personality is. well-known. RW: Well, I think we got it because we deserved it. Mine was primarily the books. I've been involved in the production of at least fifty. Somebody saying, 'If it hadn't been for Red, this wouldn't have been publish ed', that's the sort of thing that gives me kicks now. In The Longest Caye, there's a chapter, "Why Good Cavers Quit caving" You haven't participated in CRF expeditions since the early '80's. What's your reason? RW: There's one central reason why people quit, and it's fear. Fear stems from your eyes, your knees, your reflexes. At a certain point, you can't do it like you used to. The last caving I did, I was 50 and I was too old. On that last trip I slipped and slid down a wall about ten feet. It could have been worse, it could have been bad because I could have fallen another 40 feet. I hung to that wall and thought; fust, my eyes are not as good as they were when I was younger I would have seen bett e r second, my reflexes weren't fast enough I would not have slipped, I would have grabbed some thing else quick enough. You begin wondering, 'Why am I doing this?' For twenty years I was as mad as anyone. It's a little hard now to grasp why. It's sort of like the cat who was castrated at an elderly age and who sat around wondering what it was that he used to go outside for. If it's gone, it's gone You can't reconstruct why it was such a grand passion for you. Roger McClure seems to be an exception. He still caves regularly at Mammoth on hard trips. RW: I have a theory about Roger. He was in the Air Force for 30 years and for a large portion of that lime he wasn't caving [laughing] -I think it's just a case of arrested development. I don't say you can't do it. I did all right this summer. We had a very demanding cave trip out west hard passages and I was pleased with myself that I could still do all of that stuff. But I did it very carefully. After about eight hours I said, 'I'm feeling fine but I think this is probably enough.' There are extremes of really top-rate cavers like Smith, Lehrberger, and Austin; when they quit, that was it. Just absolute cutoff. I think its the same with me; if you can't do it to the outer limits, then there's no int e rest in it. The last thing in the world I'm interested in doing is taking a tourist trip in Lechuguilla. If I'd CRF Newsletter been among the group who discovered it and explored it to the outer limits, that's something else. What work do each of you see as needing to be done? PW: Well, it's actually endless, and this is a point I will probably never get across to any Park Super intendent. There's always more, and further, we don't know how much remains until it's found: We are pursuing two things right now. One is more detail on crystal use, what sorts of things they were mining for. The other is more detail on the gen eral issue of early horticulture, for example food pro cessing what did they do to these foods before they ate them? Then there are the plants themselvesthere's a great deal that can be done now with genetic studies on the cucurbits. Which particular cucurbit is this? RW: If I ever went back it would be to Great Onyx Cave; map the walls and try to figure out what Lucy Cox filled in, begin a number of digs, drain the lake, and eventually find some way out of Great Onyx . From my standpoint, that's the greatest challenge. I might write another novel about caving, but I'm not sure. There's non-fictional stuff that can be done. There's much that people should be writing. My advice to anybody who wants to have the kind of experience we had is go find your own cave. MAMMOTH CAVE DATA: ... Cont'd from p.5 This summer, all of the Ohio data was sorted by geographic location, translated into the new interchange format that we are adopting, and merged into several large files. Jim Nepstadt, who was Computer Specialist at MCNP through October and who has developed a computer mapping system for Wind Cave, also worked on the data. The most recent set is the Missouri data cur rently being used by most CRF cartographers. Like the CrowtherMann set, the Missouri data is arranged geo graphically and has been carefully culled of substandard surveys. The data is referenced to planar coordinates based on our zero datum outside the Carmichael Entrance. Fore and backsights have been averaged, and passage dimensions are not recorded. While the set contains mostly new surveys (FSB 1800 and later), old surveys that have been deemed accurate are included. How did the data get to be in these different forms? Knowing the history of computers one can see a clear path. Prior to the late 70's, computers were expensive and available only to professionals. CRF mappers used their access to miniand mainframe machines to process data for almost 20 years. The process evolved into the Crowther-Mann data (and language). In the Ohio period, the micro computer revolution was underway. I guess that it was thought that data could be transferred to CP/M S-100 machines and maintained on them. This proved only partly true; we can now see that the move


February 1990 to small machines was a bit premature. The Missouri system was developed on a newer generation of small machines. However, the data is not maintained centrally area cartographers each process and maintain the data for their own chunk of the cave. Divided in this way, the data do not tax the of the machines. Into the future: It is a big job to maintain a data set as large as the one we now have. The way that CRF handles its data has changed, and it is still chang ing. We are evolving through families of ever more powerful personal computers. We have learned from our history that it is essential to keep the process up, and it is essential to maintain the data in a universal inter change format. The ease with which we were able to retrieve the CrowtherMann data, the Ohio data, and the Missouri data is due to their having existed on disk or tape as text files that required no translation or decoding. Moreover, each was in a logical format whose meaning was either evident from looking at it or because it was well documented. ;Thail9;tkgEJq;ecim,1009 lq)a"FSB 2463 lie l.qjsd:n R'Jer lid 11-2489 #ro3168220,100 #i 825374 +5.0 #p D.Coons(B) ,J.Br.:nslBtter{Co).N.P1<1 :25 89,270 -4,4 Kt 50.4 105,2855 50.3 1185,200 42.8 114,2!D5 :111 53,234 32.7 265,200 4.-3 50. 7 103.283 1,1 51.3 1525,3335 50.6 115,2gi 0.-1 samear, atKB) 8,14,3,5 -1,1 20,8,3,2 4 ,-4 3, 12,3,2 1.-1 3.SP.25 -2,25 B. 12.4,3 18,3,9,3 (leOO 1 hx2t1 at K5 ) 8,9,0,35 5.-1 s. 1 8,0,3 4,12.0,3 (IEm 2hx10N, L4JSlm'Tl, K9: 44.6 113,294 2.-3 7,7,0,25 "6 48 14 (IEm 1 hli8.Ywet, ai" at K1 0) K11: 1<8->1<12: K12: 48.9 49.6 49.4 51.3 28.4 K17:(12 op 1825,15 0 157,3385 191,11 1.-1 10,5,0,2 8,10,0,25 10,5,0,2 0 8,3,33,2 ,,32,3 -1 ,()4,12,0,3 7,10,0,2 10,3,0,15 5,8,15,1 Cave Map Language: In this system, commands begin with the halch mark(#). For example, #co precedes the serial number of the compass and its compass course data. Text after semicolons and between parentheses are comments The com puter is able to handle all the quirks in data format that we use. Thus, no special commands are needed to tell the computer that backsights and some dimensional data are missing for stations K/0 and Kll. In 1988, Mammoth Cave National Park and CRF began planning the incorporation of parts of our data into a geographical information system (GIS) GIS's are graphical databases of terrestrial data used extensively in land management. The graphical component is derived from aerial or satellite photographs. Techniques for subterranean GIS's are in their infancy and we are intrigued by the potential of the Park's work. 15 The CRF data will form the basis for the new GIS The Park's request for assistance was a major factor in prompting our work to consolidate the data We are also motivated by the responsibility of preserving the machine-readable data, like our raw field notes, for all uses and for all time. To that end we have developed what we feel is a logical, state-of-the-art data interchange format. The result is Cave Map Language, with many similarities to the Crowther-Mann CaveLst. Cave Map Language is more properly the subject of another article. Many people have helped in the work of gathering the CRF data together. The final push was coordinated by Richard Zopf and involved the help of Jim Borden, Lynn Brucker, Bob Eggers, Scott House, Pete Lindsley, Bill Mann, Art Palmer, Mick Sutton, and myself. Mel Park Karstic crossword .. L-....L-L-...L-L-...L--'----'---'-----'---'---'(1) Clues: Across: I. Rig pothole with beginning of line mixed up, but a cave lover 5 Britisher's catch leads to the depths of Crystal Cave 6. Consul furthers inclusion of rare Guadalupe mineral. 7 Tests used to be the end of survey teams 9. Confused star follows Kafka character to holy land. 13, 14. With a hundred arms and legs and warm feathers, descends pit. (two words) 15. Sounds like an unpleasant religious leader has lots of little channels Down: I. Turtle, missing the end of its ear consumes tea and becomes -Ba!manl 2 The cave mineral won't cheat many, we hear. 3. How do you climb a rope? Up! Risk getting confused, though. 4. Involved in call-out, he breaks stalactite, the vandal! 8. On top of stalagmite, a trogloxene Hazard a guess? (or lash out in frustration!) (two words) 10. Take an article to an Egyptian god and a Spanish one one of them may be used (rarely) in cave surveys. (two words) 11. Mammoth conduits. 12. One way to view a cave, somewhat expl a n a tory A trivial prize will be awarded for any correct solution reaching the editors' office before the next Newsletter deadline (Aprill).


CALENDAR GUADALUPES President's Day, Feb. 17-19. Carlsbad Cavern NP. Dave Logan 50.'5-983-8126. March 24-31, Putnam Ridge Jim Hardy 505-345-1709. Spring, April 21-22 Guadalupe Mountains NP. Ron Lipinski 505-299-4603. Memorial Day, May 26-28. Carlsbad Caverns NP. Pat Jablonsky 303-399-3449 Carlsbad Cavern Restoration Camp, June 18-22. Dick Venters 505-892-7370 Independence Day, June 30July 1. Fort Stanton Cave. John Corcoran 505-892-9651 Summer, Aug. 4-5. Carlsbad Cavern NP. Bill Ziegler 505262-0602 Labor Day, Sept. 1-3. Carlsbad Cavern NP. Bernie Szukalski 714-798-5986 Fall, Oct. 15-19. Guadalupe Mountains NP Backpack Trip. Jerry Atkinson 915-697-3807 Thanksgiving, Nov 22-25. Carlsbad Cavern NP. Doug & Glenda Rhodes 505-877-1159 New Years, Dec.29-30. Apache Mountains. Leader to be announced. Notify the expedition leader, the area manager (Dick Venters, 505-892-7370), or the supplies coordinator (Bill Ziegler, 505262-0602) at least one week in advance. Lechuguilla Precision Cave Survey, March 3-10, April 21-29, May 19-28, June 29-July 5, Sept.1-9, Nov.l7-25. Call Jim Hardy 505-345-1709 (H) or Robert Babb 503-224-8452 (H), 503-690-1155 (W) CAVE RESEARCH FOUNDATION P.O.BOX 443 YELLOW SPRINGS, OH 45387 ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED MAMMOTH CAVE President's Day, February 16-20. Tom Brucker 615-331-3568 St. Patrick's Day, March 16-19 Kevin Downs 502-9334406 (H). Spring, April 20-23 Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan 314-546-2864 Memorial Day, May 25-28 Jim Borden 301-869-9141 Independence Day, June 29-July 8. Tim Schaffstall 302731-2801 & Buz Grover August, August 3-6. Dan Raque 502-459-9456 (H), 587-0591 (W) Labor Day, August 31-September 3. Stan Sides 314-335-1469 Columbus Day, October 5-8. Bob Osburn 314-772-5813 First and last dates are arrival and departure dates. Notify the expedition leader or Operations Manager (Mel Park, 901-2729393) two weeks in advance. MISSOURI Feb.17-18, April21-22, May 19-20, June 16-17 Most trips are based at the Ozark National Scenic Riverways. Notify Scott House (314-287-4356) or Doug Baker (314-8788831). FITTON CAVE March 17, May 12, June 16, July 21, Sept.15, Nov. 17. Notify Gary Schaecher (501-851-3864 W) or Pete Lindsley (214727-2497) at least one week in advance. We are limited to 21 people per day in the cave; additional people will be assigned to other caves or to surface duties. NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATION U.S. POSTAGE PAID YELLOW SPRINGS, OH PERMIT 160 Brother Nicholas Sullivan 70 18 Baver St Philadelphio, PA 19119

Inside this issue:
1988 Annual meeting --
SE Archeological Conference / Phil DiBlasi & Ken
Carstens --
Mammoth Cave Survey Databases / Mel Park --
Interview with Pat and Red Watson --
Plus all the latest on the Guadalupes, Liburn, Fition
Cave, Missouri, and Mammoth Cave.


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