Caves and karst: Research in speleology

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Caves and karst: Research in speleology
Series Title:
Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology
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Cave notes
Cave Research Associates
Cave Research Associates
Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation
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Geology ( local )
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Content: Editorial: The caves of Marble Gorge, Grand Canyon -- Proceedings -- Cave Research Meeting -- Note: The pirated spring at Stanton Cave / P. T. Reilly -- Review/ Thomas Aley -- Annotated Bibliography / James F. Quinlan. Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15) were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In 1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells hardbound copies of the material to support its activities.
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Vol. 9, no. 1 (1967)
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See Extended description for more information.

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CAVES AND KARST Research in Speleology formerly CAVE NOTES Volume 9, No.1 January / February 1967 Frontispiece. Marble Gorge of Grand Canyon (from DUTTON, 1882) 1


CAVES AND KARST CAVES AND KARST CAVES AND KARST i s a publication of Cave Research Associates. Subscriptions are available for $2.50 per year (six issues) or $6.00 for Volumes 9 through 11. Midyear subscriptions receive the earlier numbers of the volume. Correspondence, contributions, and subscriptions should be addressed to: CAVE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES, 3842 8rookdale Blvd Castro Valley California. Editor : Arthur L. Lange Associate Editor: James G. Day Editors : Neel y H B ostick, R deSaussure Copyright 1967, Cav e Research Associates EDITORIAL THE CAVES OF MARBLE GORGE, GRAND CANYON Marble Gorge, in whic h a tr ave ller on the Col o r a do Riv er first enters Gra nd Canyon, contain s a site proposed by the U.S Bur ea u of Recl a m a tion for a new hydroelectric dam Eroded through 1000 meters of Paleozoic shales a nd lime srones, this precipirous gorge constitutes the uppermost one-fifth of Grand Canyon, immediately downstream from recenrly floo d e d Glen Canyon The prop osa l ro fill most of Marble Gorge with a sro rage reservoir is of particula r co n cern ro speleologists a nd geologists f o r two reasons: First, such a d a m would con s titute a costly experiment in th e geohydro l ogy o f c ave rnous limeston e -as water, backed up b y the d a m and a dj a cent gro uted canyon walls, would seek under g round ou tlets b ar h east a nd west through so lution channels of the Redw a ll lime sro ne Second, the r ese rv oi r whe n filled, would inund a t e seve r a l dozen known caves along this segment o f the Colorado Riv er. In a Department o f the Interi or rep o rt the Red wall limestone is described by p a l eontologist R C. Mo o re (1925, p 137) as f ollows: 'Ther e a r e a few pl aces in th e seve r a l miles of lim esto n e exposure a b ove the site w h ere the Red wa ll has been a tt acked by percolating grou nd wat e rs, which h ave dissolved OUt cavities a few in c h es to seve r a l feet in wid th In a formation like the Re dwa ll the chief da n ge r o f se ri o u s l eakage is a long so l ution cha nn e l s th a t may have bee n previously formed o r a long so luti o n cav ities that may be developed a l o ng line s of weak ness in the formation However, for a con side r ab l e dis t a nce alo n g the riv e r above and a t the clam s ite the r e i s no indication of so luti o n o f the lim esto ne:' In contrast with this statement a bout solid limesrone is the description o f Marble Gorge in reports from th e 1955 Grand Canyon Expeditio n of the Weste rn Spele o l ogica l Institute ; a n ex a mple i s: "About a mile farther d ow n s tre a m, three m ore small caves were noted o n the left side at river l evel. These caves, designated Group P, were striking in th a t they demons tr ated b o th so luti o n a l o n g a vereical j oint, a n d solu tion a long th e h orizo nt a l bedding planes The total effect was n o t unli ke a tree wit h hori zo nt a l branches and prov ide d an excellent example of g r ou n d-wa t e r flow and country-roc k sol uti on." This description pr esages the scope o f th e hydrol ogic a djustment in the Redwall which would f ollow d a m construct i on, f o r a t least 32 caves h ave been described within 60 meters o f the pr esent river lev e l in the prop osed res e rvoir site The m o uths o f some of these c ave rns a re as large as 10 m e ter s in diameter. The w idespre ad perme a b i l ity o f the Red w all limestone is well known fr o m gro undwate r inve s tig a ti o n s in var i ous parrs of the Plate au. The formati o n is sufficiently c ave rn ous a nd sundered by o pen cracks and joints to 2


VOLUME 9, NO. 1 Figure 1. Dissected solution tubes in west wall of Marble Gorge, Mile 35. 7 (Photo by P T Reilly). al10w most of the water reaching the Redwal1 level [Q cominue downward through [Q the water-bearing rocks of Cambrian age. The second concern of speleologists is the flooding of Marble Gorge caves, which comprise an invalu able sciemific observa[Qry of the geologic his[Qry of Grand Canyon (see, for example, LANGE, 1955, 1956). Human pre-his[Qry, as well, would lose significam evidence located in the path of the proposed inundation. Smmon cave (Arizona State Archeological Site C: 5: 3), for insrance, which yielded the famous 4000 year old split-twig figurines (EULER AND OLSON, 1965), would be lost. In addition [Q the technical objections [Q dam construction in Marble Gorge, stated above, we must recognize the threat [Q our coumry's n atural wilderness resources which this proposed dam raises. Part of Marble Gorge which is calculated [Q be under 83 meters of water upon fil1ing of the proposed reservoir is described by one famous visi[Qr: "As a respite from the work and wetness of the rapids we had new beauties unfolded before our eyes every hour of the day The most unusual waterfall in Arizona is at Vasey s Paradise. The water comes pouring out of a 30 inch hole in the solid rock of the canyon wall ro tumble thru fern and moss into the river 125 feet below The approach ro this garden spOt is hearJded by a large cavern whose walls are tinted in soft blends of white and red and before that by a canyon known as Paradise Canyon whose ruggedness is in direct contrast to the beauties ro follow." (GOLDWATER, 1940) The proposal [Q build a dam in M arble Gorge is JUSt one element of a complex plan [Q bring more water [Q the expanding agricultural industry in Arizona and New Mexico (For a well-stated summary of both political and technical aspects of the plan see Science 152: 1 600-1605 ) The dam is intended solely [Q produce electrical power which might ultimately yield a profit [Q the Federal Government if cheaper power sources do not materialize during the next twenty years. Naturally, the d am proposal has alarmed conservationists because of the d amage [Q Grand Canyon and the t ri but ary Paria River canyon, wh ich must be dammed in order [Q prevent silting of the Marble Gorge reser voir, but hydrologists a nd economists also have critized these phases of the [Qtal water plan 3


CAVES AND KARST It is crucial that speleologists, tOO those familiar with karst hydrology and, in particular, with geological conditions in Grand Canyon bring their knowledge to ate what appear to be the shadows of a politically mOtivated tragedy of little technIC a l merit. Persons who have worked in Marble Gorge a nd made observations on its geology, hydrol ogy, and n arura l histOry whether supporring or oppos ing dam construction sho uld publish their observa ti ons, in order that an o bject ive decision may be reached using all avai l a ble a uthorit a tive inform a tion References DUTTON, C. E (1882). Terti a r y History o f the Grand Canon District. U.S. Geological Sttrve y Monograph 2, 264p (Pla t e 36). EULE R R C. and A. P. O L SON (1965). Split-twig figurines from n o rthern Arizona: new radio carb o n dates. Scienc e 148 (3668): 368-369 GOLDWATER, BARRY ( 1940). An Odyuee 0 / the Green alld Colorado R illen. (Privat ely published) LANGE A. L. ( 1955). Role of caves in dati n g Grand Canyon. Plateart 27 (3) : 1-7. LANGE A. L. (1956). Cave evolut i o n in Marble Gorge. Plateart 29 ( 1) : 12-21. MOORE, R C. (1925), Geolo gic r eport o n th e Inn er Gorge o f the Grand Canyon of C olorado Riv e r U.s. Geological Surv ey \'(later Supply Paper 556. Neely H Bostick PROCEEDINGS Secretary's note On OctOber 1 1966 the Board o f Trustees an d staff of Cave Research Associates held their a nnu a l meeting. The following officers wer e elected to serve for the yea r 1967: President: Neely H. Bostick Secretary : R deSa ussure Vice President: Thomas Aley Treasurer: W B. Marrin In a ddition three new member s h ave joined Cave Rese arch Associates : M a ry 1. Hege Heidelberg Germany Alan D H owa rd Johns Hopkins University B a ltim o re M aryla nd George W. Mo ore, U.S Geological Survey La Jolla, Calif o rnia We welcome them a nd look f orward to working with them in furrhering research in the karst scie nces. Cave Research Meeting Cave Res earch Associates will hold their Fourth Cave Rese a rch Meeting at Branson, Miss our i on M on day a nd Tue sday, August 28-29, 1967 A session o f technical p apers on k arst a nd caves will be followed by an inf or mal general discussion o f speleological matters All persons h aving a technic a l interest in the karst sciences are invited to attend. Abstr a cts of original papers to be read should be sent to the Meeting Chairman, Thomas Aley P .O. Box 61, Winona, Missouri no later that July l. Inform at ion on the meeting place and acco mmo d a tions can be obtained by writing Mr. Aley. 4


VOLUME 9 NO.1 NOTE THE PIRATED SPRING AT STANTON CAVE by P. T REILLY The Redwall limestone of Mississippi a n age forms the bed of the Color a do River for nearl y one-fifth of the 83 km length of M ar ble Gorge, a nd disseCtion of this stratum by the river has provided a n unexcelled opportunity for the study o f caves and r e l a ted solu tion features In his report on the karst phenomena of Marble Gorge, L a n ge (1956) ex plains that so luti o n channels have been conducting gro und water from th e Kaib a b Plate a u since its elevation ne ar the end of the Creta ceous p e ri o d The water flows ge nerall y n o r t h e a stw ar d, d ow ndip through the Redwall limestone channels, some of it issuing from c ave s in the west wall o f the gorge, some passing b e n eat h the river and onward under the Painted Desert Rivermen l o n g have known th a t cle ar, cold springs discharge along bOth b a nk s of the river in the Redwall exposures a nd a re independent in origin fr om th e silt-laden Color ado. These are explained as thr ough-flowi n g karst ch a nnels th at have b een inter cepted by river d ow ncutting In St anto n Cave, situated about 25m a b ove r iver level L a n ge r ecog nized a dried-up spring a nd a controlling fissure th a t continues in the op posite wall of the gorge evidently the pl ane o f weakness along which the cav e had diss o lved Evidence re ga rdin g the present day course of the Stanton C a ve w a ter is provided by a n observation of Jim Wilson Arizona Game and Fish Custodian of the nearby Buff a l o R a nch in 196 3 when the river volume through the go rge below Glen C a nyon D a m h a d been controlled to 1000ds ( 30 m / sec.) but was ver y turbid due to loc a l storms. While hikin g across the talu s below the m outh of St a nton C ave, Wilson n otice d a l a rge spOt of clear water a pproxim ately in mid -r i ver He deduced th a t this was a spring emer gi ng fr om the river bed with sufficient flow to maintain its clear-water identity despite the current of the muddy river. This chance o bservati o n lends str o n g s uppOrt to the theory that kar st waters continue to flow b enea th the Colorado River via solution cha nnels a nd enlarging caves. With clear water being released consistently in excess o f 10 000cfs ( 3 00m "/s) a t Gl e n C anyo n Dam, it is doubtful that we s h all h ave a n ot her opport unity to observe the mid-channel spring below St a nton Cave Reference LANGE ARTHUR 1. (1956). Cave evo lution in Marble G o r ge of the C o l orado River. Plateau 27 (1): 1 2-2 1. REVIEW SWEETING, M. M., G E. GROOM and V H WILLIAMS, C. D PIGOTT, D. INGLE SMITH, and G. T WARWICK (196 5). Denudation in limestone regions : a symposium. G eographica l Journal 131, Pt I : 34-57. Articles on region a l denudation in limestone regi ons h ave appeared in a number o f journ als, a nd investigators not closely involved in this subfield h av e a difficult time ke e ping abreast of the literature A symp o sium on the subjeCt is m o st useful, even th o ugh it is lim i ted to investigations of ar eas in the British Isles. Comp arisons with tropical a nd a lpine conditions would h ave been helpful although Sweeting does quote Versey's figure of 200 to 240 ppm of dissolved calcium in the waters from the White limestone in Jamaic a 5


CAVES AND KARST In her introduction to the symposium, M M Sweeting comments that the amounts of calcium dissolved in waters from limestone terrains in widely different parts of the world do not show subst a ntial variation. From this she concludes that generalizations of solution rates vs. temperature frequently h ave been far toO simple. She emphasizes that considera tion must a lso be given to the physical properties of limestones, pore space, grain size and free water capacity. I believe that thi s is a most important point. The S olu t ion of Lim estone in South \f/ ales, by Groom and Willia ms reports higher solution rates in summer than in winter These results are contrary to the theory that solutions rates are greater at lower temperatures The authors attribute the higher summer solution rates to the role of organic acids. The Stmcture of Limestol te Surface in Derbysh ire, by Piggot, uses a very interesting a pproach to th e problem of denudation Soils were investigated in the study a rea and broken into twO broad classes: those between the valleys dissecting the plateau, and those occ urring o n the floors of shallow depressions. Soils between the valleys are homogeneous through o ut almost their entire depth except for the lower 5 to lOmm overlying rock slabs. This lower zone consists of clay, small growths of chert and bipyramidal quartz crystals. He reports th a t material in this thin zone is identical to the residue left when samples of the limestone are dissolved in dilute acid. Betw ee n-v a lley soils are homogenous above the 5 to 10mm level bec a use, according to Pigott, they were subjected to frost aCtion during the last glaciation. The soil immedi ately overlying the bedrock has formed since the last glaciation; in this case, 10mm of residue is equivalent to 50cm of limestone in 10,000 years Pigott notes that the 50cm estimate for degr a dation in 10,000 years is of the same order of m ag nitude as estimates based on concentrations in runoff water. Furthermore, this esti m ate reflects a peri o d of 10,000 years and thus provides a better average of degradation through time th a n is offered by the more common calcium-concentration of water estim a tes. A more detailed article on this study seems warranted before the estim a te of the degrada tion rate will be accep ted by o thers Such a n a rticle should discuss in detail the accuracy of the estimate Some Aspe cts of Limestone Solution ilt the Bristol Region by D. Ingle Smith, dis cusses the results of a number of calcium measurements The calcium content per unit volume of water is found to be relatively constant The author notes that these findings conflict with the hypothesis th a t solution should be greater in the summer months due to a n increase in the c ar bon dioxide content of the soil atmosphere. Although the author d oes not mention it, the results also conflict with the contention that solution is greater at l ower temperatures. It will be noted that Groom and Williams in their contribution, reported that the y found higher solution rates in the summer than in the winter in South Wales. The paper by Smith stresses two very important points: first, more work is necessary to determine the effects of soil carbon dioxide on solution rates ; and second, the calcium content o f runoff waters varies considerably over a rel atively small geographical a rea. This is a good indication that differences in limestone lithology are as important in determining degradation rates as are differences in climate. I nfluent Streams of the Southern ami Centra! P ennines, by Gordon T W a rwick is the final paper of the symposium. It consists mainly of a description of a number of swallow holes in strea m beds. The paper presents a generalized treatment of the subject. Five pages of discussion follow the articles. 6 Thomas Aley Cave Research Associates


VOLUME 9, NO.1 ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY BLACKBURN, G. R. D. BOND, and A. R. P. CLARKE (1965). Soil development associated with stranded beach r idges in south east South Australia. Awtralia Commonwea lth Scielltific and In dustrial Research Orgallizatioll Soil Publ. 22, 66p. (Avail. from Div. of Soil, CSIRO, Priv. Bag No. I, G.P.O., Adelaide, So. Australia.) A review and discussio n of the development or terra rossa, karst phenomena in caliche (kunkar), and two kinds of soi l -filled "solution-pipes" that are actually types of geological organs. -JFQ BOGLI ALFRED (1965). 1m Banne del' Grossen H oble. Spectrum Vlg Stutt ga rt, 156p (Originally published in 1953). A short introduction reviews the formation of caves and history of the exploration survey of H6lloch, Switzerland, in which the author and companions were trapped by hi g h water in 1952. The remainder of the book narrates the incident and exploration and mapping. Photographs, drawings maps and a glo ssary are included. -LRG COLEMAN, ]. C. (1965). The Cave s of Irelalld T r alee (Republic of Ireland). Anvil Books, Ltd. SSp. One of the most readable and attractively produced re gional cave surveys yet published. Bibliography is comprehensive. -JFQ CORBEL, J (1965). Karsts de Yougoslavie et notes sur les karsts t cheques e t polonais. Revue Geograp hique de l'Est 5 (3) : 245-294. A comparative regional study of karst morphology, hydrology and rates of denudation as calculated from dissolved carbonate content of waters. A continuation of the author's earlier work in northern climates. JFQ F.ENELON p. (1965). Rapport quadriennal (1960-1964) de la Commission des Phenomenes Karstiques du C o mite National de Geo g raphie. Norois 12 (45): 63-75. A brief summa ry, with bibli og raphic citations, of recent Fr e nch karst and speleological research Inclu ded a r e discussions of 1 ) organizations, publications and congresses 2) general studies of karst phenomena, 3) reg ional studies of karst, and 4) littoral karsts and pseudokarsts An important guide to current French literature. -JFQ FLATHE, H. a nd D PF EIFFER (1965). Grundzii ge der Morpholo g ie, Geologie und Hydro geologie im Karstgebier Gunung SewulJava (Indonesien). Geologisches lahrbuch 83: 533-562. A thorou g h description and discussion of the origin, morphology and hydrology of the karsted Gunung mountains and adjacent coastlines in southern Java. The term sillM-kar st is proposed to describe this tropical karst characterized by sine-shaped profiles of most of th e hills ( Kegelkarst). -JFQ FRANCE. BUREAU DES RECHERCHES GEOLOGIQUES ET MINIERES (1965). Chrolliq1le d'Hj, drogeologie nO 7, 148p (Avail. for 6F from above agency, 74 Rue de la Federation, Paris XVe). A specia l issue on hydro geo l ogy of including three important revi ew papers case-studies, th eore tical discussions, and sta t istical summaries. -JFQ HYDE, 1. W. (1965). P rin cipal aquifers in Flo rida. Florida Geological Survey Map Series no. 16. (availab l e g ratis from the Survey P.O Drawer 631, Tallahassee, Fla.). Description of the hydrology of the four principal aquifers, and an indication o f where these a r e of economic importance. -JFQ JENNINGS, ]. E. (1966). Building on dolomites in the Transvaal. Civil Eng;lIeer ill Sottth A/rica (Sofah Afr;can 11Istn 0 / Cillil Engineers, TrailS.) 8 (2) : 41-62. A well-illustrated discussion of development of sinkholes by the collapse of residuum and by compaction-subsidence associated with lowering of the underground wate r l evel. The rat e of sub sidence of urban and industrial areas susceptible to c o llaps e is successfully monitored by telescopic bench marks (a pipe within a rod and both within a l a rger pipe, and all three set by concrete at different horizons). A very detailed analysis of the mechanics of sinkhole developmen t and measure s to be t aken for the protection of buildings -JFQ *Containing only technical books and articles in the karst sciences published in non-speleological journals. Contributions to this Jist, containing the complete reference citation are welcomed. 7


CAVES AND KARST KARSULIN, M (Ed.) (1961 19 6 5). Sympolium I ur leI BauxiteI OxideI et H yd r oxydeI d 'Alumillum, Zagreb, Oct 1-3, 1 963 I zdavacki zavod Jugos lavenske Akademije Znanosti i Umetnosti, Za g reb V ol. I: Origin, development, and distribution of bauxite deposits, 296p. 1964; Vol. II: Chem i cal composition and mineral og ical structure of components of bauxite 222p. 1964; Vol. III: Technology of treatment of bauxite, 167p 1965. (Out of print). Many of th e papers in these volumes concern karst-related bauxites o f Europe. Some are reviews and syntheses of the literature and ot hers are the results of original research Each of the 46 papers is published in o ne language: E nglish Slovene, German, Ru ssia n or French. An invaluable guide ro recent work on bauxites. -JFQ KOHOUT, F A ( 1965). A hyp Othes i s concerning cyclic flow of salt water related to geo th e rm al he ati ng in the Floridan a quifer. New York A cad. of ScienceI Tram. ser. 2 28 (2) : 2 4 927 I. It i s p os tul ated th at a cyclic flow of sea water is caused by geo therm a l h ea rin g in rhe 600m rhick Floridan aquifer. The upward compo n enr of convecr ive c irculari o n mixes wirh rhe fresh warer re c h a r g ed fr o m s inkh oles in the central Flo rid a karsr r egion. The dilured salr water flows seaward and discharges rhrough rhe upper parr of rhe aquifer eirher by l eakage rhr o ugh confining beds into s hall ow aqu if ers and rhence ro rhe sea o r by discharge rhrough submarine springs. -JFQ LICHTLER, W. F., and D. F. JOYNER ( I 966). Availabiliry of groun d warer in Orange C ou nty, Florida Florida Geological Survey, I Hap SerieI no. 21. (avai l ab l e g raris from rhe Survey ar P .O. Draw e r 63 1 Tallahassee, Fla. ) A descripri o n and serie s o f hydr ogeo l og i c maps of parr of rh e Floridan aquifer, m ore rhan 390 meters of extremely porous limestOne and d olomi tic limesron e An excellent presentation. -JFQ MARTIN, J. ( 1965). Quelques r y pes de depressions karstiques du M oyen Atlas central. Revue de Gcof(raphie tI" Maroc, no. 7: p. 95-106 K arst depressions (dolines, uvalas, and poljes) are clas sified into six basic rypes : I } small nivo karstic depressions, 2} collap se dolines, 3} depressions wirh impermeab l e floors, 4} basins o f valley truncatio n ( blind valleys, etc.), 5 } f a ulr-line depressions, 6} open karst depressions. Examples of each a re described a n d illu s tr ated. -JFQ NEUMANN, A. C. ( 1966). Obse rvations o n coastal erosion in Bermuda and measurements of the boring rat e o f the sponge. Cliona "nnpa. Li1l1-1I010g,' a11d Oceanography (I): 92108. Steep limestone cliffs are und ercu t as much as 4 to 5m by a flat-roofed subridal notch by bioerosi o n rem ova l o f conso lidated mineral or lirhic substrate by direct action of organisms. The many organisms involved, their ecologies, and boring rate expe riments in rhe l aboratOry a nd under natural conditions are discussed. Cliolla lampa is capable of erod in g calcarenite at a rate of more than I cm per year. 90% of the b o rin g is probably mechanical rarher rhan chemical. -JFQ NUNEZ, JIMENEZ, A., V PANOS and o. STELCL (1965) I'Ilv eltigacioneI CanologicaI ell Cuba. Academia de Ciencias de Cuba I lOp. The first o f three parrs consists of an histOrical summary of karst study in Cuba; the second re counts a conference o n planar karst of western Cuba; and rhe third describes inevsti ga tions of karst m o rphol ogy, hydrol ogy and soil erosion of a g ran ja of Matanzas -ALL R E ILLY P. T ( 1966). The sites a t Vasey's Paradise. Malterkey 40 (4) : 126-139. An hist orica l summary o f the discoveries of ar cheological sites in Marble Gorge of Grand Canyon Arizona, containing split-rwig figurines The relationship of rhese sites to other fig urine caves is examined and the placement of the figurine culture in th e pre-histOric record is atrempted REVUE BELGE DE GEOGRAPHIE (1964). Karlt et climatI froidI. 88 (102): 7-186 (published in 1965). A spec ial issue consisting of six papers on karst of alpine, per i glacial, g lacial and polar climares -JFQ Contributors : LRG, l. Goodman; ALL A. Lange; JFQ, J F Quinlan 8

Content: Editorial: The caves of Marble Gorge, Grand
Canyon --
Proceedings --
Cave Research Meeting --
Note: The pirated spring at Stanton Cave / P. T. Reilly
Review/ Thomas Aley --
Annotated Bibliography / James F. Quinlan.
Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and
Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15)
were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In
1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete
sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells
hardbound copies of the material to support its