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Cave Research Foundation newsletter

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Cave Research Foundation newsletter
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Cave Research Foundation newsletter
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CRF newsletter
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Cave Research Foundation
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Cave Research Foundation
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English

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Resource Management ( local )
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United States

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Contents: President's Column -- Hamilton Valley Project Report -- Letters to the Editor -- The Grand Kentucky Junction -- Camel and Cave Crickets -- CRF Web Page -- Book Review -- Grants and Fellowships -- Colossal Cavern Love Letters Found -- Cave Books List -- Area Expeditions and News -- Expedition Calendars.
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Open Access - Permission by Publisher
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Windy City Grotto Collection, 1961-2013
Original Version:
Vol. 26, no. 3 (August 1998)
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See Extended description for more information.

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University of South Florida Library
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12806 ( karstportal - original NodeID )

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Dr. Chris Groves Center for Cave and Karst Studies Western Kentucky University j CAVE &SEARCH FOUNDATION The Martin Ridge Cave System Much of the new exploration in the last few years in the Mammoth Cave region has taken place outside of the National Park. Some of the most recent has been taking place to the southwest, where the work of several groups has resulted in multiple connections to Whigpistle Cave. The result, which is being called the Martin Ridge Cave System, is now 32+ miles long and is currently the ninth longest cave in the US. "They found several streams, one which led to a 30 foot waterfall drop through the ceiling of a large passage, over 40 feet wide." CRF members Alan Glennon and Jon Jasper came to the Mammoth Cave area in the fall of 1994 to pursue M. S. degrees in the karst studies program at Western Kentucky University. Working independently of the organized caving groups in the area, they spent much of their time around Mammoth Cave National Park, where they both became park rangers and cave guides during the summers. During the spring of 1996, the two explored and mapped a Z number of small caves south of the Park, particularly in o one area where Alan had begun to work on his thesis C !;;: research studying patterns of rivers that flow through and form these cave systems. Finding a small blowing hole in a ~ wooded sinkhole one day, they spent several hours digging o through mud and debris until there was enough room for LL them to fit. After just a few feet, the cave seemed to end except for a very tight hole in the floor into which they slid after clearing several rock slabs. To their delight, beneath the tight spot the cave opened up, and as they made their way along the passage it eventually became large enough for them to walk upright. J: o a:: ~ II) w a:: w ~ o Naming their discovery Martin Ridge Cave, they returned several times over the next few weeks, and with the help of a few friends, explored and mapped a complicated, threedimensional maze of passages. They found several streams, one of which led to a 30 foot waterfall drop through the ceiling of a large passage, over 40 feet wide. "Extending for several thousand feet, the passage led to a fine formation area, as well as a connection by Alan and Jon to nearby Jackpot Cave." Excitedly thinking they had made their way into the heart of the system, they were disappointed to find that the passage filled with sediment after only a few hundred feet, although they were rewarded with the discovery of a large number of very large and beautiful helictites, some over 30 inches long. A breakthrough finally came early in the summer when the explorers reached the top of a pit, which they found to be just over 100 feet deep, and a large stream below led onward. They had indeed made their way into the main part of the system, and over the next few months the cave grew as a number of significant discoveries were made. See "The Martin Ridge Cave System" continued on page 7 Table of Contents President's Column Page 3 Hamilton Valley Project Report Page 6 Letters to the Editor PageS The Grand Kentucky Junction Page 10 Camel and Cave Crickets Page 9 CRF Web Page Part J PageU Book Review Page 8 Grants and Fellowships Page 6 Colossal Cavern Love Letters Found Page 13 Cave Books List Page 33 Area Expeditions and News Page'/S Expedition Calendars Page3S

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CRF NEWSLETTER Volume 26,No. 3 Au~st 1998 E"abllshed/973 Candice E. Leek; Editor>,' Post Office Box 350970 Jacksonville, Fiorida ~2235"()970 Telephone: 904-72H1195 B.rnaii: CILEEK@lll)l.com Newsletter Staff Production Manager: Richard Zopf Central Kentucky Area: Candice Leek Guadalupe Area: Barbe Barker California Area: John Tinsley Ozarks Project: Mike Pearson Missouri Project: Mick Sutton Lava Beds Area: JanetSowers China Project: Ian Baren Hawaii Project: Pat' Kambesis Published Quarterly: Feb., May, Aug., Nov. Subscriptions: $5.00 per year Free to Members and Fellows The CRF QUARTERLY NEWSLETTER 18 publication of the Cave Research Foundation, non-proftt organization Incorporated In 1957 under the laWl of Kentucky forth_ purpose of furthering relel!rch, conservatIon, and education about caves and karat For information about CRF, write-to: Pat Kambesis, President Post Office Box 343 Wenona, IL 6/377 Telephone: 815-863-5/84 Esmail: Kambesis@bigfoot.com CRF Home Page: http://www.cave-research.org Copyright 1998, by the Cave Research Foundation Newsletter Submissions & Deadlines CRF welcomes queries from writers. Send article proposals with bne outline to the Editor. Request style and submission guidelines. The CRF Quarterly Newsletter is distributed 4 times a year. Occasionally issues may be combined. Submissions should be sent to the Editor by the ,SI of the month preceeding the month of issue. Material submitted for publication must be received by the Editor no later than the deadlines listed below. Publication of late material is not guaranteed. February Issue .... January 1 st May issue. .. April 1 51 August issue July 1 51 November issue October 1 51 POSTMASTER SEND ADDRESS CHANGES TO: CRF QUARTERLY NEWSLETTER 1112 XENIA AVENUE YELLOW SPRINGS, OHIO 45387 CAVE RESEARCH FOUNDA nON Board of Directors Pat Kembesis ~ president Peter Bosted Secretary 'Paul Cannaley ~ Treasurer Phil DiBlasi -National Personnel Officer & Immediate past;President Roger McClure Chuck Pease Bob Osburn Chris Groves Rickard Toomey Operations Council Pete Lindsley (ARK) Barbe Barker (CaCa) Janet Sowers (LaBe) Dave West (MaCa) Scott House (MO) John Tinsley (SeKilMiKi) CRF Bulletin Board Wanted: Photographs for CRF annual reports and the CRF Web Page. Contact Pat Kambesis. See address in the column to the left. Hamilton Vallev Caretakers: Check in with the new Hamilton Valley caretakers (iiving in the trailer) if you plan to visit the CRF property. Ben and Angela Chism, 502773-4372 Address Changes: To ensure uninterrupted newsletter service, piease send your address changes to Richard Zop!, 1112 Xenia Avenue, Yellow Springs, OH 45387. Telephone: 937-767-9222 (before 10:00 p.m. EST) or email to rzopf@college.antioch.edu E-Mail: If you have an e-mail address and would like to add it to your CRF listing, send it to Richard Zopf at the address listed above. Wanted: Hamilton Valley Project Leaders. Would yOU like to take on a project at our Hamilton Valley site? A number of projects, large and small, are available. They are projects that aimost anyone can do. Contact Roger McClure at 513-233-3561 if you are interested. Hamilton Vallev Log Sheet: Please sign the log sheet in the Hoffmaster House (tenant house) when you visit the Hamilton Valley property. Corrections: In the article entitled, "Ground Broken for CRF's Hamiltol'l ~alleY Headqua~ers', which appeared in the FebruarylMay 1 ssa Issue, Rlch~rd Zopf was Incorrectly identified as the author The article was a compilatiOn of material from several sources. Additionally, Doug Davis' name was accidentally omitted from the list 0 participants.

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I I r August 1998 3 N (jTesitfent's Column Pat Kambesis President, Cave Research Foundation This summer saw a couple of great "firsts" for CRF, and an incredible step for the Hamilton Valley project. Exciting cave exploration and research opportunities are in the works, and volunteer opportunities abound for one of the US's most important cave conservation/management symposiums. CRF now has enough money in the Building Fund to move toward constructing the main building and one bunkhouse on our Hamilton Valley property. The Board has unanimously given the go-ahead for Dick Maxey, Building Committee Chair, to get bids for the construction project. This is an important and substantial step toward having our own field station. However, funds are still needed for construction of the remaining two bunkhouses, for furnishings for the main building and to go towards establishing an endowment fund to provide insurance and maintenance for all of the buildings. I f you have been waiting to make your contribution to the Hamilton Valley Project, now is the time. "CRr now has enough money in the Building Fund to move toward constructing the main building and one bunkhouse on our Hamilton Valley Project." For the first time ever, CRF made an official appearance at the NSS convention. The Friday afternoon session at the Sewannee convention featured ongoing research, restoration, exploration, survey, and cartographic projects from our various operation and project areas. Chris Groves started off the session with a paper (coauthored with Joe Meiman NPS), overviewing projects in the Mammoth Cave area which are being conducted in cooperation with the National Park Service. Bil( Howcroft presented the current results of his research entitled, "Statistical and Fractal Characteristics of Conduit Systems in the Redwood Canyon Karst Aquifer, Tulare County, California." Peter Bosted did an excellent talk on the history and current status of the Lilburn Cartography Project (California). Ian Baren wowed us with slides from the 1998 China Cave Project/Exchange. From CRF West, Barbe Barker, area manager, talked about restoration/conservation philosophies and projects that are ongoing at Carlsbad Caverns National Park. Bill Frantz gave a fine presentation on lava tube inventory at Lava Beds National Monument (CA). The highlight of his talk was a virtual cave display which he and Peri Frantz are developing for educational and resource management at Lava Beds. The session was well received not only by those unfamiliar with CRF activities, but also by CRF members who now have a broader perspective on what goes on in all of our operational areas and projects. Plans are underway to organize another session at the 1999 NSS Convention in Idaho. "For the first time ever, eRF made an official appearance at the NSS Convention." Earlier this year the CRF Web Page finally went online. For those of you who haven't yet checked it out, the URL is http://www.cave-research.org. The home page is open to the cyber-public and contains a brief history of CRF, membership information, an overview on our fellowships and grants program, a Cave Books inventory list and ordering information, and a Links page which lists other sites of interest to CRF members. In June the "Members Page" was posted. This section features expedition schedules for all operation areas, CRF announcements, and a Business page which includes some of our "legal" documents. There is a lot more information scheduled for inclusion on the Members page so check it periodically. To obtain the log-on name and password, click on the "CONTACT CRF" button on the home page. Be use to include your full name and operation area. As always, comments, critiques, and suggestions are welcome. The upcoming National Cave Management Symposium will be hosted by the Southeastern Cave Conservancy, Inc. in the Fall of 1999. They are currently seeking volunteers for planning, logo design, web page updates and whatever else needs to be done in order to pull off such an event. So what does this have to do with CRF? Well, since we are one of the sponsors of the symposium, and have been since its inception, this is a good opportunity for CRF members to take a more active role in planning and logistics. (Hey, I've already volunteered!) For those interested, check out their Website at http://www.caves.orgincms99. See "The President's Column" continued on page /2 Summer Issue Cave Research Foundation

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4 CRF Quarterly Newsletter New Chief Takes Over the Reins of Science and Resource Management at Mammoth Cave His soft Southern drawl gives away his Mississippi heritage. After a few lines of conversation, he reveals a wife and daughter, along with a fascination for bugs. His love of the outdoors shows in his comfortable manner in the woods. But there is more, much more, to Jerry O'Neal, the new Chief of Science and Resource Management at Mammoth Cave National Park. "O'Neal is a master of several trades," said Superintendent Ronald Switzer. "He is a toxicologist, an entomologist, and an ecologist, and, of all things, a novelist. The National Park Service is his third federal agency. O'Neal's strong research background will be a great asset to us here at Mammoth Cave as he coordinates the fifty plus ongoing studies in the cave and on the surface." ... as a boy, I was always fascinated by the natural world around me ... O'Neal comes to Kentucky from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in Atlanta, Georgia, where, since 1991, he was the Southeast Regional Environmental Contaminants Coordinator. Before that, he was a pesticide research consultant (1981-91), led an Eastern Spruce bud worm research project for the U.S. Forest Service in New Hampshire (1979-81), served as the entomologist in charge at the USDA Animal/Plant Health and Inspection Service Lab in Florida (1975-79), and did research for the U.S. Forest Service in Oregon during the mid-1970's. O'Neal earned bachelors and masters degrees in ecology I entomology I toxicology from the University of Southern Mississippi. O'Neal is published: seven historical novels under the pen name, Jess McCreede; two environmental thrillers due out soon; and a feature length screenplay now being considered for a Hollywood production. Why did he choose this kind of career? O'Neal answers this way: "As a boy, I was always fascinated by the natural world around me. My high school science teacher acted as mentor and encouraged me to pursue a career in the natural sciences. I chose systems ecology because it offered a holistic view, the big picture, of how the natural world functions with respect to man's actions." Source: National Park Service Press Release, MaCa N.P. How To Become a Joint Venturer at Mammoth Cave National Park Don Bittle Eastern Operations Personnel Officer When a caver expresses a desire to join CRF (Kentucky), the first step is to write me a letter, even if it's via e-mail, telling me why they want to join and something about their caving experience. It doesn't hurt if they give a CRF caver as a reference. I then send them a packet consisting of six pages. Two pages are copies of the JV Agreement sheets and waivers that have to be signed by two people, or notarized. The caver keeps one and sends the other back to me, along with the completed personal profile sheet and a $10 one-timefee for handling and processing. I also include two general information sheets and a schedule of expeditions. In general, I would like for them to understand that we need long-term, committed cavers who are wanting to make a contribution to speleology. When the items are returned, I look at them and try to judge whether or not they could be of use to us, and us to them. I may also talk to others about them. I then notify them of their acceptance or rejection and if accepted, enter them into the database and notify all Expedition Leaders that they have come aboard. I may mail them the CRF Personnel Manual, the CRF Address List and the CRF Cave Books list. Occasionally, they will pick them up during their first trip to an expedition at Maple Springs in order to save postage. Each person is on "probation" for one year. If, at the end of the year, the EL's don't feel that this person is what we need, they will be removed from the JV list. I request that they do at least one trip during the first six months and two each year thereafter. However, this is not a firm rule if special circumstances warrant. Among the firm rules we do have is that all applicants must have medical insurance. You have to prove that you have a health insurance policy in effect and agree to keep it while affiliated with CRF. This is written into our MOU with the National Park Service. Refer prospective JV's to: Don Bittle 12161 Pebble Point Road Marion, IL 62959-9805 Phone 618-995-2077 Email: donbittle@sondata.net Email: donbittle@yahoo.com Cave Research Foundation Volume 26, Number 3

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August 1998 5 Invitation to Cave in Hawaii I ~----In follow-up of the mentions of CRF project caving in Hawaii, CRF members might like to know that they are welcome on Hawaii Grotto field trips and at Hawaii Grotto meetings on several islands, and don't have to wait for projects. The East Hawaii group of the Hawaii Grotto has meetings in Mountain View (about halfway from Hilo to Volcano) on the third Tuesday of each month at 7:30 p.m., at the Pineapple Pack Bed and Breakfast on Pikake Street in the Fern Acres subdivision. Telephone Lewis ("Doc") Holliday, 808-968-8170 for directions (or for reservations!). Meetings of the Oahu, West Hawaii, and Maui groups are intermittent. Meetings often can be scheduled (for slide shows) if CRF members bring slides when they come. For Oahu, call Dr. Michael Kliks, 808-988-7203; for Maui (Hana, at Ka'Eleku Cavern shown cave) call Chuck Thome at 808-248-7308; for West Hawaii (Ocean View, at Kula Kai Caverns camping often possible by prior arrangement) call Rick Elhard at 808-937-3083. Subscriptions to Hawaii Grotto News (now in Volume 7) are $9 per year payable to Lynn Scully, 3938 Mahinahina Street, Lahaina. Maui, HI 96761. ALOHA! William R. Halliday Chairman, Hawaii Grotto of the NSS expedition, or one of the first. Roger Brucker, Dave Huber, Jake Elberfeld, Burnell Ehman, were among the active guys at that time, along with some college boys named Stan Sides, Dennis Drum, and Joe Davidson! I was II years old at the time (1958), and it was a most interesting experience. The Spelee Hut was in use at that time, and it was the nerve center for cooking and for trip planning. Food was stored in two refrigerators ... one, you had to close very carefully, or the latch mechanism wouldn't engage ... the other, you had to close firmly, or the latch mechanism wouldn't engage (this was in the olden days, before magnetic strip seals). I don't remember now which was which, but only one of the two actually worked as a refrigerator, the other we used to keep bread and stuff from marauding critters, and the two units were referred to as "Slam" and "Don't Slam" The other distinct recollection I have from that summer was the water. It was piped in from a well to the Spelee Hut, using brand new garden hose. It imparted a unique flavor to anything made with water. Tang was a new product, and to this day I cannot drink a glass of the stuff without tasting the "plastic Tang" of my childhood!! Plastic Jell-O was memorable, too. The "moms" of the camp were amazing .,. Joan Brucker, Patty Jo Watson, and my mother, Mary Black. Joan ran her household from one of the first Ford vans, set up as a camper. Six people could sleep comfortably, and with some adjustments, could accommodate 2 more for meals. "Sleeps 6, eats 8," Joan would say. Red and Patty Watson had a baby daughter named Anna, and this was before disposable diapers. Come to think of it, I don't know how any of the moms got laundry done, and there was a passel of kids!! My parents slept in a tent, and my three brothers and I slept in jungle hammocks festooned through the trees. This was just off the road leading to the Austin Entrance to Crystal, about 50 feet from the Spelee Hut. I read in the article that the Spelee Hut had been moved, was the lean-to cooking area moved as well? The canvas roof was a tarp from an Antarctic expedition. My main reason for writing is to suggest that you try to glean some of the stories floating around about the old days, from the "old guys" who were there. My dad has been writing a series of books for his descendants, so they'll know some family history. I think the CRF family could benefit from knowing some of the "ancient history" See "Letters to the Editor" continued on page 34 Summer Issue Cave Research Foundation + Memories from the Daughter of all "Ancient caver" Hello, "Ancient Caver" here ... daughter of an even more ancient one! I just wanted you to know how much I enjoyed the Issue of the CRF Quarterly I just finished reading. I was visiting my parents in Chattanooga, and it was the most recent issue, which had the (past) president's reminiscences about those who have gone before her, in this organization. My maiden name was Ruth Black, and I am the daughter of Don Black. When I read about the early years of CRF, I realized that I was probably at the very first summer

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6 CRF Quarterly Newsletter Grants and Fellowships CKF Funds 4 Projects in 1996 The Cave Research Foundation received 13 proposals in 1996. Of these, one Fellowship and three Grants were funded, for a total of $8,500.00. A synopsis of each funded proposal is provided in this issue. PROJECT: An Intraspeclflc Cladisllc Analysis of Population Siruciure and Hislory In the Troglobilic Planlhopper Oliarus polyphemus In Volcanically Active Regions of Hawaii Island Ms. Kerl E. WIlliamson Department of Biology Washington University St. Louis, Missouri Karst Fellowship in the amount of $3,500 Ms. Williamson's research uses population genetics data and behavioral and geological information to elucidate patterns of specialization and relations between populations in a cave-adapted planthopper species complex Oliarus olyphemus. These critters dwell in lava tubes in volcanically active regions of Hawaii Island. Consequently, they have undergone repeated expansion, contraction, and isolation events during their relatively short geologic history. There are significant differences among mating calls of geographically close populations, an indicator of significant divergence between populations. Ms. Williamson will be using genetic data from these populations to construct a cladistic network in order to elucidate historical relations of these populations. The hypothesis to be tested is that O. polyphemus is not limited to humanly accessible caves, but is distributed continuously throughout innumerable voids in the lava substrate. Anticipated insights to be gained include understanding how habitat fragmentations have influenced the evolutionary history of this species, and the identification of species status in the species complex. As the identification of unique populations of O. polyphemus is likely to mirror similar or analogous patterns In other cave and surface organisms, this study's conclusions will help to identify crucial biological regions as key targets for conservation efforts. See "Grant,~ and Fellows/rips" on page /2 Hamilton Valley Project Goes! Many great things have transpired in the last couple of months that now make it a "GO" for building the main building and at least one bunkhouse. We still need contributions for the other two bunkhouses and building furnishings (chairs, tables, kitchen equipment, grounds equipment, bunk beds, etc.) and for an Endowment Fund to provide insurance and maintenance for the buildings in perpetuity. I have talked with Rod Menmi, the original designer, and he has given his blessing to the changes made. I also talked to Stan Voelker of VoelkerWimm, the architects who will oversee the building of our facilities. He says that our buildings can be built during the winter, as well as the rest of the year, so we can get underway at once. The Building Committee has ordered the block for the utility building and we already have rafters purchased and on site. We expect to have the utility building constructed by December, 1998. By raising enough money NOW to build the three bunkhouses at the same time as the main building, we can cut a better deal with the contractor; John Standage, of Leonard Smith and Associates, says he thinks he can build bunkhouses for 50% less than the original quotes. Let's get it done! We want to have a housewarmi~g in the main building for the fully completed Hamilton Valley Field Station, all five buildings, on December 31,1999. Thank you all for believing this could be done. We are now going to finish this project! Source: Richard Maxey on behalf of the whole Building Commillee and Red Warson. Carlsbad Cavern's 75 th Anniversary Employees at Carlsbad Caverns National Park celebrated the Park's 75 th anniversary on October 9 and 10, 1998. The highlight of the celebration was the rededication of the Park on October 9, at 10:00 a.m.. at the Bat flight Amphitheater. This was an occasion to reflect on the purposes for which the Park was established to honor the people responsible for us p k's creation, and to reaffirm commitment to the ar future preservation and restoration. Source: Carlsbad Caverns NP Cave Research Foundation Volume 26, Number 3

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August 1998 7 "The Martin Ridge Cave System" continuedfrompage 1 One of the important early finds was a tight, wet crawlway that led to a very large passage that they named the Dreamland Trunk. Extending for several thousand feet, the passage led to a fine formation area, as well as a connection by Alan and Jon to nearby Jackpot Cave, which was quietly being explored by the James Cavers. The June 24 connection brought the cave's length to over six miles, about half of which had been found from either entrance. While six miles is not huge by Kentucky standards, the cave at that point would have been more extensive than the longest cave in 27 states! "Going downstream in the low passage with only a foot of airspace, the ceiling rose after about 100 feet, and they found themselves in a large river passage that they followed for over half a mile before turning around ... The cave continued to grow throughout the summer and early fall with a series of finds that alternated between low crawls, twisty tight canyons, and very large passages. As the cave grew in both length and depth, the trips became longer and more difficult. Always facing the teams at the end of each trip from the deeper parts of the main cave system was the upward climb of 300 feet in a series oflight canyons, including the 102 foot climb at the main pit. With time running out before the closure of the cave entrance by the owner for the fall and winter hunting seasons, a great find occurred in late August, t 996. Returning back to the surface after a relatively short survey trip that had failed to tum up much new passage, Alan and Jon decided to crawl into a very wet stream passage. Going downstream in the low passage with only a foot of air space, the ceiling rose after about 100 feet, and they found themselves in a large river passage that they followed for over a half mile before turning around to make their way back to the entrance. Although they were in new, unexplored territory, and deeper into the cave than they had ever been, they made a startling discovery. At a large intersection, they took a break while Jon poked into a side passage, and was startled to see a vague footprint in the mud floor! It turned out that they had unknowingly connected Martin Ridge Cave with Whigpistle Cave, and that the footprint had been made twelve years earlier by a team deep in that cave. That group had included Geary Schindel, who had come from Maryland also to attend W.K.U. back in the early 1980's as a graduate student. Working at the time doing hydrologic work for the late Jim Quinlan, Geary's group had discovered and briefly explored the large river passage from the Whigpistle Cave side at the end of a very long trip. They left the cave planning to return for a more extensive look. Unfortunately, silting from a large flood in the spring of 1984 blocked the route to their new lead, and although several groups have tried to return through the years, the river passage lay unexplored for over a decade. Indeed, stories of the passage and speculation about where it might lead persisted through the years among cavers in the Mammoth Cave area, until it was rediscovered through Martin Ridge Cave. Two days after the discovery, a group returned and mapped over 3,000 feet in the new river passage, finding the old poker chip that had been left as a survey marker by the 1983 Whigpistle team. Extending the survey to connect with that point, the combined system grew to almost thirty miles in length, which not only made it the third longest cave in Kentucky, but indeed one of the country's longest. Survey since has brought the cave's length to over 32 miles, which currently makes it the ninth longest cave in the United States. All new surveys in Martin Ridge have been done to the standards used in the CRF cartography program. The new areas have a large number of active streams of various sizes, the most important of which has been named Quinlan Creek. Dye tracing has shown that the cave system is in the region where the confluence of Hawkins River with the major river draining northwards from Mill Hole awaits discovery. The downstream end of Quinlan Creek, which ends at a sump in a large room, is within just a few feet of base level, and may be a direct tributary to either Hawkins River or the undiscovered Mill Hole river. Not far away is Red River, found through Whigpistle in the 80's by the Quinlan cavers, which has been shown by dye tracing to be a downstream segment of Hawkins River, upstream from the confluence with the Mill Hole river. "It turned out that they had unknowingly connected Martin Ridge Cave with Whigpistle Cave, and that the footprint had been made twelve years earlier by a team deep in that cave." The area is thus hydrologically significant, and mapping the new streams has added important new infornnation for Alan's thesis work. The project involves development of new GIS tools using Arc/Info, concentrating in particular on all active base flow streams in the Turnhole Bend groundwater basin, in an attempt to apply the types of morphometric analyses that have been used in surface stream networks to reveal underlying order in the evolution See "The Martin Ridge Cave System" continued on page 34 Summer Issue Cave Research Foundation

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8 CRF Quarterly Newsletter nu: U[g1~dj]~l CO~~[E~ J600k ~eview b, .sUSAO ~. -5"9'10 Cave Passages, by Michael Ray Taylor, Scribner Press, New York, 1996,274 PP plus index, $21 hb. This book is destined to become a classic in non-fiction caving literature -it's a masterpiece. Taylor is more than a caver writing about his speleological interests; he is a skilled author, a poetical philosopher, and a passionate spokesperson for the joys and tribulations to be found underground. His cave passages are diverse: Wyoming's Great Expectations, Lechuguilla, Wind Cave, caves in Jamaica, China's Guizhou Province, and a 150 year old aqueduct under New York City. He presents information about their scientific and cultural significance, how cave surveying is basic to cave science and exploration, the importance of conservation, and the varying nature of geologic beauty. But equally diverse as the caves are the people who explore these subterrains, beginning with Sheck Exley's tragic last dive, and on to a host of famed, not-so-famed, and those perhaps better left unknown. Emily Davis Mobley, immediately after realizing she has a broken leg, in a sincere plea for conservation tells her rescuers, "if you have a choice between trashing formations and making me uncomfortable, make me uncomfortable." Cave cartographer Pat Kambesis, teased about being a "perfectionist and a slave driver when running a survey team," retorts "I'm glad you know your place." Don Coons, Herb and Jan Conn, Donald Davis, and many others have devoted their lives, in money and in time, to caving, and throughout Taylor tries to help the reader better understand the obsessions that drive them. He explores cavers connection not only to caves, but to one another and the resultant behavior that outsiders might regard as somewhat brazen if not bizarre. For example, at a crowded OldTimers Reunion Taylor spends countless hours searching for a caver he has never met before and in the process stumbles past a "Ruinous Activities" sign giving instruction about one's attire; he immediately is challenged by a female guardian of the sauna "who asked if I had come merely to gawk, and If so why don't I just gawk at this, or these or maybe you'd like to see this, and if not, then I had better obey the sign, which I promptly did so as to avoid seeing any more of those things I had definitely not come down this path to see." In the afterward, where the essentiai information on how to start caving is covered, he encourages the novice to be patient (often a year or longer) in trying to fit in with cavers, that despite their initi~1 coldness, their secrecy, even their seemingly caustic natures, "Every caver I know who has taken the time to learn with an experienced group has made friends for life and has found a truly life-changing way of looking at the world." Intertwined throughout are many, many themes on the multiple passages we take in living, the reason people take risks, the impact of coincidence in life outcomes, why some people cave and why they (including himself) sometimes stop caving. Taylor's artistry shows in that he avoids being a speleo-preacher in sharing his insights; for the most part, he allows readers to draw their own conclusions. "There is a surface world and there is a world underground. The only real one is the one you are in at the moment ... caves and stories and the coincidences of a chaotic, which is to say, of any life ever lived, are good, useful paths between the two." Most JVs will recognize a number of the people mentioned in the book but in the Acknowledgments, Taylor also pays 1 a direct complement to the Cave Research Foundation, IS members and the organization. CRF in tum should be gracious to Taylor for his contributions to our organization, including his helping secure funding for two of the CRFINSS China expeditions. Above all, CRF and cav~rs everywhere can be thankful to Taylor for this sterhng 'b contn ution to cave literature. Cave Passages may be purchased from CRF's Cave Books. see bOOk list on page 33. Cave Research Foundation Volume 26, Number 3

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----------------"""'~= August t998 9 Camel and Cave "Crickets" at Mammoth Cave National Park Dr. Tom Poulson "Crickets" are the largest and most conspicuous terrestrial species in Mammoth Cave region caves. The cave cricket Hadenoecus subterraneas is the most frequent (presence vs. absence in a cave entrance or passage), occurs in dense roosts inside entrances, and has the highest impact per individual (orders of magnitude bigger than the nexllargest terrestrial cave species like beetles or millipedes). The related camel crickets, of the genus Ceuthophilus, are less frequent in the caves though both species are common on the forest floor where they hide during the day and forage at night. Ceuthophilus styglus occurs in tight aggregations on ceilings just inside some cave entrances in summer and in small hibernating groups farther back in winter. Ceuthophllus gracllipes only hibernates in caves and prefers tight cracks and mini ceiling pockets. Cave crickets do not hibernate and will forage outside at night whenever conditions are mild and damp. In the hierarchy of Linnean classification, cave and camel "crickets" are in their own subfamily within the longhomed grasshopper family. They are Phylum Arthropoda, Class Insecta, Order Orthoptera, family Rhaphidophoridae (subfamily Dolichopodinae), and Genus species. In comparing the adaptations of camel and cave crickets we cannot say that ancestral cave crickets had characteristics like camel crickets. Also we cannot say whether characteristics of Hadenoecus are really specializations to life in caves until we compare the cave species to ones that occur on the forest floor and caves. With these caveats we will now contrast the cave and camel cricket. In terms of life history, several lines of evidence suggest that camel crickets only live a year but cave crickets live at least three or four years and maybe as lone as five to seven years. Camel crickets are either small (this year's young) or I~rge (reproducing adults). The small ones grow until they hibernate and then continue growth to adult size the next spring. The adults generally die in the fall. In contrast, cave crickets occur in all size classes in all seasons. And we know from recovery of marked individuals that adults which do not molt, can live as long as two years. Indirect evidence for slower growth and longer life of cave crickets comes from the extreme infrequency of observed molting. We have observed from .01 .10% of cave crickets molting and I 4% of camel crickets molting over the past four years of censusing about 150,000 cave crickets and about 2500 camel crickets. .; -~",,:.., ..... ...... ------Artwork by Dr. Tom Poulson Figure 1 Camel and Cave Cricket Comparison Look at the drawings of a camel and cave cricket (Figure I), of the same body length, to see the great differences in morphology. Compared to the camel cricket, the cave cricket: I. has smaller eyes but longer and more delicate legs, antennae, cerci, and mouth palps (the antennae have touch and smell receptors, the palps have taste receptors, and the cerci have more and longer hairs that are air movement receptors the cereal hairs and antennal touch receptors are important for detecting the attack of different kinds of predators); 2. has a thinner exoskeleton which is translucent with no visible waxy-shiny epicuticle (these characteristics are associated with a higher rate of evaporative water loss); 3. lacks brown and black variegated markings (the uniform brown color is presumably no problem since camouflage is not necessary in the cave); and 4. has a much larger and more distensible crop for storing food (as a result can eat up to 300% of its body weight and avoid the risks of foraging outside for weeks rather than a day or two). Summer Issue Cave Research Foundation

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10 CRF Quarterly Newsletter The Grand Kentucky Junction Original words and music by Barbara MacLeod, 1973 No one alive can hope to grasp it all; Though through the maze of passage ways He would forever crawl. It shall be known to ghosts alone, And those who've gone before Beneath the sweet Kentucky hills Will roam forevermore. Beneath Unknown Cave's shafts not far away, Connections known to ghosts alone Between four caverns lay; The role was cast for man at last Where lamps had never shone; They found the hidden passage Linking Crystal with Unknown. A song is but a page of history; To man unknown, engraved in stone The chronicle will be; This cavern knows the hearts ofthose Who could not break the bond Which led them through all the years To find the caves beyond. And so it happened as it had to be; By '62 they'd broken through To link the longest three; A guarded claim behind the name of Flint Ridge now unfurled; With more than forty miles, perhaps The largest in the world. Of Mammoth Cave the legends speak with pride; In days of your, a slave crossed o'er A yawning pit inside; No underground the world around Had labyrinths like these, With halls in darkness undisturbed For twenty centuries. A song is but a page of history; To man unknown, engraved in stone The chronicle will be; This cavern knows the hearts of those Who could not break the bond Which led them on through all the years To find the caves beyond. The smoke from ancient torches stains the walls Where feet unshod the first time trod The floors of silent halls; The hills will keep their bones asleep While spirits wander free To haunt the lofty avenues Of Mammoth, Salts and Lee. Ten years of persistence underground; Through canyons tight by carbide light They mapped and turned around. A southwest lead their only need As nightfall brushed the hill A decade's tales of crawlways And indomitable will. A bridge of pipes and boards across a dome; A challenge met, beyond were yet New corridors to roam; Colossal now must tie somehow With Salts nor far away, But more than half a century Went by before that day. Flint Ridge and Mammoth Cave Ridge side by side; And in between, a deep ravine Explorers' dreams defied; Year after year, they came so near In canyons miles inside; But Houchins Valley won again As hope was born and died. Great Crystal Cave was Floyd's and his alone; From voids unseen his lamp would glean The answers wrought in stone; Not far inside Sand Cave he died Perhaps his ghost had gone To push beyond the Overlook, To travel ever on. At last the westbound winding watercrawl; A lifelong dream fulfilled downstream; An arrow on the wall; In awe they knew they'd come into Pete Hanson's legacy; A timeless, joyous taste of ecstasy. The secrets of our predecessors call; Explorers bold, their arrows old Scratched in a narrow crawl; The tales untold of water cold Of leads unknown to all But those who left their names Upon the wall. Though someone's gone and tallied up the miles, Announced the claims, and named the names, And filed them all in files; To man unknown, engraved in stone, This chronicle will be: And every caver's footsteps forged The course of history. In Mammoth Cave's great rivers underground; Where none had gone, the guides went on And there new wonders found; Discovery and irony Went hand in hand again, For left behind was Hanson's find Which 'neath the valley ran. No one alive can hope to grasp it all; Though through the maze of passageways He would forever crawl It shall be known to ghosts alone, And those who've gone before Beneath the sweet Kentucky hills Will roam forevermore. Source: Contributed by John Freeman Cave Research Foundation Volume 26, Number 3

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August 1998 II "Grants and Fellowships" continued/rom page 6 PROJECT: High-resolution Paleoclimate Reconstruction In the Pokhara Valley Region, Nepal: Searching for an Asian Monsoon Signal In Speleothems Mr. Rhawn F. Denniston Department of Geology University of Iowa Iowa City, IA Karst Research Grant in the amount of $1,500 Mr. Denniston proposes to test if the nature and timing of fluorescent banding in speleothems reflects seasonal growth patterns and preserves the seasonal variability of precipitation-derived 180 oxygen isotopic composition. If the fluorescent banding proves to be seasonal, the technique would be applied to analyzing the Holocene-Late Pleistocene climate history in eastern Nepal, where the present climate is dominated by the Asian monsoon. A high potential for a high-resolution paleoclimatic record is likely. The results from the Pokhara region could be combined with results from speleothem-based studies obtained from caves elsewhere in central and southern Asia to construct an isotopically-based view of the history of monsoon migration and associated precipitation patterns. See "Grants and Fellowships" continued on page /2 New Bridge Built in Hidden River Cave Construction of a 60 foot bridge in Hidden River Cave f 3 d d began during the weekend 0 Mayan contmue throughout the Summer of 1997. The new bridge enhances the view of the subterranean river and the historic dam. Since the new bridge opened in August (1997), visitors have reported seeing as many as half a dozen troglobitic crayfish in the stream. The new bridge makes Hidden River Cave one of only a few places in the United States where troglobitic cave life can routinely be observed by the public. The bridge, designed by ACCA President Roy Powers, was built by local laborers and volunteer cavers. In May, about 15 volunteers from the Cleveland Grotto of the NSS helped move more than 4000 pounds of structural steel into the cave for bridge supports. The bridge decking is made out of plastic wood 2 x 6's, a product made from recycled plastic milk jugs. A new low voltage lighting system is being designed and installed by ACCA Director Jim Richards and Josh Payne. The newly opened bridge will serve as a jumping off point for future trail extensions. Some of the most interesting panoramas in Hidden River Cave lie approximately 200 feet downstream from the end of the current trail. We hope to extend the trail to this point within the next two years. We would like to invite all ACCA members to stop by the museum and see the new bridge. Source: American Caves, Vol. 10, No. I, Spring-Summer /997 Japanese TV Company Visits Carlsbad A Japanese film crew from Tokyo Broadcasting System Television was recently at Carlsbad Caverns National Park filming the caverns for a 30-minute documentary to be shown on Japanese television. The crew was assisted by American light technicians. The Japanese television company has a 30-minute program every week featuring World Heritage sites around the world. The company has film crews traveling all over the world with the goal to feature all 550 sites. According to Chief Director Kiromi Kusaka, by showing on national television in Japan what Carlsbad Caverns has to offer, it is hoped more Japanese tourists will want to come to Carlsbad and visit the Caverns and other tourist sites in the state. Several experts on the caverns had also been interviewed on film. The crew also planned to do some minor work on the culture and people living in the area. Source: Carlsbad Caverns N P Summer Issue Cave Research Foundation ~------------------

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t2 CRF Quarterly Newsletter "Cartsbad,' by Terry Marshall, is a contemporary overview of a New Mexico undiscovered jewel: a robust community of many interests tucked away in the southeastern corner of the state. Home of the famed Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Carlsbad prides itsell on its many holes in the ground. In addition to its numerous caves, the Carlsbad area is home of the richest potash deposit in the U.S., significant oil and gas reserves and now the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a deep ge~logic repository for nuclear waste. Behind the scenes in "Carlsbad," you will step into Carlsbad's history, rappel into Lechuguilla Cave, learn what motivates Carlsbad to be America's only town encouraging a nuclear waste repository in its own back yard and sail the high seas of the Pecos River with the Carlsbad Navy (yes, the Carlsbad Navy!). $24.95 "The President's Column" continued/rom page 3 Plans for the upcoming China Caves Expedition and the Hawaii Project are coming together. The China Caves trip is tentatively set for mid-February through the end of March 1999. Destination will be the Da Fang area to continue exploration and survey work that was begun in March 1998. The Hawaii trip is tentatively set for January 24 through February 7, 1998. Most of the project activity will be in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. If you are interested in going on either trip, its time to get your name on the mailing list. See the Expedition Schedule on back page for contact information. MICROBE STUDY CONTINUES Dr. Larry Mallory has collected approximately 3000 strains of microbes out of Mammoth Cave, Lechuguilla Cave, and some caves located in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. About 1200 of these have been collected out of Lechuguilla Cave. Preliminary tests for potential cancerreducing agents on 1000 of the 3000 strains have had good resuits. From those out of Lechuguilla, sixteen of these tested have good potential for medicinal qualities. Four of the sixteen have tremendous potential. Dr. Mallory quotes, "Initial results are very promising and indicative of success to come." We will pass on more information as it becomes available. Source: Natural Resources Offices Carlsbad Caverns NP "Grants and Fellowships" continued/rom page 11 PROJECT: Faunal Resource Selection and Utilization, and the Development of Agriculture in Eastern North Amerlca Ms. Elizabeth Monroe Department of Biology Washington University St. Louis, Missouri Karst Fellowship in the amount of $2,000 Ms. Monroe is a zooarcheologist whose research addresses the transition from hunter-gatherer to fanming cultures in eastern North America. Rock shelter sites located in the east-central Kentucky uplands at the western edge of the Cumberland Plateau offer sound prospects for success, because of the excellent preservation of organic materials in the shelters. Faunal diversity, bone modification practices, and body part representation in faunal assemblages of the shelters are the issues that should yield the key insights. For example, plant remains will indicate if these Late Archaic cultures practiced fanning and if so, then detenmine the relations among agricultural patterns and faunal assemblages. Hypothetically, these cultures I ived a sedentary lifestyle with seasonal overtones. They cultivated plants and used other resources more intensively than did previous cultures, probably in response to pressures caused by an increasing population. Thus, faunal evidence should show an increase in species richness and evenness, including an increase in numbers of small mammals and other vertebrates procured, and an increase in the systematic procurement of bone marrow and grease. Bone fragmentation is expected to increase over time, reflecting evolving procurement and preparation techniques indicated by changes in bone modification patterns. Those skeletal elements prized for high-nutnent yields are likely to be over-represented in the faunal record. Results obtained from the shelters of southeast Kentucky will be compared to results obtained by researchers working elsewhere in the eastern US to gam insight into the place of the local culture in the evolution of an agriculturally.based economy. See "Grants and Fellowships" continued on page 34 Cave Research Foundation Volume 26, Number 3 ---

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August 1998 13 Colossal Cavern Cartographer's Love Letters Found Sue Hagan & Mick Sutton CRF's web page recently drew an inquiry from a browser which resulted in new light on the Mammoth Cave system's early cartographic efforts. Edgar Vaughan III, who lives in Louisville, KY, discovered letters written by his grandfather to his bride-to-be over a century ago. It was the grandfather, Edgar Vaughan, (along with W. L. Marshall) who led an 1896 survey crew in making the first map of Colossal Cavern. In the process, Vaughan discovered an active domepit which he named for himself and which became a noted tourist site in Colossal. At the time of the 1896 survey Colossal Cavern was an isolated cave which first became integrated with the other big Flint Ridge caves through the 1960 Salts-Colossal connection, and part of the Mammoth Cave-Flint Ridge system with the famous 1972 connection. Vaughan's Dome is a migrated solutional domepit, 90 ft. high, 15ft. wide, 150 ft. long, fairly close to the entrance. The earliest published reference to Vaughan's Dome is a 1909 magazine article, describing its appearance as being like a "vast cathedral." The I 912 edition of Hovey and Calls' popular guidebook to Mammoth Cave, which included a section on Colossal Cavern, drew attention to the dome and also mentioned its discoverer, Edgar Vaughan. More recently, the dome has been studied as an example of vertical shaft development. The Vaughan and Marshall map was used by Roger Brucker and others in 1955 in a presentation to the American Association for the Advancement of Science to suggest that Floyd Collins' Crystal Cave was the nucleus of a vast Flint Ridge Cave System, five years before Colossal was connected to Salts Cave. The two Vaughan letters are both written on Louisville & Nashville Railroad Company stationary (his employer) and are written to Mary Wilson Bell, his fiancee. The first is postmarked March 17, 1896, and in it is found the following: "Wel4 I am pretty well played out today and feel as though I had dropped from the roof of a high building several times. I went exploring yesterday and it was a hard trip. By exploring I mean I went through a lot of new caves that is to be worked out and opened for the public some time soon. The natives here hunt out these caves and tell great stories about what they: see and find an so we have to examine into their tales and get at the truth of them where there is liable to be anything for us. / went in early yesterday morning and was in a11 day crawling a good deal of the time. These caves make the biggest men get right down and crawl. / guess / went through some places yesterday that were not more than twelve inches high with plenty of water in the crawlway. This whole county is underlaid with one vast network of little and big caves, they are everywhere and of every description. I found your nice long letter waiting me when / got home last ... The second is postmarked April 8, 1896: "... I spent yesterday in the cave and was exploring most of the time. Had very good luck indeed as we discovered a new piece of cave which wi11 make a very good additional attraction. We found an immense dome probably 200 feet high and very good size in width and length. It is right by the main cave and takes very little work to reach it. We were the first men ever in there and / can't for the life of me see why it has never been discovered before. / wish / could take you into the new cave as you would enjoy it very much. The formations in there are beautiful. Very much superior to Mammoth Cave as they are so much newer and the public has not had a chance to ruin them. Vaughn III says of his grandfather's letters that, "I do think there is some significance that he did what he did as an L&N employee and I am proud that the Dome was named after him." We hope to present a full report on this finding to the Journal of Spelean History in the near future. In the meantime, our many thanks to Edgar Vaughan III for his willingness to share with all some pieces of his family's history. Additional Reference: Sides, Stanley D., Early Cave Exploration in Flint Ridge, Kentucky: Colossal Cave and the Colossal Cavern Company, 1971, October-December, Journal of Spelean History, 4(4), pp. 63-69. Includes a copy of the Vaughan/Hovey map of Colossal as the front page of the issue. Summer Issue Cave Research Foundation

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CRF Quarterly Newsletter t4 'Preview ... nn CAV! RES!ARCH FOUNf);.\flON 'Nu SIU Part I The Home Page ABOUTCRI' -': 'MEMBERSHIP FELLOWSHIPS & ,GRANTS \<' 'CAVE BOOKS '1" l1< CRF MEMBERS PAGE. LINKS TO COIiITACT CRF VISITOR # Cave Research Foundation :. _,~j1i~~ c'i;: ,;,: "li~~.~;:1:/ .':4;:h p !ft! XCRf) cis!!, pri~atlf non-prllfit. organization aedie81ed ;."r"" ,4!f:f1'~~O-; '':-",' ;:--, ,d~ ;-tm',m';l;;;;ti:,. :.~~':~, ,\1 .", ~~.ich, nimj.genie'" .ml Inlerpret.li"n of cave~ 'fi PIJ!'I'nership$ II> prOlel!!. /IT'''rve, .untkrstalld andJ/II~r"l~~r~ t an(i,.':';m!ill/:L?\ ','::); ;"t o '; F'~;'~"',,' sr r.' '2':Ji~~~~ These goals u are achieved throullli': res~arch programs and pro)!lCts, InterpretiVe! educationm~~nd~co~~erva,~:bn actiVitieS,a~d Found~tion' publications, if;~Y,:!ilrl!'Uj? Regi,onaLOperalions!1reas, each" \yor~ing, In 'Plll'tnersolp .with federal .and st~~ ageMies,under CRF's'national framewllrk,'are thecoi'e b/the organization. }oey provide a~(f Coordin~le manpower and suppoltfor projects, programs and oth~~ aclivilfes:'cThe area,sa~e Sequoia & Kings Canyon National Parks (California), Lava Beds Natipnal ryIonument(California); Guadalupe Escarpmenl (New Mexltl9),Bu~l~ NalionalRiver (Arka~sas), in Missouri the Ozark National Scenic. RiverwaysiM~ Twain National Forest, State Fores.t~ (Missouri Depli\rtment of Conservation) and,tH$ PioneerForest, and Mammoth Cave National Park (KentuckY).;'~IJ1! '! "0,':'-' .,!,' ,'ik, <;;. ...;:ii",.: ..... ": ~o>'7:nmi<:: Publication is 'an important Foundation activity:' Cave BoOks, CRF's pUblli:lltiOns affiliate, publishes annual.repOrts, research mon6graphs, full length book!li1'h,istyrlcal repnrits, and m!!ps. , ;1!~l'iffi!" .. ", F \"; Cave Research Foundation An. all:volunteer organizalion, CRF is governed by aBoard of Direct9fs ;vhb superYlses,toe, Foundation's programs, projects; and business, and an ope'lP9n~ Council made up of area managers who coordinate the activities In each.area. '" ,i' ::' n ,,' 4:'j1~>\ijM0<~\h1\ The Cave, Research Foundation is a publicly supported, non-profit, tax eXempt 501't;i 3 corp,oration. Donations are tax deductible in accordance with JRS"rules .fOr charitablecontrfbulions.,Copyright 1997, CRF. Direct suggestions andcomment~,:to webmaster@cave-research.org ,. E.!' Srte and domain hosting provided by MarketSpace, Inc. Volume 26;Number 3 ___ a

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August 1998 15 CAVE RESEARCH FOUNDATION Project Area Newst Reportst and Expeditions HAWAII Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Bobby Camara The last three months have been amazingly productive here. Some ofthe highlights are as follows: Work is progressing on an update of our Cave Management Plan, with great input from Ron Kerbo. We hope to have a draft available by early summer. Because of the great workshop we had at CAVE a year ago, HA VO naturalist-tumed-cave-resources specialist, Bobby Camara, finally understood the need for standardized sketching and inventory protocols. We've adopted, though not quite officially, a modified version of CAVE's standards, which we're fine tuning for work in lava tubes. HA VO has hosted more than 20 volunteer cavers since mid December 1997. The largest group was led by Pat Kambesis and Don Coons, and worked in the Park off and on for a month or so. There were great conversations, exchanges of information, and thoughtful discussions of how and why we're doing what we're doing. I led two 3-hour orientation sessions which were helpful in getting the cavers to understand the special resources of HAVO caves, as well as our way of doing business. We've embarked on a remapping and inventorying project of all Park caves. The majority of field work will take place in the winter (Nov. 98 Feb. 99). Greg Stock and Steve Bumgardner from SEKI will leave on 26 March, after two months in the Park. They've been incredibly productive and enthusiastic, cleaning up loose ends from previous projects, working with myself and Park archeologists on a couple of special caves, and taking lots of photos. Greg, Steve, and I also spent a few days working with Bernie Szukalski from ESRI (the ArcView folks) on fine tuning a Compass to ArcView converter written by Bernie. It's a fantastic tool with seemingly unlimited potential, which I'm sure will be useful to lots of others. Bernie deserves a lot of thanks for all his (free) help here. A number of us finally got up the nerve to get into Highcastle Tube, just cool enough to allow entry, after being created 3 years or so ago. Lots of incredible primary and secondary features in there; enough to keep us busy for a long time, trying to figure out how and why. Stay tuned .. Source: Inside Earth. Vol. J Nbr. 1. Spring 1998 MISSOURI Missouri Operations 1997 Activities Report Scott House Work continues with the USFS as the new agreement is under negotiation. Work consists of inventory and mapping of caves in the Big Spring watershed. All data is managed using FileMaker. Work in Mark Twain National Forest (1.7 million acres) has located 360 caves and work in the Eleven Point District continues in response to proposed lead mining. Numerous caves have been inventoried and surveyed. In the Ozark Scenic Riverways (circa 80,000 acres), of southeast Missouri, CRF has increased the number of known caves from 80 to nearly 300. Of those nearly 200 have been surveyed. In addition, CRF has plotted 206+ caves on large scale maps for management purposes. Round Spring Cave, within the Ozark Scenic Riverways, is the focus of continued CRF work. A teacher's guide has been produced as well as a long term biological monitoring project. Pioneer Forest, a privately held property (180,000 acres) continues to have CRF activity. CRF has surveyed and inventoried 100 caves and CRF continues to provide assistance to the Missouri Department of Conservation. Numerous small caves have been inventoried and mapped. Summer lssue Cave "Research Foundation

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16 CRF Quarterly Newsletter In Three Creeks State Forest, CRF Missouri has mapped 6000 feet of Hunter's Cave. Work is slowed due to fact that this is a maternity gray bat cave. Powder Mill Cave continues to be inventoried and surveyed by CRF. This cave now is known for 36,069 feet. Source: CRF 1997 Annual Meeting Missouri Activity Report April through June, 1997 Mick Sutton Field work was fairly light during the past quarter as we continue to catch up with a large backlog of map drafting and report writing. Round Spring Cavern: There were two faunal census and/or photography trips to this large tourist cave on the Ozark National Scenic Riverways. The cave salamander population we have been monitoring repeated last year's pattern: the hordes of small larvae present from late fall through mid-spring had essentially disappeared by April. An observation of larvae in the stream of Round Spring Resurgence Cave suggests that dispersal to the outside may be part of the reason. By early June, fairly large numbers of grotto salamander larvae were present, while the only sign of adult cave salamanders was within the entrance zone. I[ I "The film crew used a canoe to ferry in large quantities of equipment .into the somewhat aquatic entrance of the Hell Hole ... In the same general area, Shaft Cave (a.k.a. Round Spring Pit), was relocated. This site had eluded searchers for many years. Later, a survey crew mapped and inventoried the cave, which is similar to other small upland pits in the region. A 40 foot entrance shaft leads into a fairly large room with 100 feet of passage leading from it. The entrance to deeper and presumably greater voids is thoroughly blocked by the debris collapse which caused the pit to open up in the first place. Powder Mill Creek Cave: There were two radically different trips to this cave, a long-term project within the Ozark National Scenic Riverways (but owned by the Missouri Department of Conservation). CRF members assisted a 6-person TV crew in filming a typical survey and bio-inventory operation for the MDC series, Missouri Outdoors. The film crew used a canoe to ferry in the large quantities of equipment. Highlights of the filming included a shot of beaver kits in their den, and a visit by the producer (with hand held camera) into the somewhat aquatic entrance of the Hell Hole. There were follow-up interviews using Round Spring Resurgence Cave as a backdrop. The story is scheduled for broadcasting in 1998. A survey trip resulted in completion of a loose-end lead beyond Snowball Dome in the Hell Hole series of Powder Mill Creek Cave. One or two more trips should finally see completion of the long, complicated and difficult Hell Hole maze. Mark Twain National Forest: Work on this long term project during the preceding quarter was confined to the office and drafting table. Among the maps recently completed was the Bliss Camp Cave system, at 4,020 feet, this is the longest cave mapped during the second phase of the MTNF project. Participants: Round Spring Cavern: Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Scott House, Doug Bsksr, Roys Houdei, Devs Mitchsll (NPS): Shaft Cave: Sue Hagan, Scott House, Mick Sutton; Powder Mill Creek Cave, TV show: Scott House, George Bilbrey, SUB Hagan, Mick Sutton + 6; Survey: Doug Baker, George Bilbrey. Missouri Activity Report July through Novemher, 1997 Mick Sutton The preparation of maps and reports for the recently completed Phase 2 of our Mark Twain National Forest mapping and inventory project continued to occupy large amounts of time. The backlog is now down to reasonable proportions (for example, 26 maps have been drafted this year, while 3 remain to be completed), and field work has begun on Phase 3 of the project. During Phase 3, work continues in the original study area, the Doniphan-Eleven Point district, but we are also branching out to other areas. As part of this process, a mapping project in east-central Missouri has been revived. Cave Hollow Cave is a relatively large and complicated stream cave on the Salem-Potosi ranger district adjacent to the Viburnum trend lead mining region. We had begun mapping it in 1988, prior to CRF's involvement in Missouri caving, but the project was postponed in late 1991 owing to higher priorities, namely the beginning of the CRF project in the Eleven Point area. We are pleased to finally return to this project. Two mapping trips took place. The first was confined to the near reaches of the cave owing to threatening weather. A series of narrow canyons and high domes off the main trunk was mapped for a total of 300 feet. As expected, the passages led to an airy overlook of the main trunk which we had been unable to reach from the latter. A second trip took place just prior to the seasonal closure for a small Indiana bat colony which we had discovered in 1991. This trip I Cave Research Foundation Volume 26, Number 3

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August 1998 17 went far upstream and knocked off a sequence of highlevel loops, some of which were more difficult to enter than others, for a total of 230 feet. These all appear to be sections of an intermittent small canyon that parallels the main passage slightly out of phase with it. With the surveyed length at 4,550 feet, one lead remains for next year, a low, wet tributary stream. Back in the Eleven Point area, there was a trip to complete another project from long ago. The two Spout Spring caves were also mapped back in 1988, but had never been drawn up as some elevation data needed to be collected. We took care of that and also ran a bioinventory of the two caves, the longer of which is about 500 feet. The names ofthese caves are slightly puzzling as Spout Spring itself is almost a mile farther downstream along the creek, a small gravity spring on private property. We took a look at this area and found that there were two rather obvious caves, one of them almost above the, surely the original Spout Spring Cave. The misplacement is of long standing, as it appears in J. Harlan Bretz' classic, Caves of Missouri of 1956." ... the biggest karst spring in the US would rank approximately number 8 in Guizhou Province!" Finally, there was a return trip to Bliss Camp Cave to complete the bio-inventory of that fairly large system. We took along two biologists from the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the southern cave fish habitat. Cave fish ranged in length from 7 cm down to 2 ern, indicating the likelihood of a stable, reproducing population. The population is probably small and isolated, as it is unlikely that there are hydrological connections to the region's deep phreatic networks. One other biological question concerned the twilight zone crickets. A cricket collected earlier appeared to be an unusual specimen of Ceulhophilus dlvergens, which doesn't normally enter the area's caves. However, the specimens collected this time were the commonest local twilight zone species, C. williamsoni; Ozark National Scenic Riverways: There were two tourist trips and one faunal census trip to Round Spring Cavern. The first tourist trip was in connection with the US visit of a Chinese cave science contingent from Guizhou. Following the NSS convention in Sullivan, Missouri, the four Chinese scientists and their American hosts visited CRF's study area in the southern Missouri Ozarks. Big Spring was interesting, but not overwhelming; the biggest karstic spring in the US would rank approximately number eight in Guizhou province! Of more interest was the Round Spring trip, where the Chinese got their first view of the US underground. The wildlife, even the troglobitic cave maggots, proved quite a hit. The following day, the whole contingent was treated, courtesy of the National Park Service, to a float trip on the upper Current River. The second Round Spring tour trip was a demonstration of cave ecology for a local Audubon Society group. "Like the Forest Service project, this study was inspired by the continuing threat of mineral prospecting within the Big Spring watershed." In November, a routine faunal census took place. The biggest surprise was that the pool which showed a peak of salamander activity the past two winters was almost completely dry. However, adult cave salamanders were still active in many of the other mud-bottomed pools in the cave; as before, adult salamanders are diving into deep mud, and small hatchling salamanders are starting to appear. With the main pool apparently out of action, we expect to see a more modest build-up of larval numbers this year. The obvious conclusion that the salamanders are laying eggs in the deep mud has several serious problems: I) in all recorded instances, cave salamanders deposit eggs under rocks in clear free-flowing streams; 2) amphibian eggs should not do well buried in fine sediments, owing to limited gas exchange, i.e., they would be expected to suffocate. A new project was started on the Riverways, mapping and inventory of a group of caves in the general area of Round Spring. Like the Forest Service project, this study was inspired by the continuing threat of mineral prospecting within the Big Spring watershed. We will be doing detailed bio-invcntories and setting up permanent census plots. The first cave visited was Panther Spring, opening at river level on the lower Current. Two mapping and inventory trips succeeded in mapping most but not all of the 1,000+ foot cave, which features some low and slimy going. In a dome at the farthest end were some very odd clay sculptures, possibly of historic interest. The wildlife includes small but significant numbers of gray bats, troglobitic isopods, and two species of epigean or troglophilic amphipods. Powder Mill Creek Cave: The notorious (and long and complicated) Hell Hole series was finally completed with a trip in July. The next trip visited the Third Watercrawl where a party finished off a group of leads in a fairly long side passage featuring a scenic area of rimstone dams. The leads varied from dry and easy to low, muddy and claustrophobic. Summer Issue Cave Research Foundation

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18 CRF Quarterly Newsletter Participants: Cave Hollow Cave: Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton: Spout Spring: Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton; Bliss Camp: Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Marl< McGimsay (MDC), Kan Listar (MDC); Round Spring: Mick Sutton, Sua Hagan; Panther Spring: 1) Scott House, Doug Baker, Rays Houdei, Jason GarTett; 2) Scott House, Jerry Wagner, Mick Sutton, Jason Garrett; Powder Mill: 1) Doug Baker, George Bilbrey; 2) Doug Baker, Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton. ARKANSAS Fitton Cave 1997 Activity Report Fitton Cave Sorvey Project Pete Lindsley The Fitton Cave Survey Project in Arkansas fielded five expeditions during 1997. A total of 53 cavers attended the expeditions and spent a total of 565 people-hours underground. The five expeditions were all one-day trips. A total of II survey parties worked in the cave during 1997. The May 3 and October 25 trips fielded only a single team, but the May 31, July 26 and September 13 trips averaged three teams. "The survey party ... uses five cavers which also helps to provide sufficient side light on the ceiling to show the small changes in the ceiling structure." We continued the use ofa precision laserrangefinder (a Leica D1STO unit) on several expeditions to generate precision profiles and cross sections of major rooms in the cave. OUf survey techniques are continuing to evolve as we discover the optimum way to use the precision rangefinder. Basically, we try to lay as straight a line as possible along previously surveyed passages because we want to generate high quality data that shows the ceiling features of the passages being profiled or cross sectioned. The technique is to "fix" or sight a survey line along the passage in a manner that allows access to this line-of-sight with the laser rangefinder. A standard survey shot is made using either Suntos or Bruntons and the survey chain is held in place at each end while the "laser person" walks the tape and shoots both the ceiling height and the floor distance. A note-taker records the data and a sketcher draws a precision profile or cross section sketch to scale in the cave. Although we are generating elevation detail, the in-cave technique must be similar to the old plane table surveys done years ago in Carlsbad Cavern where detailed contour lines were placed on the original mylar sheets while in the cave. The scales being used are usually one inch equals 20 or 25 feet and we presently are making the sketch on 8 ] /2 x II inch grided paper "landscape" format. During one trip between three and four sheets are generated, perhaps more if additional cross sections are made. Depending on the ceiling and floor smoothness, floor and ceiling measurements are taken at every five to ten feet along the line-of-sight. The majority of the ceiling heights being surveyed are 20 to 40 feet, however we feel that the range of the laser rangetinder unit we are using is perhaps two or three times that distance for "standard" limestone ceilings. The sketch person must first draw the survey line to scale so both a ruler and a protractor are needed as well as a clipboard drawing surface. The line-of-sight is drawn lightly at the proper inclination and as the precision laser measurements are announced by the laser person a dot is placed on the sketch for both the ceiling and floor marks. Where appropriate, the precision left wall and right wall measurements are also measured and all the data is recorded by the note person in case the sketcher has a question about a missed point or location. Since you can see the laser dot on the ceiling one can precisely sketch in small ledges or changes in the limestone layers as small as an inch or so. The survey party just described uses tive cavers which also helps to provide sufficient side light on the ceiling to show the small changes in the ceiling structure. If there are only four in .the party, one end of the survey chain can often be tied in place allowing both the sketch person and the note person to roam about the passage for best visibility. If there are an additional one or two cavers in the party they can be put to good use scouting out the best location for precision passage cross sections. These cross sections may be sketched while the team is in the vicinity and are either sketched by the profile sketcher or by one of the additional party members detining the cross section location. "... the in -cave technique must be similar to the old plane table surveys done years ago in Carlsbad Cavern where detailed contour lines were placed on the original mylar sheets while in the cave." The May 3 trip concentrated on an improved survey of the Inverted Bell Room. Numerous cross shots were made on this re-survey in order to clean up a previous error in the survey. We returned to the New Maze area on the May 31 trip and surveyed an area noted on the May 3 trip. In addition, teams were sent to complete a survey in Lower East Passage and in the Double Drop Pit areas. A tie was made between the upper levels Cave Research Foundation Volume 26, Number 3

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August 1998 down a pit to the lower Double Drop passage leading to a small waterfall we called Shower Chambers. 19 The July 26 trip took advantage of the summer access of the Bat Cave passages (the Bat Cave entrance is closed except for a few months during the summer to prevent unnecessary disturbance of the bats) and fielded two teams to the 41 foot waterfall area. A detailed passage profile was started just upstream from the waterfall. We intended to carry the profile down the waterfall drops, but the precision laser rangefinder was not adequately charged (due to a charger malfunction) so additional passage cross sections were recorded instead. We plan to return next summer to complete the Bat Cave waterfall profile in the high ceiling areas. Two other tearns concentrated on the upper levels around the T-Room, where the Bat Cave passage intersects the East Passage. Three surveys were tied together in this area and a cross section was surveyed at the T-Room. "The bulk of the major passage has been surveyed now, but there is a lot of cleanup work that is turning up a surprise passage here and there." Four tearns were fielded on the September 13 expedition, three into Fitton and one to check out a spring lead and do some ridge walking. Although it was extremely dry at the end of the summer, we hoped that the spring could be pushed to determine if it could possibly be an overflow route from Fitton Spring. Although we penetrated the spring 40 feet with our survey, the name assigned to it (Misery Hole) explains the "final" status until we can find some smaller cavers. The spring was tied by survey to Fitton Spring and GPS locations were obtained as the hillside above the spring was checked for other karst features. Meanwhile three other parties were working in the East Passage. We attempted a multi-level passage cross section starting at the lowest level of the Double Drop Pit intersection with Lower East Passage, working our way up to the East Passage. Two other teams started a precision profile through the Out Room and the Roundhouse Room. Laser rangefinder ceiling heights were made in the areas where the ceiling was higher than 10 to 12 feet. On the October 25 trip another precision profile survey team was fielded to the same area to complete the Out Room to Roundhouse Room profile. Cartography will be high on our list for winter 1997-8. The bulk of the major passage has been surveyed now, but there is a lot of cleanup work that is turning up a surprise passage here and there. A partial computer database (COMPASS format) was provided to the Park Service early in 1997 and copies of the field notes from each expedition have also been provided at the request of the Park Service. The first cartographic task is to update the whole cave database into several smaller sections which will allow us to correct some errors. Then we plan to verify closures on multiple tie points by using the WALLS program being developed by cavers in Austin. We need additional help on the cartography to bring some of our quadrangles up to date. We have about six new quads that need to be started plus some special sheets for the precision passage cross sections. We will continue emphasizing passage detail and cross sections throughout the cave in 1998. lVs can help by drawing up small sections of a draft map, inking quads, field checking existing maps, and checking system closures on the computer. The Fitton Cave Project is continuing to solicit scientists that may have an interest in doing work in the cave. We have invited both a geologist and a biologist to come to an expedition, but to date neither has been able to attend. For a scientist with access to carbon dating equipment we have some interesting carbon chips in the lowest 10 to 15 feet of the Lower East Passage. This material is possibly related to a major flood following a forest fire or perhaps represents flood water washing through campfire material in the Bat Cave entrance. But no known flood of this proportion has occurred in recent historical times. In addition there are several other potential projects including mineralogy, geology, hydrology, and biology that will be of interest to qualified scientists and researchers. The present survey data base offers data on various water sources in the cave and there are several other small springs in the area in addition to the known Fitton Spring resurgence. A biological survey of the cave is needed and could be correlated with a previous survey done in nearby caves by CRF in past years. Interested primary investigators should contact Pete Lindsley, Project Manager, or Danny Vann, CRF Arkansas Area Manager, for additional information. CALIFORNIA Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SEKI) Joel Despain It is the winter office season for the cave management program at Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California. The primary objective of the last few months was the drafting of a series of maps documenting Crystal Cave. Crystal Cave is the second Summer Issue Cave Research Foundation

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20 CRF Quarterly Newsletter longest cave in the park at 2.94 miles in length. It is also the only commercial cave in the either of the two parks. Previous mapping efforts in the 1950s documented only about 4,000 feet of passage, and failed to include floor detail and mineralogical information. Another mapping effort in 1991 failed to produce any maps, though most of the cave was surveyed. The latest survey project began in 1995 and mapping continued through 1996. The final data was "A series of three maps ... were used to document the mineralogy of the cave ... includes hydrothermally emplaced quartz and pyrite, perhaps a unique type of raft cone, and at least 88 shields." processed in Compass and from there line plot files were imported into Corel Draw for drafting. A series of three maps, that are most similar to traditional cave maps, were used to document the mineralogy of the cave. This minerology includes hydrothermally emplaced quartz and pyrite, perhaps a unique type of raft cone, and at least 88 shields. Three additional maps show overall cross-sections for the caves and profile views. Another map documents the cave's levels by representing the cave passages as solid fills with different colors representing different elevations. Other maps show the cave's groundwater hydrology, and the survey history of this most recent effort, A final completed map will be sold by the Park's cooperating association at Crystal Cave. Proceeds from the sale will benefit the park cave management program, This map includes photos, educational text blocks, and will not show any sensitive or unusual features. The current suite of maps is being reviewed for accuracy, consistency, and content by Rodney Horrocks from Timpanogos Cave National Monument and Great Basin National Park, and by Mike Futrell from Ohio, and Sequoia seasonal cave specialist, Greg Stock. Future maps will incorporate a GIS style database to document current knowledge about the caves' unique biology, which includes at least five endemic species of invertebrates. Other planned maps will show the exploration history of the cave and document the limited habitat of the Pimoa sp. spider that is believed to be unique to the cave. A final set of maps will be created specifically for in-cave inventory work. Other winter projects have included the monitoring of the re-installed Clough Cave gate, which has been vandalized at least six times, ridgewalking which turned up two small new caves bringing the park total to 198 and mapping Soldier's Cave. Source: Inside Earth, Vol. 1 Nbr. I, Spring 1998 Sequoia & Kings Canyon 1997 Activities Report John Tinsley Snow and warm weather caused dramatic head pressure (140 feet) on the monitor in the Z-room, which caused the expulsion of a 70 foot sediment plug. Tinsley described this scenario as being somewhat akin to a sink's 'P-trap' filled with nasty stuff being blown out. Redwood Canyon Cartography Project has resulted in 25.4 km of mapped passages in Lilburn and under one km in Cedar and Mays Caves. Big Spring was dived for approximately 900 feet of new survey with depths of 260 feet. In Lilburn Cave 2280 feet of dry passage using 236 stations brings the cave length to 25.4 km or (16.4 miles). Bill Howcroft is a doctoral student under Jack Hess. Bill is monitoring, using data loggers, water input into Lilburn. These data are compared to that acquired from Big Spring. Cave Restoration is being conducted by Bill Frantz. Bill is working on formations damaged by survey crews who have dislodged sediment. In the Mineral King area, water tracing has been conducted by Tony Troutman. He has been able to demonstrate that the water from Panorama Cave reappears at Beulah Cave. Beulah Cave is a new find that was recently found to extend 1000 feet. White Chief BasinCirque Cave is being finalized by Roger Mortimer. Source: CRF /997 Annual Meeting Mineral King Area 1997 Activities Report Roger Mortimer, Project Coordinator In 1997 the CRF saw important advances in the project at Mineral King. The Cirque mapping project is effectively completed and the preliminary map has been field checked. JeffCherez made an exciting new find in the Panorama side of the valley. This year no bears were lured to the dark side. After 5 years of survey there is a map of Cirque cave. One hundred fifty three stations gave 1704 feet of survey (519 meters) with a vertical relief of 72 feet (22 meters). While field checking the map this summer we did find one high lead which gave us another 100 feet of passage near the green pool. There are a few more feet that could be squeezed out of the cave by the Cave Research Foundation Volume 26, Number 3

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August 1998 desperate but no known lead of any significance remains. 21 "Eight inches of fresh powdery stuff at the ranger station kept most vehicles out of the Park. A few valiants still wanted to set stations with tire chains and snow camping." The most exciting occurrence in Mineral King this year is the survey of a new cave found by Jeff Cherez. "Beulah" cave is on the Panorama side of the valley near Cascade Creek. Jeff was ridgewalking the Panorama side with Merrilee Proffitt when he found the entrance. He did not have adequate time to explore it. This year he returned with Brad Hacker to survey 1021 feet (311 meters) with 83 stations. The vertical depth is 158 feet (48 meters). Survey continues in White Chief. This year's one expedition completed the B-survey in the upper stream passage. A new survey took off towards the insurgence but ended up much higher than that. The last team did upper level passage above the big room. So far we have set 151 stations for 2348 feet (715 meters) and a depth of317 feet (\00 meters). This coming year we need to continue the C-survey towards the insurgence, follow the water downstream towards the resurgence, and start to work on the maze around the Meyer entrance. Other survey work to be done includes the smaller caves of the valley such as Batslab and Seldom Seen as well as surface surveys linking more of the caves together. Eventually I wanted to have all the caves linked together either by surface surveyor by GPS and include the sinkholes that lead toward Eagle sinks. "Mannots are happy to partake in processed food ... one person's food bag disappeared ... a quick search revealed that the last visible bit was heading into a marmot hole. Given a few more seconds there would have been one hungry caver and one potentially ill marmot." Snow canceled the October trip to Mineral King. Eight inches of fresh white powdery stuff at the ranger station kept most vehicles out of the park. A few valiants still wanted to set stations with tire chains and snow camping but in the end everyone ended up in Three Rivers for breakfast before hiking in the rain up the Marble Fork of the Kaweah to Marble Falls and Wild Child. We must continue to work with the park to protect the Mineral King ecosystem. This year there were no problems with bears however we must remain vigilant in hanging our food in a counterbalance system so that there is no temptation to partake in anything other than nuts and berries. Our worst problems were with the "bears" of the 5 pound variety. Marmots are happy to partake in processed food as well. One person's food bag disappeared while preparing camp. A quick search revealed that the last visible bit was heading into a marmot hole. Given a few more seconds there would have been one hungry caver and one potentially ill marmot. Please keep track of your food when you are in the high Sierra. Source: CRF/Cafijomia /998 Newsletter Sequoia National Park 1997 Digging Report Brad Hacker Digging occurred in Sequoia National Park in 1997 at one location. During the winter of 1996/1997 a tree in the bottom of a sinkhole ("Meatbug Sink") about 0.4 miles NNW of Lilburn Cave toppled, revealing at its base a too-small cave opening. On one morning of May 1997, approximately four Cave Research Foundation members moved about one dozen head-sized cobbles up from the hole into the bottom of the sink and then entered a body-sized chamber beneath the former tree. From that perspective it was clear that the "passage" terminated in a tightly packed boulder choke, and the site was abandoned to let the winter of 1997/1998 finish the job. Source: CRF/Ca/ifornia 1998 Newsletter Lilburn Cave Historic Entrance Renovation Roger Mortimer The years have not been kind to the historic entrance to Lilburn Cave. The current structure was built in the '70s (?) and updated in the '80s. At that time the constructors placed a ladder to eliminate any need to jump the 10 feet to the floor. While the main vault remains solid, the ladder has since lost a rung and the floor has washed away leaving the remains of the ladder propped up on a precarious set of rocks. This summer we started preliminary repairs. Between dive sherpa trips I placed a form and hauled up rocks from below the second ladder to prepare for pouring. Summer Issue Cave Research Foundation

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22 CRF Quarterly Newsletter Jeff Cherez arranged for a shipment of cement and rebar to come by pack mule with this summer's shipment of dive gear. At a later expedition Saturday, John Tinsley and I added more rocks and poured the first course of concrete. The next day we continued the process with several more concrete sherpas helping out. At the same time Peter Basted solidified the base of the second ladder. ... arranged for a shipment of cement and rebar to come by pack mule with this summer's shipment of dive gear." !.[' i , Currently there is a first step poured as a base. It sits between bedrock ish boulders delimiting the passage as one goes into the cave. The form has been moved and a second step has been started. The design is impromptu, depending on what was on hand at the time but it has followed several principles. The new floor structure should be aesthetic as well as durable. It should send water down the by-pass and not down the main passage. It must be ready to support the new ladder when one is ready. It must allow easy passage of a stretcher in the event of an emergency. It should include anchors in case one is needed in an emergency. "We even once used a stream of water from a caver's mouth when no spray bottles were available ... Ii The next operation will finish the second step and the pouring of the floor. This floor will probably be at the level of the concrete walls currently in place. When it is poured we will leave two holes in contact with the underlying dirt (with maybe some gravel thrown in) which will allow some extra drainage, but more importantly, be in position to accept the legs of the ladder so they cannot swivel while someone is climbing it. There is still cement at the cabin but winter humidity may make it less than usefu I. We will reassess the situation and try to complete the project this Spring. Source: CRFICalifornia /998 Newsletter Lilburn Cave 1997 Restoration Report Bill Frantz Lilburn cave, with 25.6 KM of passage, is one of California's two largest caves. With its very unusual flushing and gushing resurgence spring, it has attracted cavers and speleologists since the 1940s. Over its long history of use, some of the formation areas in Lilburn cave have suffered damage. Fortunately there is little formation breakage, but the very muddy nature of some passages has resulted in dirty formations. In 1993, the Lilburn Cave Restoration project started to try to undo some of that damage and prevent further damage. Since then several trips each year have been dedicated to cleaning formations, flagging trails, and installing direction signs. During the course of our cleaning, we have had the opportunity to experiment with many techniques. We have made extensive use of water from spray bottles and brushes for removing mud from formations. We have found the dry brushing is frequently sufficient to remove carbide soot from walls. In cases where mud has become embedded in caieite, we have used both sulfuric acid (H2S04) and hydrochloric acid (H'Cl). Our experience is that the hydrochloric acid is more effective. We have also tried more unusual techniques, such as: Pieces of tape on the end of poles to pick mud off formations are not very effective. Eye droppers and turkey basters to suck dirt out of pools are reasonably effective. Sponges to soak up soiled water are necessary to protect unsoiled formations. We even once used a stream of water from a caver's mouth when no spray bottles were available which was quite effective. "The value of flagged trails through sensitive areas is well understood .,. installing signs (written on flagging tape) at junctions likely to cause confusion has reduced the impact of route confusion on passages people did not even intend to enter." The value of flagged trails through sensitive areas is well understood and many caving areas have adopted the practice. In Lilburn, some of the damage comes from parties who have become confused about the route. Installing signs (written on flagging tape) at junctions likely to cause confusion has reduced the impact of route confusion on passages people did not even intend to enter. We have progressed from having to clean formations which were dirtied many years ago, to the point where exploration teams which dirty formations help organize restoration trips to clean those areas. A quick cleanup is a lot more effective than one that must remove years of caieite deposition. Cave Research Foundation Volume 26, Number 3

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_&_-------_!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!_-_"!""!""!'''!''''!''''!'''!''''!''''!' ................ ==~ August 1998 23 In 1997 we ran three restoration trips. There were two trips to the area under the Jefferson Memorial, and one trip to survey restoration sites and determine their current condition. Source: CRFICalifornia /998 Newsletter Lava Beds Project 1997 Activities Report Janet-Sowers Lava Beds is currently signing a MOA with Lava Beds National Monument and the Lava Beds Natural History Association to build a small research center to be used by CRF and other researchers. A method for correcting magnetic anomalies seems to work. The anomaly is the same no matter the angle of the compass. Thus, the angle of the backsight to the previous station and the foresights result in a correct angle. These are taken without regard to the bearing and the data is plotted using the angles between the sightings. A loop though a lava tube bridge was made using this technique and it closed successfully without using actual bearings! Cartography of new tube discoveries continues; as does brass capping and ice level monitoring in the ice caves. Source: CRF /997 Annual Meeting NEW MEXICO Guadalupe Escarpment 1997 Activities Report Barbe Barker Currently, there are II groups working in the Guads, with CRF being the largest. Six CRF expeditions were conducted last year. The current resurvey total is 22.8 miles. CRF is conducting restorations in both Carlsbad and Lechuguilla. Source: CRF 1997 Annual Meeting Carlsbad Caverns National Park Dale Pate Development of Carlsbad Cavern began in the 1920's with buildings, parking lots, sewer lines, gas tanks, and other man-made structures being built directly over the cave. This continued into the 60's with the building of 12 three-bedroom apartments during Project 66, an effort to update park housing across the country. A study to look at infiltration routes and contaminants was initiated in 1995 with a contract to the Colorado School of Mines. This study was recently completed. A Master's thesis by Mark Brooke defined major water routes and identified some contaminants that are dripping into the cave. A final report outlined major contaminants and worse-case scenarios for catastrophic events (such as a fire in the Maintenance Yard) and their possible effects on Carlsbad Cavern. Also inc1uded in the final report were recommendations to eliminate or mitigate these events. Park Management is in the process of evaluating these recommendations and establishing short-term and long-term goals to help protect the Caverns for the future. These goals and a timetable will be included in a future issue. Oil and gas drilling north of the park continues to be an issue. Moncrief, a company with leases within the Cave Protection Zone (CPZ) established by the Lechuguilla Cave Protection Act of 1993, recently submitted Applications for Permits to Drill (A PO's) to the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) on these leases. These leases are located as close to Carlsbad Cavern as they are to Lechuguilla Cave. Moncrief has several wells that were drilled before the establishment of the CPZ in this area that are major gas producers. The National Park Serviee is working with the BLM and the Department of the I nterior to assure that no more drilling within the CPZ takes place and that Moncrief is compensated fairly for any "takings" that may occur. Research in park caves continues to be on the forefront of cave science. Victor Polyak recently released information from his dissertation that establishes ages on the formation of caves of the Guadalupe Mountains including Carlsbad Cavern and Lechuguilla Cave. Vietor has been able to achieve this by radioisotopic dating of the mineral alunite which is formed as a byproduct of speleogenesis. In Carlsbad Cavern, the following dates have been determined: Big Room 3.9 to 4.0 million years old (myo), Bat Cave 6.0 myo. In Lechuguilla Cave: Glacier Bay 5.7 to 6.0 myo, Lake Lebarge area 5.2 myo. Cottonwood Cave and Virgin Cave, located higher in elevation in Lincoln National Forest yielded dates of 11.3 to 12.3 rnyo, Exploration and survey of Lechuguilla Cave continues. The most recent expedition led by Pat Kambesis and Rod Horrocks added approximately 8,000 feet of new survey. This all came from the Chandelier Maze area of the Southwest Branch. This brings the surveyed length of the cave to 96.24 miles (154.9 kilometers). Source: Inside Earth, Vol. I Nbr. I, Spring 1998 Summer Issue Cave Research Foundation

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24 CRF Quarterly Newsletter CARLSBAD CAVERN RESURVEY "22.05 Miles and Still Going" Jason M. Richards Through the years, Carlsbad cavern has had an ongoing mapping project. In the 1960's and early 1970's, the Guadalupe Cave Survey (GCS) was the primary group surveying in Carlsbad Cavern. The "old timers" of the GCS were the forerunners and trailblazers to much of the cave we know today. Cave surveying at that time was in its infancy and much of the detail we require on today's maps was not included in their notes, or on their sketches. The GCS joined ranks with the Cave Research Foundation (CRF) in the early 70's and surveys improved, however, there was still a lack of set survey standards. Up until the early 90's much of the survey in Carlsbad Cavern was resurvey. There were resurveys over resurveys, floor detail on sketches was omitted, there were no running profiles and very few cross sections. Survey designation numbers were totally out of control, with some designations having as much as nine characters. Foresites on azimuths were not verified by backsites and therefore inaccurate loop closures were common. Although not required at that time, there was no inventory of mineralogical, historic, or archeological features tied in to the survey. The impact to the cave was tremendous by re-surveying the same areas over and over. Taking on the monumental task of re-surveying a 30 plus mile cave was not a spur of the moment decision. Careful planning by the cave resource staff and those who would actually be involved in the resurvey were the first steps. Cave specialists met with CRF officials and agreed upon a game plan. It was determined that: All original survey notes will stay with the park and eventually be archived into the museum. The cave resource office will give out survey designations for all areas of the cave. Survey designations will be short and concise and not change as side passages are encountered. An example is as follows: A I to A2 and continuing to A I 00 and beyond. Sketchers may not change alphabetical designations without advance permission, The cave will be divided into sections to make data management easier. No single group will have exclusive access to the cave for survey/exploration purposes. All groups must strictly comply with Appendix H: Cave Survey Standards for Carlsbad Caverns National Park, part of Carlsbad Caverns National Park's Cave & Karst Management Plan. All sketchers must be approved by the cave specialist before they will be allowed to sketch in any caves of the park. To date, the resurvey project of Carlsbad Cavern has been a total success. CRF, as well as private expeditions, have been working hard and bringing back quality data and sketches. Prior to the resurvey project, the old map stood at 30.85 miles of passage. Thus far over a two year period, the new map of Carlsbad Cavern is 22.10 miles of mapped passage .... and still going. Source: Inside Earth Vol. I Nbr. I, Spring 1998 KENTUCKY Central Kentucky Karst Mammoth Cave National Park Chief Bradybaugh Transfers to Zion N P Jeff Bradybaugh, Chief of the Division of Science and Resource Management, has transferred to Zion National Park. His high standards of professionalism, painstaking attention to detail, impartial ity in working with all of the Park's partners, and deep personal commitment to understanding and protecting Park resources will be long remembered. A special award was presented to Jeff, during the 1997 CRF Annual Meeting, in recognition of his years of dedicated guidance and close working relationship with the Cave Research Foundation. Memorandum of Understanding Signed The Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with Mammoth Cave National Park has been renewed for another five years. The new MOU is the result of many lengthy discussions between CRF personnel and NPS staff, as well as extensive internal review by both parties. It is believed that the new MOU is the most detailed and professional agreement between the NPS and CRF in their decades-long partnership. CRF Presents Awards for the CCHAR Project In July 1996, CRF entered into a cooperative agreement with Mammoth Cave National Park to restore the cultural landscape of the Crystal Cave Historic District by removing the Austin House, the Back Bunkhouse, and the Spelee Hut. The project was completed in July 1997. Cave Research Foundation Volume 26, Number 3 R

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b August 1998 25 CRF members accomplished an impressive job which included salvaging and recycling windows, doors, hardware, electrical, and plumbing fixtures; a large amount of wood was also saved for re-use. Interior siding was rescued from the severely damaged Back Bunkhouse and approximately 80 percent of the wood in the Austin House was saved. The Spelee Hut was completely saved by dismantling it and moving it to CRF's Hamilton Valley property on Flint Ridge. Above and beyond the agreed upon work, CRF members also removed the old well house and filled in the site; removed the water tank adjacent to the well house and filled in the site; ensured that the septic tank at the rear of the Ticket Office was left in an environmentally sound condition; and, removed the mountain of iron pipes and plastic pipe liners left from the old Job Corps sewage system. To accomplish all of the above-described work, 63 CRF Joint Venturers traveled 63,246.9 miles and donated 1,550.25 hours of labor; they also donated their travel, food, and lodging costs. During the November 1997, Annual Members Meeting, the Cave Research Foundation honored the following members with special awards in recognition of their outstanding contributions to the CCHAR project: "Gazetteer and Bibliography of Mammoth Cave" Project Garners NSS Award Sue Hagan and Mick Sutton began work on their Gazetteer and Bibliography of Mammoth Cave in 1988. Since its inception, the project has grown into an impressive database that has become so large it can no longer be transferred from the computer housing it; as of November 1997, the document contained approximately 2,300 place names and 4,000 bibliographic references. CRF Eastern Operations has provided funding for the purchase of data storage and transfer equipment to enable the work to be shared with other researchers. Their hard work and efforts were rewarded when, during the 1997 NSS National Convention, they received an award for the best paper concerning a show cave. New CRF Eastern Operations Manager Assumes the Reins at Mammoth Cave and Appoints Archivist The CRF Board of Directors has appointed David West to the position of Eastern Operations Manager (EOM). David has appointed Phil DiBlasi to the position of Eastern Operations Archivist; he will be the repository for all legal papers and other documents relating to Eastern Operations, except the Survey Books, which will continue to be maintained by the Logkeeper. Phil will also keep copies of electronic data (expedition trip reports, correspondence, etc.) on a computer separate from the one at Maple Springs. Expedition Reports Easter Expedition March 28 April I, 1997 Leaders: Rick Toomey, Marion Ziemons Twenty-three Easter Expedition participants were sent out on II surface and underground assignments to work on objectives ranging from cartography to Lesser Caves Inventory project bio-inventory. By the expedition's close, they returned, after 258 hours in the field, with 347.1 feet of new survey and I, 11l.1 feet of re-survey. The expedition was productive, especially in the Lesser Caves Inventory project results. Leads were pushed in the Proctor Trunk, 6 brass caps were installed, and two new lesser caves were discovered. Two caves were discovered to be potentially hazardous; one may have bad air and another has an "unstable ceiling at the entrance and may not be worth the hazard." The expedition also experienced a few difficulties which included lost key and unavailable keys; locks also proved to be temperamental in that keys could not be inserted, and in some instances, could not be extracted. "Several people deserve our eternal gratitude for making the expedition a success. Sheila Sands was incredible as a Camp Manager. Kay Bittle provided great help to Sheila. Thanks also to the other Expedition Leaders at this expedition for their help and advice. We would like to especially thank Bob Osburn for the help in assembling cave parties. Mammoth Cave A team of three trooped out to Miller Avenue to continue cartography work on the Bishop's Domes map. They surveyed a large (previously unsurveyed) dome above the segmented section of Kentucky Avenue and tied into an existing survey. They also completed a series of dome complex surveys. Unable to exit through either the Elevator Entrance or the Summer Issue Cave Research Foundation

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26 Carmichael Entrance, they required NPS Ranger assistance to open the elevator shaft lock. CRF Quarterly Newsletter Viewpoint Shelter Cave A party surveyed and bio-inventoried this small, 35 foot long, cave located in the Wet Prong area. The impressive entrance, situated about 40 feet above the floor of a hollow, is 67 feet wide and 15 feet high; dropping to 6 feet high at the terminus. A stream, originally above the cave's entrance, forms "an impressive waterfall as it flows over the cave's dripline ." Cricket Falls Cave Cricket Falls Cave is located in a sinkhole in the Good Springs area. During their work surveying and conducting a bio-inventory, the crew encountered a considerable amount of water which was flowing into the sink and down a "very wet two foot high crowl ." They negotiated a steeply sloping floor to a mudcovered breakdown room where the cave appeared to end in a choke. A "huge cricket population" was observed as well as two species of bats and a salamander. Blood Cave A hard-working team scoured the bluffs, in the vicinity of Bat Cave, searching for Blood Cave and Haunted Cave. They reported no difficulty in locating and entering the large drainage area downstream from Bat Cave but were unable to locate any caves fitting the descriptions of their objectives. Their search did, however, turn up several interesting karst features. One feature was a "significant shelter ... 30 feet wide x 12 feet high x 8 Jeet deep. A second karst feature, above the river, appeared to be a "crawl-in cave entrance which was occupied by a black vulture (Cora gyps) nest with two visible eggs ." Team members elected to leave the area as "mom" was watching closely from a tree in front of the shelter. Brass Caps Brass caps were installed at the entrances of the following Lesser Caves Inventory project caves: Crumbling Rock Cave, Natural Bridge Cave, Little Laurel Cavelet, Left Eye Cave, Phil Cave, Lycopodium Spring. Crystal Cave Historic Area Restoration Three work crews labored nearly 64 hours at the CCHAR site. A dumpster was delivered and filled with debris from inside the Austin house, as well as materials that had accumulated from previous work sessions outside the house. All recyclable materials were removed for storage. Fishtrap Spring Cave This cave proved to be longer and more complex than could be readily surveyed and bio-inventoried on one trip. From the entrance, a corkscrew spirals down 10 feet to a stream level crawl. Downstream ends in breakdown. The upstream hands-and-knees crawl through several inches of water, ended after 60 feet. Proctor Cave Two Proctor Cave parties struggled through the traverse of the dreaded three-hour Proctor Crawl to reach the Proctor Borehole where they continued survey in the North and South trunk. They reported that the route from the crawl to the borehole "is still flagged at convenient intersections (by Don Coons in 1996). This made route-finding very easy." Entrance and egress from the cave was hindered by cantankerous locks which continued to prove troublesome. Party One went to the North Trunk and worked in a complex breakdown room with several leads and a confusing array of survey designations. They pushed a crawl to the bitter end and also pushed a canyon until it was too tight to continue; they reported that the area could have more potential leads and requires a "great sketcher." Work still remains to be done in a breakdown room above the Mystic River area. Party Two traveled to the South Trunk. They resurveyed down the southeastern branch and found no obvious side leads. They reported the "passage is pleasant, walking high modified-tube, highly decorated with gypsum flowers, crust; quite dense in places. CREWS: Proctor Cave: 1) North Trunk (cartography-Proctor map) Marion Ziemons, Sean Bittle, Cheryl Early; 2) South Trunk (cartography-Proctor map) Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Don Bittle; Mammoth Cave: Miller Avenue (cartography-Bishop'S Domes map) Kevin Downs, Wieslav Klis, Tony Akar; Viewpoint Shelter Cave: (Lesser Cave Inventory Project~ Good Spring Loop) Doug Baker, Mona Colburn, Rays Houdei, Paul Canna/ey, Pat Dew; Cricket Falls Cave: (Lesser Cave Inventory Project-Good Spring Loop) Doug Baker, Mona Colburn, Rays Houdei, Paul Canna/sy; Fishtrap Spring Cave: (Lesser Cave Inventory Project) Bob Osburn, Doug Baker, Mona Colburn, Pat Daw; Blood Cave: (Lesser Cave Inventory Area-Bat Cave area) Rick Toomey, Bob Osburn; Brass Cap: Crumbling Rock Cave Natural Bridge Cave, Little Laurel Cavetet, Left EY~ Cave, Phil Cave, Lycopodium Spring (Lesser Cave Inventory Project) Bob Osburn, Doug Baker, Mona Colburn, Pat Daw; Crystal Cave Historic Area Restoration: 1) Mike Yocum, Phil DiBlasi, Jack Cave Research Foundation Volume 26, Number 3

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August 1998 27 Freemen, Roger McClure, Tom Brucker; 2) Sheila Sands, Kay Bittle; 3) Mike Yocum, Jack Freeman, Rays Houd6i, Roger McClure. Source: CRF Expedition Leader Reports and Trip Leader Reports Memorial Day Expedition May 23 26, 1997 Leader: Paul Canna ley The four-day May Expedition fielded 35 cavers on 20 parties which spent 564 hours on underground and surface assignments; they returned with a respectable 1,060.3 feet of new survey and 4,541.9 feet of resurvey. New survey footage was reaped from both Salts Cave and the Mammoth Cave Historic Entrance area. One adventurous team floated down the Green River in a Park Service boat to reach their work cave, while another crew sorted out a puzzling multi-level breakdown maze in Salts Cave, to be rewarded with 471 feet of new cave for their efforts. An uncharacteristic and sudden 10 minute blast of cold wind remained a mystery for a chilled Ralph's River Trail party while another team pushed still-remaining leads in Gothic Avenue. Finally, the historic and memory-laden Spelee Hut was dismantled and moved to the CRF Flint Ridge property in Hamilton Valley. Paleontology Two paleo teams, focusing on bat study, were fielded. Team One worked in the Audubon Avenue and Olivia's Bower area of Mammoth Cave. The purpose of this preliminary visit was to prepare for the upcoming inventory of bat remains. They reported that, ... the amount of human disturbance will make it difficult to find good areas with bat remains; however, the presence of good amounts of guano in the right-side passage at the end of the mushroom bats was encouraging. Team Two, working on the Lesser Caves Inventory, hiked the Green River bluffs to reach Bat Cave. They reported that "the Myotls grlsescens bachelor colony that had been blocking the inventory effort at A-45, was absent. Thus freed, the team was able to finish their inventory work. The presence of occasional Ceuthophilus and Lltocampa toward the end of the ASurvey "supports the geomorphic evidence for a biological entrance in the area. Unknown Cave Two crews entered through the Austin Entrance tunnel, dropped down into Pohl Avenue, and traveled out towards the nether regions of Unknown Cave. Team One, en route to the Gallery, was the first trip into the cave since the March 1997 flood. They reported that much of Pohl Avenue was "rather damp and squishy mud, and that they ... created a single. new trail, in some places." They also noted that the normally dry breakdown piles were slick, although the "tops look to be untouched by the water." Beyond Moore Shaft, there was no evidence of human visitation in this muchtraveled passage until the upper reaches of the YSurvey, in the Gallery, was reached. Once in the Gallery they negotiated some challenging climbs, and on one occasion fashioned several cave pack straps into an improvised handline. Unable to reach their primary objective due to steep, soft mud slopes with very small and widely spaced hand and foot holds. they proceeded to their secondary objective which was to locate the D/K Survey in a large ceiling channel crossing Pohl Avenue. They discovered the "thin ledge crossing seems to be unstable" and it would probably be better to enter this area via Start's Trail at the north end of the Gallery. Team Two traveled quickly and without incident to their work area in Ralph's River Trail which leads out of Ralph Stone Hall. Their mission was to correct an error and re-sketch an area previously sketched but which was unable to be deciphered. They re-surveyed utilizing old stations, never needing to place a new station in the entire survey. They reported an interesting phenomenon ... "At approximately 3:00 PM the cave suddenly began blowing quite strongly, chi/ling the party members for 10 minutes. before dissipating." Surface personnel confirmed that at that time "there was a little rain but no major storms came through. Salts Cave Two teams negotiated the bird cage entrance and the slick passageway down into the entrance room of Salts Cave. Team One traveled out to the area of the Dismal Valley Junction to work in the old H-Survey cutaround. This area is a "complex, multi-level breakdown cut around which more or less defines the east wall of Salt's Trunk northward from Dismal Valley Junction. Their objective was to get a single survey line through in order to close the loop. They reported observing extensive battering from gypsum mining as well as recent cave rat activity; there were "fresh cut stems and leaves at the old gate site." They also reported observing "an extensive, 3m x 3m, area of old rat latrine around E-I3. Team Two continued the work begun, by Team One, in the old H-Survey main trunk cutaround from the for end of Dismal Valley Junction. They found their work area to be rather complex with multiple routes through Summer Issue Cave Research Foundation

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28 CRF Quarterly Newsletter breakdown voids. They "tied sundry knots around this multi-level breakdown maze, with the sketch periodically threatening to get out of control." They solved the sketch problem by using separate pages for the middle sub-levels. Much work remains to be done in the area. Mammoth Cave Two cartography crews worked just inside the Historic Entrance. Crew One headed for Harvey's Way, Little Bat Avenue, and Audubon Avenue. Work in Harvey's Way rewarded them with a roomy passageway, seven feet high x fifty feet wide, where they noted yellow and white mold growing. Their final destinations were Audubon Avenue and Little Bat Avenue where they worked to resolve sketch consistency problems. Team Two proceeded to the Corkscrew and Gothic Avenue. Their first objective was to resketch the upper part of the Corkscrew to clarify how the area should be drafted. They also discovered that a narrow five foot high passage near V -3 was long enough to map (22 feet). They reported finding "an intact oil lamp at x1." Team Two completed their work by checking six marginal leads in Gothic Avenue, all of which were "Jar too small to survey." Only one known lead remains in Gothic Avenue, a 12 foot pit near the end of the passage. Proctor Cave One team slogged their way out to the North Trunk section of Proctor Cave to continue the re-survey work out in that far-region. They began their work at the Bivalve Boulevard split and surveyed off the breakdown-filled Jonathan Doyle Trunk. The survey work pushed down the main route by crawling over the top of breakdown or by following lower bypasses. After struggling around the breakdown, they were rewarded with a passage floored in fine gypsum-laden sediment sans breakdown. They noted that some of the gypsum flowers were so large they had fallen to the floor and that the original surveyors has set "caution" markers so the flowers would not be damaged. Special skills required of party members traveling to this area are, "... mental fortitude to deal with the 1000 foot Proctor Crawl bellycrawl. Lesser Cave Inventory Four teams were fielded on the Lesser Cave Inventory project, with objectives ranging from cartography to bio-inventory. Team One conducted bio-inventory in Bat Cave, working in the A,B, and D-Surveys. They reported that A-Survey was wetter than last year and that inventory beyond 8-52 was aborted due to one party member who was unable to negotiate a breakdown crawl. Team Two made the difficult hike out through Raymond Hollow, over dry creek bed cobbles, to reach Lulu Mart Cave. Due to a weather forecast predicting rain later in the day, the team went into this wetsuit cave early in the morning, where, "despite the flood oj /997, numerous survey stations could still be found. They completed their objectives without incident and exited the cave before the afternoon storms arrived. PipistrelJes were present in the cave; a new finding. Team Three reported an "interesting, and enlightening trip, and that "the use oj a boat made the trip much more productive. A NPS boat was used to travel down the Green River to Bat Cave from which they proceeded to their work locations. They surveyed, bioinventoried, and brass-capped most of their objectives as they visited Blood Cave, Haunted Cave, Sanders Cave, and Sand Spring Cave. Some photography, survey, and inventory work remains to be completed in Haunted Cave and Sand Cave. Team Four surveyed and conducted bio-inventory in Wildcat Hollow Sink. They noted that, "Wildcat Hollow Sink is a nice cold trap providing habitat Jor big-ear bats in summer and winter;" about 20-25 individuals were observed in a corner of the cave. Wilson Cave A Wilson Cave crew made the long hike through the woods to reach their objective. Once inside the cave they proceeded to the Lily Pad Stream where they surveyed high leads and began a WD-Survey; it quickly became very narrow and sinuous which slowed work dramatically. Their work ended, after they had set 10 stations (83 feet), when the lead pinched out. With no time remaining to begin work in another area, they began the three hour trek back to the entrance. Crystal Cave Historic Area Restoration Seven crews labored at the old Austin house site on Flint Ridge. One team 'examined the area for the possible presence of a former structure. Research has revealed that Homer and Floyd Collins had built a "hotel" or "boarding house," sleeping six to eight people, on the property and the structure had subsequently burned. No evidence of such a structure was reported. Cave Research Foundation Volume 26, Number 3

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August 1998 29 All of the remammg teams continued the work of clearing residual materials and rubble from the Spelee Hut site, cleaning up the Austin house site, removal of surface dirt over the septic tank, and the removal of the Spelee Hut to Hamilton Valley. CREWS: Paleontology: 1} Mammoth Cave: Audubon Avenue Rick Toomey, Mona Colburn, Patty Dew; 2) Bat Cave Rick Toomey, Mona Colburn, Patty Daw; Unknown Cave: 1) Gallery (cartography-Brucker Breakdown map) Jim Greer, Doug Alderman, Les Carney; 2) Ralph'a River Trail (cartography-Brucker Breakdown map) Jim Greer, Candice Laak, Mona Colburn; Salls Cave: 1) Dismal Valley Junction (cartography-Salls Trunk map) Mick Sutton, Karen Wiilmas, Dava West; 2) Old H-5urvey (cartography-Salts Trunk map) Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Tom Grant; Mammoth Cava: 1) Little Bat Avenue (cartography-Historic map) Doug Baker, RIck Toomey, Roya Houdei; 2) Corkscrew (cartographyHlstonc map) Doug Baker, Paul Canna/sy, Rays Houde;; Proctor Cave: North Proctor Trunk (cartographyProctor map) Pat Kambesis, Greg Shoily, Bill Koarschner; Lasser Cave Inventory Project: 1) Bat Cave (bin-inventory) Rick Toomey, Mona Colburn, Patty Daw; 2) LuLu Mart Cave (cartography) Stanley Sides, Sue Hagan, Elizabeth Winkler, Tom Grant; 3) Blood Cave, Haunted Cave, Sandars Cave, Sand Spring Cave (cartographyinventorybrass cap) Scott House, Doug Baker, Roya Houdei, John Fry; 4) Wildcat Hollow Sink (cartography-inventory) Scott House, Paul Cannaley; Wilson Cave: Lily Pad Stream (cartography) Dava West, Karen Willmes, Elizabeth Winkler; Crystal Cave Historic Area Restoration: 1) Phil Diblasi, Pat Kambasis, Greg Sholly; 2) Joyce Hofmastar, Danial Grager, Roger McClure, Richard Zopf; 3) Dick Maxey, Chary' Early. Shaila Sands, Dave Hanson; 4) Mike Yocum, Patty Dew, Doug Alderman; 5) Dick Maxey, Chary' Early, Shaila Sands, Dava H~nson; 6) Joyce Hoffmaster, Daniel Greger, Roger McClure, RIchard Zopf; 7) Mike Yocum, Fred Douglas, Hany Grovar. Source: CRF Expedition Leader Reports and Trip Leader Reports Independence Day Expedition July 2 9,1997 Leaders: Dave West, Karen Willmes The synopsis of the Independence Day Expedition appeared in the October 1997 issue of the CRF Newsletter. This edition contains a follow-up list of work locations and crew membership. CREWS: Mammoth Cave: 1) Historic Area (archaeology) Gail Wagner, Ian Baren, Bob Cohen, Xian Honglin, Tiang Xingron, He Zheng, Shou Weixn; 2) Corkscrew (archaeology & paleontology-Main Cave map) Rick Olson, Rick Toomey, Gail Wagner, Mike Nardaccl; 3) Corkscrew (paleontology-Main Cave map) Rick Olson, Rick Toomey, Dick Market; 4) Bishop'S Dome (cartography~Bishop's Dome map) Kevin Downs, Steve Tuck, Greg Sholly; 5) Cocklebur (cartographyBransford East map) Kevin Downs, Keith Miller, Daryl Neff; 6) Fritch Avenue (cartoqraphy-Fdtch Avenue map) Bob Osburn, Sua Hagan, Elizabeth Winklar, Greg Sholly; 7) Gault's Way (cartography-Historic map) Dave West, Karen WiJ/mes, Greg Sholly; 8) Carlos Way (cartography Hisloric map) Bob Osbum, Scott House, Dick Market; Colossal Cave: 1) Entrance Area (cartography-Badquilt map) Dave West, CandIce Laek, Dick Market, Greg Sholly, Kaith Miller; 2) Entrance Area (cartography-Bedquilt map) Dave West Karen Willmas, Elizabath Winkler; 3) 1871 Passage (cart.,graphyBedqUllt map) Dave West, Bob Safika, Eric Sekora; Ganter Cave: 1) Main Passage (bio-inventory) Horlon Hobbs, Margaret Goodman, Rick Olson; 2) Main Passage (cartography) Richard Young, Paul Hauck" Mike Nardacei; Unknown Cave: 1) Pohl Avenue (cartography-Pohl Avenue map) Paul Hauck, Richard Young, Greg Sholiy; 2) Ralph's River Trail (cartography-Brucker Breakdown map) Jim Greer, Bob Salika, Steva Tuck; 3) Hellctlla Trail (cartographyBrucker Breakdown map) Jim Greer, Rick Toomey, Dick Market; Salts Cave: 1) Dismal Valley Junction Area (cartography-Sails Trunk map) Mick Sutton, Candica Leek, Karen Willmes; 2) Tom Wilson's Accident (cartography-Salts Trunk map) Mick Sutton, Sua Hagan, Greg Sholly; 3) Tom Wilson's Accident (cartography-Salts Trunk map) Mick Sulton, Sue Hagan, Tom Brucker; Cedar Sink: 1) Owl Cave (bio-inventory) Bob Salika, Margaret Goodman, Horton Hobbs; 2) Smith Valley Cave (bio-inventory) Bob Salika. Margarat Goodman, Harlan Hobbs; Bat Cave: B-Survey (bio-inventory) Rick Toomey, Daryl Neff, Steve Tuck, Eric Sekora; Wilson Cave: Lily Pad Stream (cartography) Dava Wast, Karan Willmes, Tom Brucker, Rick Toomey; Blue Spring Valley Cave: (cartography & bio~inventory) Scott House, Bob Osburn, Mike Nardacei, Bob Sa/ika; Piracy Cave: (cartography & bioinventory) I Scott House, Bob Osburn, Mike Nardacei, Bob Salika; Crystal Cave Historic Area Restoration: 1)' (site inspection) Mike Yocum, Candice Leek; 2) (site inspection) Roger McClure, Mike Yocum. Source: CRF Expedition Leader Reports and Trip Leader Reports Labor Day Expedition August 29 September 1, 1997 Leader: Bob Osburn The Labor Day Expedition was described as "moderately successful" due to several occurrences which contributed to a lower than normal level of productivity: river trips traveling out from under the Park were disallowed at the last minute, some cave gate keys were not available, and a variety of illnesses kept key cartographers sidelined for all or part of the expedition. In the face of such difficult working conditions, several cartographers in camp pitched in to help re-align the expedition's objectives. By the end of the expedition, cavers had returned (after 454.5 hours in the field) with a healthy 5,552 feel of re-survey and 532 feet of new survey. A Salts Cave team worked on the survey of a by-pass route for the old gate, and a crew working in East Bransford returned with "0 very nice sketch." The team trying to work on the survey in an upper level passage under Marion A venue was thwarted by several feel of water and low air space in a passage reported to be "only damp." A crew had an interesting visit to White Lightning Cave. Cave Research Foundation Summer Issue

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30 Salts Cave CRF Quarterly Newsletter Three teams worked in Salts Cave over a period of two days. Team One worked in the Vestibule where they began the survey of a bypass route around the old gate. The route begins by dropping down into a small hole in the west wall of the Vestibule, winds through breakdown and pops out on a slope leading down to the S-Survey stream passage. They reported observing large amounts of "sulfate cotton probably mirabilite. They then proceeded to their second objective which was to start the re-survey of the Kite String cutaround in Mummy Valley. Teams Two and Three worked in the vicinity of Tom Wilson's Accident where they began re-survey work in passages, below TWA, which will emerge in Dismal Valley. They reported that the "passages follow bedding that dips to the north about 15 degrees, lending an unusual appearance to the canyon and rooms. Unknown Cave Two crews ventured through Pohl Avenue to work on the Brucker Breakdown map sheet; both teams reported problems with the lock on the second gate. Team One was accompanied by bats as they trekked out to Ralph Stone Hall to work in Spike's Trail. They reported that "70 feet of one foot high crawl, lined with three to six inch high rillenkarren spikes, made for some interesting survey. Team Two worked in the Engle Way area. They noted that very unstable sandstone cobbles and blocks above J-IO constitute a special hazard for parties going to that area. Hawkins River A party went in through the Doyle Valley entrance manhole and proceeded downstream to the Hawkins River sump. After completing a splay shot across the sump pool, they entered a side passage on the north side of the river. The passage began with a small squeeze and then opened into a nice but muddy canyon that ended in a dome, 40 feet high and 30 feet wide. White Lightning Cave A strong party of three spent 20 hours pushing upstream leads in White Lightning Cave; the result of their efforts is a much better understanding of the upstream end of Whiskey River. They returned to a flowstone plug, which ended their progress on the previous trip, in hopes of finding a way around the plug by going underneath a ledge. One party member attempted to push through an extremely tight chest compressor in bedrock and flowstone, but had to back out, unable to get through. Smaller cavers "will glide right through to glory since the passage gets immediately bigger on the other side of the squeeze and there is good air flow." The tight spot and passage lying beyond were appropriately named, "Glide to Glory." Bat Cave A crew visited Bat Cave in order to survey a lower level stream passage. They noted that the downclimbing, including body rappeling, proved to be interesting. Entering the lower level, which at 2.5 feet on the river gauge, is a canyon passage, they were able to survey only about 90 feet downstream when their clinometer began sticking, thus forcing the trip to be called. Note: This passage is apparently at river level so a return trip should only be made at 3 feet or less on the gauge. Mammoth Cave Five crews fanned out to a variety of destinations in Mammoth Cave. A Corkscrew party continued mapping in the Corkscrew breakdown complex. An attempt to establish a voice connection between Vanderbilt Hall and the mid-level of the Corkscrew was not successful. Two crews worked in the Carlos Way area. One party reported an uneventful trip, aside from waiting for tours to pass by and a 400 foot water crawl. They completed the survey connection with Gorin's Dome and found a way to climb up the far side of the dome. After finishing the dome sketch, they continued the climb up to see if they could find a way on into the historic part of the cave, for future access and to avoid the water crawl. After an hour and a half of searching, a party member found a handrail along the tour trail and exited the cave via the tourist trail. The second party completed the survey from Carlos Way to Bottomless Pit where they tied-in with the existing survey. Most of their work was done lying in water in a sedimentcovered crawlway. Progress was not fast and party members were soon covered with a thick layer of mud. A team went in through the Frozen Niagara Entrance and proceeded to East Bransford where they picked up where a previous party had stopped work. They noted that "thanks to a great sketch job, we were able to locate the station with only the slightest difficulty due to obliteration caused by recent flooding. They were able to capture 1,542 feet of re-survey before sketcher burnout settled in. Cave Research Foundation Volume 26, Number 3

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August 1998 31 The final Mammoth Cave party descended via the elevator and made the long slog out through EI Ghor and Silliman's Avenue to Lucy's Domes. They discovered that their work objective was flooded; the passage contained 3.5 feet of water and the ceiling was about one foot above the water. Since the passage is normally just muddy, they did not bring wetsuits and thus, were not prepared for the waterfilled passage. The trip was called due to some party members becoming uneasy about the high water levels combined with a prediction of rain in the afternoon. CREWS: Satts Cave: 1) Vestibule & Kite String (cariography-Salts Trunk & Mummy Valley maps) Mick Sutton, George Deike, Mickey Deike; 2) Tom Wilson's Accident (cartography-Salts Trunk map) Stanley Sides, Barbie Voeglle, Alan Gerecke; 3) Tom Wilson's Accident (cartography-Salls Trunk map) Mick Sutton. Sue Hagan, Keith Miller; Unknown Cave: 1) Spikes Trail (cartographyBrucker Breakdown map) Jim Greer, Daryl Neff, Keith Miller; 2) Engle Way (cartoqraphy-Brucker Breakdown map) Dick Maxey, Lydea Alvarez, Cheryl Early, Wieslow Klis; Hawkins River: (cartography) Don Coons, John Swartz, Sue Hagan; White Lightning: Whiskey River (cartography) Rick Olson. Dick Market, Jon Smith; Bat Cave: (cartography) John Swam, Erik Sikora, Daryl Neff; Mammoth Cave: 1) Corkscrew (cartography) Rick Olson, Dick Market; 2) Carlos Way (cartography) Bob Osburn, Janice Tucker, Matt Mezydlo; 3) Carlos Way (cartography) Mike Yocum, Matt Mezydlo, Janice Tucker; 4} East Bransford (cartography) Kevin Downs. Russell Conner, Erik Sikora; 5) Lucy's Domes (cartography) Dick Maxey, Cheryl Early, Wleslaw Klis; Crystal Cave Historic Area Restoration: (site inspection) Mike Yocum. Source: CRF Expedition Leader Reports and Trip Leader Reports Guadalupe Symposium The Guadalupe Mountains National Park Research and Resource Management Symposium was conducted April 23 25, 1998, in Carlsbad. Some 185 participants shared 49 presentations by 52 presenters, with three open forums on geology, cultural resources, and biology. There were 30 participants in the poster session, 19 exhibitors, and II field trips. The Park's 1858 stagecoach was displayed in an effort to raise funds for a display structure. Source: Guadalupe Mountains NP ~"eome 7AX .2)elluecioDS You can deduct many of the expenses associated with your involvement in CRF activities. If you file the 1040 long form with Schedule A, many of your CRF expenses are deductible. Please contact Paul Cannaley, CRF Treasurer, for additional information and publications involved with this subject. Cannaley@mindspring.com 317-862-5618 4253 Senour Road Indianapolis, Indiana 46239 ~HONE: -.;...~ __ :-,,--------ZIP: ~----' ~~--"--'--pay'abk t~ Cave 'Rfsearc'rt po~nd'a~ion, 4253 SeIWurlJi,pad; Ind'ianapoCis,Ind'ia na 46239 Summer Issue Cave Research Foundation

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32 CRF Quarterly Newsletter Buy Cave Books for Chrisbnas Now! Dr. Red Watson We are putting out our plea for you to buy many books from Cave Books for Christmas presents, NOW, because all the profits from these sales are going to go into the Hamilton Valley Building Fund, which we want to go over the top by Christmas. So here is our pitch. All our books are good, but we are overstocked in some of them, and it would help if people would buy lots of the following: Casteret. TEN YEARS UNDER THE EARTH. This is the alltime classic caving book, and some of the stuff Casteret does, diving syphons with a candle and matches, are spectacular. $10.95 hb, $6.95 pb. Chevalier. SUBTERRANEAN CLIMBERS. This is during World War II, when they have no equipment at all, yet explore a cave all the way through a mountain from one side to another. A very exciting book. $6.95 pb. Conn & Conn. THE (EWEL CAVE ADVENTURE. They had more fun exploring this cave than anyone deserves. Well, cavers' deserve it. Funny, too. $7.95 pb. Crowther, et al. GRAND KENTUCKY JUNCTION. How the connectors saw it and felt it. When John Wilcox says, "I see a tourist trail," ( cry. (OK, maybe I cry because I wasn't there, but this is as close as you'll ever get, and this book makes you live it.) $12.95 pb. DeJoly. MEMOIRS Of A SPELEOWGIST. He invented the cable ladder and did some really cranky things. An odd book, like cavers. $10.95 hb, $5.95 pb. Heslop. THE ART Of CAVING. The finest book of cave drawings in print, by one of the best-known cave artists. A beautifully put together book; our only coffee table book. $10.00 pb. Lawrence & Brucker. THE CAVES BEYOND. This is where it all began, and everyone should own and read it. $8.95 pb. Nymeyer. CARLSBAD. CAVES. AND A CAMERA. Nostalgic caving back in the 1930s. It makes you miss the past you never had. $11.95 pb. Steele. YOCHIB. THE RIVER CAVE. Exploration ofa very difficult cave to the absolute end, very much a caver's book. $10.95 pb. Talyor. CAVE PASSAGES. This is the out-of-print hardback edition, listed at $22.50, our price: $15.00 hb. Please refer to the CAVE BOOKS page in this issue of the CRF Newsletter for a complete list of books and maps available from Cave Books. (]JuiftfttIIJ Pund (}rowtli The Hamilton Valley Building Fund continues to grow. We now have in excess of $500,000. We still need contributions to fund building furnishings, kitchen and grounds equipment, and the bunk houses. All contributions are tax deductible. Please send your contributions and pledges to: Paul Cannaley CRF Treasurer 4253 Senour Road Indianapolis, Indiana 46239 Hamilton Valley Building Fund Update A special "Thank You" to those, whose names appear below, who have made contributions and pledges to the Hamilton Valley Building Fund from 12/2/97 through 6/1/98. Mel Park (mistakenly omitted from the Contributors List in the last newsletter}, anonymous donor, Dsvc Wes~ Dennis Drum, Gail Wagner, Horton Hobbs,Jack Freeman,jeff Farr,Joan Brucker, john Flies, john Hess, joyce Hoffmaster, Kathleen Womack, Kenner Christianson, Matt Me?:}'dfo, Mel Park, Mike' Nsrdscd, Rslph Earlandson, Roger McClure, Sarah Bishop, Mr. Shamel, Tom Poulson .. Editor: If names have been mistakenly omitted, please contact the Editor SQ they may be included in the next issue of the CRF Newsletter; we want your contribution to be properly acknowledged. Cave Research Foundation Volume 26, Number 3

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CA VE BOO KS Publications Affiliate of the DiVe Research Foundation (Rev 9/98) BOOKS This symbol identifies "NEW' publications NSS Cave Rescue Techniques 13.50 pb Ackerman The Moon by Whale Light 19.95 hb NSS Ogle Cave Symposium 2.00 pb Anderson Cave Exploring 3.00 pb Padget On Rope 30.00 hb ATLAS: Great Caves of the World 20.00 pb Palmer Geological Guide to Mammoth 6.95 pb Black I Don't Play Golf 12.95 hb Cave National Park Bullill Rambles in Mammoth Cave 5.95 pb Palmer Jewell Cave: Gift of the Past 8.95 pb Callot Cave Photography (French) 20.00 hb Palmer Wind Cave: World Beneath 8.95 pb Carstens & Of Caves and Shell Mounds 28.95 pb the Hills Watson Poulin, A. Cave Dwellers (poems) 18.95 hb Casteret Ten Years Under the Earth 6.95 pb Rother & Rother Lost Caves of St. Louis 9.95 pb Chevalier Subterranean Climbers 6.95 pb Sides Guide to Surface Trails of 4.95 pb Conn & Conn The Jewel Cave Adventure 7.95 pb Mammoth Cave National Park CRF Origins and the First Twelve 12.00 pb Siffre Cave Animals (French) 7.95 hb Years Simpson Sex, Lies, and Survey Tape 10.00 pb CRF South China Caves 7.95 pb Steele YOCHIB: The River Cave 10.95 pb CRF Wilderness Resources, MCNP 1.50 pb Taylor Cave Passages 15.00 hb Crowther, et al. Grand Kentucky Junction 12.50 pb Turner The Vampire Bat 10.00 hb Culver, Kane, & Adaptation and Natural 39.95 hb Valli Shadow Hunters 12.95 hb Fong Selection in Caves Watson & Brucker The Longest Cave (new edition) 24.95 hb Dasher On Station 17.00 hb Watson & Brucker The Longest Cave (new edition) 15.95 pb De Paepe Gunpowder from Mammoth 4.50 pb Watson & Watson Man and Nature 1.00 pb Cave Watson, P.J. Prehistory of Salts Cave 9.95 pb DeJoly Memoirs of a Speleologist 10.95 hb Watson, PJ. Archeology of the Mammoth 24.95 pb DeJoly Memoirs of a Speleologist 5.95 pb Cave Region Exley Caverns Measureless to Man 21.50 pb Watson, RA Caving 3.00 pb Exley Caverns Measureless to Man 32.50 hb Watson, RA The Philosopher's Joke 12.95 pb Exley Caverns Measureless to Man, 125.00 Ie Watson, RA Under Plowman's Floor 7.95 hb Limited Edition Watson, RA. Niagara 19.95 hb FaIT The Darkness Beckons 35.00 hb Williams Blue Crystal 19.95 hb Faulkner The Prehistoric Native 11.95 hb Halliday Floyd Collins/Sand Cave 4.95 pb American Art of Mud Glyph Cave Finkel Going Under 5.95 pb MAPS Fletcher The Man from the Cave 9.50 hb George Mummies, Catacombs, & 16.50 pb Carlsbad Caverns 1.50 Mammoth Cave Flint Ridge Folio Map (1964) 5.00 George Mummies of Short Cave, KY 4.50 pb Jewei Cave (folded) .50 George New Madrid Earthquake at 3.00 pb Kaemper Map (ca. 1907) of Mammoth Cave 3.00 Mammoth Cave Lee Cave, Mammoth Cave National Park 4.00 George Prehistoric Mummies from the 10.95 pb Mammoth Cave Groundwater Basin Map (Quinlan) 3.00 Mammoth Cave Area Mammoth Cave Map Card 1.00 George Saltpeter & Gunpowder 3.00 pb Mammoth Cave Poster Map 3.00 Manufacturing in Kentucky Mammoth Cave Poster Map (Collector's Edition) 25.00 Griffin Listening in the Dark (Bats) 600 pb Slaughter Canyon Cave, Carlsbad Caverns N.P. 1.00 Heslop The Art of Caving 10.00 pb 0,\lle Cave 1.00 Hill Geology of Carlsbad Caverns 15.00 pb 1.00 Hill & Forti Cave Minerals of the World 70.00 hb 8 International Congress Poster Lawrence & The Caves Beyond 6.95 pb CRF ANUAL REPORTS & PIN Brucker Long Rock Jocks, Wall Rats, and 11.00 pb Hang Dogs CRF 1968 Annual Report 2.00 pb McClurg Adventure of Caving 14.95 pb CRF 1969 -1973 Annual Report 15.00 pb McEachern & Corps of Engineers Inventory & 1.00 pb CRF 1974 -1976Annual Report 15.00 pb Grady Evaluation, Calveras County, CA CRF 1975 -1976Annual Reports 3.00 pb@ Meredith Giant Caves of Borneo 35.00 hb CRF 1977 1980 Annual Reports 4.00 pb@ Moore & Sullivan Speleology: Caves and the Cave 21.95 hb CRF 1981 -1993 Annual Reports 5.00 pb@ Envirnoment CRF CRF PIN (3''''' diameter, enameled) 4.00 Moore & Sullivan Speleology: Caves and the Cave 15.95 pb Environment ORDERING INFORMATION Murray & Brucker Trapped 16.00 pb Northrup, Mobley, A Guide to Speleological 34.95 hb Ingham, & Mixon Literature of the English Send Orders To: Language 1794 1996 Cave Books Noswat MAWS 1.50 pb 5222 Eastland Drive Nowak Walker's Bats of the World 19.95 pb New Carlisle, OH 45344 Nymeyer Carlsbad, Caves and a Camera 11.95 pb NSF Ensueno Cave Study 5.00 pb $2.50 for the first book, .50 for each NSF Fountain N.P. Study 5.00 pb Postage & Handling: NSS Caving in America 22.00 hb additional book. $2.50 for one to ten maps or map cards rolled in NSS Caving Basics 10.00 pb one tube. (Outside USA double postage). NSS Cumberland Caverns 8.95 pb

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34 CRF Quarterly Newsletter C onrrillurorll ro rhe ci4ullullr J .. ue of rhe OJ QUllreerl" ~ewllierrer Paul Cannaley, Richard Maxey & the Hamilton Valley Building Committee, Red Watson, Roger McClure, Pat Kambesis, Chris Groves, Jack Freeman, Barbara MacLeod, Susan Hagan, Mick Sutton, Tom Poulson, William R. Halliday, Ruth Black Leblanc, Vickie Carson, Dale Pate, Bobby Camara, Joel Despain, Jason M. Richards, Don Bittle, Scott House, Pete Lindsley, John Tinsley, Roger Mortimer, Brad Hacker, Bill Frantz, Phil DiBlasi, Janet Sowers, Barbe Barker, Rick Toomey, Marion Ziemons, Dave West, Karen Willmes, Bob Osburn, American Cave Conservation Association, eRF Web Site, eRF California Newsletter, National Park Service Inside Earth, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Mammoth Cave National Park. "The Martin Ridge Cave System" continuedfrom page 7 of such flow systems. This represents a new direction in the development of quantitative tools to understand cave and karst aquifer evolution, and the Mammoth Cave region is probably the best possible place in the world to do such work, largely because of the survey data gathered by CRF and other groups in the last several decades. What does the future hold for Martin Ridge Cave and for exploration in the Mammoth Cave area? Currently, exploration is closed by the landowner. Perhaps the cave may one day connect with Mammoth Cave, which lies about 4,000 feet away. That connection and another with the Fisher Ridge, over 80 miles long and which comes within less than a thousand feet from Mammoth, would push Mammoth Cave close to the 500 mile mark, which not long ago was considered to be pretty wild speculation. There is potential for enough undiscovered cave in the region to keep cavers going for generations, if they'll just go look for it! The first part of understanding this great landscape and cave area lies in seeing what's there. "Letters To the Editor" continuedfrom page 5 from the olden days! He is not in good health, almost 76, and emphysema really has taken its toll. Well, I just wanted you to know how much I enjoyed reading the Quarterly. It has been a long time since I have been actually caving ... there are none in Louisiana! It was an important part of my early years, from age nine until I finished college. Might be interesting to find out what influence caving has had on some of the other "Children of CRF" ... we sure learned self-reliance, endurance, creativity, and "getting along" with all sorts of "weird" people ... I just never knew what a unique privilege that was. Hope that the discoveries continue at Flint Ridge ... what an amazing place! I do remember a couple of other things ... one winter night, Thanksgiving probably, a gentleman, whose name I have changed to, "Jones," decided to empty the water chamber of his carbide lamp. He poured out the water into a Band Aid can, making a very distinctive sound. Amidst much laughter, somebody bellowed, "Jones !I! I thought I told you to go outside and do that!" That has been one of our favorite family jokes. I also remember one fellow, his name escapes me, whose table manners were so bad that none of the mothers wanted to have their children eat at the same table with this man, afraid that their kids would pick up some bad habits. I hope this jogs some other memories, and we can have many more funny stories of the "olden days." Sincerely, Ruth Black LeBlanc E-Mail: Jameysmon@aol.com "Grants and Fellowships" continued from page 12 PROJECT: High-resolution Temporal Variations in Ground Water Chemistry: Tracing the Links between Climate and Hydrology in a Karst System Ms. MaryLynn Musgrove Department of Geological Sciences University of Texas Austin, Texas Karst Research Grant in the amount of$I,500 Ms. Musgrove will examine temporal fluctuations in ground water chemistry in the Edwards aquifer of central Texas, using strontium isotope variations in speleothem calcite. The approach has yielded good results in speleothems from Barbados. The application of this new technique to a geologically distinct setting, the Edwards aquifer, will help to test the Barbados model. The initial phase of the study uses chemical and isotopic constituents to trace how fluids evolve as they move through the system, from precipitation, surface waters, soil waters, cave waters, spring waters, and ground waters. The second phase will relate present-day controls to long-term hydrologic trends via analysis of cave travertines that grew during the Pleistocene-Holocene climatic transition in the Edwards aquifer. Improved understanding of the Edwards aquifer and developing new ways to evaluate records of climate variability in terrestrial environments should be the principal advances afforded by this research. /;'ditor: This aniele is excerpted from {he (.'IV" Web Sne. Addilional grant and .fellows/up h\'lil1g~ are available at that Iocotion and will appear infumre issue, Cave Research Foundation Volume 26, Number 3 l

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pedition Calendar KENTUCKY Central Kentucky Karst, Mammoth Cave National Park Thanksgiving, November 25 30, 1998 Expedition Leader to be announced Operations Manager Dave West (November II), contact Eastern New Years Expedition, December 31, 1998 January 3, 1999 (December 17), Jim Greer, JGreer@mail.npc.net Martin Luther King, January IS 18, 1999 (January I), Tom .Brucker, (h) 615-331-3568, (w) 615331-925 or Thomas Brucker@Nashville.com President's Day, February 12 15, 1999 (January 29), Cheryl Early, Dick Maxey 614-261-0876 or maxey.3@osu.edu March Expedition, March 12 15, 1999 (February 26), Joyce Hoffinaster, 513-890-3679 or Jehoflinast@aol.com Easter Expedition, April 2 5, 1999 (March 19), Pat Kambesis, 815-863-5184 or Pkambesis@bigfoot.com Memorial Day Expedition, May 28 31 (May 14), Rick Toomey, 217-698-8914 or toomey@museum.state.il.us Please notify the EXpedition Leader or the Operations Manager, Dave West (301 .... 04299. Davld_West@wrsmtp-ccmall.army.mll), no later than two weeks In advance of the first day of the expedition. First and last dates are arrival and departure dates. Date In ( ) Is last date for expedition sign-up. Unless otherwise specified, all Eastern Operations expeditions will operate out of the CRF facilities at Maple Springs, Mammoth Cave National Park. CALIFORNIA Lilburn, LABEISEKI. Mineral King, Redwood Canyon November 14, 1998, Oakland Museum opens their cave show. November 21 22, 1998, Lilburn, Cartography, Sediment, Hydrology, John Tinsley November 26. 29, 1998, Lava Beds, Inventory, Survey, Planning, Bill D. & J. Sowers January 9, 1999, Fresno, SEKI-LABE, Planning Meeting, M ike Spiess. January 10, 1999, Fresno, WRTC-Cave Rescue Meeting, Roger Mortimer If you wish to attend a CRF expedition at Lava Beds, Redwood Canyon, or Minerai King, please contact the Trip Leader two weeks In advance. If you are Interested In cave SUlVey at Lava Beds and can assemble your own team, contact Janet Sowers, 610-2363009, or Mike Sims, 503-655-6609. NEW MEXICO Guadalupe Escarpment Area 1998 Thanksgiving. Contact Barbe Barker, Area Manager, for more information: 972-594-1183, or, cavers@gte.net NOTICE TO AREA MANAGERS & EXPEDITION LEADERS To ensure that your Expedition dates, telephone numbers, E-mail addresses, meetings, and other activities are reflecte correctly in the Expedition Calendar. please telephone or E-mail updates and corrections directly to the Editor by these deadlines. Candice E. Leek, Editor P.O. Box 350970 Jacksonville, Florida 32235-0970 904-724-0195, or, C I LEEK@aol.com February 1999 Issue January 1 st May 1999 Issue April 1 st August 1999 Issue July 1 sl

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Expedition Calendar HAWAII Tentatively scheduled for January 24 through February 7, 1999. For anyone interested in participating in a CRF project trip to work in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park documenting and mapping lava tubes within the Park. Contact Pat Kambesis, 815-863-5184 or Kambesis@bigfoot.com ARKANSAS Fitton Cave Project. Pete Lindsley, Project Manager, 972727-2497, or, L1NDSLEY@ti.com or Daniel Vann, Arkansas Area Manager, 501-848-3308 or Dannny Vann@kawneer.com CHINA Tentatively scheduled for mid-February through the end of March, 1999. If you are interested in assisting, contact the China Project Coordinator, Ian Baren, 914-478-5133 or chinacave@aol.com or FAX 914-232-0773 CAVE RESEARCH FOUNDATION Post Office Box 443 YELLOW SPRINGS, OH 45387 MISSOURI Missouri trips are scheduled periodically as needs dictate and weather allows. Most trips are in the Lower Ozarks area around the Ozark National Scenic Waterways and Eleven Point District of the Mark Twain National Forest. Other trips are taken in areas of Central Missouri. Activities include biologic inventory, mapping, and photography. For more information contact: Mick Sutton, (573-546-2864), or, through email at: sue&mick@mail.tigemet.gen.mo.us Doug Baker, 314-878-8831, or, DSM4now@aol.com Scott House, 314-282-3246, or, rshcrf@aol.com For information on trips in the Three Creeks State Forest or Truman Lake areas of Central Missouri, contact: Matt Beeson, 816-668-4541, or, BEESONCRF@JUNO.COM NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATION US POSTAGE PAID YELLOW SPRINGS, OH PERMIT 160 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111IIII Ralph Earlandson 802 S HIGHLAND OAK PARK 1 L 60304-1529 I, II" II,,, ,I, I"" III, I" II"", I, I" I, II" ,II, I" I, I "1I,,, I ADDRESS SERVICE REQUESTED 1 I \


Description
Contents: President's
Column --
Hamilton Valley Project Report --
Letters to the Editor --
The Grand Kentucky Junction --
Camel and Cave Crickets --
CRF Web Page --
Book Review --
Grants and Fellowships --
Colossal Cavern Love Letters Found --
Cave Books List --
Area Expeditions and News --
Expedition Calendars.