Cave Research Foundation newsletter

Cave Research Foundation newsletter

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Cave Research Foundation newsletter
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Cave Research Foundation newsletter
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CRF newsletter
Cave Research Foundation
Cave Research Foundation
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Resource Management ( local )
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United States


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Contents: South Central Kentucky Karst placed on the list of the Top Ten Endangered Karst Ecosystems / Kristen Tronvig and John Mylroie -- Risks of Cave Pollution / Kelly Thomas -- Hamilton Valley Building Committee Update / Richard Maxey -- Mammoth Cave Historic Entrance Ecotone Restoration Update -- Cave Workshops -- Cave Restoration Carlsbad Caverns National Park / Kelley Thomas -- Session on Karst Sediments Proposed for Fall 1999 Geological Society of American Annual Meeting / Ira D. Sasowsky and John E. Mylroie -- An Update on the Fringed-Myotis Bats in Carlsbad Cavern / Dale Pate -- Grants Fellowships -- Museum Collectoin Profile Mammoth Cave National Park -- The Death of Floyd Collins -- Histoplasmosis a Fungus Among Us / Harry Burgess -- How Do you Count Almost a Million Bats? / Kelly Thomas -- Reports: Missouri Operations, Eastern Operations -- Expeditions -- Cave Books -- Expedition Calendar.
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Windy City Grotto Collection, 1961-2013
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Vol. 27, no. 2 (May 1999)
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t The Karst Waters Institute received 40 nominations of endangered karst communities. From these nominations, it has constructed a list of the ten areas in most need of protection for the 1998 year. The most critical factors in determining the karst of greatest importance were: (I) the biological significance (whether the species are rare, CAVE &SEARCH FOUNDATION Soutli Centra{1Vntuc~ 7(flrst plilcea on tne list of tne Top Ten Endangered Karst Ecosystems Kristen Tronvig and John Mylroie Karst Waters Institute Some of the most unusual species of organisms known to science occur only underground in caves and voids in perpetual darkness. Hidden from view, these "ecosystems beneath our feet" are prominent in karst landscapes. Springs, sinkholes, blind valleys, and cave entrances signal the presence of karst, and indicate that cave systems formed by dissolution may exist. Similarly, lava develops '. karst-like features (especially caves) as the result of the crusting over of cooling lava flows. These caves form a unique biological habitat. The Karst Waters Institute (KWl), a not-for-profit organization dedicated to the promotion of research and public understanding of karst, held a scientific conference in February, 1997, titled: "Conservation and Protection of the Biota of Karst." The conference, which attracted 100 participants from 10 countries, resulted in discussions on how to protect endangered karst ecosystems. The Karst Waters Institute reacted with its first annual nomination of endangered karst communities, in order to raise public awareness about karst communities in general and threatened or endangered karst in particular. These karst communities are subjected to a variety of threats including development, mining, petrochemical extraction, groundwater pumping, waste dumping, transportation, and agricultural runoff. To identify a collection of critical karst ecosystems, .the Karst Waters Institute solicited information on endangered karst from scientists and experts worldwide. z o ~ Z ::I o LI(fSomc> of the .most. '/musuafspecics of organisms !moWn to' sci¢nc;~ opcUr only; undergroilnd Incevcs and. vOidf in perpetiJal dlJrkness. endemic, or threatened, or if the community is rich in its biodiversity), (2) the actual threat to the karst community, and (3) relevant local groups interested in protection of the threatened karst. It is the hope ofthe Karst Waters Institute and all those who participated in the project that this study will provide the beginning of increased public awareness of the threats to these karst areas and stimulate enhanced protection efforts. The ten most endangered karst communities for 1998 are the following: Blue River Basin, southern Indiana, USA Cape Range Peninsula, Australia Church and Bitumen Caves, Bermuda Cueva del Viento System, Canary Islands Fricks Cave, Georgia, USA Ha Tien-Hon Chong, Vietnam Jollyville Plateau, Texas, USA Koloa Lava Tube System, Hawaii, USA Lez Karst System, France South Central Kentucky Karst, USA The Blue River Basin in southern Indiana, USA has over 1000 caves, including Wyandotte Cave and Marengo Cave. It is home to over 100,000 federally listed Indiana Bats as well as many other rare and endemic species of animals. Blue River Basin also contains rare karst plant habitats such as limestone glades, chert barrens, and ~pland sinkhole swamps. The area is threatened by intense commercial and residential development pressure from Louisville, Kentucky. Local organizations interested in the well-being of this karst system include The Nature Conservancy, Indiana Karst Conservancy, and American Cave Conservation Association. The only hope for preservation of the Blue River Basin is for the public and county officials to realize how sensitive and special this area is and for them to implement appropriate plans to protect the area. Cape Range Peninsula is located in northwestern Australia, about I 100 km north of Perth. The peninsula supports rich fauna in each of its terrestrial, freshwater and anchialine systems. The peninsula contains a karst system with mostly endemic cave species and is amongst the most diverse in the world. The peninsula is threatened by a variety of land uses including water extraction, urban development, limestone quarrying, petroleum exploration, Continued on page 4


--------------------~CRF NEWSLETTER Volume 27, No.2 May 1999 Established 1973 Candice E. Leek, Editor Post Office Box 350970 Jacksonville, Florida 32235 Telephone: 904-519-2925 E-mail: Newsletter Staff Production Manager: Richard Zopf Guadalupe Area: Barbe Barker California Area: John Tinsley Ozarks Project: Mike Pearson Missouri Project: Mick Sutton Lava Beds Area: Janet Sowers China Project: Ian Baren Hawaii Project: Pat Kambesis Central Kentucky Area: Kevin Downs Published Quarterly: Feb., May, Aug., Nov. Occasionally issues may be combined The CRF QUARTERLY NEWSLETTER Is a publication of the Cave Research Foundation, a non-profit organization Incorporated In 1957 under the laws of Kentucky for the purpose of furthering research, conservation, and education about caves and karat. For information about CRF, write to: Pat Kambesis. President Post Office Box 343 Wenona, IL 61377 Telephone: 815-863-5/84 E-mail: Copyright 1999, by the Cave Research Foundation -. Free to.M~mhersand fellows th¢ Editor if ~OiJ,lire '.tete$~d in n"W'lletti'r,!!~:Ji exctian~p1'Ogl'8lJ1". Jfy~u,wis~ to snbacri6e Wt~eC;RFQI!lirteriy, thecosllofL ~L J an annual sUb~iption'is SS;~ootJS,. Please send ~~ck!, made 0otlO CRF, tn, Pill" Cunlltl/tJl,C/lF Tre~rer 42J Scenour.i!ood lntllun lis, Intllun. 462J9 Newsletler Submissions & Deadlines CRF we/comes queries from writers. Send article proposals with brie outline to the Editor. Request style and submission guidelines. The CRF Quarterly Newsletter is distributed 4 times a year. Occasionally issues may be combined. Submissions should be sent to the Editor, Material submitted for publication must he received by the Editor no later than the deadlines listed below. Publication of late material is not guaranteed. February Issue December 15 May issue March 15 August issue June 15 November issue September 15 CAVE RESEARCH FOUNDA nON Board of Directors Pat Kambesis President Peter Basted Secretary Paul Cannaley Treasurer Phil Diblasi National Personnel Officer & Immediate Past President Roger McClure Chuck Pease Bob Osburn Chris Groves Rickard Toomey Operations Council Pete Lindsley (ARK) Barbe Barker (CaCa) Janet Sowers (LaBe) Dave West (MaCa) Scott House (MO) John Tinsley (SeKi/MiKi) CRF Bulletin Board Address Changes: To ensure uninterrupted newsletter service, please send your address changes to Richard Zopf, 1112 Xenia Avenue, Yellow Springs, OH 45387. Telephone, 937-767-9222 (before 10:00 p.m. EST) or email to Allow 8 weeks for changes. E-Mail: If you have an e-mail address and would like to add it to your CRF contact information, please send it to Richard Zopf Refer to the address listed above. Income Tax Deductions: You can deduct many of the expenses associated with your involvement in CRF activities. If you file the 1040 long form with Schedule A, many of your CRF expenses are deductible. Please contact Paul Cannaley, CRF Treasurer, for additional information and publications involved with this subjecl. or 317-862-5618 or 4253 Senour Road, Indianapolis, Indiana 46239. :,,) e ';,' .. ,'T '11(4(.( ~&CRFwMilie 'hllP;t-";:;"Vll-te~rch.Org \1V'" .. . ,<1'" POSTMASTER SEND ADDRESS CHANGES TO: CRF QUARTERLY NEWSLETTER 1112 XENIA AVENUE YELLOW SPRINGS, OHIO 45387 d


May 1999 3 By Kelly Thomas Carlsbad Caverns National Park Since the discovery of Carlsbad Cavern by cowboys in the late 1800s, humans have been directly affecting this worldfamous cavern by building trails, excavating shafts to remove guano, and placing numerous structures over the cave. These structures include a visitor center, parking lots to handle large crowds of visitors, a maintenance yard with its associated gas tanks and paved parking areas for trucks and other large equipment, and a housing area with sewer lines, propane lines, and garages. Many of these structures are located directly above the cavern. When cavern development began in the early 1900s, first for guano mining and later for tourism, the area was rugged and remote. A trip into the cave was an all-day affair. In those early days it was convenient and practical to build structures near the cave entrance. By the 1930s the new road to Carlsbad Cavern through Walnut Canyon was completed and numerous buildings had been added to the area above the cave, many of which were built by the Civilian Conservation Corps. Sewer lines from the visitor center and other buildings ran to septic tanks, while to the east of the visitor center and directly above Left Hand Tunnel excess liquids were sprayed out on the open ground. The last major building phase above the cave occurred during the 1960s. "Th~ development of Carlsbad Caverns during the last 90 years may threaten the cave itself The sewer lines have leaked raw sewage down crar:ksand fissures in the vic:i1'1ilyofthecave," Carlsbad Cavern is located in limestone which was deposited in an ancient sea about 230 million years ago. Every passage in the cave is formed along a fracture. In many places the fractures in the limestone are very complex and formed an intricate maze of passages. Over time the cavern became the highly decorated show piece of nature we know today. When our predecessors began to develop the area around the cave entrance, they were unaware of how the cave formed and that their actions could damage Carlsbad Cavern. The very same fractures along which passages formed in the cave extend all the way to the surface in many places. The development over Carlsbad Cavern during the last 90 years may threaten the cave itself. The sewer lines have leaked raw sewage down cracks and fissures in the vicinity of the cave. The accumulated oil, grease, transmission fluids, antifreeze, and other contaminants from hundreds of thousands of vehicles each year wash off the parking lots during rain storms, disappearing underground. A scientific study was conducted to trace contaminant entry into the cave. Researchers from the Colorado School of Mines performed this infiltration study. Preliminary results indicate that water drips in Left Hand Tunnel have high nitrate values. This area is where the excess liquids were sprayed out on the surface and is where the main sewage line runs east and then south to the sewage lagoons. Either of these could be the source of the nitrates. High levels of aluminum and other metals have been found in numerous drips in the Big Room area. A possible source for these metals may be antifreeze and coolant material from parking lot runoff. "The,.ac:cumrJiated. oil, grosse, 'transmission fluids, antifreeze, and other contaminants from hundreds of thousands of vehicles eaqh year wash off the parking lots dUIingrliln}/orm s disappearing underground" Obviously, the removal of all man-made structures from above Carlsbad Cavern would slowly return the cave and the area above it to a more pristine condition. However, in order to provide for visitor enjoyment, less drastic measures will probably occur. A more likely scenario is that this study will identify certain buildings and practices that should be relocated off the limestone areas of the park. The study should also make recommendations for modifications to facilities and operations that will reduce cave contamination. Researchers will seek the most costeffective methods of reducing the greatest potential risks. Source: Carlsbad Caverns National Park <';~~), " " ',ir 'r!/:: Hamiiton.,VaUey BUilding Coirnmittee Updat~ ~f;f,:'ir ), ,~:, "l1 w c,:'" ': ;1,;;< ';!; :,BY,Richm.:.dtyfax:ey ~k, !Jui[sling Committee Chainnan J"::ti::t,,:?<> iJr, ::u,j',>:':':'::;""',, ,,',del,",.'> ':, .' ,;:nir ,r The ,bids' Qre' d~e ba,ck the ~eekofMay 3rd~ I will meet with VoelkerWinn on May 10: One contractor is too' busy, to bid; three others wi II s~brilit ,bids but need "ei

4 CRF Quarterly New,lett.r Continued from page J over-pumping of water resources within the aquifer, and waste disposal. The Australian Cave and Karst Management Association Inc. and the Australian Speleological Federation, along with the Australian scientific community and some governmental agencies, are interested in protecting the Cape Range Peninsula. Protecting both the natural and economic resources of this area will require the development and implementation of proper local and regional land management based on sound research. "... kaist communities p subjectcdto '!. v81i.ety Of threat 'including i,lerelopn1t~n" rnin,ing, pet.rochernical 'extra¢ti0F/l groundwstcr-rpumping, .. wastlf. 4UfllPirJS, transportation, and agriculttiial rqnoff.~ .. Church and Bitumen Caves are located beneath Ship's Hill on the grounds of the Marriott Castle Harbour Resort in Hamilton Parish, Bermuda. Church Cave contains the largest underground lake in Bermuda. Bitumen Cave, just north of Church Cave, is the deepest underwater cave in Bermuda. There are at least eleven cave species which are found only in the lakes of these caves, nine of which are listed as critically endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List. The Castle Harbour Development includes a $60 million housing project which involves the construction of 37 luxury townhouses on top of Church Cave and a retail center on top of Bitumen Cave. Partially treated wastewater from the development will he used to irrigate golf courses surrounding the caves. The Bermuda Plan of 1992 prohibited any development that is harmful to caves, but development dollars proved to be more persuasive than environmental protection and Castle Harbour was subsequently given the authority by the goverrunent to proceed with the project. The Bermuda-based group, Save Open Spaces (SOS), hopes to encourage the Marriott Hotel corporation and the Bermuda Government to preserve these caves. The Cueva del Viento System is located in the upper part of the Icod de los Vinos (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain), within the northern slope of Pico del Teide. It is a set of lava tubes and contains approximately 19 km of galleries. It is remarkable for its biodiversity, where all but one of its 35 cave species are endemic to Tenerife, and ten are endemic to Cueva del Viento. Threats to the system include sewage dumping, tourist refuse, and the uncontrolled and illegal building of superjacent housing. Local groups concerned With the well-being of Cueva del Viento include the Canarian Federation of Speleology, the Department of A~i~al Biology at La Laguna University, and the Viceconsejaria de Medic Ambiente of the Canarian Gove'!""ent. Conservationists continue to lobby the Canarian Goverrunent and the Cabildo de Tenerife in an effort to encourage these official bodies to declare the Cueva del Viento a preserved natural site a plan that was first devised, but then abandoned six years ago. Fricks Cave, located near Lafayette, Georgia, USA in Walker County is one of the most biologically significant caves in the southeast region of the United States. It is home to the endangered Gray bat, a rare cave salamander, as well as many beetles and other invertebrates. The cave's main threat is development, mostly because it is in the vicinity of ideal real estate for commuters to the city of Chattanooga. There are several local groups who are interested in the cave, including the Southeastern Cave Conservancy Inc. (SCCI), The Nature Conservancy, and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources. The property containing the cave has been purchased at auction bySCCI. Ha Tien-Hon Chong Karst in southern Vietnam has a unique compilation of plant and animal species due in large part to its geographical isolation. Cave animals limited to this area include springtails, beetles, wood lice, and millipedes. Ha Tien-Hon Chong also contains numerous vertebrates including bats, reptiles, birds and small mammals. A cement plant, the Morning Star Project, is scheduled to be built on the Hon Chong which will affect most of the karst ecosystem and destroy prime habitat. Limestone quarries scheduled to supply the cement plant would cause irreversible damage. Holderbank, the Swiss bank responsible for financing the project has proved especially insensitive to environmental issues involving the karst. Protests by locals, provincial authorities and scientists from Ho Chi Minh University have, so far, all been ignored by the Hanoi government. The threat to the Ha Tien-Hon Chong karst highlights the difficulties which environmentalists face when attempting to protect unique ecosystems on commercially attractive properties in underdeveloped countries. "rhe cave~ main threat is development, mostly because it is in the vicinity of ideal real estate for commuters to the city of Chattanooga. The Jollyville Plateau in Travis county, Texas, USA is located about 16 km west of downtown Austin and just east of Lake Travis on the Colorado River. It contains at least 91 caves and sinks with a number of endemic cave species including spiders, pseudoscorpions, harvestmen, beetles and a newly discovered, undescribed cave salamander. There are six cave species which appear on the U.S. Endangered Species List. They are: Tooth Cave spider, Bee Creek Cave harvestman, Bone Cave harvestman, Tooth Cave pseudoscorpion, Tooth Cave ground beetle, and Kretschmarr Cave mold beetle. The animals are threatened by land development, utilities, transportation, chemical spills, and imported red fire ants. Also, an industrial park is scheduled for development on the old Continued on page 6 Cave Research Foundation Volume 27, Number 2


May 1999 5 th Cave HistOric Entrance tQne 8estoration Upchite Mammoth Cave National Park Project Manager John Fry, Physical Science Specialist, and crew have been constructing a walking surface of patio pavers in the ecotone that is Houchins Narrows and the Rotunda. Ecotone refers to a transition area between two ecosystems. Paving the trails has been just one part of a much larger project, a holistic management strategy to protect the natural and cultural resources of the cave, while still allowing visitors to experience it. The ecotone ~'Epotp.1Jt;rcfi;rs to a transition sre between two ecosystems: restoration, funded by Natural Resource Protection Program, began in 1996, and has included: the cave boardwalk on Broadway; the new Historic Entrance bat gate; nine cave atmospheric monitoring stations; placing rocky rubble along one wall of Houchins Narrows to create an animal run, and Echo River clean ups. ('Arielt!ctricct1[f was lowered through the air shstttotransport psversIrom the bottomot' the> shllft ill Houchins Nd1'I'OW8 to the ROfluuiQ."'c' The whole point of the project is to restore the Historic Entrance ecotone to pre-human conditions based upon paleontology. This is crucial for: I) restoration of habitat for wildlife including endangered bats; 2) reducing the decay of archaeological and historical (War of 1812) cultural resources; and 3) reducing rock fall, which had accelerated in recent years. The cave is already healing fungal growth on 190 year old timbers and rock fall have both decreased. Madison-Smith, Inc., of Glasgow, won the contract to move the paving stones into the cave, lowering them through an old six-foot diameter air shaft that once warmed and cooled the visitor center. Ninety pallets of pavers (6,000, 37 pound hexagonal patio stones) and cement went down the shaft on specially constructed holders. An electric cart was lowered through the shaft to transport pavers from the bottom of the shaft in Houchins Narrows to the Rotunda. Historic Cave tours have continued throughout the construction process because the work crew has been working the night shift. Project completion is scheduled for April 1999. SOllrce: The Flashlight, Mammoth Cave National Park . The Missouri Department olconser~otiok the." Mi.ssouriSpel¢ol'1gicol Sur,:vey,MdtheC~veii' ..... .. ""+,)' '"'. ', .... 'L':: '.. ~~'ey Educotion Center. ,. -+ ,,;-c/.... :.; ,+' Shannpn~County., MiliSour:i,. {11 i;t;~~<. +,:'" ..' ,lr ;;11 Cgye WorkShop forEd~Qtors Qnq.~~i ""...... ". :';' >.,.;, :., .:1;;>' .. "d. ,At' ';," .. 1;] Outdoor Instructors ii "lIgIllif"h -I ~ ~i 1999il;;. .[)~lgnedif~red~cC!t(ll!s. but notlimitedt(l Hlem, """ .. ,. 'C ..... "". -i,,:'1kn .... J). .. .vc.. .. ,: this workshop in1roduction to caves, rii'''; < t. ..:i;oc 'C:',:. ." ,: -, i itt cave life, Spri!"9s ;i.lnd karst. ...... ::,. .. :. Jii' ": .. 'C,:/ -'," t~s: S.cott House. Mick sutton,~ li i !l!l ;iPS\.ie'HQgori:BiII ElHott 'I'm ,!: <1:~:::ii;:: ::,:H;iii:11:'::".".' .,::,.;0" .. 'n;; "! : ii'Spe1eo'_Worl'. "\.v':.jl!~ ForTON inforlnot1pn,contaet: '1.. ,'Seott House': ;< 'w, :h. :.' ." Jj1 HO .... 314-323--4236 1" $ummer 57'3-59B-4310' ~h~!?l314-29.~-20:l0 e:MaiI: rshcrf@ClOlcom IIIPR8aueStld Ph9tograRhsare I\eede~ for C,Rf Annual 'I B~pQrts.Plense contact Pat Kambesi~:. ~. . J lit 5-863-5184 .. f ~"i'" .. ,,' "';".":.: .. -". .in:, i'" Ci' 1,-,WEi;;01 .. '"~':"Ka!,llbes~@bigf~ot.c9m Spring Issue Cave Research Foundation


6 Continued from page 4 CRF Quarterly Newsletter Kretschmarr Ranch which will make it increasingly difficult to protect the cave communities. The Texas Speleological Survey is very interested in the well-being of the Jollyville Plateau. Funding is needed to ensure proper management, fire ant treatments, and the placement of effective gates. The Koloa Lava Tu be System in the southeast corner of Kauai near the towns of Koloa and Poipu is one of the most threatened communities in Hawaii containing at least three endemic cave species. Two of these species, the 00eyed, big-eyed wolf spider and a terrestrial amphipod, are candidates for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The third endemic species is an undescribed terrestrial isopod. Other species found within these caves include cockroaches, termites, earwigs, and springtails. The system is threatened by agriculture, urbanization, refuse dumps, deforestation, mining, and the invasion of alien species. Local groups interested in the conservation of the Koloa Lava Tube System include the Hawaii Speleological Society, Hawaii Conservation Task Force of the National Speleological Society, the Pacific Islands Ecosystem Office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and some local government agencies. Public awareness will encourage both the protection among these caves and the federal listing of the threatened species living within these caves. It will also assist in the establishment of research to monitor the effectiveness of protective management strategies. Again, protection of surface environments is the key to the conservation of this system. ''The;animals .' lI.rC.threlltened J by (ani! deve'op~nt, utifitics,transpiJrlation, .clJehTicll1 ~i1ls, an4 imported red fire ants. 'Anin,!u~trill1 park ifschefiuJed for;del{elopmept.:..which ',wi1f msk It inCrcli$lnglJC difficult tOProlcet/be csveqommunitics. ... : ... . C' Lez Karst System is in the south of France about 32 krn northeast of the city of Montpellier. The Lez is the richest karst system within the region, containing 37 cave species. Its primary threat is over-pumping on the Lez Spring a difficult threat to counter since the spring is the main source of drinking water for the people of Monpellier, Although Lez Spring has been exploited since the 18th century, groundwater pumped from its aquifer has increased 100 percent in the last 30 years, causing the water table to drop nearly 30 m. It appears that there are no local groups interested in the system and the only groundwater monitoring is conducted by the water company. The effort to protect Lez is spearheaded by biologists from the Groundwater Ecology Laboratory at University of Lyon. The University of Lyon hopes that public awareness will help the threats to Lez pressure the Town of Montpellier and to the Compagnie Generale des Eaux into the development of a plan to protect biodiversity. The South Central Kentncky Karst is a biodiversity hot spot among caves. Approximately 130 species irthabit the South Central Kentucky Karst, including the endemic and federally listed Kentucky Cave shrimp, federally listed Indiana and Gray Bats, and the Northern Cavefish. It is also the only place where both the Northern and Southern Cavefish coexist. The threats to the South Central Kentucky Karst include agriculture, oil and gas extraction, expanding transportation corridors and urban development. Encroachments have resulted in habitat loss, poor water quality, and a degradation of the prairie ecosystem that once dominated the sinkhole plain. Containing these threats will require the construction of runoff retention basins along Interstate Highway 65, continued use of fertilizers in agriculture, and the restoration of Green River's natural flow pattern. "Approximately 130 species Inhabit theSorith CelltialKentucky .. Karst ... cncroschments have resulted in hahltllt loss, poor water quality, and a degradation of the prairie ecosystem that once dominated the sinkhole plain." The Karst Waters Institute actively solicits participation in its "Top Ten" list, both in the management of selected karst ecosystems, and to identify ecosystems to be included in the next "Top Ten" list. If you are interested in working with this project, contact Dr. David C. Culver at Karst Waters Institute, P.O. Box 490, Charles Town, WV 25414 or bye-mail at Source: Karst Waters institute H,~mlltQ!"IValleyEJuilding FU!"Id Update ,.ft. it-" E ; '''. r-. .." ~spec;!a1 'T'umk You" to those, whose names appl:$' llel,?~~~hoh~ve made contributions and pledges to Ibe Halntlttl~ V;alley Building Fund from ,9/1/98 thro~ 212~/99. ponations received after these dates do not appeal' 'in thi&]jst: iL i0; ,>:, ~(i£fmo/1.1,Poiior, Bill a Peri FrIlntz, Bill ~,SiJrt!h BishRp, CllllC!t Peasc;Dllvid Cowan, Deanis Dnun; ~ .iIf:'x~>! ~iBJiCk, Don Finkel, £rnst KMtniIT,g, f)iClicj,a-lli/.i\V48Jler, GoI'flonSmith, Greg ShoIJy.J#11 ef .te1'y; khtf.4fess, folm,My/roie, John Stel1Tnack, Jolm 11IJrIi1JfiI1,Jpyce ikJlfJ1l1uter, Keven It Myrna Neff, MIl trteJlfdlo, /rfcl Park, Mike Narri4cci, Red W8tf(>,Il, f(icharrl A.!iWatson, '/(ichard Zopf, Robert Fries, Kogel' :cf:!lU!d, ~ McMillan, Ron Wilsop, Stan Sides, TO!11. I!lir.tJ4fth l!:>uIaan, Tom GrtJIlt Kdito/

May 1999 7 resources. We have come a long way in our management of these non-renewable resources. The concept that once these resources are broken and gone, they will never return, is a sobering one. Over the past few years, many experienced volunteers have donated thousands of hours to help restore Kubble left from t:heblaStf;(i e1t;vator'shllfts is slowly bl:iTIg tf1"ll()JTf;(iJt01l1,/hccave. Underiletltkthc.rubbieHowstone,' 'rimstone dmns, and pthe.r,. fetlt~s are miracuipusiy intact." ,', and conserve the caves of the park. Their efforts are appreciated in our endeavor to restore park caves. Future generations deserve to see and experience these same caves in as pristine a condition as possible. Source: Carlsbad Caverns WWW Research Page Spring Issue Cave Research Foundation ,; Oa)(~ Retltoration ,::,; rlsbi d; QaV.ergS tlIaUOn1J1 Park'" By Kelly Thomas Carlsbad Caverns National Park From the early days of guano mining to later development of the park for tourism, degradation of cave features occurred. Park caves are extremely fragile. A goal of park management has been to evaluate past impacts to the caves and where possible restore damaged cave features. Volunteers have played an important role in helping conserve and restore caves. In Carlsbad Cavern the construction and maintenance of trails, the blasting of elevator shafts, vandalism, and the millions of visitors have changed the cave environment. Most of the main trails through the cave are self-guided; consequently, vandalism is a problem. Between 1985 and 1993 thousands of small cave formations were broken and/or removed. Stainless steel handrails are now being installed along both sides of the paved trail as a deterrent to vandalism and off-trail travel. Rubble left from the blasted elevator shafts is slowly being removed from the cave. Underneath the rubble tlowstone, rimstone dams, and other features are miraculously intact. Mud has been tracked over tlowstone or into cave pools. These areas are identified and slowly restored back to their original state by volunteer workers. "It is estimale{f 'that eighJ to ten 'pounds of lint are left bChiiid in the caverns every year by our 6()(J,ooo"v1sitors. ; For many years dust and lint have been slowly accumulating, by the 1990s it was hanging in large globs in places and covering most surfaces. Close evaluation revealed this accumulation of lint was trapping and holding moisture, slowly dissolving cave formations. It is estimated that eight to ten pounds of lint are left behind in the caverns every year by our 600,000 visitors. Volunteer workers have meticulously removed much of this misplaced material. The discovery of Lechuguilla Cave in 1986 stimulated new approaches to the conservation of pristine cave environments. New exploration guidelines have been developed to minimize impacts. Clean gear and clothes, the use of non-marking boots, and numerous other protocols have been developed for cavers in Lechuguilla and other fragile sites. Care of cave formations in the early 1900s was lacking. Caves were not treated as precious non-renewable


8 CRF Quarterly Newsletter By Ira D. Sasowsky and John E. Mylroie Karst Waters Institute A draft proposal for a topical session at the Fall 1999 Geological Society of America Annual Meeting in Denver, Colorado, has been submitted by Ira Sasowsky and John Mylroie. The session will be entitled 'Sediments in Karst Systems: Processes, Mechanisms, Interpretation' and will encompass both chemical sediments (speleothems) and clastic sediments. The search for fruitful sources of information on past hydrologic, environmental, climatic, and geomorphic conditions has brought researchers with many different backgrounds and perspectives to work in a common environment: karst. Cave sediments, both clastic and chemical (speleothems), have become widely recognized as potentially useful recorders of such information. In addition, clastic sediments in karst aquifers may serve as repositories or transport media for environmental contamination. The goal of this Session is to bring together those interested in karst sediments who might not otherwise have a chance to interact, and to provide a forum for discussion of new research directions. Participants are expected from disciplines including: sedimentary processes, paleoclimatology, hydrogeology, surficial processes, paleomagnetism, chemistry, geochemistry, physics, desert hydrology, geomorphology, paleontology, and biology. A morning oral session (limited to about 15 papers), and an afternoon poster session will be proposed. Additionally, a pre-meeting one-day field trip may be organized. Additional conference information may be obtained througb the following sources: Dr. Ira Sasowsky University of Akron Telephone: 330-972-5389 FAX: 330-972-7611 Email: by Dale Pate Carlsbad Caverns National Park In the summer of 1995, Dr. Ken Geluso of the University of Nebraska and Dr. Troy Best of Auburn University conducted a study of the fringed myotis bats (Myotis thysanodes) that roost near the Lake of the Clouds in Carlsbad Cavern. This study, which was funded from Adopt-A-Bat funds, has provided us with a lot of very useful information. On July 9 in the evening, thirteen individuals were captured by mist net as the bats left their roost on their way out of the cave to feed. Of these thirteen, ten were lactating females (meaning that they have recently given birth to a baby bat), one was a pregnant female, and two were adult males. These bats then had a small patch of hair removed between their shoulder blades and a small transmitter attached with a non-toxic adhesive. None of these bats appeared to have any difficulty flying with the attached transmitters. The adhesive allowed the radio transmitters to fall off after two to three weeks. For the next two weeks, the researchers and their students used radio receivers to track the bats movements. f'.. .deperJding on where fight¤ were felton throughout the night, the bats evidentIywplJI d chapge thei.t:routethrough the Lpnch Room ~an4~)'onl:J,tflJv:eIing in thedafk11~ as much as'pos$ibfe. It was found that the bats did not leave their maternity roost in rapid succession, but instead exited individually over a period of several hours. Average flight speed as the bats flew down Left-hand Tunnel was 18 feet/second. This means that it takes about 5 1/2 minutes once the bats have left their roost to reach the entrance to the cave. The researchers were also able to count the bats as they flew down Left-hand Tunnel. They came up with a fairly accurate count of 115 individuals. It was found that 75% of the bats exited the cave using the large, main entrance, leaving 25% to exit the smaller entrance east of the main entrance. It was also found that 50% of the bats exited the main entrance during the evening outflight of the Mexican free-tailed bats. The research team was also able to track the bats route as they left the cave. It was found that the bats flew down Left-hand Tunnel to the Lunch Room, go upward towards Iceberg Rock from the passage behind the Concessionaire structures, along the Main Corridor and then exited through one of the two entrances. This dashed the hopes of some that there was an unknown passage the bats were using to exit the cave. Continued on Page 10 I Volume 27, Number 2 J ...... Cave Research Foundation


May 1999 9 CRF Funds 3 Projects The Cave Research Foundation received six proposals in 1995. Three proposals were awarded funding: one Fellowship and two Grants. A total of $4,000.00 in awards was distributed. The title of the proposal, the recipient, the recipient's graduate school, and a synopsis of the research are given below for each proposal funded in 1995. Mr. Renato Kipnis Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan Research Fellowship in the amount of $2,500,00 Mr. Kipnis' research is part of a long-term archaeological project (initiated in 1980) that will systematically evaluate the dynamics of cultural change in Central Brazil. The research will investigate the kinds of responses that were employed by hunter-gatherer groups in eastern central Brazil during the early Holocene by evaluating the idea that subsistence diversification and intensification were the two main responses to climatic instability in the area. An alternative hypothesis to be evaluated is that buffering dispersal and mutualistic relations among groups of people were the main strategies employed by prehistoric societies in central Brazil as responses to food stress. Key relations are two rock shelters that have excellent organic preservation and dated remains extending to the Pleistocene-Holocene transition and which apparently span the Holocene. The research offers sound prospects of generating new archaeological in environmental information. Mr, Larry L. Coats Quaternary Studies Program Department of Geology Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona CRF Research Grant in the amount of $ 1,000.00 Mr. Coats' research is directed at the paleoecology and Archaic archaeology in Grand Canyon National Park. He will be completing a systematic excavation of Rebound Cave to recover new fossil material for paleoenvironmental data concerning the Archaic culture within the region and its association with extinct faunal species. The area includes vertebrate fossil assemblages (California condor, among other taxa) that should add significantly to the Pleistocene and Holocene paleoecology of the park. The research also includes an effort to use the new data in concert with prior studies to interpret the cultural affiliation of split-twig figurines and other artifacts. lPROJECT: ''f,!J;pholqglcal'C''ange ,n. L'ate'"pleiSloc;;ie Rodqll$/rom lli!llop p!' .... Trigg County" ~e,,",ckyl'luitti /!¤ Jl~latlo~"Jp to (::1I/n9t1ff.J:Ollditions.l" "'Ai,;: ;.~ Ms. Cindy Gordon Department of Biology Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky CRF Research Grant in the amount of$l, 000. 00 Ms. Gordon's research seeks to determine if morphological change in the dentition of rodents is related to changes in climate in late Pleistocene rodents, specifically the pine vole (Microtus pinetoru) from cave sediments in Kentucky. The cave preserves diverse and abundant vertebrate remains dating from 250,000 years ago; the upper parts of the section are amenable to radiocarbon dating. Preliminary excavations indicate that sufficient microfaunal remains are preserved to allow meaningful statistical analyses on the remains of the rodent population, 'Museum Collection Profile', Mammoth Cave National P'ar~ fL .,df,;':

10 eRF Quarterly Newsletter nf U oIt cotne'all~ou'Young:peopl~1 and listen while! te~, ~\\':i ~e tce o£~oyd Col1ins, we all know well. l Uk ;\i',1 1 ~Jc.ceWl\$:~ait and~n;t~; ~ heart ~as true ~4,\\r~~i" IHis}~)dy now lies,sleep#;lg,,:, '11\ a~lonely sandstonecav~:iL" ",jy,,:gl,;:~ "' ,'''' ''''! 'II Hi8( fatfte(often wametlljunfromfollies to desist, .:~.1 )il>\\l:?11~'i' He told him of the dAnS"J: and of I\lea'l:fulri$. ""':!! But FlQyd would notli8~ ,to i:h:e oft advice he gave'l' ;~~,\J1 iHf" So his body-now lies sleeping ,ina lonely Bandstoneqlv~. >\\\ ,h How sad. how saidthest9I'Y; iHiUs our eyes WithtWs Its memories wmLtn:ger@r,many, many .yeers. A becken-hearted f'ther,;Who til!'l1 his hoy to save, Will now weep,lom Of serrowat the door of l'Ioyd'. cave, tj , "". ,]< Oh II\other don't you w0"'J'! dear fatjler d01)'1 be .. dl I'll ten you an my eoubles in an awful dreem.l've had. 1 dreamed thai I was priJJPner, my lifel could nol save. I cried, "Oh mnet l perisKwithinthis silent cavej" , [;L, ,,' '. t:.: 9h ho1"the,!l\!1'" did lfaV,e!, oh how the no1"s did go" It treveled, lh.roogh th~ paP"fS .md overthe radio; AreSco~l"'l'ty .... di:his:life,l\loy tried to save. !lUI his body nOwlillssl~gi\ri lOnely $llndstone cav~" ~,:4.; ,,'!>" ,> '!" .', i ~'Oh ~lqyd/' crie~ hism~~ !fd~~t' go, my son, don~t'go, .Don'lleave US broken,~,\jfthis should h4PPen T\1"hJ\b ,'hl~ resl\qi~ b!>th. ~f and' TO!l\ovelhe nOghtybar,rjet lhalol\lOd wlfhinthejr",. Tq~ F1oy~d;ci~;k~;wasl;th~;~me'~,', ,t, t~~i('l1llever, no'well}l~~~rJ~etJ?oyd'COll~, cUe~" }'; ,,', ,v,', ,,,If;\< A..:: ", Buton tluil f8refu1 mo~,g lhe~ fo"in,~8ky: The ",Oikersslill ."\etebWly, "We!,lI""vehim bY and bY:,' !"i1t db how sadt/ie ~hiS IiJ\h coUId nol oo"ved, t'H, Hl"'!'¢y 1l;\'1")V88 iIneCav~F" \+,1' ,j ';:, : ii(, ,F '5::,< :i¢i>. ''\\i:,'ll; Ii maY no! b< a' sand ~ve in which we find ourlumb, !,,~t .tl\le bar of J"d~meqt we ~musl uie.t'<>,ur ""'?!i\. oupg people oh lakeW" from F1oydCOIlins' tale, And give your hearlt<> 1 .... More Itjs too late. ffi ,j!;,,' Lf ;~"tir: ~ \ ""n'l Arra~8m~"byw.P. Bl.hopand P.G. Eller. 1991. As s~g~ at ih~ 'AOcle~t Cavers Reunion,' Mam,moth "."s I~ .. "nal Ke~; NCivembGr':1997',;" ,',' '," "" >~;>!:';:';'''i;j:,'(,,:,'~:>\;>;it<:' ":'/Y" '1':' Continued from page 8 The bats are thought to roost above the Lake of the Clouds because this is the wannest area in the cave. It was found that below the roost is 10.4"F wanner than at Devil's Spring and 7.2¡F warmer than where the Mexican free-tail bats roost in Bat Cave. Of special interest, it was found that when repair crews were cutting tiles in the Lunch Room, the first three females to leave the roost returned a short time later. Evidently the noise level was too great and caused them to turn back. These same females were documented leaving later in the evening after the repair work was completed. It was also found that depending on where lights were left on throughout the night, the bats evidently would change their route through the Lunch Room area and beyond traveling in the darkness as much as possible. "These bats then. had a sma/I patch of hair removed between their. shoulder bJades.8nda smell transtriitterattachedlVith a non-toxic adhesive. ~ ,; cBased on the findings and observations of this study, the researchers recommended the following actions be taken to help protect the colony: L Tum off all lights by approximately 7 :00 pm every night. 2. No one be allowed into the roost area immedialely before and during parturition (the act of giving birth). Additionally, when the bals are present, no visits to the area be allowed except for an occasional research project. If this type trip takes place, then researchers should minimize dislurbance by passing through the area quickly, not talking, and by directing headlights toward Ihe cave floor. 3. Any repair or maintenance work in the Lunch Room be done during daylight hours or done in the seasons when the bats are not present. 4. The Park Service needs to detennine when the bals arrive in the Spring and when they depart in the Fall. (This year they arrived early 10 mid May). 5, The Park Service should delennine each year where lbe bats are roosting. 6, A population count be made at least once a year. 7. The fence on the smaller entrance be moved 12 to 15 feet away from its presenllocation. Source: Natural Resources Offices of Carls had Caverns National Park Cave Research Foundation Volume 27, Number 2 I \ [I


J May 1999 1\ By Harry Burgess Carlsbad Caverns National Park Histoplasmosis is one of those five syllable words that many of us may not be able to define, even though we may have been unknowingly exposed to it years ago. No, we are not talking about some secret Army experiment, but a respiratory disease that is transmitted via airborne particulates. Histoplasma capsulatum is a fungus that grows on soil enriched by bird or bat guano, and when this soil is disturbed the spores can be inhaled, resulting in the infection and subsequent development of histoplasmosis in the host organism. The disease is characterized by mild flu-like symptoms (fever, ulcers, headaches, weakness), yet some of those infected experience no symptoms while others exhibit pneumonia-like symptoms that can become fatal. In many cases the infection is misdiagnosed as a cold or flu, and the person recovers nonetheless. There are tests to determine if the individual has "histo", and treatments specific to the infection, yet these tests are not commonly administered to persons exhibiting a fever and associated flu-like symptoms. Two years ago, a visiting caver who spent several days in Lechuguilla with a 103 degree temperature was diagnosed with pneumonia after exiting the cave. After returning home, he decided to ask his doctor about testing for histo ... and it carne back positive. ~ t. .~nie studies shoV( that' subsequent reinfections ,'can' reamt in' more -serioUs sf:nptoms, since. a hypersensitivity to the histopl8smO$is hziifds.dver time. ... The caver mentioned above did not contract histoplasmosis ill Lechuguilla; the incubation time ranges from five to fourteen days. He probably came in contact with the disease the prior week in South Texas, in a cave now known to contain the fungus. That does not mean that histo isn't present in Lechuguilla, however. Diana Northup, a researcher from UNM, reported to the park in 1990 that she had obtained positive cultures of histo from the entrance pit of Lechuguilla. This is the same area that was mined for guano earlier this century, and there is still a large amount of guano remaining in which the spores were found. Histo has also been documented in Bat Cave at Carlsbad Cavern, as a NM state archeologist caught the disease while doing research there in 1973. So what can we do to protect ourselves against a disease that exhibits a wide range of symptoms and is commonly misdiagnosed? Odds are that many of us are already infected, and dependent on where we have lived in the past, those odds can be even higher. According to a study done on Navy recruits from 1958-1965, the percentage of the population that has been exposed to Histoplasma capsulatum is as high as 80% in the Mississippi River Basin, and Eddy County's exposure rate was as high as 40% of the population. That means that roughly one out of every three of the employees here could have been infected in the past, possibly without any knowledge of the infection. That doesn't mean that we should not be concerned with our activities in caves, particularly caves where there is guano. Those persons who have already been exposed can be re-infected, and when re-infected the symptoms seem to occur sooner after exposure than in initial infections. Also, some studies show that subsequent re-infections can result in more serious symptoms, since a hypersensitivity to the histoplasmosis builds over time. t'04dsarp ... lh.8t>manY.qfus .. fi.lJI'ifi;e,idy itifecte(/,anddependenton where w~h8ve Jived.inthe past, those odds CIW be even higher:" SO, WHAT DO WE DO? I. Avoid enclosed areas where there is known to be bird or bat guano. 2. If you can't avoid these areas, try not to disturb the soils of the area since the path of transmission is airborne. 3. When in places suspected of containing histo, wear a properly-fitted HEPA certified mask designed to filter to 2 microns. 4. If you suspect that you have been exposed to Histoplasma capsulatum and are experiencing symptoms of illness, inform your physician of this possibility. The information presented here was gleaned from three separate articles: Histoplasmosis in Caves, by Warren C. Lewis, NSS News, vol. 32, Histoplasmosis, by Michael L. Furcolow, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, and Histoplasma Capsulatum, James E Loyd, Roger M. Des Prez, and Robert A. Goodwin, Jr., Infectious Diseases, Chapter 242. For additional information, consult these publications or others found in the Park Library's vertical files under Cave Ecology/Histoplasmosis. Source: Canyons & Caves, Carlsbad Caverns National Park" Edited by Dale L. Pate Spring Issue Cave Research Foundation


12 CRF Quarterly Newsletter By Kelly Thomas Carlsbad Caverns NationaJ Park The evening flight of Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarlda brasiliensis mexlcana) from the entrance of Carlsbad Cavern is one of the park's principal visitor attractions. Free-tailed bats are a colonial species that feed entirely on insects. The colony at Carlsbad is comprised primarily of females who give birth to their young from June through July before migrating south in October to winter in Mexico. This colony declined from an estimated 8.7 million in 1936 to approximately 200,000 in 1973. Simiiar declines have been noted throughout the Southwestern United States and Mexico. It is thought that the Organochlorine pesticide DDT was the primary cause. Dr. Donald Clark from Texas A&M University is evaluating DDT levels in specimens of bats collected from this colony prior to the 1950s. This may verify or refute the role of DDT in the decline. ':EvfmtUauy, biologists 'hope to verifY: the average "number of bats psckedinto a square ,mH'.. footofcavecc='i5 .. ",,' Colony size has been estimated using a variety of techniques ranging from pure speculation to fairly complex calculations of the duration, intensity and velocity of their exodus from the cave. Unfortunately, no method has provided a measure of statistical precision, thereby complicating trend or cause and effect analysis. Resource managers and several cooperators at Carlsbad Caverns have completed year one of a multi-year project to develop a reliable way of monitoring this large bat colony. Two methods are currently under investigation. The first method entails taking infrared photographs of the colony while they hang on the cave ceiling. This method will provide a reasonably precise population estimate. The second method, which is an index, utilizes sound recordings ofthe bats as they travel through the cave. Photo Monitoring In 1996 infrared photographs were taken from 15 permanent points over fIve consecutive days during the spring and again in the fall. This allowed within season and within year variations to be evaluated. Photographs were then overlaid with a gridded transparency sized for each photo point. Grid size corresponds to a square foot on the cave ceiling. We then used the lower range of published densities (200 bats per square foot) to calculate a conservative estimate of the population. Bats roosting in cracks and fissures in the ceiling are hidden from the camera's eye, thus we feel this method produces a conservative estimate of the population. COlony size has1Jeen estimated usinga v~~ty of fCf:hniquCs ranging from pure spectJ1a/io.(l to fiPrly complex calc{l1ati.ons, or the duration, infensitjr, snd vc1ocityof their exodus &;'m the qjve.~ We estimated the spring prebirth population to be about 193,000 bats. As expected, the population nearly doubled to 352,000 bats by fall when the young were flying. Engineers with the Department of Energy used laser technology to create a contoured map of the ceiling. Contours will correspond to varying ceiling heights thereby providing more accurate estimates of ceiling area. Each year the photos will be scanned into a computer and the contour map will be displayed as an overlay. Using GIS software, scientists can sum up the area of bats within contours for a more precise and unbiased estimate of the total area covered by bats. Eventually, biologists hope to verify the average number of bats packed into a square foot of cave ceiling at Carlsbad Cavern. However, the photo monitoring will be useful for monitoring trends even without exact numbers. Sound Recordings We are experimenting with the use of a remote microphone to record the sounds made by bats flying in and out of the cave at night. A data-logger allows us to record the sound, measured in decibels, once every second. This data set is then downloaded to a computer and graphed for a permanent "signature" of the night's activities. The area under this curve, aptly dubbed "bat units", is theoretically proportional to the number of bats that fly. Eventually we hope to correlate this sound signature with estimated abundance from the photo-point method. Sound recordings taken throughout the night have the additional benefit of helping us understand bat behavior during various seasons, weather patterns, or disturbances. Source: Carlsbad Caverns National Park q?ln::r~n~; fe;, X~rst w{iters n:Jin.te, Kristen CrwbtJd "CJrl,erns :!!IllIIOhili 1 Park, Maxey, ,ScOtt" HDIIlie, Pat KantbesiS, .8Drdelr,lra Sfl$OWs/iy, C'ale P i{"", Burg.~,. ~k Sullo", NllIIon'al Pili'!' '>" l' J Cave Research Foundation Volume 27, Number:2 I


I May 1999 13 CAVE RESEARCH FOUNDATION e Proi,fC'tAreaNew$pl1eRo;~$i ~J ~xpedition$ I Missouri Operations Activities Report December 1998 through March, 1999 Mick Sutton There was a trip to Saltpeter Hollow Cave, a short cave in Shannon County, to resume a bug hunt, as reported in the last Newsletter. The aim here has been to try to find additional specimens of a rare, undescribed Arrhopalites sp. springtail. The bait station we had set a month earlier had succeeded in attracting fairly large numbers of the bug in question, and we were able to obtain some additional specimens for the taxonomist, Ken Christiansen. ''Thcpassagc is v~ryjasscdH.rJcf narroMj andtt teok alittlc mqrethan Ifhours and50survey statio)'/$ to map it. n' Continuing a long-term project, a survey crew mapped 160 feet of the downstream portion of Crocker Cave (Douglas County). A large roll of twine, a nickel, and a broken flashlight were removed from the cave. The recent tourist traffic is most likely a result of the clear-cut logging in the area above the cave. OZARK NATIONAL &CEN.ICRIVERWAY$ The bulk of our ONSR work this period was the writing of a final report for the recent mapping and bioinventory project. This project examined a small set of caves in the general area of Big Spring which could possibly be affected by mining activity within the watershed. Seven caves were inventoried and one was mapped. Another cave, Shop Hollow, was incompletely mapped, having turned out to be much longer than anticipated. "TheJ1~e. W8:!11JapPedftJrH.rJ a4dlh'onal 5$,0 feet8:!8 plCas/int, welhiecoratcd..stre8p1 passage ~V'ergging o/Sht!eethigl1,.>!tf1lpping IilJq' tr~veltimc was nearly 17 hours ... 'this lirePis.slightlypore than/wo milesfJY)m the cRt#inr::e. There were two additional mapping and inventory trips. One crew worked on the long-missing New Liberty Cave near Rocky Falls, having spent some time previously in failing to find the inconspicuous entrance. New information allowed us this time to find the cave with relative ease. The entrance is unusual: a sink formed on a narrow open joint. Th is leads to about 350 feet of branching passage leading to a stream which can be accessed only intermittently. Pursuing the stream passage further downstream looked possible, but would require a wet-suit trip. The cave is only a short distance from the contact with Precambian volcanics. "The lirst party continued the survey-through 430 feet of very up-end-down through sticky redclsy:" Another party worked on a set of small caves. First they located and mapped McCormack Bay Cave (50 feet long), first recorded by NPS archeologists. McCormack Bay Spring (near Alley Spring) was identified and was flowing about 5-6 cubic feet/sec. Another archeological "cave" was disallowed, being in reality a shallow shelter. The party then looked for a lead in Buzzard Hollow but could not find it. Lastly they got help from ranger Mark Miller and made it to newly recorded Lynch Cave high on a hill near Alley Spring, which they mapped for 185 feet. MISSOURI DEf ARTMENT OF CONSERY A TION Two trips for our largest MDC project, the survey of Powder Mill Creek Cave, were omitted from the last report. These took place in August, 1998. The first party mapped a 510 foot long canyon off Bear Avenue in the Windy Crawl section. This passage ends in the Blue Pool Room that was originally discovered (but not reported) by John Cantwell in the early I 960s. The passage is very jagged and narrow, and it took a little more than 17 hours and 50 survey stations to map it. The second crew continued the survey of the Cataract Passage, in the far upstream reaches of the cave. The passage was mapped for an additional 550 feet as a pleasant, well decorated stream passage averaging eight feet high. Mapping and travel time was nearly 17 hours (this area is slightly more than two miles from the entrance). The passage continues. The Windy Crawl trip completed all survey work in the Windy Crawl section. All remaining leads are now in the upstream section of the cave. The total surveyed horizontal length is now 38,830 feet. (Report by Doug Baker) There were two additional mapping trips to Forester Cave (Shannon County). The first party continued the survey through 430 feet of very up-and-down, somewhat contorted Spring Issue Cave Research Foundation


14 CRF Quarterly Newsletter progress through sticky red clay. Party two put in several hundred feet of cleanup survey in various side passages, one of which ended in soupy mud. Finally, I would like to take this opportunity to wish Operations Manager Scott House a speedy recovery from a ruptured Achilles tendon. There are better ways to get out of unpleasant survey trips! Participants: Saltpeter Hollow Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan; Crocker Steve Irvine, Shawn Irvine, Doug Baker; New Liberty Scott House, Sue Hagan, Eric Compas, Mick Sutton; McCormack Bay, etc Scott House, Doug Baker, Bob Osburn, Patti House; Powder Mill 1) Doug Bakar, Georga Bi/bray, Jim Kaufmann; 2) Doug Baker, George Bi/brey, Jim Kaufmann, Dave Matteson; Forester 1) Scott House, Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Many Cole; 2) Scott Hausa, Doug Baker, George Bi/bray, Jason Garrett, Michael Carler I Roppel Cave Project Central Kentucky Karst Coalition (CKKC) Activities Report December 1998 April 1999 Jim Borden 11':1, 'n' New,"e,rsExpeditiort ",.} s ,', II:, December 1998 Janqary 1999 ,'-, -_, This was a week of great expectations and a pilgrimage of sorts back to the old days of Rappel Cave when we would come and cave a week and find great things, Also, the week featured the return of old-time Roppel caver Peter Zabrok, who caved with the McMaster group in the late seventies and early eighties. Many place names in the cave are named in recognition of their contributions. As usual on a week long excursion, expectations and reality tum out to be quite different and this week was no exception. This time, however, we did not do too bad overall. On December 28, Jim Borden led Russell Conner, Seamus Decker, and Peter Zabrok to the far reaches in the Northwest End. They took the long slog out Lower Elysian Way to below the Watergate and through the low belly crawls of the QB survey. Their goal was to continue the QA Survey beyond QA62 and reach the large walking canyon found in 1995. Then, Jim Borden had Explored an estimated nine hundred feet, turning around in 14hx3w canyon, Unfortunately, on this trip, the passage was wetter than the 1995 exploration, The crew managed to survey only to QA 76 before turning back due to cold, The passage was not large ahead and the distance to the 1995 discovery of the climbdown into the big canyon was unknown. The party leader vowed to return with a small party to get to what is now being called "Borden's Lost Walking Canyon. On 30 December, Seamus Decker and Peter Zabrok returned alone to the Wift area to follow-up on the climbing leads found during Thanksgiving (1998); they had copious climbing gear and enormous packs, They succeeded in climbing the NE end of the dome (shorter climb than the SW end) and called it Zabrok Pit (PB, PC, PD, and PE surveys). The lead was good and they continued the PD Survey eastward for thirty-three stations in crouching/crawling canyon to tie into Sam-I-Am above :f'~iD wantM't(j'see fpr himSelf thfl qeg;nt/p.rf. Il!( .01; Abr4CIJil{lbra. Many had ;rcported e/ftrlin.ce-like howling wind that could not !xi 'uacfx/.'" ':' "'i'c," .,," near Whoville (tributary stream that flows directly into the Wift via a long canyon), finding another segment of that trunk in the process, This PD Survey parallels and is above the Whoville Canyon, Back near Zabrok Pit, they began a PG Survey and followed NW trending dry canyon, finally calling it quits at PG40. The passage continued IOhx3w, continuing its trend to the NW into the ridge, paleodownstream. On New Years Eve, James Wells and Dick Market took a quick trip through the Cumquat Causeway and continued in it beyond the ramp to Logsdon River. This was an A Survey with a series of incomprehensible reports of leads at the end, Lots of wind and reasons to take another look. They surveyed a V Survey in upper level domes and canyons, finding one dome with a beckoning hole at its top and a likely source of the wind. Looks like an easy bolting project for Dick Market. "The party It;ade.r vowed to rotum.witn Il.S{/lall party to get to, what is -now Jfeing called, "fJorden'sLost Wal1dngDmyon." ,',. '". On New Years Day, 1999 James Wells, Seamus Decker, Dick Market, and Suzanne Deblois again returned to the Wift. They surveyed about everything that they could find off of Sam-l-Am. This included more fragments of the same trunk system, but no real leads. They then returned to the main P Survey in the Wift and put shots into everything they could find. Lots of complexity, but few leads, The junction of the P and the Q survey, now called Green Eggs Dome, seems to be the core of the area, and there appear to be drains at various levels, but the best leads remain in the PG Survey and the southwesterly climb in Zabrok Pit. Also on January I, Bill Koerschner, Russell Conner, and Janice Tucker raced through the new connection to the T Survey in the Historic Cave, Bill wanted to see for himself Cave Research Foundation Volume 27, Number 2


MAy 1999 15 the legendary air of Abracadabra. Many had reported entrance-like, howling wind that could not be traced. The route to Abracadabra follows WaIter's Way to BlO6 and turns left into the I, then the IA Surveys. This is followed to the connection with the T Survey that can be followed to Vivian Way. Shortly before Vivian Way, an A Survey leads off in a wide passage that can be followed to the Abracadabra trunk. On the way in, they checked for leads in Vivian Way discovering that the area had been checked reasonably thoroughly. Once at Abracadabra, they continued down the A Survey checking things as they went. They found several leads: a lower level crawl leads to a cross-canyon that goes both ways, a piracy canyon in the floor of the main passage may go, and a breakdown in the ceiling might follow the elusive wind. At this point, they proceeded to their survey objective at the end of Abracadabra. This is an explored loop that the last party had not bothered with. Although mop-up, seven hundred feet of nice passage was added to the map -now a decent amount of leads have turned up in a poorly explored, previously far-out area (used to be 5-6 hours minimum of hard caving when we had access to the Roppel Entrance). .' Martin Luther King Expedition January 1999 The memories of the PG Survey in the Wift gnawed at the collective psyches of Seamus Decker and Peter Zabrok. At the end of New Years, Peter and Seamus planned a return to follow this paleo-downstream canyon that was pointing north, northwest across Toohey Ridge. Making the travel more efficient was one of the priorities and they succeeded by being able to rig a hundred-foot drop from the beginning of the PG Survey down through and to the bottom of Green Eggs Dome. This rope avoids the spiraling canyons and climbs through Zabrok Pit that takes about an hour to traverse. This task done, they proceeded to PG40 and continued the survey line. The canyon continued as before, paleo-downstream, down cutting, etc. "Scvcnhwultcilt:cct olnkelJ#SS8Se Was. iuJ 4t!rJ to the map ... !¢;ishavetumtfd up in ~ popr(y expld~'lJrejljousJylfIF-out 'area. (used to be ,5 to 6 hours minimum oi'hsrd caving when we 'had access to the RoppeJEntrance." Dry gypsumy canyons confirmed that they were under the ridge, and a consistent breeze indicated that there was cave to be found. They encountered many leads but these were not checked. These leads included piracies as well as paleo-infeeders, both suggestive oflevels above and below. Good cave. They called it quits after 135 stations, marking PGI75 on the wall of the continuing canyon. They still had to do the backsights, so they dutifully began this chore and managed to get back to PG 118. This will have to be completed next trip. Later plotting found that PG 175 was just south and east of the east end of Gypsum Euphoria, which is at the far reaches of the Ping-Pong Crawl off the Rift. The extent of the PG Survey, called the Great White North, is along the same line as the RiftlBVM complex and looks like it could intersect the Rift somewhere. Closer inspection suggests that GWN might pass by the Rift to the east and continue up the ridge. A return trip will obviously be needed to put to bed the speculation. February 1999 Expedition On February 13, 1999, Dick Market, Russell Conner, and John Feil traversed the new route to the Historic Cave via Walter's Way and the T Survey below Vivian Way. The purpose of this trip was to trace the airflow in Abracadabra. In short order, the air was verified to be going up through the dry breakdown in the ceiling near A60. Some diligent effort succeeded in removing the obstacle and the trio climbed up into a breakdown chamber. At one end, they followed a narrow canyon into the floor of a walking passage. To the northwest, it ended, but to the southeast they followed several hundred feet before turning around at a series of small pits. It is not obvious if the trunk continues beyond the pits for a significant distance, but the airflow appears to be coming from one of the pits in the floor. A return trip wi II be required to continue working on the mystery of the airflow. March 1999 Expedition During the March CRF Expedition, water levels were high and rain was forecast, so the planned trips to the Wift were (again) scuttled in favor of dry objectives. On March 13, James Wells, Dick Market, Peter Zabrok, and Laura Storm made the trek to Abracadabra (Historic Cave) to follow-up on the mini-breakthrough made a few weeks earlier (see FSB 80 I). Everything explored on the previous trip was surveyed, most of the drops checked, and all available leads probed. Nothing. The party sniffed for the destination of the gale-force wind and found it to lead up into a dome above one of the pits. It was difficult to see any obvious leads up this dome, but this was ambiguous. The strong wind suggests that a return climbing-trip appears will be worthwhile. Dick added this his growing list of promising climbing leads. On the way out, several intriguing leads were located, not the least of which is a small abandoned drain in the floor of the Abracadabra trunk which blows good air that James followed seventy-five feet. Scrape Spring Issue Cave Research Foundation


16 CRF Quarterly Newsletter marks indicate this has been checked before, but we have no knowledge of the lead. The Easter CRF Expedition, run from Hamilton Valley, sported a number of trips to Roppel Cave. Plans were in place for multiple river trips, but fickle weather diverted a few of the trips to alternative objectives. ,,".qij; gjpsumy, 'ca.riyons.;ponfirmcd;lhll! :ihct ;,:",e~ undel'.tli~rtdge~and a.cpnsistt!nt,~~~ mdicated that there WllScave to be' found ... i/,.ey CHiIed it qwtS'afler 135 stations. ';:" ;' "1' This Good Friday trip officially opened the CRF Expedition. James Wells, Dick Market, John Feil, and Fred Schumann followed the increasingly well-worn trail to Green Eggs Dome. Objective for this trip was to climb the SW end of Zabrok Pit, but once the party arrived, they decided the lead didn't look nearly as good as they had remembered. They regrouped, then ascended the climb at the NE end of the dome into the PD Survey. James led a climb into an upper level that crosses high above the floor of Green Eggs Dome (140+ feet). Beyond, with the floor regained, the four surveyed eighteen hundred feet in various passages, not the least which was another fragment of the Sam-l-Am trunk and a southward trending walking passage that they followed to a pit. The passage continues across the thirty-foot deep pit and should not be too difficult to cross. Air is strong and the southerly trend promising this marks the first time we have penetrated south of Logsdon River in Toohey Ridge. South Toohey Ridge beckons, so maybe we'll get lucky. On Saturday, April 3, Russell Conner led Mark Brooks, Bob Hoke, and Ben Kim to the long-neglected Chocolate Pudding Passage off central Freedom Trail. Armed with copious notes, survey schematics, and maps, they were able to find their way to the obscure ceiling hole that marks the beginning of the CPP. This passage is in the heart of the complexity of Freedom Trail and had not been surveyed in since the early eighties. One recent trip estimated fifteenhundred feet, plus, of surveyable passage with many leads beyond the last station, C70. Unfortunately, this party was only able to wring out only a few hundred feet of survey before vertical work would be required to continue. Most of this area overlays Grand Junction (junction of Lower Black River and Upper/Lower Elysian Way), and is probably a southern extension of the Barnyard Maze. The area is complex and usually interconnected with other levels, so future work can anticipate lots of complicated surveying at multiple levels. Accompanying the above trip was another party tasked with the continuation of the Umph Canyon survey east of the Umph Slot (route to Freedom Trail from Lower Black River). This passage had been surveyed to a fork, of which one branch was known (believed) to connect to North Freedom Trail. Elizabeth Winkler, Rudolpho Gonzalez, Ken Redecker, and Wis Klis continued the survey into the left branch of the twisty, narrow canyon for about three hundred feet before calling it quits due to time. Ahead, the passage lowers and is wetter, so at least one more trip will be necessary to complete the tie to North Freedom Trail. The following weekend, on April 10, Peter Zabrok, Seamus Decker, and Dick Market returned to the north trending Great White North off Green Eggs Dome to follow it out and make the possible connection to the Rift (The Wift-Rift Express?). Just beyond where they had stopped the previous trip, the main canyon narrowed and the party was forced into a lower level. The passage turned abruptly to the east and became a very muddy canyon crawl that they surveyed for several hundred feet before the mud did them in. The passage continues back toward the north and looks like it may be enlarging ahead. For the day, the party managed over 85 stations for just under nine hundred feet. A return trip is planned for June, so stay tuned. Air 'is strong and. the souther.1y ,trend promising this marks the first time, we have penetrated south of Logsdon l{jver in Toohey /lidge. 'South. Toohey Ridge beckons, so maybe w;c'Il geHucky. Ii. On April 17, Kevin Downs, Chris Caswell, Jason Borror, and Matt Jenkin followed my opaque directions to an obscure lead I knew about off a small upper level at the north end of Death Canyon. I had remembered a 2hx3w crawl that had been checked a couple hundred feet and still continued. Needing a short trip, I had passed along this lead to them. They surveyed thirteen stations in this passage before running out of time. Jason checked ahead and reported several hundred feet of canyons and domes and a connection to AK21 (off North Crouchway). Lots to survey here and a return trip is planned. PARTICIPANTS: Jim Boroen, Peter Zebrok. Russell Conner, Seamus Decker, James Wells, Dick Market, Susanne Deblois, Bill Koerschner, Janice Tucker, John Fail, Laura Storm, Fred Schumann, Mark Brooks, Bob Hoke, Ben Kim, Kevin Downs, Chris Caswell, Jason Borror, Mat Jenkin, Elizabeth Winkler, Rudofpho Gonzalez, Ken Redecker, Wis Klis. Cave Research Foundation Volume 27, Number 2


May \999 17 I Eastern Operations Activities Report Central Kentucky Karst & Mammoth Cave National Park The following new Joint Venturers have affiliated with CRF's Eastern Operations area: Mark Brooks, Melinda Grayson ~ Easter Expedition ~ ~ AprlllO ~ 13, \998 Leader:' PaJK.pmbesis The Easter Expedition fielded 10 tearns. They returned, after 374 hours underground, with 1,589.9 feet of new survey and 2,005.45 feet of re-survey. A geology team investigated sediment and passage relationships throughout the Historic Route of Manunoth Cave while another team traveled Emily's Avenue to determine if it was an acceptable route to utilize during the WKU course, "Exploration of Mammoth Cave." One cartography team worked in Backsliders Alley while another continued to grapple with the mysteries of the puzzling Corkscrew area. A Huber Trail pit was surveyed in Unknown Cave. Three Proctor Cave teams spread out through the cave to work in Historic Proctor, and in Frost Avenue on the far side of the dreaded Proctor Crawl. Strong parties in Roppel Cave and Sides Cave wrestled 409.70 and 871 feet, respectively, from Central Freedom Trail and Canis Major East. GEOLOGY OF THE MAMMOm CA vi; SYSTEM D1'.Art~ahner and'Dr. J>eg:~aln1i:'T ~xlllIlinedcave sediO)entlll)4 pasi1llge relation~hips .thro~gh out, !h~.Bis1oric RO\lteQf MaJl1JlJQth .. Cave.ethQdi~t .. Church and Backsliders.AlleY ;"v~reexBnJ0ed t~Jearn if Gothic. Avenue was the ujl~tr~am end ~fupperBroadW~y,~s hyPotb,e~ized, ]t,apPears to be true, Although there IS co~iderabl~ evidence. for multiple phases of sediment ~ccWp\llation in the upperlevels of the cave, the last phase of sedimentation prior til Pleistocene .glaciation was a~t>arentlYa massive event that filled all pas~agesiti the upperlevels, including Collins AVenue in Floyd Collins' Crystal Cave. All of these passages have sediments of the sam~dateabout 2 t03 million years, maximurn,butwjth no systematic relation to passage elevation, This supports, a 25 year-old-hypothesis of the Palmers that Ohio River valley underwent a major period of sediment cover just prior to glaciation. After glaciation, rapid erosion of the Ohio and its tributaries (e.g, Green River) allowed many small passage levels to form, and most of the sediment at the surface was eroded away. The cave passages retain most of it and provide the crucial evidence. This evidence is supported by sediment dating by Darryl Granger of Purdue University. The bottom line is that although the sediment is no older than 3 million years, that date occurs in passages at about 600 feet elevation. The passages at that level had to be considerably older than that. Collins Avenue is 80 feet higher, and formed below Green River level (as shown by its irregular ceiling profile), which means that it must have been much older than 3 million years probably the 10 million years that the Palmers originally speculated. Time was spent examining Sylvan Avenue and Pensico A venue to figure out their strange passage patterns (irregular passage shapes, unusual junctions, confusing scallops, high ceiling pockets). These features all seem to have formed as a result of flooding, which is to be expected at the very downstream ends of passages such as those, Work Remaining: Although the sequence of major passages is fairly clear, as is the relation to the land surface, there. are still lots of questions about other passages and the geologic conditions that control their patterns. MAMMOTH CA VElWKU The objective of this party was to travel Emily's Avenue from Mary's Vineyard to Cascade Hall to determine if the route could be utilized for the Western Kentucky University class, "Exploration of Mammoth Cave." The climb-down into Emily's Avenue was slightly slick. At J56 several signatures were evident including, STEPHEN BISHOP 1843 and MAX KAMPER 1908. The 15 foot pit in Thorpe's Avenue was easily passed. MAMMOTH CAVE CARTOGRAPHY Backsliders Alley A sketch check was made of the breakdown room at the end of Backsliders Alley. The sketch was enhanced and a spray shot was added to better define the walls of the 60 foot wide chamber. Upon exiting Backsliders, possible fish bones were noted near S-6. photographs were also taken at the site where vampire bat bones had been found on an earlier trip. Spring Issue Cave Research Foundation


18 CRF Quarterly Newsletter Methodist Church was mapped to the start of the crawlway at the back. It took considerable time to complete due to the amount of floor detail and the size of the passage. A drawing, possibly pre-Columbian, was discovered; it consisted of a faint soot stick figure with antlers, approximately 6 inches high. Corkscrew The main purpose of the trip was to fmish work on a number of items in the Historic area. Objectives included checking minor leads and sketch checks of other survey books in order to do the next phase of drafting on the Historic map. Secondary objectives included investigating a possible former entrance to Olive's Bower and work on the paleontological inventory. A crawl at the very top of Corkscrew was mapped. An opening was found that lead to a room which was also sketched. The re-sketch of the Vanderbilt HalllCorkscrew Junction was finished. Huber TrailThe lock at the Austin Entrance continued to be a challenge to open. Once inside, the party made the long slog out through breakdown strewn Pohl Avenue to reach Huber Trail in order to continue work on the Brucker Breakdown map. They surveyed Huber Pit, a large bowlshaped room that drops steeply over large breakdown blocks. PROCTOR CAVE CARTOGRAPHY A Frost Avenue team re-surveyed from L-50 to the end of Frost Avenue for a total of 35 stations and 1,542.4 feet of passage. The passage terminated in sediment fill with no air flow. Two crews worked in Historic Proctor checking the resurvey to improve documentation of feature inventory to accompany the sketch. This was a field test for collecting cave feature inventory data utilizing a Feature Inventory Survey Sheet. A small broken dark blue-gray chert projectile point was discovered. The distal point was missing. The point was found in the middle of the passage, buried in rock. Much difficulty was encountered with the locks and one key broke off in the upper lock. Two parties climbed down the Weller Entrance and made their way out Lower Black River to Central Freedom Trail. They surveyed "odds and ends" still remaining and crawled out the Chocolate Pudding Passage to survey leads at its far end, discovering a series of low cutaround crawls. They returned, after 13 hours, with 496.25 feet of survey. $IJ)ES.CAVECARTOGRAPIlY, A 20 hour trip to Canis Major East in Sides Cave produced 871 feet of new, mostly crawling passage, off the Q Survey. They "rediscovered" Tuva Dome which is characterized by "beautiful white flowstone draperies and stalagmites." From Tuva Dome they mapped downstream in high gradient canyon, "mostly at least 40 feet tall." Just a few good leads off Q Survey remain to be pushed. Mammoth Cave 1) Historic Route Geology Art Palmer, Peg Palmer, Rick Olson; 2) WKU Emily's A venue Stanley Sides, Cheryl Early; 3) Backsliders Alley Doug Baker, Rick Toomey, Mona Co/burn: 4) Corkscrew Doug Baker, Rick Olson, Rick Toomey; Unknown Cave Huber trailJim Greer, Us Carney, Roger McClure; Proctor Cave I) Frost A venue John Swartz, Eric Sikora, Scott Carmine; 2) Historic Proctor Don Coons, Michele Martz, Kay Bittle; 3) Historic Proctor Elizabeth Winkler, Mona Colburn, Kathleen Womack; Roppel Cave Freedom Trail Jim Borden, Richard Zopj, Eric Wilson, John Fed, Dick Maxey; Sides Cave James Wel/s, Tzvetan Ostromsky, Don Biddle. Source: CRF Expedition Trip Leader Reports Memorjal Day Expedition Moy 21-15, 1998 l.i?ader:' ,Rickroomey The Memorial Day Expedition fielded J 7 teams who spent 755.5 hours underground in seven caves. They returned with 2,119.6 feet of new survey and 4,264.1 feet of resurvey. SALTS OAVE CARTOGRAPHY Two cartography teams entered the cave together to work in Finch Junction. Traveling via Dismal Valley and Indian Steps, they split up to proceed to their individual objectives once they reached the Finch Avenue Junction. One tearn continued the T -Survey from T -40 while the second went on to S-IOO and started a V-Survey. A large-scale lowlevel cutaround complex was left for a future trip. A secondary objective was successfully addressed learning the climbing route up to the upper-level trunk section necessary for subsequent re-survey trips. The party working in the T -Survey worked along the main line of the survey and noted the lower levels of Finch beneath their work area. They reported that, "there are at least three levels below the S-Survey; there is at least one level unsurveyed in these complex lower levels. Cave Research Foundation Volume 27, Number 2 7


May 1999 19 Two survey teams threaded their was through the woods in search the Bedquilt Cave entrance. Upon entering the cave they discovered the lock on the gate was missing. One party exited the cave and returned to Maple Springs to report their finding to the Expedition Leader so park officials could be notified. The second team continued into the cave and passed through The Hall of the Mountain King enroute to the 1871 Passage. They discovered a new lead below S-9 which may not have been previously surveyed: a crack down into a drain passage. UNKNOWN CAVE-CARTOGRAPHY Both survey parties entered and exited the cave together because there was only one gate key. Traveling together down Pohl Avenue, they separated at about N-40 where the Gallery Passage takes off from Pohl. Party One proceeded to Ruth's Room where they did a detailed survey and began surveys into the entrances of several side leads. Party Two surveyed in the area of the Gallery Passage, reestablishing old survey ties and resketching in areas of incomplete or poor survey data. I ROPPELCAYE CARTOGRAPHY A strong Roppel survey crew spent 22 hours working on the continuation of the X-Survey. The proceeded to their objective via the Market Connection and Transgressions Trail to the hole down into Tom's Solo Survey. They described the Y -Survey as, "a really exhausting passage to move through, containing two bellycrawls and numerous awkward squeezes over breakdown. They picked up their survey at X-39 and it soon degenerated into a pushingsand-as-you-go bellycrawl passage. By X-59, however, they were walking again in 5Hx3 W canyon which continued to a belled-out junction room at X-66 where the ceiling rose to 14 feet. They pushed a few more stations to a point where the passage again shrank into a 7Wx2H tube. They reported that, "there were several places you can see down into lower level canyons about 14 feet deep with water. IiAT CAVE CARTOGRAPHY The two crews working in Bat Cave had to bypass a vultures nest containing chicks in order to reach their work areas. The nest was located to the right of the gate. One team surveyed to the end ofthe C-Survey where it ended in a mud choke. The second team, working in B-Survey, was stopped by "sticky slimy mud. WILSON CAVE CARTOGRAPHY Team One was able to capture 289.1 feet of new survey even after experiencing problems with sticking instruments. They reported two promising looking leads at Y -14 and Y -4 but they were too small for the party to fit into. Team Two "arrived at their objective two hours and several bruises later." They put in 23 stations for an X. Survey for 652.6 new feet of passage. MAMMOTH CAVE River HallThe cartography crew spent 13 hours working on the resurvey of River Hall. They picked up their work at the top of the hill beyond Dead Sea and continued another 417 feet along the Echo River tour route. Wright's Rotunda Work on the survey of paleontological remains continued. They reported the fruits of their efforts were slim, however, this was expected based on the paucity of remains in the Main Cave passage just preceding Wright's. They discovered two mummified bats high on the flat surface of a breakdown block. Bat guano was observed preserved in pockets between breakdown and in divits on flat surfaces. Corkscrew The Methodist Church C-Survey was continued. They reported that, "airflow in the area is enigmatic; seemingly convective but no apparent thermal gradient or other drivingforce presents itself" Corkscrew leads in the VT -Survey were checked but they could not find anything that looked promising. Gorins Dome Four teams workd in the Gorins Dome area for two days. Team One surveyed to the massive bridge over Gorins Dome (94 feet above the water). They reported that the bridge was still safe. Team Two worked in the LA-Survey and returned with 51 feet of new passage. Team Three found a passage, which had apparently never been surveyed, and picked up another 222.6 feet of new passage before it ended in a small crawl. Team Four put in 17 N-Survey stations for 302.9 feet of resurvey. They reported that some spots are fairly exposed and there is a somewhat dangerous pit crossing as well as the danger of rock fall. CREWS: Salts Cave Mick Sulton, Sue Hagan. Stan Sides. Dave Sides, Jim Borden, Mona Colburn; Bedquilt Cave t) Dave West, Karen Wilmes, Lydia Alverez; 2) Tom Brucker, Cheryl Early, Bob Hoke, Lydia Alvarez; Unknown Cave I) Jim Greer, Paul Steward, Brant Johnson; 2) Richard Zop/, Greg Sholly, Jason Garrett; Koppel Cave Bill Spring Issue Cave Research Foundation 7


20 CRF Quarterly Newsletter Koerschner, Bill Stephens, Russell Conner; Bat ClIVe 1) Erik Sikora, Rick Olson, Eric Buckelew; 2) Daryl Neff, Erik Sikora, Miles Drake; Wilson Cave1) Dave West, Karen Willmes, Danny Vann, Joyce Hoffmaster; 2) Keith Miller, Miles Drake, Bob Hoke, Greg Sholly; Mammoth Cave t) River Han Doug Baker, Patty Daw, Doug Alderman, Lade Braley; 2) Wright's Rotunda Mona Colburn, Daniel Gregor, Joyce Hoffmaster, Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton; Corkscrew Rick Olson, Dick Maxey; Gorins Dome 1) Tom Brucker, Doug Davis, Paul Steward, Brant Johnson; 2) Scott House, Bob Osburn, Jason Garrett, Suzanne DeBlois; 3) Scott House, Danny Vann, Kent Bennett; 4) Bob Oabum, lacte Braley, Doug Davis. Source: cnF Expedition Trip Leader Reports tabor Day Expediti!>n September 4 6, .1998 iiader~; Bob Osburn The Expedition produced four Trip Reports reflecting 128.15 hours underground which reaped 39.6 feet of new survey and 387.3 feet ofre-survey. Paleontological remains were studied in Chief City. Cartographers touched up sketches in Historic Mammoth Cave. The East Bransford team returned empty-handed due to a forgotten survey tape while a Mystic River crew retrieved a sketch book left behind on a previous Expedition. PALEONTOLOGY A five-member paleo team began locating points at the distal end of Chief City. They worked their way forward and surveyed the portion between the old tourist trail and the wall up to Sacrifice Rock and the undercut at the left wall from Sacrifice Rock to the proximal end of Chief City. The room is a known site of ancient Tadarlda (free-tailed bat) guano and several in situ pockets were located upslope in the center of the room. Isolated bones, woodrat scat and several bat mummies were also observed. Data from all points from Chief City to the Violet City Entrance need to be recorded. MAMMOTH CAVE CARTOGl!APHY Gothic Avenue While traveling through Gothic Avenue toward its southern terminus, extensive bat stains were noted on the walls and ceilings, especially in the section beyond Lovers Leap. Bat guano accompanies the stain along with some bone. A trip objective at the bottom of a 30 foot rappel at the southern end of Gothic Avenue was aborted due to the discovery of extensive bone deposits (possibly bat and rodent); a paleontologist needs to examine the site. Proceeding to their next objectives, they solved survey sketch problems in Gratz Avenue and Briggs Avenue and checked out a slump pit near Dead Sea which needed to be checked during low water. This was a marginal wetsuit lead with no airflow. Mopping up their last objective, they checked a pit at the inner end of Little Bat Avenue but no leads were discovered. East Bransford Avenue In order to reach their work objective, the East Bransford Avenue team entered via the Elevator due to lack of a Frozen Niagara gate key. The five hour route to their work destination took them through Boone A venue, Roses Pass, and Kentucky A venue to reach the Frozen Niagara area. After a 20 minute wait due to a slow-moving ranger-led visitors tour, they proceeded to Fox Avenue, into Fault Canyon, down Logan Avenue, and into East Bransford Avenue. Locating their survey starting point, "The survey lape could not be located, des pile a frantic search." They exited the cave. Mystic River The primary objective of the Mystic River team was to retrieve a field survey book left behind during the previous expedition. The difficult J-28 climb-down was located without difficulty but a wrong tum delayed their arrival in the MN-Survey. They picked up the survey at MN-21 and continued it to MN-34. Most of the survey was through standing or crouching passage in shallow water but at one point the water was several feet deep. "Numerous crayfish were observed; some pooled areas had 6 10 7 crayfish. Several leads remain to be checked and surveyed and future parties may want to bring wetsuits. CREWS, Mammoth Cave Paleontology ~ Mona Colburn, Blaine Schubert, Dave Hansen, Mike Nardacci. John Walker; Mammoth Cave Cartography I] Gothic Avenue Rick Olson, Dick Market, Mark Ferguson; 2) East Bransford Avenue Kevin Downs, Doug Davis, Tom Grant; 3) Mystic River Janice Tucker, Elizabeth Winkler, Don Biddle. Source: CRF Expedition Trip Leader Reports Cave Research Foundation Volume 27, Number 2 R


CAVE BOOKS Publications Affiliate ofthe Cave Research Foundation (Rev 9/98)


AII CRF Members are welcome to participate in any CRF Operation Area or Project. For the Operations Areos, the only requirement is that the CRF Member contact the Operations Manager or Expedition Leader at least two weeks in advance. Those interested in participating in CRF Project areas should contact the Project Coordinators to find out participation deadlines and specifics. e~",dl\l.jn C1>(rtacts: :' :",Ji,L L'i: "';, ,y Rou~ Ba~er ,,}, ,'" ';TelephOne: hi' ,E,Mai'" BotiOsburn n' Telephone:": 314-984'84,~3' i !,'Mail' osbum@le~ee,,e~u Mick Sutton' 'x: e 1,<'" '"g) Telephone: ,~1~"846"2884 ',' ::,' 'I;~Mlll: ,." 'T Slle~mic~@rna'F~igernet,gefl,m~i~S ~i;:; 0~>' 'ioth4JrMI8~OLlrlExpedltiOn's: ",':1: 1 t tr'. ftlj;::r:~l:;k 'Other, trlpS In Missouri Involve, mapping, biOI99iC'ipyenlqnsored By: Mis$ourlDapartment of Conservation and C~F ',c.,t;' Contact: Sco~ HouSe:: ','I'" Telepbone: c~14;~82-324~ E-Mail: ',shcrf@ao[c;pm II f'.. '" .,. ., ";, ': .. ~,:; SP/oleOlogy lI\(orkl!hop for Cavers, Biology and Cave .Ma Ji' ':..' . ,} ',.. ,. '.,'." Oallis:, ~!\ugU$128-29,J999 '~ Loca\",,,n: '" s ,Presley ,Ed~ctiorCenler, ShennOn' County, MO CQnlapt: Scott ti?use "",~ ,telepbone; 314-282;324~" E-Mail: rshcrf@ao[com: ,it d:~ 314-878::8831 : "" ,hi$' project ,Ii;' I. partnership" betwaen t~e FotestJCapital Paak Study Area and CRF. For these expeditid "', ij',+':::;",'" '(:iir!: 1:'0 .. i,:". 'i:; Conia.;\: lti:: iI~ntars ,~!; Telepbo~e:;i:/ 50~-892-6121' E-~all: '!' rv~nter$@ao[com \:;'41 Contact: ,elaphone: E:Mall:


AII CRF Members are welcome to participate in any CRF Operation Area or Project. For the Operations Areas, the only requirement is that the CRF Member contact the Operations Manager or Expedition Leader at teast two weeks in advance. Those interested in participating in CRF Project areas should contact the Project Coordinators to find out participation deadlines and specifics. Expedition: Locatibn: ,,, Objective: Leader: ,1 Telephon": fE-Mali: kLeader: ,~ Telephone: ,'~;Mal!i, ,tik" Expedition: Location: J Objective: Leader: F Telephone: E-Mail: ;CL~ader: '0 Telephone: E-Mail: Meeting: "Location: Objectlv,,: Leader:,,! Telephone: E-Mail:,' October 2S-30, 1999 L~burn HydrolOgy/Survey/Quad Check/Restoration/Sedimentology Peler Bosted' 650-234-996l1 bO$\ed@slac,stanlord,edu J$ck Hess, 702.895-0541 ja<;k@dri)'du November 1i1 ~14~ 1999 ~ilburn' Ii ,'" ," Hy(ll'QlogyJSuN.$)IJQued cheCklRestOratlohl$edlmentology John Tinsley ~ 650-327-2368 jtinsley@nps,Qov Roger Mortimer 55S-459-5705 mortimer@~cSfre9no,edu Jilnuary8, 2000 Fresno, Califomia ~ Center for Irrigation ANNUAL PLANNING MEETING Michael'Spies,s, 539-434-3321' May 29-~1, Hi99 Inventory/Survey Bill' Deveraux 50~-363-38a1 cALIFORNIA }, Lava Beds II you are interested in cav,~ survey expeditions at tava Beds assemble yo~r own team, contact ~ ~:'tfj ,"; ", 'I tf' :tanetSowers '510-238-3009 jlj1sowers@aotcom 'j~~tlIon L,*,\lIl~n: ~I;;' pbjectlve: I' ,~d .. r: ';, .. Tel"l'hone: ,(, ,15Mall: if ' ,,,u' ... ,", ExP;;dltlon;" L.o~t\(),..: !iLy':;;;;Y Obje\illve: ,',:L~denHj' <;q):;ii:: r ,E""all~ .0:(" ii_ .: :';, .:,::::' Ex~';\IIO~: iLocatlon: i Objective,: : Leader: i' Talephelne: E-Mail: it -~ EXPGditlon: i Location: :' lObjecUye: j ,L!l8der: Telephone: E-Mail:. expedition: Objective: Leacer: Telephone: E-Mail: S~ptember 25-26, 1999 s lilburn'; 6:::::> ;(. ~,:,"",t!1 survey/Q~~ ~heck Carol Vesely, 626-357-6927 cilvesly@earthlirik,net ~ber 9-11.\9'ss : Min!>ral !(jng I Timber Gap/Jordan Cavil Jeff Cherez ~2ll-3'59.2050 , g~phC@loop,com 'h September 4-8, 1999 I~ Mb:,itArin~llnv_entoryISUIvey :BilI Oev~raux 503-363'3831 >nF: ::~ November 24-28, 1999 InventOrY/SurJeyfTrip PIMning Janet Sowers 510-2363009 For more information on Fitton Cave Projtfct expedit~ns: t'Contact: . Te'ephqne: !E-Mall: Contact: Telephone: E-Mail: ARKANSAS Fitton Cave Project Pete Llnd$ley. Fitton Cave Project Manager 972-727;2497 'i i $i.lindsley@ticom Ol;lnny Vann, Arkansas Area ManJger '-} r,; 501-848,3"308 canny:.. Vann@kawneer:qom


KENTUCKY Central Kentucky Karst, Mammoth Cave National Park 'Hr t' IndepePjla~ceD,ay E~petlition, July 2 -11, 1999~~~~ .... (;lall-In By, '(June 18) ii ea ,F' 'WEEKLONG'E':edition .c :';; ':~", ..', ,-'I;: ,,' -,. ..' ;;:;'.~ ,~!Jon:, t,:{aple Springs :Leaden: Dave Wesr& Katen Williites ; Telepllone: '410-369-5038 '(Karen Willm~s 'f1~ail: ':~I "~. \, i' r: (,,';' L'1 Fi!< ",' ' I .Special Note: Tents wilt be .ustiful. Bring extra waler. /fyou New Year's Exp~dition, Dec 30,'1999 7JJan 2, 200b' fva~l! to' be ""el,1VironmeJtalfy correct, bring 'yau;:'ow~ plales: Gall-In By: fD~cembCr 16) ,>' I, TWO caving da~;".: """ l;UPS: bowls.. and silverware to minimize use ajplaS/Ie: Trips Loc~tion:Maple Springs :' "V' es '''. will-be both in and out ojMam'moth Cave'National Park.": Leader: .""i, Jim Greer '" .. ~ 1],;' ii'"'' ;". J:-. '-,"--_,.-:...--_, --"-'-----. -,,";'."-:"',."-_,,~ 'l'*plrone: 50?-538-8130 or 502-315-2'730 Labor Day Expedition, September 3 6, 1999 .:" E4v1ail, ." ,call-I~ ,By: (August 20: i, TWO cavingdaysl! : I': ',,' .. .". LocatIOn: Maple Sprmgs CRF m,,,,b ... partiCipating In Ea".m Operanb ... xp.ellno" afa nqUired 'q etlIlnd on, S.1ely O~.n"llon before partlcjpetlhg In .xpedltion aetlviti H.w' CRF m'mbel's, pl .... ,.n1v \1\ xpeCllQ/ln In tim. to atl;efId, the E-Mail: " O"entatlon. Thea.' Who; hava allOndacl Safely Or1OntatiC>n ere, not '. ...... ". '. .... ...quti'ed toipartlclpate lnian~.r., ,,!1c+h ':i;V/::J I-.:.......,.--~--i------.;.......:_-_..:....L....:..----! .. ,:"+ 1'; ,', :;; .. ),' ., 1''',' '.'.' -;;8,i; 3W) 1. '} .. 'r, r:\f" .'. ,;i">,, .' '," .. ,' ,',. .;>1' . .:.... ," . Ple88~ l'Iotify th.,ExpedltfonL~a.r.:or thttOperatfons Manager,[)sve West U,,:le$l bth. 81 'wlse apecl.~ed, all:Ea~Operation. eXpeditions will operate (:W1..t60-4299, no later. th~n tV(~W4J.k8 In ,f>ut,Of the 'CRF, faelllUesat Ma~l ,!:prings, ,MamQ1o~ Cave Natlonat~ark' advance of the' first day of tlMf eXpeditton. First andlalt.dateli, an{urr!va' and ,CHECK:WI,TH TH~E)(Pf1dltJon 4fifider or ~e :t:~eml OperJJ,tlons Ma".gei,' ... partu"d ..... oace In () Ie I ... dele ,for .xpedltion '!gn-up." l''... 'l '.. TO VERIFY.EXPEOInON LOCATION. i ,; .. f ;ie ~r[J," ,',;;'1:;; ,:c 'rn"n ~--L, rID :'It l "'iV' CAVE RESEARCH FOUNDATION Post Office Box 443 YELLOW SPRINGS, OH 45387 NON-PROFIT 0RGANIZA TlON US POSTAGE PAID YELl.0W SPRINGS, 0H PERMIT 160 Ralph Earlandson 802 5 HIGHLAND OAK PARK IL 603041529 ADDRESS SERVICE REQUESTED r

Contents: South
Central Kentucky Karst placed on the list of the Top Ten
Endangered Karst Ecosystems / Kristen Tronvig and John Mylroie
Risks of Cave Pollution / Kelly Thomas --
Hamilton Valley Building Committee Update / Richard Maxey
Mammoth Cave Historic Entrance Ecotone Restoration Update
Cave Workshops --
Cave Restoration Carlsbad Caverns National Park / Kelley
Thomas --
Session on Karst Sediments Proposed for Fall 1999
Geological Society of American Annual Meeting / Ira D. Sasowsky
and John E. Mylroie --
An Update on the Fringed-Myotis Bats in Carlsbad Cavern /
Dale Pate --
Grants & Fellowships --
Museum Collectoin Profile Mammoth Cave National Park --
The Death of Floyd Collins --
Histoplasmosis a Fungus Among Us / Harry Burgess --
How Do you Count Almost a Million Bats? / Kelly Thomas --
Reports: Missouri Operations, Eastern Operations --
Expeditions --
Cave Books --
Expedition Calendar.


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