Cave Research Foundation newsletter

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Cave Research Foundation newsletter

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Cave Research Foundation newsletter
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Cave Research Foundation newsletter
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CRF newsletter
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Cave Research Foundation
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Cave Research Foundation
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English

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Resource Management ( local )
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Contents: CRF Reserach adn Field Station Underway - Completion in 2000! -- Changes for the Millenium / Sue Hagan, Michael Sutton -- 1999 Annual Meeting / Cheryl Early -- CRF Fellowships -- Nation Cave and Karst Management Symposium / Cheryl Early -- The CRF Session at the 1999 NSS Convetion - And On the Web / Peter Bosted -- CRF Members Honored at NSS Convention / Pam Kambesis -- Expeditions: Mammoth Cave -- California -- Sedimentology of Redwood Canyon Karst / John Tinsley -- Lava Beds National Monument / Janet Sowers -- Fondly Remembered - Catherine Brandel, 1943-1999 / Red Watson -- GIS Resource Development Program / Mike Yocum -- Public Education - the CRF Way -- 1998 CRF Research Awards/ Richard S. Toomey, III -- Unconsolidated Fill -- Volunteer Work Saves Thousands / Red Watson -- Calendar.
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Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Location:
Windy City Grotto Collection, 1961-2013
Original Version:
Vol. 27, no. 4 (November 1999)
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See Extended description for more information.

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l CAVE RESEARCH FOUNDATION November 1999 Quarterly Newsletter Volume 27, no. 4 CRF Research and Field Station Underway Completion in 2000! A decade-long effort to secure land and raise funds for a CRF Headquarters and Eastern Operations Field Station is now moving toward completion. On September 8, 1999, CRF President Pat Kambesis signed a Letter of Intent to Begin Construction of the Hamilton Valley facility. Pouring of the concrete footers and walls, laying out power lines, and septic system construction is already underway. A tentative building completion date has been set for February I, 2000. There will still remain significant work, much of which will be done by CRF members; building in beds, shelving, and heating/cooling systems in the bunkhouse and furnishing the kitchen are some of the major tasks. Stan Sides and Randall Hatfield will install the well pump, water lines and pressure tank with the assistance of the Building Committee. Stan and Kay Sides also generously provided permission to run the electrical lines across their land which adjoins CRF's property. The utility building, constructed totally by volunteer CRF labor, is now nearly completed. All offers of physical and financial assistance will be gratefully accepted. Richard Maxey, Building Committee Chair z o i=
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2 CRF Newsletter CRF NEWSLETTER Volume 23, No.4 November 1999 Established 1973 Interim Editors, Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton Next Editor, Paul Nelson 2644 S. Quarry Lane no. D Walnut, CA 917894067 Telephone: 573-5462864 email: ne!sonpd@sce.com Production Manager: Richard Zopf The CRF NEWSLETTER is a publication of the Cave Research Foundation, a non-profit organization incorporated in 1957 under the laws of Kentucky for the purpose of furthering research, conservation, and education about caves and karst. Newsletter Submissions & Deadlines: Original articles and photographs are welcomed. If intending to jointly submit material to another publication, please inform the eRF editor. Publication cannot be guaranteed, especially if submitted elsewhere. All material is subject to editorial revision unless the author specifically requests otherwise. To assure timely publication, please adhere to the following deadlines: February issue by December 15 May issue by March 15 August issue by June 15 November issue September 15 1999, by the Cave Research Foundation CAVE RESEARCH FOUNDATION Board Qf DlrectQrs Pat Kambesis President Peter Bested-Secretary Paul CannaleyTresurer Phil Diblasi Harvey DuChene Dick Maxey Chuck Pease Mick Sutton Rick Toomey Operations Council Barbe Barker (Guadalupes) Scott House (Ozarks) Pete Lindsley (Fitton) Janet Sowers (Lava Beds) John Tinsley (Sequoia/Kings Canyon) Dave West (Eastern) For information about the CRF, contact: Pat Kambesis, CRF President, P.O. Box 343, Wenona, IL 61377, Tele phone: 815-863-5184 or email: Kambesis@bigfoot.com Changes for the Millenium Sue Hagan, Michael Sutton Remember ns? Once upon a time (bow quickly il goes by) we edited the Newsletter for a number of years. We gratefully ceded that position to Harry (Buz) Grover, who was followed by Candice Leek. Both are to be thanked for their fine efforts. Eacb in turn experienced the joys and traumas (of which mere are many) of editorship. We agreed 10 edit this issue as an interim until the next and, hopefully, more permanent editor, Paul Nelson, moves into place. We bope mal you will give him all me support needed, namely timely arxI original articles, drawings and photographs. We are priviledged to be editing me issue we most wanted to see-me one announcing construction of CRFs Headquarters. Shortly after CRF len Flint Ridge (November, 1990), we reported the event under me title "End of an Era"; the Foundation had been closely associared with the Collins' Crystal Cave site since CRF's inception in 1957. We ended mat article saying, "Although CRF-East is now without a place to call home, this situation may be temporary; options for building a dedicated CRF research facility are being actively explored." Nearly a decaIe bas passed, bUI with the advent of me Millenium we are at last looking for ward to a return to Flint Ridge and a new place to call home. CRF members have made the dream a reality. But as with any new home, much remains 10 be done. Finishing work will require money, as will building up an endowment fund for continued maintenance and future building (including a second dormitory). And of course the Foundation will continue 10 require money for sponsorship of its many cave research projects throughout the nation and imcrnationally. A gift to CRF now will truly be a way 10 welcome in the new Millenium and to commemorate your passage with CRF through the years. Snbscriptions and Address Changes Address changes, non-member SUbscriptions ($5 per year), and requests for Newsletter exchanges should be sent to Richard Zopf, 1112 Xenia Avenue, Yellow Springs, CI-I 45387; tel.: 937-767-9222 (before 10 pm ES1); email: rzopf@antioch-colIege.edu Corrections: In the last issue (August, 1999), the photograph of Roger Brucker (page 1) failed to credit the photographer, Alan Glennon. In the same issue, the photograph of Sue Hagan and Michael Sutton (page 13) failed to credit the photographer, Chris Howes. Finally, same issue, same article, Sue Hagan (page 15) is quoted as saying that Mammoth Cave bibliographer Ray Mansfield never visited Mammoth Cave However, Ray made a tour with Jim QUinlan in 1974-thanks Ray, for your detailed fact checking.

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November 1999 3 1999 Annual Meeting by Cheryl Early The 1999 CRF Annual Meeting was held October 23 at the Radisson Read Hotel in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Approximately thirty members attended. This luncheon meeting took place following the October 22 and 23 meetings of the CRF Board of Directors and Operations Council. CRF President, Pat Kambesis, presided. Ronal Kerbo, our banquet speaker, provided an update on the National Cave and Karst Research Institute In 1998 the US Congress passed an act to establish a National Cave and Karst Research Institute to study caves and karst on federal lands but so far has supplied no funding except to match private funding. The Institute will function as a central clearing house for karst research on federal lands. It will seek a primary host urtiversity with a presence in New Mexico. CRF reports followed. Richard Maxey, Hamilton Valley Building Committee chair, reported on the current construction [see p. I story]. Dave West, Eastern Operations Manager, reported on CRF projects throughout the central Kentucky karst, including Hidden River Cave (in association with the American Cave Conservation Association), Roppel Cave (in association with the Central Kentucky Karst Coalition), and of course ongoing activities within Mammoth Cave National Park. Recent discoveries include new passage in Wilson's Cave and Diamond Caverns. Pete Lindsley reported that the Missouri and Fitton Operations have combined to form the Ozarks Region Operation. Scott House is Operations Manager, and Pete continues as Project Manager for Fitton Cave, Arkansas. During 1999 the Fitton Project has focused on drafting maps. Scott House detailed the 1999 Missouri Operations with major activities in the Ozark National Scenic Riverways and. the Mark Twain National Forest. Other cooperative activities during the year have been with the Missouri Departments of Conservation and Natural Resources, the US Geological Survey, the Missouri Speleological Survey, and with private land owners. Peter Bested reported on activities in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks as well as the Lava Beds Project which continues with basic cave documentation (survey, reconnaissance inventory, installing entrance markers, enttance GPS readings, ice level monitoring). They also gated another enttance and had the first public showing of their virtual reality cave tour, currently being shown at the Oakland Museum of California in the Underground Worlds exhibit. Lava Beds continues fundraising to build a research center which will be used by CRF, NPS and others. Rick Toomey, announced the CRF 1999 Karst Fellowship and Grant recipients (see article, p. 18). Pat Karnbesis announced that Dave West and Karen Willmes have been made Fellows of CRF. Certificates of Merit were awarded to Lacie Braley, Daniel Gregor, Pete Banquet speaker, Ron Kerbo. Photo by Bernie Szukalski. Lindsley, Matt Mezydlo, Sharie Mezydlo, Bob Osburn, and Elizabeth Winkler. Next year's Annual Meeting will be in St. Louis, hosted by the Ozarks Region Operation. CRF Fellowships CRF Fellowships (previously called Memberships) are given in recognition of outstanding contributions to the study, conservation and interpretation of caves. At the 1999 Board Meeting, two members were selected for Fellowships. Dave West bas held the dannting position of Eastern Operations Manager for the past year. In addition, for many years he has been a surveyor, cartographer, and expedition leader. Karen Willmes is also involved with Eastern Operations. Her especially light body build has made her a major pusher of small leads. But she has been equally active above ground, including serving as au expedition leader and revising and editing the Personuel Manual for Eastern Operations. National Cave and Karst Management Symposium Cheryl Early The 14th National Cave and Karst Management Symposium was held in Chattanooga, TN, Oct. 19-22, 1999. The Southeastern Cave Conservancy, Inc. (SCCI), hosted the well-run event; CRF member Bill Putnam, Chair of SCC!, assisted other SCCI members in organizing a week of informative speakers and enjoyable field trips. The symposium is held every other fall and attracts people charged with cave management. research, and conservation, be it in show caves, caves on government property, or privately-owned caves. CRF is an active participant. and was a co-sponsor this year. Roger

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4 CRF Newsletter ... Continued from p. 3 This year's theme was "Living with Caves and Karst." The keynote speaker was Ronal Kerbo, national cave management coordinator for NPS. His speech, "Conservation and Protection of Caves-a Retrospective," stressed the importance of education of the general public. Topics were diverse, bnt providing education beyond the caving community was an underlying theme throughout the symposium At the concluding banquet, George Veni, a hydrologist specializing in caves and karst, discussed "Living with Caves and Karst: an Historical Perspective toward the Future." The closing address was given by author-caver Michael Ray Taylor. His new book, Dark Life, discusses microbial life found in caves, including the work of CRF member Diana Northup. Taylor finds a message for all; a subterranean ecosystem needs the protection and understanding of cavers, scientists and karst managers. The next symposium will be in the Tucson, Arizona area, in the fall of ZOO!. Jerry Trout, USFS, will be the coordinator. D ~. Pat Kambesis and Mike Yocum at the National Cave Management Symposium. Photo by Bernie Szukalski. McClnre sits on the steering committee as CRF's representative. CRF members who presented and/or coauthored papers this year incloded Ann Bosted, Rane Curl, Alan Glennon, Jim Goodbar, Chris Groves, Horton Hobbs Ill, Pat Kambesis, Ernst Kastning, Karen Kastnmg, Ronal Kerbo, Julian Lewis, Rick Olson, Bill Putnam, Patricia Seiser, Bernie Szukalski, Rick Toomey, and Mike Yocum. A number of other CRF members were in attendance. The CRF Session at the 1999 NSS Convention. And On the Web by Peter Bosted To increase visibility of CRF activities and to provide information on CRF research aimed at a general audience, Pat Kambesis organized a CRF session at the 1999 NSS Convention in Filer, Idaho. This was the second year we have organized such a session. In spite of its clashing with the popular US exploration session the audience was bigger than last year, peaking at around 100 for Patty Jo Watson's fascinating talk. Kambesis could not be at the Convention, so I chaired the session. I think it was quite successful, and with a better time slot and more publicity, it should be even better next year. Many in the audience previously did not know much about CRF's activities, and we were fortunate to have several cave managers and karst researchers present The first talk was by Rick Toomey, "Paleontology at Manunoth Cave" (contact Rick at toomey@musenm. state.il.us. for more information). Then came Bernie Szukalski's "CRF's GIS Resources Program," work being done with Mike Yocum and Aaron Addison. Bernie is working on a website, but in the meantime information can be found on CaveTools at http://www. mindspring.com/-bszuka1ski/cavetools.htrnl. The main ESRl web site, full of all sorts of links to GIS infonnation, is at http://www.esri.com. From here there is a link to the cave/karst conservation page, which IS linked to caves/karst, t

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November 1999 5 The next talk, "Lilburn Cartography Update," was by Peter Bosted. For more information, see the NSS News article last year, or the CRF SEKI web site: http: Ilwww.cave-research.org/sekLhlml. Next was Patty Jo Watson's talk, "The CRF Cave Archaeology program: past, present, future." Bill Devereanx gave an npdate on "Lava Beds Research," and made a fund-raising plug for the proposed Research Building. For more information, see the Lava Beds site on the CRF web page. The last talk, "Minerai King Project Update" was by Bill Frantz. See the SEKI web site for more information. The last twenty minutes were spent answering questions about CRF, and letting the audience know we are interested in new members and especially new research projects. Rick Toomey gave an overview of our Fellowship program, and Roger McClure talked about Cave Books. Thanks to all the presenters for your efforts! CRF Members Honored at NSS Convention by Pat Karnbesis A number of CRF members were recognized at the 1999 NSS Convention in Filer, Idaho. Honorary NSS Membership was bestowed on Horton H. Hobbs III. The award was in recognition of Dr. Hobb's numerous contributions in cave ecology. He has done pioneering work on cave crayfish ecology and systematics, has completed numerous cave fauna surveys across the nation, and has been a major cave educator. He and his wife, Susan, have been involved with CRF since the early 70s and participated in much of the hard-core exploration of Flint Ridge. He was a beneficiary of a CRF graduate fellowship; his Doctoral Thesis was the Population Dynamics of Cave Crayfishes and their commensal ostracods from southern Indiana. He is at Witteuburg University and continues to bring students to Manunoth Cave. Peter Bosted was presented with the prestigious Lew Bicking Award which recognizes an NSS member who has demonstrated a dedication to the thorough exploration and mapping of a cave or group of caves. Peter is most known for his work in Lilburn and Lechuguilla caves, but he has also been a major contributor in exploration and mapping in the sea caves of Santa Cruz County, CA, the alpine karst of the Marble Mountains, and the lava tubes in Hawaii and California. Internationally he has worked in Belize, the Purification area and Cueva Cheve in Mexico, Papua New Guinea, Gunung Buda in Borneo, and China. He translated the original French edition of the Cave Atlas, which remains Cave Books' best seller. He has published numerous articles and cave maps and, along with his wife Ann, has established a stellar reputation for cave photography. Patty Jo Watson was recognized with the NSS Science Award for her achievements in archeological research in the Mammoth Cave area. The award is given in recognition of an NSS member who over time has demonstrated outstanding dedication to the scientific study of caves. Patty Jo is currently serving as chair of the Anthropology Department at Washington University, SI. Louis, Missouri. She is credited with both defining and pioneering the study of enthnoarcheology--the relation of studies of pre-industrial peoples to archeological data According to her membership listing in the National Academy of Sciences, "her excavations in the Near East and North America have exemplified the very best in multidisciplinary research in archeology." Since receiving her doctorate from the University of Chicago in 1959, Patty Jo has received many awards and distinctioos. In 1988, she was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. She is the Edward Mallinckrodt Distinguished University Professor specializing in archeology at Washington University. She was corecipient of the 1996 Distinguished Service Award of the American Association of Anthropology. She also serves ou the editorial board of Anthropology Today and is a member of the SI. Louis Society, a branch of the Archeological Institute of America which snpports archeological research and teaching. Watson began her career working on excavations and surveys in Iran, Turkey and Iraq. This was done through the Oriental Institnte at the University of Chicago, in collaboration with archeologist Robert J. Braidwood's inquiries on the origins of pastoralism and agriculture. Although Watson remains interested in Old World archeology, her studies soon shifted to New World archeology in Kentucky. She began her work in the Mammoth Cave System in 1963 with an initial emphasis on time-space systematics, i.e. how old were the remains in the caves, where were they located, and why were the caves used? In 1969 the focus of her research shifted as she realized the potential for the study of diet and agriculture from the well preserved remains. By the early 1970s she was studying paleofeces for plant remains. These studies produced evidence that implied that native Americans had cultivated certain plants before domesticated plants were introduced from Mexico. Ultimately, her work has led to different conclusions about cultural revolutions and maize cultivation in the Woodland period of Eastern North America. In addition to looking at the in-cave remains, Watson also worked with shell mounds west of the Mammoth Cave system. These sites were excavated and studied for further clues to diet and agriculture. Among the finds were a series of charted fragments of a squash iCucurbita species). These were significant because that particular species was derived from Mexico and could Continued p. 20 ... t

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6 CRF Newsletter EXPEDITIONS MAMMOTH CAVE Editors' note: in this issue, we make a start on publishing a backlog of Mammoth Cave area expeditions dating from February, 1998. The catch-up will be completed III subsequent Newsletters. The following reports are by the expedition leaders unless otherwise noted. Presidents' Day, 13-16, February 1998 Leaders, Cheryl Early and Dick Maxey Thirty-two people participated in a total of thirteen parties: two were in support of the Mammoth Cave register project, two were in support of Paleontology, there was one cartography trip to Sides Cave and eight were in support of Mammoth Cave cartography. The nine cartography trips contributed 1,400 ft. of new survey and 1,900 ft. of resurvey for a total of 3,300 ft. Two parties recorded historic signatures along Main Cave from Wright's Rotunda to some way beyond Chief City. Among the luminaries noted were George Gatewood, Charles Proctor and Stephen L. Bishop (not to be confused WiUI "the" Stephen Bishop). There were two paleontological inventory trips. Little Bat Avenue yielded relatively little material, and appears to have been cleaned out in the past. Backsliders Alley has interesting remnants of what must have been an e~tensive bat bone deposit. Material was flagged along Mam Cave from the Water Clock to the Acute Angle, where remains included raccoon scat and bat bones. Archeological material was also profuse, but difficult to assess owing to a veneer of lint and dust. In Olive's Bower, a possible source for a hypothetical past input of cold air was located. Present temperatures are too warm to readily support the large bat colony which historically existed in this area. In Sides Cave, a series of annoying problems limited productivity, but a bypass to a difficult route was found and a number of leads located. For the Mammoth Cave cartography program, a party worked on defining the limits of the Corkscrew breakdown. Three parties went to Bedquilt: party 1 put in 360 ft. of survey off 1871 Passage, including a blind pit and a continuing canyon; party 2 put in 210 ft. in a vertical maze in the same general area; party 3 continued the canyon lead for 550 ft., ending in a nice dome (Pajama Dome). Two trips went to the Mummy Valley area of Salts, where detailed sketches of the Kite String and Neville's Bedroom side-cuts were completed for a total of 1,200 ft. Two parties went to Proctor via the historic entrance: party I mapped a dry upper loop above Mystic River Pit (380 ft.); party 2 mapped leads off south Proctor Trunk (440 ft.). The Maple Springs facilities were vastly improved over last year due to the painting and other repair work that has been done. The new phone system is in place and working well. The expedition appeared to be a suecess in that a lot of work was accomplished and everyone had a good time. Thanks We appreciated having cartographers Mick Sutton, Dave West, and James Wells who all lead trips to support their projects. We also thank cartographers Pat Kambesis and Bob Osburn for sending us leads. Thanks also to Doug and Jill Davis, Richard Young, Rick Toomey, Mona Colburn and others for helping in the kitchen. and to those who helped close camp Monday morning including Rick Toomey, Mona Colburn, Kay and Don Bittle, Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Richard Zopf, Rick Olson and Joyce Hoffmaster. Special thanks to Jill Davis who did not go caving and belped us prepare meals. Participants: Register project, Main Cave & Violet City Dave Hanson, Kay Bittle, Dick Young, Daniel Gregor; Register, Chief City Bob Parrish, C. Parish, Kay Bittle, Don Bittle; Paleontology, Main Cave & Little Bat A venue Rick Toomey, Mona Colburn; Paleontology, BroadwayRick Toomey, Mona Colburn, Rick Olson, Joyce Hoffmaster, Janice Tucker, Matt Mezydlo; Sides Cave, Canis Major East James Wells, Elizabeth Winkler, M~tt Mezydlo; Corkscrew Rick Olson, Dick Market; BedqUl,lt, 1871 Passage -, Dave West, Karen Willmes, Doug DaVIS; Bedquilt, l/H survey Stan Sides, Sheila Sands,. Lacy Braley; Bedquilt, Pi survey Dave West, Karen willmes, Richard Zopf; Salts, Kite String Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Janice Tucker' Salts, Neville's Bedroom & Grand Forks Mick Sutton, 'Sue Hagan, Richard Young; Proctor, Mystic River Don Bittle, Richard Zopf, Erik: Sikora; Proctor, South Trunk Tom Brucker, Joyce Hoffmaster, Mark Ferguson. With additions by the editors. * * The 1998 Easter (April 10-13) and Memorial Day (May 22-25) expedition reports were published in the May, 1999 Newsletter. * * June 3D-July 8, 1998 Leaders, Dave West, Karen Wilhnes The participants in this year's week-long expedition were few in number (25) yet very productive, logging over 10,000 feet of survey (1,875 feet of new survey and 8,195 feet of resurvey). In addition, members contributed to the paleontology and lesser caves inventory projects, and to ongoing work at Hamilton Valley. Twenty-four parties were fielded during the seven caving days. The Green River was about seven feet above its usual summertime levels. In support of Mammoth Cave Cartography, two parties were fielded to Bedquilt Cave, five to Salts Cave, one to Unknown Cave, and ten to Mammoth Cave. Parties in Bedqnilt worked near the Hall of the Mountain King. In Salts Cave, the resurvey of the old H and A routes pastthe Incredible Salts Dig was continued, and

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November 1999 7 two parties went to the lower levels of the T canyonlFinch complex. The resurvey of Blue Arrow Passage was begun. One party went in the Austin entrance to correct errors in the old survey of Storts Trail for the Brucker Breakdown map. In Mammoth Cave, River Hall was resurveyed to the end of the boardwalk. Additional parties were fielded to the Corkscrew, Cocklebur, Olivia's Dome, and Gallows Way. One party went to White Lightning Cave to check the last remaining high lead. It quickly eoded in sandstone breakdown, but a previously overlooked canyon was surveyed for 275 feet It continues, so Rick Olson will still be looking for victim-uh-volunteers. Bill Koerschner led two short (less than twelve hour) trips into Roppel Cave. (Bill's excuse is that be brought his fourteen-year-old daughter along). One party mopped up the Thanksgiving Maze, and the other rediscovered Walter's Way. In support of the Lesser Caves Inventory, one party surveyed and inventoried Haunted Cave. The human skeletal remains appear to be from a single individual. Two parties located and surveyed the remaining leads in the A survey of Bat Cave. Paleontologists Rick Toomey, Mona Colbnrn, and Blaine Schubert continued and eventually finisbed the paleontological inventory in Wright's Rotunda. At the end of the week samples (including paleofeces, mummified bats, bat guano, bat bones, and a stain sample) were collected for radiocarbon dating. In support of new construction at Hamilton Valley, several CRF members shoveled gravel for the floor of the utility building. The expedition ended not with a whimper, but with a bang. A thunderstorm Tnesday evening knocked the power out. All the information we needed for the final letter to the park was trapped in the computer. When the power was still out Wednesday morning, there was no help for it but to load the entire system into the van and bring it back to Baltimore, where we wrote the letter, printed the reports, and faxed everything to the Park. Thanks: Rick Toomey picked up the keys, dropped off tbe keys, cooked, cleaned--be could have been co-leader of the expedition. but he declined the title. We didn't have an official camp manager, but we muddled through because lots of people offered help in the kitchen, including Scott House, Sue Hagan, Lacie Braley, Greg Sholly, John Feil, Dave Hanson, Jim Greer, and Doug Baker. Rick Toomey, Rick Olson, Bob Hoke, and Greg Sholly helped clean up and close camp. Special thanks to the camp-managers-du-jour: Rick Toomey, Sue Hagan, and Pat Kambesis. Because of them, the expedition leaders got to go caving. Participants: Bedquilt, Hall of the Mountain King 1) Dave West, Karen Willmes, John Feil; 2) Dave West, Karen Willmes, Mark Brooks; Salts, Incredible Salts Dig, etc. Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Suzanne DeBlois; Salts, Blue Arrow 1) Scott House, Greg Sholley, Karen Willmes; 2) Scott House, Sue Hagan, Suzanne DeBlois; Salts, east canyon series 1) Mick Sutton, Greg Sholley, Dick Market; 2) Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Greg Sholley; Storts Trail, etc .. Jim Greer, Suzanne DeBlois, John FeB; River Hall 1) Doug Baker, Rick Olson, Dick Market, Lacie Braley; 2) Doug Baker, Rick Olson, Dick Market; Cocklebur Kevin Downs, Sue Hagan, Pat Kambesis; Olivia's Dome Mick Sutton, Greg Sholley, Jobn FeU; Gallows Way Dave West, Karen Willmes, Bob Hoke; White Lightning Rick Olson, Rachel Bosch, Greg Shelley; Rappel, Thanksgiving Maze Bill Koerschner, Kathleen Koerschner, Lacy Braley; Rappel, Walters Way ~ Bill Koerschner, Kathleen Koerscbner, Greg Sholley; Bat Cave Karen Willmes, Rick Toomey, Bob Hoke; Bat Cave, Haunted Cave Rick Toomey, Mona Colburn, Dave West, Bob Hoke; Paleontology, Wright's Rotunda 1) Rick Toomey, Mona Colburn, Lacy Braley, Blaine Schubert; 2) Mona Colburn, Blaine Schubert, Dave Hanson; 3) Rick Toomey, Mona Colburn; 4) Rick Toomey, Mona Colburn, Mark Brooks; Paleontology, Main Cave, Audubon Ave. Rick Toomey, Mona Colburn, Karen Willmes, Bob Hoke; Hamilton Valley Jim Greer, Dave West, Karen Willmes; * * August 8, 1998 Leaders, Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan A total of 22 people attended the expedition. As usual, the emphasis was on Mammoth Cave cartography (five trips), with one party working on paleontological inventory. Cartographic field work consisted of resurvey (2,100 ft.) and new survey (650 ft.), All of the new snrvey was in small, difficnlt odds and ends which needed to get done but don't provide large amounts of footage. We had three new members, all of whom show good promise, and also welcomed as a guest Mike Wiles, the resource manager at Jewel Cave National Monument. One party worked on tying up Ole multiple levels of Ole sonth Salts main line braided canyon. Mulliple closures of loops in this area are highly desirable since There are usually good reasons that the remaining jobs have been left until last ... some large upper level trunk sections would otherwise be hanging at the end of long survey lines lacking closure checks. Although productivity was limited by light failure, the data collected was of high quality. In Fritsch Avenue a party completed the resurvey of a large loop which up until now has "valiantly resisted closure." (Osburn) With the problem hopefully fixed, the mapping of unsurveyed passages can continue in this area. Mark Brooks took a fall when checking a lead after completion of the survey and sustained a hand injury, but was able to exit unassisted and on time. The remaining cartography trips focused on the close-to-complete Blue Spring Branch sheet and its underlay sheet. Mystic River. There are usually good reasons that the remaining jobs have been left nntil last. In the Hooflands Avenne maze of small canyons and domes are several small and/or exposed leads. One party took

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8 CRF Newsletter care of several of them, reducing the local lead list to essentially one. One of the problems with older survey in Mystic River and other base level passages is the scarcity of recoverable survey stations; even those sections of earlier survey that are otherwise usable are often difficult to tie-in. The Mystic River trip was designed to extend a good, recoverable survey line into one of the main upstream inlet passages in preparation for surveying a cluster of unpleasant-looking leads. There was a relatively short trip to Olivia's Dome to take care of another nuisance job. A passage 35 ft. up the wall of the dome (the middle of three domes between Rhoda's Arcade and Rodger's Avenue) needed a better survey. The passage is reached via an awkward climb and a 35 ft. traverse over a shaky breakdown bridge and along a ledge. The passage includes among other things a narrow 60 ft. high dome, a 9 inch high crawl, and a drafting passage blocked with sandstone rubble. A paleontology inventory crew flagged material from the Violet City entrance to the bottom of Albert's Staircase. In this damp area, all material noted was bone. "In addition to some bats, rat and mouse remains were relatively common. Mice were noticeably more common than in other areas we have inventoried [Toomey]." Thanks: Many people pitched in to help with meal preparation and clean-up. That kind of spirit is what CRF depends upon-there are plenty of cavers, but without all the aboveground assistance, the underground work would not happen. To all the trip leaders, a warm thanks for work well done. Participants: Salts, east canyon series Joyce Hoffmaster, Mike Yocum, Doug Alderman; Fritsch Ave. ~ Bob Osburn, Lara Storm, Mark Brooks, Mike Wiles; Hooflands Ave, Miles Drake, Joanne Smith, Erik Sikora, Rick Mace; Mystic River Tom Brucker, Janice Tucker, Rick Mace; Olivia's Dome Don Coons, Cyndi Walck, Mick Sutton; Paleontology, Violet City ~ Rick Toomey, Rick Olson, Doug Alderman, Diane Bumgartner. * * The Labor Day expedition (Sept. 4-6, 1998) was published in the May, 1999 Newsletter. * >I< * Columbus Day, October 9-12 With the threat of a possible government shut down due to budgetary haggling in Washington, DC, the official expedition was canceled. Those who failed to get the last-ntinute notice were put to hard labor at Hamilton Valley. >I< * Thanksgi ving Expedition, November 25-29 Leader, Jim Borden This was a fabulous expedition. Superb weather, a strong group, superior camp managing, and low water in the cave made for a productive and enjoyable time for all. Over the three days of caving, 7,600 ft. were surveyed, of which 4,220 ft. was in new cave. Also, good effort in support of small caves near Bedquilt was completed. Twenty-eight people attended the expedition and fifteen parties were fielded. Two trips went to Bedquilt and continued the surveying of that complex part of Colossal. Two trips went to the south Pohl Avenue and continned the work on Jim Greer's sheets (Ruth's Room and Ingalls Way). One trip continued Kevin Down's work in Cocklebur. One trip went to the river through the Doyle Valley Entrance and worked on the replacement of Bridge Avenue survey; and one trip worked the upper levels of Proctor above the Mystic River Pit. In support of Small Cave Inventory, Pagoda Cave was located; in addition, a previously unreported small cave, called Thomas' Cave, was located (by Thomas Borden). Subsequently, Pagoda Cave and Gothic Cave (both near Bedquilt) were surveyed and inventoried. Hidden River Cave saw two parties on Thursday in the upstream Rimstone Maze section, netting abont 280 ft. of new cave in difficult survey. Good passage to survey and explore remains. Rappel Cave sported four trips. Two trips led by Bill Koerschner (including one of his 20+ hour specials) walked in Walter's Way and surveyed two new connections to the "Old" (Historic) section of the cave. James Wells led two trips to the Wift and sorted through a bewildering complexity of canyons that are trying to head south into the main body of south Toobey Ridge. Ofnote was a connection to Logsdon River that redoces travel to this area by at least an hour (and avoids a conpie of longish drops and a long belly crawl). After two long trips, the party is eager to return. Thanks: Candice Leek ably managed camp and with Doug Alderman and Harry Grover, did a marvelous job preparing a Thanksgiving feast. I had to leave early and had not come up to speed on some of the new procedures; due to this, some normally manageable problems were exacerbated. In any event, I appreciate Candy's efforts, with the assistance of Rick Toomey, in closing camp on a wonderful expedition Participants: Bedquilt, Pirates Maze Karen Willrnes, Miles Drake, Rudolfo Gonzalez; Bedquilt, Hall of the Mountain King ~ Dave West, Brad Blackburn, Karen Willmes; Ruth's Room ~ Jim Greer, Jo Ann Smith, Fred Schumann; Ingalls Way ~ Jim Greer, Fred Schumann, Elizabeth Winkler; East Bransford ~ Kevin Downs, Miles Drake, Jo Ann Smith; Proctor, Bridge Ave. Bob Osburn, Scott Fee, Scott Parvin, Fred Schumann; Proctor, Mystic River Pit ~ Pat Kambesis, Rick Toomey, Gary Resch; Gothic Cave, etc. Dave Wet, Rick Toomey, Jo Ann Smith; Hidden River, Rimstone Maze 1) Dave West, Karen Willmes, Rudolfo Gonzalez; 2) Bob Osburn, Rick Toomey, Alan Wellhausen; Roppel, Wift1) James Wells, Seamus Decker. Elizabeth Winkler; 2) James Wells, Seamus Decker, Rudolfo Gonzalez; Rappel, Walters Way 1) Bill Koerschner, Bill S~ephens, Miles Drake, Chris Caswell; 2) Bill Koerschner. Bill Stephens, Russell Conner, Chris Caswell. 'f I

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it I November 1999 9 New Years Expedition, Jan, 1-2, 1999 Leader, Jim Greer Two parties worked on the Brucker Breakdown sheet. One group worked on multiple passage levels in Ingalls Way, while the other dropped what turned out to be a series of hlind pits off Ralph Stone Hall; one of these had a very difficult access, via a low belly crawl and a tricky lip. A problem arose owing to illness in the Ingalls Way party-the two Austin EDlrance parties re-arranged personnel, which resulted in one caver waiting outside the entrance for the party leader and sick member to emerge. After a long wait, the outside caver went to seek help. Not having the Maple Springs phone number, he contacted the Park. The delayed party emerged soon after in good shape. Procedures have been modified to prevent a recurrence of this sort of incident; among other steps, all party members now carry a card with the Maple Spring phone number so that the expedition leader can be contacted in the event of a problem. For the Historic sheet, a party checked leads, filled in some sketch, nod did 500 ft. of survey in Briggs Avenue. For the lesser caves inventory, the two small Demunbrun Caves at the mouth of Running Branch were visited nod inventoried. Spiders nod crickets were abundant In Roppel, a party continued into unentered territory in a canyon complex along "Sam-l-Am" above the Wift. A second group went to "Bitch's Brew" off the Abracadabra trunk, a passage with an impressive wind, which seemed to disappear into breakdown in the ceiling. Beyond was a complex of domes and canyons, mapped for 480 ft. A more detailed report of the Roppel activities appears in the May, 1999, Newsletter, pp. 14-15. Participants: Ingalls Way Rick Hoechstetter, Bob Lodge, Brian Benton; Ralph Stone Hall Bill Baus, Eric Higbie, Gary Singleton; Briggs Ave. Richard Zopf, Gail Wagner, Alan Glennon; Roppel, Wift James Wells, Suzanne DeBlois, Dick Market, Seamus Decker; Roppel, Bitch's Brew. Bill Koerscbner, Janice Tucker, Russell, Conner; Demunbrun Caves ~ Gail Wagner, Alan Glennon, Gary Singleton. Report by the editors. '" If< '" '" '" The scheduled King Day expedition (January 15-18) was canceled by the Park's Division of Science nod Resource Management in order to resolve issues regarding expedition protocols. '" '" '" '" '" Presidents' Day, February 13-14, 1999 Leaders, Dick Maxey & Cheryl Early The President'slValentine's Day expedition consisted of 21 CRF members plus Rick Olson, a CRF member but an official NPS employee for this expedition, nod Steve Thomas of Kentucky Fish and Wildlife. Four trips went out-two on Saturday and two on Sunday. The trips included one to Wilson cave, to assess the Indiana bat colony. Sixty-five Indiana bats and one gray bat were observed along with little browns, big browns and pipistrelles. The party also measured the upper passage entrance to check the feasibility of installing a batftiendly gate. A crew went to Proctor trunk to inventory paleontology remains. As usual, all enjoyed the Proctor crawl nod the banle with the inner gate lock. Rick Toomey suggested that Proctor trunk trail is sensitive and should be flagged. Two paleontology crews worked in Black Chambers, locating and flagging remains. In addition to the caving, there was a long cartography program meeting. Bob Osburn, EO chief cartographer, Scott House, P.I. for the Lesser Caves Inventory The trips included one to Wilson cave, to assess the Indiana bat colony. Sixty-five Indiana bats and one gray bat were observed ... and Doug Baker, cartographer acting as note-taker, had a five-hour meeting with NPS representatives Jerry ONeal, John Fry, and NPS GIS specialist Teresa Liebftied. The rest of us in camp removed all CRF items from the Maple Springs barn per NPS instructions. The bam is home to a major big-eared bat (Corynorhinus refinesquit) nursery colony, possibly the largest in Kentucky, which the park will attempt to move to a bat house near the barn. Jerry O'Neal stated at the Saturday morning meeting that me barn is "being returned to its inteoded use;" the park plans to remodel it as classrooms. Tbanks. Candy Leek, Doug Alderman, and Fred Douglas stopped by to visit and greatly helped with the barn project. Others who helped with the move were Roger McClure, Richard Zopf, Dave West, Karen Willmes, Elizabeth Winkler, Diane Bumgardner, and Doug Davis. Many thanks to all for the excellent cleaning and moving that was done in record time! Thanks to all who helped out cleaning and with meal preparation. Elizabeth washed a lot of pots and pans to demonstrate that her newly acquired PhD hasn't diminished ber domesticity. Richard Zopf pushed a broom around every day to keep things tidied up. Erik. Sikora, Doug Davis, Todd Cramer, Rick Toomey, Mona Colburn, and Blaine Schubert all helped Sunday and/or Monday which made camp-closing go well. Participants: Wilson Cave 1) Mona Colburn, Janice Tucker, Rick Olson (NPS), Sieve Thomas (Kentucky Fish & Wildlife Service); Paleontology, Proctor Trunk Rick Toomey, Blaine Schubert, Erik Sikora, Bob Hoke; Paleontology, Black Chambers 1) Rick Toomey, Janice Tucker, Todd Cramer, Doug Davis; 2) Mona Colburn, Diane Bumgardner, Rick Olson, Erik Sikora.

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10 CRF Newsletter The March, 1999 and April, 1999 expeditions were run out of Hamilton Valley and featured Rappel trips only. These were reported in the May, 1999 Newsletter, pp. 15-16. * * Memorial Day, May 2830, 1999 Leader, Rick Toomey Twenty-four people participated. This was a significantly smaller expedition than last year, when about 40 people participated. However, several circumstances partially explain the difference. The NPS required "disconnect" between operations out of Maple Springs from off-park activities caused two separate groups to not attend. Two trips to Rappel Cave were staged from Hamilton Valley; also, a group working on the utility building at Hamilton Valley stayed there rather than with the expedition. If these groups had been able to attend, the size would have been about the same as last year. Another factor that affected the size of the expedition was the Kentucky Speleofest. Several people caved only on Saturday and went to the Speleofest on Sunday. We fielded four parties in support of Mammoth Cave cartography. One group went to Sandstone Dome at the end of Black Chambers and climbed to a promising-looking lead; but "the hoped-for passage did not materialize [Olson]." However, a connection betweeu They seemed to really enjoy the trips; it may have been something about the Baskin-Robbins runs while charging batteries between in-cave shootings. Black Chambers and Ranshaw Avenue was mapped and some paleontological inventory done. A party mapped 460 ft. in the OPS complex of East Bransford Avenue. There was more activity near the Hall of the Mountain King in Bedquilt, with 320 ft. mapped in a trip shortened by intestinal distress. In Proctor, the replacement survey of the Bridge Avenue trunk continued, plus an additional 440 ft. was mapped in a good unsurveyed lead. We fielded one party to Bat Cave, where another 170 ft. was a<:kkd to the remote and difficult end of the B-survey. The area is becoming complicated, with numerous small leads, all of which will require low and stable river levels. Iu a lesser cave south of the Green River (Long Cave), a detailed survey was begun in Bat Passage and some paleontological inventory was done. We also fielded two parties in support of the new Digital Video project (see article, p. 15). Mike Yocum is running the project. These first trips were used for equipment testing and storyboard development. Mike got some enthusiastic people for his parties. TIley seemed to really enjoy the trips; it may have been something about the Baskin-Robbins runs while charging batteries between in-cave shootings. The expedition ran into a variety of small problems. Some were part of learning to live with the new NPS restrictions, but some problems were unrelated. One party had extreme difficulty finding Proctor Cave; Pat Kambesis, Joyce Hoffmaster, Erik Sikora, and Mona Colburn rectified this situation by re-flagging the route. They also improved the working of the Proctor gate with a file, as per instructions from John Fry (NPS). The Bedquilt gate needed to be dug out and the lock was somewhat the worse for burial. Now the two problems arising from the new restrictions. First, there was some misunderstanding about the needed disconnect between the "Roppel expedition" at Hamilton Valley and the CRF expedition at Maple Springs. The second factor that limited productivity and added complications to planning was the 4-persou party restriction. This significantly reduced the number of teams that could be fielded. The situation I faced on Sunday is one of the worst possible scenarios: 15 people caving. What do you do, three 5-person parties? One potential solution is sending a six-person party to an area with two objectives, then split into two 3-person survey teams. They would travel to and from the objective area together and should be working near each other in case of an emergency. For those keeping track, I checked the new "bat house" in back of the barn, and no bats were using the house during the expedition. (The Maple Springs bam had previously been sealed by the NPS to prevent its us by the big-eared bat colony). Overall, the expedition was fun and prnductive. Only one party threatened to injure the EL based on the objective they were sent to. I guess I am looking forwan! to next year, although I hope to run it out of Hamilton Valley. Thanks: The relatively small number of people caving on Sunday (and more importantly, staying to Monday), led to the usual problems of a few people having to do all the helping with the cleanup. I want to thank the die-hards for their help. Especially of note are Patty Daw, Bob Osburn, Erik Sikora, Danny Vann, Joyce Hoffmaster, Candy Leek, Tom Grant, Elizabeth Winkler, and Pat Kambesis, and I thank them. Jeanette Earlandson graciously helped with food prep on Saturday afternoon. I also want to thank Patty Daw for acting as Camp Manager. Participants: Black Chambers Rick Olson, Mona Colburn, Joyce Hoffmaster, Tom Brucker, Mike Lawrence; East Bransford Kevin Downs, Candice Leek, Danny Vann, Tom Grant; Bedqui/r Dave West, Karen Willmes, Ralph Earlandson, Erik Sikora; Bridge Ave. Bob Osburn, Elizabeth Winkler, Scott Fee, Scott Parvin; Bat Cave Erik Sikora, Joyce Hoffmaster, Elizabeth Winkler, Danny Vann; Long Cave Bob Osburn, Candice Leek, Patty Daw, Tom Grant; Tour trails video 1) Mike Yocum, Patty Daw, Marc Ferguson, Lade Braley, Duane Thompson; 2) Mike Yocum, Lacie Braley, Marc Ferguson, Duane Thompson, Pat Kambesis. With additions by the editors.

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November 1999 11 July 2-11, 1999 Leaders: Dave West and Karen Willmes We had a successful Independence Day expedition with 29 participants. We fielded a tolal of sixteen trips. Parties worked in several parts of the Mammoth Cave System (Mammoth, New Discovery, Salts, and Colossal), in two non-system caves on the south side (Long Cave, Dixon Cave), and in one cave on the north side of the Green River (Wilson Cave). Several trips (such as Dixon, New Discovery, Wilson, and Long Cave) supported multiple projects. Altogether, we accomplished 8,800 feet of in-cave survey, 1,270 feet of surface survey, 930 paleo flags, and an unknown number of minutes of video. Richard Zopf, Safety Officer, and Dave West, Eastern Operations Manager, met with park safety officials on Tuesday prior to assisting with the New Discovery effort. Additionally, Dave attended the "annual" meeting with NPS officials to discuss progress, plans, am (briefly) the Cartographic RP on Wednesday. Salts Cave. Mick Sutton led a group of six into the South Salts trunk. They split into two crews while surveying, but traveled into and out of the cave together. They surveyed in the same general area, so that the group could be quickly consolidated in an emergency. This was an attempt to introduce some flexibility to the four-person party rule. It worked without incident, although it takes a larger party longer to travel through the cave. The two teams surveyed a total of 1,400 ft. The area showed no signs of aboriginal visitation; however, it was well decorated, and some of the speleothems were quite unusual. Mick led another (four-person) party the next day to continue the survey, for 500 ft. Long Cave. Rick Toomey led a party to flag paleontological resources. They placed 330 flags am found an old wooden fruit crate. Bob Osburn led a party of six; three of the party surveyed 1,300 ft. while the other three continued to flag points of paleontological interest. Bob returned to the cave with a party of four to survey 500 ft. of "nasty big passage." He estimates that one or two more trips will be needed before the map can be drawn up for the paleontologists. Mammoth Cave. Mike Yocum is heading up a project to shoot video along the tourist trails which will be used in a display being developed by Mammoth Cave Division of Interpretation. On Saturday, the video crew spent their time along the Frozen Niagara and Travertine Tour routes. On Sunday they videotaped the Historic, Carmichael, and Elevator entrances. During a short trip on Monday, they got some additional shots along the Historic route. Dixon Cave. Rick Toomey led a party of six to Dixon Cave. They not only flagged 370 paleontological remains bnt also did a surface survey from the Historic Entrance to the Dixon Cave entrance. Colossal Cave. Dave West led two parties (four people each, with keys for both parties) to the Bedqnilt I entrance. Kevin Downs took his crew to the old H survey off the Hall of the Mountain King. They surveyed 360 ft. in muddy, tight canyon. Dave's party surveyed 550 ft. in varions leads off the Q snrvey. Dave later took a party back to the H snrvey for another 320 ft. Wilson Cave. Karen Willmes led a party to the virgin "canyon" beyond Wow Ledge. The canyon bJmed out to be a shaft complex, and accessible from the P survey. Only 86 feet of survey was accomplished, but it was determined that the next party will not need to waste their time with a cable ladder. New Discovery. One of the primary goals of this expedition was to survey in this very restricted part of the Mammoth Cave system. A detailed map of Fossil Avenue is needed for current biological and future paleontological projects. The teams are required to take exceptional care to leave no trace of their efforts (not even the scuff mark of a tape). Mick Sntton led six people into the cave, where they divided into two survey teams. Dave West's team mapped the entrance building, the stairs, and the north end of Fossil Avenue. Mick's team worked on the main, south route. Together the teams got 1,450 ft. of survey. Another team of six surveyed in the cave on Wednesday, for 1,510 feet. On Thursday, a team of four finished the Fossil Avenue survey, an additional 840 ft.. Thursday was the last day of in-cave work for the expedition; after that, we ran out of people. Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, and Rolland Moore, who had been caving since the beginning of the expedition, helped to clean up camp on Friday and then went home. Two cavers were expected to arrive Friday night for caving on Saturday, but that still wouldn't give us enough people to send four into the cave and leave one in camp as required. So we ended the expedition early, after leaving messages or otherwise contacting the expected arrivals. Thanks: to Mick Sutton and Sue Hagan, for taking care of camp one day; Mike Yocum and Lacie Braley, for picking up groceries while the batteries recharged; Sue Hagan, Janice Tucker, Diane Bumgardner, Patty Daw, Bob Lodge, Rick Hoechstetter for help in the kitchen; Rolland Moore, Rick Toomey, Lisa Millay, Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton for cleaning up camp. PartIcipants: Salts, south trunk 1) Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Bob Hoke, Mark Brooks, Dick Maxey, Cheryl Early; 2) Mick Sutton, Elizabeth Winkler, Janice Tucker, Matt Mezydlo; Long Cave paleontology ~ 1) Rick Toomey, Ralph Earlandscn, Rolland Moore, Bob Lodge; Long Cave paleo. and cartography Bob Osburn, Rick Toomey, Mona Colburn, Jason Walz, Lisa Millay, Matt Mezydlo; Long Cave cartography Bob Osburn, Sue Hagan, Lisa Millay, Jason Walz; Tour trails video 1) Mike Yocum, Lacie Braley, Patty Daw, Matt Mezydlo; 2) Mike Yocum, Lacie Braley, Rolland Moore, Rick Hoechsteuer; 3) Mike Yocum, Lacie Braley, Dave West, Janice Tucker; Dixon Rick Toomey, Mona Colburn, Sue Hagan, Patty Daw, Bob Lodge, Diane Bumgardner; Bedquilt 1) Dave West, Elizabeth Winkler, Janice Tucker, Diane Bumgardner; 2) Kevin Downs, Bill Baus, Emily McGill, Rick Hoechstetter; 3) Dave West, Bob Hoke, Bill Baus, Emily McGill; Wilson

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12 CRF Newsletter Cave Karen Willmes, Rick Olson, Diane Bumgardner, Rolland Moore; New Discovery. Fossil Ave. 1) Mick Sutton, Rick Olson, Mona Colburn, Dave West. Richard Zopf, Rick Toomey; 2) Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Karen Willmes, Rick Olson, Rick Toomey, Rolland Moore; 3) Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan. Karen Willmes, Rolland Moore. Fitton Cave Survey 1999 Pete Lindsley The Fitton Cave Survey Project in Arkansas fielded four expeditions during 1999. Five survey parties worked in the cave, with expeditions on July 16-17, August 14, September 11, and October 16-17. In addition, a Fitton Cave Cartography Workshop was 00sponsored by the NPS to help address our current goals of increasing output from the map factory. CartoSranhy Workshop This was the primary event this year. Since the goal was to make plans for carrying forward our map making efforts (rather than to train new cave surveyors) the workshop was a high level presentation that the two or three "newbies" commenred was like drinking from a fire hose. Scott House was a big help with the workshop. Scott presented a map drafting exercise, and several cave survey programs were demonstrated on the computers by Pete, Terry Holsinger, Mike Pearson, and others. Gary Schaecher, our project cartographer who drafted our original eight quadrangles in 1991, attended and also offered his advice. An action plan was established as follows: Change the North arrow alignment to the top of the page to facilitate drafting new quads directly from computer printouts onto gridded Mylar. Review the quadrangle layout and issue a new .index. Use multiple quadrangle layers to show multiple cave levels. Run the whole cave on WALLS to "fix" the main loops. Add GPS locations at appropriate cave entrance and radio locations. Reoord additional GPS locations as required. Terry Holsinger, who is working closely with the author of WALLS, will reduce data for the Project. Expand the current group of cartographers. The Cartography Workshop was so popular that one of the attendees asked CRF to help with a similar workshop on August 21 at Cave Without A Name in Central Texas. Pete Lindsley and Mike Pearson provided about half of the presented material and training. 1999 exPeditions On July 16-17, we were fortunate to be joined by Lawrence Ireland (an NPS employee aud caver) and the NPS Trimble GPS unit. Two days were spent recording numerous GPS stations. Since one of the problem areas with several surveys was Gcand Central, the single cave trip on Ausnst 14 was used to sort things out in this area past Jorgen' s Leap. Essentially aIJ the hanging survey was recovered and new leads were noted. The Septemher 11 trip was used both to introduce new members to the cave and to resurvey some of the closure problem areas. A new tie was made to the "start" of the Tennouri Passage, and the "Crystal end" of the Double Drop Pit complex was tied to the appropriate brass cap. The October 16J7 trip was interesting, with a total of? new members and only 4 "old timers." A resnrvey line was run through Tennouri all the way to the Altar Rock brass tack to correct some previous closure problems. An attempt was also made to oontinue the cross section at the Lower East end of Double Drop passage. This area is particularly complex and will require alditional trips. Seven attendees surveyed Cave X (a small one-room cave) with six individual sketches being made. Each sketcher will draw up their map, as suggested by Scott during the Cartography Workshop. Missouri trips, April-October, 1999 Mick Sutton Mark Twain National Forest Our longest running project continued, with most work concentrated as usual in the Eleven Point District. We welcomed our new MTNF liaison, Neil Babick, who accompanied us on several trips and quickly demonstrated a willingness to get behind a compass while belly-down in low slimy passage. Such passages were abundantly in evidence in the Fremont area of Carter County where a bluff houses a number of small spring caves. Two of these, Mosquito and Turley Caves, were mapped (500 ft. and 850 ft., respectively) and inventoried over several somewhat difficult trips, and Camp Yarn, a larger stream cave in the same area, was inventoried for wildlife. Another CRF crew mapped Midco Cave, a large, 500 ft. long spring cave on private property nearby. An unusual biological sighting here was a barred owl, perched high on a ledge in deep twilight. Long Point Cave, a previously unrecorded site, was mapped and inventoried. The good news is that ceiling heights were as much as 27 ft., the bad news is that all of this was immediately under the dripline. Beyond the large, shelter entrance the 320 ft. mapped included only occasional sit-up rooms. Fauna included unusually large numbers of the big cave orb-weaver spider, Meta ovalis. Interestingly, this situation is also the case for other caves along the same bluff. Archeological looting bad taken place in the entrance shelter, and evidence for this in the form of a home-made sieve was removed. Also mapped and inventoried was Sisco Cave, a 110 ft. long cave in a remote setting. Finally, there were two survey trips to Crocker Cave on the Willow Springs District. One short survey ended in a sump. A seoond party mapped a downstream

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! November 1999 13 lead heading for a surface ravine which has terminated all other passages in the area. Instead, they found a large, unentered breakdown room with a continuing inlet passage. Survey to date amounts to just short of a mile, with four leads remaining. Ozark Natjonal Scenic Rjyerwaysl Missouri Dept of Conservation Over three trips, Ihe Powder Mill Creek survey was extended well into untrodden territory in the far upstream reaches of the cave. The start of the work area is 11,000 ft. from the entrance and involves significant travel time. The main upstream passage was extended for 770 ft. of moderately large and well-decorated passage to what appeared at first sight to be an end. This was an illusion, however, leading only to the Fourth Water Crawl, which continues. An upper level parallel passage was also mapped, and survey was extended for 620 ft. The main upstream passage was extended for 770 ft. of moderately large and well-decorated passage to what appeared at first sight to be an end. This was an illusion, however ... into a low, wet inlet passage. This too only gave the appearauoe of ending at a near-siphon, before opening back up. A start was made on remapping Bluff Cave, a much smaller, dry neighbor of Powder Mill Creek Cave. Shop Hollow Cave, like Powder Mill Creek Cave, is on MDC land within the boundaries of the Ozark National Scenic Riverways. Survey work here had been suspended owing to indications of a major summer bat colony. A CRF crew accompanied MDC cave biologist Bill Elliott on a May trip to assess the situation. They came J\Cfoss a massed colony of perhaps as many as 10,000 gray bats in a deep cave roost. Mist-netting at the entrance will be needed to establish whether this is a maternity colony or an exceptionally large bachelor colony; three bats examined outside the main roost were all male, suggesting the latter possibility. A small amount of wet survey in a section of the cave remote from the bat roost was completed. Missouri Department of Natural Resources A new project was begun to produce a more detailed and accurate map of Fisher Cave, a large, popular tourist cave in Meramec S tate Park. A total of eigbt survey parties completed the entirety of the present tour route and extended the survey well into the Grand Canyon and "Cave Explorers' Paradise" sections of the cave. Miscellaneous The large-scale survey of Marvel Cave (Oregon County) resumed. One party worked on a detailed sketch of the large, well decorated upper level room while another mapped I SO ft. upstream from the lower (Blair Creek) entrance. There was a futile search for a cave in or near Johnston Shut-ins State Park in the volcanic terrain at the center of the Ozark Dome. The lead bad come from a geological team mapping the sedimentary/volcanic contact. Alas, the advertised location was in a small valley with no bedrock exposure and no hint of a cave. Participants: Camp Yarn Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Neil Babick (MTNF); Midco Bob Osburn, Dan Cbildress; Tucker Bluj]. Turley Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Neil Babick (MTNF); Mosquito ~ Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan; Camp Yam ~ Mick Suttoo, Sue Hagau, Neil Babick (MTNF); Long Point Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Neil Babick (MTNF); Sisco Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, George Bilbrey; Crocker 1) and 2) Steve Irvine, George Bilbrey; Powder Mill1) Doug Baker, Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton; 2) Doug Baker, George Bilbrey, Jim Kaufmann; 3) Doug Baker, George Bilbrey, Jim Kaufmann, Kally Gehly; Bluff Jim Kaufmann, George Bilbrey, Dave Matteson; Shop Hollow Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Bill Elliott (MOC); Fisher 1) Scott House, Doug Baker, Paul Hauck, Michael Crawford; 2) Bob Osburn, Maggie Osburn, Annie Wentz; 3) Scott House, Eric Compas, Gary Resch, Michael Carter; 4) Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Lorin O'Daniel; 5) Scott House, Eric Compas, Gary Resch, Patti House; 6) Mick Sutton, Sue Hagan, Lorin O'Daniel: 7) Bob Osburn, Maggie Osburn, Annie Wentz, Michaela Evans; 8) Steve Irvine, Michael Carter; Marvel Bob Osburn, Jason Garrett, Doug Baker, Natasha---; Johnston Shut-ins Sue Hagan, Mick Sutton California April 24-25, Lilburn Cave Leader, John Tinsley The weather was fair, almost balmy, for late April in the southern Sierra Nevada-ideai for a weekend in the redwoods. Twelve cavers anended the CRF expedition, and the field station was opened up and thoroughly aired out after a relatively cool winter and spring. Peter Bosted orchestrated a corps of cartography parties who surveyed 20 stations in a maze near the Lake Room Junction. They also conducted some mop-up surveys near the Clay Palace. Two short digs led to a small room and to 30 ft. of passage and another dig point, respectively. On Sunday morning, Peter Bosted, Joel Despain, Kristen Aukiewicz, and Jeff Cheraz tangled with Mays Cave, a fme small cave that has been dye-traced to Lilburn Cave, hut has yet to connect with caver -sized passage. They bagged some new passage aod some additional survey, which constitutes a major find, but the connection to Lilburn Cave remains elusive. John Tinsley conducted his annual sediment transport reconnaissance trip through the hydrologically active portious of Lilburn Cave. The maximum water level attained above the White Rapids was a mere SO em above the present stream level (in a more robust runoff year, 3 to 5 m of water-level change is not unusual at this place). There was no flooding of Ant Lion Pit or at Ihe Upstream Rise. However, the cool spring apparently prolonged the spring snow melt and resulted in negligible flooding within the cave in this La Nina year. We

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14 CRF Newsletter also pulled some 300 ft. of old telephone wire from the cave, from South Seas Junction to the Bicycle Passage. A limited amount of wire remains for a future trip to recover. The cave was amazingly dry for this time of year, especially compared to the El Niilo winter, with a record snowpack at Grant Grove. Joel Despain led a party to field-check leads near the Hexadendron Room; most were too tight. Several short leads were surveyed, and several other small leads were re-sketched for greater detail. Jeff Cheraz re-surveyed the BJ survey near the Lake Room as far as BJl6. The passages from BJ24 onward requires survey and is virgin, but won't be for long. After a few early hikers departed, the remaining members spent five hours replenishing the woodpile as the rigors of winter caving had consumed much of the wood, especially the cedar. Three small woodpecker holes were repaired in the cabin's southeast wall and the remainder of the group hiked out Sunday afternoon having had an amazingly productive 2-day expedition. Participants were John Tinsley, Peter and Ann Basted, Scott Smith, Damian Grindley, Joel Despain, Kristen Ankiewicz, Jeff Cheraz, Jef Levin, Paul Nelson, Se1cuk Toprak (a Turkish engineer and USGS post-doctoral fellow) and Bill Frantz. New CRF members are Damian Grindley and Jef Levin. * * Lilburn Cave, June 18-20, 1999 Leader, Peter Bosted Sequoia National Park Cave Specialist Joel Despain and Brad Hacker arrived early on June 18, and worked for a while on the dig in Ellis Hedlund Cave, abandoning this after a while to examine Meat Bug sink. They found it had changed quite a bit since last checked, and were able to move rocks and trees to enter about 30 ft. of real cave passage with significant air movement. This sink lies strategically between the north end of Lilburn and the south end of Cedar Cave, so could eventually lead into the hypothesized Great North Cave. On June 19, Joel and Boo were joined by Damian Grindley, Lynne Jesaitis, and Peter Bosted for a rather long 13 hour trip in Lilburn Cave. They proceeded to the newly discovered Southern Comfort area to check side leads. Joel, Brad, and Damian pushed a very muddy canyon punctuated with occasional flowstone for about 250 ft., passing several small side leads. At the end of the lead, they found themselves halfway up the ancient Goldline rope that leads from the Mousetrack area np to Mnd Heaven, thus explaining the strong airflow in the passage. Peter and Lynne dropped the 100 ft. deep pit at the south end of Sonthern Comfort. It turned out that this was actually I1,e top of Splash Down Dome, discovered from below over twenty years previously, and usually inaccessible without diving gear. This is the southennnost point in Lilburn Cave. A good lead remains if a climber could bolt across the top of the pit. They also dropped another 80 ft. pit closer to the entrance, which connected with a lower level of Sonthem Comfort. Bill Frantz, Roger Mortimer, and Howard Hurtt brought several gallons of water into the Jefferson Memorial area for the restoration project. and were about to survey a side lead in the Schreiber Complex when Howard dislocated his shoulder. Roger (an MD) relocated it. and he and Bill helped Howard out of the cave without further incident. On June 20, Peter, Lynne, and Amanda Grindley surveyed some side passages in May's Cave, which is now about 1000 ft. long. A strong wind was blowing through the narrow zigzag canyon. Meanwhile, Bral, Paul Nelson and others spent a few more hours working on the Meat Bug sink dig [the missing names will hopefully be inclnded in the next issue editors]. Altogether, about 500 ft. of new survey was alb! in Lilburn, and abont 100 ft. in Mays Cave. About 110 total volunteer hours were accrued. * * Sedimentology of Redwood Canyon Karst John Tinsley The 1998-1999 La Niila winter with its long, cool spring effectively limited the rate of delivery of snow melt to the karst of Redwood Canyon such that there was no flooding within the cave, even in areas that typically back up at relatively modest levels of discharge: this despite the near-normal levels of precipitation received this past winter. From an in-cave perspective, it could have been passed as a drought year. Within Lilburn Cave, sediment transport this past winter was minor to nil. Consequently, the probability that sediment was eroded and re-deposited in volumes sufficient to impede Bill Farr's cave diving is believed to be very small. It was a fairly dull year for the sediment transport buffs, with a peak rise in the cave stream of about 50 em above the White Rapids. This reach of subterranean Redwood Creek is one of the more flashy parts of the cave hydrology. A deposit of breakdown located below the White Rapids limits the flow and commonly impounds water above the White Rapids to depths of 3 to 5 meters in years having normal runoff. No new sinkholes were observed in the Redwood Canyon karst. The Pebble Pile Sink has aggraded completely; Pebble Pile Creek again traverses Pebble Pile Sink and has resumed flowing along its former channel below the sink. As the 150 ft high wall of the sink conunues to retreat, it threatens to take out Redwood Canyon trail. Another 10 feet of retreat of the lip of the sink and we will have to relocate the trail for safety's sake.

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November 1995 15 Lava Beds National Monument Janet Sowers November 2-6. 1998 Bruce Rogers attended a week-long seminar in Klamath Falls hosted by Lava Beds National Monument to discuss inventory and monitoring issues at Lava Beds. November 13-14 1998 Cindy Heazlit and Robert Mudry began the survey of Four Star Cave. They took NPS Cave Specialist Kelly Fuhrman to Meta Stella Cave, which had been found ax! inventoried on a previous trip. They made GPS readings at the cave. Thankwiyjn" 1998' Martjn Luther Kin" Day 1999 (Reports not available) Febru3,(y 13-15 Presjden!'s Day weekend: Fifteen participants (leader, Janet Sowers) inventoried Balcony, Boulevard, and Shark's Mouth Caves, completed the survey of Four Star Cave and pbotodocumented it, and recorded ice levels and took photographs at eight stations for the virtual reality tour of Valentine Cave. They also took photographs in Crystal Ice Cave ax! measured the growing ice cavity in Merrill Ice Cave Participants: Janet Sowers, Bill Devereaux, Bill and Peri Frantz, Dave Bunnell, Elizabeth Bunnell, Robert Mudry, Jonab Perez, Cindy Heazlit, Amy Ponsetti, Chuck, Lara, Seda, Leona, and Greg Chavdarian. April 1999' Mike Sims and John Blume measured Gemini Cave for a cave gate. MemotialDay May 29-31 1999 Thirteen participants (leader, Bill Devereaux) monitored ice levels, surveyed Gooseberry, Bounda, Elvis the Pelvis, and Glaeser 116 Caves as well as part of Damsel Cave, installed monuments at eight caves and completed the inventory of Sharks Mouth Cave. Cindy Heazlit taught basic surveying skills to new participants Participants: Bill Devereaux, Cindy Heazlit, Amy Ponsetti, Robert Mudry, David Doolan, Bethany Doolin, Jeff Devries. Mike Wang. Damien Grindley, Jeff Levin. Susan Jones, Scott Askey, Sarah Askey. luly 3-4 J 999 Four participants (leader, Cindy Heazlit) surveyed Arroyo and Lichen Caves and began a survey of Lazarus Hole; this was aborted due to the presence of bats. Participants: Cindy Heazlit, Dave Doolin, Robert Mudry, Allen Hutchison. Labor Day. Sentember 3-5 Four participants (leader, Bill Devereaux) measured ice levels, installed brass markers at eight cave entrances and surveyed Iceberg Cave. Participants: Bill Devereaux, Amy Ponsetti, Max Potter, Chris Tsongas. Columbus Day October 8-12 Surveys were done for Lava Lizard Bridge (27 m), Bloody Caldwell Ice Cave (66 m), Genuine Draft Cave (57.5 m), and Bent Cave (103 m). The participants also set monuments at cave entrances in the Fleeners Trench, and partly mapped Foyer Amusement Cave (43 m). They made observations of biology, ice, and geology in each cave mapped. Participants: Bruce Rogers, Pat Helton. Bill Devereaux. Fondly Remembered Catherine Brandel, 19431999 Catherine Brandel died of cancer on )) May 1999 at the age of 56 in her home in Berkeley, California. She was a very active CRF JV during the 1970s, participating in the Salts Cave Archeology Project as excavator, illustrator, and cook. Nobody ever had more fun in the cave than Catherine. What many of you probably do not know is that Catherine went on to become one of America's top chefs. She was chef at the famous Chez Panisse restaurant in Berkeley, California, which she helped found, and with Julia Child she organized the Great Chefs of France cooking program at the Robert Mondavi Vineyards. At the time she died, she was a founder and senior professor at the Western Culinary Institute of America at Greystone in St. Helena, California She was a trusted associate of some of the great chefs in Italy in France. In the extensive obituary in the New York Times, she is said to have been "chef, forager, and mentor to other chefs as well as a prize-winning hula dancer and exuberant acolyte of Hawaiian culture. She was a leading expert in wild edible plants and an indefatigable supporter of small family farms. She opened and championed farmers' markets throughout the San Francisco Bay area, lobbied on behalf of organic growers, and helped create a conduit running from several thousand small-scale farmers to top restaurants nationwide." She created many of the dishes Chez Panisse became famous for, and the segment of her appearance on "20120" in which she tells about her quest for rooster testicles required for one of Pierre Troisgros's dishes is hilarious. Catherine was a true original, a joy to know, and is sorely missed. Red Watson

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16 CRF Newsletter GIS Resource Development Program By Mike Yocum CRF's Geographical Information System Resource Development Program (GIS RDP) was established in 1997 with the goal of assisting CRF personnel, federal agency staff, and other researchers acoess and use spatial data, GIS applications, and other software tools for cave and karst management. A longer term goal is to use GIS to develop a collective knowledge and support base for cave conservation, protection and managemeut. The GIS RDP memhers are Aaron Addison, Gary Fisher, and Bernie Szukalski. The Director is Mike Yocum. At the 1999 NSS Convention Bernie Szukalski gave a GIS presentation for the CRF session, as well as presenting a paper, co-authored by him and Mike Yocum, to the Geography and Geology session titled "Developing a Cave and Karst Information System Using ArcView GIS". In July Mike Yocum attended a Mammoth Cave Ridge with cave passages beneath week-long, 9000+ strong Environmental Systems Research Institute User Group Conference in San Diego. During the Cave and Karst User Group meeting he gave a brief overview of CRF's GIS activities. Later in the week he gave a presentation at the National Park Service GIS User Group meeting. In Octoher there was a presentation at the National Cave and Karst Management Symposium. The GIS RDP continues to provide consultation and GIS services to an archeological investigation of the former Collins property on Flint Ridge being conducted by Phil DiB lasi. Data Transfer Protocol Project By Mike Yocum At a meeting with Mammoth Cave National Park officials earlier this year Mike Yocum was appointed by CRF President Pat Karnbesis as the CRF liaison with the Park for the process of transferring CRF digital cave survey data to them. After several months of discussion with Park staff a Research Project was developed, sub GIS-RDP Program. A cave map with linked graphics mitted and approved. Essentially, the project will develop a data transfer protocol to be used by the Park and CRF for ensuring and documenting that the transferred data both satisfies CRF's survey standards and meets the Park's need for data that can be incorporated into its resource management activities. The co-investigators on this project are Aaron Addison, Larry Fish, Gary Fisher, David McKenzie, Bob Osbnm, Mel Park, and Bernie SzukaIski. The principal investigator is Mike Yocnm. Educational Resource Development Program By Mike Yocum In July, CRF's Educational Resource Development Program began working under a Cooperative Agreement with Mammoth Cave National Park to shoot video footage that will be incorporated by the Park's Division of Interpretation and Visitor Services into a display at the Visitor Center next year. The project, which will continue through next Spring, involves shooting selected sites on nine tourist routes with an emphasis on informing the public abont potential safety issues. Mike Yocum is in charge of the project for CRF, and has had the consistent help of CRF members Lacie Braley and Mark Ferguson, along with additional help from other members at every recent expedition at Mammoth Cave The Educational Resource Development Program has completed several graphic products that are available for sale to CRF members. The first is a 1998 version of Bob Osburn's Mammoth Cave Sheet Index. The second is a 3D relief view of the area around Hidden River Cave in Horse Cave, Kentucky, showing Hidden River Cave III Its topographic setting. A third item is a 3D relief of the Mammoth Cave area showing the Mammoth Cave system (digitized by Paul Hauck from CRF's map card of the Mammoth Cave system).

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November 1999 17 Public Education the CRF Way Project C.A.V.E.S. Continues Tradition of Education Project CAV.E.S. (Creative Adventures and Valuable Experiences Spelunking) has been providing caving experiences 10 a group of gifted Arkansas teenagers each summer. Funded by a grant from the Arkansas Department of Education and offered free of charge to 30 lucky students each year, CAV.E.S. has just completed its 13th year. It is unique to Arkansas and possibly to the US. CRF's Richard Zopf, for the fourth time, served as the program's special resource person this summer. Zopf lived and worked with the students and staff, sharing his caving knowledge and experiences through wild caving trips, lectures, video and slide presentations, demonstrations and personal sharing. The full-time staff is mOOe up of Director Jeff Middleton, David Dunlap, Judy Davis, and Carol Spradley, all local public school teachers and cavers. Other CRF members who have served as resource persons include Debbie Buecher, Roger Brucker, and Stan Sides. The students are selected based on interest, aptitude, motivation, quality of application, and teacher recommendation. They visit approximately 10 wild caves along with some unique commercial caves and numerous surface features. The Longest Cave is required reading and Caving Basics is the text. Project CAV.E.S. is defmitely making a difference in the lives of these 14 and 15 year olds. For 13 years they have been living it and are spreading the word about the excitement, mystery and wonder of caves. Thanks to all the CRF folks who have given of their time selflessly through the years to make it what it is. Beyond Becoming an Outdoors Woman Sue Hagan The Missouri Department of Conservation, under the umbrella "Becoming an Outdoors Woman" (BOW), offers introductory education courses in areas as diverse as archery, camping, and, this year, caving. This was the first such offering, and CRF was invited to participate. I was privileged to serve as CRF's representative as a coinstructor for three days in August. Approximately 20 women who had taken a previous BOW course signed up for this three-day "ldvanced" course in canoeing and caving. Few had much experience, if any, in either activity. Their ages ranged from early 20s 10 late 60s. The dormitory and classroom were at MDC's Presley Center on the banks of the Current River. The first day concentrated on basic canoeing skills. That evening, elementary caving and an overview of cave biology were taught by myself and the MDC Cave Specialist, Bill Elliott. The next morning, we took off downstream for our first in-cave experience. The cave selected is often visited by canoeists on the popular river, but this group, wearing hard hats and using proper lighting, were able to explore a bit further than the typical visitor. Still, most found the stoop-walking and occasional crawling in a small stream canyon challenging. More importantly, they learned respect for the cave environment and its wildlife. In the afternoon, a much more dauuting cave experience was arranged at gated Powder Mill Creek Cave where oue of CRFs long-term mapping projects is still underway. Although traversing only the first half-mile or so of this complex system, the BOW group found the major stream passage everything they had been prepared for and more. On the exit route, nearly half the group elected to take the over-the-head swim that passes underneath a spectacular calcite canopy. The evening's discussion session was characterized by the participants' pride in having overcome personal fears while finding a new sense of the awesomeness of nature. The final day's activities were diverted when an unexpected rainstorm and resultant flooding made canoeing impractical. Instead, we toured Round Springs Cavern, the NPS show cave where CRF members have been conducting mapping and biology projects for years. The students were quite content to rest their weary muscles with an easy walk through a show cave, but their questions and comments made it obvious that their "wild caving" experiences from the preceding day had led to a new understanding and appreciation for all caves. Mapping and Biology Courses for Missouri Cavers Michael Sutton For two days this past summer, CRF members Scott House, Bob Osburn and Michael Sutton along with Missouri Department of Conservation Cave Specialist Bill Elliott taught beginning and intermediary level cave mapping and cave biology. The twenty participants were cavers from Missouri recruited largely through the MOCA YES Internet group and from tile Missouri Speleological Survey. 'The course was held at MDC's Presley Center, an outdoor education facility within the Ozark National Scenic Riverways. Classroom activities were coupled with in-cave experience. House and Osburn led the sessions devoled to cartography while Sutton and Elliott joined forces for the biology section. Such workshops are an excellent way to meet cavers who are genuinely interested in developing the skills needed for CRF project involvement. Scott House is credited for originating and promoting the course, ax! the Missouri Department of Conservation is 10 be thanked for ananging use of the beautiful Presley Center. Judging by the responses of participants, this course will likely be repeated.

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18 CRF Newsletter 1998 CRF Research Awards Rickard S. Toomey, III Each year CRF awards grants of up to $5,000 to support karst research. Applicants must be conducting graduate research leading to a degree in a karst-related field. Tbis year, eight grants were awarded: Ginny Adams Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale (awarded $5(0) Comparative biology of epigeal and hypogeal banded sculpins (Cottus carolinae). Banded sculpins occur in both surface streams and springs in the eastern United States. Occasionally, C. carolinae have been reported in twilight or dark regions of cave systems but these populations exhibit no cave adaptations. However, several populations from Perry County, Missouri exhibit characteristics similar to other cave-adapted fish species. These unusual populations exhibit varying degrees of reduction in eye size, pigmentation, and pelvic fin ray number. COitus earolinae collected from cave resurgence streams in Perry County also exhibit reduced pelvic fin ray counts compared to other surface populations. These distinct habitats (cave streams, cave resurgence streams, and surface streams without cave systems) provide a unique opportunity to investigate changes in physiology and morphology in relation to habitat. Epigeal C. carolinae will be compared to conspecifics inside the cave to evaluate any variation in metabolism, development, and morphology that could be attributed to the cave environment. Tohy Dogwiler Department of Geological Sciences, University of Missouri-Columbia (awarded $5(0) Hydrological, lithological, and meteorological controls on temperate-cave heat budgets and crypuxlimoiic zones. Cave climate is directly linked to the local climate by meteorological and hydrological processes working at the surface and in the shallow subsurface. The proposed study wiII investigate the importance of the various sources of heat flux in caves such as: short and long term surface weather patterns, diurnal variations in temperature and humidity, cave stream temperature, and storage and conduction of heat in the bedrock perimeter of the cave. Quantification of these parameters will allow a heat budget for cave environments to be developed. An improved understanding of heat flow in caves will enable current cave climate models, such as the three-zone model' commonly used by cave ecologists, to be refined and improved. Kathleen Johnson. University of California Berkeley, CA (awarded $3,5(0) High-resolution paleoenvironmental record since the last glacial maximum based on speleothems from California. I have collected speleothem samples from Moaning Caverns and California Caverns in the central Sierra Nevada foothills, which contain a detailed, but as yet unexplored record of past climate change over hundreds to thousands of years. Geochenlical variations along the growth axes of these samples reflect changes in climate at the time of calcite precipitation. My analysis of these variations combined with precise UTh dating will provide a continuous high temporal resolution record of precipitation and temperature changes in California as far back as the last glacial maximum about 18,000 years ago. Oxygen ("0/ 1 '0), carbon C'C/I'C), and strontium ("SrI"Sr) isotopic compositions will be determined for stream, drip and spring waters to test how they are recorded in speleothem growth bands. In addition, a high-precision three-dimensional digital map of the caves and surrounding geology will be created to aid in our understanding of the local hydrology. Oxygen isotopic variations will be interpreted in terms of past temperature changes. A groundwater isotopic evolution model will be applied to the carbou and strontium data in order to reconstruct paleohydrologic environments. High-resolution time series such as these are very important in understanding the natural variability of the climatic, hydrologic, and ecologic systems on long time scales. This information may help lead to improved climate models and hence improved predictions about future climate changes. Speleothems potentially contain the most complete record of past environmental change in central California, and their study will provide a valuable complement to other climate records. Stefan Koenemann Department of Biological SCIences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (awarded $750) Systematics of the Nonh American groundwaJer amphipod genus Bactrurus. The cmstaceau arnphipod genus Bactrurus Hay (Crangonyctidae) is a comparatively small subterranean group. It is composed of only three described species, restricted to groundwater environments in parts of the easte~ and central US A. The research in progress will result 1~ abadly needed revision of the genus, including redescriptions of the three described species and descripnons of approximately six new species. The relationship of Ba~/rurus to its apparent sister genus Stygobromus is bemg investigated. In order to augment several rare Bactrurus collection series and also to collect fresh animals for molecular analyses, the type localities of Baarurus were re-visited. The Bactrurus habitats include numerous caves but also springs, wells, and drainage outlet pipes in the Appalachian karst, Interior Low Plateaus, Ozark Plateau, and even glaciated areas north of the karst regions. The resampling program covered approxintately 80 localities

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November 1999 19 in Alabama, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Ohio, Tennessee, and Virginia. Arrangements for a co-operative project were made with the laboratory of Dr. J. Waegele at Ruhr University Bochum (Germany), where 18S rONA sequencing of Sactrurns, Stygobromus, and other genera were carried out. I visited Dr. Waegele's laboratory during July and August, 1999, and took part in the molecular analyses of the collected animals. The data generated by these joint ventures will result in the first publication of 18S rDNA sequence data for amphipods. Jean Krejca Zoology Dept., University of Texas at Austin (awarded $1,000) Use of molecular genetics to trace llfJuifer interconnectedness. The goal of this project is to use the genetic relatedness of stygobitic organisms to determine the hydrological connectedness of the aquifers they inhabit. In regions such as the Edwards Aquifer, faulting makes it difficult to reconstruct aquifer interconnectedness from surface geology and well data. Dye tracing is impractical, because of the large size of the aquifer. One techniqne that shows promise for sorting out the interconnectedness of the aquifers is looking at the genetic relatedness of certain stygobites. This project will test the use of the technique in both a fairly well-characterized setting (central Kentucky) and a more complex, less understood setting (central Texas and northern Mexico). One hypothesis that will be tested is that the Rio Grande River is a barrier to genetic and hydrologic connectivity between central Texas and northern Mexico. Katherine Mickelson Department of Anthropology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. (awarded $750) Sediment composition and preservation of macrobotanical remains at Mounded Talus Shelter (15L£77), Lee County, Kentucky. Mounded Talns Shelter is one of many rockshelters with unnsual environmental conditions leading to the preservation of normally perishable remains, especially plants, that provide important data upon which inferences of past subsistence strategies and environment are made. Although previous research in the region has documented that the environmental composition of these rockshelters is highly variable and that there is a high degree of differential preservation within them, to date there has been no systematic attempt to identify the major determinants of plant preservation. This research will 1) identify environmental (mineralogical, cbemical and physical) properties of sediments that affect the composition of archaeological and paleoethnobotanical assemblages, 2) identify relationships between specific environmental variables and the preservation of plant remains through statistical analyses and 3) nse these data to develop a predictive model of archaeobotanical assemblage formation. The identification of these variables has broad implications for other cave and rockshelter archaeological sites and will provide data to be used in future research of environmental and snbsistence changes in the region. This information is needed for comparisons of taxa within cave and sheltered environments, between sheltered sites, and between carbonized and non-carbonized remains. Inter and intra-site archaeobotanical comparisons will make for more robust interpretations of past subsistence and environmental changes. Dominique Rissolo Department of Anthropology, University of California, Riverside (awarded $1,5(0) The Yalahau Archaeological Cave Survey. The Yalahau Archaeological Cave Survey was created to evaluate the nature and extent of ancient Maya cave use in northern Quintana Roo, Mexico, and to better understand the relationship between cave sites and surface sites across the region. Within the twenty caves located so far, the survey has identified evidence of ancient Maya activity such as: deposits of pottery and other artifacts, shrines, architectural features, breakage and removal of speleothems, quarrying, and rock art Recent research has focused on detailed mapping and the recovery of archaeological material. An upcoming analysis of the ceramic collection will reveal chronological and functional information. This study hopes to provide new insights into the ancient tradition of cave use in the Maya area as well as contribute to the expanding corpus of archaeological and geographic data on the Yalahau region. Dorothy Vesper Penn State University, State College, PA (award $1,(00) Mechanisms and timing of trace metal transport in a karst aquifer: Impacts on spring water quality. Knowing when, how, and at what magnitude trace metals are discharged at springs is vital in understanding the potential impact of metals on karst spring ecosystems: metal concentration and form must be considered because they control toxicity and bioavailability. To address this question, I have designed a field study which incorporates environmental chemistry at input (soils), transmission (spring water samples through a storm event), and output (spring sediments). The study will be conducted at the Fort Campbell Army Base in KentuckyTennessee. The springs chosen have been traced from potential contaminant source areas and have well-documented flashy responses. The analytical techniques have been chosen to indicate the form of the metals as well as their concentrations. Analysis of water samples collected over a storm event will indicate temporal variability. The results of the stndy will help karst scientists to understand the links between karst hydrogeology, spring chemistry, movement of sediments in karst systems, and karst spring ecology.

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20 CRF Newsletter CRF Members honored ... Continued from p. 5 therefore be used to determine when this cultigen was introduced to the area. Watson also studied the stone artifacts found in Salts Sink and Flint Alley. The lithic remains from these areas are characterized by fragments of chert, cores, and flakes. Experimental archeology was used to determine that the tools were probably made by percussion flaking. Experimental archeology is the study of past processes, such as tool making, through their reconstruction in a controlled environment. By comparing experimentally created tools to those found in the cave, the experimenters were able to determine how those tools were made. Watson has written that she considers the work completed so far in Kentucky to be only a good beginning of a long-term project. Working in archeologicaly rich areas, sbe writes, allows for the acquisition of enough information to defme important questions for further study. Watson continues her work in the Mammoth Cave region, tackling the new questions raised by previous research. She also maintains contacts with Near Eastern archeologists and visits the Near East for study aod lecture tours. She teaches diverse courses at Washington University, ranging from introductory level to a.lvanced work in Southwestern US prehistory. She also teaches graduate seminars on archeological theory and field methods, two areas of continuing interest to her. Megan Porter received the 1999 Ralph W. Stone Award for her proposal "Estimating assimilation efficiencies: The missing piece to understanding energy flow in chemoautotrophic ecosystems." She is a graduate student at the University of Cincinoati. WiIIi.m B. White was credited with co-authors Bogdan P. Ooae and George Veni for the Best Paper on a Show Cave Award. The paper was titled, "Deposition of Metatyuyamunite and Related Minerals in Caverns of Sonora, Texas, USA." Dr. White, a CRF member, is internationally known for his work in karst terrains. Named as fellows of the NSS were Ann Bosted, Mike Lace, Joe Levinson, John Lyles, Duke McMull.n, Pat Seiser and Rick W.lck. [With additions by the editors and Stan Sides]. Unconsolidated Fill New Missouri Cave Crayfish .. Bill Elliott (Missouri Department of Conservation) recently reported an exciting find from cave in Oz.ark County in Southern Missouri. Blind crayfish had been reported from this cave, which lies between the known ranges of Missouri's two cave crayfish, Cambarus setosus and C. hubrichti. Collection of several mature specimens, including a first-fonn male, established that the crayfish is an Orconectes species. Crayfish biologist Cave Salamander Devolution
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.---------------------~~November, 1999 21 Volunteer Work Saves Thousands by Red Watson Contributions of voluntary work to Cave Books translates into tens of thousands of dollars. This is not income, but rather savings on costs we otherwise would have to pay. The last CRF Newsletter was set up partly by the editor, Candice Leek, and by Richard Zopf, who sees the newsletters through printing and mailing. Mick Sutton and Sue Hagan are guest editors for the current newsletter. Paul Nelson will edit the January 2000 issue. Phil DiBlasi, Roger McClure, and Richard Zopf put together the 1999 CRF Address List. For many years, Karen Lindsley, with the assistance of Pete Lindsley, set up and oversaw production of the CRF Annual Report. The current Annual Report was put together in part by Karen Lindsley and Pat Kambesis, but the major collation, page-making, and production have been done by Paul and Monica Cannaley. Karen also did the page makeup, font design, and multi-language indexing for Atlas: Great Caves of the World, and the page makeup for Sheck Exley's book Caverns Measureless to Man .. Peter Bosted translated the French edition and co-edited the new version of the Atlas. More recently, Paul Steward did page makeup for Marian McConnell's book, Emergence. When ynu figure that page makeup costs $12 to $16 a page commercially, you see that this means quite a saving. ADd Marian has been doing a fabulous job of selling ber book for us. For The Life of Floyd Collins, Phil DiBlasi did initialtyping of the edited manuscript onto a disk, and Bill Mixon is doing further typing and page makeup. Bill is also an excellent and fierce copy editor, and any book be works on is improved by his attention. Deep Secrets: The Discovery and Exploration of Lechuguilla Cave by Stephen Reames, Lawrence Fish, Paul Burger, and Pat Kambesis was retyped several times and put into pages by Steve Reames and Rob Kolstad. They also saw the color prints through processing. Again, this represents a savings of thousands of dollars. Steve Reames bas also set up a Deep Secrets website to promote the book. Karen Willmes is working on an Eastern Operations Personnel Manual. Finally, Ron Bridgemon and Pat Karnbesis are working on the new China Report. Or perhaps not finally. The fact is there are always writing and publishing efforts going on in CRF that I don't know about. Probably Mick Sutton and Sue Hagan are still working on the Mammoth Cave Gazetteer'. ADd now and then I've seen copies of newsletters from groups in CRF West (I'm still trying to find a complete set). 1 have a complete set of the main CRF Newsletter and thought for a while of printing it in two volumes. Sales potential is pretty low so it might make more sense just to put them on the CRF website. We could do that with the annual reports, too. Anyone up for that labor of love? Paul Steward has prepared a flier featuring our two cave diving books, The Darkness Beckons and Caverns Measureless to Man, to send to dive shops. He has also finished a fabulous wholesale catalog of the books we publish and a few we wholesale, sucb as Michael Taylor's Cave Passages. This will be sent to as many as a thousand bookstores, commercial caves, museums, etc. This initiative has the potential of increasing Cave Books sales greatly. Paul has also revised the one-page list of all the books Cave Books sells, a job that is apparently interminable because of the incredible difficulty of catcbing all the mistakes and typos. Pat Kambesis put together a Cave Books section of the CRF website. Several people have been making sure that the Cave Books listings on Amazon, Bames & Noble, etc. are accompanied with rave reviews. Don't hesitate to send them your own reviews so we can increase our sales to the general public. Cave Books advertising costs bave never been high because our books are advertised and sold mostly by Speleobooks, the NSS Bookstore, Inner Realm Books, Bob & Bob, Inner Mountain Outfitters, Karst Sports, and cave book dealers in Britain, Australia, and France. But note our entry in the 1999 NSS Members Manual. Book selling is a vexed business these days. Amazon and Barnes & Noble had most of our books listed before Paul Steward made sure they had them all. No book publisher today can afford not to go with them. On the other hand, all book lovers lament the fact that these big operators are wiping out independent bookstores. So we hope the on-line book dealers will reacb the general public, but we urge cavers to buy from the booksellers we all know personally. Roger McClure is publisher and Red Watson is editor of Cave Books. Margaret Brucker, Thomas Brucker, Cberyl Early, Daniel Gregor, David Hanson, Joyce Hoffmaster, Richard Maxey, Richard Zopf and occasionally other CRF JVs help fulfill orders, wrap, address, and mail out books. Profits from Cave Books sales are designated for publishing future books, but they are also used to print the Newsletter, Annual Reports, the address list, and other special reports that do not make back costs in sales. Any profits exceeding these needs are currently being put in the Hamilton Valley Building Fund. Finally, let me suggest a resolution for the new millennium: write that cave book you always meant to, and send it to me, Red Watson, Editor, Cave Books, 756 Harvard Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63130-3134 (rawatson@artsci.wustl.edu). "Yep, preliminary versions of the Mammoth Cave gazetteer and bibliography (the latter has 4,800 annotated entries) will, with luck, soon be available on CD with help from software guru Mike Yocum editors.

PAGE 22

May onwards are scheduled far CRF's new headquarters at Hamilton Valley. However, this will depend on on-time completion of the building. Check the location with the expedition leader before arriving. First and last dates are arrival and departure dates. Please notify the expedition leader or the Operations Manager Dave West (410~366-5038; dave.west@mindspring.cam) two weeks in advance. CALENDAR MAMMOTH CAVE New Year, Dec. 30~J an 2, 2000. Jim Greer, jgreer@npc.neL Sign-up deadline December 16. The remainjne dates are preliminary' check the next Newsletter or the CRF website www.cave-research.org. Presidents' Day, Feb. 17-21. Dick Maxey & Cheryl Early, 614-888-2285 (DM) or 614-261-0876 (eE); Maxey.3 @osu.edu. Sign-up deadline February 1. St. Patrick's Day, March 17-19. Tom Brucker, 615331-3568; thomas.brucker Onashville.com. Sign-up deadline March 3. Spring, April 21-23. Pat Kambesis: kambesis@ bigfoot.com. Sign-up deadline April 7. Memorial Day, May 26-29. Rick Toomey, 217-6988914; toomey@museum.state.il.us. Sign-up deadline May 12. Independence Day, July 1-5. Dave West & Karen Wilhnes, 410-366-5038; dave.west@mindspring.com (DW); kwillmes@aol.com (KW). Sign-up deadline June 18. Summer, Aug. 4-6. Mick Sutton & Sue Hagan, 573-5462864; sue&mick@mail.tigernet.gen.mo.us. Sign-up deadline JuLy 2\. Labor Day, Sept. 1-4. Bob Osburn. 314-984-8453; osburn@levee.wustl.edu. Sign-up deadline Aug. 18. Columbus Day, Oct. 6-9. Cbris Groves. 502-777-1891; chris.groves@wku.edu. Sign-up deadline Sept. 22. Thanksgiving, Nov. 22-26. Jim Borden, 914-2554663; jborden@us.ibrn.com. Sign-up deadline Nov. 8. NB. The New Year, February, March and April expeditions will be headquartered at Maple Springs All expeditions from CA VE RESEARCH FOUNDATION Post Office Box 443 Yellow Springs, OH 45387 OZARKS Missouri trips occur frequently on a generally irregular schedule. Scheduling is usually flexible enough to accommodate all CRF members who wish to sample some Ozark caving. Please call Scott House (314-282-3246; RSHCRF@aol.com), Doug Baker (314-878-8831; dsb4now@ninenet.com) or Mick Sutton (573-546-2864; sue&mick@maiI.tigerneLgen. mo.us.). For the Fitton Cave, Arkansas schedule, contact Pete Lindsley (972-727-2497; lindsley@raytheon.com). GUADALUPES For schedule, check the CRF website or contact Barbe Barker 972-594-1183; cavers@gte.net). CALIFORNIA Annual planning meeting, January 8, 2000, Fresno, Ca Center for Irrigation. Contact Mike Spiess (539-434~3321; mikes@caver.com For Lava Beds trips, contact Janet Sowers (510-236-3009; jmsowers@aol.com). CRF ANNUAL MEETING I z o i= 0( c Z ::l o u. November 10-11, St. Louis, Missouri. More details later. NONPROFIT ORGANIZA nON US PQSTAGE PAID YELLOW SPRINGS, OH PERMIT 160 J: c a: 0( w til W a: W > 0( o 1,11"11"",11,11""1,,1,,,11,1,1,,,1,11,1,,1,1,,1,1""I,ll Ralph Earlaudson 802 S HIGHLAND OAK PARK IL 60304-1529 CHANGE SERVICE REQUESTED


Description
Contents: CRF Reserach
adn Field Station Underway Completion in 2000! --
Changes for the Millenium / Sue Hagan, Michael Sutton --
1999 Annual Meeting / Cheryl Early --
CRF Fellowships --
Nation Cave and Karst Management Symposium / Cheryl Early
--
The CRF Session at the 1999 NSS Convetion And On the
Web / Peter Bosted --
CRF Members Honored at NSS Convention / Pam Kambesis --
Expeditions: Mammoth Cave --
California --
Sedimentology of Redwood Canyon Karst / John Tinsley --
Lava Beds National Monument / Janet Sowers --
Fondly Remembered Catherine Brandel, 1943-1999 / Red
Watson --
GIS Resource Development Program / Mike Yocum --
Public Education the CRF Way --
1998 CRF Research Awards/ Richard S. Toomey, III --
Unconsolidated Fill --
Volunteer Work Saves Thousands / Red Watson --
Calendar.


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