Cave Research Foundation newsletter

Cave Research Foundation newsletter

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Cave Research Foundation newsletter
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Cave Research Foundation newsletter
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Contents: A Note from the Editor -- Resistivity Surveys at Fort Stanton Cave, Lincoln County, New Mexico / John McLean, March 2004 -- Briars and Bees and Bears, Oh No! / Mike Crockett -- Regional Expedition Reports: Cumberland Gap Expedition Summary, January 2004 / Mike Crockett -- Cumberland Gap Expedition Summary, February 27-29, 2004 / Mike Crockett -- Mammoth Cave: March 21-23,2003 Expedition Leaders, Erik and Courtney Sikora -- Mammoth Cave: Labor Day, August 29-September 1, 2003 Expedition Leaders, Bob and JoAnne Osburn -- Book Review: Hidden Beneath the Mountains: The Caves of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks / Joel Despain -- CRF Fund Raising / Elizabeth Winkler -- 2004 Expedition Calendar.
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Vol. 32, no. 1 (2004)
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CRF NEWSLEITER Volume 32, No.1 established 1973 Send all material for submission to: William Payne, Editor 5139 Kingston Dr. Wichita Falls, TX 76310 940-733-7914 The CRF Newsletter is a quarterly publication of the Cave Research Foundation, a non-profit organization incorporated in 1957 under the laws of Kentucky for the purpose of furthering research, conservation, and education about caves and karst. Newsletter Submissions & Deadlines: Original articles and photographs are welcome If i ntending to jointly submit material to another publication, please inform the CRF editor Publication cannot be guaranteed, especially if submitted elsewhere. All material is subject to revision unless the author specifically requests otherwise. To assure timely publication, please adhere to these deadlines : February issue by December I May issue by March I August issue by June I November issue by September I Before submitting material, please see publication guidelines at: Www caye-research org NEWSLEITER STAFF: Solicitation of Materials: Elizabeth Winkler Layout: Ralph Earlandson Mailing : Bob Hoke 2004 Cave Research Foundation Cave Research Foundation Board of Directors Rick Toomey President Phil DiBlasi Personnel Officer Peter Bosted, Mick Sutton, Joel Despain Pat Kambesis, Richard Maxey Officers Elizabeth Winkler-Secretary, Roger Smith-Treasurer Operations Council Barbe Barker (Guadalupes), Scott House (Ozarks), Janet Sowers (Lava Beds), Dave West (Eastern), John Tinsley (SequoialKings Canyon) For information about the CRF contact: Rickard Toomey, III, CRF President Kartchner Caverns State Park 520-586-4138 PO Box 1849 fax 520-586-4113 Benson AZ 85602, Donations to CRF should be sent to: Roger K. Smith, Jr CRF Treasurer 3669 Singleton Terrace Frederick, MD 21704 2 A NOTE FROM THE EDITOR The publication schedule for the CRF Newsletter has changed It is still quarterly, but the months of issue are now February May, August and November, shifted back two months from the former issue months of March, June, September and December. This decision was made to avoid conflicts with holidays, especially Christmas-New Year's. This issue, for May, is the first one of 2004. There was no Februruy issue this year and Volume 32 will consist of three issues. We will return to four issues for 2005. Please note the new deadlines on the masthead on this page Good caving, Ralph Earlandson, Layout Editor CUMBERLAND GAP PHOTO CAPTION No caption was included for the photo with the Cumberland Gap : The Beginning article on page 8 of the December 2003 issue. The photo shows a caver looking at a flowstone-covered Coke bottle atop a stalagmite. The caver in the photo is Mike Crockett, Project Coordinator at Cumberland Gap and the author of the story The photo is a collaboration with image capture by Ken ruld Lisa Story and digital enhancement by Mike Crockett COVER PHOTO: Mike Stanfill during the January 2004 CRF Expe dition at rim pool dams near HAI8 above the Stream Passage in Gap Cave, Cumberland Gap National Historical Park. Photo by Lisa Storey and Ken Storey


3 Resistivity Surveys at Fort Stanton Cave, Lincoln County, New Mexico By John McLean, March 2004 Introduction: A series of experimental geophysical measurements beginning in 2000 have been made near Fort Stanton Cave in support of John Corcoran's digging project. The project, including the geophysics, has been supported by members of the NSS, SWR, BLM, and CRF who have generously provided field support for the often slow and tedious data collection. Initial surveys of the area were made using a passive system of measuring the natural potential (voltage) differences along lines across the cave using non-polarizing electrodes. These measurements have shown that a positive-to-negative transition from east to west is sometimes associated with known cave passages (McLean, 2002). A natural-potentia I survey of the area south and west of the end of the Bat Cave passage of Fort Stanton Cave conducted in 2002 and 2003 gave somewhat ambiguous results, so active resistivity measurements using a dipole-dipole array were begun in April, 2002. The active system incorporates a line of metal electrodes that are driven into the ground A battery powered source injects a constant current through two electrodes, and the voltage difference (potential) is measured sequentially between all the other pairs of electrodes. Current is then injected into the next pair of electrodes and the process is repeated for all the electrodes. Data were analyzed initially using a free semi demo version of the program Res2dinv (Loke, 1997). This program gives an estimate of the resistivity distribution within the earth presented as a profile similar to a geologic cross section. Later, Dr. Barbara Luke, University of Nevada at Las Vegas (UNL V), made a fmal analysis incorporating topography with the full version of the program. Dr. Luke also brought a commercial resistivity system to the August, 2003 expedition. The data collected with the latest 'home-built' system compare favorably with the data collected by the commercial system. The 29 resistivity lines that have been run successfully are discussed in a report to the Bureau of Land Management. A copy of this report is available by email or on CD-ROM from Interpretation of Resistivity Profiles: Several limitations of the resistivity method must be remembered when interpreting the resistivity profiles. First, the electric current occupies the entire volume of earth between and near the electrodes. This means that the interpreted profile is affected by resistive zones to the side of the line as much as by zones beneath the line. In the extreme case, a sinkhole or canyon 10 meters to one side of the line would appear to be a cave 10 meters below the line Second, the resistivity technique, in common with most geophysical methods, carmot uniquely identify a feature An anomaly can be caused by air-filled spaces in breakdown piles, small solution passages located close together, or (we hope) large individual cave passages Third, the ability of the technique to resolve a feature varies with electrode spacing. Closely spaced electrodes can detect shallow caves, but will not extend the interpreted profile deeply enough to detect deeper caves. Conversely, widely spaced electrodes can detect deep caves, but only if they are large; while small, shallow cavities may be overlooked. The profiles are reproduced in gray scale, and presumptive caves are shown in black. Resistivity Profiles: Several profiles were run over known sections of the cave to evaluate the success and limitations of the method Model resistiv ity with topography Iteration 7 RMS error = 9 9 Entrance Lines Combined Elevation 600 240 360 480 1870 ____ 1850 t 1830 1810 _______ 35. 8 65.6 120 220 403 738 1352 2476 Resistivity in Ohm M Vertical exaggeration in model section display = 1 .0 First electrode is located at 0 0 M Last electrode is located at 690 0 M Unit Electrode Spacing = 30 0 M.


A profil e near the entrance of the cave shows the entrance sink at about 240 meters and the Circle Route between about 300 and 360 meters In addition to these known cave passages, the section indic a tes a possible passage (named the 'camp anomaly') at about 510 to 540 meters at a depth of about 35 m, similar to the depth of the rest of the cave in this area. A shallow feature is also present along the line at 420-450 m, and there is an indication of a possible deep passage at the west end of the line 4 (120 m) There is no known connection from Ft. Stanton Cave to these latter features. An even better way of validating the resistivity method is to locate a resistivity anomaly and later prove it to be a cave passage by connecting it with known cave passages. This occurred when a line was run along Big Tank Canyon after the Snowy River passage was discovered, but before the passage was explored. Model resistivity with topography Iteration 8 RMS error = 12. 9 Snowy River Elevation 00 1900 1880 1860 1840 1820 1800 ________ 26. 7 53 4 107 214 427 854 1709 3418 Resistivity in Ohm.M Vertical exaggeration in model sec tion display = 1.1 First electrode is located at 0 0 M Last electrode is located at 570.0 M The profile of this line shows an anomaly at 330 m that was determined to be coincident with the Snowy River passage when the survey within the cavc was extended to the south. Anomalies at 110 m and 220 m are close to the south end of Skyscraper Unit Electrod e Spacing = 30.0 M. Domes and the breakdown pile at the north end of Don Sawyer Hall. A deep anomaly at the east end of the line was explained when the Metro passage was discovered and determined to pass under the east end of the line. Model resistivity with topography iteration 4 RMS error = 29 6 Mud Turtle Passage 1900 1890 1880 1870 1860 1850 c:::::Jc:::::Jc:::::Jc:::::Jc:::::JE:::::Jl1Ellilmml ________ 21.7 49.8 114 261 597 1366 3127 7157 Resistivity in Ohm M Vertical exaggeration in model sec tion display = 1 0 First electrode is located at 0 0 M. Last electrode is located at 240 0 M Likcwise, the profile of an east-west line across a vallcy south of thc previous line has a large central Unit Electrode Spacing = 15.0 M. anomaly that later was found to coincide with the beginni ng of the Mud Turtle passage.


5 Stagecoach Road ::Ievation 1880 1870 1860 1850 1840 1830 1820 Model resi stivity with topography Iteration 6 RMS error = 13. 2 00 40. 0 _______ 12. 2 22.7 42. 1 78. 2 145 270 500 929 Resistivity in Ohm M Vertical exaggeration in model sec tion display = 1 0 First electrode is located at 0 0 M. Last electrode i s located at 270.0 M Several lines were run across areas where there were no known cave passages A surprising number of them located large shallow anomalies that appear Unit Electrode Spacing = 10.0 M to be breakdown domes above deeper passages One of these (Stagecoach Road anomaly) underlies a road just south of the cave entrance road. Hell Hole 2, Line 1 :: I evation 1880 1870 1860 1850 1840 Model resi s tivity with topography Iterat ion 6 RMS error = 12. 8 160 CJCJCJCJCJr:::::::Jcml!EJIiiDlIiiiiiiI ______ 16.0 32. 9 67. 4 138 283 581 1191 2442 Resistivity in Ohm M Vertical exaggeration in model section display = 1 0 First electrode is located at 0 0 M L ast e lectrode is located at 270.0 M Several lines south of an area between the Bat Cave and Hell Hole Two passages identified scattered resistive zones. The first line, Hell Hole Two Line 1, run with the UNLV Sting system shows a larg e resistive anomaly beneath the center of the profile at a depth of about 20 m with an upward Unit Electrode Spacing = 10. 0 M extension that may come within 10m or less of the surface. The extent and continuity of this anomaly indicate that it is probably a large cave passage. There is no surface expression of this feature, as it is beneath a smooth hillside covered with dirt and gravel.


Summary and Conclusions: The dipole-dipole resistivity method works well in the area of Ft. Stanton Cave Known passages could usually be located, and resistive anomalies on some profiles were later discovered to connect with known cave passages. The horizontal locations of the passages appear to be accurate within the limitations imposed by the electrode spacing however the method is not as well suited to estimating depth Although some anomalies agree with the passage d e pths in some cases the passages are as much as twice as deep as the anomalies shown on the profiles. The results of the resistivity surveys indicate that only about half of the passages in the immediate vicinity of Ft. Stanton Cave have been entered. This observation agrees with the fact that so much of the known cave has been discovered by digging through collapse zones or sediment-filled passages. The complex history of sediments in the cave, revealing several episodes of sediment filling and re-excavation (Baer, 1972), also indicates that there are likely to be pa s sages isolated from the known cave by unexcavated sediments ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: The final processing of the resistivity profiles was done by Dr. Barbara Luke and two of her graduate students at UNL V Xiaohui Jin and Jennifer Nuesca. Colleague review of the BLM report from which this summary was abstracted, was provided by 6 Dr. Lewis Land, National Cave and Karst Research Center, and John J. Corcoran, III, Project Manager. The following individuals assisted in the collection of data : M. Bilbo, R. Bohman, D. Buecher, R. Buecher, S Chong, D. Corcoran, J. Corcoran, J Cox, C. Courier, D. Davis, L. Downey, C. Finn, A. Grieco V. Grieco, L. Land, J. Lawton, W. Mason, S. Nicolay, E Peyton, V Polyak, P. Provencio, K. Rix L. Skinner, L. Starr L. Swartz R. Venters REFERENCES: Baer Roger L., 1972, The Sediments o/Fort Stanton Cave Lincoln County New Mexico: Report submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for G492, Geology Dept., University of New Mexico May 1972,34 pp Loke, M H., 1998, Res2dinv ver 3.3, Rapid 2D resistivity & IP inversion using the least-squar e s method (Wenner dipole-dipole, pole pole, pole dipole Schlumberger rectangular) On land, underwater and cross-borehol e surveys, released by Advanced Geosciences, Inc Austin, Texas. McLean, John, 2002, Resistivity Surveys at Fort Stanton Cave, Lincoln County, New Mexico, July 2002 Report to the Bureau of Land Management, II pp Briars and Bees and Bears, Oh No! By Mike Crockett CRF Cumberland Gap cavers have already encoun tered bears during operations. According to a March 6, 2004 story from the Middlesboro Daily News, "At least three black bear cubs have been born in Cumberland Gap National Historic Park outside Middlesboro David S Maehr, a University of Kentucky professor researching bears in eastern Kentucky, said the cubs represent the first known inst a nces of bears reproducing in the Cumberland Gap since about 1850 Maehr said a female wearing a radio collar was found in a small cave in the national park's back country. They could hear the three cubs nursing inside the cave." Bear cubs add a new element to ridge walking and other caving Mountain lions are also present in the Park although no evidence of breeding has yet been found. Some good advice: Lock all gates behind you immediately. Do not leave food or other gear at cave entrances If you encounter bears in or near the caves of the Park do not harm them. Leave as quickly as possible with all food and gear Report the incident. In addition to our primary commitment to conserve caves we are obligated to preserve to the extent possible, the fauna and flora of the Park. A statement from the researcher regarding this issue will be solicited and shared If we know the general location of the cubs we can better avoid a close encounter. If the den cave is near the researcher shown in the small photo accompanying the article, then it is in sandstone on the north side of the mountain and out of the ridge-walking area


7 OK, chillun, and all you cave and phil-Iol-o-gists. gather round while old Unole Red "Cave Hoss" Watson the der-i-va-ti-on of 'I'iammoth Cave', how our Bood old Oave got its name, all laid out here in Ii. chart suit-a-bull for framing I \ In the beginning, see, was this big oavel Mammoth Cave Ridge <: \They named the ridge it in after itl Cave Mammoth Cave FLINT RIlXlE Floyd Gollins' Crystal Salts C;;l.Ve New Entranoe Cave ien they had a fight about hether there was another in that r1dge, and they ound a batch of caves in Unlmolm Dave __ ____ __ he ridge next doorl J seeing that all the Cave aves in each ridge were _ __ _ _ ______ Flint Ridge Cave Mammoth j Ridge Cave System ave systems were oalledr 1 then, these two big aVe systems themselves ere conneoted together, Flint Cave System Mammoth Cave Cave the naming went like this. First they dropped the word 'Ridge' in each and gotl Flint Nalllll10th Cave System Cave .....--_.---This historic document created by Richard "Red" W a tson details in an understandable manner, the evolution of the name of Mammoth Cave in all its political correctness. Red himself is as historic as his essay In February, R e d Watson was made an Honorary Member of the Speleo-Club de Paris, the oldest and most distinguished caving club in the r JBut Cave Cave System was real awkward in the qo they dropped a'Ave'and, got. i4. .sJ/.:d""-s .. next step in the e-rl-va-tl-on was to he first word of idge together, which they id, and they dropped the xtra 'Cave System', and hey got. jut that 1s such a rolling mouthful tha.t folks just dropped 'Flint' from the front and 'System' from the rear, and that's how we got our good old famil1ar ruune world. He was cited for exploration in Mammoth Cave, for writing (with Roger Brucker) The Longe s t Cave, and for his many contributions to speleology At present, there are eight (living) honorary members: Claude Chabert Paul Dubois, Sami Karkabi, Lucette Maalet-Dufour, Jean Mauvisseau Michel Siffre, Pierre Strinati, and Richard Watson.


8 !REGIONAL EXPEDITION REPORTS I Cumberland Gap Expedition Summary, January 2004 By Mike Crockett Twenty-five cavers surveyed approximately 3755 feet accumulating 270 hours in service to our National Park. One cave was located by Anne Elmore while ridge-walking One caver twisted a knee but walked out. More virgin passage in Gap Cave was spotted by Patrick Fowler. Many new going leads remain along the survey lines, including a very interesting lead at JSI2. Many extraordinary images were captured by Ken and Lisa Storey Mike Stanfill and Mike Crock ett hung out at the end of the Oblivion Passage in the ceiling of the Great Room to support image capture. Bob Gulden (standing) makes a point over the working map of Gap Cave to Mike Crockett (amused). Dave West (in hat) and Karen Wilmes (unimpressed with back to camera) at the Cumberland Mountain Research Center during the January 2004 CRF Cumberland Gap Expedition Photo by Lisa Storey. A new sketcher with an amazing connection to the Pine Mountain Grotto joined the project. Miles Drake was sponsored into the NSS by Ken Storey's Dad. Of course James W Storey is a caver of legend for many reasons. It was good to have Miles share this part of his caving heritage with us. Another sketcher, Bob Alderson, completed sketching from the upper entrance to the Dance Hall / Hercules area. This was a multi-trip objective started last summer that resulted in some of most extraordi nary sketching of cave passage to be found anywhere. Richard Knapp, Dan Henry, and Cheryl Pratt surveyed over 1300 feet in one trip and Cheryl even helped a nearby team with a shot or two. Bob Gulden brought the latest version of the working map: awesome again. Five students from Union College supported the trips into Gap Cave on Saturday. Everyone arrived back home safely during a major winter storm. Ken Storey plays with the lock at the Soldier's Gate. Gap Cave. Cumberland Gap National Historical Park during the January 2004 CRF Expedition. Photo by Lisa Storey Cumberland Gap Expedition Summary, February 27-29,2004 By Mike Crockett Twenty-six cavers invested 265.5 hours and surveyed 3094 .81 feet. Friday February 27,2004: Mark Joop and Anne Elmore discovered two new pits southwest of the Gap in the Tennessee section of the park on the south face of Cumberland Mountain. The pits were not explored (beyond a rock toss) or surveyed. Vertical is required. Thor Bahrman, with the help of Mike List, led a team that included Patrick Fowler and Edd Capps on a field check exercise along the H Survey upstream. Ken Storey and Cheryl Pratt had successful photo trips both Friday and Saturday The complete


plan for a rotating exhibition of cave images is not fmal but May is the target date and the first of the three locations for the summer has been reserved. If you have images to consider for the show please submit them. Saturday February 28,2004: Jim West and a survey team (Jimbo Helton, Mike Stanfill, Mike Crockett) found and mapped a new cave northeast of the Gap beyond Lewis Hollow. Buena Vista Cave is at 126.8 feet with a going lead. Bob Alderson and a survey team pushed the upper (Soldiers) cave survey through the Anteroom and back to the coke bottle which is now Survey Station COKEl. Richard Knapp and a survey team of Andy Howe and Scott McCrea pushed up the stream passage over 1200 feet to reach beyond Hell Hole. Dan Henry and team (Alisha Henry and Jonathan Mays) worked near Richard Knapp, however, they were in massive slip joint passage. The plan view shows 100+ feet of width The seciions tell the real story and resemble a very steeply pitched saltbox roof. Dan managed to get almost 500 feet of this very challenging passage. Travel time from the entrance to the final station on the Stream Survey is now about 90 minutes. Ramona Josefczyk, with help from project regulars Ricardo Rodriguez and Stewart Daw measured scallops in the steam passage. This spawned some lively discussions about corrosional processes versus solubility. The stream study may take longer than the cave survey. Sunday February 29, 2004: Jonathan Mays and Scott McCrea completed timed fauna searches in the lower tourist section of Gap Cave. Jonathan has assembled data on 51 species occurring in the cave. One of the expected products of this work is a Field Guide. The NPS and other parties will be polled soon about collecting. Richard Knapp and Mike Crockett began the survey of Yellow Heaven. The Yellow Sky section was completed but then the survey slowed. The maze of sharp breakdown passages beneath the slab below Yellow Heaven was dubbed Black and Blue Basement. The survey netted less than 300 feet. Dan and Alisha Henry helped Karen 9 Caldwell sharpen her sketching skills out the (fake) 1775 Passage. Karen has not missed an expedition The survey went about 100 feet. A voice connection was established between this section and the "Music Room" when a group of Oriental exchange students on tour with the NPS began singing. The team rushed outside and caught up with a guide in the parking lot to confirm the source of the singing. General: There were no injuries. The new key system worked with no problems Project cavers helped campus security deal with a safety issue in a nearby residence Saturday night. A small plastic toy was found near H17. It is assumed that no Cave Research Foundation caver would carry an object like this into the cave and leave it without a purpose. Plastics are generally inert but any foreign object can pollute the fragile environment. Be aware of what you are taking into the cave. Leave nothing Cavers are reminded that use of the Cumberland Mountain Research Center for CRF is a gift from Lincoln Memorial University and is always subject to the permission and use conditions imposed by campus officials, in particular the Director of the Center Dr. Ron Caldwell. The computers at the Research Center are a part of the University system. Inslalling software, particularly unlicensed or pirated software, is prohibited. Altering the desktop settings of computers may seem harmless but it is not allowed and is particularly irritating. Cavers should try to use the facilities with respect and, when permitted, in the same fashion as the students, faculty, and staff of the University Practice being low impact on the surface and in the cave Finally, Mike Crockett was seen wearing trousers stained with damping oil after he crushed a perfectly good instrument while surveying Saturday This type of callous and careless behavior is unacceptable. Practice being careful with the instruments. Send your questions, comments, and suggestions to : Mike Crockett, e-mail Mammoth Cave: March 21-23,2003 Expedition Leaders, Erik and Courtney Sikora The March 2003 CRF expedition was fielded as both a caving and property work weekend owing to a lack of objectives and few respondents on the caving side The weather was pleasant for Kentucky, and overall three parties were fielded into various parts of the cave, and about a dozen individuals opted to work


on surface property management issues under the direction of Dave Hanson. Tom Brucker, Matt Mezydlo, Richard Rubin, and Bill Baus entered through the Bedquilt entrance to continue resurvey in the E survey out in the WOW Shaft area. This area floods to the ceiling, and intermittent pools in the floor near Wow were full of organic matter and crayfish. The party returned with 263.0 feet of new and 975 7 feet of resurvey. Bob Osburn led Charles Fox, Pete Rogers, Bob Lodge, and Greg Holbrook into the Carmichael entrance to continue survey and clean-up in the Emily's puzzle-Kennedy's Domes area. The party split into two, and proceeded to do lead checking, re sketching, and re-surveying in this mazy, confusing 10 area of the cave The parties returned from the cave with 13.2 feet of new and 285.4 feet ofre-survey, as well as a better understanding of the area. Bill Koerschner, Janice Tucker, and Seamus Decker went into Roppel Cave. The surface crew did a myriad of tasks including removing the wood from under the deck to stack a "bug-safe" distance away, attempting to patch the leaking chimney, repair and extension of the property boundary fence line, and burning of cedars cut the previous fall. 8equilt Entrance Tom Brucker, Matt Mezydlo, Richard Rubin, Bill Baus; Emily's Puzzle Bob Osburn, Charles Fox, Pete Rogers, Bob Lodge, Greg Holbrook; RoppcJ Cave Bill Koerschner, Janice Tucker, Seamus Decker. Mammoth Cave: Labor Day, August 29-September 1, 2003 Expedition Leaders, Bob and JoAnne Osburn The 2003 Labor Day Expediti on was small but reasonably well supplied with experienced people A total of 23 people attended all or part of the expedition and several people visited camp including a group of cavers from Florida that had taken Stan Sides' class. All of the registered attendees caved at least once (except JoAnne). Five trips were fielded on Saturday and four on Sunday, all in support of cartography. A total of 2,140 feet of survey was accomplished: 485 new and 1,650 resurvey. More would have been surveyed except that the efforts of two parties Saturday and two on Sunday were almost entirely taken in tracing down survey errors of past parties. On Saturday, Bill Koeschner led Shanna Borden (formerly Bradley) and Bob Thurner to Freedom Trail and vicinity in Roppel Cave The trip was described to me (by Jim Borden) as 15 hours but Bill signed out for 24 as usual. They surveyed about 700 feet of various levels and left several leads unmapped and largely unexplored. This backup objective was selected due to the occluded front hanging just to the north This was confirmed to be a wise decision by the heavy thunderstorms that visited us repeatedly on both Saturday and Sunday Scott House took Rick Olson, Patti House, Andrea Croskrey, and Dawn Ryan to Main Cave. Their objectives were to show Ed Klausner's party the proper way to Ranshaw Avenue, fmd a glaring survey error in Black Chambers, fmd another glaring survey error in Cyclops Gateway and look at the Corkscrew from a hydro geological point of view. A litany of errors were found at the Black Chambers location, including a totally reversed shot, a shot with bearing okay and clino reversed (steep), a bad tie, a branch shot that was misplotted on the sketch by 100 degrees and a mistaken tie by one of our data processors. In all this was a bad day for the former party. The appropriate stations were found in Cyclops and the hanging survey tied in. (The prior survey was tied to a station from a book lost 25 years ago). Ed Klausner took Charles Fox, Doug Alderman, and Jonathan Mays to Ranshaw Avenue to check on various passages shown as leads in prior books Floor detail was added to much of the route, although most of the leads were found to have already been surveyed. Ed gained valuable detail, an understanding of the route into his new map area and Jonathan did biological inventory (he is a biologist) Dan Henry led Bob Lodge, Matt Mezydlo, John Feil and Alan Welhausen to Johnson Cave to resketch the main trunk part of this lesser cave and evaluate its potential. Dan is one of those people who attended last year fresh from Pat Kambesis' class and was back this year to start on his first project. We should note that he received a blue ribbon at this year's convention for a map he did elsewhere The thought was that the extra people could inventory and photo document the cave. Two adventures slowed but did not defeat this party They arrived at the tJIM coordinates given in park's database and spotted the small cliff and trees shown in the photo. A small pit beckoned but closed off after 8 feet. Realizing the cave must be in the vicinity they searched and found a similar more enterable cave several hundred feet away after about 20


minutes. They found that the entrance was a somewhat sporting chimney which Alan judged to be beyond his ability with a compromised knee He walked back to his car and returned to camp while the remaining 4 people resurveyed 480 feet. And finally Jim Borden led John Lovass, Dawn Cardace and Matt Goska to the inside of the Cox Entrance area to sort out uncooperative survey ties and loops. They surveyed a total of 450 feet, 130 new in canyons and domes. Their efforts to sort out blunders were hampered by few remaining stations in the area (wet) and they simply started a resurvey of part of the area. On Sunday, Dan Henry returned to his Johnson Cave project with Matt Goska and Jonathan Mays. They surveyed an additional 470 feet of the cave and Jonathan did more biological inventory. Most of the trunk of the cave now has replacement survey with a good sketch and Dan is on his way toward making a map out of it. Several survey objectives remain as it appears the side passages and breakdown have not been pushed all that hard. Ed Klausner took Doug Alderman and Dawn Cardace to Ganter Cave. They were checking It:ads listed in the various survcy books for this cave whose map is nearing completion. They sketched many important details but surveyed nothing. All vertical leads in the cave remain and will require one or more fairly serious vertical crews. They also attempted to lonk at Mary Parker Cave both to assess the sketch and to check on the report that the gate may have been bypassed Digging was evident but upon removing the lock they were unable to open the gate. The pin is apparently rusted in place Scott House took 2 parties to Ganter Avenue in the area of Flint Alley and Jessup Avenue in an attempt to fmd a major loop blunder. His 11 party consisted of Bob Osburn, Patti House, and Alan Welhausen. They re-taped and checked azimuths through Flint Alley and surveyed the Owen's Pit bypass crawl at the end. This bypass is a classic. When one arrives at the pit, just as panic sets in, since the pit is clearly very difficult if not impossible to cross, one sees a wide belly crawl at waist level on the left side. This leads conveniently around to the other side of the pit and then via a short crawl to Jessup Avenue They were accompanied by Jim Borden with John Lovass and Dawn Ryan. Their first objective was an under-drain for Flint Alley but none of the party could get through a squeeze at L3 near the begirming. As a backup they went around Owen's Pit and retaped Jessup down to the other end ofthe L. They then checked the L, confirmed distances and ties and found that at least one lead of 150 to 200 feet deserves a survey. They continued their search until met by House's party and the large group collectively finished the last few Jessup stations. No major blunders were found by these two parties With that knowledge Scott has since deduced that the error must be on the third and most recently surveyed side of the triangle (Ganter Avenue) and has fOlmd a mistaken tie that could relieve the error It will be field checked at the next opportunity. Roppel Bill Koeschner, Shanna Borden Bob Thurner; Main Cave Scott House, Rick Olson, Patti House, Andrea Croskrey, Dawn Ryan; Ranshaw Avenue Ed Klausner, Charles Fox, Doug Alderman, Jonathan Mays; Johnson Cave (1) Dan Henry, Bob Lodge, Matt Mezydlo, John Feil, Alan Welhausen; (2) Dan Henry, Matt Goska, Jonathan Mays; Cox Entrance Jim Borden, John Lovass, Dawn Cardace, Matt Goska; Ganter Cave Ed Klausner, Doug Alderman, Dawn Cardace; Flint Alley -(I) Bob Osburn, Patti House, Alan Welhausen; (2) Jim Borden, John Lovass Dawn Ryan. Book Review Hidden Beneath the Mountains: The Caves of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks by Joel Despain. 2003. 97 color, 9 b/w photos, 10 maps, 128 pp. 81/2 x II. ISBN 0-939748-56-8. Hidden Beneath the Mountains: The Caves of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks is a new book about the amazing caves in this mountainous region of California by National Park Cave Specialist Joel Despain. The 128 page, large-format volume focuses on the larger caves of the parks and describes their fascinating human history, the rare and strange animals that live in the caves, and the role of these caves m sCience. The book is richly illustrated with color photos of beautiful cave formations, stunning marble banding, and the wonderful mountains that contain the caves. Hidden Beneath the Mountains also includes many cave maps and graphics illustrating the geology that makes caves. "Caves excite our imaginations, fuel our adventurous spirits, and beckon us toward unknown worlds in the hearts of hollow mountains. In this book, Joel Despain takes us deep into California's


caves of the Sierra Nevada and regales us with tales of exploration and science. Once you open the cover, like a true caver, you will not be able to stop reading until you have explored every passage and shed light on the great mysteries to be found under the earth." -Ronal Kerbo, National Cave Management Coordinator, National Park Service. 12 "This is it! Everything you ever wanted to know about caves of Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Parks history, exploration, discovery and natural history is here. A comprehensive and detailed survey of subterranean wonders -Dr. Brad Hacker, Professor of Geological Sciences, University of California CRF Fund Raising By Elizabeth Winkler CRF is an all-volunteer organization whose operations are supported in great part by financial donations and physical work contributed by the members. Both are invaluable to the success of the organization The fmancial donations make much of CRF's mission possible. These donations have supported CRF grants and fellowships to graduate students doing research on karst. You have also supported the building of our research station at Hamilton Valley (which was paid off in 2003). These funds buy equipment and further our projects For all the members ofCRF, I want to thank the people listed below. They made generous financial donations to CRF in 2003. To make a tax deductible donation to CRF, please mail to: Roger K. Smith, Jr., CRF Treasurer 3669 Singleton Terrace Frederick, MD 21704 2003 Donations to CRF (0-Ozarks Operations, E-Eastem, N-National, B-Lava Beds) Bill and Sarah Bishop (E) Tom Brucker (E) Don Coons (E) Shanna Bradley (E) Fred Dickey (E) Cheryl Early (E) Jeff FaIT (E) Jack Freeman (E) Joyce Hof'finaster and Daniel Greger (E) Ed Klasner (E) Bob Lodge (E) Roger McClure (E) John Mylroie (E) Rick Olson (E) Norm Pace (E) Roger Shamel (N) Robert Shufeldt (N) Janet Sowers and Gerald Hom (B) John Thrailkill (N) Janice Tucker (E) Red Watson (E) Karen Wi limes and Dave West (E) Elizabeth Winkler & Rick Toomey (E) Gordon Birkheimer (E) Roger Brucker (E) Don Black (E) Paul Carmaley (E) John and Bormie DeLong (E) Charles Finney (N) Charles and Shirley Fox (E) Dave Hanson (E) Scott House (OlE) William C. Lane Jr. (N) Dick Market (E) Matt Mezydlo (E) Mike Nardacci (E) Bob Osburn (OlE) Mel Park (E) Greg Sholly (E) Roger and Sharmon Smith (E) Rheba Symeonoglou (N) Bob and Cynthia Thurner (E) William C. Stephens (E) LaJuana Wilcher (E)


13 EXPEDITION CALENDARi Before attending any expedition, you must contact the expedition leader as trip sizes may be limited. Failure to contact the leader may prevent you from attending the expedition as the trip may be full. r, re on d y. f ADDRESS CORRECTIONS If you have changed phone number (ie area code split), e-mail address, or have moved, please send your information to: Phil DiBlasi PO Box 126 Louisville,KY 40201-0126 We will be publishing the CRF Address List in the next edition of the newsletter. Please make sure your corrections are sent to Phil immediately. THE CRF WEBSITE www.cave Contact your operations manager for the user id and password for the members-only section of the site.


14 CAVE BOOKS Publications Affiliate of the Cave Research Foundation Web site : http :LLwww. cavebooks com ISBN : 0-939748 SAN: 216-7220 Rev. 11/03 CAVE BOOKS Publications Callot, F -M & Y Photographier Sous Terre Carstens & Of Caves and Shell Mounds 20 00 hb Bold identifies NEW publications Bridgemon & Lindsley Bullitt Cast e ret Chevalier Collins H. & Lehrberger Conn & Conn Courbon e t al. Crowther et al. Dav i dson & Bishop DeJoly Exley Farr Heslop Lawrence & Brucker McConn ell Moore & Sullivan Northup et al. Nymey e r Olson & Hanion Palmer R e ames et al. Sides Ste ele Watson, P South China Caves Rambles in Mammoth Cave Ten Years Under the Earth Subterranean Climbers The Life and De ath of Floyd 7 95 pb 6 95 pb 11. 95 pb 7 95 pb Collins 14 95 hb 10 95 pb The Jewel Cave Adventure 11. 95 pb Atlas : Great Cav e s of the Wor1d 20.00 pb The Grand Kentucky Junction 12 95 pb Wilderness Resources MCNP 3 00 pb Memoirs of a Speleologist 10 95 hb 7 95 pb Caverns Measureless to Man 125 00 ltd ed 32 95 hb, 21. 95 pb The Darkness Beckons Supplement The Art of Caving The Caves Beyond 4 25 pb 9 .95 pb 10 95 pb Emergence, a novel 19.95 hb 10 95 pb Speleology : Caves and the Cave Environment 21.95 hb, 15 95 pb A Guide to Speleolog i cal Literature of the English Language 1794 1996 34. 95 hb 24 95 pb Car1sbad, Caves and a Camera 11. 95 pb Scary Stories of Mammoth Cave 7.95 pb A Geological Guide to Mammoth Cave National Park Deep Secrets : The Discovery and Exploration of Lechuguilla Cave 7 95 pb 32 95 hb, 24.95 pb Guide to Surface Trails of Mammoth Cave National Park Yochib : The River Cave Archeology of the Mammoth Cave Area 5 95 pb 10 95 pb Wat son, R. Cav i ng 24 95 pb 3 00 pb Watson R. et al. CRF Origins and the First Twelve Willmes CRF CRF CRF CRF CRF CRF CRF Years 1957-1968 CRF Personnel Manual CRF ANNUAL REPORTS & PIN 12 00 pb 10.00 pb 1974 1978 Annual Reports 15 00 pb* 1975 1976 Annual Reports 3.00 pb ea. 19n 1980 Annual Reports 4 00 pb ea. 1981 1993 Annual Reports 5.00 pb ea. 1994 1997 Annual Reports 10.00 pb* 1998 Annual Reports 10.00 pb* CRF PIN (3/4" diameter, enameled) 5.00 *=009 vo/ul"[1e C ar1sbad Caverns Kaemper Map of Mammoth Cave (ca 1908) Lee Cave Mammoth Cave National Park Mammoth Cave Map Card 2 00 3.00 4.00 1 50 3 00 Mammoth Cave Poster Map M a mmoth Cave Poster Map (Col/ector's Edit i on) Ogle C a ve 25 00 1 50 1 50 2 00 Slau g hter Canyon Cave Car1sbad Cavems N P 81h Int ernat i onal Congress Poster (1981) Ackerman Anderson Bla c k Borden & Brucker Bruck e r & R Watson Other Publishers The Moon by Whale Light 19 95 hb Cave Exploring 3 00 pb I Don t Play Golf 1 2 95 hb Beyond Mammoth Cave 59 .95 hb 26 95 pb The Longest Cave (new edition ) 24. 95 hb 17. 95 pb P Watson Culver et al. Dasher Faulkner Faust Finkel Finkel Fletcher George George George George George Griffin Halliday Hill Hill & Forti Kerbo Kurten Kurten Long McClurg McEachern & Grady Murray & Brucker Noswat Nowak NSF NSF NSS NSS NSS NSS NSS NSS Prosser & Grey Rother H & C Siffre Sloane Speleo-Projects Steward Stone Ende Taylor Taylor Turner Valli & Summer s Watson P Williams Adaptation and Natural Selection in Caves On Station The Preh i storic Native American Art of Mud Glyph Cave Saltpetre Mining in Mammoth Cave Adequate Earth, poems Go i ng Under/Endurance poems The Man from the Cave Mumm i es Catacombs, and Mammoth Cave Mummies of Short Cave KY New Madrid Earthquake at Mammoth Cave Prehistoric Mummies from the Mammoth Cave Area Saltpeter & Gunpowder Manufacturing in Kentucky Listening in the Dark (Bats) Floyd Collins of Sand Cave Geology of Car1sbad Caverns Cave Minerals of the Wor1d Batwings and Sp i der Eyes The Cave Bear Story Single Tusk : A Novel of the Ice Age Rock Jocks Wall Rats and Hang Dogs Adventure of Caving Corps of Engineers Inventory and 28 95 pb 39 95 hb 17. 00 hb 11. 95 hb 5.95 pb 5.95 pb 9 95 pb 9 50 hb 16 50 pb 4 50 pb 3 00 pb 10 95 pb 3 00 pb 6 00 pb 4 95 pb 15.00 pb 70 00 hb 8.00 pb 9 95 hb 14 95 hb 11. 00 pb 14. 95 pb Evaluation, Calveras County, CA3.00 pb Trapped : Floyd Collins 19 00 pb Maws : Death In Big Cave Nat i onal Monument Walker'S Bats of the Wor1d Ensueno Cave Study Fountain N P Study Caving Basics Cumber1and Caverns Ogle Cave Symposium On Call On Rope Speleogenes i s Cave Diving Manual Lost Caves of SI. Louis Les An i maux des Gouffres et des Cavemes Cavers Caves and Caving Lechuguilla, Jewel of the 3 00 pb 19 95 pb 5 00 pb 5 00 pb 10.00 pb 8 95 pb 3 00 pb 28 .00 pb 30. 00 hb 60 00 hb 25 00 pb 9 95 pb 7 95 hb 9.95 hb Underground 56. 00 hb Tales of Dirt, Danger and Darkness 8 95 pb Beyond the Deep 26 95 hp Cave Passages 15 00 hb Dark Life 12. 00 hb The Vampire Bat 10. 00 hb Shadow Hunters : The Nest Gatherers of Tiger Cave Prehistory of Salts Cave Blue Crystal a novel 24. 95 hb 9 95 pb 19.95 hb ORDERING INFORMATION S end Ord e r s To: CAVE BOOKS 4700 Amberwood Dr., Dayton OH 45424 E mail ord e rs: Po s tage & Handling: $ 3 00 for the tirst bo o k $.75 for each a dditional book $3. 00 for one to ten maps o r map cards rolle d in one tube. (Ollt side USA d O llbl e p os t age).

Contents: A Note from
the Editor --
Resistivity Surveys at Fort Stanton Cave, Lincoln County,
New Mexico / John McLean, March 2004 --
Briars and Bees and Bears, Oh No! / Mike Crockett --
Regional Expedition Reports: Cumberland Gap Expedition
Summary, January 2004 / Mike Crockett --
Cumberland Gap Expedition Summary, February 27-29, 2004 /
Mike Crockett --
Mammoth Cave: March 21-23,2003 Expedition Leaders, Erik
and Courtney Sikora --
Mammoth Cave: Labor Day, August 29-September 1, 2003
Expedition Leaders, Bob and JoAnne Osburn --
Book Review: Hidden Beneath the Mountains: The Caves of
Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks / Joel Despain --
CRF Fund Raising / Elizabeth Winkler --
2004 Expedition Calendar.


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