I ,: ., ~eRF Quarter[y Volume 24, Number 3 Cave Research Foundation August 1996 Famed Bat Scientist Merlin Tuttle Visits MCNP Bat Conservation International Founder Addresses CRF, NPS by Candice Leek Assistant Editor, CRF Quarterly Mammoth Cave National Park (MCNP) hosted a visit by Dr. Merlin Tuttle, founder of Bat Conservation International, the week of June 24. The purpose of his visit was to help National Park Service scientists study the Park's bats and advise them regarding the restoration of Mammoth Cave as a bat colony and hibernaculum. Several MCNP employees had been studying old newspaper clippings from the 1800's and encountered repeated references to the "cave walls lined with miles of bats." By comparison, it is not corrunon to catch sight of even a few of Mammoth's eight bat species today. When the discoveries in the old newspapers were reported, Park scientists decided to invite Dr. Tuttle to Kentucky to look for evidence of the former colonies. Accompanied by Rick Olson (NPS ecologist) and Rickard Toomey (bat paleontologist), Dr. Tuttle inspected the Historic Route for signs of bats. He demonstrated how to detect roost sites by observing the etching and staining, on ceilings and walls caused by bats. At the conclusion of their tour, Dr. Tuttle announced that, "There is more stain on the walls in Mammoth Cave than in Bracken Cave which at one time housed a colony of 20 million bats." He went on to add that, "Little Bat Avenue is almost solid stain." While it is impossible to know how many bats actually comprised the colony, he estimated, "Maybe 10 to 30 million bats made their home in Mammoth Cave." According to Dr. Tuttle, "This discovery makes Mammoth Cave the single biggest bat population in the New World and the biggest hibernaculum site discovered in the entire world. At one time Audubon Avenue housed 5 million bats and," he predicted "has the potential to re-establish a major colony. II Dr. Tuttle culminated his visit to the park with a surprise presentation Friday, June 28, in the Visitor Center auditorium. MCNP personnel, their families, and CRF cavers flocked to the auditorium. Master of Ceremonies Rick Olson kicked the evening off with a warm welcome and relinquished the stage to Dr. Tuttle. With the opening statement, "I have studied bats in the southeast for, over 30 years but I've never been inside Mammoth Cave until now," he quickly launched into an animated, fact-filled, rapid fire delivery which he maintained throughout the evening. He spoke for three hours before an audience eager to listen, learn and do whatever they could to help the bats at Mammoth. He paced the stage with an infectious enthusiasm, as he guided the audience through a basic bat education program using photographs as well as one humorous anecdote after another. Tuttle's devotion and dedication to the subject were obvious; the mastery of bat-facts at his fingertips was amazing. He communicated his message to everyone, age notwithstanding, and was especially good at drawing the children present into his presentation. A six-year-old boy in the front row was so captivated by Dr. Tuttle's presentation that he followed it, literally, sitting on the edge of his seal. Upon hearing a riveting story about attempts to find a bat hidden in a rock crevice with a tracking device, the boy laughed with delight at the scientist's success in finding the "hide-and-goseek" bat! Dr. Tuttle delighted those present with his stories of batstudy adventures around the globe, and mesmerized the audience with his award-winning slides. He also shared his secrets for capturing these creatures of the night on film. He explained that bats are intelligent, can be quickly trained, and revealed how such training has resulted in many of the photos for which he is famous. Tuttle nearly brought the audience to tears with stories and pictures of bats killed for "fun" with aerosol spray can fire torches. We learned that his crusade to protect and save the bats of the world is not fought on the battleground of threats and negative press, rather, facts are quietly proffered and audiences left to make up their own minds. This gentle approach has the bats successfully emerging as the victors more frequently than not. More than anything else, however, he inspired those present to learn about, protect, and owships ,. Page2 And much more See "Tuttle," page 9
2 Cave Research Foundalion September Annual Meeting Schedule Announced Host Provides Travel, Accommodation, and Banquet Information by Chuck Pease CRFWest CRF's 1996 Annual Meeting will be held Oct. 18 to 20 in Prescott, Arizona. The schedule is as follows: Oct. 18: A closed session will take place at the home of Chuck Pease. Oct. 19: The open session will be held at the Prescott Christian Church, 501 S. Senator Highway, Prescott, AZ. The church is a five minute drive from the center of Prescott. There will be a catered meal Saturday evening with a choice of beef, chicken or vegetarian meals. The cost is $10 per person. I am looking for someone to make a presentation during the meal. Please contact me if you are interested in doing so. Assuming that all necessary business is completed Saturday, Sunday will be available for other activities. One possibility are trips to either Govemment Cave or Lava River Cave. Lava River Cave is a simple lava tube located just west of Flagstaff. Govemment Cave is about 4,500 feet long with just one large walking size passage. It is a two hour drive from Prescott. Another option would be a visit to Sedona. This Red Rock Country area has many gift shops and some great hiking. It is located due east from Prescott and takes 1.5 hours to drive to. A visit to the Grand Canyon is also a possibility. It is about three hours to the Grand Canyon's South Rim. There are over 20 hotels and Bed & Breakfasts available in and around Prescott. The top of the line are: The Prescott Resort Center & Casino (1-800-9674637). The Hassayampa Irm (1-800-3221927) CRF Awards Karst Fellowships by John Tinsley Member, CRF West Recipients of CRF's annual Karst Research Fellowship Award were recently announced. The awardees are: Ms. Keri E. Williamson Department of Biology Washington University St. Louis, Missouri Ms. Williamson was awarded $3500.00 for a proposal titled: "An intraspecific cladistic analysis of population structure and history in the troglobitic planthopper Olarus polyphemus on volcanically active regions of Hawaii Island." Ms. EI~abethJ.Monroe Department of Anthropology Washington University St. Louis, Missouri Ms. Monroe was awarded $2000.00 for a proposal titled: "Faunal resource selection and utilization, and the development of agriculture in eastern North America.'; Mr. Rhawn F. Denniston Department of Geology University of Iowa Iowa City, IA Mr. Denniston was awarded $1500.00 for a proposal titled: "High-resolution paleoclimate reconstruction in the Pokhara Valley region, Nepal: Searching for an Asian monsoon signal in speleothems." Ms. MaryLynn Musgrove Department of Geological Sciences University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX Ms. Musgrove was awarded $1500.00 for a proposal titled: "High-resolution temporal variations in groundwater chemistry: Tracing the links between climate and hydrology in a karst system." St. Michael (1-800-678-3757) The following two places are less expensive: The Wheel Inn (1-800-7170902) The Marks House Victorian Bed & Breakfast (1-520-778-4632) The Prescott Chamber of Commerce (1-800-266-7534) can help with a lot of other information about Prescott and the surrounding area. Meeting participants can either fly into Phoenix and rent a car there or there are several small flights available that fly directly into Prescott from Phoenix. If you have any additional questions please contact me. My phone number is 520/778-3351. Since I am out of town so often it is usually better to contact me at my email address. That address is: 75230.1027@CompuServe.com eRF Quarterfg Volume 24, No.3 Editor: Buz Grover CRFQrtrly@aol.com Assistant Editor: Candice Leek CILeek@aol.com Regional Editors Guadalupes: Lois Bergthold Missouri: Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton Ozarks: Mike Pearson email@example.com Production Manager: Richard Zopf firstname.lastname@example.org The eRF Qjulrterlij is published by the Cave Research Foundation, a non-profit organization founded in 1957 for the purpose of furthering cave and karst research, conservation, and education. Submissions should be sent to the editor via e-mail or on 3.5 inch disks in a Mac readable format. Address submissions to: Buz Grover, 8643 Centerton Ln, Manassas, VA 22111. For information write: Phil DiBlasi, CRF President, 1244 S. Brook, Louisville, KY 40203. 1996 CRF I I
I I 1996 Cave Research Foundation 3 New MCNP Expedition Set Eastern Operations Manager Mike Yocum has announced the addition of an expedition to the MCNP schedule. The new Lesser Caves Expedition is set to run from Nov. 15 to 18. Anyone interested in attending must be signed up by Nov. 1. For more information contact Yocum at 502-277-7254, or email him at: email@example.com Collins' Crystal Cave Vandals Recieve Prison Sentences in June, 1995, MCNP staff discovered that Floyd Collins' Crystal Cave had been illegally entered and vandalized. Gypsum and travertine cave formations and two sculpted clay heads had been stolen; the latter were carved out of damp cave clay in 1920 by Floyd Collins and his brother, who created trails in the cave for tourists when it was still in private hands. investigators determined that three men had stolen the formations and had sold them to local rock shops. Anthony Stinson, Leon Reynolds, and Anthony Hawkins were subsequently arrested and pleaded guilty in federal court to these and other thefts from Park caves. Reynolds and Stinson were each sentenced to 21 months in federal prison and three years of supervised probation upon release; Hawkins was sentenced to 33 months in prison to be followed by three years of probation. in rendering the sentences, Judge Thomas Russell said that the defendants had "stolen yesterday's time" by destroying the fragile cave formations. Park rangers, scientists and resource managers worked with US attorneys and the staff of DSC's Geologic Resources Division in preparing for the case. Source: NPS Morning Report, May 24, 1996 Marijuana Cultivation Arrests at MCNP Way Ion Horton, 21, was arrested by rangers David Alexander and Henry Holman on July 10th after they watched and videotaped him cultivating 11 marijuana plants for a period of about ten minutes. Horton used an entrenching tool to dig around the plants, sprayed a pesticide on them, then sprinkled a powdered animal repellent around the site. When confronted in the patch, Horton ran, but was apprehended after a short chase. Roy Horton, 51, who had been waiting in a vehicle for his son, fled the area, but was stopped and arrested by ranger James Blanton about two miles from the scene. The marijuana patch had been detected in May, shortly after it was planted. Horton had been videotaped by a camera triggered by an electronic sensor on an afternoon in June. Another 22 plants were removed from another location about 400 yards south of the first patch; additional searches are planned to look for more marijuana. The arrests came about after a lengthy investigation and surveillance operation which benefited greatly from support received from the state police and county sheriff's department. Source: NPS Morning Report, July 17, 1996 BUllelin~ BOard w
4 Cave Research Foundation September CRF Assists Japanese Film Crew at MCNP by Sue Hagan Regional Editor, CRF Quarterly Several Cave Research Foundation JV's recently performed some unusual fund-raising roles as guides, sherpas and bit-actors for a Japanese film crew filming at Mammoth Cave for a series on World Heritage sites. Eastern Operations Manager Mike Yocum coordinated the CRF efforts with the film company on-location work from March 28 through April 1, 1996. The contract provided lodging and meal expenses for the volunteers plus $100 per day for each participant to be donated to Eastern Operations. The film company initially contacted Mammoth Cave National Park to arrange the filming and was referred to CRF for additional assistance. NPS staff provided the first-day "walkthrough" and a ranger to supervise all in-cave filming. Park Superintendent Ronald Switzer and NPS historian Bob Ward were also interviewed. Almost a full-day's film making was devoted to CRF archeologists Pat Watson, George Crothers and Naoko Yokoyama. Their segments involved filming in the Historic section with concentration on Native American artifacts such as a climbing pole, slipper remnants, a fairly intact gourd bowl, and a very impressive paleo-feces specimen. It was hard to tell if the crew was more impressed by the specimen or by the archeologists' enthusiasm about it! The evening ended with a moon-lit cane torch demonstration. CRF President Phil DiBlasi was filmed displaying a detailed CRF map of the upper levels of Salts Cave and the next day Mike Yocum, Mick Sutton and Sue Hagan did an in-cave demonstration of mapping techniques. The film crew, none of whom were experienced cavers and at least one of whom admitted to having severe claustrophobia, watched silently as the three cavers slithered into what seemed to be an extremely tight hole. The crew gave a round of applause when the cavers exited. The not-so glamorous work, handled by Yocum, Sutton and Hagan, involved hauling enormous amounts of photography and lighting gear from the vans to the cave. Their sherpa work continued as they maneuvered the loads of equipment from location to location inside the cave and up and down the Mammoth Dome tower. Communication difficulties (usually only one interpreter was present) also meant that equipment was hauled to places it wasn't needed. This 'More FUm Crews at MCNP i~ '''I In the next few months, threevideo >,: ,I: : productions will be filmed in the Park: "National Geograp)UcExplorer" will film segments for one of its weekly programs, "Great Park Adventures," a .Travel Channel series, will feature MCNP, and the Discovery Channel's "Hidden Worlds" series will delve into research conducted at Mammoth Cave. Source: WWW: "What's New at Mammoth" Above: Director Eisuke Kono (center) works out a shot with his cameraman and lighting director. Below: MCNP Electrician Ed Dennison, Interpreter Samantha Teodorski, and CRF's Mick Sutton and Sue Hagan watch the film crew work. (Mike Yocum Photos) might have been laughable except that by 10 p.m. both crew and sherpas were feeling exhausted. The film crew was meticulous and used an on-site monitor which enabled instant replay; it resulted in repeated shootings of almost every scene. Special lighting and zoom lenses provided unique views of cave formations and the "snowballs" in the Snowball Dining Room. A few of the film techniques used should provide thrilling footage. A crane was utilized to do "plunge shots" at the Historic Entrance and Hidden River Cave and an exciting "roller-coaster" effect was shot in Cleaveland Avenue while running the cameraman down the passage strapped in a wheelchair! The crew experienced a pleasant interlude on their stop at Hidden River Cave during which they met with the American Cave Conservation Association. Despite the theatrics, the director and production crew seemed to seek a good overview of the cave and the reasons it has been designated a World Heritage Site. They even wanted to get footage of a trash-filled sinkhole to show the pollution problems affecting the area. Hopefully, the efforts made by the NPS and CRF will indeed contribute to greater intemational appreciation of the uniqueness of Mammoth Cave. CRF has been promised a copy of the film in its final Japanese version.
1996 Cave Research Foundation 5 Shops Cited For Selling Cave Formations Souvenir Vendors Near MCNP Accused Of Selling Speleothems by Candice Leek Assistant Editor, CRF Quarterly The impact of Floyd Collins' Crystal Cave break-in continues to reverberate throughout the communities surrounding Mammoth Cave National Park. Fourteen rock shops which line the highway leading into MCNP have been visited by the Kentucky State Police. The police action occurred just days after stiff sentences were handed down by the federal court to three men convicted of the vandalism. The first arrest occurred May 23 when a Kentucky State Police detective cited Debbie's Rock & Gift Shop for selling cave formations; 143 cave specimens were found in the shop. Eight of the thirteen businesses visited june 11 were cited by police for illegally selling cave formations. All of the shops were visited by a Kentucky State Police investigator who was accompanied by a geologist from the Kentucky Geological Survey and a Cave City Police Officer. "The police crackdown was in response to the widespread publicity over the Floyd Collins' Crystal Cave case," according to Andrew Melnykovych, staff writer for the Louisville-Courier journal. The cited business owners face fines of $250 and greater and up to 90 days in jail if convicted. Sworn testimony in the case indicates that the thieves sold formations to Big Mike's Rock Shop and Debbie's. Formations taken from the cave were confiscated from Big Mike's and Debbie's as evidence in the federal case against the three looters. U.S. Attorney Randy Ream said two boxes of rocks from Floyd Collins' Crystal Cave were recovered from Big Mike's. The eight businesses cited June 11 were: Old General Store, Wild Wonderful Gifts, Tom's Teepee, Coon Shine Cabin, Mammoth Cave Knife Works, Hillbilly Hound Fun Park, Nuttin' Fancy, and Big Mike's. Historic Entrance Restoration Update "During the years that Mammoth Cave was operated privately, several natural entrances were modified and artificial entrances made. These modifications radically altered the cave's ecosystem, disrupting natural conditions, especially airflow and temperature. Earthwatch volunteers are helping to study the remains of animals that once inhabited the cave to find 'scientific clues to the environmental conditions that once occurred. The information will be used to reestablish natural conditions by restoring airflow, constructing airlocks on man-made entrances and installing bat-friendly gates in locations used by bats." Source: Expedition into the Parks, Canon U.S.A. Mammoth Cave is sharing the cost of rehabilitating the Historic Entrance with three partners: Canon U.s.A., the National Park Foundation and Earthwatch. Each plays an important role: Canon U.SA.'s Expedition Into The Parks has donated $1 million to 20 national park areas to collect information on biological resources. Mammoth Cave received $63,000 from Canon U.S.A. in 1995 -1996. The National Park Foundation pursues and coordinates corporate donations to the National Park Service. Expedition Into The Parks is the largest corporate-sponsored volunteer conservation effort of its kind in national parks this year. Earthwatch provides volunteer workers interested in doing research with top-notch scientists here at Mammoth Cave and at other sites world-wide. The National Park Service provides the resource and coordinates with research scientists. During 1995, the partners inventoried and catalogued prehistoric and historic resources and paleontological remains found in two miles of cave passageway accessed by the Historic Entrance. This year the project focuses on the Historic Entrance and Houchins Narrows. Mammoth Cave's Historic Entrance is also its natural entrance. People have used it for thousands of years. Along with cave fauna, prehistoric miners, saltpeter miners, curious visitors, tuberculosis patients, mushroom farmers, and the Civil War munitions producers came into the cave for their own purpose. Generation after generation of users "improved" the entrance, making it "better" and easier to use. Rubble was removed and cave sediment added to make smooth trails. A pit was filled in. Eventually, Houchins Narrows became an empty tube, allowing air to move freely between the surface and the cave. Due to these alterations, resource specialists believe cold winter air now sinks farther into the cave than it would naturally. Earthwatch crews have found evidence of bats in areas where no bats are present today. The first phases of natural resource restoration have already begun. The NPS has installed a bat-friendly gate at the Historic Entrance made of steel bars constructed to keep people out, but allow bats to fly in and out through bat-sized openings. Meteorological data is being collected at several sites in the cave to determine how deeply the cave "breathes." Earthwatch volunteers and researchers arrived in late July to learn more about the cave's past. They are gathering information that will indicate the conditions found in the cave at various points in time. This information will help the NPS determine what management actions to take to restore a natural environment in the cave. Source: Mammoth Monthly, july 1996 (Editor's Note: Updates will continue to be reported as work on this project progresses) d
6 Cave Research Foundation September CRF To Help Build Lava Beds Research Facility by J arret Sowers Service March 1. Now the project has official sanction. Member, Lava Beds Project The Monument has designated the site of the old North Prefab for the new facility. Minert Architects (Richard Minert Yes, we're dreaming! But sometimes dreams can become of SFBC) has agreed to donate the architectural services. We reality. For years we have wished that Lava Beds National are presently negotiating with another company for the "i' Monument had a facility that we and other groups like ours geotechnical soils report and topographic survey. Once we I' could use as a base of operations. From 1988 to 1994, CRF have drawings of the proposed building we can begin fund was allowed to use the old North Prefab, until it was finally raising. condemned and used for fire-fighting practice. Minert envisions a building that is attractive, fits in with One November, after listening to the Eastern CRF gang the spectacular site, matches the rustic look of the rest of the talk about fund-raising strategies for Hamilton Valley at a Monument's buildings, and is functional, inexpensive, and Board Meeting, I said to myself, "Why not try it at Lava Beds!" efficient. The facility would contain bunk rooms, two So, I approached the superintendent and resources managerestrooms, kitchen, dining/work area, and large tables. An ment chief about raising the money for a research facility outside deck would provide sleeping space for additional through private donations. They were thrilled with the idea, people. Each user group would probably have its own storand proceeded towrite the concept into the new General Manage lockers and file drawers. We anticipate the square footagement Plan (GMP) they were preparing. The purpose of age to be around 1400 sq. ft., and the costto be around $80,000. the research facility would be to provide work space, living We will keep you posted! space, storage and accommodations for visiting researchers and other groups or individuals that conduct projects of benSource: CRF Pacific, SEKI/LABE News, May 1996 efit to the Monument. The GMP was approved by the Park NPS Unveils New Online Magazine PARKNET Provides Travel and Tourism Information National Park Service Director Roger Kennedy has unveiled PARKNET, the new National Park Service, World Wide Web, on-line magazine. Kennedy said, "PARKNET is designed to provide travel and tourism information on specific parks, also to encourage electronic visitors to explore the NPS' mission, history, and the opportunities before us all." PARKNET was featured as the Web Site of the Week by the Microsoft network. PARKNET will be produced and organized around four main departments with rotating feature articles: "Links to the Past" will offer information about America's cultural heritage. Visitors will be able to learn how to "Help Yourself" and retrieve information on preservation programs, grants and tax credits or learn about the National Register of Historic Places. "ParkSmart" will offer educators the opportunity to retrieve developed lesson plans from a large inventory on a variety of NPS program themes. Students, for individual study, learn about NPS programs by reading feature articles like "Dive With a Ranger;" or Students will be able to play "Park Wit," a game that teaches about NPS history and events. "Infozone" will serve as a clearinghouse for NPS information. Here visitors can visit individual park Web pages, read NPS press releases, learn about employment, volunteering, public/private partnership opportunities and view park planning documents. "NatureNet" will offer information about natural resource planning and preservation. Topics on Air and Water Quality, Plant Life, Species Inventorying and Monitoring, will assist citizen and educator alike in understanding how the NPS protects the parks. Currently, the NPS administers 369 national parks covering more than 83 million acres in 49 states, the District of Columbia, and four territories, receiving more than 270 million visitors annually. PARKNET is currently registering more than 500,000 visits per week from across the globe. ParkNet may be reached at: http:/ /www.nps.gov Source: NPS News Release, April 22, 1996 South Entrance Road Reopens Traffic once again began to travel the road between Sloan's Crossing and the Park Visitor Center area May 8. After many long months, Mammoth Cave NP engineers and a very good contractor have repaired the sinkhole which developed in the South Entrance Road Oct. 1995. They bridged the unstable area with "geo-fabric" (a pervious fabric which helps distribute weight and lets water percolate through) and "gee-web" (a surface like a large plastic egg-crate filled with base course and multiple layers of base-course rock and asphalt lifts). This 750-foot long" sandwich" is about five feet thick and will provide adequate structural support for normal traffic for the forseeable future. As soon as it can be accomplished, plans and program requests will be generated to re-engineer the road aligrunent at the Sloan's Pond intersection. Construction funding, however, may be several years in the future. Source: WWW What's New at Mammoth
,. !, I 1996 Cave Research Foundation 7 CRF Begins Restoration, Standardization Projects by Mike Yocum Operations Manager, CRF East In partnership with Mammoth Cave National Park, CRF will complete the first step in restoring the cultural landscape of the Crystal Cave Historic District by removing three nonhistoric structures on Flint Ridge. The three buildings are: 1) the Austin House-CRF Bunkhouse, 2) CRF House (sometimes identified as the "rear bunkhouse"), and the Floyd Collins Cookhouse (sometimes identified as the "speleo-hut"). The project will begin Oct. 1996 and is scheduled for completion by the summer of 1997. The CRF Coordinator for this grant is Eastern Operations Manager Mike Yocum. A second project is planned in conjunction with the U.S. Geological Survey. Its purpose is to contribute to the USGS National Spatial Data Infrastructure. CRF, in cooperation with Mammoth Cave National Park, the American Cave Conservation Association (ACCA), and the Barren River Area Development District, will develop standards for the collection, documentation, evaluation, archiving, cataloging, report generation and transfer of cave survey data. CRF will also modify existing data processing software to implement those standards, and apply both the standards and the software to a set of cave survey data from Hidden River Cave as a test and demonstration of the project. CRF will also evaluate biological data from Hidden River Cave, and develop biological thematic data sets for correlation with the geospatial cave data for presentation in a GIS format, the final interface of which the CRF will also develop. This GIS presentation will be available to the public at the American Cave and Karst Center. The standards and the documented cave survey data processing software will be available on an Internet node managed by the Barren River Area Development District. The project will begin immediately and will be completed by Sept. 30, 1997. The Project Director is Eastern Operations Manager Mike Yocum. Working with Yocum will be former CRF President Mel Park, the author of CML; Michael Franz, who coordinates the research and management of geographic information system (GIS) activities for Mammoth Cave National Park; the ACCA: s Executive Director Dave Foster; and a number of leading cave biologists associated with CRF, the ACCA, and Mammoth Cave National Park. Book Review The Philosopher's Demise (Learning French), by Richard Watson 1995: Univ. of Missouri Press, Columbia. 133pp Price TBA +S/H from Cave Books and other fine book dealers. Reviewed by Sue Hagan. Though not what you might expect from the title, The Philosopher's Demise is what you might expect from Red Watson. Those who know the author personally will enjoy reading the book with the foreknowledge that Red flunks the Alliance Francaise exam despite Herculean efforts. But his French does get better, or at least passable. In short, the book is a treatise on the art of learning, or living (these terms are probably synonymous to a professor of philosophy, which Red is). The Philosopher's Demise is a book of contrasts. We see France through the eyes of an American, we see teaching from the perspective of a teacher suddenly turned student, we see French cavers and French philosophers as viewed by a caving philosopher. All of this is done with humor and insight; whether the author is describing the amazing machine that (somewhat) picks up dog poop from the Paris sidewalks or his near fatal encounter with a bee, the reader will be led simultaneously to laugh and to ponder. Which brings me to-this is a caving journal, after allthe book's speleological significance. There are some interesting vignettes pertaining to Watson's friendship. with two of France's most famous living cavers, Michel Siffre (renowned for his studies on the biological effects of long underground stays) and Claude Chabert (best known for co-authoring the international cave atlas). There is also a photo of Red in French caving gear. But the caving elements are peripheral. Except that caving has been a central part of Red's life. The Philosopher's Demise (Learning French) is similar to Watson's The Philosopher's Diet: How to Lose Weight and Change the World. Both are collages of the author's personal experiences, seeming to be only tangentially related to the central topic but fundamentally interconnected by life themes: you don't loose weight or learn to speak another language without commitment, hard work, pain, and it had better be enjoyable or you'll wonder why you ever did it. The same, of course, might be said about any pursuit in life, be it quitting cigarettes or mapping the world's largest cave system. CRF Signs Operating Agreement With Owner of Roppel Cave An Operating Agreement between Dave Weller, owner of Roppel Cave's Downey Avenue Entrance, and the Cave Research Foundation has been signed. The agreement will allow cave crews to use this Rappel entrance during CRF expeditions. CRF anticipates having additional operating agreements signed in the very near future. Operating agreements are currently under development which will allow CRF expedition trips to be fielded to caves on Stan Sides' property and to Hidden River Cave.
8 Cave Research foundation September CRF Members, JVs Featured in New Book Tampa, Florida was the site of the 1989 Southeastern Archaeological Conference. A special symposium, organized by Kenneth C. Karstens, was held during the conference to honor the work of Patty [o Watson. The theme of the symposium was, "Twenty-Six Years along Kentucky's Green River: Papers in Honor of Patty [o Watson," and featured speakers presented papers which addressed past and current Green River area research. The papers presented at the symposium were so well received by those in attendance that the recommendation to publish them soon followed. Additional papers were solicited to round out the material and in 1996, seven years after the symposium closed, the University of Alabama Press released, Of Caves & Shell Mounds, Edited by Kenneth C. Karstens and Patty To Watson. The 209 page book contains 14 chapters, 11 B & W figures, and 21 tables which address the archaeological areas associated with Patty [o Watson's work along the Green River. Many of the chapters were authored by Cave Research Foundation Members and [V's. Chapter titles and authors include: 1. Introduction by Cheryl Ann Munson 2. Toward Building a Culture History of the Mammoth Cave Area by Kenneth C. Karstens 3. Site Distribution Modeling for Mammoth Cave National Park by Guy Prentice 4. Prehistoric Mining in the Mammoth Cave System by Kenneth B. Tankersley 5. Prehistoric Expressions from the Central Kentucky Karstby Philip J. DiBlasi 6. Radiocarbon dates from Salts and Mammoth Caves by Mary C. Kennedy 7. Managing Kentucky's caves by Tan Marie Hemberger 8. Botanizing Along Green River by Gail E. Wagner 9. Lithic Materials from the Read Shell Mound by Christine K. Hensley 10. Shell Mound Bioarchaeology by Valerie A. Haskins 11. Health and Disease in the Green River Archaic by Mary Lucas Powell 12. Research Problems with Shells from Green River Shell Matrix Sites by Cheryl Claassen 13. Riverine Adaptation in the Midsouth by David H. Dye 14. Of Caves and Shell Mounds in West-Central Kentucky by Patty To Watson "An excellent multidisciplinary work ... archaeologists will benefit greatly from the volume. It is a well-deserved tribute to Patty To Watson whose contributions to cave archaeology, shell mound archaeology, and origins of plant domestication are unparalleded in North American archaeology." NPS Magazine Seeks Submissions, Subscribers by Ron Wilson Member, CRF East Park Science (ISSN-0735-9462) is a quarterly science and resource management bulletin that reports recent and ongoning natural and social science research, its implications for park planning and management, and its application in resource management. Content receives editorial review for completeness, clarity, usefulness, basic scientific soundness, and policy considerations though materials do not undergo refereed peer review. The bulletin is published in Jan, April, july, and Oct. for distribution to interested parties. Visit Park Science on the World Wide Web at: http://www.aqd.nps.gov / nrid/parksci j Park Science is now accepting donations from non-NPS readers. If you would like to help defray production costs, please consider donating $10 per subscription per year. Make check payable to the National Park Service and send it to the editor. The editor encourages submissions from all readers and would especially like to stimulate resource managers to write for the Highlights column. Contact the editor for current submission criteria at: National Park Service Natural Resource Information Division P.O. Box 25287 Denver, CO 802250287 Phone: 303-969-2147 E-mail: jefCselleck@nps.gov Barbara Purdy University of Florida New Caving Web Site Launched A new caving Web site has been launched. Called TrogNet, the site is a virtual library designed as a single point of entry for key Internet data on the world's sub-surface cavities. TrogNet may be used to explore caves in Canada, book a ticket on a Eurotunnel train, buy mining equipment, browse speleological and mining libraries, download survey softWare, and contact like-minded individ uals and organiza tions. TrogNet will be updated and will expand. Anyone interested in subsurface cavities should include the TrogNet URL in their Hot List. KEYWORDS:Cave Tunnel Underground Mine Subterranean TrogNet is can be contacted at: http://ourworld.compuserve.com/ homepages/hape/ I
1996 Cave Research Foundation 9 "Tuttle," Continued from page 1 serve as advocates for bats. Tuttle's energetic closing statement tossed a challenge to all present, "Mammoth Cave National Park has the opportunity to conduct the grandest experiment ever ... to work with something we have extirpated ... and to bring it back!" He received a lengthy standing ovation at the conclusion of his presentation and then stayed another hour, until the final questions from the audience were answered. And, in his wake he left fans, of both the bats of Manunoth Cave and the batman himself. A Selection of Questions from the Audience Why did the bats leave Mammoth Cave? The decline in surface water is one reason bats are in decline in the west. The Mammoth Cave bats left because man-made entrance modifications altered the climate and airflow patterns in the cave, resulting in a habitat no longer suitable as a roost or hibernaculum. What can the Park do to try to re-establish the colony? The first thing that needs to be done is build a bat-friendly gate in the Historic Entrance, which you have done. The second step is to re-establish the climate and that is being worked on now (through the ecotone re-establishment project and construction of airlocks). Then it's up to the bats to re-discover the cave and, when they do, they must not be disturbed. The bats have been gone for a long time. How will they re-discover the cave? They will probably discover it in a spring swarm. In the spring, bats "swarm" to search for roosting sites. This means they fly in circles outside cave entrances and a few bats will go in to check out the conditions. If they find conditions acceptable, some may select it as their new roosting site. If they continue to find conditions hospitable and they are not disturbed, word gets out, and more bats will arrive. What do they consider acceptable? Climate, airflow, and it is important that, once bats are choosing to return to the back of Audubon Avenue, we do not go back there "to check the bats just to see how many there are arid how they are doing," and disturb them. They will need time to adjust to their new environment and learn to trust that it is a safe one. How will they adjust? Won't the cave lights and noise from the tours disturb them? There are commercial caves today conducting tours which pass directly beneath hibernating bats. If the bats are high enough overhead so they can't be disturbed (touched, for example) and if they are left alone, and if the conditions are right, once they learn it is a safe place for them ... they will remain. How long will it take to re-establish the colony? About 50 to 60 years. Which seems like a long time to us, but in the overall scheme of things, it's not long. What impact would such a colony have on the local area? Using conservative estimates, if Mammoth Cave housed 10 million bats and each bat consumed an average of 3000 insects per night; they would dispose of 30 BILLION insects a night. Presently, bats from three Texas caves (whose cumulative population is smaller that Mammoth's extirpated colony) eat 1 million pounds of insects a night. So, they would be a great help to the local farm economy. For example, radar tracks bats flocking 10,000 feet above ground to feed on bole worm moths, migrating out of Mexico at high altitude, coming into this country to feed on crops. If the bats weren't eating them, the moths would devastate crop fields Bats play an incredible role in the ecology and economy of an area. For example, 70% of all tropical fruit comes from plants spread by bat pollination. Without bat pollination, we would not have bananas, dates, avocados, peaches or figs, just to name a few. Close to 100 species of desert plants rely on bats for pollination including the agave, which is the sale source of Tequila. And, as at Carlsbad Caverns and the Austin bridge, bats have become a popular tourist attraction in themselves. For additional information on bats, bat educational programs, field courses, and BCI membership, contact: Bat Conservation Intemational P.O. Box 162603 Austin, TX 78716-2603 Telephone 512-327-9721 WWW: http://www.batcon.org/ See related stories on pages 10 and 11 Archaeology Weekend Planned for MCNP Mammoth Cave's annual Archaeology Weekend is scheduled for Nov. 2 and 3, 1996. The Park has planned a series of lectures, discussions, slide presentations and craft demonstrations for the weekend. Topics will range from weaving techniques and flint knapping, the latest in archaeological preservation, to the continuing research in and around MCNP. Source: Events at Mammoth, MCNP WWW Home Page
10 Cave Research Foundation SePlember Photographing the Secret World of Bats by Merlin Tuttle Founder, Bat Conservation International In 1978 I wrote a chapter about bats for a National Geographic book, Wild Animals of North America. When 1 saw the photos that were going to illustrate my words, I was horrified. I had never considered the impact of bat pictures that were then typical. Most showed bats snarling in self-defense. Because of their shy nature and nocturnal habits, bats are exceptionally difficult to portray photographically as they really are in the wild. When first captured, they either try to flyaway, bare their teeth in threat, or hunker down, eyes closed, anticipating the worst. Impatient photographers too often had held a bat by its wings, blown into its face, then snapped a quick picture as the bat tried to defend itself with a snarl. So I began studying photography myself, and soon discovered that people's negative attitudes about bats could be changed in minutes upon seeing how fascinating and beautiful bats can be. E"Iuipment I use a Canon Fl Camera with an FN motor winder and Canon lenses ranging from a 24mm, F2.0 to 300mm, F2.8. By far the most frequently used of my lenses is the l00mm macro, though I sometimes use a 200mm macro to fuzz the background or a 50mm macro to permit me to work closer to the bat. I occasionally use wide angle lenses for special effects in close-ups, especially when I want to show more than otherwise possible of a plant being visited by a bat or of a cave entrance through which bats are emerging. An example would be the shot of a frog-eating bat drinking in flight (see January 1982 National Geographic), taken with a 28mm lens from Water level 10" away. I use a 300mm, F 2.8 telephoto occasionally for flying foxes in the wild, usually accompanied by fill-lighting from a mirror or a well-aimed flash with a 3 X telehood. This is always done at a time of day when fill lighting can be balanced against ambient light. Although I sometimes use Vivitar 283 flashes for convenience of mobility, my standard studio system is custom made by: Kermeth Olson, 3 Woodhill Lane, North Oaks, St Paul, Minn. 55127 (612-484-0150, home). My system operates up to six heads, has a two second recycle time and speeds of 1/ 1O,000th or 1/33,000th. I use only Kodachrome 64 film, work mostly at distances of 2-6 feet and shoot at from F32 to Fll on average, though I often dampen the flash output to go as low as H.O to fuzz a background. Most of my light readings are taken with Minolta III light meters. I tend to use fairly standard flash distances, so I am immediately suspicious if a reading is unusual. Typically, I use two flashes in front and two in back of the subject. Angles and distances are varied to create special effects. As many as eight flashes may be required for some large sets in order to properly illuminate background foliage or other objects. I sometimes use a Shutter Beam from: Woods Electronics Inc., 14781 Pomerado Road, #197, Poway, CA 92064 (619.486.0806) This infrared beam will trigger a Sironar lens with a built-in shutter (camera open on bulb setting) quickly enough to stop a flying bat before it moves too far past the beam. Success is enhanced by careful testing of a variety of bats. Each bat species flies at a different speed, so knowing exactly where to pre-focus requires experience. I carry two of nearly everything electronic in case of failure, and my total traveling equipment weighs approximately 300 pounds, exclusive of personal effects. Techni"lues I work under natural conditions when convenient or necessary but typically rely on a studio setup in a small room where I use many flash stands, velveteen, etc. To create sets. This is always done within a short distance of where the bats live in the wild to ensure set authenticity. The key to my success is tremendous patience, years of experience working with bats and an ability to tame and train them. Many are trained to catch prey or visit fruit or flowers only on command, to approach from a specific direction, etc. There is no standard means of training bats, though an important element is extreme persistence in staying up all night with them night after night in an enclosure until they accept me as harmless and learn to feed from my hand. Then they are rewarded for doing as I wish. People often want to know how to make sure each shot is good in order not to waste film. The answer is that it can't be done. I very carefully test every kind of exposure I intend to make before a trip, if for no other reason than to refresh my memory prior to each trip, and always keep permanent notes on the results. Even so, bat photography can be extremely difficult. I shot 5,000 to 6,000 frames for each of my first three National Geographic articles. In fact, the one on epauleted bats courting (see April 1986 National Geographic) required roughly 600 frames to get one that was just right. Under such circumstances, there is almost no room for bracketing, since it is already so difficult just to get the bats at just the right position and moment. In general, I try to take close to a hundred shots of anything involving high speed action of prey capture, flower pollination, special behavior, etc., before assuming I have what I want, even though I almost never bracket more than half an F stop. The reason for this is that one can never predict accurately the exact wing position, facial expression, etc. when working at the very high speeds required. Some Additional Tips Bats are beautiful, likable animals, needlessly feared by the public. Please do not contribute to existing misunderstandings by publishing pictures of bats snarling in self-defense, because they are being poorly handled. I also avoid Continued On The Next Page
1996 Cave Research Foundation 11 most shots of bats flying straight toward the camera with their mouths open echolocating. To the layman who does not understand, such pictures look aggressive. I am happy to be of assistance, but please return the favor by making every effort possible to present bats as the important and likable animals that they really are. Also, if publishing photos, please be careful not to allow use with articles or captions that further misinform the public about bats. Thank you for your interest in bats and my work. Good luck with your personal photographic efforts! References: Tuttle, Merlin D. 1982. "The Amazing Frog-eating Bat." National Geographic, 161(1): 78-91. Tuttle, Merlin D. 1986. "Gentle Flyers of the African Night." National Geographic, 169(4): 540-558. Tuttle, Merlin D. 1991. "Bats The Cactus Connection." National Geographic, 179(6): 131-140. Tuttle, Merlin D. 1995. Saving North America s Beleagured Bats. National Geographic, 187(8): 36-57. Source: Bat Conservation International, Inc., 1994. Used with the permission of Bat Conservation International. Bat Trivia and Bat Facts by Bat Conservation International Bat Trivia The world's smallest mammal is the bumblebee bat of Thailand, weighing less than a permy. Giant flying foxes that live in Indonesia have wingspans of nearly six feet. The common little brown bat of North America is the world's longest lived mammal for its size, with life-spans sometimes exceeding 32 years. The pallid bat of western North America is immune to the stings of scorpions and even the seven-inch centipedes upon which it feeds. Fishing bats have echolocation so sophisticated that they can detect a minnow's fin as fine as a human hair, protruding only two millimeters above a pond's surface. Red bats that live in tree foliage throughout most of North America can withstand body temperatures as low as 23 degrees F. during winter hibernation. Tiny woolly bats in West Africa live in the large webs of colonial spiders. The Honduran white bat is snow white with a yellow nose and ears. It cuts large leaves to make "tents" that protect its small colonies from jungle rains. Frog-eating bats identify edible from poisonous frogs by listening to the mating calls of male frogs. Male epauletted bats have pouches in their shoulders which contain large, showy patches of white fur that they flash during courtship to attract mates. Mother Mexican free-tailed bats find and nurse their own young, even in huge colonies where many millions of babies cluster at up to 500 per square foo!. Bat Facts A single little brown bat can catch 600 mosquitoes in just one hour. A colony of 150 big brown bats can protect local farmers from up to 18 million or more rootworms each summer. The 20 million Mexican free-tails from Bracken Cave, Texas eat 250 tons of insects nightly. Tropical bats are key elements in rain forest ecosystems which rely on them to pollinate flowers and disperse seeds for countless trees and shrubs. In the wild, important agricultural plants, from bananas, breadfruit and mangoes to cashews, dates, and figs rely on bats for pollination and seed dispersal. Tequila is produced from agave plants whose seed production drops to 1/3,000 of normal without bat pollinators. Desert ecosystems rely on nectar-feeding bats as primary pollinators of giant cacti, including the famous organ pipe and saguaro of Arizona. Bat droppings in caves support whole ecosystems of unique organisms, including bacteria useful in detoxifying wastes, improving detergents, and producing gasohol and antibiotics. An anticoagulant from vampire bat saliva may soon be used to treat human heart patients. Vampire bats live only in Latin America. They sometimes cause problems for cattlemen, but they are smaller than hamsters, and are seldom seen by people. Contrary to popular misconception, bats are not blind, do not become entangled in human hair, and seldom transmit disease to other animals or humans. All mammals can contract rabies; however, even the less than a half of one percent of bats that do, normally bite only in self-defense and pose little threat to people who do not handle them. Bats are exceptionally vulnerable to extinction, in part because they are the slowest reproducing mammals on earth for their size, most producing only one young annually. More than 50% of American bat species are in severe decline or already listed as endangered. Losses are occurring at alarming rates worldwide. Loss of bats increases demand for chemical pesticides, can jeopardize whole ecosystems of other animal and plant species, and can harm human economies. Source: Bat Conservation International, Inc., 1994. Used with the permission of Bat Conservation International
12 Cave Research Foundation September Kentucky Memorial Day Expedition May 24 27, 1996 Leader: Pat Kambesis The Memorial Day Expedition's 46 participants had a variety of interesting and challenging objectives to keep them occupied throughout the Expedition's two days of caving. The Cartography Project fielded 11 survey crews who returned to Maple Springs with 2,004 feet of new survey and 980 feet of re-survey. An in-cave survey and cartography training session was held, with Marion Avenue serving as the classroom. In addition to GPS, inventory and brass cap work, the Lesser Caves Project teams also brought back survey; they captured 104 feet of new cave and 399 feet of re-survey. Five science parties were dispatched to work underground throughout the Park. Paleontology teams studied fossil burrows and vertebrate deposits while two other crews were fielded to Joppa Ridge's Long Cave to map sediments for paleohydrologic interpretation. In addition to science, cartography and training objectives, the expedition members also supported a 4-person video team from the Discovery Channel. The Discovery crew filmed research activities in a variety of locations, including the river at P. Strange Falls. Salts Cave One party was fielded to Salts Cave to continue working on the re-sketch of the J-Survey trunk. Approximately 350 feet of re-sketch was completed, working from River Map toward the entrance. A little difficulty was experienced in locating several of the less conspicuous survey stations on the Tom Wilson's Accident breakdown slope. The new gate appears to have altered the appearance of the entrance; the more II open" entrance configuration seems to lead to increased fogginess in the Vestibule which makes for poor sketching conditions. It was noted that "we may have to resketch this with sonar" due to these new low-visibility conditions. Paleontology Two paleontology teams, with a wide range of objectives, were fielded throughout the Park. Team One rappelled into Morrison Cave's Doyle Valley Entrance to collect data on fossil burrows at P. Strange Falls. Team Two went through the Proctor Crawl to examine vertebrate paleontology deposits at the end of Frost Avenue. Extensive deposits of bat bones on sediment surfaces, and in the sediments as well, were observed. Surface materials yielded three identifiable bat species; the most common being Myotis. It was noted that bat bone deposits were most frequently observed in areas with cricket nursery /beetle-digging habitat; possibly the bioturbation is moving bones and concentrating them on the surface. Geology Two sediment mapping trips were made by the same team to Long Cave. The first objective was to conduct preliminary reconnaissance to locate sediment deposits best suited for description and paleoflow reconstruction. Three "particularly good sediment exposures were identified." A "fascinating fossil coral colony" was observed as well as an "unusual lilac purple wall coating." It was noted that further mineralogical work in the cave is warranted. The bulk of the team's in-cave time during their second visit was spent mapping stratigraphy at the X-lO pit sediment exposure. An excellent sequence of infilling and excavation was documented and observations were made which further the hypothesis that the Mammoth Cave region was semi-arid some 1.5 million years ago. A mouse was seen near the X-10 pit and a single white crayfish was observed in a small pool near X-33. It was noted that the crayfish has apparently lived there "for some seven years, having been observed seven years before" by a member of the geology party. Bat bones were also identified along the entrance passage. Wilson Cave Two hard-pushing survey and inventory crews worked in the Funnels area of Wilson Cave. Party One continued the NB survey. They dropped into a canyon and continued surveying upstream only to discover it ended in a mud choke. The team back-tracked to E3 and pushed a lead which turned out to be a "mazy set of low crawls" which were left for a future party. An EA-Survey was put in through ceiling anastomoses at E3, which gained 105 feet of survey. Party Two continued the NS-Survey off Nice & Easy. They encountered "slimy stream crawls" and were unable to proceed beyond NS30 when they encountered a spot where the passage ceiling dropped to about 6.5 inches. More work remains to be done in the area; a ten foot dome climb into a canyon (5 ft H x 1.5 ft W) at NP5 and an upstream "slime crawl" (3 ft H x 4.5 ft W) remain for future parties. Both parties reported experiencing the "usual route-finding adventures in the woods" on their return hike from the cave. Bat Cave The Bat Cave party made the 2.5 mile trek through the woods, climbed down the cliff to the entrance, and proceeded to the end of the previous survey in the Left Fork. They collected 7 survey stations before the passage ended in a termi
1996 Cave Research Foundation 13 nal breakdown choke. Several side leads were attempted but all pinched down to "smaller than the people present." Party members were unable to negotiate a downward-trending slot at A27 which "looked good but only measured 7.5 inches." Some climbing leads remain to be checked near the terminus of the Left Fork. Ganter Cave A very productive Lesser Caves Project inventory crew worked in Ganter Cave. They mopped up the S-Survey and the Domes Route out of the first large breakdown room before heading to the back of the cave. They inventoried the area around Dinosaur Domes and completed their marathon inventory trip by working all the way to the end of the MSurvey. At the end of the cave some small white worms of various sizes were noted in a pool. In the vicinity of M52 the team observed a number of fragile historic signatures inscribed in clay; some have been obliterated by careless visitors. "These signatures should be inventoried and photographed since recreational cavers do make their way into this area." Proctor Cave Two re-survey teams were fielded to Proctor Cave. The first team re-mapped the multi-pitch connection from Czar Chasm to the Hawkins River. The ropes, which were stage de-rigged, were found to be in good condition. The short swim beyond the connection area proved to be much longer than expected; it was over 100 feet. Flotation and wetsuits are recommended for future trips into this area. The party exited via the Doyle Valley Entrance, making this the first through-trip by that route. Frost Avenue was the destination for the second Proctor crew who were slated to re-survey west of the KlO area. Little did they Rick Olson, May 1996 know that the primary focus of their trip would become the lock on the entrance gate. After thirty minutes of struggling with the key, they finally coaxed the stubborn lock into opening so they could enter the cave. Their exit from Proctor was delayed because the gate lock, once again, would not open. The problem with the jammed lock caused them to miss their sign-in time which resulted in a reconnaissance tearn being sent to check on them. After several hours of constant effort the lock was opened and they were able to exit the cave. Mammoth Cave Two strong survey parties, bound for Lucy's Domes and Hooflands Avenue, worked in Mammoth Cave. The Lucy's Domes crew worked in the R-Survey where they pushed "tight and twisty crawls" lined with projections sticking out of the walls. They attempted to push several of the leads but were repeatedly turned back due to the size and configuration of the passages. The area will need to be surveyed by a party of "Karen Willmes size cavers." The Hooflands Avenue party mopped up the tluee remaining leads in the B-Survey maze area. Two of the leads joined together in what turned out to be a cutaround. The third lead required negotiating a large puddle at the bottom of a hole in the passage floor. The lead was low and damp and the crew "re-emerged, rather soggy" into the B-Survey. They reported no cartographic work remaining in the immediate area but there is still work to do in the "nether regions" of Hooflands. Survey/Cartography Training Bob Osburn conducted a survey training class, using Mammoth Cave as the classroom. He lead a group of student-sketchers into Marion Avenue where he set out survey lines for them to follow. The students sketched several stations to scale and had an opportunity to compare CRF survey books from the early 70's with those of the 1990's. Back at Maple Springs the students worked-up pencil drafts of their in-cave sketches and the results of their cartography attempts were reviewed and critiqued. Bob reported that all showed good progress in sketching and said, "There is always room for more good sketchers." Discover:)' Channel Filming Harry Grover Photo CRF escorted a Discovery Channel camera crew to two incave locations in the Park to shoot scenes for a show featuring Mammoth Cave which is expected to air in Oct. The crew went in through the Doyle Valley Entrance on their first day of work. They shot extensive footage at P. Strange Falls and then dropped into the room dinectly beneath the water fall to film there as well. Several shots of CRF cavers entering and exiting the cave through the Doyle Valley entrance were also captured on video. The Discovery crew's second day of caving was spent in
14 Cave Research Foundalion SePlember Olivia's Dome where they documented Larry Mallory's microbiology research site and filmed a discussion of general cave biology. The crew, escorted by Vickie Carson (NPS Public Affairs), exited via Silliman's Avenue. Lesser Caves Project The hard-working GPS and Brass Cap crew spent two days hiking to caves on the north side of the Green River. GPS locations were taken and Brass Caps set for Temple Hill Cave, Junction Drop Cave, Cemetery Cave, Bear Den and Pinnix Pocket Cave. Blue Spring Branch Cave was capped but still needs GPS work. Time ran out, forcing the team to leave Wildcat Hollow and First Creek Lake caves for a future trip. A second surface team hiked the Raymer Hollow Trail, searching for karst features in the Hornbeam Spring area. Their search was successful and they returned to Maple Springs with a long list of discoveries. Their efforts yielded a 30 foot long cave, a shelter cave 20 feet long x 25 feet wide, and two sinkholes with rubblefilled openings. They surveyed and inventoried three of their finds, returning with 104 feet of new survey. Team Four checked leads off Walter's Way in windy passage cut by many local water inputs. They pushed an upper level lead at B62 to a limestone breakdown and were able to "voice-connect" to a ceiling canyon above the breakdown. They mapped a series of domes and climbed ten feet up a side wall to survey a canyon. The canyon continued but they were not able to push it beyond 10 stations because their time ran out. A semi-articulated snake skeleton was found on the floor at G2. Crews Salts Cave: Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan; Paleontology: 1) Morrison Cave: P. Strange Falls John Holbrook, Tammy Eifert, Phil Statler; 2) Proctor Cave: Frost Avenue Rick Toomey, Rick Olson (NPS), Kathleen Womack; Geology: Long Cave 1) Paul Rubin, Thorn Engel, Mike Nardacci; 2) Paul Rubin, Mike Nardacci, Tom Grant; Wilson Cave: 1) Nice & Easy Dave West, Karen Willmes, Dave Prival; 2) Funnels Jim Greer, Tun Schafstall, Tom Brucker; Bat Cave: Bob Osburn, Ralph Earlandson, Tom Grant; Ganter Cave: Scott House, Wieslaw Klis, Greg Black; Proctor Cave: 1) Czar Chasm Marion Ziemons, Don Coons, [oh Swartz, Joyce Hoffmaster; 2) Frost Avenue Douglas Baker, Steve Irvine, Wieslaw Klis; Mammoth Cave: 1) Lucy's Domes Dick Maxey, Cheryl Early, Mac Mcinnes; 2) Hooflands Avenue Mick I Sutton, Sue Hagan, Roger McClure; Survey Training: Mammoth Cave: Marion Avenue Bob Osburn, Joe Levinson, Ralph Earlandson. Greg Black, Jim Greer; GPSI Brasscap: 1) Temple Hill Cave; Junction Drop Cave, Cemetary Cave: Mike Yocum, John Fry (NPS), Scott House; 2) Pinnix Pocket Cave, Bear Den Cave, Blue Spring Branch: Mike Yocum, John Fry (NPS); Hornbeam Spring Area: Doug Baker, Steve Irvine, Stan Sides, Doug Alderman; Roppel Cave: 1) Harry Grover Photo Death Canyon Jim Borden, Phil John Holbrook, May 1996 Bodanza.Ioe Levinson; 2) Transgressions TrailBill Koerschner, Bill Stephens, Russell Conner; 3) Transgressions Trail Bill Koerschner, Phil Bodanza, Bill Stephens, Russ Conner; 4) Walter's Way Tom Brucker, Karen Willmes, Alan Canon; Discovery Channel Film: 1) Mammoth Cave: Olivia's Dome Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Roger McClure, Vickie Carson (NPS) & film crew; 2) Morrison Cave: P. Strange Falls John Holbrook, Phil Statler, Marion Ziemons, John Swartz & film crew. Roppel Cave Four teams were fielded to Rappel Cave. These trips were possible due to a temporary operating agreement in place with Dave Weller, owner of the Downey Entrance, a.k.a. the Weller Entrance. Team One's i original objective was to continue the Tom's Tube survey in Lower Elysian Way, however, it was aborted due to illness. Instead, survey was conducted at the junction of Death Canyon and Lower Black River. They returned with 147 feet of new survey and 181 feet of re-survey, leaving several upper level leads above the junction room for future parties. Team Two made the fourhour trip out to Transgressions Trail to work in the M-Survey. They mopped up 40 stations to finish the main line of the survey; it ended near a small shaft drain and passage too small to enter. They reported hearing "a major stream through this drain." Transgressions Trail was again visited, this time by Team Three, who made the long trek in order to survey downstream Nexus Creek. They placed 5 stations before being stopped by a tight spot in the canyon that three of the four party members could not fit through.
1996 Cave Research Foundation 15 Missouri April through June 1996 Report by Mick Sutton. Mark Twain National Forest A two-person crew spent a week camping at Whites Creek float camp along the Eleven Point River in the Irish Wilderness, where they mapped and inventoried three small unreported caves (Phoebe, Hummingbird, and Salamander), doubled the surveyed length of Thorn Cave to 750 ft. (with more to go), found and mapped a shelter, and mapped and inventoried Flat Cave (previously unreported) for 500 ft. of very flat going. Several caves (White Cave, Niche Cave and Freeman Breakdown Cave) were nowhere to be found; none of these appear to be at or near their alleged locations-the nearest objeclto a cave within the search area was Armadillo Pit, only 12 ft.long. One explorer exited this little hole closely followed by a slightly agitated armadillo. Drastically wet weather resulted in Creekbed Cave and Porifera Cave Annex being more or less underwater, and resulted in a fast exit trip by canoe down to Riverton. A survey and bioinventory trip went to Everette Chaney Cave, farther upriver on the Eleven Point. Two mapping crews worked from opposite ends of the cave and met in the middle of this approximately 1,000 ft. long maze. A search for neighboring Spider's Parlor Cave was kept brief owing to hot and sweaty conditions; although the cave in question was not located, two other small unreported caves were found. On the way down-river cavers swung by the entrance to Dead Man Cave, finding that there was no sign or barrier to dissuade casual visitation to the gray bat maternity site. The survey of Davy Crockett Cave in Howell County continued. The crew, suffering from miscellaneous colds, contented themselves with 300 ft. of dry mop-up survey, bringing the surveyed length to 4,082 ft. It is unlikely that the cave will prove to be less than a mile long. Pioneer Forest A survey crew worked on the Leatherwood Creek area in the privately owned Pioneer Forest, Shannon County. The party located and mapped Boulder Cave, about 200 ft. long, and Harley Patton Cave, about 400 ft. long, with a large entrance and some nice speleothems. Round Spring Cavern There were three trips to this large NPS tourist cave on the Ozark National Scenic Riverways. The parties continued doing bioinventory and began a photo-documentation project. The most remarkable biological observation was that the vast population of larval salamanders noted previously in a group of shallow pools has crashed to a total of one rather large and well-fed individual-has there been cannibalism, predation, migration, or some combination? It will be interesting to follow this cycle through a year or so. Powder Mill Creek Cave Powder Mill Creek Cave was extended a bit further with 350 ft. of complicated new passage in the Hell Hole Series. The crew ended the survey at a T-junction with a fairly large trunk, which continues unexplored in two directions. Project leader Doug Baker was forced to sit out this trip, the first Powder Mill trip he has missed, owing to a broken finger. Crews Whites Creek-Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton; Everette Chaney Cave-l)Scott House, Patti House, Paul Hauck; 2) Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Dick Young; Davy Crockett Cave-Steve Irvine, George Bilbrey, Doug Baker; Leatherwood Creek-Scott House, Mat Beeson, Mike Beeson, Bud Beeson, Bob Osburn, Maggie Osburn; Round Spring Cavern; biology-Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Scott House; photography-Dick Young, Scott House, Patti House, Paul Hauck; Powder Mill Creek CaveMick Sutton, Sue Hagan, George Bilbrey.
Calendar Mammoth Cave Guadalupes Lesser CavesNov. 15 to 18. Mike Yocum 502/227-7254 Thanksgiving, Nov. 28-Dec. 1 firstname.lastname@example.org Thanksgiving, Nov. 27-Dec. 1. Phil DiBlasi and Jan Marie Hemberger. 502/637-2030 (H) 502/852-6724 (PO, W) pjdibI01@ulkyvm.louisville.edu New Year, December 27-30. Presidents Day, Feb. 14-17. Dick Maxey & Cheryl Early. 614/ 261-0876 (CE, H) email@example.com(DM) March including Don't Mess with Mammoth March 14-17. Joyce Hoffmaster 937/890-3679 (H) 937/226-8351 (W) The first and last dates are arrival and departure dates. Notify the expedition leader or Operations Mananger (Mike Yocum, 502/ 227-7254, firstname.lastname@example.org)at1easttwoweeksinadvanceofthe expedition. Cave Research Foundation Post Office Box 443 Yellow Springs, OH 45387 Ralph Earlandson 802 S. Hlghlllnd Oak Park IL 60304 Address Correction Requested To sign up for one of these expeditions contact Personnel Officer Bryan Holcomb, 1224 Monroe NE, Albuquerque, NM 87110, phone 505/2668485, at least one week in advance. Missouri Through the winter, Missouri trips will focus on survey and inventory of smaJler caves in the Lower Ozarks region. Trips will probably originate from the Ozark National Scenic Riverways near Eminence and are highly weather dependent. CaJlScott House (314-282-3246) orMick Sutton (573-546-2864) for trip info. Non-Profit Organization U.S. Postage Paid Permit 160 Yellow Springs, OH r 1
Contents: Famed Bat
Scientist Merlin Tuttle Visits MCNP, Bat Conservation
International Founder Addresses CRF, PS / Candice Leek --
Karst Fellowships --
Film Crew Visits MCNP --
Speleothem Sellers Cited and much more.