Caves and karst: Research in speleology

Caves and karst: Research in speleology

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Caves and karst: Research in speleology
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Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology
Cave Research Associates
Cave Research Associates
Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation
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Contents: Acoustic tracking of karst streams / Arthur L. Lange -- Review: Atlas des Eaux Souterraines de la France / James F. Quinlan -- Editor's note -- From the current literature. Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15) were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In 1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells hardbound copies of the material to support its activities.
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Vol. 13, no. 2 (1971)
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0008-8625 ( ISSN )

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CAVES AND KARST Research in Speleology Volume 13. No.2 Ma,ch/Apdl 1971 Figure 1. Underground cascades, lusk Cave, Quebec. ACOUSTIC TRACKING OF KARST STREAMS By ARTHUR L. LANGE, Cave Research Associates Abstract Mapping of underground streams in karst is essential to the solving of many problems of water-supply and pollution. Some of the limitations of available methods of karsrwater tracking on the surface can be overcome by use of an acoustic system that maps the response from stream-generated sound propagated through the roof of the cave. A basic seismograph may be extended into the audio frequency range for this purpose. A test over a small alpine cave stream demonstrated that the sound of splashing water and turbulence could be detected through SOm of marble. It is concluded that turbulent streams and waterfalls at depths exceeding 100m should be mappable on the surface, thus providing a means of tracking karsrwarers upstream from springs and downstream from swallets, as well as between established sources and sinks. 9


CAVES AND KARST Introduction Increasing concern over conraminarion of water supplies and the growing demand for pure water call for improved methods of locating and tracing underground. water. In the United States, much attention has been given to the tracing of groundwater through granular media of primary porosity, such as sandstone and alluvium, wherein flow occurs predominantly through pore spaces between grains. Less regard has been directed toward the movement of water through the discrete underground channels of secondary porosity that prevail extensively in karst and lava terranes, and to a lesser degree in other geological environments.' In karsdands (terrane of relatively soluble rock, such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum), groundwater travels predominantly through conduits dissolved along partings and fractures. These underground channels, singly or as networks, make up pres M sure channels, subterranean ponds, and gravity streams, which-when they can be entered by man-we caU caves. Little or no filtration is possible in such channels; hence, underground streams passing beneath sources of contamination, 'or mingling with polluted streams, can transport contaminants great distances underground, penetrating the divides of surface watersheds and crossing beneath normal surface streams." This paper outlines a method for mapping typical underground streams, proceeding both downstream from a swallet, or sink, and upstream from a spring, using passive seismic, or acoustic, instruments operated on the surface. The instruments detect and measure the seismic noise generated by the stream in its subterranean course. Nature of karst streams Karst streams, amenable to passive seismic tracking, begin their underground course in the following ways: 1) A surface stream disappears into a swallet-either open or filled with detntus; 2) Precipitation and snowmelt funnel into underground openings through sinkholes and open fractures in exposed soluble rock; 3) Tributary solution channels colleer water percolating through overlying mantle or granular rocks; 4) A groundwater reservoir, occupying either dissolved chambers or adjacent granular rock, overflows or leaks into a unified solution channel. The coherent underground stream may completely fill its conduit, forming a pressure channel, or it may flow as a free-surface gravity stream, possessing quiet laminar segments, falls and rapids. Where passage dimensions do not accommodate the gravity stream, it impends, forming an inverted "siphon," beyond which the passage is entirely submerged until the conduit again widens to permit the stream to flow freely. In its netherworld course, the stream may ramify where it intercepts a branchwork of solution openings, so that a reticulated stream system results. This condition is occasionally seen near the discharge of the system, where springs emerge at many points. Underground streams terminate in the following ways: 1) The stream issues as a gravity spring from an orifice-c-eirher open or partially blocked by detritus; 2) The water wells up from a submerged opening, forming a pond, sub-river or submarine spring; 3) The stream imponds to form a quiet subterranean reservoir, or is absorbed into an underlying granular medium. Very frequently, the inlet and outlet of the underground system are discovered ro lie on or very near the contacts of the soluble rock with the surrounding non-soluble terrain, I Martel (1921; Chapters 2, 14, 16-18) discusses in detail the important role that fissures play in providing the loci for excavation of subterranean conduits by solution and corresicn in different lithologies and structures. 2 The literature on karstweter contains many examples that demonstrate the independence of karst streams and topography. Bretz (1942: 770) discusses several experiments made around Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. Crouch (1929) describes the tracing of Sinking Creek, Tennessee to its outlet. White and Schmidt (1966) mapped the underground drainage of a karst area of West Virginia, finding it to be directed toward the major base-levelling stream of the region, rather than along surface valleys. lange (1958) and de Saussure discovered that the stream within Model Cave, Nevada passes underneath and at right angles to a surface canyon. Recently, T. Aley (personal communication, 1968) reports that dye placed in a swallet of the Hurricane Creek watershed, Missouri reappeared 27.4km distant in Big Spring, in the adjacent Current River watershed. 10


VOLUME 13, NO.2 Available tracking methods Heretofore, impassable karstwater systems have been traced in 3 basic ways: 1) deducing the subterranean course from geologic structure and landscape patterns of the surface; 2) correlating springs with upstream swallers using various tracers and stream properties; and 3) tracking the stream course using geophysical techniques to detect the water or cavities. Passive seismic tracking falls into the third category. Whenever possible, geologic deduction, both from aerial photographs and ground reconnaissance, should be a part of every water-tracking program in karst. The relationships that lithology, fracture patterns, contacts, aligned sinkholes, blind valleys and karren fields bear to the underlying drainage cannot be overstressed. Correlation methods, however, can be applied only where two or more points of a stream are accessible, and help to derermine which swallers feed a particular spring or which spring represents discharge from a particular swaller. They generally fail to provide, by themselves, deductions on the intervening stream paths. Geophysical methods applied to the detection of underground voids all "require the presence of substantial cavities lying near the surface. Gravity, seismic and magnetic procedures have been used with success to detect limestone and lava caves, but with little or no discrimination betweendry caverns and those containing water. Because water containing dissolved solids (and salted Streams) forms a partial electrolyte, greater success in following water conduits has been realized by electrical prospecting methods. These, however, can be expensive and time-consuming, and the results often ambiguous. The acoustic method, outlined below, promises to minimize these deficiencies, so that it can be applied as a reconnaissance as well as a survey tool. Background Work on splashes as sources of sound in liquid (FRANZ, 1959) showed that the main sources of underwater sounds from a splash are impact of the falling water on a water surface and volume pulsations of dosed bubbles of air entrained by the splash. For low velocity impacts, characteristic of small Cataracts or waterfalls, the bubble pulsations are the most important source of underwater sound. Work on generation of acoustic noise in air by waterfalls has led to the conclusion that acoustic noise in air is also generated by pulsating bubbles in the water (ARABADZHI, 1967). Such pulsating bubbles are expected to be the most important source of seismic signals from small cataracts or cascades in underground streams when channels are not completely filled. This mechanism of signal generation leads to a broadband frequency spectrum, since the bubbles produced have an extensive size distribution. The peak of the spectrum of the seismic signal from a small stream is expected to fall at about 1KHz near the stream. In studies on nearly 20 surface waterfalls in Iceland, Alaska and continental U.S., Rinehart (1969) found a continuous earth vibration having a predominant frequency inversely proportional to the height of the falls. Multiple level falls, thus display more than one characteristic frequency; while falls over broken ledges and ramps produce high background noise with no characteristic predominant frequency. He concludes that the earth vibration results from water impinging against the base of the fall, and that the entire water column may be resonating in the quarter wavelength mode. Eddies forming during the descent contribute to the earth motion as they hit. Rinehart (1968) has also investigated the seismic signatures of geyser activity, and Clacy (1968) has used the ground noise generated by thermal waters and underground steam to locate geothermal steam fields. Using sensitive seismographs (up to 10 million gain) in monitoring micrcearthquakes, I noted that even a small surface rivulet within SOm of a seismometer could add measurably to background noise; hence, I suspected that even small underground streams should be detectable at the surface with similar equipment. De Martini (1954) suggests a similar method to trace the Timavo River of Trieste in its subterranean course and describes a geophone system which he constructed, but I have no information on whether a survey was carried out. Brown (1970: 36) cites Baird (1966) as suggesting that acoustical 11


CAVES AND KARST frequency geophones might detect the sound of water running underground, and considered their possible application in tracking the subterranean course of the Maligne River in Jasper National Park, Alberta. How far might stream noise propagate into the rock walls of a cave? A review of the literature and experimental data on attenuation of seismic waves in rocks (BRADLEY & FORT, 1966) shows that the specific dissipation constant is essentially independent of frequency; that is, the percentage of energy lost by a wave travelling through rock is nearly constant per stress cycle. Attenuation in clB/m would therefore be directly proportional to frequency of the seismic wave. This selective attenuation of higher seismic frequencies would move the peak of the surface signal from a subsurface stream toward lower uequencies. However, from the results of Bradley and Fort (ibid) and work done at Stanford Research Institute for the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Contract No. AF49 (638) -1486), the attenuation of seismic waves at 1KHz through uniform limestone is expected to be less than 50% over a propogation distance of 100m (D. R. GRINE, personal communication). The peak of the power spectrum of the signal from a subsurface stream may, therefore, still be in the low kHz region. Thus the optimum system for karstwater tracking should accommodate frequencies extending well into the audio range. One might frequency-modulate very low frequencies and heterodyne very high frequencies to bring them into the audible range, if they prove to be significant. Paired sensors yielding binaural signals would aid greatly in resolving noise sources and tracking them. Testing of the method An instrument system developed for the purpose of tracking 'karst water should be tested initially over mapped cave systems of variable depth but nearly linear plan. Measurements should be made at different times of year to determine the effects of Bow volume. Traverses should be made normal to the cave axis at intervals along it and notes made on changes in lithology and the presence of mantle over the rock, so that local anomalies in signal response might be accounted f01". The ground surface should be reasonably level, and unwanted ground noise from wind, swaying trees, animals, traffic, people walking, surface streams, etc. must be minimized; hence in some areas, the work may have to be conducted during the night when the air is still. Magnetic recordings at different sites under different flow conditions should be made in order to determine the spectral content of the signal. Preliminary results A very simple system composed of a geophone, seismic amplifier, battery, output meter and headset was assembled for preliminary tests. The geophene, or seismometer, was a Geospace Model HS-1, having a frequency response from about 4Hz up to several hundred; the amplifier was a Dresser Electronics SIE Model TGA~2 powered by a 24V dry cell. Relative sound levels only were recorded from the meter readings. California is not prolific in stream caves and those that do occcr lie at higher elevations removed from roads. One of the few ideal karst streams in the state-Twin Lakes Cave, Fresno Couney-was found to be completely dry when visited in September 1968. During the period when the instrumentation was available, I was able to visit only one active karst system, that of the White Chief Caves, Tulare County, at an altitude of 3000m, near timber line in the Sierra Nevada. The uppermost cave drains a cirque containing snowmelt, so that in early summer a large volume of water passes through the system. By the time of the test (5 August 1968) the flow had dwindled to about 5 liters/sec. Beneath the traverse the stream falls about one meter in 20. One can wade upright through the upper portion of the cave; and in fact, persons could be heard walking and talking in the cave, by means of the monitoring system on the surface, although 7m minimum of marble intervened. Persons were excluded from the cave during the test. The very limited results of the test are depicted in Figure 2. Measurements. were made by placing the .seismomerer directly on the marble of the surface; hence, exposed 12


VOLUME 13, NO.2 i~ 4 <) 80 120 meters v rms 4 .-. '. ---.....'<, '.~.--._------2 o EAST Figure 2. Relative acoustic response in RMS volts, measured along the surface normal to the axis of the stream in White Chief Cave. The stream lies 7m below the first recording station. Conclusions The above very sketchy results of an improvised karsrwater tracking system show that at least a two-fold increase of signal strength can be read through 7m of marble covering a rather small cave stream. The sound of the water produced a measureable signal at a slant distance of about 50m. The results suggest that larger streams can be detected at depths of 100m or more, and underground waterfalls even deeper. The indications are that a well designed portable monitoring system would serve admirably in mapping karst streams Howing within a depth range pertinent to most exploration projects and to problems of water-supply and contamination. Acknowledgements I am indebted to Donald R. Grine, Stanford Research Institute for supplying the background information on sources of sound in liquids and seismic wave attenuation in rocks, and to the Institute for loaning the instruments used in the resr. I thank also Neely H. Bostick, Illinois Geological Survey, for his assistance in carrying out the test. References ARABADZHI, V. J. (1967). On the noise of waterfalls. Soviet Physics/Acoustics 13: 102-103. BAIRD, D. M. (1966). Jasper National Park-Behind the mountains and Bladers. Canada, Geological SU1'Vey, Repo1't 6, 184p. BRADLEY, J. J. & A. N. FORT, Jr. (1966). Internal friction in rocks. Section 8 in CLARK, S. P. Jr. (Ed.). Handbook of physical constants. Geological Society of America, Memoir 97. BRETZ, J. H. (1942). Vadose and phreatic features of limestone caverns. Journal of Geology so: 675-811. BROWN, M. c. (1970). Karst Geom01'phology and Hydrology of the Lower Maligne Basin, Jasper, Alberta. Doctoral Dissertation, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario. 141p. CLACY, G. R. T. (1968). Georhermal ground noise, amplitude and frequency spectra in the New Zealand volcanic region. Jouwal of Geophysical Research '73: 5377-5383. CROUCH, A. W. (1929). Underground flows traced by dye. Water-Works Engineering 81; 27l. DE MARTINI (1954). Sanda geofonometrica per richerche eli idrografia sotterranea. VI Coneresso Nazionai.e di Speleologia, Atti: 292.293. Trieste. FRANZ G.]. (1959). Splashes as sources of sound in liquids. Acoustical Society of America, Journal 31, 1080-1096. LANGE, A. 1. (1958). Stream piracy and cave development along Baker Creek, Nevada. Western Speleological Im&itute, Bulletin 1, 20p. MARTEL, E. (1921). Nouveau Traite des Eassx Souterraines. Librairie OCtave Doin, Paris. 838p. 13


CAVES AND KARST RINEHART, J. S. (1968). Seismic signatures of some Icelandic geysers. Journal of GeophYJicat R(jsearch 73: 4609-4614. RINEHART, j, S. (1969). Waterfallgenerated earth vibrations. Science 164 (1887): 1413-1415, cover. WHITE, W. B. & V. A. SCHMIDT (1966). Hydrology of a karst area ill east-central West Virginia. Water Resource! Research 2: 549-560. REVIEW ./ \" \ / DELEGATION A L'AMENAGEMENT DU TERRITOIRE ET A L'ACTION REGIONALE and BUREAU DE RECHERCHES GEOLOGIQUES ET MINIERES (970), Atlas des Eaux Souterraines de la France. Editions B.R.G.M., Paris. 360 p., 152 maps and sections (Available for $40.00 from: Department Documentation, B.R.G.M., B.P. 818, 45-0rleans-La Source, France.) It is difficult to review this atlas in terms that are less than enthusiastic, and it is not possible to find any significant fault in it. Briefly stated, it is a comprehensive review of the hydrogeology and subsurface geology of 21 regions each of which is described by numerous maps (various types of colored hydrogeologic maps and karst maps), simplified cross sections, and index maps not only to published works, but also to unpublished theses, works in preparation> and reports in the files of various agencies. The compilation is clear, concise, comprehensive, and cartographicaUy artistic. Although the ground water resources ,0£ Florida and of parts of several other American States have been inventoried to the same degree of detail, no State or Federal agency has published a hydrologic atlas or other synthesis nearly as comprehensive for an area larger than one or two counties. The French are to be congratulated. They have set a worthy standard of excellence for others to meet. The only desirable feature that I found missing from this atlas are maps showing structural contours, and maps or cross-sections showing hydrochemical facies of groundwater bodies. However, the published and unpublished sources of such data, when available, ate indexed on regional maps. The atlas is a fundamental reference to the karst areas of France and their hydrology, but it is also an insranr and unique guide to the country's geologic, hydrologic, and structural literature. Unfortunately the high COSt of the book will tend to restrict its purchase to reference libraries-where it is much needed-and will prevent its acquisition by many students and researchers. James F. Quinlan Cave Research Associates, Cave Research Foundation Editor's Note Photographs on various aspects of karst, caves and speleology are needed from time to time to accompany articles in Caves and Karst. Glossy, high-contrast, black and white prints are desired. Readers are invited to contribute examples, which will be placed in a file from which material will be drawn for publication as needed. Full identification (cave, persons, species, erc.), credit line, and a photo reference 'number should be sent. Conrributors are free to publish the photographs elsewhere after they appear in Caves and Karst. Drawings, designs and other art work appropriate to the publication also will be very much welcome. Full credit will be given. Contributors will receive 5 complimentary copies of the issue containing their illustrations. 14


VOLUME 13, NO.2 FROM THE CURRENT LITERATURE Edited by JAMES F. QUINLAN COMITE NATIONAL DE GEOGRAPHlE, COMMISSION DES PHENOMENES KARSTIQUES (l970). J-ctes de la Reunion Inremarionale Karstologie en Languedoc-Provence, 1968. Med~ terranes, Etudes et Travaux. 7: 1-250. (Available for $8.35 from: Edmund Taylor, 139 Maln Entrance Drive, Pittsburgh, PA 15228). A collection of 21 papers on karsts in southeastern France, Yugoslavia, England, Ireland, Morocco, Greece, and central Kentucky. -]FQ DE BELLARD PIETRI, EUGENIO (1970). Atlas Bspeleologico de Venezaels. Biblioreca de la Academia de Cieodes Fisicas, Maeernaricas y Naturales, Caracas. 157p. A total of 989 known caves are listed, briefly described, and located on various index maps. A series of indexes listing caves according to their most important characteristics are keyed to the text. Well-illustrated with photographs, but no cave maps arc provided. -JFQ DE BLOCK, GUY, & J. P. FONTAINE (1968). Bibliographie Splileologue Beige: Editions SpeUologiqt~es Belges, 19071964. Equipe Speleo de Bruxelles, Brussels. 80p. (Available for $3.20 from the publisher at: 1 avo du Daring, Bruxelles 8.) A very useful bibliography of more than 700 publications. It is arranged by subject and crossindexed by author. Included is a brief history of the national caving organization that published this bibliography. -JFQ FARYOLDEN, R. N. & J. P. NUNAN (1970). Hydrogeologic aspects of dewatering at WeIland. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 7 (2): 194204. This and a companion paper by Prind (Theoretical analysis of aquifer-response due to dewarering at Weiland, ibid, p. 205-216) analyze the regional groundwater flow induced by pumping of gently dipping Silurian dolomites in an 800km~ area on the Niagara Peninsula. The aquifer consists of a 0.6 to Bm fractured zone. of variably permeable dolomite which is overlain by sand and day having a perched water table and underlain by relatively impermeable dolomite. The usual assumptions made for analysis of leaky aquifers with the widely used graphical procedures developed by Walton (1962) can not be made and a new mathematical model is developed and tested with reasonable success. The model developed by computer simulation can be easily refined by real data obtained after the onset of pumping. JFQ FENELON, PAUL, Ed. (1968). Phenomenes karsdques. Centre de Recherches et Documentation Cartographiqus} et Geographiques, Memoirs! st Doc#ments 1967, n.s. 4: 1-369. (Available for $22.00 from: Editions du CN.R.S., 15 Quai Anatole-France, Paris Vll.) A collection of 11 papers on various topics. Seven are regional studies on karsts in France, Italy, Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, Cyprus, Morocco, Mexico, Guatemala, Barbados, Jamaica, lind Puerto Rico. Three of the non-regional papers are of great interest and these have a broader applicability: Vocabulaire frllncais des Phenomenes Karstiques, jointly compiled by members of the Commission des Phenomenes karstiques p. 13-68; Introduction a une Ugende pot~r cartes a grande echellc des phenomenes kars#ques, by P. Fenelon, p. 69-72; and Cbemie des carbona'es et hydrogeologie kantiquu, by H. Rcqees, p. 113141. --]FQ GOlUBIC, S'rJEPKO (1967). Algenvegetation der Felsen. Vie BimJerlgewiissfJr 23: 1-183. (Available for $14.50 from: Fr. Maagold'scbe Buchhandlung, Karlsstrasse 6, 7902 Blaubeuren, West Germany.) A comprehensive ecological and vegetational study of algae in microecological zones on limestone in the Dinaric karst of Yugoslavia. The algae occur in streams (where they contribute to the development of travertines), in kamenitzas, on cave entrance walls and speleothems, and along the shores of the Adriatic Sea. JFQ HATHEWAY, AUENW. & ALIKA K. HERRING (1970). Bandera lava tubes of New Mexico, and lunar implications. Arizona University, Commur-icationr of the LU1Wl1' and Planetary Laboratory, No. 152, (4) 299327. Eight lava. tube systems in alkalai and high alumina basalts near Grants, the largest of which is 28.6km long, are described and interpreted. The gradients of such tubes. their ellipticity, and the cumulative area of collapse depressions over the tubes shows surprisingly regular changes with increasing distance from the lava source. The collapse of the tube roofs to form depressions is believed to have begun almost immediately after tube formation. The tubes may be either straight or sinuous and they appear to be genetically similar to sinuous rilles on the. lunar surface. JFQ ROUST, NORMAN 1., &c. W. CLEWLOW, JR. (1968). Projectile points from Hidden Cave (NY Ch-16), Churchill COunty, Nevada. CaJifornia Unwmit"j Archaeotogical Repon 71: 103,115. A description of the geology and stratigraphy of the cave deposit is given and correlated with various stages of the Lake Lahontan fluctuation and deposition. A sequence of chipped stone projectile-point types, recovered during excavation in 1951, ate described in relation to the stratigraphic history. -LAP 15


CAVES AND KARST STANTON, W. 1. (1969). Pioneer under the Mendips: Herbert Ernest Balch ~f Wells-a short biography. Wmex CtJV6 Club, Occasional Publication, Ser. 1, 1: 1-123. {Available for $1.50 from: Wessex Cave Club, T. E. Reynolds, Yew Court, Pangbourne, Berks, Bngland.) H. E. Balch [1869-1958J was the first to systematically explore caves of theMendlps. The stirring accounts in his books and other pcblicancns inspired many to explore the caves and continue his archeological and geological investigations. A bibliography of his publications is included. -JFQ SONDEREGGER, JOHN 1. (1970). Hydrology of limestone terranes-Photogeologk investigations. Alabama Geological Survey, ,Bulletin 94C: 1-26. (Available for $1.00 from the Survey at: P.O. Drawer 0, University, Alabama.) A verification and extension of Lanman's and Parizek's work in the Appalachians of Pennsylvania Unl. of Hydrology 2: 7391, 1964], which uses fracture traces to locate water wells. Wells located on fracture traces have an, average yield of about 10 times more than those located randomly. The use of color and infrared photos increased interpreter confidence in tonal lineations, but they were not superior to panchromatic prints Ior locating well sites. -]FQ SUNDERMAN, JACK A. (1968). Geology and mineral resources of Washington County. Indiana. tndiana Geological Survey, Bf.lleti-r. 39; 190. (Available for $3.00 from the Survey, at 611 North Walnut Grove.Bloomington, Indiana 47401.) A description of the geology of a major karst area in Mississippian rocks. JFQ van ~1]NGA.ARDEN A. (1968). De natuurlijke luchtcirculatie in ondergrondse kalksteengroeven in Zuid-Limburg. Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 17: 5-14. (English summary p. 14.) The ideas of jeennel (1926} on air circulation in caves are not applicable to the circulation in the underground limestone mines near Maastricht. The reasons why and the results of experiments are given. Hibernating bats show a strong preference for areas where water vapor condenses to form a "mist-zone"; this zone can be made larger by hanging strips of plastic from the ceiling. Experience has proved that if entrances must be closed they should be dosed with a grill rather than a wall or gate that significantly changes the aircirculation. -JFQ WATSON, PATTY J0 (1969). The prehistory of Salt's Cave Kentucky. Illuzo;s State Museum, Reports of Investigation 16: 1-86. A well-illustrated comprehensive preliminary monograph on the anthropology of a part of the Flint Ridge Cave System. It was visited by Pre-Columbian indians for a 700 to 800yr period beginning about 1200 B.C. The Indians mined gypsum, epsomire, and mirabilire in the cave and traveled kilometers from the entrance in quest of these minerals. -JFQ WHITE, WILLIAM A. (19702. The geomorphology of the Florida Peninsula. Florida Bu.,.oau of Geology, Geological Bulletin 51: 1164. (Available for $1.00 from the Bureau at P.O. Drawer 631, Tallahassee, Florida 32302). A comprehensive regional monograph which emphasizes description and speculation and is unfortunately marred by more than 100 typographical errors. Quite curiously, White totally ignores all of the post-l%O contributions to the understanding of the geomorphology as related to the surface and ground-water hydrology' as .incerpreted not only by Back, Hanshaw, Stringfield and others. but also the more than 40 pertinent publications issued by the Bureau itself. In addition there is no significant discussion of the profound impact of man on the geomorphology of Florida. Unless one has an intimate familiarity with the stratigraphy, Pleistocene and Holocene geologic history, geography, and physiography of peninsular Florida, it is difficult, if nor impossible, to follow this as a coherent exposition. An index and better maps are essential, but lacking. There is much information and many interesting ideas here, but the reader will have to work to find them. JFQ WHITE, WILLIAM B. (1969). Conceptual models for carbonate aquifers. Ground WalS1' 7 (3): 15-21. The very diverse types of ground-water behavior in carbonate terrains can be classified by relating the Bow type to a particular hydrogeologic environment, each exhibiting a characteristic cave morphology. Although. one ~a~ fault s~me minor logical contradictions in the proposed classification, the models are valid. This IS a very unporrant contribution to the understanding of carbonate aquifers. -JFQ WIGLEY, THOMAS M. L. (1971). Ion pairing and water quality measurements. Canadian JOf.mal of Earth Sciences 8 (4): 468-476 . ~os~ investigators. of the chemical composition of karst waters have ignored the effect of ionpamng 10 waters haymg. a moderate-to-high sulfate content. Allowance for ion-pairing reduces the value of t~e sam.ratlon index; .that appear co be supersaturated really may be undersaturated. Revised esumares of the equifibrium constants for gypsum and dolomite for various temperatures are presented. An important paper. -JFQ Contributors: LAP, louis A. Payen; JFQ, James F. Quinlan. 16


, "7\ ~ -.J"\. I 'if' \ <: ,~' y.' I j _/ I _&, I \ \_., 'I;! I,": ,i ,\ ~ ) ~ ~~),.... 'If ," 1% 'i 1 \ ,1 X f ~. \ \ "\ I 7,",' I \ 'I --. {. ~~JStJbution~,1 ,t:A vss A~ KAk:ST (rejlCh~S an I:udie~cei cOqlp6sea l~ipersot;lS ~, ) I havihg a technlC1l ih~erest iJ.O caves and karst. Ie is receiv~d by( theAriajbr libraries in the ( ,Unit1!d states and/abroad, andfon ,excbange by speleologiCal ocgahlza1:ioas arounWa the Id \. .,~, I ,!! ""..' WOt:;\'\) h} \ fZ I I ~ \ r ,., \ Policy,', I Manuscript s~~itted to the ed.it0cS may be sent to other/persons for review, but ,i'. 'i I ,'I' fihal'qebslods\oti p~j)llcat1(~b remain I tun ,thE! edito,.s; A\lthors v;;,lll ~e mailed galley ~ v, '~ I r proofs Ipf errides, abstracts, di~sion, ~e,views, "a,~d ~aitorials, /bu,t not pf d~~ ootes ( I and annotatedbibliography unless' spe~ifically ~eqiiested. ThoX>re;ditors reserve the right ) "M ~t~, r~taI~ 1 accellted .'?1,a.~USet1r~ ~n(i illu'straMbnslunless a~,ee~e.qf is ~ad~ for 't~eir I re-"'! turn pIlor to publIcation., \( ,_ "" \ i "f { ,! ,r;6r.'/t' (, ., \ <\.-;1./,\, d'ed R~1J""tJ. ,\6!'en author-s copIes are supplIed gratiS to authors ,o£:arttdes, reviews a,n \ It"! 'torials",AClattional auti;lor;s copies are aval)able at 'cost, if ,ordex:ed pupr to printing r (al'jjr~xim1tely 1$10,00/10(1)" Ordor blan,s w,)l B'i,rsenCiwith tbegalley 1',001(, ( '" M"tmmcript: The authobs~o;:dd addr~ss himself to a/profe~si'onal audience rfpresebtitl.g r different branches ofl the c3;v:e JClehces Highly tedlOlcal ~rticles shoula-co\Jtain at least a l Vi ,I~, '/; fp.irly readable ~ntrl'>dudibn ana 'SurAihary. '\l;'ltieA should be c;oncIs~ anq d~finltlYe 'bf tli'e ( .I \; conteqts. Sul)h~adings 'at~ desir~ble ip: aopk~r Ipapers. Scientific ,ames ~Quld be ~arifiel:1 I, ,'\'-. \~, \ r 1'<', I by::their;,n oa~es ~wJJ.e!). f{~~, qt~d;, if ?on,e" tQ~n a v~r,n'icul~r eq~j~alent'.of, tPt ~ \"I f ",' ,Il,..j "d "8'0'0'33,'1 ,'* ',," "~I "(" ~ ~ \t:\ I I" '<0 ra 0 .,-' \.. ,. I \ .1" 1 (, ,"; ,t \ _~ ;1 r:': i I ,f, I AIt~U! CLa9ge., ;, ,\ 1 ,-' .~, ~ _;..-> ~, 'J ,..I { 'r 1\ (r\ IIf Edlmr 1/ .,:\;-,'.<'". rl "...;, A('1' ~T ')'" ""\ '.I::-~;) ,,r, 'I' j \ I .\~ \' 1,"-~ -Il! 1 11 ':iI'" ( J.~, ) I ) I, J \ ) j', ,\ 'r" / I '(',;-' -r\ ...,' ,J l-' r / 1 ~ 1" .. ~ :>i'i I .,' 1 i11 ), );' I

Contents: Acoustic tracking of karst streams / Arthur L.
Lange --
Review: Atlas des Eaux Souterraines de la France /
James F. Quinlan --
Editor's note --
From the current literature.
Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and
Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15)
were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In
1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete
sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells
hardbound copies of the material to support its


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