Cave Research Foundation newsletter

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Cave Research Foundation newsletter
Series Title:
Cave Research Foundation newsletter
Alternate Title:
CRF newsletter
Cave Research Foundation
Cave Research Foundation
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Subjects / Keywords:
Resource Management ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )
United States


General Note:
Inside: Kaemper Avenueand its associated side-passages continue to provide lots of rewarding work for Mammoth Cave survey crews. More than 8,000 ft. of large, pristine passage have been mapped since the discovery of this major tube in the Logsdon/Hawkins River area last July. Recent discoveries include a room 130 ft. across and 30 ft. high named (in keeping with the cave cartographer theme) Bishop's Rotunda. For further details, see the Mammoth Cave expedition reports, p.6... Also: an interview with a caver who is definitely not interested in visiting Kaemper Avenue... Plus: reports onthe MCNP 2nd annual science conference, improvements in SMAPS data-handling, CRF China Cavesbook, and all the usual features...
Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Location:
Windy City Grotto Collection, 1961-2013
Original Version:
Vol. 19, no. 4 (1991)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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Resource Identifier:
K26-00785 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.785 ( USFLDC Handle )
12799 ( karstportal - original NodeID )

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2 CRF Newsletter CRF NEWSLETTER Volume 19, No.4 Established 1973 Editors, Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton Route I, Box UOA Annapolis, MO 63620 Production Manager, Richard Zopf Quarterly: Feb., May, Aug., Nov. Subscriptions $5.00 per year. Free to JVs. Deadline: One month before the first of the issue month. The CRF NEWSLETTER is a publication of the Cave Research Foundation, a non-profit nrganization incorporated in 1957 under the laws of Kentucky fnr the purpose of furthering research, conservation, and education about caves and karst. For information about the CRF, write to: Ron Bridgemon, CRF President, 4074 W Redwing Street, Tucson, AZ 85741. BULLETIN BOARD Address Corrections: Moved? Missing some copies? (The Newsletter is not forwarded). Send address corrections to Richard Zopf, 830 Xenia Avenue, Yellow Springs, OR 45387, with $1.25 for each back issue requested. CRF Research Center fund raising drive: Please help make the planned Mammoth Cave research center a reality, Send your tax deductible donations to the treasurer, Roger McClure, 4700 Amberwood Drive, Dayton OR 45424. Funds are also solicited for the International Exploration Fund CRF Annual Report: Submissions for the 1991 Annual Report are due. The deadline is December 31. The Annual Report is not for publication of full-length artieles; we seek extended abstracts supported by a few key references and camera-ready illustrations, the whole not to exceed five double spaced 8.5" by II" pages. A machine-readable disk with hard copy backup is preferred. Black and white photographs are also solicited send glossy 8" by 10" prints. Please send your contributions on cave and karst research, CRF related activities, abstracts of papers, talks presented, etc. to the e

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    3 November 1991 road will be referred to as the South Entrance Road. The addition brings the total area of the park to 52,714 acres. Information from Mammoth Monthly, September, 1991. 1991 NSS Awards CRF JVs again figured prominently in the annual NSS honor roll. The recipient of the William J. Stephenson Outstanding Service Award, which together with Honorary Membership is the NSS' highest award, was given to Doug Rhodes, best known as co-editor of the NSS News. The list of his contributions is a long one, but among those cited are stints as CRF Guadalupes Area Operations manager and as Chairman of the Mammoth Cave Conservation Task Force, and surveying activities within Mammoth Cave and Carlsbad Caverns National Parks. Among those awarded NSS Fellowships were JVs Barbara Ann am Ende, Dan Legnini, and Dave West. As usual, ace photographers Peter and Ann Bosted won Merit and Honorable Mention awards for their work. Mammoth Cave Science Conference Rick Olson The Second Annual Science Conference was held August 13-14 at Mammoth Cave. The meeting, organized by NPS Resource Manager George Gregory, was well attended and the aunosphere was relaxed and congenial. Papers were presented on biosphere reserves, flora in the park, the biology and ecology of cave crickets, and the effects of land use on water quality in Mammoth Cave. Superintendent Dave Mihalic expressed his appreciation and support for all the work being done, and underscored the importance of research to the Park. Jeff Bradyhaugh, recently appointed Chief of Science-and Resource Management, led a fruitful discussion on future research needs; the level of interaction among people from different disciplines was especially good. During breaks, Anthony Gareau demonstrated the GIS (Geographic Information System) computer database he is developing. CRF biologists Tom Poulson and Kathy Lavoie led an informative evening field trip to the Frozen Niagara area and to Sophy's Avenue to discuss cave cricket biology (see below). In the morning, a difficult choice had to be made between two excellent field trips led by staff of the Kentucky Slate Nature Preserves Commission. Marc Evans, Landon McKinney, and Ken Nicely took participants to sites where plants typical of the original Barrens are still found; prescribed burning as a management tool for their protection was discussed. The other option was a canoe trip led by Ron Cicerello; the incredible diversity of freshwater mussels in the Green River and the degradation of habitat by Lock and Dam #6 were the main topics. Perhaps with the added influence of the Nature Preserves Commission, a decision to remove the dam will be reached. Papers presented. (excerpted and adapted from Lois Winter's report in the MeNP newsletter. Mammoth Moruhty August 1991). Land-Use Practices and Water Quality: Between March, 1990 and September, 1992, a water quality monitoring project is being conducted at Mammoth Cave National Park. Eighteen months into the study, researchers can demonstrate a strong correlation between drainage basin land use and water quality. Biology and Ecology of Cave Crickets: Tom Poulson and Kathy Lavoie summarized many years of research on cricket biology. Because Mammoth Cave lacks large bat colonies, cave crickets may be second only to flooding in delivering energy into the cave's ecosystems. Beneath Continued over ... Caveland Sanitation Program Moves Ahead After many frustrating delays, construction of Phase II of the Caveland Sanitation Authority sewage system, critical to the protection of Mammoth Cave water quality, is scheduled to begin. The latest roadblock was removed with the approval on September 12 of a Farmer's Home Administration loan and by an agreement reached between the Environmental Protection Agency, the Park, and Caveland Sanitation Authority to re-route the planned line along Highway 31 W, south of 1-65. This will save $3m over the original route, along Highway 255 via Chaumont and Turley's Comer. Although the new route will leave a few residential drain fields in place, these sources are relatively insignificant. The new route also has the advantage that the lack of a collector line along the approach roads may serve to inhibit development on the park boundaries. Work will proceed first with the construction of the conveyance line from Park City to Cave City along 31W. Later, a Park City collection system and pumping station will be built, then a conveyance line from Mammoth Cave National Park to Park City via the newly acquired South Entrance Road. Finally, a spur line will be run from 1-65 in Cave City to Jellystone Park. Projected cost of the revised Phase II is $5.4m. Work is scheduled to begin August 31, 1992, with completion due by December, 1993. MCNP Acquires Part of Route 255 Mammoth Cave National Park acquired an additional 289 acres when the Commonwealth of Kentucky transferred ownership of two miles of Route 255 between Park City and Chaumont, together with a strip about 500 ft. wide to either side of the road. This addition was authorized by Congress years ago. Superintendent Mihalic stated that "The change reflects a minor boundary adjustment, and most people will notice little difference resulting from the change in ownership". The

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    4 CRF Newsletter cricket roosts, a thin layer of guano accumulates, providing food for troglobitic detritivores. Crickets have a high assimilation efficiency when digesting food (about 95%); therefore, the food value of their guano is small. Moisture content plays an important role in determining the availability of guano calories; if the guano drops in a dry place, it has little food value; if it is too wet, the nutrients are soon leached out, With the right amount of moisture, cricket guano communities can be rich. A second major food input occurs in the form of cricket eggs. Cave crickets are omnivores, but prefer insects to plant matter. Mammoth Cave has two species. Ceuthophilus stygius rarely penetrates beyond entrance areas. Eggs are laid in forest litter, and juveniles remain outdoors. Adults usually exit the cave every night from spring though fall. In winter, they enter diapause within the cave. Hadenoecus subterraneus is found deep within the cave in addition to entrance areas. There is little guano in deep cave sites, where one tends to find lots of adults and newly hatched crickets, but few medium-sized Hadenoecus subterraneus (adapted from Vernon Bailey, ewe Life of Kentucky, 1933). individuals. This suggests that deep cave sites are used primarily as nurseries. Adult females tend to live near entrances when they are forming eggs, and move into the deep cave when it's time to lay. Eggs are laid in sand deposits year round, with the peak in winter. The females make numerous false ovipositor holes, presumably to reduce predation rates by cave beetles. The young depend on food from a yolk sac for the first month; since they need not forage, they can spend their time on the ceiling, avoiding contact with predators on the ground. Hadenoecus are more slender, with a thinner exoskeleton, than Ceuthophilus and are relatively longlived. They are very sensitive to temperature and moisture, which limits the time they can forage outside the cave. However, except for a few weeks in mid-summer and mid-winter, there are usually at least a few hours every night when humidity and temperature permit Hadenoecus In leave the cave to feed. Males feed a little more often (generally every 9-10 days) than females (1012 days). Hadenoecus can survive 2-3 months between meals if necessary. Flora of MCNP: The park is one of the greatest protectors of biological diversity in Kentucky. While most of the park consists of second-growth woodland, a number of unique communities in sites such as cool, moist ravines, wetlands, and open barrens contribute much In the variety of plant life and harbor many of the park's rare species. In 1988, Marc Evans and Landon McKinney of the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission and Ken Nicely of Western Kentucky University began an updated documentation of the flowering plants. So far, 872 species have been confirmed, and the list is growing. Of these, 21 are listed as endangered, threatened, or of special concern. Active management, including prescribed burning and selective thinning, may be needed in order to protect some habitats. Ozone Levels: Ozone monitoring at Mammoth Cave was initiated in 1985. Since then, ozone levels in excess of national standards have been recorded six times. Even below this standard, plants can be adversely affected; ozone concentrations we now experience routinely are likely to damage a number of species, including tulip poplar, white pine, and black cherry. Ozone forms when nitrogen oxides (from industry and transportation) are irradiated by UV light in the upper atmosphere. Because ozone forms high up and winds carry air masses away from the sources, ozone concentrations may be higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Preliminary data suggests that the park receives ozone from the Ohio Valley, Nashville, and perhaps Louisville. New air-quality monitoring equipment has been installed at the park. This will allow MCNP Resource Management staff to examine the size of particulates in the air, as well as continue In keep track of nonparticulate Pollutants. Aluminum Handrail Corrosion: Rick Olson presented the results of his study of the clear gel that forms on handrails along the Historic Tour in Mammoth Cave. The precipitate was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The material is a mixture of hydrated aluminum oxide and aluminum hydroxide. Conditions that encourage its formation are the presence of salts from perspiration, the meeting of dissimilar metals, and the presence of electrical currents where handrails are used as grounds. The gel appears to pose minimal hazard to health or the environment but the corrosion warns us that the handrails are weakening. Possible solutions include replacing aluminum with a chromlUm/ molybdenum steel. Land Between The Lakes Biosphere Reserve: LBL is the newest of 49 Biosphere Reserves in the U.S. Collaborative Opportunities with other Biosphere Reserves (especially Mammoth Cave) were discussed. J

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    November 1991 5 SMAPS-A Big Improvement in Data Swapping Mel Park Good news for our cartography program: necessary changes to the way SMAPS imports and exports data are being made. In the weeks before completing his year's work for the Office of Science and Resource Management, Doug Dotson, the author of SMAPS, prepared a plain-text interchange format. SEF (SMAPS Exchange Format) promises to become an important new interchange standard. It is more complete and easier to work with than the Ascii dump method that SMAPS has used up until now. The new interchange format will be incorporated into a coming SMAPS version, but it is already being used by Doug and I to move data between SMAPS and Cave Map Language (CML). The new format contains all of the data fields that CRF has historically used. Station names can be up to 10 characters long--a requirement for CRF data from Mammoth Cave. Most importantly, there is a means for specifying stations with fixed coordinates ("constrained stations"). One of the limitations of the Ascii dump method is that no record of which stations have been fixed is exported. Cavers from allover the world have indirectly contributed to the SEF format, A vigorous electronic mail discourse on data exchange formats took place on the Caver's Forum on the Internet, in May and June. Internet is an international computer network available to many university educators, as well as others in the government and private sectors. Doug remains the sole author of the SEF format, but I don't think he will mind my pointing out that he had the benefit of ideas from such people as Thomas Anderson, Aaron Birenboim, Ray Cole, Rane Curl, Peter Febbroriello, John Ganter, John Halleck, Paul Hill, Scott Linn, Angela Morgan, Tom Moss, Garry Petrie, Frank Reid, Ben Tompkins, Sheri Weller, and myself to fertilize his own ideas. The Caver's Forum, by the way, is organized by CRF JV John Sutter. Briefly, the SEF format uses fixed-length fields, but gives the user complete control over field order, type, and width. There is even a way to discard the fixedlength format and use separating characters (tabs or commas). Data are organized by survey, beginning with a header block of information. In another improvement over the Ascii format, there are no obligatory fields in the header. If, for instance, the date or personnel are not known, those lines can simply be omitted. SMAPS wants its data arranged into a hierarchy, much like that of a tree, with small branches subsidiary to larger branches, these to limbs, finally reaching the trunk. Commands in SEF govern that hierarchy. This means that there will be an accurate record in SEF of how the SMAPS user has set up the file format, and there is a means for the non-SMAPS user to create a hierarchy before importing data into SMAPS. SEF will provide a two-way conduit for data. It should be not only an efficient means of importing data into the new SMAPS, but also a way of getting a faithful record out of SMAPS. Both aspects will certainly be used at Mammoth Cave, as the Park imports CML data into their SMAPS database, and we pull data out of SMAPS back into the CML archive. Wind Cave Surveyors Solicited Bill Yett On July 13 of this year, Colorado cavers added nearly a quarter mile of new survey to Wind Cave and took the cave over the 6O-mile point. Between January I and August 10, Colorado cavers, NPS staff, and others have added nearly five miles of survey. Many feel confident that Wind Cave can pass the 100 km mark this year. (Despite optimistic and widely reported predictions, Lechuguilla Cave has not yet passed Wind Cave in surveyed length.) The most recent Colorado Grouo effort is a low-key affair that began in the spring of 1990 by invitation of the Park. Prior to that, exploration was limited by the difficulty of navigating in thisvery confusing maze system. This problem was simplified by the establishment of flagged travel routes to all major areas of the cave by NPS Cave Specialist Jim Nepstad, Jim is also a long-time Wind Caver and NSS member. This project is open to responsible cavers of virtually any skill and endurance level willing to commit to the effort. No vertical skills are needed. though some surveyor geological knowledge would be useful. The trips are for a set weekend every month. The Park usually provides a field house, camp ground access, and some equipment. Carbide lamps may be used. For information, write to the author at 2930 E. 14th Avenue, Denver, CO 80206. tc,) Karst Waters Institute The Karst Waters Institute is an organization formed recently by David Culver and John Mylroie, devoted to the promotion of karst hydrology research. As a pilot project (funded in part by CRF), the Institute plans to produce, under the direction of William Jones, a Karst Hydrology Alias of West Virginia. This volume will compile all available hydrological data on the karst of eastem West Virginia, included information on the area's sedimentary and structural geology, drainage basins, dye-tracing results, county water budgets, cave distribution (without detailed locations) and aquatic troglobite distribution. The Atlas will provide a central data base for scientists, educators, and land managers, and will serve as a model for future work in other regions.

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    6 CRF Newsletter EXPEDITIONS party resurveyed the Hell Hole crawl from Belfry Avenue to Emmett's Ramble. The resurvey of Mystic River's main passage continued downstream to the junction of the Burley's Way crossover. About ten stations of wet and windy crawl at one end, and as many dry shots at the other are needed to finish this long loop. One nice low-water trip would be a tie from Roaring River to a branch of downstream Mystic, where wind was blowing through a "surnped" passage past its terminal poker chip. One party replaced the survey up LaJuana Falls (a 15 ft. flowstone climb) towards Janet's River. Some leads were discovered at the Falls which have been passed by every party out there. The remaining sketching in that area will be complicated. Ganter Avenue yielded more surprises as a lead off a cutaround continued as a good crawl. Other cutarounds had junctions that were missed even by recent resurvey crews. Mirabilite cotton was sprouting from all surfaces, even from cane torch fragments. Diamond Dome off Woodbury Pass pooped out with 180 ft. of survey in a 30 ft. deep canyon, ending in fill at one end and sandstone breakdown at the other. There was no clue to the origin of the stiff breezes. [But ___________________________ this mystery was solved during the Labor Day expedition-see below]. Flint Ridge: New cave was surveyed off the Upper Crouch wayunfortunately the party had to leave this going crawl due to time restrictions-and in a complicated area around Union Shafts. River: Two parties completed the loop from the T-Survey trunk up to the Southern Highlands and mapped several hundred feet of side passages in this dome and canyon complex, where many leads remain. Early in the expedition, Kaemper Avenue was discovered by a party that mapped a 1000 ft. long gypsum crawl in the Southern Highlands and broke out into a large cross-passage (see August Newsletter). The following weekend, two parties mapped nearly one mile of large trunk. Much of this 50 fl. wide, 15 ft. high tube and the Southern Highlands access route are decorated with gypsum and popcorn. Strict methods were used to carefully map the passage while minimizing impacts from footprints. The main passage ended to the east but continued westward past a major junction. Many large leads were left. Rick Olson made two trips to the forks of Hawkins River with Joe Meirnan's crews to assist the Park's MAMMOTH CAVE June 28-July 7 Leader, Tom Brucker Replacement survey for the week totalled over 8,000 ft., and new survey amounted to 8,500 ft.! Mammoth Cave Ridge: A party mapped side-cut passages at the west end of Stevenson Avenue, and there was a short trip to survey a link to Roaring River and to acquaint the new MCNP Resource Manager, Jeff Bradyhaugh, with CRF operating procedures. Another party mapped connections between old and new surveys in Burley's Way, Rhoda's Arcade and Silliman Avenue. They also re-mapped a drain out of Burley's Way partway to its jnnction with downstream Mystic River. Another Kaemper map fragment was finally surveyed when a crew mapped "False Shelly Avenue", an obvious but unmapped side passage off the Infernal Regions. This is the disjointed end of a long passage running below Silliman Avenue which cuts under, but is buried by, the Silliman Avenue trail. The same party resurveyed the wet branch of Roaring River from Cascade Hall. The original book was only 3 x 5 inches, and failed to capture the detail of this trunk passage with The Morning After: Cartographers just returned from Kaemper A venue work on assembling fresh-from-the-cave surveys. Photo by Rick Olson. a very small-seale sketch. A trip to the real Shelly Avenue was stymied by instrument failure, but one tiein was accomplished. A survey up Cathedral Domes included a "delightful stream passage" and left only two passages up there to finish. For the new Bishop's Domes (Hell Hole) sheet, a I J

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    J November 1991 7 hydrology program. They drilled holes in a well casing in the Left Fork to allow it to be used for dye injection. Rick also marked a pathway through the P. Strange Falls burrow chert (see May Newsletter ), but yellow flagging is really needed to do the job properly. Mlsc.: Three parties systematically recorded names and photo-documented an area of Pensacola Avenue (see August Newsletter). Some of the more unusual inscriptions included "Miss Mary Rogers, the flower of the South. Nov. II 1838" and "Miss Carrie Foster, Kalamazoo Mich, American Beauty Corsets." Another party sorted out gazetteer entries in Pensacola Avenue, around Scylla and Charybdis, and in the Labyrinth. A trip to Running Branch Cave, north of the Green River, netted SOO ft. of survey at the lowestleve!. Running Branch is now ready for the draft map to be drawn, with all but a few marginal leads surveyed. Logistics: The expedition attempted to work around the restrictions imposed by residence at Maple Springs. Ferry service was not available on Sunday or on weekdays past9.5S pm, so party objectives were chosen to maximize working lime and minimize travel time. There is not an abundance of short traveltime objectives. No trips were sent to Colossal, Salts, or beyond Union Shafts. We tried to maintain a steady pace with daily trips for everyone, entering the cave at 9 a.m. The elevator was used by most of the Mammoth Cave parties for work in Silliman Avenue, Stevenson Avenue, Cathedral Domes, and Belfry A venue, saving some time. River trips too were close-in until the weekend, working in the T -survey area. It may be possible to continue operating efficiently for a while longer, but eventually we will need the flexibility of unrestricted return times. On the other hand, the Maple Springs showers, unlimited water, and air conditioning add to the productivity of a week-long expedition. We discovered the handy hose and used il daily to clean gear-in fact, there was no need to send the survey equipment and ropes out for maintenance after the expedition. The expedition ran without a camp manager-food was shopped for and cooked by volunteers. Menu suggestions were solicited and used to good effect. Survey Crews: Stevenson Ave.1) Scott House, Mick Sutton Sue Hagan, Bob Salika; 2) Scott House, Tom Bruck~. Sue Hagan, Jeff Bradyhaugh (NPS); Burley:s Way-Mick Sutton, Tom Brucker, Bob Salika; Roaring River--Scott House, Paul Hauck, Larry Mallory, Greg Sholley; Shelly Ave.--Scott House, Kevin Downs, Greg Sholley, Larry Mallory; Cathedral Domes-Tom Brucker,. Rick Olson, Greg Shalley, Dick ,Market; Hel~-Hole-~evm Downs, Terri Hammond, Dan Riles, Bob Sahka; MystiC River-Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Tom Brucker; Laluana FaIls-Scott House, Rick Olson, Paul Hauck, Greg Black, Marty Ryan; Gamer Ave.-Tom Bru~ker. Bob Salika, I?ave Hanson, Tom Cunningham (NPS); Diamond Dome-Mlck Sutton, Tom Brucker, Mike Lawrence, Richard Hand; Upper Crouchwoy-Paul Hauck. Greg Shelley. Larry Mallory; Union Shafts----:Paul Hauck, Rich Ho~hsteuer, N~rman Gibat;Southern Highlands pit~l) RIck Olson, DIck Market, Neil Hammond; 2) Bob Osburn. Rick Olson. Dick Market; Southern Highlond:;-Bob Osburn. Julie Sotsky, Greg Sholley; Kaemper Ave.I) Bob Osburn. Rick Olson. Norm Pace, Julie Sotsky; 2) Mick Sutton, Greg Shelley, Kevin Downs. Greg Black; Hawkins River forb-Rick Olson. Jeff Bradyhaugh (NPS), Marty Ryan (NPS), Joe Meiman (NPS); Pensacola Ave. signarures--Larry Pursell, Harry Grover, Gertrude Boyks, Dave Hanson; Gazetteer-Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan; Running Branch-Tom Brucker, Kevin Downs, Greg Shelley, Bob Salika, Dan Riles. Summer, August 2 5 Leader, Scott House Twenty-five people braved the August heat for a fine expedition. The trips were well-led and productive, and the expedition was a model of efficiency, resulting in more than 4S00 fl. of new survey. River: A party went to the eastern end of Kaemper Avenue, the large new trunk off Logsdon River. At the passage terminus, they surveyed several leads, all of which quickly ended. Farther back, a side passage turned out to be major and quite complex; it continues beyond the 21 stations surveyed. A stream in the passage may be polluted-a white, colloidal mat covers the bottom of several pools. A party went to the other end of Kaemper Avenue and continued the main line for another 28 long stations to where it ended at a valley-wall breakdown area. They left one major lead and several smaller ones, retiring with 2400 fl. of new survey. Elsewhere in the River, a crew went back to the 0survey offthe T-survey trunk, and gave this wretched, muddy place a good effort. They pUI in another 180 fl. of survey before getting cold and retreating. The passage continues smaller but drier, with air flow. This crew should be commended for their cheerful acceptance of a grim destination while two other parties went to Kaemper Avenue. Mammoth Cave Ridge: In the Albert's Domes area, a party finished the Albert's to Henry's drain, did a short side passage in Albert's Domes, then surveyed an untraveled tube (the highest level of Elmore's Pass) back to Henry's Domes. coming out above the "dragon" of Dragon Pit. The final station of Ranshaw Avenue was visible 20 ft. below, but could not be reached. They put in S40 ft. of new survey in a fine effort. A second crew surveyed narrow canyons near LaJuana Falls in an attempt to find another route around the climb. Their 18 stations amounted to 170 fl. of new survey, none of it pleasant. A resurvey crew mapped 1200 ft. of Stevenson's Avenue south of its junction with Opossum A venue. They identified several new leads. There was a trip to Katherine's Domes off Marion Avenue, where 23 stations of resurvey improved map detail and should allow loops to close better. Two trips were required to find and map an elusive lead near Blanche's Dome. The J

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    8 CRF Newsletter passage turned out to be quite small and twisty,leading in 180 ft to an overlook above Martel Avenue. Larry Pursell continued his work to systematically record historic signatures in Pensacola A venue. Thanks to Patti House, who managed camp and kept everyone well stocked with food. Survey Crews: Kaemper Ave.-I) Tom Brucker. Greg Sholley, Karen Willmes; 2) Bob Osburn, Dick Market, Julie Sotsky; O.Survey-Richard Zopf, Dick Maxey, Mike Lawrence; Albert's Domes-Jim Greer, Dave West, Joyce Hoffmeister; Laluana Falls-Dave West, Joyce Hoffmeister, Dan Raque; Stevenson's Ave.L-Doug Baker, Kevin Downs, Darrell Adkins; Katherine's Domes-Bob Osburn. Karen Willmcs,-Gail Wagner, Greg Sholley; Blanche's Dome-I) Gail Wagner, Tony Conard, Alice Woznack; 2) Dick Maxey, Darrell Adkins, Tony Conard, Alice Woznack; Pensacola Ave.-Larry Pursell, Karen Early. Labor Day, Aug.31-Sep.2 Leader, Bob Osburn Thirty-seven people took part in the Labor Day expedition. The Maple Springs Research Facility becomes a more pleasant base as we learn more about dealing with it; the ferry remains a problem, however. Two days caving netted a total of 6000 fl. of survey (3880 ft. of new survey; 2120 fl. of resurvey). River: Five trips went to Logsdon! Hawkins River. A party went to the end of the T-Survey trunk to investigate the terminal syphon pool, previously visited only once. Rather than a static pool, as previously thought, this is a rise pool for a small stream which sinks a short distance down the passage. The drain may be enterable with minor modification. The party mapped 380 ft. in a small lead in the vicinity, and checked several other leads. There was a trip to Fritsch Avenue to investigate leads along the nearest 1000 fl. of the passage. The party mapped 160 ft. of high-grade sleezeway to a dome with a water inlet at the top-this would be a wet and nasty bolt job. A second lead turned out to be not a trunk, as reported, but a wide hands and knees crawl. Another crew went to the Roppel-Mammoth connection area were they surveyed! resurveyed 550 fl. in a very complex area of canyons and large domes. Visitors to this area should carry a current copy of the map. The party exited via Roppel-a long haul. The connection route through the breakdown is slow and complex. B lack voids overhead may portend more cave. Two crews went to Kaemper Avenue. One party mapped a largish lead at the T-Junction area for 1950 fl. through one huge room they named Bishop's Rotunda, and a second large, as yet unnamed room. The passage ended decisively at valley wall breakdown; one walkinghigh lead with branches remains. The sediments in this passage occur both on the floor and high up on bedrock ledges, suggesting a period of sluggish flow and sedimentation followed by reactivation of flow, removing I I most of the sediment which once virtually filled the passage. The second party went to the west end of Kaemper Avenue to check canyon leads. The canyons quickly filled or got too tight, and the breakdown led to nothing. They retreated to an earlier lead and put in 500 fl. in a large walking-high passage. Mammoth Cave Ridge: Two trips went to East Robertson A venue to map small leads and enhance the sketch of the East Robertson trunk. The last lead, a damp, muddy crawl at high level, quickly entered a series of 15 ft. high domes. A passage at the ceiling carrying a stiff breeze ended in a large breakdown room (Nervous Breakdown). On plotting the survey, the terminal sandstone choke was found to abut the breakdown at one end of a canyon off Diamond Domes explored in July. Hence, the stiff breeze is probably the same strong airflow noted in the off-Woodbury Pass passages. A party went to EI Ghor to fill in 440 fl. of connections between the Kennedy Domes route and EI Ghor. The route through Kennedy Domes to Marion Avenue is quite complicated and contains numerous potential leads. A short trip the next day continued filling in tie-ins around Queen Victoria's Crown in El Ghor. A trip to Blackstone Avenue achieved 750 ft. of resurvey in smallish passages, replacing an old survey with a poor sketch. Flint Ridge: A party resurveyed 420 ft. of passage in the complex area around Unknown Pit. Another trip went to the Bedquilt Route in Colossal Cave to connect a missing tie and continue resurveying adjacent leads. Misc.: There was a surface archaeological investigation of glass sherds around the three churches within the park in an attempt to correlate glass characteristics (particularly thickness) with time of occupation. There were biological inventory trips to assess various sites for a proposed new biological project-the crew failed to find Wilson Cave, and instead looked at Mansfield Bend and Ronald's Caves outside the park. Later, Historic Mammoth was visited to assess potentially interesting biological areas in Briggs and Sylvan Avenues and in Mammoth Dome (these proved unsuitable), Another trip went to the historic section of Proctor Cave for biological assessment and recording historic signatures. The signatures of 19th and early 20th century explorers and tourists were supplemented by a few from the 1970s and 1980s. Thanks to JoAnn Osburn for an excellent job of camp management. Survey Crews: T-Survey-Richard Zopf Dick Maxey. Ken Rogers; Fritsch Ave.-Tom Brucker, Mike Luce, Mark Ohms: Roppel connection-Jim Borden, Stan Sides. Roland Vm~yard;.Kaemper Ave.-I) Rick Olson, Scott House, Paul Rubin. Phil Bodanza; 2) Mel Park, Norm Rogers, Neil Hammond, !uhe Sotsky; East Robertson Ave,-I) Mick Sutton. Shell. Sands. Cheryl Early; 2) Mick Sutton, Terri Hammond. Ken Rogers; El Ghor-l) Bob Osburn, Dan Raque, Alice Woznack,: 2) Julie Sotsky, Norm Rogers; Blackstone Ave.-Kevm Downs, Terri Hammond, Darrell

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    November 1991 9 Adkins; Unknown Pit~Paul Hauck, Mark Ohms, Mike Lace; Bedquilt Route-Kevin ~~s. N~il Hammond, Dee Hauck; Surface Archaeology-Phil DIBlasI, Jan Hemberger; Biological Assessment-Ed Lisowski, Sue Hagan, Harry Grover; Proctor Cave-Ed Lisowski, Phil DiBlasi, Jan Hemberger, Sue Hagan. MISSOURI July October The champagne flowed io the early hours of October 6 when the final Aliens Branch Cave survey crew returned to base. Two earlier trips to this Shannon County stream cave extended the Left Fork water crawl for a further 2000 ft., with no end in sight. The monotony was relieved by several unusual pancake-like rooms, flat, circular, and 70 ft. wide. On October 5, The round trip to the end of the Left Forkfrom the Tvjunction involves two and one half miles of continuous water crawl, relieved only by occasional stand-up spots ... enough recruits had been scraped together to make up two survey crews. One party mapped the only Left Fork side passage, which ended in 80 ft., while the other crew finally found the end of the Left Fork in a tight nearsiphon after 1350 ft. of additional survey. The surveyed length of Aliens Branch Cave is about 13,000 ft. The round trip to the end of the Left Fork from the T -junction involves two and one half miles of continuous water crawl, relieved only by occasional stand-up spots (to say nothing of the 7000 ft. round trip of crawl and crouch way from the entrance to the T-junction). To our knowledge, this is the longest crawl in Missouri. We hope to feature a more detailed account of this unusual cave in the next Newsleuer. A party went to the remote Third Watercrawl in Powder Mill Creek Cave and mapped 530 ft. in a complex, well-decorated inlet passage. The survey was in a low, muddy, passage with a flowstone floor. They also completed a repair, using hydraulic cement, of a large rimstone dam damaged on the first trip into this delicate area. One more trip will be needed to complete the survey of this passage. Two further trips to Powder Mill's Hell-Hole Series netted 430 ft. of survey and closed a major loop. The main passage in Cave Hollow Cave, Iron County, was completed. The stream passage effectively ended in a large room with numerous offshoots ending in a complex breakdown zone. The upstream continuation was deemed too low. The mapped length stands at 4020 ft. with several leads remaining. A large bone collected from the stream proved to be part of the ulna of a black bear. Still Spring, the longest cave on the Mark Twain National Forest, was extended for a further 430 ft. up the main passage. The survey passed the headwaters of the stream in a breakdown room where several waterfalls cascade from the ceiling. The passage continues beyond as an overflow route, and shows signs of ending-this major survey may be drawing to a close. Cave Inventory: The Oregon! Shannon County Cave Inventory resumed with two mapping and collecting trips to Adams Caves, near New Liberty in the Hurricane Creek valley. Two of the three caves are similar stream canyons, the larger one completed at 550 ft. long, the other ending for now with 250 ft. of generally unpleasant passage. A small crew will be needed to finish this somewhat cramped cave. In both caves, occasional beaver activity has profoundly effected the biology of the small streams. The large amount of wooden detritus fuels a community notable for a huge population of pigmented arnphipods and large numbers of predatory diving beetles. Other fauna seen included pigmented crayfish and a small water snake. The eyed arnphipods and water beetles extend upstream well beyond the zones of beaver activity. Somehow co-existing with this zOO are low numbers of troglobitic isopods. There are also unusually large numbers of cave-adapted Heliomyzid flies. There was a trip to Walter's (Johnson) Spring, also in Hurricane Creek Valley. In vivid contrast to the Adams' Caves, the stream in Walter's Spring is large (it was historically used to power a grist mill) and nearly lacking in invertebrate life. Troglobitic arnphipods and isopods are present, but in frustratingly low numbers. Somehow, the cave nevertheless manages to support a large population of long-tailed salamanders. Survey crews: Aliens Branch-l&2) Doug Baker, George Bilbrey, Steve Irvine; 3) Steve Irvine, Chris Cone; 4) Doug Baker, George Bilbrey, Mick Sutton; Powder MilI---:--Doug Baker, Steve Irvine; Cave Hollow-Sue Hagan, MICk Sutton, John Hagan, Bill Suran; Still Spring-Doug Baker, Steve Irvine, Mark Temple; Adams Caves-Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Scott House; Walter's Spring-Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton. Tim O'Dell. GUADALUPES Carlsbad Cavern, Memoria! Day: May 25-27 Leader, Jason Richards The expedition was quite successful, with over 1600 ft. of new survey added to Carlsbad Cavern. New passages were pushed and 570 ft. surveyed on the route to the Grand Ballroom in the New Section. There were new leads allover the place. A crew surveyed 450 ft. in boneyard south of the Guadalupe Room and the Lower Pit Series. They found gypsum stalactites and many possibilities for further extension (see August expedition, below). In Lower Cave, a party pushed tight leads and put in a small amount of survey. A second party checked high leads off the Cable Slot passage, but climbing with protection will be needed.

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    10 CRF Newsletter A pit near the Texas Trail (Big Room) was found to connect to Middle Earth. The party looked at other areas in the vicinity and discovered 300 fl. of virgin passage, which they named Under the Spirit World, as it lies directly under that section of the cave. A party returned to map this discovery, but could not find it, and instead mapped a 50 fl. long virgin crawlway. Three parties went to the Right Hand Fork, Left Hand Tunnel. The first group addcd 425 fl. of survey and found many high boneyard leads. A follow-up team added three more stations before being stopped by a tight spot, A thin party returned and added another 160 ft. to an end with initials on the wall: "BJ.B. 11/68". Survey Crews: Grand Ballroom-Dave Dell, Kim Fincher, Walter Feaster; Guadatupes Room-Dave Dell, Tony Jones, Doug Kent; Lower Ccve-c-l ) John Corcoran, Mary Caress, Dan Clardy; 2) Dan Clardy, Lisa DeThomas; Big Room-I) Dick Venters, Kathy Sisson. Jason Richards; 2) John Corcoran, Tony Grieco; Right Fork, Left Hand Tunnel-I) Pat Helton, Doug Kent, Tony Grieco; 2) Pat Helton, Jason Richards, Kathy Sisson; 3) Kathy Sisson, Rich Wolfert, Jake Turin. Doug Kent. Carlsbad Cavern Restoration Camp. June 16-21 Leader, Dick Venters The 1991 restoration camp had a'total of 33 volunteers from NSS, CRF and NPS, who donated a total of 1360 hours during the five days. They restored four areas. Old Lunch Room: Nine and one half tons of rock and debris from construction of the elevator shafts were removed to a depth of up to six inches from a 400 ft2 area, uncovering a flowstone floor with popcorn and rimstone dams. Restoration of this area will continue next year. Boneyard along Visitor's Trail: Nearly five Ions of rock debris and dirt were removed from a 2000 ftz area along the Appetite Hill Trail (prior to entering the Big Room from the Scenic Rooms). The restored area consisted of a 110 fl. long flowstone wall and its associated slope. Larger debris was removed from the main floor area, and the floor was brushed and smoothed to remove footprints. Big Room Junction: Hard-packed clay with small rock debris (4 Ions) was removed from a 950 fl2 area. Extensive detailed cleaning and brushing of rimstone darns, popcorn, and "lily pads" was required. Big Room to Hall of the Giants: Both sides of the visitor's trail were worked on. This area was originally a blast-hole, clay-debris pit used for trail building. The associated walls of popcorn, aragonite trees, and coral had been covered or damaged by the trail builders. These areas were picked, swept, and cleaned, and the material (5 1/2 tons) put into the blast pit. All electrical cables were hidden and pits were filled and blended to match the surrounding areas. A small pool was uncovered. In sum, twenty-four tons of rock were removed from 7,250 ft. 2 of cave floor. Fort Stanton Cave, July 4-7 Leader, John Corcoran The expedition was quite successful, with long sought after goals reached in both cave and surface surveys within BLM land surrounding the Fort Stanton Cave area. Connection to the State plane coordinates was finally accomplished and surveys in the cave filled in some previously incomplete parts of the New Section and Lincoln Caverns maps. Surface: The surface surveys covered approximately nine miles, while establishing a tie to the Buena Vista and West Spur benchmarks. The survey crew spent July 4th and the morning of July 5th in the rewarding and occasionally frustrating job of finding inter-visible survey points. After finding no reasonable line of sight from the Stanton benchmark, (the original surveyors apparently built a tower to achieve line of sight, as evidenced by large rebar and wire anchors in the vicinity of the station), missing the trail up 10 Blue Tick Cave, where another surface point was 10 be established, and discovering that the Buena Vista and West Spur benchmarks also required a tower to see each other, the first day was used up. From there on, however, the survey went fairly well. An intermediate station (Buena West) was established and angles determined with Tom Rohrer's T-3 theodolite and laser range finder, After a short break to let the late afternoon heat waves die down, a sight of about 3 1/2 miles was made between a station on the ridge north of the entrance and Buena Vista. Ties were

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    ------------------------~ November 1991 11 -: also made to other nearby stations and compass check stations. John Corcoran and Dick Venters then went back to East Well Canyon to find Blue Tick Cave and determine the location of future surface survey links. After finding the cave (reported in historical rumors to be a second entrance to Fort Stanton Cave), it was apparent tbat no central station could give clear views both north and south, due to fairly dense trees on top of the ridge. While searching for }better view, they noticed a place where a very sma~mkhole is forming, a few hundred feet from the cave. About half a mile south of the cave, a vantage point was found, which should allow good sights. Fort Stanton Cave: A party went to the New Section to survey "The Circle" off the Pagoda Passage. Two other crews surveyed Mud Alley just off the Hall of Velvet. Total survey for these efforts was 630 ft. Airflow was felt coming out of a diggable southtrending lead blocked by small speleothems and mud near the south end of The Circle. A party finished the survey begun last year of the Tiger Tail passage in the Lincoln Caverns section (300 ft.). Part of Snake River Passage was resketched to add more detail. There was resurvey in the entrance area to locate the Main and Bat Cave gates on the Entrance quadrangle. The crew had great difficulty finding old (c. 1965) survey stations. Later, this team visited the Main Corridor near Devil's Backbone to locate on the quadrangle the new springs that feed water to the Main Corridor stream. Serpentine Root Cave: There was a surface reconnaissance trip to an area of Lincoln National Forest near Serpentine Root Cave about 20 km. east of Fort Stanton Cave, and 6 km south of Capitan Peak. A number of large sinkholes (100-200 ft. diameter) were located, as well as a number of small entrances. Further trips will be scheduled to this area, which seems very promising. Difficulties include relatively poor roads leading to it, and dense fores], which makes for short lines of sight. A biological assessment of Serpentine Root Cave revealed many white millipedes, a cave spider, cave crickets, salamanders (Ambystoma sp.), and a number of bones, including a large (3 inch) incisor. The entrance was tied to a quarter-section corner nearby. Although the cave is relatively small, noticeable airflow was encountered on previous trips. Possible expansion may be accomplished by digging in lower-level breakdown. The "second" and "fourth" levels of the cave contain small but interesting calcite speleothems. Survey Crews: Surface Survey-Tom Rohrer. Dick Venters, Gavin Corcoran. John Corcoran, Kathy Petty. Bob Pape, Walter Feaster; The Circle-Bob Pape, Walter Feaster, Gavin Corcoran; Mud Alley-I) John Mclean, Kathy Petty; 2) Jaso~ichards, John Barraco; Tiger Tail Passage-John Ganter, Devon Jercinovic. Gavin Corcoran; Snake RiverJohn Mclean, Duke McMullan, Mary Caress; Entrance, Main Corridor-John Corcoran, Walter Feaster, Aeisha Richards, Kathy Petty; Serpentine Root Cave-Bob Pape, Dick Venters; other participanJ~Vivian Perkins-Mckean, Dave Dell, Desa Rae Boden, Cami Jones, Aaron Jones, Amberleigh Richards, Olive Rohrer, Lester Sharpton. Lechuguilla Precision Survey, July 27-Aug. 3 Leader, Fritzi Hardy After training on the surface and doing a vertical check-out, survey crews entered Lechuguilla and continued the survey from Freak Out Traverse towards the EF junction. Due to a series of errors, ending with the movement of an important tripod set-up by non-expedition cavers, the survey was restarted at the E-F junction and continued back towards the permanent stations at Freak-Out Traverse. That a hanging survey was left was partly due to lack of communication. As we get further into the cave, logistics become more complicated, and clear communication more important. For that reason, strong, capable cavers are usually sent from the survey site to the cabin every evening to keep Jim Hardy up on what's happening. This was not done on this occasion. The other possibility, of having only experienced people surveying, has so far not been feasible. Over 1500 hours were expended both in the cave and on the surface, eleven new people were trained on instrument technique, and an excellent time was had by all. Jim Hardy continued work on the collection of surface invertebrates. Participants: Fritzi Hardy, Jim Hardy, Robert Babb, Walt Olenick, William Davies, Sigmund Drellack, Jason Flesher, Ray Ford, Tony Grieco, Mick Itnyre, Andy Johnston, Ben Jolmston, Kathy Keeler, Carl Love, Ann Scavarda, Kathy Schwehr, Bob Stucklen, Matt Young, Tom Rohrer, Olive Rohrer, Barry Loucks, Ra~hel Hardy. N.B. The November ex edition is full, with a waiting list. For information, cal Fritzi Hardy (505-345-1700). Carlsbad Cavern, Aug. 3-4 Leader, Rich Wolfert Eleven JVs attended the early August expedition. It was an enjoyable and productive one, with 830 ft. of new survey achieved. One team went to Lower Devil's Den and climbed the blue webbing lead. They surveyed the passage above the climb, which leads to the Main Corridor at a point below the Devil's Hump tour trail bridge. A large accumulation of trash, including a badly decomposed purse containing coins from the early part of the century, was found in the fissure directly below the bridge. It is hoped that the debris can be removed during a future expedition. The team returned that night to tie the survey to a brass cap near the trail. It was necessary to do this at night, as the rappel rope crosses the tour trail between the anchor point and the pit.

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    12 CRF Newsletter I I I A team visited the boneyard area beneath the western end of the New Mexico Room. They were unable to reach the primary objective, a lead in a room beneath the New Mexico Room, due to difficulties encountered at a pit. Instead, they surveyed some of the boneyard near the top of the pit. They observed fossils in the walls, including nautiloids up to 4 inches in diameter. Another group pushed leads and surveyed near the 62-180 Room, a new area near the Guadalupe Room discovered during the Memorial Day expedition. The big find of the day, named the Rower Garden, contains many gypsum flowers ranging from 6 to 18 inches in diameter. Many good leads remain in this part of the cave. Participants: Mary Caress, Dave Dell. Dick Desjardins, Walter Feaster, Kevin Glover, June Golaz, Pal Helton. Doug Kent, Don Mittan, Carl Pagano, Rich Wolfert. Lechugui11a Precision Survey Aug 3 I Sep.8 Leader, Fritzi Hardy The expedition was a great success. After attaching the hanging survey left from the last trip, the survey was carried from the E-F junction to the top of the Great White Way. Fifteen cavers and five sherpas were involved in this effort. The Penmian Expedition Sherpa Teams (PESTS) were a great help in moving survey gear to and from the work site. Survey fatigue has become a very important factor in maintaining the accuracy of the survey, and the sherpas were invaluable in lessening the work load of the surveyors. Lechugui11a Biological Inyentory (an independent project, involving many JVs) Leader; Diana Northup There were biological survey trips in May and July. In May, diplurans were observed below Boulder Falls for the first time. Several juvenile camel crickets were found drowned or drowning in pools. Springtails were collected from the surface of the pools, making the sixth species observed below the culvert. The collection of water samples for microbial analysis by scanning electron microscopy continued, with samples taken from several recently discovered pools. Work continues on identifying fungi; where possible, semi-penmanent cultures have been established. Most types of fungi have been encountered only once. The exceptions are zygomycetes, common soil fungi, that were likely carried into the cave by humans or on air currents. Also notable was the abundance of fungi found at Lake Chandalar, a highly visited site. Food or hair dropped in the cave is often colonized by fungi. During the July expedition, teams conducted a macro-arthropod census in the entrance area and between the culvert and Apricot Pit; procured samples of pool water in the Hudson Bay area and near the Deep Sea Room; acquired soil samples for Kathy Lavoie's study on the impact of urine; obtained a corrosion residue sample form the top of Apricot Pit for Cal Welboume to check for invertebrates; photographed arthropods at the bottom of the entrance pit and its extension; sampled the "pink dot" colonies floating on a pool near the Deep Sea; and got samples of the wall behind corrosion residues in the Northwest Passage for chemical analysis. As before, pitfall traps showed that the camel cricket Ceuthophilus longipes is the dominant macroarthropod both above and below Boulder Falls. C. carlsbadensis rhadine beetles and diplurans made up the balance of the captures. Water chemistry will be performed on the pool water samples to provide information on energy sources for microorganisms. The Apricot Pit corrosion residue is a likely site for mites; several fungi have been grown from cultures from this residue, and many mites dine on fungi. The residue will be subjected to an ethanol and salt solution float to detect mites and other arthropods. The rock samples from the Northwest Passage were collected on the assumption that this is the actual site from which microbes in the corrosion residues are drawing their energy. The entrance area is a ricb source of accidentals which have fallen in from the surface. Several interesting beetles, a wind scorpion (solpugid) and ants were found. LILBURN Lilburn Video On the weekend of June 1416, Dr Chris Richards of the Oakland Musewn led a filming trip in Lilburn Cave as part of a project to make a video on the water cye/e. The video, under production by Sea Studios of Monterey, CA,Jor the Oakland Museum,features the cave and the Redwood Canyon Karst. Thefollowing is excerpted from Dr. Richards' account published in the Devil's Advocate, Newsleller of the Diablo Grotto, 1uly, 1991. The CRF/ Lilburn video trip went perfectly, and great shots are in the can. To portray groundwater we wanted to include shots of water flowing within a cave. Sea Studios sent two very game cave virgins to get these shots. The Museum was represented by myself and three volunteers who aU had some cave experience, but we were all pretty green for Lilburn. CRF people helping us organize the trip were John Tinsley, Mike Spiess, and Ann and Peter Bosted. The museum contingent rendezvoused at the trail head throughout the night. The Sea Studios crew, Mark Shelley and Jeff Hogan, arrived at 4 a.m. The morning's light revealed their gear: a large tripod, a bundle of six double fluorescent lights, and five 5-gallon buckets of camera and sound gear and batteries. John Tinsley soon arrived and sherpa-esque, we started down the trail. John led a quick tour scouting the cave for locations and testing the ability of our buckets to pass all the constrictions. Beginning at the Myer's Pit entrance, we emcountered a bucket filter between the chimney and the/'

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    November 1991 13 pit. By removing bucket lids and compressing the buckets an inch, we were able to get them through. Despite their awkwardness, the buckets were surprisingly appropriate for the task, and we encountered no further bucket filters. Descending the wire ladder in the pit gave us neotrogs no end of trouble with boot laces and lace hooks catching on the cable [Boots with lace-hooks are not recommended for cable ladder work!-Eds]. Following John, we made a fast-paced tour of the Anastomosis and Hex Rooms on the way to the White River and Lake Room. All of us aquatic types loved the water-filled passages, but also the dry passages-this was in no small measure because the latter were places that one could stand up and walk. To avoid climbing the wire ladder, we climbed the Elevator Passage to the Lilburn Entrance. But some of the moves at the top of the Elevator convinced us that the next day we would sooner haul the gear up and down Myer's Pit. By Saturday morning, tons of CRF people had arrived and began exploration and mapping excursions in the cave. We all opted to rappel into the pit with a shared harness and figure-8. A number of CRF folks joined our party to help carry. I can only thank them collectively, in part because I am so bad at names, in part because there were so many willing hands and backs. We spent two and a half hours lowering ourselves and our gear to the White River. After an hour of setting up, we were able to light the area with the six fluorescent fixtures and an underwater halogen lamp. In this illumination, the room and the water were spectacular, The Bosteds appeared and photographed our lamp holding and camera wielding antics, and two hours of filming later, we all had some great shots. After a brief pause, we were off to the Lake Room. There in the quieter water we concentrated on subUe lighting effects, trying for rippled patterns dappling the marble. Two hours there, a couple of hours back to the pit, and an hour or so to get everyone and everything up the ladder came to nearly twelve hours in the cave. Sunday morning, we went to Big Spring. The lush, verdant appearance of the spring was a wonderful visual contrast to the stark grandeur within the cave. Crawling around the side of an overhanging rock allowed a shot looking out of the mouth of the spring. We were all very exited by how well these shots would edit together to tell the tale of the water's subterranean passage. My thanks to all the cavers in the local grottos and CRF who have over the last year helped us prepare for this wonderful expedition. Saying "we couldn't have done it without you" doesn't even come close. Big Spring Dive Over the Labor Day weekend, Bill Farr did several dives under low-water conditions to explore and map Big Spring, the resurgence for the Lilbum Cave stream. An earlier dive, in the 1970's, resulted in a depth of about 180 ft., but Farr discovered that the way is now blocked by sediment at a depth of only 70 ft. The sediment plug rests at the angle of repose and was easily disturbed, causing poor visibility. The plug presumably results from the large amount of sediment washed through the system after the collapse of a large sinkhole above the cave (Newsletter May, 1990 pAl. Further efforts will await a major flood which, it is hoped, will flush enough sediment out of the system. With luck, this will take place over the winter and spring, allowing the project to resume next year. Meanwhile, Farr may attempt to dive the downstream sump (the South Seas) in Lilburn Cave this fall. THE UNDERGROUND READER South China Caves edited by Ron Bridgemon and Karen Lindsey. Cave Research Foundation. 62pp., paperbound. $8.00 + $1.25 p&p from Cave Books, 5222 Eastland Drive, New Carlisle, OH 45344. The report on CRF's 1988 collaborative venture in the Chinese karst has just come out. The expedition combined the talents of CRF, the Chinese Institute of Karst Geology and the Speleological Society of South China Normal University (SSSCNU). David Jagnow gives a geological overview and Mo Zhong Da (founder of SSSCNU, China's first private caving organization), writes on the geology of Guangdong Province. Ron Bridgemon and Debbie Buecher co-author the heart of the book-sdescnptions and maps of the many impressive caves surveyed in Guangdong and Hunan Provinces. There are additional chapters by Wang Xunyi, on unusual Chinese speleothems, by Cal Welbourne on the fauna, by Phil Whitfield on cave management and vertical training, by Jim Goodbar and Ron Kerbo on karst land management, and by Ian Baren, on the history of Chinese speleology. Michael Taylor adds some interesting sidelights on the tribulations of a foreigner in the People's Republic. *** Caving In America: The National Speleological Society 1941-1991. NSS. 445 pp, hb. $22 + $1.25 p&p from Cave Books. This is another recent publication that belongs on the bookshelf of all Newsletter readers. The book was published to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the founding of the NSS. It gives a broad historical overview of the main events and characters in U.S. caving since 1941. At today's book prices, it's a bargain.

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    p--------------------IIIIIIIII!I14 CRF Newsletter Unearthing Mammoth Cave's Past-an Interview with Phil DiBlasi Phil Diblasi, staff archeologist at the University of Louisville since 1982, has been building a national reputation for urban archeology with special recognition for his work at two desecrated historic cemeteries In Louisville, Kentucky. However, CRF Newsletter readers know him best for his rural, historic and-prehistoric archeological research at Mammoth Cave National Park. He and Jan Hemberger, his close companion and caving cohort ("she's much more meticulous than me"}, were recovering from a 90 degree day of surface work during the Labor Day Expedition when Phil was cornered for this interview. SHIMS How did you and Jan get started caving? Ron Wilson got us started. Ron was working at the University of Louisville and I was a graduate student. Our department chairman was a real scrounger. He found out Ron was on campus and that he identified animal bones, so he offered Ron a free office next to mine. My thesis site was a rock shelter. We had something like 35,000 pieces of animal bone of which Ron identified some 26,000 by species and element (i.e., tibia, humerus and so on). Because of the excellent preservation in rock shelters and their resemblance to entrance areas of caves, Ron got me involved in CRF. That first time caving, Ron took a whole class. When we got out, I just wanted to sit in a hot bath and die. I hit a stalactite broadside; my ribs were black from my belt-line to my armpit (fortunately they weren't broken). Jan almost got dropped down a couple of pits. I swore I.was never going to go in a cave again. I don't know what in hell convinced us to continue. When I first started caving, I was somewhat claustrophobic. But after a while, you're so dazzled by what's down there you overcome the claustrophobia. What sort of archeology were you doing? We started working in Salts Cave, looking at the aboriginal material with Pat Watson, becoming familiar with the area. Ron took us down Lee's Way, to the basket in Ganter Avenue, and just generally looking at the types of material that are preserved in caves. Then we started doing the small-cave inventory. We assumed that the large cave-s-historic Mammoth and Saltshad been looked at, and we thought we would look at some of the smaller caves and shelters in the park. Ron and I had started working on a small cave study in six counties up around Jefferson County, Kentucky. We developed an inventory form for that project, and just rolled it over into the park and started working on it there. Then the thing with the glyphs came up [Salt's Cave drawings; see CRF Newsletter November 1987]. When I get something like that, I feel I have to convince Patty Jo Watson. Pat is the Eternal Doubter. If you can convince Pat, you can convince the rest of the ,I Photo. by fl8.rry GrOV@f world. When we took Pat over to Adair County to see the Mud Glyphs, Pat was fairly convinced. She said "1 guess I believe you now." Then we took her down to see the stuff in Salts. Immediately below the glyphs, Pat dropped a little climb down and found a set of hatchmarks. I think that may have helped convince her. Rarely do we cave with Pat because she's so busy. But we value her opinions and she's one of the few experts who will go in a cave with you. Do you choose what interests you or are you following the Park's suggestions? The Park has been pushing for the historic signature project, but Larry Pursell has picked that one up [see August Newsletter i. I thought his proposal was very good, but I made suggestions as to how to we should broaden the scope. His second proposal, the one which went to the Park, is a really good project. Larry is a student of history and a former Seasonal Ranger. That's what got him interested in it. He really enjoys doing this work. That's true of most CRF IV s. The Park may make suggestions, but volunteers work at a project because it interests them. I come down here for enjoyment. This isn't work; this is fun. How many people would enjoy, like Larry does, standing hour after hour recording every signature on a wall? As I said to Larry, it's very uninteresting if all you do is go and look for historical people, people of note. That's a myopic view of history; "These people are famous. They've been to the eave so we're taking a picture of their signature."

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    November 1991 15 What we did down in Sandstone Avenue and in Serena's Arbor was to record every single signature. You can take that and with a little bit of work you can demonstrate very clearly when the area was discovered and when it was popular with tourists. Immediately after other portions of the cave were discovered, tourism in that area dropped to virtually zero. We can even get things like seasonality, when did people come into the cave? The two busiest months are July and August, the two hottest months in Kentucky. Where did people come from? V irtuall y no locals went. That was probably the most far-out caving, the most expensive caving you could do in the mid 19th century. In my opinion, the common folk make history. They are the bottom of the pyramid, versus the famous people at the top. People find a Stephen Bishop signature, they think they've found a new place he went. But you look and see he's got that passage on the map. What we don't know is where the common person went, or how often. An unusual use of historic signatures was suggested by Ed Lisowski. We were down in the Snowball Dining Room and he showed me where gypsum crystals had regrown over signatures. A few years ago there was a plan to clean these signatures off. Yet someone might be interested in crystal growth rate. If someone has written "1852" and it's got crystals two millimeters long growing on it then we can assume crystals grow two millimeters from 1852 to the present. Is there any legitimacy to removing trash and graffiti? If so, when? You need an informed point from which to make a decision like that. What is Mammoth Cave as a resource? In the historic section, I don't think it's a very spectacular cave. The only thing spectacular is its size. What is more interesting to most people is the history of the cave. To diminish that history by removing signatures is a shortsighted view. Unfortunately, Resource Management doesn't have the broad-based experience to make all of these decisions. They do occasionally consult CRF, but there needs to be more sharing of data and more dialogue. I think the problem is they don't have the funds to get the baseline data. That's why I wish they would consult CRF more-we may have much they can use, both in experience and in raw data. You've done a lot of cultural surface work: in the park. What surface activities are you currently engaged in? We were out today looking at church cemeteries. We were looking at the flat glass at Mammoth Cave Baptist, Good Springs Baptist, and Joppa Ridge Missionary Baptist churches. We measured something like 1200 pieces of glass, how thick they are and their color. We'll put the data into the computer and see what comes up. Flat glass changed in thickness throughout the 19th century, so if you do an overall thickness study you can ask questions like, "Has Mammoth Cave Baptist Church always been there?" The theory that we are testing is that flat glass can be used to date structures. When we were working on the small cave inventory, we found a number of well-preserved historic sites on the surface. The destructive event that happened when the NPS came in and bulldozed these houses down is almost Pampean. You had this cultural evolution, with people moving into the region, adapting to the physiography, working with the caves. These were mostly dirtpoor, subsistence farmers. Then all of a sudden when the park was developed, boom! It stopped dead, like stopping a clock. There's one site on Joppa Ridge that we walk by all the time. The piers for the structure are all there, the front steps are there, the back steps are there, the yard is there, the trees that made up the border of the lot are there, and there's a pair of boots sitting on the back step. It's like the person came home, took off his boots, and then they bulldozed his home down. There are incredibly well-preserved historic deposits throughout the park. I'd like to get others interested in the historical resources in the park. There are prehistoric sites all over as well? Yes, but we're not looking at that now. Are there any exciting questions you'd like to answer? You mean, like what is the meaning of life? I'd like to find out where the "Giants" are buried, in the Rotunda or Houchin's Narrows. That would be fun. A number of bodies were reportedly found by the saltpetre miners and moved. Also, I believe a skeleton was found during trail construction. Back in the 19th century, they didn't know that much about human anatomy. When they found a human femur they held it up to their own body and found it stuck out about four inches past their knee. They didn't realize how high up the femur articulates. Likewise, when the found a human mandible they held it up and said, "Oh wow! Giants!" They didn't understand the anatomy. There's supposed to be a number of stone-box graves. That's characteristic?f Mississipians,but i? a cave situation 1 think the Indians would have Just picked up rocks and buried bodies under them. I think most of the stuff in the cave is probably late Archaic or Early Woodland, like Pat and others have suggested. I'd like to know where those remains are. You've recently proposed that CRF gel involved in Savage Cave in Kentucky-what's the story there? Savage Cave has a long, involved history. When it was owned by Genevieve Savage, LoUIS Leakey-Old Man Leakey, not the young one (Richard)-told Genevieve that this was the site where early protohominids were going to be found if there ever was one Continued over ...

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    16 CRF Newsletter in North America. Genevieve got weirded out and wouldn't let anyone do anything in the cave. Carnegie had been doing some work with a bulldozer. They cut a big trench and found paleolithic material, stuff about 14,000 to 16,000 BC, in the entrance but the context was a little bit shabby. Genevieve sold it to an environmental group who in tum donated it to Murray State University. Several people from CRF helped put together a Savage Cave Management Plan at that time. It was gated with a chain -link fence and has been dormant since. I think they got Pleistocene animals out of it, there's rumors that Tom Barr got a type-site for one of his beetles, and its apparently fairly interesting biologically in that critters that should be there in the Central Kentucky karst aren't in the cave. Archeologically it's a spectacular site. Several years ago I was involved after it was looted; it's got hundreds of burials in it. With Ken Carstens and the state police, 1 went to identify the damaged and scattered human remains. There's a massive twilight zone with two big trunks going off. What Ken Carstens is trying to do is get a good program going where, first, we get a good map of the cave, second, we get a good map of where the cave has been looted, and third we do some hand J really like biologists. J think they're weirder than archeologists. Spend a weekend drinking beer with Tom Poulson and you will learn more about biology than you ever did in college. excavations instead of bulldozer excavation and get a multi-disciplinary team in there, someone to look at the biology, terrestrial and aquatic, and do a full-blown study of Savage Cave. Essentially, it's never really been looked at. I've talked to Ed Lisowski and others in CRE They are interested. The problem is that the cave is so remote from here; it's down in Logan County on the Tennessee line. 1/ sounds as if CRF could be involved from a number of angles: cartography, archeology, biology. One of the things that attracts me to CRF is that while I can offer CRF something, there's a lot of people in CRF who can teach me something, too. I really like biologists. I think they're weirder than archeologists. Spend a weekend drinking beer with Tom Poulson and you will learn more about biology than you ever did in college. What advice do you have for cavers with regard to archeology? I keep suggesting that people need to be more descriptive when they go into the cave. They're doing an excellent job with the maps but there's just so much more they need to pay attention to. When I cave with other people, they cave so quickly-stomp, stomp, stomp-and they get to their objective and then they do their thing. I understand they need to do that or they wouldn't get the job done. But there's so much of the cave that people don't really look carefully at. Obviously, people need to remember, "Don't touch it. Don't move it." Everybody assumes when they find something in historic Mammoth that it's out of context. That's not necessarily true. It may be in its original context. So they need to make note of materials that they see, describe them as completely as possible so they can be relocated, and not mess with them. If you've got some flagging tape in your pack, drop it on the spot. Tape can be easily seen, it's not going to affect the environment, and it can be picked up whenever an archeologist gets round to looking at the material. Did you hear that in Kaemper Avenue a piece of paper wrapping was found? Apparently an animal carried it in. That's big, booming trunk out there. I'd never be interested in going out there That doesn't excite me at all, going where no one's ever been. What's the point for an archeologist? I still can't make that connection between people going in a cave and going "Wow!", though I know that people do this now and people did it in the past. For some reason, [ always think that people are more practical; they're going in for selenite, they're going in for chert, they're going in for something. But I think sometimes they were going in to go "Wow!" There's a place in Jaguar Cave in Tennessee where a man, a woman, and a child walked down the passage. You can tell that the man put out his arm and the woman and the child moved back away from this pit. Then they walked to the end of the passage where there's an incredible decoration of flowstone, You could tell where charcoal had accumulated in large quantities, places where you could see back into the flowstone, They were just looking for the longest time before they turned around and walked out of that passage. They did this 3,000 years ago. The dermoglyphic ridges from their feet are still there, still wet. Near the back of this cave there were footprints left by a jaguar 16,000 years ago and you could see the fur between his toes. That gets me a hell of a lot more excited than some silly crystals in an unexplored passage. That's when I go Wow!'. Wish You Were Here.Continued from p.J... I don't know who printed the first postcard of Mammoth Cave or when, but [ have four cards authorized by the 1898 act. One of these, my oldest authenticated cave view, is post-marked "Mammoth Cave, Ky., May I, 1904." Earlier postcard views of the caves exist. H. C. Ganter, proprietor of Mammoth Cave from 1880 until the 1920s, employed photographer Ben Hains to take a series of photographs. Some of these were used to illustrate H. C. Hovey and R. E. Call's guide books,

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    November 1991 17 from the tum of the century through approximately 1917. These photos, with their original copyright dates, show up in at least four issues of postcards. Hains' subjects include the Corkscrew, the "Consumptive's Cabin". Star Chamber, and Jenny Lind's Armchair. The same views were also sold at the old hotel in stereo view format and as 8" x 10" prints. In trying to assemble a list of the Hains photographs, I recently obtained a copy of an old broadside listing scenes available as stereo views and as 8" x lO"s. Through compiling the broadside listing along with my own, I have come up with what I believe to be a complete list of all Ben Hains photos that were issued [this list is available to anyone interested]. Other photographers were also acti ve at Mammoth and nearby caves. Of special note are Wade Highbaugh's pictures of Dixie Onyx and American White Onyx Caves and the Caulfield & Shook photos of Mammoth Cave, Diamond Caverns and Mammoth Onyx Cave. The Caulfield & Shook photos, about sixty in total, are available as 8" x 10" prints from the Archival Library of the University of Kentucky in Louisville. Early cards existed as glossy photographs, as mat black and white prints, as sketches, and (probably a little later) as sepias. Hand-colored versions were common prior to about 1920. Modem color prints date from about 1946. Retouching was a widespread practice. One series of cards entitled "Entrance Looking Out", from a Hains photograph, exists in many versions. In some, the clutter of trees and railings silhouetted in the entrance have been blanked out; in others, figures have been deleted or added. The variety of views available in the early 20th century was more than today's tourist might find. There are views of Olive's Bower, the famous Tiger Lily gypsum flower, and the Chimes in Violet City. Gothic Avenue is well depicted: "Post Oak Pillar", "Pillars of Hercules", "Elbow Crevice", and "Elephant's Head" are just a few of the features. In Cleaveland Avenue, nine cards show different gypsum formations. Early postcards are interesting for several reasons. They show the caves in a condition no longer seen by the tourist. For example, postcards depict the dining room that once existed in Audubon Avenue, the style of lighting fixture used in the 1950s, or the old wooden stairs in the New Entrance. They show portions of the cave no longer shown on tours, such as Fairy Grotto, or the Crystal Lake boat ride (despite years of CRF involvement, there are some parts of old Mammoth Cave tour routes which I have seen only in postcards). The older cards are valuable in locating and naming places and features-the Gazetteer Projeet has made use of the cards, for example, to identify the Pillared Castle in Gothic Avenue and to tell which of two neighboring columns is Caesar and which is Pompeii. Finally, some of the older postcards show the unimproved, pre-CCC trails and I believe that it might be possible to use them to pick out leads that were blocked or obliterated by later trail development. One puzzle I have been working on is a peculiar looking tree on early Entrance photographs. This tree grew out horizontally from the sinkhole rim. then made an abrupt vertical tum. The tree appears in several early photographs, then disappears. I would like to know when the tree ceased to exist. The latest I would guess would be 1909 as it shows up in an entrance shot on the first ConTeich postcard; though I don't know when it was printed, my copy has a postmark of 1909. Being able to recognize and date visual bits of information like this may be useful In dating other visual material as it may arise. Anyone interested in corresponding with or exchanging material with the author may write to him at 8608 47th St.2N, Lyons, IL 60534-1662. j f Guide WlIIlam carvfn, dhtcoverlng the "MARTHA WASHINGTON STATUE." MAMMOTH CAVE, KENTUCKY.

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    CALENDAR CALIFORNIA GUADALUPES Thanksgiving, Nov. 28-Dec. 1. Carlsbad Caverns NP. Kate Wieclaw, 518-668-2350 Notify the expedition leader, the area manager (Dick Venters, 505-892-7370), or the supplies coordinator (Jill Phillips, 505344-7053) at least one week in advance. LechugullJa Precision Cave Survey, Nov 24Dec. 1. Call Fritzi Hardy, 505-345-1709 (H) Please give at least one week's notice. Note: this trip is presently full, but interested people will be put on a waiting list. People with Lechuguilla experience will get first consideration. Please note that the survey will from now on be all-electric. MISSOURI November 16-17; December 21-22; January 18-19; February 15-16 Most trips are based at the Ozark National Scenic Riverways. Notify Scott House (314-287-4356) or Doug Baker (314-8788831). Frequent additional trips will be scheduled for the National Forest cave inventory project call Scott House or Mick Sutton (314-546-2864). CAVE RESEARCH FOUNDATION P.O.BOX 443 YELLOW SPRINGS, OH 45387 ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED LAVA BEDS Thanksgiving, Nov. 28-31. Organizational meetiog and field activities. Janet Sowers, 415-528-6515. MAMMOTH CAVE Thanksgiving, November 27-December I. Phil DiBlasi 502588-6724 (office) or 502-551-6920 (mobile) (7 aro-4 pm); 502968-3576 (home; 4 pm-9 pm-phone is turned off after 9 pm) or leave a message at~502589-2340. NetworkPJDBLOI@ULKYVM. New Year, December 27-January l. President's Day, February 14-17. St. Patrick's Day, March 13-16. Spring, April 24-27. Memorial Day, May 22-25. Independence Day, June 26-July 6. Summer, August 7-10. Labor Day, September 4-7 Columbus Day, October 9-10. Expedition leaders will be annouoced in the February Newsletter. First and last dates are arrival and departure dates. Notify the expedition leader or Operations Manager (Mel Park, 901-2729393) two weeks in advance. NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATION U.S. POSTAGE PAID YELLOW SPRINGS, OH PERMIT 160 Ralph P. Earlandson Windy City Grotto Newsletter 516 Harrison SI. ApI. C Oak Park IL 60304

    Kaemper Avenueand its associated side-passages continue
    to provide lots of rewarding work for Mammoth Cave survey
    crews. More than 8,000 ft. of large, pristine passage have been
    mapped since the discovery of this major tube in the
    Logsdon/Hawkins River area last July. Recent discoveries
    include a room 130 ft. across and 30 ft. high named (in keeping
    with the cave cartographer theme) Bishop's Rotunda. For further
    details, see the Mammoth Cave expedition reports, p.6... Also:
    an interview with a caver who is definitely not interested in
    visiting Kaemper Avenue... Plus: reports onthe MCNP 2nd annual
    science conference, improvements in SMAPS data-handling, CRF
    China Cavesbook, and all the usual features...