Cave Research Foundation newsletter

Cave Research Foundation newsletter

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Cave Research Foundation newsletter
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Cave Research Foundation newsletter
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CRF newsletter
Cave Research Foundation
Cave Research Foundation
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Contents: Not the Longest Cave / Scott House -- Bulletin Board -- Off Rope -- CRF Headquarters - Construction to being in 1996? -- Hamilton Valley Donors / Roger McClure -- Don't Mess with Mammoth-rained out, rescheduled / Phil DiBlasi Rock Olson -- Readers Write -- Crystal Cave trashed by thieves -- In Memoriam-James F. Quinlan, Jr. August 23, 1936-July 21, 1995 / Stan Sides -- Expeditions: Mammoth Cave, Missouri, Guadalupes -- Lilburn cartography / Peter Bosted -- Bat Reamins of Historic Mammoth Cave studied by Earthwatch Team / Richard S. Toomey, III -- BCI-Mexico Partnership to Protect Mexican Freetailed Bats -- Ozark National Scenic Riverways Cave Data Synthesis Project / Scott House -- Carlsbad Cavern Passes 30 Mile Mark and CRF Gets a Million Dollar Credit -- Construction projects hamper tours at MC -- Lint Removal Camps at Carlsbad and Mammoth -- Human Remains in Spanish Caves -- Caves of the Dripping Springs Escarpment-Aperspective and review / Bob Osburn -- The Underground Reader -- Calendar.
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Windy City Grotto Collection, 1961-2013
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Vol. 23, no. 4 (November 1995)
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NOVEMBER 1995 VOLUME 23, NUMBER 4 CRF Newsletter Not the Longest Caves Scott House As we all know, the world's longest cave is located in and around Mammoth Cave Natioual Park. However, within the park itself are entrances to over three hundred other, less extensive, caves, most of which lie south of the Green River, although a large (and largely undetermined) number are on tile north side of tile river. Despite, or because of. the fact that Mammoth Cave has been extensively studied, mapped, aud written about, relatively little is known about the vast majority of these lessextensive caves. A cooperative project between CRF and Manunoth Cave National Park seeks to establish au inventory system that will produoe usable dam on these caves on an ongoing basis. The project has two objectives: I) to develop the materials and methodology, and 2) to test the system by iuventorying the caves within a study area, The study area consists of several drainage basins on the north side of the Green River. It includes at least five caves longer thau 1000 feet and approximately 35 locations of smaller caves. Previous work in the area includes surveys and reports done by the North Shore Task Force of Louisville Grotto, CRF, and NPS personnel. The area was scheduled for a three year project, the first year of which has been completed. Field work over the last year has been extremely successful aud above expectations. One large cave (Running Branch Cave) and 19 smaller caves have been inventoried. Nineteen GPS locations have been obtained and brass caps, with identification numbers, have been placed at the entrances of 21 caves. In cooperation with tile CRF cartography program, 13 caves were mapped; in addition, survey dam from 14 previously mapped caves were used. There was also survey and inventory in four larger caves which are still in progress. Additionally, another 25 cave locations were visited and round to be in error; there were no caves at these locations. The process for a single cave usually involves two visits. An inventory and mapping crew visits the location first. This is a priority since so many of the locations are in error. The entrance is photographed, described, aud located on a topographic map. The cave is then surveyed using standard CRF techniques. As the cave is surveyed it is also inventoried by several of the team members. The inventory process is somewhat free-form, which is a different approach from most earlier inventory processes. In these earlier approaches a cave is typically inventoried using checklists which are done either for the entire cave as a single entity, or are done at each survey station, These z o i= Q z ::l o LL J: U IX w l/l W IX W > u approaches were rejected for a variety of reasons: I) quality control is very difficult with tile checklist format since anyone can make a check mark whether it is appropriate or not, 2) the whole-cave approach is not appropriate because the data is to be inoorporated in the park's Geographic Information System using the cartographic data as the link, and 3) we waut the inventory crews to concentrate on the features of the cave, relating those Antriadesmus Scoterpes .' T T .. f ., ". ; '.,' \ short, dense "hairs" on back From the inventory "cheat notes" features to a survey station rather than focusing on tile survey station aud then looking for a feature to be checked off; we want for people to go into the cave with their eyes wide open for features, not survey stations. As tile cave is inventoried a note taker records the information and notes what station the features are found near. The goal is to obtain as much information as possible within the restrictions of time and money. Biological inventory is reslricted to field identification; no specimens are collected. After the inventory, another crew visits tile locale to obtain a GPS location and to place a brass-cap at the entrance. The GPS equipment, a Trimble Pathfinder Professional Plus with an MCV datalogger, can, uuder ideal conditions, give locations to within 5 meters for the horizontal elements. The vertical (elevation) element is not very accurate, however, giving up to 40-foot errors at control points. At present the elevation data is Continued p. 4 ...


2 CRF Newsletter The CRF NEWSLETlER is a publication of the Cave Research Foundation, a non-profit organization incorporated in 1957 under the laws of Kentucky for the purpose of furthering research, conservation, and education about caves and karst. For information about the CRF, write to: Phil DiBlasi, CRF President, 1244 South Brook, Louisville, KY 40203-2718. CRF NEWSLETTER Volume 23, No.4 Established 1973 Editors, Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton Route I, Box 110A Annapolis, MO 63620 Production Manager: Richard Zopf Guadalupes Correspondent: Lois Bergthold Quarterly: Feb., May, Aug., Nov. Subscriptions: $5.00 per year. Free to .TVs. BULLETIN BOARD New Address: Pat Kambesis: 2466 Drew Valley road Atlanta, GA 30319: Phone: 404-24S-9538 Address Changes: Please send all address changes to Richard Zopf, 830 Xenia Avenue, Yellow Springs, a-I 45387. Tel: 513-767-9222 (before 10 p.m. eastern). Also, if you have an E-Mall Address, please send it to Richard. Wanted: Hamilton Valley Project leaders. Would you like to take on a project at our Hamilton Valley site? We have a number of projects, large and small, that need to get done. They are projects that almost anybody can do. Let me know if you are interested, and I will give details and help you get started. Roger McClure, 513-233-3561. *** orr Rope No, that doesn't mean we are necessarily at the end of our tether! But it's time for us to take a long rest from the Newsletter and tnm our attention to other pressings items. Eight years ago, we naively agreed to take over editorship of the CRF Newsletter. Naive because we had no idea how to do a newsletter. Naive because we didn't even know how to tum 00 a computer. Naive because we were only a few years into being .TV s and had no idea what reporting on a national organization might entail. The experience has changed our lives. We have had the opportunity to visit most of CRF's operations and participate in some of the most memorable caving of our lives. We have been allowed to meet some of the most distinguished workers in the caving community and we have been privileged to be CRF spokespersons overseas. We have hopefully shaped CRF in a positive way by being the primary means by which the organization presents itself to the public. When Ron Wilson, then CRF President, gave ns the editorship he did so with the injunction that we "be bold" in making the Newsletter not only a source of news but an expression of opinion and values, subject as such inevitably are to debate. As a result, at times we have been critical of those very agencies with which we seek collaboration. Worse, we have occasionally engaged in heated debates with people within CRF as to what sbould or shouldn't be published. But the response to our efforts has been very positive, sometimes more so than we thought was necessarily warranted (e.g., see Zopfs letter, this issue). Both the criticisms and the compliments have usually proven to be constructive and have shaped the Newsletter into what it is today. Most importantly, we have had a never ending source of contributors (some of whom required more ann twisting than others). To everyone who has written an article, submitted to an interview, written a letter or drawn a cartoon, our deep thanks. We have seen your work make tremendons changes in how .TVs do their work. We have heard persons outside CRF compliment CRF for the high quality of research that your articles have described We have even seen the whole Foundation move in response to your viewpoints. Alas, it is time to pass the baton. We need to make progress on other projects, including the Mammoth Cave gazetteer and bibliography, that have been languishing for lack of time. At this point, a replacement editor has not been narned--bnt whoever that might be he or she will have our best wishes and our hopes that the job will be as satisfying as it has been to us. For now continue to send news, articles and expedition reports to us, and we will forward them to our replacement. Finally (almost), we can hardly leave without again thanking the Zopf-led production crew of Ohio stalwarts, without whom the Newsletter would not exist. As a last bit of editoriaJizing (and we will remind our patient readers that we have only rarely indulged ourselves of this egotistical sin), we would like to turn our thoughts to the future of CRF, especially as it will unfold at Hamilton Valley. The construction of a national headquarters will be the fulfillment of a dream that .TV s have had for decades. But when dreams become reaJity, new ones take their place. As .TV s, we have all been attracted to CRF because of its emphasis on caves anti cave research, but it is our belief that down the road CRF will play an even more vital role by living up to its name as a foundation for cave research. Giving to CRF both now and in the future, including through our wills, is one way of expressing onr appreciation for our time spent underground, and it is a way of ensuring that our gift will be multiplied through the ages for cave researchers yet to be. Sue and Mick


November 1995 3 CRF Headquarters Construction to Begin in 1996? At the November 1995 Annual Meeting, the most pressing issue facing the Boord will be a decision on whether to begin construction of the Hamilton Valley CRF Headquarters in 1996. To do so may require abandoning the original architectural plans and proceeding on the basis of funds already raised or expected to be raised soon. At an open meeting held during the Labor Day expedition at Mammoth Cave, CRF President Phil DiBlasi announced that the cost estimate for the building (exclusive of the bunkhouses) far exceeds current funds. A subsequent estimate by a Kentucky contractor raised the estimated price even higher. Red Watson, who bas been a primary fund-raiser and who had privately financed the architect's plans, has stated he believes "getting a suitable facility on Hamilton Valley quickly is more important than waiting until we can afford all we would like to have but don't necessarily need." Those attending the meeting coocurred that emphasis should be on getting the headquarters underway soon. General discussion focused on design features of the present plans that were felt to be non-essential, inefficient, or inappropriate because of cost or other considerations. Also discussed were possibilities for collaborative sharing of library facilities with the American Cave Conservation Association in Horse Cave. Due to time demands, Bob Osburn has resigned as Chair of the Building Committee. Red Watson was appointed in his place. Bob, Richard Zopf, and Panl Hauck remain on the committee. Hamilton Valley Donors Roger McOure Contributors to the Hamilton Valley Building Fund since the last Newsletter are: Doug Alderman, Janet and Tom Alfred, Doug Baker, Nicky Boullier, Claude Chabert, Tom Craddick, Rane Curl, Harry Grover, 1. Kennedy, Roger McClure, Daryl Neff, Bob Osburn, Art and Peggy Palmer, Bill Putnam, Bob Salika, Beverly Schwartz, Anna Watson, and Kathleen Womack. Also received were -the following: In memoriam of Warren (Dudley) Osburn, father of Bob Osburn, a contribntion from Patti and Scott House. In appreciation of CRF's support of Project C.A.V.E.S. and for the presentation made by Richard Zopf, a donation from the Jasper School District. Please note that we gratefully accept special contributions made as a memorial or. in acknowledgment of a special event (birthday, wedding, etc.).U you would like a card sent to the honoree of your gift, please provide full details. As always, send checks payable to Cave. Research Foundation, do Roger McClure, 4700 Amberwood Drive, Dayton, OH 45424. Also, projects large and small are available if you would like to help improve our property. Don't Mess With MammothRained Out, Rescheduled Phil DiBlasi & Rick Olson The Hamilton Valley Clean-up on September 16 was a wash-out. The remnants of the hurricane that was passing over the southeastern US chose that day to dump several inches of rain on the area. A CRF Crew of approximately 16, in additioo to Dave Foster and his wife (from American Cave Conservation Association), arrived Friday night and Saturday morning, only to awaken to the rumble of thunder and the roar of rain on campers, tenant house, and tents. Ohioans, I1linoians, and Hoosiers all arrived with high hopes of removing tons of junk from two dumps in Hamilton Valley. One participant had driven all the way from Michigan. Much of the morning was spent waiting and hoping for the rain to abate but by 10 o'clock Rick Olson gave the sad news: the clean-up was canceled. At that point people made alternative plans. Several discussed working on Stan's Well, others were invited to the ACCA Museum for complimentary tours, others discussed tours at Mammoth. It rained all day Satunlay and into the evening .... We are going to try again. The clean-up has been rescheduled for Friday, March 15, the day before the Mammoth Cave expedition. We will arrange for news media coverage, so another good turnout would be nice. Maple Springs will be available for participants who arrive on Thursday night. To sign up, call Rick Olson at Mammoth Cave National Park (502-749-2508). Readers Write It is with both pleasure and regret to have learned of your resignation as editors after this issue of the CRF Newsletter. Your efforts have expanded and refined our newsletter, making it relevant to all joint, venturers and a show piece of CRF efforts. You have been able reporters and excellent interviewers while doing the nearly impossible: soliciting and receiving articles from many lV's. Few people probably realize just how much time and effort you have given. I have been privileged to work with you to produce the newsletter, but all of us have benefited from your work. We will miss your diligence, creativity, and integrity. So, where is the pleasure in this change? It comes from the knowledge that you will put a similar effort into another project and we will all benefit again. Thank you, Richard Zopf Well, ub, gee whiz! Thanks. See editorial response, p.2 ... Eds.


4 CRF Newsletter Crystal Cave Trashed by Thieves Between April 13 and June 8 this year, multiple break-ins took place in me Crystal Cave section of the Mammoth Cave System. In what was apparently a mining for profit operation, massive damage and destruction of me renowned calcite and gypsum deposits in me upper trunk passages of Crystal occurred. Of the two trunk passages, Collins Avenue is well-known for its massive helictites and other dripstone deposits, while Dyer Avenue is, or was, well-endowed with gypsum crusts and flowers. The thieves entered me cave by diggiug beneath the locked entrance gate. The break-in was discovered by Dr. Floyd Scott, a biologist from Austin Peay University, Clarksville, 1N. MCNP Superintendent Rou Switzer describes the damage as "devastatingthe destroyed fonnatious can never be replaced or repaired to their previous state". On August 23, a Federal grand jury in Louisville, KY indicted three men on multiple counts of conspiring to steal cave speleothems and artifacts. The men charged were Anthony Dale Stinson, aged 2:f, Munfordville, KY; Anthony Wayne Hawkins, aged 33, Radcliff, KY; and Wendell Leon Reynolds, aged 18, Munfordville, KY. The indictments allege that the three men illegally entered Crystal Cave on a repeated basis. While in the cave, they vandalized and stole significant amounts of speleothems. The suspects also stole artifacts from within me cave, including two clay masks reputedly sculpted by Floyd Collins and his brother Homer. The masks were recovered but are broken. The suspects sold the speleothems to Iocalvrock shops". Rangers recovered approximately 600 pounds of material, but much more was destroyed and left in the cave. Chief Ranger Phil Velnzat stated, "This was a pretty well thought out commercial endeavor." Veluzat said it was likely that others were involved in planning the operation. However, no other cbarges are pending. At an arraigmnent hearing in Bowling Green on September 20, all three men entered pleas of not guilty to cbarges of theft and destruction of govermnent property. The crimes are punishable by fines of up to $250,000 and imprisonment of np to 20 years. The trial is set for November 27. The Crystal Cave gate was installed in 1989 to replace an earlier deteriocated gate, but according to MCNP spokesperson Vickie Carson, the replacement gate was of an older and less effective design than the gates currently being installed at some Mammoth Cave entrances. The gate has now been reinforced to prevent digging beneath it, bnt mere are as yet no plans to replace it with an up-to-date design. The investigation by the Mammoth Cave National Park ranger staff was assisted by the Hart County Sheriffs Office, me Munfordville City police, and the Kentucky state police. Ranger Ken Kern shows some of the damage in Helictite Hall of Collins Avenue. NPS Photograph. Smaller Cave Inventory .. Continued from p.l extrapolated from field observations and comparisous of me different topographical maps available of the park. The inventory data are entered into two separate databases which will be relationally linked. The first consists of one record per cave, with 42 fields describing the entrance and its location but also including a very brief narrative description of the cave. The second database consists of one record per inventoried station (not all survey stations have noteworthy features) and has 11 fields with inventoried contents grouped by category. This database can be linked to the cartographic survey output (they share the survey station numbers) for use in the park's GIS. These databases are in the cross-platform program FileMaker Pro, which is also used by CRF for log sheets and trip reports. Entering me inventory data into the database reqnires familiarity with me process and the subject matter becanse the data must be put iuto the correct fields in the correct format, This process serves as a fmal filter for data integrity and hopefully insures a higher degree of accuracy. Thecaves are mostly formed in two geologic units: me Girkin and the Haney limestones. Haney caves tend


November 1995 5 to be low and wet while Girkin eaves follow the pattern of caves sonth of the Green River with dry upper levels and wet lower levels. Some eaves are also formed in primarily sandstone rock units. Most of these are collapse or corrasional features rather than solutional. Biologically, the caves are diverse. The large Girkin cave inventoried, Running Branch, is very similar biologically to Mammoth Cave with beetle I cricket communities in the upper levels and typical aquatic life (cavefish, crayfish, and shrimp) in the lower levels. The sandstone collapse caves tend to be dry and their biological communities are fueled by leaf litter, bat droppings, and wood rat materials and latrines. The Haney caves are the most active, with streams rich in organic materials. Survey and inventory work are scheduled to continue in three large eaves: Ganter, Lulu Mart, and Buffalo Creek. A new survey (and inventory) of Forts Funnel will be initiated. Survey and inventory of most of the remaining known small eaves within the study area will be completed. In the past year we expanded the project area to include one additional basin (Sal Hollow) and the eaves in it have already been inventoried and mapped. The project area may be expanded further to officially include the Bat Cave area. However, access to Bat Cave is very restricted and it is problematical whether or not sufficient field trips can be taken there. Other areas that migh t be included in project expansion include Cow Ford Hollow, Wilson Cave, Saunders Cave and Dossey Domes Cave. The databases have already shown themselves to be useful tools even without full GIS integration. NPS personnel have taken part in the field work (all GPS locations have been obtained by John Fry of the NPS), and training of inventory personnel is continuing at a rapid rate. The great objective of this project is to spread the inventory to all the eaves of the park and, based on our experiences thus far, there seems to be no reason that this cannot be done. Mick Sutton and Richard Zopf of CRF have been prime components of the project. Numerous other CRF joint-venturers have taken part. In Memoriam-James F. Quinlan. Jr. August 23, 1936-July 21, 1995 Stan Sides At the Spelee Hut on Flint Ridge, on the hot morning of August 22, 1963, CRF expedition leader Red Watson assigned me to accompany a new researcher on the surface all day. Jim Quinlan and his wife were living in the Collins House while he was doing his doctoral research on the Mississippian petrology of the Central Kentucky Karst. Jim and I drove to McClellan Brothers' quarry at Horse Cave. Using a rope, pulley, and bosun's seat, Jim spent the day in the hot sun on the quary face hacking and licking rocks, while I marked and packed rocks tossed down to me, periodically sending up bottles of Dr. Pepper and his asthma inhaler. By evening, Jim had studied about 50 ft. of quarry face. We put the specimens in the car. Returning to Flint Ridge hot, dry, and sunburned, I was ready to quit, but Jim was not finished. After an early dinner, Jim and I drove to the New Entrance of Mammoth Cave and, using ropes and a eable ladder, dropped the shaft at Solomon's Temple. Jim began collecting rocks back up the wall 70 ft. to. the bridge. Wet and cold, we hauled our gear and the rock specimens back to the surface at 2. 30 am. Jim cheerfully talked all the way back to Flint Ridge, while I struggled to stay awake. Everyoue remembers their first caving trip with Quinlan! Jim never finished his petrulogy work, but continued to call it a researcb project. Instead, Jim developed an encyclopedic interest in the world karst literature, achieving his doctoral degree from the University of Texas in 1978 with a dissertation entitled Types of Karst, with Emphasis on Cover Beds in their Classification and Development. Jim returned to Mammoth Cave as Research Geologist, a newly created position, on July 26, 1973. Two weeks later, he convened an informal symposium to address research needs not only of the park but of the" entire Central Kentucky Karst. Despite the Park Service's increasing protest, he charged forward in typical Quinlan fashion to develop understanding of the entire region-and he never looked back. Jim inflnenced and in tum was heavily influenced by E. R. Pohl, Ralph Ewers, Roger Brucker, Will White, Derek Ford, Red Watson, Franz-Dieter Miotke, Tom Aley, Joe Ray, Don Coons, Art Palmer, and the many assistants who worked for him. He could be charming or cantankerous, egocentric and difficult to keep on the subject or open and effusive. His house in the residence area of the park was a place of warmth and long conversations, as well as the site of the largest karst library most of us will ever see. He achieved greatness, becoming the world's expert on the Central Kentucky Karst despite managerial attempts to constrain his scientific vision that few could grasp. He was an authority that lectured and published widely on groundwater flow in limestone terranes, and groundwater tracing techniques. Jim's brilliant, inquiring life ended Friday, July 21, 1995, while undergoing repeat coronary bypass surgery at Nashville. He was 58 years old. He leaves his son Dan, an applied mathematician in Los Alamos, NM. He bequeaths an important legacy to all of us who knew him, and to everyone who loves the Central Kentucky Karst.


6 CRF Newsletter EXPEDITIONS MAMMOTH CAVE Independence Day, July 1-7 Leader, Scott House Small Cave Survey and Inventory: This was a major focus of the expedition, with eight parties contributing to both the current survey and inventory project and to the ongoing survey of other small caves within the park. The trips included a cave biology training session. Mick Sutton and Tom Poulson led a classroom discussion which was followed by an afternoon trip to various sites within Running Branch Cave. Running Branch is an excellent biology cave, with various sorts of habitats present. The participants were very enthusiastic about the results of this effort; perhaps this can become an annual event. One party also did photo-documentanon in Running Branch, both in the upper level entrance passage and in the well-decorated passage at the hack of the cave. Two parties worked together inventorying passages in Ganter Cave; they managed to inventory the ooter sections of both Ganter and Mary Parker Caves (the latter is connected to Ganter). The entrance areas are rich in surfaoe-dwelling invertebrates. .. A third crew continued the inventory later in the week. Two parties initiated work in Bat Cave on the North side. A joint cartography and inventory crew mapped and inventoried 700 ft. of the maio passages while another crew surveyed about the same amount in a major side passage. Fifty-two stations of survey and 17 pages of inventory resulted. Bat Cave is a very significant paleontological site; it contains several hundred feet of sediments that have abundant bat bones, most of it from either little brown or Indiana bats. Care has to be taken in traveling through this area to avoid damaging the deposits. The cave is also a significant archeological site; an extensive midden is located over almost the entire entrance talus cone. A crew returned later in the week and surveyed another 420 ft. in the side passage, which includes significant constrictions-the most contorted one forms an impressive wind tunnel. This passage continues. One cartography crew cleaned up leads in the historic section of Wilson Cave, finishing off most of the leads in that area. They also examined the surface stream in hopes of finding another entrance, without success. Another party continued the survey iu the new section by mapping 400 ft. near the Hiberdome. Remaining leads in this area are small and uninspiriug. Mammoth Cave Canogrophy: One survey party finished some Main Cave sketching and then did additional survey and sketching in the Mammoth Dome area. Another party did 400 ft. of resurvey work in Gothic Gallery (Backsliders' Alley). Also in Historic Mammoth, a crew surveyed 350 ft. of mostly climbing leads in the lower levels off Sylvan Avenue. The area is a damp and sleazy dome and canyon complex. One party continued the resurvey of the old route to Mystic River, working from the low, damp Mystic River end of the route. A canyon below Silliman's Avenue was partly resurveyed (770 ft.), and a crew surveyed 950 fl. of leads off the east end of Kaemper Avenue. One party continued working in aod around Ball Trail near the Unknown entrance. Elsewhere in Unknown, a crew resbot inclinations along a long stretch of Mather Avenue to smoke out a vertical error in an old survey lacking clinometer backsights. Another crew continued survey work in the rear portions of Salts Cave, surveying 600 ft. to finish up one section of the complicated network beyond Pike Chapman. Paleontology, geology, micro-biology: On Tuesday evening, the entire expedition (28 people) assembled at the Historic Entrance for an Art Palmer geology training session. This was a fascinating look at the rock units and passage types, and was extremely helpful. This is the first


November 1995 time I can remember having an entire expedition on a single trip-a credit to the esteem in which Art and Peg are held by their fellow JVs. A large party worked on the geology of the downstream section of Hawkins River. They measured a stratigraphic column from the conflnence of the Forks upwards to the Corydon Chert in a big breakdown zone; the beds here are about 30 ft. lower than the corresponding beds at the Amos Hawkins Formation. They also tied in the Right Fork survey to the new survey net. A multipurpose crew went to Long Cave to look at bat bones and sediments and to resketch areas around the entrance. There are extensive bat guano and bone deposits. Later, the same crew went to Dixon Cave for an initial paleontological reconnaissance. The entire cave floor has bat guano on it, apparently from summertime use; more concentrated guano occurs in three areas. A party went out to investigate sites for the upcoming Earthwateh paleontology project [see p. 12]; they also located additional freetailed bat deposits between Chief City and Hains Dome, slightly extending the known range of the deposits. Larry Mallory's crew spent two days hunting microbes in several domes while virtually everyone else in camp participated in the two-day science conference in the park [see Angust Newsletter]. Mammoth. Cave ~ '

8 CRF Newsletter Klis, Scott House, Karen Willmes; Gothic Gallery-Doug Baker, Gail Wagner, Rick Olson; Sylvan Ave.-Bob Osburn, Greg Sholley, Matt Beeson; Mystic River-Tim Schafstall, Daryl Neff, Keith Miller, Mike Beeson; Lower Silliman Ave.-Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Mike Beeson; Kaemper Ave.-Torn Brucker, Karen Willmes, Greg Shclley; Ball Trail-Tom Brucker, Cheryl Early, Wieslaw Klis ; Mather Ave.-Sue Hagan, Janice Tucker, Matt Beeson, Mike Beeson; Salts Trunk-Mick Sutton, Tim Schafstall, Gail Wagner; Mammoth Cave geology training-Art Palmer, Peggy Palmer, plus everyone else; Hawkins River geology-I) Art Palmer, Peggy Palmer, Sue Hagan, Bob Osburn, Matt Beeson; 2) Art Palmer, Peggy Palmer, Richard Zopf; Long Cave paleontology-Rick Toomey, Bud Beeson, Tim Schafstall, Cornelia Yoder; Earthwatch reconnaissance-I) Rick Toomey, Mona Colburn; 2) George Crothers, Rick Toomey, Mona Colburn, Kappy Mickelson, Andrew Mickelson; Microbiology-I) Larry Mallory, C. Jacobson; 2) Larry Mallory, C. Jacobson, Mike Lawrence; Mammoth Cave signatures-I) Bob Parrish, Les Carney, Cornelia Yoder; 2) Bob Parrish, Dave Hanson, Cornelia Yoder; 3) Larry Pursell, Charlie Pursell, Jennifer VanValkenburg; Hidden River survey-I) Mike Yocum, Roger McClure, Stan Sides; Hidden River geology-Art Palmer, Peggy Palmer; NPS/CRF Science Conference presentersChuck Swedlund, K. Gremillion, George Crothers, Tom Poulson, K. Helf Tammy Eifert, Rick Olson, Art Palmer, Chris Groves, Scott House, Richard Zopf. Thanks to lots of people, but especially camp manager Candy Leek and operations manager Mike Yocum. Summer, Aug.5-6 Leaders, Neil and Terri Hammond What was left of Hurricane Erin kept the expedition soggy and canceled a planned Logsdon River trip. Mammoth Cave Cartography: There was a long hard trip to Miller Aveuue in support of Kevin Downs' Belfry Avenue sheet. The party retumed with 5()() ft. of survey in two related trunk fragments. A second Historic Mammoth crew resurveyed 500+ ft. in Calypso Avenue (off Blacksnake Avenue), tying Calypso up to Ganter Avenue. At this end, Calypso Avenue is "incredibly complex" and will require follow-up sketch refinement. Two parties went to Colossal Cave to survey leads in the Wild Goose Cbasel New Years Junction area near the entrance. Party I surveyed 650 ft. and knocked two leads off the list; one ended in a mud pinch, the other led to the Hazen Entrance loop. The second crew completed son ft. of survey, and found several leads. Roppel: The planned Logsdon River crew was diverted to Roppel Cave to do some climbing leads in rhe Rift area that would hopefully produce a passage leading toward Toohey Ridge. After multiple attempts, (including some "air time") Dick Market reached a wet crawl, but it's at the right level and trends in the right direction. Archeology & Paleontology: An archeological crew went to the S-Bend area of Main Cave to find glyphs to pbotograph in preparation for the upcoming Southeastern Archeological Conference. A party took a short trip to Salts Cave to examine guano deposits for paleontological potential. There is an area of guano in the lower levels of the main trunk near Mummy Valley, but bat remains seem to be scanty. "Small" Cave Inventory: Two parties continued the survey and inventory of Bat Cave along the Green River. Party one picked up the survey from July, mapped 840 ft. and stopped so as not to disturb a small cluster 50) of gray bats. There were no young bats present, so this is probably a bachelor or transient colony. Party two mapped 480 ft. and found a canyon lead 20 ft. higb and I ft. wide; it is the closest lead to Ganter Cave. There's plenty of work left here, but dress warmly! A labeling crew set brass caps at Mary Parker, Ganter, Rat's Nest, Overlook, and Running Branch Caves. Rat's Nest Cave does indeed feature two active woodrat nests. Survey Crews: Miller Ave.-Kevin Downs, Russell Conner, Matt Mezydlo; Calypso Ave.-8cott House, Roger McClure, Mike Yocum, Fred Douglas, Ivy McLean; Colossal Cave-I) Joyce Hoffmaster, Cheryl Early, Les Carney, Kathleen Womack; 2) Dick Maxey, Bill Baus, Betsy Kelson, Ivy McLean; Roppel; Rift-Rick Olson, Dick Market, Elizabeth Winkler; Bat Cave-I) Scott House, Sheila Sands, Pred Douglas; 2) Tom Brucker. Richard Zopf, Roger McClure, Robin Dickerson; Small caves labeling-Richard Zopf, Joyce Hoffmaster, Jane Prendergast; Main Cave glyphs-Phil DiBlasi, Jan Marie Hemberger, Mike Yocum; Salts paleontology-Rick Toomey, Mona Colburn, Rick Olson. Labor Day, Sept. 2-3 Leader, Bob Osburn The major lbeme of this expedition was low water, to the exteut that the ferry was out for the entire time and trips were concentrated in areas lbat are normally dangerons or inaccessible. In addition to the caving, a meeting was called for Saturday moming for those people interested in Hamilton Valley progress. This delayed the start of caving somewhat but provided a much needed forum for discussions. A total of 2,235 ft. of new survey and 920 ft. of resurvey were accomplished. In addition, parties supported small cave inventory, the names project. and paleontology. Mammoth Cave cartography: Four trips went to Hawkins/l.ogsdon River. One crew went to the L-Survey (Lee Avenue) to investigate leads requiring extensive climbing. Two fmitless climbs were made: one led to a longabandoned dome drain which dead-eOOed after a few feet in an adjacent shaft, 15 ft. above the starting point; the second led to a group of passages lbat had been discovered and mapped a few years ago. A third climb led to a going gypsum crawl, which could lead to exciting things, especially since an easier route into this lead was found. A second party went to a dome drain, also in Lee


November 1995 9 Avenue. A sick party member and deeper thau expected water caused them to exit with only one additional station. A going water crawl heading downstream awaits the first wet-suited party. Two parties, on successive days, went down P. Strange Falls to map the main drain discovered to be enterable last year by Derek Bristol. The first group mapped 150 ft. and sketched a complex area. The second The major theme of this expedition was low water, to the extent that trips were concentrated in areas that are normally dangerous or inaccessible. crew more or less completed the accessible passages; they surveyed 700 ft. through low ear-dips to the eod of the passage they were in, but did not discover where the water goes. Giveu the volume this hole takes at bigh flow, another look is justified, as this party snggested. In central Mammoth Cave, a party hauled exposure gear beyond Lucy's Dome in an attempt to both improve the map and find a potential tie to Marion Avenue, where a poker chip hangs down a crack iu the floor. Four hundred and eighty feet of damp survey was accomplished, but the tie was uot found; the reduced data shows that the Lucy's Dome passage is approximately in the right place horizontally, but is 50 ft. too low. There was a trip to Calypso Avenne where the party fmished most of the resurvey of a complex area, pntting in 300+ ft. of survey. Roppel: One party spent most of Saturday and Sunday in the Hope Creek area of Rappel Cave, where they put in 380 ft. of survey and found what may be a major drain system, possibly part of the elusive Pike Spring drainage. "Small" Cave Survey and Inventory: Most of the leads in Buffalo Creek Cave were finished off for a total of 500 ft., although one wet crawl continues for at least 100ft. farther. Three crews went to Running Branch Cave. Parties on snccessive days surveyed the lower level passage leading to the downstream sump. Expecting a short passage, party 1 was ill-prepared for a lowceiling area which involves neck-deep water and continuing wet passage. They managed 120 fl. to a fork before the cold drove them from the cave, hut party leader Jon Smith returned the next day and completed the survey of both forks. The main passage sumps, while the other branch continues too low. If lock and dam 6 comes out, who knows? Another party planned to survey high leads in Running Branch, but due to a miscommunication, they resurveyed part of the middle level and did not survey the ascending leads from there. However, they did pioneer an easier route to the lower levels. A party set brass caps at Deer Skull, Bryophyte, and Big Hollow Caves, inventoried Big Hollow, reviewed Deer Skull, and found an unreported cave. There was a short trip to photograph the inventory process in Temple Hill Cave (a large sandstone shelter), and an even shorter trip to survey Good Spring Church Caveall 14 feet of it. It was flowing strongly even in these conditions. History, Paleontology: A historic signature crew went to the Giants Coffin area and surveyed signatures from there to the TB Huts. There was a follow-up trip from last month to evalnate the extent and condition of the bat guano deposits uearMururny Valley in Salts Cave. Etc.: Finally, there was a trip to complete a surface survey loop over the Sunset Dome area of Hidden River Cave in the town of Horse Cave. My expected camp manger, Joanne Osburn, was ill. Red Watson kindly stepped in to do the cooking, something at which be excels. I would like to commend the strong minded individuals who returned for a second day running to wetsuit leads to finish them off. Survey Crews: Lee Ave. climbs-Rick Olson, Dick Market, Paul Cannaley; Lee Ave. 2-Dick Maxey, Cheryl Early, Janice Tucker; P. Strange Falls-I) Mike Yocum, Elizabeth Winkler, Bill Baus; 2) Mike Yocum, Jeff Farr, Richard Zopf; Lucy's Dome-Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Mike Lawrence; Calypso Ave.-Scott House, Steve Irvine, Gina Turner; Roppel-Bill Koerschner, Russell Conner, Andrew DuBois; Buffalo Creek-Stan Sides, Candy Leek, Don Bittle; Running Branch downstream-I) Jon Smith, Willie Hunt, Bruce White; 2) Jon Smith, Sue Hagan, Don Bittle; Running Branch upper levels-Candy Leek, Bob Salika, Willie Hunt; Deer Skull, etc.-Richard Zopf, Doug Alderman, Les Carney, Rick Toomey; Temple Hill-Scott House, Mick Sutton; Good Spring Church-Bill Baus, Elizabeth Winkler; Historic signatures-Bob Parrish, Kay Bittle, Bob Salika, Tony Conard; Salts Cave guano-Rick Toomey, Stan Sides, Doug Alderman, Tony Conard; Hidden River surface survey-Les Carney, Kay Bittle, Bob Parrish.


10 CRF Newsletter MISSOURI July through September, 1995 Report by Mick Sutton. Three crews continued mapping the Hell Hole series of Powder Mill Creek Cave. In the Grand Gallery Trunk a party surveyed 850 ft. of walking high passage to a definite end. Later, the same crew mapped 420 ft. in the Dismal Hollow area. A third trip led to 300 ft. of mopup survey around the Grand Gallery. Hell Hole is now close to completion. The final Powder Mill party of the season went far upstream, and mapped 685 ft. in the Third Watercrawl (the upstream main passage). The crawl ended in walking-high passage which led up a nice series of flowstone cascades, and continues. On the Mark Twain National Forest, a party mapped and inventoried Dewey Minnick Cave. This is a dry canyon, featuring a large entrance shelter which is a likely archeological site (much looted, unfortunately). The cave is 450 ft. long, more than double the estimate of an earlier report. There were two trips to Bliss Camp Cave. The first, intended to complete the survey, mapped a section of austere, breakdown-floored trunk and brought the length of the cave to 3,000 ft. But instead of ending in breakdown as expected, the passage continued into a large, well-decorated area featuring some nice drips tone. The passage has seen little traffic. The second party mapped another 630 ft. along this trunk. One more trip should complete the Bliss Camp map, but we have thought this several times before. A party surveyed and inventoried Crewse Cave, Ripley County. This is a short (110 ft.) but interesting example of the inside of what is normally a flooded spring channel. The cave can only be entered, via a normally flooded pit, during the seasonal groundwater low of late summer. Finally, Boze Mill Cave on the Eleven Point River was mapped to replace an earlier preliminary survey. The cave is a summer gray bat site; although it is ungated and the entrance is heavily visited by canoeists, the colony is somewhat protected by a series of squeezes in the crawl leading to the bat roost. A supplemental inventory was done, mainly to gauge the status of the bats, but the inventory also turned up an unexpected southern cave fish in the small sump pool. This suggests more extensive hydrological connections than meet the eye. The pool is at river level, and the flooded passage between it and the river would be rather short. Survey Crews: Powder Mill Hell Hole 1 & 2)-Doug Baker, Steve Irvine, George Bilbrey; 3)-Doug Baker, Steve Irvine, George Bilbrey, Mark McGimsey (Missouri Department of Conservation); Powder Mill upstream-Doug Baker, Steve Irvine, George Bilbrey; Dewey Minnick-Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton, Tim O'Dell; Bliss Camp (2 trips)Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan; Crewse-Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Cathy O'Dell, Bruce Black; Bore Mill-Mick Sutton, Scott House, Sue Hagan, Doug Baker. GUADALUPES Carlsbad Cavern, Sept. 2-4 Leader, Lois Bergthold Six survey teams and a restoration group were assembled on each of the two work days. Five survey trips took place in the New Section. In the "F-Fissure" area, three parties mapped a total of 620 ft., 300 ft. of it in virgin boneyard passage. One party tied the survey to the Cave Pearl Room, noted damage which had been done by previous exploration teams, anti inventoried the remarkable speleothems in that area. Many boneyard leads remain to be pushed. Two trips went to the New Passage E-survey, mapping 390 ft. This is a major passage----

November 1995 11 Lilburn Cartography Peter Bested The illustration shows a reduced-scale copy of one of about 80 Lilburn Cave quadrangle maps. Almost half of them have been drawn up, mostly by Brad Hacker and myself. It's hard to work on new ones, because people keep taking the "finished" ones in the cave and pushing the question marks to find new passages! On the plus side, the quadrangle approach of dividing the cave into different levels allows for more detail, leading cavers to explore the cave more effectively. The quadrangles are drawn on Macintosh computers using either Canvas or Adobe lllustrator programs. The first step is to run a simple program in Think C that reads-in the station data, and makes a line plot for the selected quad. This is possible since in the original survey file each station is assigned to one or more levels with a simple code. The line plots include the borders that will be used on the final maps, and selected stations are labeled and the depths below the entrance indicaled. This line plot is then imported into the drawing program as one of the levels that can be turned on or off in the final printing. I usually make this level gray so it is easier to draw around it. On layer two we put all the information (borders, scale, north arrows, name of qnad, etc.) On the third level, we draw the passage walls with 1.25 pt bezier curves, using the mouse. Level five is a copy of layer three, but the passages are filled in with a pattern. This level is then merged with similar drawings from other quads to make maps showing the interrelationships among the levels in a given area of the cave [see August CRF Newsletter]. Layer four contains all the passage detail, mostly drawn at 0.75 pt, We make macros of the more commonly used symbols to save drawing time, but nonetheless this stage is by far the most time consuming. Generally I try to draw from the original notes, rather than scan in a previous rendition of the area, to be as faithful as possible to tne original drawings. As usual in cave map making, a lot of time is spent trying to figure out what the sketcher really meant! Although drawing on the computer takes longer than by hand, there are several advantages: it is easy to add new surveys and always have a nice-looking map; it is much easier to adjust for new loop closures that move sections of the cave around; one can search for particular text strings rapidly; and the layering approach makes it possible to produce many different maps from the same flle (e.g . walls plus line plot or walls plus detail). This approach could be carried further by putting subsets of passage detail on different layers (i.e., hydrology on one layer, speleothems on another, and so on), but so far we have not gotten that fancy. Lilburn is now 14.85 miles long. We hope to pass 15 miles this year ", . .ORAWNIIY: P.1IOSTlD LASTUPOATED:MM e&mmrm MEYER ElflMMCE AREA LLBURN CAVE: MAP B.2.U


12 CRF Newsletter of Historic Mammoth Cave studied by Earthwatch Team Rickard S. Toomey, III Little Bat Avenue, and Rafinesque Hall all boused large colonies of hibemating bats. The descriptions in these accounts suggest that Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) were probably the bats roosti~g in those areas; how~ver, th.e Indiana bat was not identified as a separate species until 1928. I hope to locate bones that can confirm the identity of species that previously used the area. Identification of the species is of more than acadentic interest. Most bats have very specific babitat requirements for their hibernacula. For this reason, knowing wbich bats hibernated in an area provides information on the winter temperature and humidity of the area. Rick Olson hopes to use the information provided by the bat remains in an on-going effort to restore the climate of the Historic Entrance area to conditions similar to those before severe European impact on Houchins Nanows. The effort of the Earthwatcb team focused on Lookout Mountain (a large valley wall terminal breakdown) in Rafinesque Hall. We chose to begin with examining Lookout Mountain for several reasons. First, the area was a known winter bat roost. Second, preliminary investigations (with the assistance of CRF IVs) InI shown the presence of guano deposits on and near the left wall. Third, I thought that it would be an easy area on wbicb to train the crew, that there would be relatively few remains, and that the crew would quickly finish that area and move on to Little Bat Avenue. This plan did not work out. The crew identified and mapped approximately 300 bone and/or guano accumulations. We put in several long days and one evening just to finish this area. It turned out that Rafinesque Hall contained a wide variety of vertebrate remains and traces. The team had three tasks to perform: locating and identifying remains, mapping them, and photograpbing representative remains. The first step involved slowly crawling over the entire breakdown and along ledges on the side walls searcbing for bones, areas of guano accumulation; raccoon scratcbings and other signs of vertebrate use. Most of the bones found were bat bones smaller than a match stick. When material was located, it was marked with a plastic flag and a card indicating what had been found. The team quickly learned to spot and identify bones. They then used a set of identification cards and comparative specimens to identify wbich bats were present. Mona Bat Remains As part of on-going studies of the fossil vertebrates of the caves of Mammoth Cave National Park, IV Rickard S. Toomey (Illinois State Museum) and Bob Ward (NPS) bave begun a Canon Corporation-National Park Foundation funded Earthwatcb Project to begin detailed mapping of recent paleontological remains in the Historic section of Mammoth Cave. The initial Earthwatch team worked from July 28 to Angust 4, 1995. In addition to myself and Ward the project staff included Mona Colburn (another Illinois State Museum paleontologist), Chuck Swedlund (photograpber), and Andrew and Kappy Mickelson (two arcbeologists on loan from George Crothers' Earthwat:eb arcbeological project). The staff was joined by five Earthwatcb volunteers: Katy Hall, Barbara Ross, Seumas Soltysik, Glen Stanley, and Pat Yale. In addition, JV Rick Olson (NPS) and Colleen O'Conner (NPS) belped on the project by providing special tours for the Earthwateb volunteers and by searching for bone. The goal of the project is to identify, inventory, and map some of the vertebrate remains near the Historic Entrance of Manunoth Cave. The project focuses on remains in and on sediments, as opposed to remains contained in the limestone. The purpose is to provide basic data on the bistory of vertebrate use of the cave including the use of the Historic Enuance area by wintering bats before major European impact on the entrance area. Historic accounts of the cave from the first half of the Nineteenth Century indicate that the Rotunda, I Pelvis of an eastern woodrat and a hal wing bone. They were found together near the top of Lookout Mountain. Photo. by Charles Swedlund.


November 1995 13 Colburn and I helped to identify some of the more difficult specimens. After the specimens were marked and identified, the team mapped them using a total-station theodolite. The use of this instrument allowed rapid and accurate mapping. Unfortunately, neither Colburn nor I had prior experience with the instrument. If not for the patient instruction by Andrew Mickelson and the experience of Kappy Mickelson, Katy Hall, and Barbara Ross (all of whom had just finished participating on George Crothers' Earthwatch archeological mapping project), we would not have accomplished nearly what we did. The theodolite stations are tied to the Walker benchmark in the Rotunda, which will allow the stations to be related to CRF mapping efforts. Following the mapping, Chuck Swedlund photographed representative specimens. He also documented the general distribution of bone with photos of the whole Lookout Mountain area. The team was able to identify bat remains from at least three species. A few bones from eastern pipistrelles (Pipistrellus subflavus) and big brown bats (Eptesicus juscus) were identified; however, the vast majority of identifiable remains were from either little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) or Indiana bats (M. sodalis). Unfortunately, the bones of these two bats cannot be separated in the field. Specimens of jaws, skulls and humeri (upper arm bones) were collected so that more detailed lab analysis could be undertaken. I will be continuing this portion of the project. In addition to bat bones, a complete eastern wood rat (Neotoma j/DriLlana) skeleton and parts of a second one were found near the top of the breakdown, and one raccoon foot bone was found. Vertebrate traces included bat guano, raccoon scat. and presumed raccoon scratchings. The raccoon scat and scratchings are especially common along the left wall of Rafinesque Hall, especiallyon a large spall block that almost reaches the ceiling. The scat is full of bones of little brown or Indiana bats; the raccoons appear to have been coming into Rafmesque Hall while the bats were hibernating and eating bats within their reach. This finding is one of the most interesting aspects of this summer's work. In addition to samples taken for more complete identification, the tearn collected samples for radiocarbon dating. Although we know that bats were using the area during the early Nineteenth Century, we do not know if all of the bone dates to that time or if the bats used the area for a much longer period. The project was a great success. The volunteers were enthusiastic. They rapidly learned to spot bone, to identify bat bones in the field, and to use the theodolite. The amount of data recorded was far beyond our expectations, as was the amount of material in Rafinesque Hall. The logistics went very smoothly thanks to the efforts of Bob Ward. We bope to secure continued funding in order to continue detailed mapping of vertebrate remains in Historic Mammoth Cave. A little brown or Indiana bai humerus (scale in mm). Photo. by Charles Swedlund. ~ ~1'~ ~ Bel-Mexico Partnership to Protect Mexican Freetailed Bats A partnership between Bat Conservation International and Mexican conservationists and biologists holds ant hope of much needed relief for Mexican freetailed bats. Mexican freetails and several other migratory species face a serious threat in their Mexican wintering caves, where they have been subject to massive persecution in ham-fisted attempts to eradicate vampires. To all to the insults, one of the few remaining untouched caves was recently obliterated by highway construction. The partnership, called the Program for the Conservation of Migratory Bats, is targeting a few key caves for protection. One of them, Cueva de la Boca, contains only a remnant of what may have been "the largest freetailed bat population in North America." The cave receives a lot of visitation, and the feasibility of hiring a local steward in addition to gating the cave, is being studied. The other big goal of the partnership is education, targeted at populations surrounding the bat caves. Videos have been produced which advocate less damaging techniques for vampire control, and teach the benefits of Mexican freetailed and other bats. From the Fall 1995 issue of Bats, BCI's quarterly journal.


14 CRF Newsletter Ozark National Scenic Riverways Cave Data Synthesis Project Scott House The Ozark National Scenic Riverways was established in 1964 by an enabling act of Congress which noted that caves and springs were integral parts of the park. Of course, the park's prime attractions are large sections of the Current and Jacks Fork Rivers. But much of the scenic attraction is due to the karst expressions of caves and springs. Some of the most impressive springs in the entire nation are within the ONSR boundaries, and many of the known 280+ caves are noteworthy as well. They are important biologically, geologically and hydrologically. Over the years, however, cave management in the park has been somewhat inconsistent as priority was given to river management problems (which are extensive). A cave management plan (CMP) was written in 1988 bnt not fnlly implemented, partly due to bndgetary restrictions. To partly implement the CMP the Riverways has taken several steps. First: a functioning cave management committee was formed consisting of three NPS and three non-NPS members (two of whom are CRF JVs). Second, an archaeological survey of caves was initiated. Third, a cooperative project to get information on Riverways caves was begun, partly as an outgrowth of the first two steps. In particnlar, it was noted that the Park Service's information on Riverways caves was incomplete and somewhat inaccessible. In 1994 the ONSR and CRF wrote a cooperative project proposal for synthesizing the available information into usable formats. This proposal was partly fimded for 1995. As funded, the project consisted of two components. The first was to redesign and expand an existing database on Riverways caves. The second component was to assemble copies of all known printed material on the caves, and put this material into an organized filing system suitable for use by land managers. The project fmally got under way this spring and the completed products were delivered to the park in September. The database was originally a very simple one, being assembled in the classic Apple IT program Appleworks. This database was ported over into Clarisworks on a Macintosh where it was expanded and revised. After a triaI period, the database was again ported over, this time into FileMaker Pro for the Mac, where it was again expanded. BasicaIly, the expansion consisted of replicating the CRFlMissouri Speleological Survey cave report form in database format. For example, locations are given in three different systems and the cave description is contained within a single expandable field. Furthermore, a cave classification (open, restricted, or closed) is given and a short cave prescription is written (as yet another field). This prescription system will be modified by the cave management team in an annual review. Report forms were designed to give rangers, laud managers and researchers the types of information they need in an easily accessible format. For example, the management report form gives a short bit of information about the requested caves as well as their classification and prescriptions. The file assemblage took a considerable bit of time. A great deal has been written about the caves and springs of the Riverways and there were many sources. These sources included: CRF files, MSS files, NPS files, contracted works by the Missouri Departtnent of Conservation and Ozark Underground Laboratory, photographs, eodaugered species studies, canoeing guides, reports of the Missouri Geological Survey, historical publications, and a wide variety of other books. Hard copies were obtained, somewhat laboriously, using a photocopy machine purchased for the project by the NPS. These copies were filed into archival legal-sized folders with labels created by the database and inserted into hanging file folders, one for each of the 288 known caves. The assembled files filled four large boxes and exceeded the capacity of the file cabinets purchased for them. Furthermore, the files will be even larger when copies of all of the maps (222 Riverways caves have been mapped) are folded and put into them. What's next? The dalabase is incomplete, with much additional information needing to be incorporated. More accurate locations will be obtained through the ongoing archaeological survey. More caves will be found, mapped and reported. And the cave management team will be making modifications to the prescriptions and classifications. There will also be much more hat1I copy information turning up, which will need to be copied and maintained, In the end, of course, all of this da1a is just a tool; now, however, proper cave management has some of the additional tools necessary to do the job. Carlsbad Cavern Passes 30 Mile Mark and CRF Gets a Million Dollar Credit CRF's Carlsbad operations reached the proverbial milestone recently when the mapped length totaled up to 30.9 miles. This is more than ten miles longer than was known two and one-half years ago, and more than 20 miles longer than the 1962 figure. Most of the increased mileage comes from the mapping of new discoveries, including Spirit World, Quintessential Right, the Bifrost Room, Storm Cloud Chamber, the Remarkable Crack, Western Lower Maze, and Chocolate High. In a public announcement concerning the new mileage figure, the National Park Service credited CRF for mapping and surveying, scientific studies, and assistance in training park employees, and concluded, "It is estimated that the value of their donated time and labor to the park over the last three decades has exceeded a million dollars." Source: CCNP News Release, 8129/95


November 1995 15 @~~ ~. ¨~n ¨~.,. ; JAf ~1) -7 t~7.r;J.:t"::~~ Construction projects hamper tours at MC The Frozen Niagara and New entrances are scheduled to be fitted with airlock doors over the winter. Both are artificial entrances, blasted out by George Morrison in the 1920s. Construction was scheduled to begin October 15. As a result, the Frozen Niagara and Travertine tours will be temporarily shut down, and the Wild Cave tour will be a bit wilder, since customers will have to exit up the New Entrance stairs. The Cleaveland Avenue tour is also out, owing to constructiou aronnd the elevator. Budget constraints are also affecting the extent of the tours offered-the Park is having to rely more on the self-guided Discovery Tour, which features a small section near the Historic Entrance, and on shorter guided tours with larger groups. Also under construction is Phase I of the park's new sewer line, which will divert 75% of the park's sewage to the Caveland Sanitation Authority regional treatment plant in Cave City. Phase I is scheduled for completion by summer 1996. Lint Removal Camps at Carlsbad and Mammoth A 35-person NSS clean-up crew spent August 7-11 vacuuming speleothems arouud Frozen Niagara. Lint from visitors' clothing has accumulated over the years, dulling the appearance of all surfaces, including the famous flowstone cascade. The crew also continued removing waterlogged timbers from Echo River. Twenty-oue cavers from around the country participated in the eighth annual lint removal camp at Carlsbad Caverns National Park from September 18-22. One of two restoration camps held each year, the lint removal field camp was organized by Carlsbad Museum Director Pat Jablonsky 10 concentrate on the damage resulting from thousands of visitors going through the cavern each year (over 600,000 visitors last year). Volunteers worked along the visitor trails in varions parts of Carlsbad Cavern removing lint and other unsightly material which has accumulated on various surfaces-most of the work must be done by hand to prevent further damage to fragile speleothems.


16 CRF Newsletter JVs Honored at NSS Convention CRF is always proud of those JVs wbo are recognized at the NSS Convention. At the 1995 Convention, winners were: In the Photo Salon, Djuna Bewley and Dave Bunnell (green ribbons). In the Slide Salon, green ribbons were awarded to Peter and Ann Basted (6), and Dave Bunnell (3), blue ribbons went to Djuna Bewley (I), and Peter and Ann Basted (2), and the "Best of Show" medal went to Dave Bunnell. In the Cartography Salon, Don Coons received an Honorable Mention for his "Caves of the Dripping Springs Escarpment". [see below]. Dr. Horton Hobbs, along with Dr. Fred Wefer, was recipient of the "Best Paper on a Show Cave" A ward presented by the National Caves Association. Named as Fellows of the NSS were Roger McClure, Bill Putnam, and Robert Stucklen. Finally, the prestigious 1995 Conservation AwanJ went to David J agnow with special recognition for his conservation efforts on behalf of Cold Water Cave in Iowa, his assistance in getting Torgac and Fort Stanton Caves nominated as National Natnral Landmarks, his testimony before the US Senate leading to federal protection of Lechuguilla Cave, and his highly successful efforts to stop the sale of speleothems at the Tuscon Fossil and Mineral Show. Please let the editors know if a IV was overlooked. To all of the above, CRF extends its gratitude for work well done. Human Remains in Spanish Caves Gran Dolina, a cave in Atapuerca, northeast Spain, has yielded the remains of the oldest known Enropeans, at least 780,000 years old. The site is a solutional cavity in Cretaceous limestones, filled witb Pleistocene sediments; it and neighboring cavities are exposed in a railroad cut. Stone implements and hominid bone fragments were recovered from strata dated by paleomagnetism of the surrounding sedimentary column, i.e., the remains lie below a magnetic reversal dated to 780,000 years. The dates are not yet fully accepted, but the case seems fairly convincing. The bones belong to a fairly "primitive" hominid, possibly a new species of Homo distantly related to Neandertals. The previous earliest European remains are approximately 500,000 years old, The results were reported in Science, August 11, 1995, by two large teams of researchers led by Eduald Carbonell (University of Tarragona) and Josep Pares (Institnt de Ciencies de Ja Terra, Barcelona). Caves of the Dripping Springs Escarpment-A perspective and review Bob Osburn The newest regional map of the Mammoth Cave area arrived on the scene late last fall. Caves of the Dripping Springs Escarpment depicts the largest Mammoth Area caves on a topographic collage made from all or parts of six USGS topographic maps. It is one of the most visually compelling maps of the area, for several reasons, First it includes more of the major caves than ever before. Thirty six caves are shown including the largest of the region; Mammoth, Fisher Ridge, Rappel, Whigpistle, Crnmp Spring, James, Lee, etc. Second, it presents the caves with enongh of tile surrounding countryside that a significant part of the entire karst system is in view. Finally, it presents tbe information at a common and widely understood scale-I inch = 2000 ft., that of the 7' topographic maps. In total, this is a map tbat lets one see and feel the enormity of the cave systems and the karst system that created them. It is a map to dream over. I ftrst heard of it from Don Coons when it was bnt an idea which many people did not believe conld be accomplished due to inter-group rivalries. It is a credit to the diplomatic skill of Don and many others that representatives of all the caving groups sat down togetber, pnt aside differences and formed a working gronp. The greatest credit must go to Don, who not only attended meetings but acquired the various maps, redrew them at the appropriate scale, and created the line art from which the final map was made. The second most involved person was Jim Currens, who put together the topographic base and helped with other technical aspects. The map is available to the membership of the nine participating organizations and each has a mylar from which copies can be made. CRF JV's can get the map at Maple Springs or by mail from Cave Books. The working group stopped short of publication or even genetal distribution out of fear of causing nndue harm to the portrayed caves. In addition, many known and mapped smaller caves were omitted so as not to publicize the positions of tbeir entrances. The map is by no means perfect or state of tile art. It is a first draft, hopefully to be followed over the years by improved versions. This version was compiled by hand, and when viewed closely some of the detail is a bit rough, especially in passage weighting. If you look at your favorite piece of cave you may find a few errors and of course some caves jnst don't do well when reduced to this scale (e.g. James Cave). No effort was made to show different cave levels or developmental stages. Perhaps future drafts will be done entirely from computer files with perfect passage widths, have digital topography and artfnlly used colors. All in all, this draft is very well done and a delight to have. And a done map is always vastly superior to a perfect one still being crafted.


November 1995 17 The Underground Reader Jewel Cave: A Gift from the Past, by Arthur N. Palmer, Black Hills Parks and Forests Assoc., 1995. 56 pp., ilIus.; Wind Cave: An Ancient World Beneath the Hills, by Arthur N. Palmer, Black Hills Parks and Forests Assoc., 1995. 64 pp., illus. Both books are $9.95 + SIH from Cave Books. Reviewed by Sue Hagan These two uew books, intended for the tourist shops at the respective caves, will be a welcome additiou to the average caver's bookshelf. In fact, the wealth of information contained within will more likely be appreciated and better understood by those with some prior speleological foundation. These are no tourist books written by someone regurgitating the usual "how caves are formed" bits from an encyclopedia but rather they are written by an author who knows his stuff-a professor of geology and a CRF JV, Art has been exploring, mapping, stndying and writing abont caves for more Ulan three decades. How can a cave spanning 195 m (640 ft) come from a limestone layer only 90 m (300 ft) thick? The cave follows the downward tilt of the Pahasapa Limestone, of course. What is the origin of gypsum, what is unusual about the he1ictites in Wind Cave (hint: the only other know examples of helictites with the same origin are found in Lechuguilla Cave), and what are the chances that Wind and Jewel Caves may someday be connected to one another? These and many other exciting pieces of infonnation are discnssed in a not-too-technical manner yet with sufficient explanation to make the material truly informative, What is especially commendable is that Pahner has taken the difficult and debatable subject of cave origin, including the fairly recent theories of sulfuric acid solution, and presented this so that the layperson can have a fairy good grasp of the speleogenesis of these very complex cave systems. The Wind Cave book, printed on glossy paper, gives a sharper look to the photos, but both books are richly illustrated with fine B&W and color photographs by Art Palmer and diagrams by Art and his wife Margaret (Peggy) Pahner. Beginning with a layperson's guide to the tours, almost two-thirds of the texts are devoted to explaining the geology of Jewel and Wind Caves. In clear, concise and, most importantly, comprehensible language, the author covers the origin of the rocks, the processes by which the cavems are formed, and the development of the speleothems to be found .at Jewel and Wind. Since the two caves lie 20 miles apart and are geologically similar.r the contents of the two books necessarily overlap. However, it is to Palmer's credit that he did not simply interchange text between the two but rather approached each as a separate project; reading either one will be an enriching experiencing, reading both will reinforce and amplify the snbject matter. Limestone and Clay, by Lesley Glaister. NY: Athenaeum, 1994. 185 00 pp. Reviewed by Jon Smith. When my in-laws found themselves in Addis Ababa discussing caving over dinner with a couple of British expatriates, one of the Brits handed my mother-in-law this book, perhaps in consolation for having a son-inlaw with so odd a hobby. I've yet to meet an American caver who's heard of it, yet it's a not-bad novel at least half about caving. Really, it's about a caver husband and a sculptor wife. Simon is obsessed with retnming to a wet passage where his caving buddy Roland, on a solo push, simply disappeared. The passage lies on the other side of a duckunder and a canyon over deep, fast-moving water. Nadia is obsessed WiUI having a baby. They have tried and tried; she has miscarried already. After a fight, they go their separate ways, and in alternating. hallucinatory passages, Nadia gets drunk and drops a baby she's heen left in charge of, while Simon impulsively enters the cave solo and gets wedged in his dream passage, pinned by protruding fossil oyster shells. Although I can't tell yon my reservations as a caver abont the novel without spoiling the ending, I can tell you my reservations as a literary critic. First, the novel's style never lives np to the author's obviously literary ambitions: "Nadia's anger is like the bright hot embers of a fire. It glimmers under the grayness of ash, bnt it takes only the slightest stir, the merest breath, to fuel it into brilliant lashing flame," (p. 70) etc. Second, the novel seems a late incarnation of literary naturalism, and hence shows that movement's weaknesses: flat characters whose behavior is over-determined by their bodies, and heavy-handed, rather Freudian symbolism. Limestone; death, destruction and caving; clay ; life, creation and sculpture; and our characters must push forward past death and backward past birth to overcome their obsessions in a gloriously renewed matrimonial synthesis. Unfortunately, their life seems compromised by the author's drive for symmetrical allegory. A final note: this is not a book for the kiddies. While the sex scenes are written in a quasi-literary prose, and are integral to the plot and symbolism, they are also prominent. I bet I sold 50 books with that last sentence. Compass, & Tape #38. Editor, Pal Kambesis. If you survey caves, and especially if you

MISSOURI Nov. 25-26, Dec. 23-24, Jan. 13-14, Feb. 10-11. The Missouri schedule is subject to last-minute changes. Survey and bio-inventory trips take place at frequent intervals, and scheduling is usually flexible enough to accommodate all N s who wish to sample some Ozark caving. Please call Scott House (314-282-3246), Doug Baker (314-878-8831) or Mick SUlton (314-546-2864). CALENDAR Rf>I\'\ C;-A~LA:(JO Jo IV 80 L S. y\\l9HLkrJD O/ PA-lLK \L IQ 0 30YIS '2-9 MAMMOTH CAVE Thanksgiving, Nov. 22-26. Phil DiBlasi & Jan Hemberger, 502-637-2030 (H); 502-852-6724 (PD. W) New Year, Dec. 29-Jan 1, 1996. Dave West & Karen Willmes, 301-460-4299 (DW) or 301-366-5038 (KW). Presidents' Day, Feb. 16-19. Dick Maxey & Cheryl Early, 614-888-2285 (DM) or 614-261-0876 (CE). Hamilton Valley Clean-up, March 15. Rick Olson, 502-749-2508 (W). St. Patrick's Day, March 15-18. Joyce Hoffmaster, 513-890-3679. Easter, April 5-8. Mick Sutton & Sue Hagan, 314-5462864. Memorial Day, May 24-27. Pat Kambesis, 404-2489538. Independence Day, June 28-July 6. Scott House, 314-282-3246. Summer, Aug. 2-5. Mike Yocum, 502-227-7254. Labor Day, Aug. 30-Sept. 2. Bob Osburn, 314-9848453. Columbus Day, Oct. 11-14. Neil & Terri Hammond, 317-786-2092. First and last dates are arrival and departure dates. Please notify the expedition leader or the Operations Manager Mike Yocum (502-227-7254) two weeks in advance. CA VE RESEARCH FOUNDATION P.O. BOX 443 YELLOW SPRINGS, OH 45387 ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED GUADALUPES CCNP, Thanksgiving, Nov. 23-26. CCNP, Late Fall, Dec. 15-17. To sign up for Carlsbad Caverns NP expeditions, notify the Personnel Officer Bryan Holcomb, 1224 Monroe NE, Albuquerque, NM 87110 (505-266-8485), at least one week in advance. Please note that this requirement is being strictly enforced. For information on Dry Cave trips, call Pal Helton (806-796-0973. CALIFORNIA Lava Beds Nov. 23-26 (cartography, inventory), Bill Devereaux, 503-363-3831 (H) California Annual Meeting, Feb. 3, 1996 Fresno. Mike Spiess, 209434-3321 (H). I 'J z o i= c z :J o 11. NON-PROFIT ORGANIZA TION US POSTAGE PAID YELLOW SPRINGS, OH PERMIT 160 ::r: u 0: W sn W 0: W > c

Contents: Not the
Longest Cave / Scott House --
Bulletin Board --
Off Rope --
CRF Headquarters Construction to being in 1996? --
Hamilton Valley Donors / Roger McClure --
Don't Mess with Mammoth-rained out, rescheduled / Phil
DiBlasi & Rock Olson --
Readers Write --
Crystal Cave trashed by thieves --
In Memoriam-James F. Quinlan, Jr. August 23, 1936-July
21, 1995 / Stan Sides --
Expeditions: Mammoth Cave, Missouri, Guadalupes --
Lilburn cartography / Peter Bosted --
Bat Reamins of Historic Mammoth Cave studied by
Earthwatch Team / Richard S. Toomey, III --
BCI-Mexico Partnership to Protect Mexican Freetailed Bats
Ozark National Scenic Riverways Cave Data Synthesis
Project / Scott House --
Carlsbad Cavern Passes 30 Mile Mark and CRF Gets a
Million Dollar Credit --
Construction projects hamper tours at MC --
Lint Removal Camps at Carlsbad and Mammoth --
Human Remains in Spanish Caves --
Caves of the Dripping Springs Escarpment-Aperspective and
review / Bob Osburn --
The Underground Reader --


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