Caves and karst: Research in speleology

Caves and karst: Research in speleology

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Caves and karst: Research in speleology
Series Title:
Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology
Cave Research Associates
Cave Research Associates
Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation
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Geology ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )


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Contents: A new calcite structure from Thorn Mountain Cave, West Virginia / Paul L. Broughton -- Review: Classics in speleology,, edited by Richard A. Watson / Arthur L. Lange -- From the world of speleology -- From the current literature. Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15) were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In 1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells hardbound copies of the material to support its activities.
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Original Location:
Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation Collection
Original Version:
Vol. 14, no. 1 (1972)
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See Extended description for more information.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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K26-01035 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.1035 ( USFLDC Handle )
13300 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0008-8625 ( ISSN )

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CAVES.AND KARST Research in, Speleology NO!lIme 14, Number 1 ,PA tJL t: BROUGHTON: A new CIllGite Structure from Thorn Mountairi Cave, West Virginia : ,. I, AR THOR L. LANGE: Review, Classics in Speleolo~, Edited by Richard A. Watson , ,'.' ; ,' 4 .' 7 From the ~orld of Speleology ; .. ,: .. From the Current Literature , r: 8 Publication ofCA VE RESEARCH ASSOCIAT;ES


" 1 j .''1 .. I,' ,I 'I" " ',~VE RESEARCH ASSGl<:;I~TES '.,', Cave Resew;cll Assodates'ia a non .l?.ro~(~ientific and eduq.nonal institution IncorpoIa\e,J. in 19,9 t6 further ,~e' $cudX, and, pr"ervodqp ot naturar caves. Research p~bjeCts and publicacions of t~e 'organization' are, supported p,,rimarilY' P.y private I COAtributiOIlS ~11 such cont~iQutions are tax-deductible. '. ;. ..' f' "" M:emb~l'.ship, in Cav~ Reseafcb' Associates ls oped to'l?ersoh~, o~ ,ali' I1Il/!ons who derpoostl'ite 'a parti0Jlnr interest and ba

CA YES AND KARST Research in Speleology Volume 14, No. January/February 1972 Figure 1. Concentration of calcite crystals with globularite tips. Crystals average 2.5 to 4cm in length, with sphervltte bodies 6mm in diameter (Author photo). A NEW CALCITE STRUCTURE FROM THORN MOUNTAIN CAVE, WEST VIRGINIA By PAUL 1. BR~UGHTON Abstract A single side passage in Thorn Mountain Cave, West Virginia, contains several thousand calcite crystals projecting from the wall. Each scalenohedron's terminal face is characterized by a spherulitic form of radiating micro-faceted calcite fibers with concentric growth layers. Comments on the crystal growth habit and its relationship to trace-element chemistry and unit cell parameters are presented. An apparently new calcite crystal speleothem occurs in Thorn Mountain Cave, Pendleton County, West Virginia. The calcite crystals have the basic shape of an elongated scalenohedron and are characterized by spherulitic forms on the termirial faces. Literally thousands of these crystals project from one wall in the cave (Figure 1). They are limited to a single side passage, and cover an area approximately 10m long and 3m high. Approximately half of these crystals are represented by a globular form attached to them. In thin section the spherulitic calcite consists of radiating micro-faceted fibers, which are continuous from the nucleus at the main crystal face outward to the spherulitic surface (Figures 2 and 3). Microscopic facets terminate each fiber crystal, characterizing the globular body surface with an etched texture. Twenty of the globularite forms were examined in thin section, and all were observed to ,have a cave-pearl-like structure of con*Department of Mineral Resources, Regina, Saskatchewan


CA VES AND KARST Ca Mg Sr Mn Insoluble Residue 37.8 0.089 0.0081 0.0013 1.1 33.2 0.184 0.0095 0.0015 0.65 38.8 0.092 0.021 0.4 39.0 0.150 0.012 0.0016 0.1 A B C D A: \Vhite powdery film coating on main crystal B: Spberulire C: Acicular crystals on the surface of the main crystal D: Main crystal Table 1. Chemical analyses of the calcite speleothem (percentage by weight) centrically layered color bands. Brown, yellow, cream, white and clear are the dominant colors. Up to 37 and as few as 3 layers have been observed. Nevertheless, their genesis i.s distinctly different from that of a cave pearl. Cave pearls are formed by calcite deposition around a moving nucleus kept in motion by water agitation. These speleothems are similar to cave coral in that they are not free to move. The color bands represent differing geo chemical conditions of the surrounding cave water during the growth stages. Some layers are a deep brown from high iron-oxide concentrations. Several observations follow. The calcite composition of the main crystal and its spheruliric attached body was confirmed by optical and X-ray examination. No trace of aragonite was found. In about 80% of the crystals, a thin film of powdery white calcite covers an irregular margin of the main crystal surface below the globular body. The spherulire is always a complete solid; i.e. it is ncr an aggregate of radiating acicular crystals with a degree of air space between the facets. The near parallel fibers of the spherulite have completely filled the available voids. The main crystals grow essentially horizontally outward from the vertical wall, almost never reaching a stalactiric vertical orientation. A few smaller acicular crystals sometimes grow outward from the main crystal surface. The globular body invariably forms around the tip of the main crystal, and not on its side faces. There is usually one globular body per crystal. Sometimes, when two or more main crystals are twinned such that their terminal facets are adjacent, several of the globular forms merge. The main crystals average between 2 and Scm in length and 4 and 5mm in maximum width. The globular forms vary considerably in size, but are usually about 6mm in diameter. Figure 2. Thin section of main crystal and spherulite, 2cm long. 2


VOLUME 14, NO.1 Figure 3. Thin section of globular body, O.Scm in diameter. A chemical analysis of the crystals was performed using atomic absorption spectrometry (Table 1). The calcite of the main crystal and the spherulite was X-rayed by means of a Norelco diffractometer using a spinel internal standard. A least-squares refinement of of the unit cell parameters is given in Table 2. The differences in the parameters may not be significant in terms of correlating a trace element composition. However, the slightly smaller cell volume of the spherulite may reflect a correlation with its fibrous habit, and be dependent upon a greater percentage of soluble ions in the lattice, and/or upon insoluble impurities (see Table 1). Atomic positions in the lattices have not been refined in order to determine which, if either, of the above mechanisms is influential. However, the higher percentage of soluble ions in the spherulire may induce a surface growth dislocation mechanism peculiar to the calcite terminal faces. The main crystals and spherulites are usually coated with a water film, and, considering the micro-faceted nature of the spherulice, surface tension is interpreted to be a possibly significant genesis mechanism. The environment of spherulite genesis is believed to have been completely subaeriaL The formations are currently alive, although no specific growth changes have been observed during the last five years. The water is apparently seeping from the wall. There are no overhead ceiling drips or splash effects, and the overall cave passage is relatively dry. Although no one genesis theory is recognized as being satisfactory for all cave coral and other globular calcite and aragonite speleothems, the physical and chemical parameters herein presented do have a qualitative (as of yet undefined) control on the overall crystal habit morphology. Obvious changes in the calcite growth habit in this new speleothem may be generated from one or more factors, in particular the influence of trace ions on dislocations in the lattice. This change may be significant enough to be causative for cell volume changes herein noted. Secondly influences of charge balances between the terminal scalenohedron faces and the excess of trace ions in the globularite may be important for the apparent localization of the globular body only at these sites. Such a growth, once started, would be facilitated by physical factors such as surface tension and orientation of the main crystal. a (A') c (A ') Spherulire 4.9777 17.0892 Main Crystal 5.0007 17.0894 Table 2. Unit cell parameters of the calcite (hexagonal) 3


CA VES AND KARST REVIEW WATSON, RICHARD A. (Editor) (19701971). Classics in Speleology. Johnson Reprint Corporation, New York, London. Anyone who has worked actively in cave research for a decade or more has experienced an inflationary spiral in this "cost of living" far beyond the steady climb of his grocery bill. I am referring to the acquisition of books on caves and karst, whether it consist of filling gaps in a collector's bookshelves, or building a speleological reference collection from scratch. Speleological literature seems to have soared in value much moreso than other kinds, possibly due to increasing popularity of the subject, and the limited numbers originally published. Books such as the four described below have become exceedingly rare and very costly; hence, unattainable for the average scholar, let alone students. Hopefully, some of the market pressure on speleological classics is being relieved by the appearance of this series of hardbound reprints, as brought forth under the editorslup of R. A. Watson, Director of the Cave Research Foundation. In concept, the series comprises not only incunabula such as the Thompson work already released, but important reference works such as those of Balch, Owen and Hovey, and the forthcoming reprints of oft-cited journal papers on karstwuter and cave evolution. Purists, no doubt, will continue to outbid each other in quest of the elegant originals; nevertheless, the possessor of these facsimiles will have, at moderate cost, an attractive set of volumes, augmented by introductions and biographies of the authors. The text and illustrations have been photographed directly from the originals so that the atmosphere of the original typography and plates has been carried over. Except for perhaps the little known Thompson book, there is little need to appraise the actual works; they have long since established their worth and repute. A few remarks, however, will serve both to introduce the books to persons as yet unacquainted with them, and to comment on the new introductions. Descriptions of the four books thus far published arc discussed individually below. The citation of the original edition is followed by the pertinent information on the reprint in brackets. OWEN, LUELLA AGNES (1898). Cave Regions of the Ozarks and Black Hills. The Editor Publishing Co., Cincinnati. 228p., 22pl. [Reprint: (1970). With a new introduction by Jerry L. Vineyard (42p., 5pl.) Price 17.001. Louella Owen is portrayed in Jerry Vineyard's introduction as an intrepid, persevering geologist, whose exploration prowess matched that of her male contemporaries: Cave Regions is the culmination of her speleological studies, which also included four articles in the French journal Spelunca. Following her cave explorations, she turned to other matters, becoming an authority on loess deposits and Missouri River geology. In her career, she received many honors. Her contributions to the interpretation of caverns, however, are regarded as somewhat less than masterful by Vineyard-an opinion shared by myself. Her speleological insight seems considerably less than that demonstrated by Hovey 16 years earlier in Celebrated American Caverns, nor does it anywhere approach the understanding of caves and karst processes shown by many of her European colleagues. She did provide, nevertheless, a documentary of many of the Ozark and Black Hills caves written in the genre of 19th Century travel books, with a touch of humor, some jibes at the barriers to her sex, and an erratic sense of cave conservation: (u ... and the blows of their [specimen collectors'] hammers ... give an agreeable sense of companionship ... "). Cover Illustrations: Front: Crystal Lake, in Howe's Cave, N.Y.; Rear:Oulopholites, or curved crystals of gypsum (Both illustrations from Celebrated American Caverns, by Horace C. Hovey). 4


VOLUME 14. NO. I Vineyard highlights Miss Owen's peculiar contribution to the theory of origin of Black Hills caves which she regards as substantially the consequence of geyser activity. She carried her notion to the extreme of calculating the heights of the plumes that were visualized spouting from their orifices. These conceptions were deductions from her observations at Yellowstone, where she came to regard the Grand Canon of the Yellowstone as an immense collapsed cavern. She reinforced her hydrothermal theory by citing the occurrence of "geyser stalagmites" in Wind Cave. Such features do appear in European caves, and I have interpreted similar stalagmites in some Western United States caves to be the result of upwelling, possibly thermal water. These observations notwithstanding, Owen's crude extrapolation of Yellowstone's volcanic phenomena to the Black Hills sedimentary environment does not build confidence in her interpretations, even if a hydrothermal component should be proven to have played a role in cave formation in the Black Hills. BALCH, EDWIN SWIFT (1900). Glaclerez or freezing Caverns. Allen, Lane & Scott, Philadelphia. 337p., 31pl. [Reprint: (1970). With a new introduction by William R. Halliday (33p.). Price $9.001. I have never succeeded in locating a copy of Balch's Gtacieres at a reasonable price; hence, I was very pleased to see it appear reprinted in this series. Of the four books reviewed here,it is technically the most valuable, supplying an abundance of information on caverns containing permanent and temporary ice. It offers as well an informed exposition of the theories of formation of ice underground, particularly that thesis espoused by Balch himself and still very much accepted; namely, the gravitational entrapment of cold air in depressions and inferior chambers. Yet Balch was a dilettante in science-an attorney turned world traveller, mountain climber and geographer, who, in his lifetime, authored numerous essays in scientific and popular geographical journals. In the preface, Halliday supplies a brief biographical sketch of Balch's career and a four-page bibliography of his writings. These are introduced with a deserved tribute to Balch's achievements in cave meteorology. Despite his enthusiasm for Balch's overall effort, however, Halliday proceeds to fault him on one point after another in successive pages, especially in his discussion of Balch's "List of Glacieres" (Introduction pages xviiixxvi), where he repeatedly complains of caverns having been omitted from Balch's compilation, particularly in Halliday's own bailiwick-the American Northwest. Throughout these pages, it is not clear whose works are being Introduced-Balch's or Halliday's, especially when most of the citations of the former are in a snippy, negative vein. It would be surprising indeed if during the 54+ years intervening between the publications of the two authors, a few new ice caves did not turn up even in the East, let alone the sparcely settled West. In brief, Balch's magnum opus deserves more sympathetic treatment than Dr. Halliday's bedside manner has been able to provide. HOVEY, HORACE C. (1896). Celebrated American Caverns. Robert Clarke & Co., Cincinnati. 228p., 54 plates and figures, 3 appendices. [Reprint: With a new introduction by William R. Halliday (38p.). Price $6.001. Horace C. Hovey was a clergyman with a lifetime interest in science, particularly geology and speleology. His writings on caves number about 100 works, including several editions of Celebrated American Caverns, of which the 1896 (last surviving) has be.en reprinted. The book enjoyed great popularity in its day, opening up a new world of wonders for many an enquiring mind and proffering explanations for the mysteries of cave formation that remain substantially valid today. Theories and historical accounts are charmingly interwoven with descriptive tour-guides of the important American caves, principally Mammoth, Wyandotte and Luray, flavored with frequent amusing anecdotes of lost guides, etc. that must be the models from which our modern day tourist spiels have sprung. The volume is handsomely illustrated with maps and scenes that have achieved fame in their own right (including serving as cover ornaments for this issue of Caves and Karst). Editor Watson wisely selected the 1896 edition for reprinting, since it 5


CA VES AND KARST contains additional appendices on flora, fauna and new discoveries that are lacking in the original 1882 edition. Halliday's introduction contains an interesting biography of Hovey, a summary of speleology prior to the appearance of the work, and a discussion of Hovey's ideas 011 cave origin and his contributions to speleology. Hovey fares much better at Halliday's hand than does Balch, receiving greater emphasis on amplification than on fault-finding. A bibliography of Hovey's numerous speleological writings completes the introduction. THOMPSON, R. S. (1879). The Sucker's Visit to. the Mammoth Cave. Live Patron Publishing Office, Springfield, Ohio. 128p. [Reprint: With a new introduction by John F. Bridge (19p., 3pl.) Price $5.50J. Of the four books reviewed here, Thompson's is the least known and of little importance to scientific speleology. Yet of the four, it provides the most delightful reading, being composed of adventurous exploits, folklore, and rustic dialogue; for example: 'Born within three miles of the Cave! Then you've been in it I suppose, many a time? 'No, young man, I've never been in the Cave. There used to be lots of folks from everywhere come there, and I'Low there is yet, and I used to think some time I'd go and sec it myself, but the time never seemed handy, and I kept [Jutting It off and at last the folks died and I moved over to this little place, and I'm too old now.''' (p. 53). Actually, like Samuel Clemens, Ralph Seymour Thompson was an editor (of a rural newspaper and grange magazines). He was a Sucker (patois for residents of Illinois), amateur experimenter, inventor and writer of two books in addition to two versions of Sucker's Visit. Having heard so many glowing reports of the wonders of Mammoth Cave in nearby Kentucky, he, with a band of four other suckers, set out on foot and horse-drawn wagon on a 20S-mile trip from Albion, Illinois to the cave, over a rugged, poorly marked route. Most of the book concerns the trials and hazards of the itinerary, but once arrived, a lively account of the history of the cave and descriptions of the guided tours ensues, with considerable nonsense dialogue. The work concludes with a brief chapter on their return-the easy way-by boat on the Green-Barren River system-and a reckoning of their expenses (about $ 1.00 per day each). John Bridge's warm introduction provides a brief biography of Thompson, a log of the trip, excerpts from the earlier version of the narrative (denoted) "Western Kentucky Above Ground and Below, or a Trip to the Mammoth Cave COntaining a Full Description of the Cave, written by T.J.M., Published ca. 1871), and an appreciation of Thompson's role as a conservationist. A sampling of Thompson's dedication conveys succinctly his devotion to things natural: ... To those who with me love its rocks and hills, its mountains and its prairies, its rivers and its lakes, I dedicate this book." I hope that the editors of future Classics in Speleology will be able to exhume more gems like Thompson's to lighten our library shelves and brighten our study. Arthur L. Lange Cave Research Associates 6


VOLUME 14, NO.1 FROM THE WORLD OF SPELEOLOGY Edited by Rondal R. Bridgeman New "Beyond Time" experiment Michel Siffre, French speleologist, entered Midnight Cave near Carta Valley, Edwards County, Texas, on 14 February 1972 for what he hopes will be another successful "Beyond Time" experiment of the Institut Francais de Speleologie. Siffre, founder and mainstay of the Institute, spent 63 days isolated from civilization and time in Gouffre de Scarasson in 1962 during the first experiment (for complexities of this experiment, see SIFFRE (l964),Beyond Time McGraw Hill, New York. L'lnstitut Francais de Speleclogie conducted several subsequent experiments. Slffre's present stay in Midnight Cave is scheduled for 6 months. The institute is studying the biologic rhythms of man when removed from the regimen of the diurnal cycle. The Institute's past experiments have led Siffre to contend that man's true living cycle consists of a 36-hour day and 12 hours of sleep. Applications for this field of investigation include submarine crews and astronauts. The data from the Midnight Cave experiment are of additional interest because the cave is warm and dry. Past tests were conducted in cold wet caves. -RRB Guide to Ozark Underground Laboratory published Volume 3, Numbers 5 and 6 (September/October, November/December) of the Ozark COver are elevoted to the Ozark Underground Laboratory, near Branson, Missouri (cf Caves and Karst, 11 (1): 5). The Laboratory consists of a limestone cave (Tumbling Creek Cave) and 126 acres (51 hectares) of woods and grassland above the cave, with workshop and storage facilities. The cave contains a continually monitored stream and a large faunal population including bat colonies. The lab is available for research projects and educational tours, but ':10 tours for the general public are conducted. The publications, prepared by Thomas Aley, D.irector of the Laboratory, and Kenneth C. Thomson, Professor of Geology at Southwest Missouri State College, contain descriptions and photographs of the cave and facilities and a fauna list. Much of Issue 5 is devoted to a detailed map of the cave, surveyed by Don Rimbach and K. Thomson. The Ozark Caver is available @ $3.00 per' year, or $1.00 per issue from: Heart of the Ozarks Grotto, c/o Geology Department, Southwest Missouri State College, Springfield, Missouri 65802. -ALL Cave and Karst Symposium and Field Excursion There are still a few places remaining for delegates to the Cave and Karst Symposium and Field Excursion (of the 22nd International Geographical Congress) which runs August 1-9, 1972, commencing at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. The schedule of events includes: lectures on geology, geomorphology, and, karst hydrology of the Canadian Rockies; inspection of geologic sections and a fossil cavern in Jasper National Park; a visit 'to Medicine Lake and Maligne Canyon to view North America's greatest sinking river and karst springs; a tour (by helicopter) of the Columbia Icefield; inspection of high alpine karst; visits to several limestone, ice and glacier caves. Registration costs $150/person, which includes all transportation, accommodations, meals, maps, and publications. Remaining delegates will be selected on a first-come, first-served basis. All correspondence and/or applications for the Symposium and Excursion should be directed to: Dr. Derek C. Ford, Department of Geography, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, CANADA. -RRB 7


CA VES AND KARST FROM THE CURRENT LITERATURE Edited by JAMES F. QUINLAN FORNEY, GERALD G. (1971). Lava tubes of the San Franciscan volcanic field, Arizona. Platea# 44 (1) 1-13. Lava tubes are described and illustrated with photographs and maps. Features of the caves axe related to the lava types, and remarks are made on their origins. -ALL HENDY, C. H. (1969). The use of C14 in the study of cave processes. Nobel Symposium Pl'ot;(ied" ings, 12th (Uppsala) : 419-443. The "C content of stalactites forming from HCO a produced by direct interaction of roof rock CaCO J and soil CO~ will be approximately half that of wood, but, if isotopic equilibration occurs in soil, it will be equal to that of wood. A water sample collected by attaching polyethylene tubes to 30 stalactites in Waipuna Cave, New Zealand, has a little less than half the "C content of wood, indicating (1) that the water was conducted rapidly to the cave without equilibration and (2) that 3-4 years elapsed between the time the "C was removed from the atmosphere as plant tissue and the rime it appeared in the stalactite water. -GWM HUNTOON, PETER W. (1970). The Hydro-mechanics of the Ground Water System in the Southern Portion of the Kaibab Ptaf.eato, Arizona. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Arizona. 251p., 55 illusrr. and maps, 9 rabies. (Available for $10.60 from University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan). The groundwater system of the 2100km' Kaibab Plateau consists of circulation through unfraccured sedimentary rocks and fault-controlled drains discharging as springs to the Colorado River and its tributaries. The springs drain approximately 60% of rhe plateau surface, and serve as well as Hcodways for storm pulses thac enter the faults directly from the surface. Three springs in Tapeats Amphitheatre carry approximately 70% of the water from the extensive \'{fest Kaibab fault zone, or 40% of the Kaibab drainage, demonstrating the profound role that faulting has played in the evolution of Grand Canyon drainage. Detailed treatments of stratigraphy, structure, and geography are provided along with data on stream gauging and the steady flow model used. Detailed maps of the plateau structural features and the spring caves are included, but are nor very useful in the chopped-up form supplied by University Microfilms. -ALL KOLODYAZHNAYA, ALLA ALEKSANDROVNA (1970). Agressivnortf' prirodnykh vod v kantovykh raiO?lakh evropeirkoi chasti SSSR. (Agressivity of natural waters in karst regions of the European part of the USSR) Izd-vo NAUKA, Moscow. 151p. (Available for $3.00 from: Victor Kamkin, Inc., 12224 Parklawn Drive, Rockville, Maryland 20852.) A monographic review of the chemistry of karst waters. Curiously, no reference is made to any of the post-1945 French, Brirish, or American literature on the chemistry of carbonate waters.-JFQ LAMOREAUX, PHILLIP E., DOROTHY RAYMOND, & THOMAS]. JOINER (1970). Hydrology of limestone terranes-Annotated bibliography of carbonate rocks. Alabama Geological Survey, Bulletin 94A: 1-242. (Available for $1.00 from the Survey at: P.O. Drawer 0, University, Alabama 35486.) Although this is the product of several years of compilation, and purportedly has international coverage, less than 1500 references are included, many of which are either unrelated to hydrology (#168, 259, 738, et al.) or trivial (272, 1231, er at) Although there is no set time span for coverage, nothing prior to 1922 is cited. An indication of the comprehensiveness of coverage is suggested by the fact that nothing; by Martel, O. Lehman, or Zotl, one paper by Cvijic and three papers by Corbel are cited. The bibliography is useful, but difficult to work with because many of the citations refer nor to the original paper but instead to the abstract published in: Bibliography and Index of Geology Exclusive of North AmI/rica, Caves and Karst, Geomorphological Abstracts, or USGS Bulletin 999. Also, the indexing is so broad as to be almost useless. For example, 00 subdivision is given under "Karst"; instead there are 423 references listed by number. In summary, the bibliography is useful but less so than one has the right to expect. ]FQ THOMAS, DAVID H. (1969), Great Basin hunting patterns: a quantitative method for treating faunal remains. American Antiqtoity 34 (4): 392-401. Using faunal remains collected from three Nevada archaeological sites (Smoky Creek Cave, Humboldt County, and Little Smoky and Hanging Rock Shelters, Washoe County) a quantitative analysis is applied to various meshes of screen used by archaeologists. Results indicate that differences in recovery may seriously bias ecological and cultural interpretation. -PDS Contributors: ALL, A. L.lange; GWM, G. W. Moore; JFQ, J. F. Quinlan; PDS, Peter D. Schulz. 8


" r ,Dirtrib.;ioll: CAVES AND K:AitS'I1 ie~cijes an aUdien~e eon\~ed pti~a;Uy .df Persons hWi'ng atechhical inter~S't in ~a",es '4n~ )ca9it. ,It i'5 'received by: 'the 1\l~ajor libraries in the Unit~~ States/BAd abroad, 'aha on .exc~nng~, by; Ispe~eoloskaloq~an~~ado,llS,arouQd the worlq_., '. ", ,I Poi;",~:, Mallbsqipt .sUbmitt~~ 'to the editors qI.,ay be sentjo'J:sons fot!eview,~ut 'final deciSim\s on publication remain wifh the edile in longer l>~!,ers: Sci¢ntilit ,namel sh8uld,be clarified I, by th~i'n.. f:o~on n~,¢es vthetl .firsf, cited;" 'if none,. then a 'v:ernl'icular equivalent of the genus oPIamily is recomm~haed. {ill mea's",OQ1enfs !liould be, iri ,rn~ui, units, followod py EngliSh equivalents i( desired or, nece;ssaw for indicating aC: J..La~8" , I .. IlilltOt

Contents: A new calcite structure from Thorn Mountain
Cave, West Virginia / Paul L. Broughton --
Review: Classics in speleology,, edited by Richard A.
Watson / Arthur L. Lange --
From the world of speleology --
From the current literature.
Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and
Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15)
were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In
1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete
sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells
hardbound copies of the material to support its


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