Cave Research Foundation newsletter

Cave Research Foundation newsletter

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Cave Research Foundation newsletter
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Cave Research Foundation newsletter
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CRF newsletter
Cave Research Foundation
Cave Research Foundation
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Resource Management ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )
United States


General Note:
Contents:Friends of Karst and the International Geological Correlation Program Conference held at Mammoth Cave conference summary / Alan Glennon and Chris Groves -- 1999 WKU Schedule -- CRF Finds New Karst Connection in Mineral King Valley, White Chief Basin Drains via Newly Discovered Alpine Karst System to Tufa Spring in Sequoia National Park / John C. Tinsley -- Continued Progress at Hamilton Valley / Richard Maxey -- Hamilton Valley Building Fund Update -- Book Review / Sue Hagan -- Tales form the Mammoth Cave Gazetteer: Mammoth Cave by any other name is just as big... / Mick Sutton -- Stalagmite Used to Study Past Climate -- New Exhibits Palnned for American Cave and Karst Center and Hidden River Cave -- Grants Fellowships -- Cave Books -- Project Area News, Reports, and Expeditions: California, Missouri, Kentucky -- The Loose Tube Blues -- Mammoth Cave/Karst Area Water Quality Project -- The Bretz River Shuffle -- Expedition Calendar.
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Windy City Grotto Collection, 1961-2013
Original Version:
Vol. 26, no. 4 (November 1998)
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See Extended description for more information.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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K26-00793 ( USFLDC DOI )
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12807 ( karstportal - original NodeID )

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CAVE &SEARCH FOUNDATION Friends of Karst and the International Geological Correlation Program Conference held at Mammoth Cave Conference Summary By Alan Glennon and Chris Groves Center for Cave and Karst Studies Western Kentucky University A joint meeting of the Friends of Karst and The International Geological Correlation Program Project 379: "Karst Processes and the Global Carbon ," took place on September 23 25, 1998, at Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. The conference included two days of presentations on all aspects of karst science with major sections discussing karst's role in the global carbon cycle. A third day consisted of field trips in and around the Mamlnoth Cave , area. The conference attracted many of the worlds leading karst scientists with 130 people in attendance and 19 countries represented. No less than 17 CRF JV Members attended, including seven CRF Members who were invited speakers. Over the years, the Mammoth Cave region has attracted many explorers and scientists and a significant !l6dy of karst science has evolved from studies there. Understanding water-rock interactions provides a common theme of interest for scientists interested in global carbon cycling as well as those who study the development of caves and karst. Traditionally, however, there has been limited interaction between these groups. The purpose of this meeting was to bring together scientists from a variety of disciplines to share ideas and insights developed through a variety of experiences and research paths. z o ~ Z :::l o u, J: ~ W (/) w 0::: w ~ o The meeting was kicked off with Art Palmer, Will White, Bet White, Ralph Ewers, Daryl Granger, Nick Crawford, and Chris Groves each reviewing the contributions to science which have resulted from the work in the Mammoth Cave area. For the rest of the presentations, concurrent sessions were held emphasizing relationships between karst geochemistry and the global carbon cycle, resource management, hydrogeology, and other aspects of international karst science. Speakers ranged from environmental consultants and cavers to geochemists. During two days of talks, 61 presentations were given. American graduate students, including several CRF JVs, took advantage of the chance to present their research to an international audience. Graduate students presented from Western Kentucky University, Penn State University, Eastern Kentucky University, Buffalo State University, the University of Georgia, and the State University of New York at Oneonta. Nine papers were presented by faculty, present students, and former students associated with the Center for Cave and Karst Studies at WKU. Following the first day's talks and a dinner at Park ~ammoth Resort, over 100 karst scientists entered Mammoth Cave to follow the Half-Day/Grand Avenue Tour Route. The group talked and argued cave geology with occasional stops by leaders Art Palmer, Will White, Derek Ford, and Ralph Ewers. Along the way, Roger ~cClure took time to talk about the history of CRF with several interested graduate students. One participant predicted that if the cave ceiling collapsed, karst science would be set back decades. Continued on page 3 ';1;'" (; q Telephone 501745-3151. Website: http://WWV(2.wku,edulwww/geoweb ,;/:nt ',<;"-": "0tlyr~E!,j)i:,


CRF NEWSLETTER Volume 26, No.4 November 1998 Volume 27, No. I February 1999 This is a Combined Issue Established 1973 Candice E. Leek, Editor Post Office Box 350970 Jacksonville, Florida 32235 Telephone: 9047240195 E-mail: Newsletter Staff Production Manager: Richard Zopf Guadalupe Area: Barbe Barker California Area: John Tinsley Ozarks Project: Mike Pearson Missouri Project: Mick Sutton Lava Beds Area: Janet Sowers China Project: Ian Baren Hawaii Project: Pat Kambesis Central Kentucky Area: Candice Leek Published Quarterly: Feb., May, Aug., Nov Occasionally issues may be combined The CRF QUARTERLY NEWSLETTER is a publication of the Cave Research Foundation, a non-profit organization Incorporated in 1957 under the laws of Kentucky for the purpose of furthering research, conservation, and education about caves and karst. For information about CRF, write to: Pat Kambesis, President Post Office Box 343 Wenona, /L 6/377 Telephone: 815863-5184 E-mail: Copyright 1999, by the Cave Research Foundation :1. Fre~ to Members and Fellows 1': Contactithe Editor ifyou are interested in a neWsletter exchange program '::'" '1; If you wish to subscribe to the CRFQilarteny, 'the c.9st of an 'annual subscription is$S.OQ US. ," \ Please send check, made out to,CRF, to: Paul Cannaley; ,CRFTreasurer 423 Senour R(}ad ," IndianapollS,'lndiana 46239 if!' Newsletter Submissions & Deadlines CRF welcomes queries from writers. Send article proposals with briej outline to the Editor. Request style and submission guidelines. The CRF Quarterly Newsletter is distributed 4 times a year. Occasionally issues may be combined. Submissions should be sent to the Editor. Material submitted for publication must be received by the Editor no later than the deadlines listed below. Publication of late material is not guaranteed. February Issue. .. December 15 May issue. .. March 15 August issue. .. June 15 November issue .... September 15 CAVE RESEARCH FOUNDATION Board of Directors Pat Kambesis President Peter Bosted Secretary Paul Cermajey Treasurer Phil DiBlasi National Personnel Officer & Immediate Past President Chuck Pease Bob Osburn Rickard Toomey Dick Maxey Operations Council Pete Lindlsy (ARK) Barbe Barker (CaCa) Janet Sowers (LaBe) Dave West (MaCa) Scott House (MO) John Tinsley (SeKilMiKi) .< < .1!i4it eave S'dth", Cave, Bp~ks'/is,the" ~~bIi~ati~ns aI£iliate>,~ft~~;:C~~e'R~s~~ch Founiat\o~. See lhi, ;~'u. of the CRF N:wsl.tler for ,.oomplete listing a~J' 6r~,png itifonnatiqn. ~ CRF Bulletin Board Address Changes: To ensure uninterrupted newsletter service, please send your address changes to Phil' DiBlasi, PO Box 126, Louisville, KY 40201-0126, E-Mail: If you have an email address and would like to add it to your CRF contact information, please send to Richard Zopf at Income Tax Deductions: You can deduct many of the expenses associated with your involvement in CRF activities. If you file the 1040 long form with Schedule A, many of your CRF expenses are deductible. Please contact Paul Cannaley, CRF Treasurer, for additional Information and publications involved with this subject. Cannaley@mindspring,com or 3]7-862-5618 or 4253 Senonr Road, Indianapolis, Indiana 46239. i'L, ".ii'l "Pi4it theCRFW ''!'';;, J ". .t!. "f!S.; POSTMASTER SEND ADDRESS CHANGES TO: CRF QUARTERLY NEWSLETIER 1112 XENIA AVENUE YELLOW SPRINGS, OHIO 45387


-r----------------------~~= November 1998-February 1999 3 Continued from page I The second day of sessions was followed with an evening at Lost River Cave in Bowling Green. During the 1920s, a dance floor was constructed in the cave's large mouth. For this event, the dance floor was converted into a dining room. Tables and catering allowed for subterranean dining which was followed by underground boat rides down the Lost River. The last day of the conference was devoted to field trips around Mammoth Cave and Bowling Green. Several groups headed underground inside Mammoth Cave, while two groups stayed above ground. Within the cave, Derek Ford and Roger McClure led a "Geology and Speleogenesis of Flint Ridge" trip through the Crystal Cave tourist route and later to the area near the Austin entrance. Steve Worthington, Roger Brucker, and John Mylroie led a similar geology trip to Cascade Hall from the elevator and later to the Crystal Cave tour route. From the Austin Entrance, Art Palmer, Peg Palmer, Richard Zopf, and Tom Brucker led the "Geology of the Mammoth-Flint Ridge Connection" trip. This stout group traveled through a variety of passages and levels beneath Flint Ridge, as far back as the Tight Tube. Along the way, they passed Brucker Breakdown, the Duckunder, Shower Shaft, and other spots whose discovery had led to the Flint RidgeManunoth connection of 1972. Above ground, Nick Crawford and Al Ogden spent the day in nearby Bowling Green which has served as a natural laboratory for the study ~fkarst environmental problems by researchers at the Center for Cave and Karst Studies. The other group, led by Ralph Ewers, the Whites, and Joe Ray, discussed the regional hydrogeology of the Mammoth Cave system. The conference allowed scientists studying all aspects of karst and carbonate geochemistry to meet, interact, and share ideas, all with the backdrop of the world's longest cave. To document the conference, the meeting's web site contains a listing of presentation abstracts, participants, and descriptions of the field trips, as well as links for those interested in international karst research. The web site can be found at: http://www2.wku.edul-grovecg!. The meeting organizers also received funding from the National Park Service to develop a long-term communications infrastructure between karst scientists and resource managers based on contacts made at the meeting, and a web-based communications facility is currently under development. CRF made significant contributions to the meeting's success in a number of ways, including travel support for Drs. Camille Ek and Zaihua Liu. Professor Ek, from the University of Liege, Belgium, is well known for his many contributions to our understanding of C02 dynamics in karst, and Dr. Liu is the assistant director of the Karst Dynamic Laboratory at the Institute of the Academy of Geological Sciences in Guilin, China. Besides the opportunity that this funding provided the meeting participants to interact with these scientists, this has established bonds that could be helpful if CRF expands its programs in south China or Europe. CRF Finds New Karst Connection in Mineral King Valley White Chief Basin Drains via Newly Discovered Alpine Karst System to Tufa Spring in Sequoia National Park John C. Tinsley Geologist, US Geological Survey Scientists of the Cave Research Foundation (CRF) with the cooperation of the National Park Service recently conducted a groundwater trace in a tributary to Mineral King Valley using two tracing agents during late August and early September. Botb tracers were detected at dilute concentrations at. Tufa Spring, but dye did not appear at Eagle Creek. White Chief Creek enters closed depressions in lower White Chief valley, then apparently follows the trend ofthe marble bedrock northward beneath Tioga stage glacial deposits for a distance of 1.8 miles under the ridge that separates White Chief basin from Eagle Creek basin. The tracers emerge in about 3.5 days at Tufa Spring. The trace unifies and doubles the extent of the karst system located along the western flank of Mineral King valley. The results suggest geomorphic and hydrologic continuity of the marble bedrock. A fault mapped by others as offsetting the marble is thus questionable. Published maps of the geology of the western margin of Mineral King valley require minor revision to depict the new cave system correctly. A caver connection remains to be demonstrated. This karst system was identified during the past two decades. In 1978, B.W. Rogers and lC. Tinsley of the San Francisco Bay Chapter, NSS, used fluorescein dye to trace water from Eagle Creek Sink to Tufa Spring. This experiment established that the Eagle Valley drains via an unexplored karst system from south to north, and follows the marble bedrock along the western flank of Mineral King valley. In 1996, L. Schultz of CRF, wished to fulfill independent study requirements for W.B. White's ground water hydrology summer course at Westerm Kentucky University, and to complete a senior thesis at Sonoma State University. Tinsley and J. Despain, Cave Management Specialist at Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, suggested that studying the White Chief karst would be Continued on page 4 Fall-Winter Issue Cave Research Foundation 7


4 CRF Quarterly Newsletter Continuedfrom page 3 ideal. CRF had recently initiated a mapping and inventory project for Mineral King caves. Schultz, Tinsley, and Despain successfully repeated the 1978 Eagle Valley-Tufa Spring trace, and Schultz established baseline hydrochemistry, linkage, and travel times for ground water within the karst of White Chief Valley proper. Tinsley had mapped a linear array of small sinkholes that extended from lower White Chief Valley across an intervening ridge nearly one mile northward to Eagle Creek and Eagle Sink. This train of sinkholes suggested that a much more extensive alpine karst system lay hidden under late Pleistocene morainal deposits. By this time, snow was imminent at the elevation of nearly 10,000 feet. A late-season, rather desperate dye trace from White Chief Basin to Tufa Spring failed, presumably owing to insufficient dye, adsorptive losses in the soil in White Chief Basin, relatively high volumes of storage in the karst aquifer, and dilution of the signal owing to the large flow from Eagle Creek. In 1998, armed with 20/20 hindsight, Tinsley, B.F. Lyles, A. Wilson, Schultz, and S. Toprak used 8 pounds of fluorescein, charcoal, 10 pounds of sodium chloride, and a Campbell 21-X data logger, an electrical conductivity probe, and a thermistor to repeat the 1996 experiment when the entire discharge of White Chief Creek was flowing into the input sink. Although diluted, the salt pulse raised the conductivity measurably in Tufa Spring; Nick Crawford's laboratory in Bowling Green, KY, confirmed fluorescein at 800 parts per trillion. The salt pulse's transit time was 3.5 days. Bugs from Eagle Creek placed below Eagle Sink were negative at the late summer levels of discharge . Continued Progress at Hamilton Valley Richard Maxey Building Committee Chairman Things have progressed rapidly these past months, due to the magnificent weather and good help! The utility building walls are done, the sill plates in place, the rafters and sheathing boards are ready to go up, the overhead door is on site and the building looks great! Pat Erisman has done a wonderful job in doing the block laying with help from his brother Greg and Paul Unger (all from the Central Ohio Grotto). Pat has done this work for free, as a favor to Cheryl Early and I, since we cave with him in Pulaski County, Kentucky on the Farmer Cave System. This generous help has even extended to them helping with nonmasonry work on the building! Others who have done much include Richard Zopf, Roger McClure, Joyce Hoffmaster, Cheryl Early, Daniel Greger, Lacie Braley, Matt Mezydlo, Mark Ferguson, Doug Davis, and myself for the last several months. I encourage everyone to visit the site and give me your impressions of how the building looks. My E-Mail is: The final revision list for the main building and the bunkhouses was sent in and we are now waiting for final blueprints and bids to be let, hopefully this month we will know how much someone is willing to do building for and bunkhouses. I asked for separate bids for (#1) main building plus one bunkhouse (#2) main building and two bunkhouses, and (#3) main building and 3 bunkhouses. I also asked for a bid on a septic system separately so we can decide how much more we are willing to spend for something more than the usual leachate field type. I will continue to try and keep everyone up to date on Hamilton Valley building progress and if you want to help just e-mail me and we will try and let you know when more work will be done. I wish to thank everyone involved in the project for your support and ideas this includes those who have made suggestions and comments as to how we are proceeding. Again I welcome your thoughts on the project I feel we have done a good job providing a facility that will meet CRF's needs well into the 2 I st Century and beyond because what we do now needs to be continued with renewed enthusiasm and insight to not just maintain our presence as a karst research leader but to geometrically increase that standing. The world is a very dynamic place and we must not just be swept along or trampled but take the helm ourselves and do the steering, not someone else. We must of course offer our services by networking with others and providing the support needed as a leader not a follower. I hope most of us in CRF can see the wisdom of this and take us to the next level of which Hamilton Valley facilities will be a crucial factor and tool in gaining and keeping preeminence in our field. Hamilton Valley Building Fund Update A special "Thank You" to those, whose names appear below, who have made contributions and pledges to the Hamilton Valley Building Fund from 6/2/98 through 8/31/98. Donations received after these dates do not appear in this list. Cheryl Early, Dennis Drum, Horton Hobbs, Jack Freeman,Jeff Fsrr; Matt Mezydlo, Roger McClure. Cave Research Foundation Volume 26, Number 4 Volume 27, Number 1 i


November 1998-February 1999 5 Book Review Reviewed by Sue Hagan Tales of Dirt, Danger, and Darkness, by Paul Jay Steward (1998, Greyhound Press, Cloverdale, IN), 120 pp. $8.95 plus S&H from Cave Books and other fine dealers. I was unprepared for the nature of this book, despite Red Watson's quote on the back ("It's too weird for Cave Books "). Is it better to be prepared or should one enter the unknown as a first explorer, meeting the thrills and challenges as they come? For the reader who prefers the former, be aware that Dirt, Danger and Darkness is a collection of speleo short stories in the macabre sci-fi vein caving fantasy in the extreme, humor at its most bizarre. Paul Steward has previously put much of this material out in grotto newsletters and on the Internet, and through this collection now makes it available to the wider caving community. He has done us a favor. Because Paul Steward is a caver, he is able to lend a degree of credibility to the stories that holds the reader's interest what happens to the characters may be improbable, but we can still relate to them because they attend boring grotto meetings, use rigging, crawl into insidiously small leads in hopes of major finds, tediously debate the pros and cons of electric versus carbide lamps and otherwise act as "normal" as we know each other to be. And what does happen to them is the stuff of which cavers' nightmares and spelean fantasies are made grotesque creatures, calamitous accidents, unexplainable geological transformations, even out-of-world events. But above all that, Steward has a keen sense of humor. I especially liked the "Hell Tour" to Gory Caverns Mary the tour guide has methods for protecting the resource that have probably crossed the mind of more than one conscientious ranger. This is not a book of outstanding artistic merit the noncaver will find the underground theme repetitive, the surreal events are often not convincing enough, the violence is too gratuitous, and the gore is gawkish, not gripping yet I think Dirt, Danger and Darkness will none-the-less find a welcome spot on most cavers' bookledge. We are drawn to the cave motif as an outpouring of our own souls; haven't we all occasionally calmed ourselves on hearing an unexplained sound by giving voice to some wild imagining? Do we not laugh and make bizarre jokes to rid ourselves of some primeval terror of the underground? Paul Steward has given us some fun armchair reading and if it sends only an occasional shiver down our compressed vertebrae, then he has amply succeeded. The three Ds in the title seem to be a reminder that the power of suggestion is especially acute in the third dimension. For myself, I can honestly state that my first cave trip after reading this book was different for the new strange thoughts that occasionally came to mind. Additional Reviews .... "t'Are you sure Paul Steward isn't Stephen King? You never see them together. Buy this book and nobody gets hurt. Lou Simpson, Author of Sex, Lies and Survey Tape "I don't know where / went wrong. He was such a nice boy until he started crawling around in caves and writing all those weird stories. Catherine Steward, Paul's mother. "Reading Paul Steward's stories leads one to wonder two things: first, whether he can find anyone to cave with him, and second, what happened to those who did. I know I'd be afraid to cave with him. This collection of his stories reaffirms that fear. Steward has crafted a book with its own body counti A fun read for those dreadful days when a caver is trapped above ground. Bob Springston, NSS News columnist Tales from the Mammoth Cave Gazetteer Mammoth Cave by any other name is just as big ... Mick Sutton We will never know the name by which Mammoth Cave was called by its discoverers, although given the universal human propensity for naming places, it seems certain that there would have been such a name. However, if we can extrapolate from historic native American societies, it is unlikely that the prehistoric Woodland group of c. 4,000 b.p. who chanced upon the entrance for the very first time would have named the big cave for its human discoverer or owner. One imagines something along the lines of "Very large hole in the ground with interesting minerals" rather than "Cave in the forest owned by Leaping Deer." The latter option, of course, is more or less what happened when white settlers moved into the Green River country at the end of the 19th century with their alien concept of land ownership. The first English names seem to have been utilitarian and descriptive. "Big Cave" is known from the 1802 diary of Jonathan Clark. Other early names may have been "Green River Cave" and "Saltpetre Cave" (although documentation for these is difficult to find; DePaepe, 1986). Saltpeter, of course, was a valuable commodity for the frontier folks, Continued on page 6 Fall-Winter Issue Cave Research Foundation j~------


6 CRF Quarterly Newsletter Continued from page 5 and it is no surprise that this aspect of the cave would have made a big impression. But the frontier wilderness was in the process of being carved up into blocks of legal ownership, and the cave was soon known by its owner. "Flatt's Cave" doesn't crop up in print until 1812, during a series of deed transfers. Fleming Gatewood sold a half interest in Mammoth Cave to Hyman Gratz for $10,000: "including the saltpetre cave known by the name of Flatt's, now Mammoth Cave." John Flatt legally owned the cave for only part of a day, on July 9, 1812, he bought it from Valentine Simons, owner of the first patent, for $116.67, and promptly resold it to the McLean brothers for $400 (who immediately resold it again for $3,000 to Fleming Gatewood and Charles Wilkins). The speculative dealing was fueled by the rise in saltpetre prices occasioned by the outbreak of war with Britain. The deeds formalized an arrangement whereby ownership had been transferred by assignment from Simons to Flatt shortly after August 18, 1799. Flatt similarly transferred ownership to the McClean brothers sometime prior to 1808 (Meloy, 1979). The first record of "Mammoth Cave" is from an anonymous letter written January 21, 1810 and published in the Richmond, Virginia Enquirer on April 20 of the same year (Anon., 1810, Kastning, 1970). Mammoth Cave historian Harold Meloy suggested that the author, a "gentleman in Bowling Green," may have been Dr. Robert Fontaine Slaughter (1786-1829), brother-in-law of Fleming Gatewood. The name quickly became established. The motivation may have been basic advertising hype; the change occurred at a time when ownership was rapidly changing hands; probably one of the sellers thought a name suggesting a huge size and a vaguely romantic atmosphere might make the cave more desirable, or at least more noticeable. Why "Mammoth?" Well, why not. A large object with a long trunk, perhaps? This explanation is a bit prosaic. Perhaps you'd prefer a more imaginative version. "The relics of the vastest living things that ever breathed and moved are found all over the region: Mastodons or Mammoths, that stood on the world and drank out of the clouds, too impatient to wait for the rains. After these gigantic creatures, that appear at one time to have inhabited this cavern, it is called appropriately Mammoth Cave" (Anon., 1867). Or, "it is more probable that the name originated from a colossal block of stone ... called the mammoth ... which, the imagination aiding, looks like the old-world animal resting in his den, and to which the cavern owes its name." (Klein & Thome, c. 1880). Said block is supposed to be somewhere near the Giants Coffin but the imagination would have to aid a great deal. According to Charles Wright (1880), "the figure of a colossal mammoth may be observed on the ceiling." This is also in the Giants Coffin area, appropriately, perhaps, near the Giant Anteater. Advertising hype or not, the name was not entirely inappropriate. It is probable that ever since its discovery by Europeans, Mammoth Cave has been the longest cave known, all except for a brief period in the 1960s and 1970s when first Switzerland's "Hell-hole" (Die Holloch) and then neighboring Flint Ridge accumulated greater length. That ended in 1972 with the famous connection. There was considerable sentiment for naming the new entity the "Flint-Mammoth Cave System," and so it was referred to in numerous publications of the time. This was certainly justified by the formal rules; after all, Flint Ridge wasthe longer of the two caves and the connection had taken place from the Flint Ridge side. But the name was doomed by the thoroughly entrenched, worldwide fame of Mammoth Cave and by the relative obscurity of Flint Ridge. The "FlintMammoth System" gradually reverted to the shorter and more succinct "Mammoth," where it is likely to remain. But the rash of big connections may have given Mammoth Cave its mammoth. In 1979, paleontologist Ronald Wilson did some work in Proctor Cave on Joppa Ridge. From a remote site, he identified mastodon or mammoth bones (Wilson, 1981). In August of the same year, John Wilcox, Tom Gracinin, Lynn Weller, Roger Brucker, and Tom Brucker discovered the French Connection, linking East Cocklebur A venue in Mammoth Cave to Logsdon River in Proctor-Morrison Cave. References: Anon., 1810, **The subterranean voyage, or the Mammoth Cave partially explored,** reprinted in Journal of Spelean History 3 (3):59-61, 1970 Anon., 1867, Philadelphia Enquirer, September 12, 1867 DePaepe, Duane, 1986, **Gunpowder from Mammoth Cave;** Cave Pearl Press Kastning, 1970, **Notes on the early use of the name 'Mammoth Cave;'** Journal ofSpelean History, 3 (3): 4751 Klein & Thome, c. 1880, translated by Minshull, **Land, Sea and Sky or Wonders of Life and Nature, ** Ward, Lock & Co. London, 1882 Meloy, Harold, 1979, **Outline of Mammoth Cave history;** Journal ofSpelean History, 13, (1/2): 28-33 Continued on page 7 Cave Research Foundation Volume 26, Number 4 Volume 27, Number 1


November 1998-February 1999 7 Continued from page 6 Wilson, Ronald, 1981, **Extinct vertebrates from Mammoth Cave, Kentucky; ** Proceedings of the eighth lntemational Congress of Speleology, Bowling Green KY, p.339 Wright, Charles, 1880,** A guide manual to the Mammoth Cave ofKentucky;** Bradley & Gilbert, Louisville Stalagmite Used to Study Past Climate Using a previously untried combination of techniques, geologists from the University of California at Santa Cruz have used a stalagmite (already broken oft) to study the past climate of that region. By measuring minute amounts of protactinium, a by-product of the uranium breakdown, the scientists found the IO-inch stalagmite took 8,000 years to form and that it is likely that the area's climate was considerably wetter during the first 4,000 years of the formation's growth. As the oldest trees in the area are only 800 years old, the use of stalagmites will allow the study of a much longer period oftime --up to 18,000 years back as older stalagmites are found and studied. Source: American Caves New Exhibits Planned for American Cave and Karst Center and Hidden River Cave An ambitious groundwater monitoring exhibit is being developed which will be used to demonstrate the concepts of groundwater science to museum and cave visitors. The interpretive equipment will be part of the Hidden River Cave tours and will monitor pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and water depth. Cave guides will be trained to explain what is being measured and why. Source: American Caves Grants & Fellowships CRF Funds 3 Projects in 1997 The Cave Research Foundation received 10 proposals in 1997. Three proposals were funded: one Fellowship and two Grants. A total of $5,000.00 in awards was distributed. The title of the proposal, the recipient, the recipient's graduate school, and the amount of the award are given below for each proposal funded in 1997. PROJECT: Speleogenesis of Movile Cave, Southern Dobrogea, Romania: A continuation of studies about a place lost in space and time. Ms. Annette Summers Engel Department of Biology University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio Karst Research Fellowship in the amount of$2500 PROJECT: Reconstructing Seasonal Climatic Shifts for the Upper Midwest Using C and 0 Isotopes of Fluorescent/Non-Fluorescent Band Couplets in Speleothem Calcite Mr. Rhawn F. Denniston Department of Geology University oflowa Iowa City, Iowa Karst Research Grant in the amount 0/$1000 PROJECT: Simulation Of Ground Water Flow In A Mature Karst Aquifer: Application Of Fractal Geometry And Hydrograph Separation Techniques Mr. William D. Howcroft Hydrological Sciences University of Nevada at Reno Reno, Nevada Karst Research Grant in the amount 0/$/000 lp ~.~u9.tell >" ~"r; ,!l~S:L,.;c;:::Sc~w, Fall-Winter Issue Cave Research Foundation


CAVE BOO KS Publications Affiliate of the Cave Research Foundation (Rev 9/98) BOOKS This symbol identifies "NEW' publications Ackerman The Moon by Whale Light 19.95 hb Anderson Cave Exploring 3.00 pb ATLAS: Great Caves of the World 20.00 pb Black I Don't Play Golf 12.95 hb Bullitt Rambles in Mammoth Cave 5.95 pb Callot Cave Photography (French) 20.00 hb Carstens & Of Caves and Shell Mounds 28.95 pb Watson Casteret Ten Years Under the Earth 6.95 pb Chevalier Subterranean Climbers 6.95 pb Conn & Conn The Jewel Cave Adventure 7.95 pb CRF Origins and the First Twelve 12.00 pb Vears CRF South China Caves 7.95 pb CRF Wilderness Resources, MCNP 1.50 pb Crowther, et, al. Grand Kentucky Junction 12.50 pb Culver, Kane, & Adaptation and Natural 39.95 hb Fong Selection in Caves Dasher On Station 17.00 hb De Paepe Gunpowder from Mammoth 4.50 pb Cave DeJoly Memoirs of a Speleologist 10.95 hb DeJoly Memoirs of a Speleologist 5.95 pb Exley Caverns Measureless to Man 21.50 pb Exley Caverns Measureless to Man 32.50 hb Exley Caverns Measureless to Man, 125.00 Ie Limited Edition Farr The Darkness Beckons 35.00 hb Faulkner The Prehistoric Native 11.95 hb American Art of Mud Glyph Cave Finkel Going Under 5.95 pb Fletcher The Man from the Cave 9.50 hb George Mummies, Catacombs, & 16.50 pb Mammoth Cave George Mummies of Short Cave, KY 4.50 pb George New Madrid Earthquake at 3.00 pb Mammoth Cave George Prehistoric Mummies from the 10.95 pb Mammoth Cave Area George Saltpeter & Gunpowder 3.00 pb Manufacturing in Kentucky Griffin Listening in the Dark (Bats) 6.00 pb Heslop The Art of Caving 10.00 pb Hill Geology of Carlsbad Caverns 15.00 pb Hill & Forti Cave Minerals of the World 70.00 hb Lawrence & The Caves Beyond 8.95 pb Brucker Long Rock Jocks, Wall Rats, and 11.00 pb Hang Dogs McClurg Adventure of Caving 14.95 pb McEachern & Corps of Engineers Inventory & 1.00 pb Grady Evaluation, Calveras County, CA Meredith Giant Caves of Borneo 35.00 hb Moore & Sullivan Speleology: Caves and the Cave 21.95 hb Envirnoment Moore & Sullivan Speleology: Caves and the Cave 15.95 pb Environment Murray & Brucker Trapped 18.00 pb Northrup, Mobley, A Guide to Speleological 34.95 hb Ingham, & Mixon Literature of the English Language 1794 1996 Noswat MAWS 1.50 pb Nowak Walker's Bats of the World 19.95 pb Nymeyer Carlsbad, Caves and a Camera 11.95 pb NSF Ensueno Cave Study 5.00 pb NSF Fountain N.? Study 5.00 pb NSS Caving in America 22.00 hb NSS Caving Basics 10.00 pb NSS Cumberland Caverns 8.95 pb NSS Cave Rescue Techniques 13.50 pb NSS Ogle Cave Symposium 2.00 pb Padget On Rope 30.00 hb Palmer Geological Guide to Mammoth 6.95 pb Cave National Park Palmer Jewell Cave: Gift of the Past 8.95 pb Palmer Wind Cave: World Beneath 8.95 pb i the Hills it Poulin, A. Cave Dwellers (poems) 18.95 hb Rother & Rother Lost Caves of St. Louis 9.95 pb Sides Guide to Surface Trails of 4.95 pb Mammoth Cave National Park Siffre Cave Animals (French) 7.95 hb Simpson Sex, Lies, and Survey Tape 10.00 pb Steele YOCHIB: The River Cave 10.95 pb Taylor Cave Passages 15.00 hb Turner The Vampire Bat 10.00 hb Valli Shadow Hunters 12.95 hb Watson & Brucker The Longest Cave (new edition) 24.95 hb Watson & Brucker The Longest Cave (new edition) 15.95 pb Watson & Watson Man and Nature 1.00 pb Watson, P.J. Prehistory of Salts Cave 9.95 pb Watson, P.J. Archeology of the Mammoth 24.95 pb Cave Region Watson, RA. CaVing 3.00 pb Watson, R.A. The Philosopher's Joke 12.95 pb Watson, RA. Under Plowman's Floor 7.95 hb Watson, RA. Niagara 19.95 hb Williams Blue Crystal 19.95 hb Halliday Floyd Collins/Sand Cave 4.95 pb MAPS Carlsbad Caverns 1.50 Flint Ridge Folio Map (1964) 5.00 Jewel Cave (folded) .50 Kaemper Map (ca. 1907) of Mammoth Cave 3.00 Lee Cave, Mammoth Cave National Park 4.00 Mammoth Cave Groundwater Basin Map (Quinlan) 3.00 Mammoth Cave Map Card 1.00 Mammoth Cave Poster Map 3.00 Mammoth Cave Poster Map (Collector's Edition) 25.00 Slaughter Canyon Cave, Carlsbad Caverns N.? 1.00 O~le Cave 1.00 at International Congress Poster 1.00 1968 Annual Report 1969 1973 Annual Report 1974 f978 Annual' Report .. 1975 -1976 Annual Reporta 1977 1980 AnnuaJ.Reports 1981 -1993Annual Reporta-i CRF PIN (J!~" diameter, _led) ,. .. ... pRF ANUALREPORTS&>PIN '!fi\, CRF eRF g~~ eRF Ct:l~ CR~ ORDERING INFORMATION Send Orders To: Cave Books 5222 Eastland Drive New Carlisle, OH 45344 Postage & Handling: $2.50 for the first book, .50 for each additional book. $2.50 for one to ten maps or map cards rolled in one tube, (Oulside USA double postage).


November 1998-February 1999 9 CALIFORNIA Sequoia & Kings Canyon National Parks & Mineral King Project Western Region Report September 26 27, 1998 Joel Despain Most of CRF's recent work in Mineral King has focused on two hanging valleys to the southwest and southeast of the larger, glaciated Mineral King Valley. While the karst in these two areas, White Chief and Franklin, is extensive, other karst areas also lie to the north near Timber Gap. Our weekend objectives were to survey and assess the two most significant known caves in this area, Jordan Cave and Empire Cave. A group of four (Peter Bosted, Bill Frantz, Joe Rodgers, and Joel Despain) assembled in Three Rivers on Saturday morning for the long, windy drive up to Mineral King. After setting up camp, we proceeded to the trailhead to begin the three miles of distance and two thousand feet of climbing required to reach Jordon Cave. As we hiked clouds began to build, and unfortunately they obscured some of the magnificent mountain scenery. A half-mile of cross country hiking and a short climb brought us up to the cave's large entrance. Also noticed in the area was the entrance to Glacier Plug Cave and two potential dig sites. A steep IS-foot drop began the cave, but this was easily bypassed by a breakdown crawl. From there a narrow slot led to tall walking passage and two small side passages. We surveyed along the roomy passage noting an active invertebrate community of Pimoa sp. spiders, harvestmen and Colembolans. To the right a lead led to a pit. We surveyed a few more shots in the upper level to the cave's smaller back entrance, before dropping down the pit. The lower level proved to be' much more extensive than had been expected and was left unfinished. Total survey was around 400 feet and documented 140 feet of the cave's depth. We emerged from the cave into the last light of the day and a misty rain mixed with snow. The dark, wet hike back to the car was uneventful. Sunday dawned sunny and cold. We quickly packed up and returned to the trailhead for the hike to Empire Cave. Two hours and several thousand feet of climbing brought us to the entrance. The view from the entrance was fantastic as we looked over a cloud-shrouded Mineral King at the surrounding 12,000 foot-tall peaks of the Great Western Divide. Empire Cave was extensively mined in the 1870s. Along the contact between the marble and adjacent plutonic rocks, silver and lead ores and massive quartz crystal had been deposited. The entrance is an altered pit that had been enlarged by the miners. The 45-foot drop led to a down-climb squeeze and from there to a 20foot diameter room. The room was full of old mining timbers and also contained an unstable looking platform above a 30-foot drop. We surveyed to the left into two parallel passages. Once again we ran out of time and left many going leads and other passages to survey. Total survey was around 200 feet and 100 feet of depth. We are already looking forward to a return to these two interesting caves next summer. MISSOURI Missouri Operations Activities Report December 1997 through November, 1998 Mick Sutton MARK TWAIN NATIONAL FOREST Our cave mapping and inventory project continues to perk along. We have now looked at a large majority of the known caves in and around the cave-rich Eleven-PointDoniphan District, but there are still some significant caves to examine as well as some smaller holes and a few unknown quantities. Meanwhile, we have been branching out to other forest districts. A good deal of the past year was again devoted to report writing, map drafting, and database development, but we also got a fair amount of field work completed. The major product was a lOS-page report on the caves and cave biology recorded during the second phase of the program. A total of 60 caves are included in the report. Follow up field work on the Phase 2 caves included a short trip to Boze Mill Cave, where we ferried a folding ladder across the Eleven Point River and with some difficulty, set it up to reach a ceiling dome near the entrance. An apparent passage at the top turned out to be but an illusion. Another follow-up that drew a blank was a bug-hunt in Saltpeter Hollow Cave. A springtail we had collected there in 1996 was only the second specimen of an interesting undescribed species and the taxonomist, Ken Christiansen, had requested additional specimens. The patch of dung the Fall-Winter Issue Cave Research Foundation


10 CRF Quarterly Newsletter earlier specimen had come from was by now well-rotted, and there were no fresh deposits to replenish the habitat. We left bait stations and will return in a month or so to check them. Phase 3 work included a survey and biological inventory of St. David's Cave (200 ft. long, about half of it previously unentered) and of Sandy Crawl Cave, an inglorious hole along Big Barren Creek in Carter County. The 100 ft. long damp crawlway cave had a large population of cave salamanders and long-tailed salamanders. A surface check of Big Spring sink confirmed that the sink remains plugged. A small unrecorded cave, surprisingly conspicuous, was discovered at Bay Nothing on the lower Current River. Long-term projects resumed in other Forest Service districts. At Crocker Cave (formally, and incorrectly, "Davy Crockett Cave"), two parties completed the remaining upstream leads and a wet loop near the entrance, giving a total length to date of 4,660 ft. The Cave Hollow Cave (Iron County) survey was completed, with a total length of 4,750 ft. and there were two additional biological inventory trips there. On the second of these, our Mark Twain National Forest liaison, Kris England, came along and presented the CRF crew with a US Forest Service award for volunteerism. OZARK NATIONAL SCENIC RIVERWAYS Field work was completed (with one exception) for our Ozark National Scenic Riverways mapping and bioinventory project. This project examined a small set of caves in the Big Spring area which could possibly be affected by mining activity within the watershed. The aim was to document the biology at different seasons, and to set up aquatic census plots in stream caves. Three caves at Big Spring (Well, Anastamosis and Barkdull Caves) were inventoried, all having been previously mapped. The most interesting of these is Well Cave, a rare (for Missouri) talus cave which drops down to intersect a small part of the Big Spring flow. This is the only known accessible dark-zone patch of the Big Spring feeder channel. There was an earlier unconfirmed report of a cave crayfish from this site, although the specimen, if any, seems to have gone missing. By leaving a bait station overnight, we were able to confirm the presence of the troglobitic crayfish in the Big Spring system, as the bait attracted a single female. Given the very short stretch of spring channel downstream from the bait, the crayfish surely represents a large population in Missouri's greatest (unexplored) cave. Less pertinent to the lead prospecting issue but still interesting was the occurrence of winter crane flies in Barkdull Cave. These seemed to be engaged in egg-laying on several patches of fresh raccoon droppings. Coalbank Cave on the Lower Current River below Big Spring is a major gray bat cave, already mapped and fairly well documented. The main entrance is an impressive sink (rare for the area) while a downstream entrance on the bank of the river is only intermittently open. There were two trips to look at the biology in more detail, both outside the summer bat season. There are three major areas of guano accumulation. Despite the bat guano enrichment, stream fauna was sparse, consisting of very few isopods and a number of grotto salamanders. One unusual denizen was a river otter, indicated by distinct prints and by dung deposits consisting almost entirely of fish scales and bones. Apparently, the animal( s) entered through the downstream intermittent siphon, perhaps when it was open. Panther Cave, a significant vadose spring on the Lower Current some miles downstream from Coalbank Cave, had not been mapped. The cave opens only about one foot above normal river level, and is something of a flood hazard. Two trips completed the survey of the known cave, about 1,000 ft. Three more trips were needed to map the unknown part, following the main flow upstream through a low, wet section with one squeeze, to the point where airspace became unusable. Just prior to this point, an inlet passage came in; this small canyon was generally a bit drier, and ended in a stand-up room with the stream passage too low to pursue further. The length of the extensions was also about 1,000 ft. Stream fauna was fairly typicaktroglobitic isopods, troglophilic amphipods, cave salamanders, and tiny troglophilic snails. The cave includes a small gray bat colony. In a remote area of the Upper Current, on Misouri Department of Conservation land but within the National Scenic Riverways, were three known caves, a small one which had a map and two presumed small ones which didn't. The mapped cave, Douglas Hollow, was a sink consisting of one large room, housing a good variety of bats. The one tiny patch of aquatic habitat yielded a phreatobitic amphipod (Bactrurus sp.). The two unknown quantities, Shop Hollow Cave and Shop Hollow Spring proved to be two entrances to one fairly extensive cave. Equally surprising was the importance of the cave as a gray bat site, with numerous guano piles and ceiling stains, along with several hundred bats still in residence over winter. Stream fauna was sparse but included long-tailed and grotto salamanders, isopods, troglophilic snails and amphipods. The minute snails seemed to exhibit interesting. t Cave Research Foundation Volume 26, Number 4 Volume 27, Number 1


t November 1998-February 1999 11 population fluctuations. None were observed during the first (January) trip, but in October a few snails were found far into the dark zone, and very large numbers in the deep twilight stream near the entrance. Samples of the latter proved to be all empty shells! Was this the tail end of a boom and bust population cycle? Similar results from Panther Cave suggest that it was, but we have collected live snails from other area caves in winter, so it is apparently not a simple annual cycle. With about 1,000 ft. mapped so far, there is likely to be quite a lot more to Shop Hollow Cave. Another result of this project was the development of a detailed cave fauna database in FileMaker Pro. The database is designed on the principle of many small records rather than few large ones so that, for example, the same species observed on different dates gets two records. This should allow for maximum flexibility in looking for seasonal fluctuations, species associations, etc. Our other long-term Riverways project, the seasonal bioinventory of Round Spring Cavern, continued at a low level with two trips, one of which to show the cave and its wildlife to MDC biologist Bill Elliott. Finally, Scott House organized a symposium on basic cave inventory for the ONSR ranger staff; Mick Sutton assisted. MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION Our longest-lasting MDC project, the survey of Powder Mill Creek Cave, continued with a trip to map leads up the Third Watercrawl, This trip also introduced MOC biologist Bill Elliott to the Powder Mill wildlife. Unfortunately, the beavers which normally den in the cave were absent this year. Not far from Powder Mill, a fairly large unrecorded cave turned up. Forester Cave was re-discovered by the local MDC forester Steve Laval. Authentic-looking signatures showed that it had actually been known as long ago as the late 19th century, rather a long history for this area. The cave is fairly complex and includes some large passages and nice areas of flowstone. The survey, currently at 600 ft., remains to be completed. Two other caves in Spring Hollow in the same general area were discovered, mapped and inventoried. The longer of them was 250 ft. Also in Shannon County, there was one mapping trip to Marvel Cave, where 350 ft. was added to the survey. CRF projects on MDC land in Central Missouri, spearheaded by the Beeson family, resulted in four field trips. Two hundred feet was added to the ongoing survey of Hunters Cave (Boone County), a summer gray bat site. In Morgan County, 140 ft. long J Cave was mapped. Two trips to John Fisher Murphy State Forest in Hickory County resulted in the survey and biological inventory of several small caves. Stovepipe Cave was 100 ft. long and the late evening survey encountered an active opossum and a white-footed mouse. Siphon Cave, 150 ft. long, includes several levels and some tight spots. Vanderman Cave featured an "obnoxiously over-ripe dead mammal" as weJl as two species of amphipod, but during the second visit, the survey had to be canceled owing to flooding of the entrance crawl. Instead, 20 ft. long Murphy Cave, entered by a small pit, was mapped. CRF personnel assisted MDC biologists Rick Clawson and Bill Elliott in a late October assessment of the Indiana bat hibernaculum at Pilot Knob Mine, Iron County. On ly a few dozen bats were observed within the mine, but probably twice that number were trapped at the exit that evening, along with a number of long-eared bats. All of the captured Indianas were males; females tend to go into hibernation earlier. Rick Clawson retained some of the Indianas temporarily to obtain wing membrane tissue samples for DNA typing. A crude sketch map was made of the surprisingly small accessible section of mine to replace an earlier even cruder memory sketch. As has been reported by others, the old iron ore mine seems fairly unstable US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY AND MISCELLANEOUS CRF is assisting the US Geological Survey in their survey of karstic structural features in the Big Spring watershed area. As part of that program, Bob Osburn played host to Slovenian hydro-geologist, Stanka Sebula. This was Stanka's second visit to the southern Missouri Ozarks. On the first day, they visited Cookstove Cave in Shannon County, a cave well-known for its enormous trunk passage. As well as making structural observations, the party noticed a large cluster of bats covering an area of draperies in deep twilight. A follow-up visit concluded that these were almost certainly Indiana bats, in impressively large numbers for Missouri. The clusters totaled somewhere around 1,000 individuals. This is a particularly unfortunate place for Missouri's most endangered bat, as the cave receives heavy visitation from casual (very) cavers and cave-for-pay groups. Bob and Stanka also made geological observations in Coalbank Cave and ended with a visit to Onondaga Cave, where they were hosted by the Onondaga Cave naturalist, Eugene Vail. Also as part of this project, Elmer Sutherland Cave, on private land within the Current watershed, received three mapping trips, resulting in about 1,400 ft. of survey, temporarily stopped by much wetness. About 500 ft. of passage remain between the end of the survey and a Fall-Winter Issue Cave Research Foundation


12 CRF Quarterly Newsletter secondary entrance. There were two geology visits to Norris Cave on MDC-owned Peck Ranch, Shannon County. The cave is geologically and hydrologically interesting, as it extends air-filled (most of the time) for a depth of ahout 140 ft. below the valley floor. The second visit followed heavy rain; although runoff was fairly high and the stream was flowing almost as far as the entrance, the passage below the valley floor remained air-filled. There were two visits to Banker Cave, a privately owned former show cave near the Logyard in Shannon County. About 1,000 ft. of nice, easy walking high passage was mapped, about half of it along the former commercial tour. Subsequent trips will be lower and wetter. The cave's biology was interesting. The capture of a small spider may help sort out the taxonomy of a poorly-documented troglobitic species. The spider, suspended in the middle of the passage from the ceiling, turned out to be a mature male, possibly the first male of this spider (Islandiana sp.) to be collected. The spider is either an undescribed species or represents a large range extension of a known but rare West Virginia spider. Large populations of cave isopods and long-tailed salamanders plus occasional patches of bacterial mats suggest that the stream is suffering some nutrient loading. Finally, there was a short survey trip to Catholic Church Cave (owned by the Lesterville School District). The first 150 ft. was mapped hefore the crew decided that it would be more prudent to return with wet-suits. The cave features a very high population density of long-tailed salamanders. PARTICIPANTS, Boze MiII~Scott House, Jason Garrett, Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan; Saltpeter Hollow~Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Steve Hagan; St. navtd'e-sue Hagan, Mick Sutton; Sandy Crawl-Scott House, Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan; Big Spring Sink-Scott House, Bob Osburn; Bay Nothing-Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton; Crocker-Steve Irvine, George Bilbrey, Shawn Irvine; Cave Hollow, survey-Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, David Gephardt; biology-Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Bob Osburn, Scott House, Bill Elliott (MDC), Kris England (USFS); Coalbank-l) Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan; 2) Mick Sutton. Sue Hagan, Bob Osburn, Stanka Sebula, Dan Childress; Panther-1) Scott House, Doug Baker, Roya Houdi, Jason Garrett; 2) Scott House, Jerry Wagner, Jason Garrett, Mick Sutton; 3, 4, 5) Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan; Douglas and Shop Hollow-1) Scott House, Bob Osburn, Doug Baker, Jason Garrett, Paul Press Ie, Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton; 2) Scott House, Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton; Round Spring-l) Mick Sutton, Elayne Sutton, Nigel Hallett; 2) Scott House, Bill Elliott (MDC); Powder Mill-Doug Baker, George Bilbrey, Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Bill Elliott (MDe); Forester-Scott House, Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton, Mike Carter, Bill Elliott (MDC), Steve Laval (MDC); Spring Hollow-Scott House, Bob Osburn, Andrew Dombard; Marvel-Scott House, Bob Osburn; Hunters-Matt, Mike and Bud Beeson, Robbie Stone; J Cave-Mike, Matt and Bud Beeson; Stovepipe, Siphon, & Vanderman-1) Matt, Mike and Bud Beeson, Robbie Stone; 2) Matt, Mike and Bud Beeson, Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton; Pilot Knob Rick Clawson (MDC), Bill Elliott (MDC), Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton; Cooksto.e-') Bob Osburn, Stanka SelJula; 2) Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Scott House, Patti House; Elmer Sulherland-1) Bob Osburn. Scott House, Doug Baker, Rich Harrison (USGS) Randy Orndorff (USGS); 2) Scott House. Bob Osburn. Doug Baker. George Bilbrey; 3) Bob Osburn, Scott House, Jason Garrett, Stanka Sebula: Norris-Bob Osburn, Scott House, Rich Harrison (USGS), Randy Orndorff (USGS); Banker-l) Scott House. 2) Scott House, Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton, Morry Cole; Catholic Church-Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton, Tara Flynn . KENTUCKY Central Kentucky Karst Mammoth Cave National Park Personnel Report Don Bittle Eastern Operations Personnel Officer The following new Joint Venturers have affiliated with CRF's Eastern Operations area: Aaron Addison, Doug Alderman. Jr., Diane Bumgardner, Kent Bennett, Lacie Braley, Martha Brown, Eric Buckelew, John Danovich, Doug Davis, Suzanne DeBlois, Mickey Deike, Michael Dowel/, Gary Fisher, Cherish Bittle. Thomas Gardner, Margaret Goodman. Christie Herrman, Eric Higbie, Wayne Hodge, Bob Hoke. Hilary Hopper. Brant Johnson, Susan Lanahan, Michele Martz, Jeffery Meadows, Tzvetan Ostromsky, Scott Parvin, Thomas Peterson, Blaine Schubert, Joanne Smith, Alan WeI/hausen, Rudolfo Gonzalez-Luna, Brian Benton, Jim Currens, Bob Lodge, Fred Schumen, Ali Ratliff, Gary Singleton, Gary Resch, Rick Hoechstetter, Kim Benedict, Brian Andrich. Expedition Reports Columbus Day Expedition October t 0 ~ 13, 1997 Leader: Candice Leek The Columbus Day Expedition venue was changed from the routine CRF format to that of a joint training venture between Mammoth Cave National Park, CRF, NCRC, local rescue agency personnel, and interested members of the caving community. CRF was responsible for coordinating, facilitating and directing the expedition in order to provide the platform from which NCRC conducted the actual training. In addition to providing instructors and rescue equipment, NCRC advertised the class through mailed flyers and a page on the Central Region NCRC Website. Cave Research Foundation Volume 26, Number 4 Volume 27, Number 1


November 1998-February 1999 13 Thirty-one participants experienced unseasonably warm weather and sunny skies as they devoted approximately 589 hours to a combination of classroom training, practical field exercises and obstacle courses, and a full mock incave rescue. Henry Holman (NPS) and Candice Leek (CRF) opened the expedition by welcoming everyone and then turned proceedings over to NCRC. Henry informed the class that an average of 30 rescues per year take place at Mammoth cave on the tourist trails. The majority of the first day was devoted to classroom lecture. The array of topics included: Incident Command, Logistics, Equipment and Patient Packaging, Communications, Searching for Lost/Injured Caver(s), Initial Response, Media Interaction, Medical Considerations, Psychological Considerations, Hypothermia, Water Problems, and Difficult Evacuations (including crack & crevice rescue). After classroom lectures concluded everyone changed into full cave gear and reconvened outside for practical exercises which included patient packaging and litter handling methods. The instructors flagged an obstacle course in the woods around Maple Springs and the remainder of the afternoon was spent maneuvering a patient and litter around, over, and under fallen trees, slabs of limestone rock and boulders, down hills and across ravines. A two-hour evening session provided students with time to practice patient packaging, meet with instructors, and examine a display of rescue equipment and supplies. The second training day was devoted to a full mock cave rescue. CRF had secured landowner permission to use a Barren County maze cave located out on the sinkhole plain. A week prior to the class a reconnaissance trip was made to check out the cave. A concern was that in heavy a meadow below the cave had a history of flooding as deep as 40 feet, effectively barring access to the cave. The landowner was not certain if the cave itself flooded dunng these periods of high-water. Fortunately, rain was not in the forecast. The mock rescue consisted of searching the cave, locating, evaluating, packaging, and transporting an injured caver back to the surface. The litter-handling teams negotiated shoulder-width winding canyons, rooms of breakdown, and crawlways while exiting the cave. A post-rescue critique and debriefing was conducted and NCRC wallet cards issued to those who completed course requirements. The training was enthusiastically received by all participants. Many stated they would like to see the Level I week-long class hosted by CRF. Camp Managers Bob Parrish and Harry Grover did a superior job of keeping the ship afloat. They were always ready to do anything asked of them and did so with humor and great flexibility. PARTICIPANTS: Candice Leek, Bob Parrish, Dennis Robertson,Jeanne Ticknor, Richard Faries, Julia Smith, Joyce Hoffmaster, Janice Tucker, Dave Moore, Don Paquete, Wendy Wente, Anmar Mirza, Allen Hutchison, Frank Reid, Kurt Volle, Harry Grover, Tom Peterson, Richard Frost, Kelly Waetde, Daryl Neff, Erik Sikora, Julie Volle, Phil O'dell, Stan Sides, Tzevtan Ostzowisky, Dewey Eubanks, Rick Baker, Wayne Hodge, Amanda Clark, Steve Staples, Jeff Meadows. Source: CRF Expedition Leader Report Thanksgiving Expedition November 26 30, 1997 Leaders: Phil DiBlasi & Jan Marie Hemberger The five-day Thanksgiving Expedition fielded 46 cavers on 24 teams. Cavers spent 1,940.30 hours underground, reaping 2,242.59 feet of new survey and 1,541.26 of resurvey. The Ancient Cavers Reunion was held in conjunction with the Expedition; the Reunion used the Park Mammoth Resort as their headquarters. Salts Cave Four cartography teams visited Salts Cave to work on the Salts Tnmk Map. Team One resumed September's resurvey work at E-IO. This is an area where a route joins the low-level Neville's Bedroom passage to the intermediatelevel steep climb-up to Kite String Passage. They tied the E-Survey into the Main Trunk loop, at one point working in passage 80 feet wide which quickly led to sketcher burnout and the end of the trip. Team Two entered through Tom Wilson's Accident and proceeded via the U-Survey tight slot to begin work in the V -Survey. Strong joint control was evident when their low, wide passage turned 90 degrees and became a tall narrow canyon. Climbing up a 24 foot dome, they continued to work until stopped by breakdown rubble. Team Three worked in a loop off the main trunk just beyond the "low spot" along the old tour trail beyond Dismal Valley junction. They also surveyed, "an odd passage enteredfrom a hole in a wallit is 230 feet long and up to 60 feet wide, choking out in breakdown at either end." Team Four looked for alluvial sediments and sampled sand for cosmogenic dating in the Dismal Valley and River Map areas. Coarse (2 em) alluvial deposits were observed throughout the River Map area. "Alluvium occurs mostly in protected alcoves and typically lies beneath breakdown." An excellent section of sand and gravel was exposed in an old quarry in Dismal Fall~Winter Issue Cave Research Foundation


14 CRF Quarterly Newsletter Valley. The sand was mostly fme (0.5 mm) reddish quartz with included sandstone and limestone pebbles. The sediments are mantled with large breakdown boulders. Caseyville pebbles were noted in an alcove near the Monument Room at H2. Bedguilt Cave Two Bedquilt Cave teams hiked the mile route through the woods to reach the cave. Team One reported that after a, "lovely walk up and down, and up and down, and over and around the Kentucky countryside; the cave was finally found" Once through the low, debris-filled entrance crawl, they proceeded to the Hall of the Mists. They "did not encounter any Dwarfs, but did find one of their rusted axes." Entering the 1871 Passage, they picked up the PSurvey. Over 270 feet of new survey was discovered. Team Two, "after only slight confusion on the route, succeeded in locating the cave again" While traveling to the cave they discovered a sinkhole above the cave that blows a lot of air through three holes; none were large enough to enter. This busy team completed two of their leads with three survey shots and closed a small loop, surveyed a small deadend chamber and surveyed a short deadend crawlway. They also closed another loop through the Gold Nugget Room and returned with 281.65 feet of new survey. Unknown Cave Six crews entered via the Austin Entrance and proceeded out Pohl Avenue to their assigned work locations; most teams worked' in the Ralph Stone Hall area. Team One worked in Spikes Avenue. They reported, "We saw 2,936 spikes, never saw Spike Werner nor anything passing as an avenue anywhere near those spikes." Resuming survey from S-24, they proceeded down passage 3 ft high x 6 ft wide on a gravel floor. They noted at one lead, "The previous survey reported that this 1.5 ft wide x 5 ft high lead went 150 feet 10 a room with "JL SA. Amazing that these original explorers made it back here since they were coming in via Crystal Cave or Unknown Cave!" Team Two traveled to lngall's Way and worked in the Z-Survey until it became too small for a party member to enter. Future parties should be cautious about exposed traverses and slick muddy footholds. Team Three accompanied Team Two to Ingall's Way to participate in the search for the elusive Z-Survey. A tricky pit crossing (45 degree slippery mud slope with no foot or hand holds) stopped three of four team members. Team Three backtracked to work on their second objective which was to check every lead in the passage connecting the Moore Shaft climb-out to the entrance of the Horta Tunnel and locate the old JSurvey. They exited the cave early due to a sick team member. Team Four worked in Huber Trail to verify sketch quality for accuracy prior to drafting the map. After surveying through an anastomosis they reported that the survey line was good but the area may have to be resketched in order to be able to complete the map. Team Five managed to make the tricky pit crossing in Ingall's Way to continue survey work begun earlier in the Expedition. Party Six (two teams of cavers) worked in the Salts-Unknown Link in order to tie in the survey through breakdown from Lehrberger Avenue and the pit complex at 51. After traveling down Pohl Avenue, out Lower Crouehway, and down the pit, they headed to X-51 (a complex of intersecting canyons at several levels). One crew squirmed on their sides through the connection canyon and plopped out into a small room that led to Lehrberger Avenue. They proceeded to a terminal breakdown and, after 10 minutes of searching, found the hole along the wall they needed and started shouting for the other party. Hearing them, "the other party worked their way toward us until we finally established a handy touch of fingers that allowed us to stretch a tape through the connection! We named this place Hauck's Handy Touch in honor of the cartographer that figured out just where to make this cartographic closure. Roppel Cave Team One resumed mapping, via the Market Connection, in a crawlway lead in Transgressions Trail. One 2 ft wide canyon passage lined with bedrock horns at mid-level made survey extremely difficult. They were able to lie up some loose leads in this complex area before exiting at I a.rn. via the Brucker Connection. They stopped work at a lead where air flow was blowing at a steady rate (on a poor air flow day). Team Two traveled out to the Canal Zone to map and push Zabrock's Draughting Crawl. They followed the unsurveyed upper component, a nearly continuous pool of water I inch deep in duck-walking height passage. Their route encountered numerous splits revealing leads still to be investigated. Paleontology A paleo crew entered via the Historic Entrance. Their objective was to inventory paleontological resources and survey aboriginal trail in upper Corkscrew. Significant paleo remains were located and inventoried along the T, X(W), and AT surveys. Resources located included bat remains, bat guano, raccoon scat, and chicken bones. A very significant partially mummified, partially skeletonized bat was found near T6. The AT-Survey follows one of the aboriginal routes through the upper Corkscrew but does not Cave Research Foundation Volume 26, Number 4 Volume 27, Number 1


November 1998-February 1999 15 show evidence of extensive prehistoric use. They also surveyed a loop through some of the middle levels of the Corkscrew. Anthropology Two teams photographed artifacts in the S-Bend in support of the Names Without Faces Project and in Earthwatch Project. Using a compass and tape to locate artifacts from provided coordinates, they photographed with and without scales and in both black and white and color. Artifacts photographed were mussel shells, paleo-feces, torch ties, bumed cane and mining areas. An ovemight rock fall, consisting of small pieces and small rocks, was reported in Houchins Narrows (almost to the Rotunda). Mammoth Cave One party resumed survey at H-7 in the Corkscrew and continued down a small slot between the wall and the floor. At H-I I they discovered a nice size breakdown room with lots of air movement and no way to continue forward. Backtracking to H-IO, they investigated a six foot deep blind pit and yet another breakdown room with good air flow. They also observed a note on the wall, "LOST CHAMBER. IT IS HELL TO BE LOST. c.G.L. 3 HOURS HERE." LESSER CAVE INVENTORY PROJECT Wilson Cave Team One worked on cartography and bio-inventory. The one hour hike to the cave was without incident. Five Lucifigus were noted in A-Survey. At 0-34, on the long crawl to their objective, the party encountered a group of 10 bats. Not wishing to disturb them, they elected to abort the trip. Near the SneezeYou-Die Room a lead was discovered which was not on the map or the lead list. It moved a lot of air so everyone pulled out the survey equipment and captured over 500 feet of belly crawl that improved to walking passage through a side dome and a "WOW." The WOW is an area 40 feet across which requires negotiating a 20 foot drop (a 30 foot cable ladder had been left at the entrance). The pit drop was left for the next party working in that area. Team Two aborted the trip near the Neatherdomes due to a ill party member. Wet Prong Cave This small cave, appearing to have two entrances, was located and surveyed. Entrance One ended in a blowing breakdown collapse after nine feet of belly crawl. Several significant sinkholes were observed but could not be entered in current conditions. Fishtrap Hollow Cave Fishtrap Hollow Cave is a stream cave with anobscure entrance above a breakdown collapse over a small spring. Once beyond the breakdown squeeze the passage drops into a hands and knees crawl in I to 3 inches of water. The survey yielded 61.65 feet of passage. Survey was stopped due to the passage disappearing under a low ledge. Red salamanders, crickets, crayfis, and rat nests were observed. Cadaverous Cave & Demunbrun Caves While searching for the Demunbrun Caves, a ridgewalking party discovered Cadaverous Cave which proved to be a multi-level 200 foot cave containing many bones (mostly cow). There were signs that the lowest level backfloods when the Green River is high. Continuing to search for the Oemunbrun Caves, the team noted that ledge-walking was a good talent to have in this part of the park. A 25 'foot wide rock shelter was located. A small cave, 7 feet deep, with a breeched dome contained a long eared bat. Enroute back to Maple Springs they discovered another new cave containing about 150 feet of maze crawl. CREWS: Salts Cave: 1) Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Chuck Pease, Cynthia Vann; 2) Stan Sides, Barbie Voegtfe, Ron Bridgemon; 3) Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, David Ecklund; 4) Darryl Granger, Don Coons; Colossal Cave: 1) Paul Steward, Miles Oake, Jo Smith; 2) Dave West, Karen WiJlmes, Lara Stonn; Unknown Cave: 1) Pete Lindsley, Mike Pearson, Danny Vann; 2) Jim Greer, Roger Brucker, Ralph Earlandson, Tzvetan Ostromsky; 3) Candice Leek, Lynn Brucker, Susan Ecklund, Alan WeI/heusen; 4) Jim Greer, Lara Storm, Pat Daw; 5) Doug Alderman, Mike Lace, Ralph Earlandson; 6a) Pete Lindsley, Mark Deebel; 6b) Paul Hauck, Chuck Pease, Cynthia Vann; Roppel Cave: 1) Bift Koerschner, Tzvetan Ostromsky, Rusself Conner; 2) Bill Koerschner, Mike Lace, Eric Wilson; Paleontology: Historic Entrance Rick Toomey, Rick Olson, Doug Alderman, Pat Daw; Anthropology: Historic Entrance Chuck Swedlund, Frances Swedlund, Richard Young; Earthwatch Support: Historic Entrance Chuck Swedlund, Frances Swedlund, Richard Young; Mammoth Cave: Corkscrew Dick Market, Rick Olson; Wilson Cave: 1) Dave West, Paul Steward, Joanne Smith; 2) Karen WiJlmes, Miles Drake, Paul Steward; Wet Prong Cave: Eric Wilson, Mike Pearson, Alan WeI/heusen; Fishtrap Hollow Cave: Mike Lace, Robin Dickerson, Steve Stiples, Jeff Meadows; Cadaverous Cave, Demunbrun Caves: Miles Drake, Eric Wilson, Marl< Deebel, Joanne Smith. Source: CRF Expedition Leader Reports & Trip Leader Reports New Year's Expedition December 31, 1997 January 4, 1998 Leader: Candice Leek Fall-winter Issue Cave Research Foundation


16 CRF Quarterly Newsletter The New Year's Expedition faced a number of interesting obstacles to its successful conclusion. Three inches of snow made travel to Maple Springs somewhat tricky. Snow and ice on the Flint Ridge Road caused the closure of that road by the Park so planned survey trips to caves accessed from Flint Ridge Road were redirected to other objectives. Survey supplies were missing from Maple Springs so parties working during the first two days of the expedition dug deep into their personal equipment and pulled out their own instruments, tapes, books, and survey paper to tide them over until an emergency supply of material was received from Phil DiBlasi in Louisville. By expedition's end, 593.45 hours underground resulted in 1,746.8 feet of new survey and 1,996.25 feet of resurvey. BedauUt Cave Only three of the five teams assigned to work in Bedquilt Cave actually made it to the cave. The first two teams were turned back because of Flint Ridge Road's closure by the Park due to ice and snow. Teams Three and Four hiked the confusing route through the woods and entered the cave's bellycrawl entrance together. Once inside the teams proceeded to their separate objectives. Team Three surveyed from H-30 to H-48 and picked up 209.8 feet of new survey; they advised that another team will need vertical gear to survey the pit at H-30. Team Four worked in the "wet and muddy" X-Survey with passages ranging from hands and knees to standing narrow canyons. Team Five continued the X-Survey and reported a series of low crawls and a 20 foot pit remain for future parties as well as wading in water two to three feet deep in the vicinity of X26. Unknown Cave Three crews hiked down the steep hill to the Austin Entrance and, after a 25 minute struggle to open the inner gate lock, made the long trek out Pohl Avenue, beyond Brucker Breakdown and out to the Ralph Stone Hall area. Team One descended Moore Shaft, climbed the ledge up into the entrance of Ingall' sWay, and worked on the resketch of Z-Survey. They reported that the area is complex and there are still many leads which need to be checked. They also reported, "exposed slimy troverses and loose breakdown." Team Two hiked through the Horta Tunnel, climbed up into the cutaround leading to Huber Trail and began the re-sketch of the D-Survey. They reported that many leads remain to be surveyed out of the pit at the junction of Hand J Surveys. Team Three worked in Spikes Trail in passage sometimes only one foot high with difficult tie-in shots. Salts Cave Two teams worked in Salts Cave and returned with new survey! Team One began an A-Survey in an upper canyon noticed on the Thanksgiving Expedition. Team Two worked in the old E-Survey. They attempted to find a route through holes in the overlying breakdown but were unable to get far. Mammoth Cave One survey team entered through the Historic Entrance, traveled to Manunoth Dome and on to Gallows Way to survey its upper level toward Sylvan Avenue. Paleontology Two paleo teams entered via the Historic Entrance and continued work on the survey of bat remains in Broadway. Work focused on the area along the left and right side of Broadway between the Rotunda and the transformer across from the entrance of the Corkscrew. More material was found than anticipated including several mwnmified bats including one Corynorhinus. Sides Cave Two crews continued survey in Sides Cave. A drop at Q-13 was free-climbed through a narrow slot into a "scarey belled-out canyon." Team One returned with over 350 feet ofnew survey after a lengthy canyon climb-out. Team Two reaped 135 of new survey after negotiating an "excruciating squeeze requiring a very small party. Roppel Cave Two parties put in long trips in Roppel Cave. Team One trekked out to the far end of P-Survey. Working in pools two feet deep, they surveyed upstream and gained 922 feet of new footage with more still to be done. Team Two, unable to pass an X-Survey constriction, began a B-Survey 300 feet north of Fleece Way. They pushed through to B11 and the passage still goes, I ft wide x 7 ft high. A special thanks to the following who helped make the expedition a success: Camp Managers Harry Grover and Doug Alderman who worked hard to keep us all well-fed; Dave West who assisted with crew; Phil DiBlasi who sent out an emergency supply of survey equipment; and to everyone who pitched in to help out with personally owned equipment. Cave Research Foundation Volume 26, Number 4 Volume 27, Number 1


November 1998-February 1999 17 CREWS: Bedqullt: 1) David West, Karen Wi/fross, Rick Toomey, Jim Bonien; 2) Geil Wagner, Dick Marl

18 CRF Quarterly Newsletter Mammoth Cave/Karst Area Water Quality Project Whenever a heavy rain falls on Mammoth Cave National Park in west-central Kentucky, park service officials dispatch a special "swat team" of water quality monitors to sample the labyrinth of underground streams that form the most extensive cave system in the world. The flood surges that quickly enter the caverns are tested for surface pollutants in a multiagency effort called the Mammoth Cave/Kars: Area Water Quality Project Nonpoint source pollution testing in an underground setting lends a unique character to the Mammoth Cave project. The unusual geology that annually attracts over two million visitors to the park also makes the area particularly vulnerable to poor water quality. Instead of flowing into surface streams, rain falling within the limestone karst basin of the Green River flows into some 15,000 active sinkholes. The water travels through underground streams and caves, including Mammoth Cave, before emerging as spring water in the Green River. A host of potential pollution sources, including point source discharges from industrial wastewater treatment facilities and nonpoint pollution from agriculture, greatly affect the quality of water flowing through the cave system. Concerned that surface pollution sources might lead to long-term deterioration of the cave resource and its value to the local tourism economy, Kentucky officials are using Section 319 federal grants to support water quality monitoring and a host of demonstration projects. Besides the National Park Service, other agencies involved in the Mammoth Cave/Karst Area Water Quality Project include the Kentucky Division of Conservation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service. Congress added Section 319 -the nonpoint source management section -to the Clean Water Act in the 1987 Amendments. Section 319, administered Nonpoint Source Control Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), is intended to promote cooperation with local and state agencies in a national nonpoint source control strategy. Source: u.s Water News' Archives Us. Water News Homepage The BRETZ RIVER SHUFFLE As perfonned at the Ancient eavers Reunion, November 1997, Mammoth Cave, Kentucky: Down in a cave in old Kentucky, Flows there a river along. Bed so smooth, all hard and rocky, Let me sing you its song. Chorus: Come along with me through that old Bretz River, Sing a happy song, For we'll be halfway home when you again see that river, Come with me, come along. Go through sideways, you may not make it, Slim folks find it a breeze. Stout folks joke, but they sure have to fake it, For one and all, it's a squeeze. Chorus: Come along with me through that old Bretz River, Sing a happy song, For we'll be halfway home when you again see that river, Come with me, come along. Left foot, drag right foot, that Bretz River shuffle, Cool water soaks through your boot. No room to fall on your face or your duffel, Slide on with that old sidestep scoot. Chorus Come along with me through that old Bretz River, Sing a happy song, For we'll be halfway home when you again see that river, Come with me, come along. Songs ringing out into stone wall echoes Sometimes so sweetly inspire, Sounds of the opery, Tennessee radio, A capella choir. Chorus Come along with me through that old Bretz River, Sing a happy song, For we'll be half way home when you again see that river, Come with me, come along. Flint Ridge and Mammoth are now just one cave, By those Bretz River banks. After eighteen years it's secret it gave, Bretz River we give you great thanks. Chorus: Come along with me through that old Bretz River, Sing a happy song, For we'll be halfway home when you again see that river, Come with me, come along. Cave Research Foundation Volume 26, Number 4 Volume 27, Number 1


edition Calendar "p, ,'It; , .. .... ,''1:; .... ",'". .. c.. ') lAissouri ""Pfildition. an! scheduled perlodlcany a. dictate and '\NIlatlier ~,lIows.Mo.t trips a", in the !.ower Ozarks area .around the Ozark Natio~ai$cenic Waterways and .Elevan Point or strict Of the rk TW~in: Nationaliforest.,o:etivillesi~clude biologic InventorY: apping,andphotog(~phY' Contect the following I .. de~: 'i IckSlJtidn:.,. .' ;: Tel.Phdnll:573~,2864 E-Mail.!.ue&ml' .. 9,'~~


gpedition Calendar KE't!lV<;KY. ,iV !n '" .... i' C '1"II1 Kt ..... ky Kant, Ma .. m.tb Ceve NaOMa! Pafk R~ Ea$terElpeditiOD, April 2 ,5,1999 C"II-ID By:,(Mareb 19)'ii .,. Leade~: 'pat Kambesis ,Tel~pbone:,.815-863'Sl~4 .' E-Mail: kaJnbeSis@).biSf?9l.COm -:. :1:, ;' .... if ,Memorial Day Expedjtio.n,l\fay 2831, 1999 Call"ln By~ (May.14) .. ~ader: RickTOonley ,Ie)epllOne; g 1 N;98-891~ ... ". E-M)li):toomeY@museum:s!ate:U,us l IndepeDdanee 1,).y Expedition, July2"lp9?9 Ca\I-lilBy:(IW1eI8) .. Leadel'$: Dave West &H(~nWillmes Telephone: .410-366-5038 (f{aren WilImes) E-Mail: .kwUlrnes@ao),com SUDllll;et E~peditinn, Angust68, 1~?? Call-In By: (Ju1):23) m ..' Leaders: Sue Hagan &lvIlck Sutton Telep~one:573-54(i;2864 .... ... '. E-Mail: .~ue& "sTd";L"1 ,Plea .. ~otIfyth.:Expe(l1Uon Leac:ter,'orthe Operations Manager, ave W~t ;,(301-460.-42$9. 'J)avld_W .. t~nJf"tp-ecmall . nny,mll)1 :nQ later::;tItan >,two ; weeks In advance of the flmday ,0' the expedition.' First and la$tdBte8 are arrival and dep)lrture dates. Date In 0 ,II last date lorexpedJtion .Jiin:-up~ '. ;V' ,I:i.' ,'::t: ,if;""" CAVE RESEARCH FOUNDATION Post Office Box 443 YELLOW SPRINGS, OH 45387 NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATION US POSTAGE PAID YELLOW SPRINGS, OH PERMIT 160 r" ~ 1,11"11"",11,11""1,,1,,,11,1,1,,,1,11,1,,1,1,,1,1""I,ll Ralph Earlandson 802 S HIGHLAND OAK PARK IL 60304I 529 ADDRESS SERVICE REQUESTED / 1 J

Contents:Friends of
Karst and the International Geological Correlation Program
Conference held at Mammoth Cave conference summary / Alan
Glennon and Chris Groves --
1999 WKU Schedule --
CRF Finds New Karst Connection in Mineral King Valley,
White Chief Basin Drains via Newly Discovered Alpine Karst
System to Tufa Spring in Sequoia National Park / John C.
Tinsley --
Continued Progress at Hamilton Valley / Richard Maxey --
Hamilton Valley Building Fund Update --
Book Review / Sue Hagan --
Tales form the Mammoth Cave Gazetteer: Mammoth Cave by
any other name is just as big... / Mick Sutton --
Stalagmite Used to Study Past Climate --
New Exhibits Palnned for American Cave and Karst Center
and Hidden River Cave --
Grants & Fellowships --
Cave Books --
Project Area News, Reports, and Expeditions: California,
Missouri, Kentucky --
The Loose Tube Blues --
Mammoth Cave/Karst Area Water Quality Project --
The Bretz River Shuffle --
Expedition Calendar.


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