Caves and karst: Research in speleology

Caves and karst: Research in speleology

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Caves and karst: Research in speleology
Series Title:
Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology
Cave Research Associates
Cave Research Associates
Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Bower Cave (Mariposa County, California, United States) ( 37.7333, -120.1167 )
Geology ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )
37.7333 x -120.1167


General Note:
Contents: Bower Cave Studies Part III: The vertebrate fauna of the outer vault / Richard Earl Graham -- News and Comment / R. DeSaussure -- Reviews / A. D. Howard, Carl Smith -- From the current literature / James F. Quinlan. Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15) were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In 1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells hardbound copies of the material to support its activities.
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Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation Collection
Original Version:
Vol. 11, no. 5 (1969)
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See Extended description for more information.

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K26-01008 ( USFLDC DOI )
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12499 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
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CA YES AND KARST Research in Speleology Volume 11. No.5 Septemb e r/October 1%<) BOWER CAVE STUDIES PART III: THE VERTEBRATE FAUNA OF THE OUTER VAULT" by RICHARD EARL GRAHAM,""' Cave Research Associates Introduction The animal life of the outer vault of Bower Cave during the dry season is abundant a nd diversified; many species readily encountered within the vault are difficult to locate in the surrounding region at this time. Some animals seen regularly also seek shelter in crepusculate areas of caves for the duration of the dormant season in the Mother Lode. Jackson (1915), Grinnell and Storer ( 1924) and Graham{ 1 1962, 1966) discuss part of the Bower Cave vertebrate life The following account is by no means exhaustive. Much o f the invertebrate fauna awa its d eter mination. The distributions of animals in the v a ult i s as distinct and zonal as the flora (see Part II of this series) and is related to the vault light temperature and moisture (Part I) Observations F ish : B o th trout and minnows h ave been introduced to the cave lake in the past. Bancroft (1871) recounts that visitors were entertained by a boat ride during which the guide fed trained trout by hand; however trOut can no longer be found in Bower Cave In 1953 two apparently senescent minnows (Hesp e rolettcus symmetricm) were collected by Jon Lind bergh during skindiving operations J a mes Rice informed me that minnows from the nearby Merced River had been introduced into the cave lake on several occasions, but with little l o ng range success I have been un a ble to locate fish in the lake during my study. Amphibians: A year-round population of yellow legged frogs, Rana boym (up to 22 individuals) lives about the cave All are generally of small size Frog eggs or tadpole s could not be found in the lake The frogs congregated a t local patches of sunlight along the shore An occasion a l P acifi c tree frog, H yla re gilla, is see n in the proximity of the lake during late summer C alls of both frogs are heard about dusk. Raymond deSaussure report s seeing a "newt" swi mming in the lake During the study no salamanders could be found in the cave. The amphibians have all been associated with the lower level of the vault R epti les: In the vicinity of the relatively warm, dry, and sunlit portions of the cave floor bene at h the canop y "window" I observed the gopher snake, Pit1tophis catenifer, the west ern garter snake, Thamnophis elegans on occasion, and more regularly the alligator liz a rd Gerrhonotus mttlticarinatus, and the fence lizard SceloporottS occidentalis. A semi torpid fence lizard, clinging to the wall in the B a t Roost may have been tr apped by the first cooling rain (October 19, 1959 ) when the prevail i ng temperature throughout the cave dropped to 12C. Skindivers sighted "a turtle" in the cave lake and later that same day a m a rbled turtle, Clemm y s marmorata was seen climbing the slope (September 19, 1962). Birds : The bird life of the Bower Cave vault has received attention. Forty-five years have passed since the following description of a large nest in the cave was written (GRINNELL *Part I, liThe climate of the outer vault, and Part II, liThe flora of the outer vault," appeared in Ca ves and Karst 11, (3) 17 22 and (4): 25 29; respectively ""Department of Biology, Upsala College, East Orange, New Jersey 07019. 33


CAVES AND KARST CAVES AND KARST CAVES AND KARST is a publication of Cave Research Associates. Subscriptions are available for $2.50 per year (six issues) or $6.00 for Volumes 10 through 12. Mid-year subscriptions receive the earlier numbers of the volume. Correspondence, contributions, and subscriptions should be addressed to: CAVE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES, 3842 Brookdale Blvd Castro Valley, Calif. 94546 Editor: Arthur l. Lange Associate Editor: Alan D. rloward Mary L. Hege, Susan A. Nye, Editors: R deSaussure, Sylvia F. Graham, J. F. Quinlan Copyright 1969, Cave Research Associates and STORER, 1942) ; it is still in good condition: The famous "eagle's nest in Bower Cave is nothing more than a nest of the Red-tailed hawk It is situated in a niche of the rock wall below the rim of the cave where, because it is so thoroughly sheltered from the weather, it remains in a fair state of preservation al though it has been unused now for many years. Grinne! and Storer also report the sporred owl, Strix occiclentalis from the vault. Dur ing our study this species still roosted overhead in the bower and was regularly harrassed by the native birds Two nests of the black phoebe Sayor nis nigricans on the north wall of the vault near sunlight, held eggs in late May; one nest contained three young in September. Unfortunately this latter brood failed as it was located near the base of the stairs, and it was impossible to avoid disturbing the parents. The phoebes regularly foraged for food above the lake water catching insects with a clear snapping sound. During their 1920 survey of the Yosemite Region, including Bower Cave, Grinnell and Storer (1924) discussed two species of swallows, the cliff swallow Petrocbeliclon lunifrons, and the barn swallow, Hir1t1zclo erytbro[!,(lJter. they commented: ... In Bower Cave on July 18, 19 20, a pair of these swallows (barn swallows) was seen to enter a dark cavern at the boctom of the pit, skimming close over the water. One bird was carrying a fluffy white chicken feather which could be followed by the eye after the bird itself became invisible in the gloom. Nest construction was probably underway even though seasonally, the date was late. They did not report on the number of mud gourd nests; however an estimated 40 can still be seen on the high walls above the lake. Active feeding and active flying of the colony continues through the summer-between May and late September-and the adults ap parently leave the cave vault to forage They are regularly seen about the nearby Merced River waters The canyon wren and several hummingbirds frequent the upper margins of the cave rim bur are not known to enter the main cave vault. A large variety of local birds enter the canopy No birds aside from the phoebe, and possibly the swallows a nd owl, enter and forage within the cave vault. Mammals: If legend has its origin in faCt then the discussion by C. Merriam (1910) possibly indicates that the mountain lion made its den in Bower Cave . . The Mewuk tribes, those inhabiting the western slopes and foochills of the Sierra, call the ancient myths oo-ten-ne of o o t-ne meaning the history of the FIRST PEOPLE ... In this connection it may be sig nificant that the naine of Bower Cave, the home of Too-Ie and He-Ie-ja, two great chiefs of the FIRST PEOPLE, is Ootin ... A long time a g o Too-Ie, the Evening Star, lived at Oocin, ( Bow e r Cave on the Coulterville Road to Yosemite). He-Ie-ja, the Mountain Lion, lived with him. They were chiefs and panners and had a room on the north side of the cavern. In 1915 Hartley Jackson reviewed the North American moles and made the following comment about the Yosemite mole Sca p alltts latima12ttS sericattttts Jackson, which was col-34


VOLUME 11 NO.5 lected from the floor of Bower Cave: ... An adu lt male from Bower Cave, Mariposa County is not typi cal of the subspecies ; it has a shorrer tail than specim ens from the Yosemite Valley, and the skull is flatter an d wider through the braincase than that of typical JericautftJ. Mole tunnels were seen in the terrace of Bower C ave. Shrews, Sorex sp., inhabit the leaf litter, a small c olony of b ats, Plecot1ts and Myotis, use the Bat R oost in a sporatic fashion (GRAHAM. 1966). Deer mice, Peromysctis wood rats, Neotoma ftiscipes and ground squirrels, CitellttS beecheyi, are relatively common a nd active in the cave during the day. Skeletal remains: The cave floor is littered by ow l pellets, contai n ing skeletal material and the carcass of a deer was found on the terrace. The cave is probably a trap for various animals, a lth ough bones i n the cave floor a re scarce, due more I think, to the collecting urge of visitors, than to any real scarcity. References BANCROFT'S TOURIST GUIDE -YOSEMITE (1871). A 1. Bancroft & Co., San Francisco. GRAHAM, R. (1962). The Pacific tre:: f ro g, H yl" regilla a tro g loxene from Calif o rnia caves Cave NoteJ,4 (3) : 17-22 GRAHAM, R. (1966). Observa t ions on the roosting habits o f the big-eared b a t Plec o tftJ townJendi; in California lim estone caves Cave NoteJ 8 (3): 17-22 GRINNELL, J. & T. 1. STORER (1924). Animal Life in the Y OJemite University of California Pre ss, Berkeley. JACKSON, HARTLEY H. (1915). A review of the American moles (in North American Faulla ) U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. MERRIAM, C. HART. (1910). T he Daw n 0/ the World. Clark Co., Clev eland. NEWS AND COMMENT The Fifth International Speleological Congress was held i n Stuttgart, West Germany September 2126, 1969. The meeting exhibited both the strength and weakness of mo s t international conferences. The direct exchange with research workers of many countr i e s and disciplines is a stimulating experience; on the .other hand, the mingling of such dive r s e cultures has a tendency tOwards chaos un less careful supervision is provided. At Stutrgarr, a l ack of translation facilities was especially regrettable, particularly at the general sessi ons, where lengthy presentations were made in English, German and Fr enc h on a sequential basis with litrle attempt at brevity. In the political fragmentation that is Europe, mult i linguism is a way of life, but this is sca rcely true in all pares of the world Representatives from areas such as North America and Austr a lia found themselves at a distinct disadvantage a situation that probably woul d h ave been true also for the Rus sians had they attended A doubling of attendance fees would not h ave seemed exorbita nt for an adequate transl a rion service a nd suitable communication. The pre sent congress is still more European than international. Another major weakness even less excusab le was the failure to cancel papers when the author did not attend the co nfe rence In roo many cases, l o ng lists of unpresented papers caused disorganization a nd resulted in the members' loss o f v a luable time 35


CAVES AND KARST On the posirive side, many exce llent p ape rs were presented and interesting field repo rts delivered. Slides and self-explanarory figures aided greatly in communicati n g co ncepts despite language b ar riers. In a ny case, it is impossible ro describe adequa tely in words such magnificent karst features as those currently under study in the interior of New Guinea. Only phorographs c a n begin to co nvey the magnitude and splendor of these eroded karst pinnacles, located unfortunately in one of the world's most inaccessible wildernesses. Another area of study that drew particular attention for k arst morphologists is Puerto Rico. Some of the detailed field work in the latter location was especially commendable, for it is clear th a t hasty judgements c annot be applied to the complexities of tropical karst. Only extended examination in the field can clarify some of the concepts. Consensus on an interpretive agreement is still lacking, but both regions well warrant further detailed study and thought. Another paper described the sea-level changes in southern England since the end o f the Pliocene The speciation, migration, and extinction of cave species form a reveal ing chronologic a l record. There a re many such diverse pockets of cave f auna .throughout the world. The analysis of these colonies and their relation to the morphology is one of the outstanding neglected areas of cave biology In view of the significance of the results, this lack of study is also somewhat surprising. Hopefully, further research along these lines may now become more popular. The papers cited are merely a few of m a ny and those which I found personally to be of interest There were usually a t least three concurrent sessions during most of the 5 days of the convention, and these were grouped by subject and rather randomly by language. Perhaps an alternate answer might have been to group by language with unrel a ted sub jects running concurrently. Then the conference attendee could have had his choice 'of following sessions by either language or subject with minimal conflict The only sacrifice would have been the lack of juxtapositio n of related papers in different l a nguages. In the future, it might also be possible to allow a true representation of conference members rather than again to assign votes on the somewhat erroneous and curious assump tion that all countries are organized as a monolithic speleological block -permit a t least a few faults for best cave results Undue weight is given to c o untries from which only a single representative attended, and representation was completely denied to other groups because of this n a tionalistic block assignment. Duplicated abstracts or preprint$ of the papers would also be an adva ntage. A choice based only on title or speaker is n o t always the m ost satisfactory method o f deciding be tween papers, particularly if one has not yet met the speaker and confirmed his presence at the conference. There is also the frustrating wait for printed results concerning material that one might hope to use in immediate study It will be gratifying to read thC'!se publica tions in detail in what is certain to be a valuable collection of the works of the Congress The choice of the site for the Sixth Cong ress in 1973 led to a struggle between four n a tions, n one free of politic a l complications: Czechoslovakia, Greece Lebanon, and South Africa. Eventually Czechoslov akia was chosen. All that can be said is that in four years a political situation m ay well change completely. It will be an interesting location, and may allow a freedom of excursions that is difficult at present. I can only conclude by saying th a t despite the problems. I found the experience highly worthwhile and would recommend it to a serious student o f the cave sciences The many perso ns and groups who helped ro orga n ize the Congress have made a valuable and appreciated contribution to speleology. R deSaussure 36


VOLUME 11, NO.5 REVIEWS GRIES, JOHN P. (1969). Investig at i o n of water los ses ro sinkholes in the P a h asa pa lime: srone a nd their r e l at i o n ro re surgent springs, Black Hills, South D ak()[a. Pr o leO C,,1Itpletion Report A-01O-S o urh D akora, FY 1969. GRIES J. P ., & T. J. CROOKS ( 1968). W a t e r l osses co tht M adiso n ( P ahasapa) lime srone, Bl ack Hills, Sourh D akora. Wyomi1zg Geological A.rsr}cialjrm Guidebook, 20 t h Field Conference: 209-214. These repons su mmarize preliminary finding s o f a n ambitio u s study, st ill cont inu ing, o f the so urces and m ovements o f wa ter through the P a h asa pa lim esro ne exposed o n the: fla nks o f the Bl ac k Hills dome. Gaging stations installed f or tht srudy indic ate that a hi gh percentage o f the disch a rge o f streams flowing radially outward fr om the crystalline core o f the Bl ack Hills is l os t by seepage into the P a h asapa, parricu l arly during periods of l ow flow. Especially interesti n g is th e i n dicatio n th a t much o f thi s water r esurges in the numerous a rtesi a n springs o n the ourer flanks o f the Bl ack Hills afte r flowi ng undergrou n d for several miles If thes e findings are confirmed by funher srudy, they sho uld lend supporr ro the theo ries of anesia n g r oundwa ter flow thro ugh lim esrone adva n ce d b y H owa rd ( 1964) a nd Swenson (1968). References HOWARD A D (1964). A m ode l for cave rn development unde r anesian g r ound-wa t e r flo w with special reference t o th e Bla c k hills. N a liollal Speleological Socie l ,. B ullelin 26: 7-1 6. SWENSON, FRANK A ( 1968). New th eory of rechar ge to th e anesian basi n 01 th e D a k o tas. Geo logical Society 0/ America, But/eti1l 79: 163 -182. A D. H oward C av e Research A ssocia te s PLUMMER, WILLIAM T. ( 1969). Infraso nic resonances in n a rur a l underground cJvities. Acomtical S ociety of America J Ollmai46 (5): 1074-1080. This repon describes s ever a l investigations of l owfrequency acous tic a l r eso n a nces in caves. The resonances a r e belie ve d ro b e exci ted by surface winds therma l currents or b arametric ch a nges If a cave consists of a single chamber conneCted ro the surface by a passag eway Plummer tre ats it as a simple Helmho ltz res o n aro r a familiar phenomenon eas ily demonstrated by bl owing across the rop of a bottle The frequ e ncy of th e re s ultin g rone is inversely propo rtional ro the volume; that is, th e larger the ju g, the lowtr the rone Plummer measured the pheno men o n usin g a recordin g wind vane in Cass Cave, West Virgi nia, whose 140 ,000m" volume was calculated ro p rod u ce a res o n ance o f O.OOf{l Hz. equiv a lent ro a peri od of approximately 2 minures Such low frequencies a r e experie n ced as a wind of perio dic ally changing dire c ti on. B y watching ciga rette s m oke. he observed sever a l reversals of the air in the cave entrance: the o b ser\'ed period was close co the pre dicted 2 minures. H e SllggestS that the pheonomeno n i s the expbnation of p e ri odic wind reversals observed in m a n y caves. Caves having t wo ch ambers ma y b e interpreted b y the Ra y leigh technique of double res o n aro rs If one chamber is in access ible it is possible ro estimate its volume by n mi n g the frequency shift resulting when the i nterconnecti o n is cl ose d Plummer performed such a double res o na ro r experiment in Sinnerr C a ve. West Virginia. Breathing C a ve Virginia w a s examined as a n example o f a complex re so nat o r well known for its wind current flucruati o ns Vel oci t y m eas urements were made and num erous revers als n oted The d ata were s ub jeCted ro F o uri er a n a l ysis. resulting i n a plot o f excita tion amplitude as a functi o n o f frequ ency Approxima tely 70 discrete frequencies were detected Plummer ad m its that a unique identifi cation of o ne frequenc y wit h a parricular 37


CAVES AND KARST structure would be prohibitively difficuit. A clever mathemarician might be able co obtain information from th e data, although he probably would have to tre at the problem statistically Plummer has presenred a simple techniqu e that direcrly provides information on the volumes of caves of simple structure. F or more complex structures, the technique needs further development c J FROM THE CURRENT LITERATURE Edited b y JAMES F QUINLAN Carl Smith BRIGGS, T. S. (1968). Phalan gids of th e L an i"torid geous Sitalcina Opiliones). Cali/ o rnia Academy 0/ Scie11ces Proceedings 36 (1) : 1-32. A comprehensive r eview of the widespread ge nus Sitalcina throughout California, containing discussions ou distribution habitat, morphology and speciation and including new species. Habitat and distribution data o n cave dwell ing species are given. -RG HENDY, C. H. & A T WILSON (1968). Palaeoclimatic data for speleothems. Natttre 219 : 48-5l. Temperature curves determined b y the oxygen-isotope method o n rad i oca rbon -da t ed s t alaaites from two New Zealand caves 10km apart match very well for their period of overlapp in g age. The curve s for both the elated period younger than 35,000 years and for an extrapolated period to 100,000 years also correlate well with similar curves from sea-floor accumulations nf fossils of floating foraminifera. The minimum cave temp e ratu re during the Wisconsin (Wurm) Glaciati o n 25,000 years ago was 6 C colder th an a t present whereas the maximum during the Sangamon ( Riss/Wurm) Intergl ac iation 90,000 years ago was 5 C warmer th an at p re se nt. -GWM HENSHAW, R E & G EDGAR FOLK, JR. (1966). R elatio n of thermore gula tion to seasonally changing microclimate in two species of bats (Myot;s luci/ftglH and M. s o dalis ). Ph ysio logical Z oologY 39 (3): 223-236. Both bats overwinter in the same Kentucky caves, but during the summer M. lftci/f'gfts roosts in hot dry places and M s odali s returns daily to caves. M. sodalis was easily aroused from torpor at low temperatures, but M. s odalis had a gre ater tolerance to hyperthermia. Experimental and field data are critically analyzed between the tw o species a nd their acclimatization discu ssed. -RG HOLSINGER, ] R (1967). New data on the range o f the troglobitic trichoniscid isopod, Caucasonethes hemoti. Tennessee Academy of Science lournal4 2 (1) : IS. Previously kn ow n only ftom its typ e l oca lity, Gilley Cave, Lee County, Virginia; C. henroti has rece,;tly been found in two neighboring caves. C?f int e rest the collecting sites about rotting logs are not 11l flood zones. ThIS g enus has three endemIC speCies 11l the southern UnIted States and one in caves in Georgian S S. R -RG HUTCHISON, J. HOWARD ( 1967). A Plei s t oce ne vampire bat (DesmodltI stock;) from Potter Creek Cave Shasta County, California PaleoB;os, no. 3 1 -6. The known Pleistocene continental North American vampires are considered to belong to a single species, D esmodus stock;. These derived from cave deposits in central Florida and Nuevo Leon, Mexico The discovery o f fossil vampire b a t s from Potter Creek Cave, California considerably extends the range b o th to the north and west, suggesting that is was more widely distributed in North America than previ ou sly suspeaed. -RG IVlE W. (1969). North American spiders of the genus Bathyphantes (Araneae, Linyphiidae) American Mf'seum Nov,tates, no. 2364, 70p. A valuable and much needed review of the genus a tiny secretive group of spiders that build small, delicate webs. Of particular interest is th e detailed description of several cave species, including records from Calif o rnia caves. -RG 38


VOLUME 11, NO.5 KRULC Z. (1968). Einiges tiber die geoelektrischen untersuchungen in der Blitzschutztechnik in Kroatien (Jugoslawien). Geo/iJica Teorica ed Applicata Bolletino 10 08): 158-163. A map of specific resistivity of Croatia is provided, one third of which is occupied by the Dinaric Karst It is seen to be very complex panicularly in the karst areas, an example of which is shown in detail. Plots of specific resistivity profiles are presented for karst poljes, and compared against those of other terrain -ALL LARSEN, HELGE (1968). Trail Creek, final repon on' the excavation of two caves on Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Acta Arct;ca, fasc 15, 80p. Complete repon of archeological excavations in caves 12km from Lake Imuruk, 1949-1950 The material revealed a caribou-hunting population and 10 sta:ges of culture -ALL LUKIN, V. S. (1967). 0 proiskhozhdenii naklonnykh ploshchadok i tsokolei vnutri karstovykh polostei. (Origin of inclined planes and socles within karst regions). Zemlevedenie 7 : 212' 214. Planar surfaces inclined 30-50 from horizontal are commonly observed in gypsum/anhydrite and limestone caves. Where they occur in water-filled caves, most of their extent lies below mean water level. It is proposed that the planes are related to the angle of repose of thin clay layers (observed up to 5mm in thickness) Experiments with gypsum blocks in a water bath turbid with clay show that surfaces of 30-35 slope become clay covered and dissolve very little, while 40-45 surfaces remain clean and are considerably etched. Heterogeneous rock and flow patterns alter the basic plane development somewhat. [Sim ilar explana t ions of these features, termed planer 0/ rep Ore by Lange were reponed in Cave Noter 5 : 41-48 (1963); 6 : 17-19 (1964)-Ed.J -NHB LYKOSHIN, ARTAMON GRUGOREVICH (1968). Karrt > GidrotechnicheJkoe Stro,'tel'Jtvo (Karst and Hydrotechnical Structures), Izdat vo Literatury po Stroitel'sevy, Moscow 183p. A brief description and classification of karst types, with emphasis on their hydrology and in vestigations for protective measures necessary for the design of dams and similar structures in karst terrains -JFQ MIOTKE, FRANZ-DIETER (1968), Karstmorphologische Studien in der glazial-iiberformten Hohenstufe der "Picos de Europa ," Nordspanien Geog-raphiJchen GeJellJcha/t zu HamlO ver, Jahr buch (1968), Sonderhe/t 4 161p. (E n g lish summary, p. 138-140) (For sale by the Gesellschaft at 1m Moore 21, 3 Hannover.) An exceptionally well illustrated description of a hi g h mountain nivo-karst in nonheastern Spain that was repeatedly glaciated during th e Pleistocene and subsequently rejuvenated during the Holocene. One of many conclusions is: In contrast with t e mperature and tropical karsts where maximum solution of I imesto ne is at o r just below the soil-bedrock interfnce, in nival karst areas the zone of maximum solution is at a greater depth; most sinkholes in nival karsts are due to collapse of cave roofs rather than to corrosion of bedrock and concomitant s ubsidence of covering soil. This charac teristic of nival karst is a result of the smaller dissolving power and relatively lower speed of reac tion of snowmelt water; the ground water is not saturated until it reaches a greater depth in the subsurface The great wealth of quantit a tive data on water chemistry and its interpretation, and the discussion of the previously unappreciated role of flow-dynamics of rain water and snow melt in the development of karst landforms is too voluminous to be summarized here Miotke's systematic approach to investigation and the clarity of presentation of his important dissertation sets a standard to be met by future investi gators of karst areas -IFQ MOLlTVIN, P V. (1966). Study of the relationship betwe e n surface and subsurface fissure-karst waters in the Ay River basin So v iet Hydrology, no, 6: 557-567. ( Published 1968). A hydrolo g ical investigation of the role of rivers in subsurface flooding of a planned nickel mining area. Results of dye tests are reported River diversion and pumping are proposed to permit mining. -TA MONEYMAKER, BERLEN C. ( 1968). Reseevoir le a ka ge in limestone terranes in ASSOCIATION OF ENGINEERING GEOLOGISTS Sy",poJi"", 0" ReJer v ior Leakage and Ground Water Control, p DI-D32. (Available for $3.00 from: Washingto n Section of AEG, c/o Bates McKee Department of Geology University of Was hin gto n Seattle, Washington.) A brief, illustrated summary of leaka g e problems, their investigation and treatment, at six dam sites in the Tennessee Valley. -JFQ 39


CAVES AND KARST MUCHMORE, WILLIAM B. (1965). North American cave pseudoscorpions of the genus Klep1 0chthoniu I subgenus ChamberlinochthoniuI (Chelonethida, Chthoniidae). American MUIeum NovitateI no 2234: 1 -27 The subgenus Chamber/;nochtholliuI is emended on the basis of 10 new species described from caves -RG MUCHMORE, WILLIAM B (1966). A cavernicolous pseudoscorpion of the genus Microcreagr;I from south e rn Tennessee. Entomological NewI 50 (4) : 97-100. The n ew species M;crocreagr;I nickaiackemiI from Nickajack Cave Tennessee, possesses a pale co lor, g reatly attenuated ap pe nda ges and is eye less. -RG MUCHMORE, WILLIAM B. ( 1967 ) New cave pseudoscorpions of the genus Apochthonius (Arachnida: Chelonethida). Ohio Journal 0 / S c ience 76 (2) : 89-95 Six new cavernicolous species of the pseudoscorpion genus Apochthon;uI are described These are A. c o l ecamp; a nd A. typhluI from Arkansas, A. ;luli.anemiI from Indiana, A. holIingeri from Virginia, and A. pattCiIp;nOIttI from West Virg inia. -RG MUCHMORE, WILLIAM E. (1968). A cavernicolous species of the genus Mtmdochthon;U$ (Arac hnida, Chelonethida, Chthoniidae). America n M;croIcopical Society Tramact;01lI87 (1): 110-112. MUlIdochtholl;UI cavern;cOIOttI is the first species of this genus known in the United States to be cavernicolous It is completely eyeless and it s limbs are m o re attenuated than its r e latives livin g in moist litter. It is known only from Saltpet e r Cave, Illin ois -RG RABB, GEORGE B. (1965). A new salamander of the genus Chr;opterotriton (Cau data: Pl et h o dontidae) fr o m Me x ico. Bre viora, n o. 235 : 1-8. The new salamander C. magllipeI, distinguished by its g reater number of teeth, large size, and fully webbed feet, is described from Cueva de Potrerillos and Cueva del Madroiio. Mexico. The species is thou ght to be restricted to caves, as is its near relative C. 1/UHatter;. -RG ROTH, V D. (1968). The spider genus Teg enaria in the Western Hemisphere (AgeleniJae). America" MUIeum N oviatn, no 2323, 33 p A comprehensive review of the American representatives of th e relatives of the common house spider. Endemic cave-inhabiting species from Mexico and Arizona, Tegellaria mex;calla anJ T egenar;a chir i cahuae are n ew and other cave record s are given. -RG Contributors: TA, Thomas Aley; ALL, A L. Lange; GWM, G. W. Moore; RG, R. Graham; JFQ J ames F Quinlan. 40

Contents: Bower Cave Studies Part III: The vertebrate
fauna of the outer vault / Richard Earl Graham --
News and Comment / R. DeSaussure --
Reviews / A. D. Howard, Carl Smith --
From the current literature / James F. Quinlan.
Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and
Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15)
were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In
1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete
sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells
hardbound copies of the material to support its


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