Caves and karst: Research in speleology

Material Information

Caves and karst: Research in speleology
Series Title:
Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology
Cave Research Associates
Cave Research Associates
Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Geology ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )


General Note:
Contents: Groundwater contamination from sinkhole dumps / Thomas Aley -- From the world of speleology. Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15) were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In 1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells hardbound copies of the material to support its activities.
Open Access - Permission by Publisher
Original Location:
Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation Collection
Original Version:
Vol. 14, no. 3 (1972)
General Note:
See Extended description for more information.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
K26-01037 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.1037 ( USFLDC Handle )
13302 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0008-8625 ( ISSN )

USFLDC Membership

Karst Information Portal

Postcard Information



This item has the following downloads:

Full Text


CAVES AND Volume 14, Number 3 ,. COl'~:rENTS THOM4S ALEY: Groundwater Coniamlnation from Sinkhol~ Dumps.., .. 17 . \ fro/ll the World ofSpeleology J, .. : . J .. 't .,.. 4 I Publication of CAVE, RES/3ARCH AssOC1A TES


. C>\VE RESE,iUlCHASSOCL,\'iES, . r lf Cay.~ R~rch Asscclares is a .non-prcfir scientific and ed1!9nional institution IncorP9rfited ih 1~59 '9 furt~er the ! j(A~STand C,1frE~ is invlred from the sci

CA YES AND KARST Research in Speleology Volume 14, No.3 j\llnyj./lIlw 1972 Frontispiece. Hodgson Mill Spring (T. Aley, photo). GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION FROM SINKHOLE DUMPS By THOMAS ALEY* Abstract Groundwater contnnination from sinkhole dumps is a common problem in the soluble rock terrain of Missouri. Three cases of groundwater contamination from sinkhole dumps are described. In two of these cases tracers were injected in dumps and subsequently detected at major 'springs as far as 25km from the dumps. Restoration of sinkholes used for dumps is diflicull and seldom attempted. An exception is the West Plains sinkhole dump; restoration at this site is discussed. Tile summary enumerates steps important in the restoration of sinkhole dumps. Introduction Groundwater contamination and pollution in soluble rock regions is common, yet has been infrequently documented in the American scientific literature. The use of sink"Hydrologist, U.S. Forest Service, Springfield, MO 65802 17


CAVES AND KARST holes for dumping solid waste can cause groundwater pollution and present substantial health hazards. This paper discusses investigations of three sinkholes used for dumps by communities in southern Missouri. Acknowledgements This paper is a contribu tion from the Hurricane Creek Barometer Watershed, Mark Twain National Forest, United States Forest Service. Mickey Fletcher, Bedford Cash, and particularly Everett Chaney, all of the Forest Service, were of great assistance in groundwater tracings, and their help is sincerely appreciated. Case 1 : Alton Sinkhole dump The Alton Sinkhole dump is located in a broad tributary valley of Piney Creek a.Skm upstream from Alton, Missouri. The sinkhole is 15m deep and 75m in diameter, and is developed in the Jefferson City Formation of Ordovician age; some in-place ledges of this formation can be seen near the bottom of the sink. The majority of the sink is walled with residuum. The bottom of the sink is 10m below the intermittent surface stream, but for most of the year the sinkhole does not hold water. After major winter and spring storms, the sink fills rapidly from the bottom with as much as 10m of water. The inundation may last for several weeks during which time the depth of water fluctuates less than one or two meters. Near the end of the period of inundation, the water level drops rapidly; all water can drain from the sink in a few days to a week. The water level in the sinkhole appears to be, regulated by valley groundwater levels, and the sinkhole reflects regional conditions. On May 28, 1969 we injected 4.5kg of fluorescein dye into approximately 200,000 e of water in the sink during a period when the water level was falling rapidly. Three days after injecting the dye, all water had disappeared from the sinkhole. (This equaled a drop of approximately 3m in the water level of the sinkhole. It was believed that the dyed water would emerge at one of the large springs in the vicinity. Table 1 shows the flow volumes of these springs and their straight-line distance from the sinkhole. Greer, Morgan, and Blue Springs, as well as several very small springs in the vicinity, were continuously monitored with activated charcoal catch packets for three months after the dye injection. During this period the packets were changed and analyzed at one to two week intervals*. Fluorescein dye was adsorbed on the activated charcoal packets in place at Morgan Spring for the period August II through 25, 1969. Dye was not detected following this period, indicating that the majority of the dye emerged at the spring in a discrete pulse. No dye was recovered at any of the other springs. Straight-line distance Estimated mean annual Spring?" from Alton Sinkhole flow of the spring dump (km) Ccu/m/sec) Greer Spring 10.3 8.2 (a) Blue Spring 25.1 2.6 (b) Morgan Spring 25.0 1.2 Cb) (a) Mean 1921-1970. (b) Unpublished U.S. Forest Service estimates. Table 1. Major Springs in the Vicinity of the Alton Sinkhole Dump. ';'-A;'-,-',;-'v-"-"-'d""-'h-,-,,-oal catch packets and dye-tracing techniques are discussed in detail in ALEY {19731. Analysis consists of elutriation of the charcoal with a solution of 5% potassium hydroxide in isopropyl alcohol. HAil springs are tributary to the Eleven Point River. 18


VOLUME 14, NO 3 [ Straight-line distance Estimated mean annual Spring" from Dora Sinkhole flow of the spring dump (km) (m'/sec) North Fork Spring 5,2 2.0 (a) (Gravel Spring) Double Spring 5.6 4.0 (a) (Rainbow Spring) Blue Spring 4.9 0.3 (a) Hodgson Mill Spring 9.5 1.1 (b) {a) Based on measurements from SKELTON & HARVEY (1968). (b) Based on daily records for Oct. 1, 1967 through Sept. 30, 1968. Table 2, Major Springs in the Vicinity of the Dora Sinkhole Dump. Morgan Spring discharges from the Roubidoux Formation of Ordovician age, which underlies the Jefferson City Pormation (in which the Alton Sinkhole is developed). The spring supports a major aquatic plant industry; it has also been used as a domestic water supply for some nearby cabins. The dye tracing showed that water moves from the Alton Sinkhole dump to Morgan Spring. Since the dye emerged in a pulse, this indicates that the subsurface drainage network did not afford a great dilution of contaminants. Mean straight-line groundwater velocity for the 25.0k.m from the sinkhole dump to Morgan Spring was 13m/hour if a travel tirne of 82 days is used. The Alton Sinkhole dump has for a number of years received a substantial portion of the garbage and trash from the community of Alton (1960 population: 677). The sinkhole provides a direct connection with groundwater as evidenced by its rapid subsurface flooding and drainage. The occasional flooding of the sinkhole allows contaminants in the dump to be taken into solution. Contaminated water is then rapidly drained [1'0111 the sinkhole. We know that rates of 70,OOOe/day occur, and much greater drainage rates are probable. Following the successful water tracing, nearly all dumping at the Alton Sinkhole ended. Open dumping now occurs in a surface valley about 7km from the sinkhole. In 1970, the sinkhole was fenced and all dumping was terminated. No type of restoration work was done. Obviously, this sinkhole dump will be a source of contamination for a number of years, but the degree of contamination should decrease with time. Case 2: Dora Sinkhole dump The Dora Sinkhole dump is located in a relatively level upland area about 1.9km from Dora, Missouri. The sinkhole is approximately 30m deep, 100m in diameter, and has steep sidewalls frequently exceeding 45 degrees. The sink is formed in the Jefferson City Formation of Ordovician age, portions of which are exposed in the walls of the sink. The floor of the sinkhole is relatively flat with a gentle slope toward the south wall. The sink receives surface drainage from 10 or 20 hectares of pasture land; flood debris indicates that surface flow into the sink may sometimes be 0.5m 3 /sec. The sink reportedly ponds to a depth of I In for a few hours after major storm flows; at all other times there is neither flowing nor standing water in the sinkhole. A local resident reports that it was once possible to enter a small cave in the bottom of the sink. The cave supplied drinking water for a nearby school in the early 1900's, however, the entrance to the cave has since been blocked by sediment, debris, and trash. 1 was concerned that the Dora SinkJ101e dump might be contaminating one of the large, high quality springs in the area. The springs which were monitored are shown in Table 2. ~AII springs are tributary to the North Fork River except Hodgson Mill Spring which is tributary to Bryant Creek. 19


CA VES AND KARST Figure 1. Alton Sinkhole dump. During wet periods this sinkhole holds up to 10m of water. The broken trees and building debris are the result of a tornado which devastated the area near the sinkhole in 1970. Photo by Jerry D. Vineyard, Mo. Geological Survey and Water Resources. On July 22, 1971, 3.2kg of fluorescein dye and 4.5kg of colored Lycopodium spores (colored, moist weight; dry weight approximately 3.0kg) were injected into the bottom of the sinkhole. The tracing agents were mixed with approximately 5,OOOE of water hauled to the site by truck and run to the bottom of the sinkhole through canvas hose. To facilitate the mixing of the tracing agents, a trench was dug along the south wall of the sink. The trench accepted approximately 2500f of water before it began to ponti. Water then flowed east along the wall of the sink for 3m, where the remaining 2500r. of water disappeared with a roar. Activated charcoal catch packets were placed to continuously monit'or flow of all springs shown in Table 2; packets were changed at about one-week intervals. Due to a shortage of equipment for continuous sampling of Lycopodium spores", this sampling was conducted initially only at Double Spring and North Fork Spring and was terminated .. A detailed discussion of equipment used for Lycopodium spore sampling is included in ALEY (19731. The equipment consists of a conical net made from calibrated 25-micron opening nylon cloth anchored in a metal cylinder. The cylinder is placed in a spring in a position to filter as much water as possible. Materials trapped in the net are microscopically examined. Colored Lycopodium spores are readily distinguishable from natural materials. 20


VOLUME 14, NO.3 at these stations on September 2, 1971. Sampling for Lycopodium spores began at Hodgson Mill Spring 011 September 2, 1971, and terminated on September 15. I expected the tracers from the Dora Sinkhole to appear at either or both Double Spring and North Fork Spring. A possible extension of the Mansfield Fault passes near the Dora Sinkhole and through the area of Double and North Fork Springs (SKELTON &HARVEY, 1968). Fluorescein dye began to appear at Hodgson Mill Spring between August 3 and 11, 197:1, .12 to 20 days after the injection of the dye. Activated charcoaJ packets in place for the period August 11 to 16 contained more fluorescein than the packets of the previous period. Based on this, I believe that the dye first appeared at Hodgson Mill Spring on or about August 10, 1971 ~ a travel time of 19 days from the Dora Sinkhole dump. Using this travel time, and a straight-line distance of 9.5km, mean straight-line velocity of the dyed water was 21 mjhr. Forty-two days after the injection at the Dora Sinkhole we were no longer able to detect fluorescein discharging from the spring, due in part perhaps to high algae levels in the springwater. From 42 to 55 days after the injection, we continuously sampled Hodgson Mill Spring for Lycopodium spores. During the 13 days during which the sampler was in place we trapped 2300 spores, an average catch rate of 7.4 spores per hour. Hodgson Mill Spring discharges from the Roubidoux Formation, which underlies the Jefferson City Formation in which the Dora Sinkhole is developed. Water from the spring powers a very picturesque water mill which is still in operation. Several thousand people a year visit the spring and water is Frequently taken directly from the spring for drinking. Water used in several buildings in the area is also supplied from the spring. There is no treatment of water from the spring prior to consumption. The fluorescein and Lycopodium spores injected in the Dora Sinkhole dump reFigure 2. Dora Sinkhole dump. Trash dumped in the foreground is periodically pushed over the lip of the sinkhole by bulldozers. Photo by Jerry D. Vineyard, Mo. Geological Survey and Water Resources. 21


CA VES AND KARST appeared at Hodgson Mill Spring. None of the other springs sampled received either dye or spores. Since the sinkhole and Hodgson Mill Spring lie on opposite sides of the possible extension of the Mansfield Fault (SKELTON & HARVEY, 1968) (the sinkhole lies 2km east of the possible fault; Hodgson Mill Spring lies 7km west), it appears that the fault is absent from this area or else is not a major groundwater conduit. The mean size of Lycopodium spores is 33 microns, approximately an order of magnitude larger than pathogenic bacteria. If Lycopodium spores can traverse the solu ticn channels between the Dora Sinkhole dump and Hodgson Mill Spring, as has been demonstrated, then pathogenic bacteria should also be able to traverse the same route. Dumping in the Dora Sinkhole began in the 1950's. The dump has been used by the 75 residents of Dora and others in the surrounding area. In addition to trash and garbage, septic tank sludge has also been deposited in the sinkhole. The owners of the sinkhole have been trying since 1970 to stop the dumping, yet they have been only partially effective. Subsequent to the successful tracing of water from the sinkhole to Hodgson Mill Spring newspaper articles and discussions with local residents have essentially ended the dumping. Dumping now occurs in an intermittent streambed approximately 3k.m north of Dora. As was the case with the Alton Sinkhole dump, no restoration work has been done. This sinkhole dump will be a source of groundwater contamination for a number of years. Case 3: West Plains Sinkhole dump The West Plains Sinkhole dump is located apprcxirnately Zkm northwest of the city of West Plains, Missouri. Surface drainage in the area is tributary to Howell Creek, an intermittent stream. The sinkhole is developed in the Jefferson City Formation of Ordovician age. No bedrock exposures can be seen in the sinkhole, which appears to be walled exclusively with residuum. Based on the U.S. Geological Survey's West Plains 1944 topographic quadrangle, the sinkhole was probably 15 to 20m deep prior to filling with trash. The sink is bowlshaped, and has a top diameter of approximately 200m. The West Plains sinkhole receives surface runoff from 4 to 6 hectares. During storm periods it temporarily ponds; this pan ding interferes with dumping. 1 have been unable to determine if the sinkhole ponded prior to its use as a dump. Many sinkholes in the area which have not been used as dumps do pond temporarily. The 1960 population of West Plains was 6433. Since 1929, when dumping began, the sinkhole has served as the sale city dump. About 1968 or 1969, open dumping ended and daily covering of trash with soil began. Burning of tree limbs is now done once a week in an isolated area of the sinkhole. Prior to the conversion to a landfill, the dump burned almost continuously. Mr. Lowell Patterson, City Engineer for West Plains, estimates that the sinkhole will be full by about 1975. At that time the city plans to put an a.6m layer of compacted soil over the accumulated debris, grade the site to provide surface runoff, and plant the area with a densely rooted grass. The site will probably be used as park land. The West Plains Sinkhole dump has undoubtedly contaminated groundwater since 1929, when the dumping began. The conversion from an open dump to a landfill operation has undoubtedly made some improvements in groundwater quality. The termination of dumping in 1975 with the attendant development of surface runoff will result in another major improvement in groundwater quality. Filling the sinkhole to permit surface runoff is a crucially important step in the restoration of this sinkhole dump. Under present conditions, tile only politically and economically feasible method of filling the sinkhole is to use trash with some soil covering .. With careful management of the new land surface, the quantity of water infiltrating through the sinkhole trash will be reduced by a factor of 10 over pre-19G8 conditions. 22


VOLUME 14, NO. 3 Summary The three sinkhole dumps discussed in this paper have all contributed to groundwater contamination. We have successfully traced water for as much as 25km from the sinkhole dumps to major springs in the area. The tracing of water from sinkhole dumps with fluorescein dye indicates that chemical groundwater contamination occurs. The tracing with water-borne Lycopodium spores indicates that bacteriological groundwater con tarnination can also result from sinkhole dumps. The only sinkhole dump where restoration work is being conducted is at West Plains, lind for several years the restoration here will be in conjunction with continued L1SC. For [he majority of sinkhole dumps in Missouri-and there arc hundreds of themtermination of dumping even without restoration would be a major accomplishment. Restoration of a sinkhole dump to improve groundwater quality should consist of the following: I) Termination of the dumping is an obvious first step. Conversion to a landfill with continued use is seldom a good approach (the West Plains example is an exception). 2) Where possible, removal of trash from the sinkhole is advisable. In many cases this is not feasible. In these cases, the trash should be covered with a compact soil and maintained with a plant cover such as grass. 3) Diversion of surface water from the trash is essential. This will typically require dikes and channels. 4) Prevention of water pending within the trash zone of the sinkhole is important. It may be impossible in situations such as the Alton Sinkhole dump where pan ding appears to be due to a temporary rise in regional groundwater levels. Sinkhole pan ding is frequently due to a thin zone of sediment deposited in the bottom of the sinkhole. Careful management of the area tributary to the sinkhole can greatly reduce sediment deposited in sinkholes (DICKEN, 1930). In some sinkholes, culverts can be driven into underlying solution channels to provide rapid drainage. 5) Provide as much filtration as possible for water moving out of the trash area. This may necessitate movement of trash from one portion of a sinkhole to another, use of soils with high cation exchange capacity, or perhaps in some areas the use of sand filters. References ALEY, THOMAS J. (1973). The water tracer's cook book. Cave Studies (in press). DICKEN, SAMUEL N. (1930). The Big Barrens: a Morphologic Study ill the Kentucky Karst. University of California, PhD Dissertation. (p. 134j4 7). SKELTON, JOHN & E.J. HARVEY (968). Structural controls on streamflow in the North Fork River and Bryant Creek Basins, Missouri. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper GOO-C. (p. CJ53-C157). 23


CA VES AND KARST FROM THE WORLD OF SPELEOLOGY Edited by Ronald R. Bridgeman Mercury levels in the environment J. Scott Altenbach, Research Associate at Colorado State University, is in search of caves in Grand Canyon containing guano deposits that have not been mined. Mr. Altenbach is working on a project to determine baseline levels of mercury in the environment by using guano deposits of the free-tailed bat as an index. Cave investigators who have seen undisturbed guano deposits in Grand Canyon other than those of Tramway Cave, (where they have been extensively mined) should contact J. Scott Altenbach, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Department of Microbiology, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO 80521. Location information will be held in strictest confidence. Temperature preference investigated William Elliott (Dept. of Biology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, IX) will soon publish his master's thesis on the temperature-preference responses of certain aquatic, cave-adapted crustaceans from Central Texas and Mexico. The purpose of the study was to determine whether aquatic troglobites lose the ability to distinguish or select temperature differences in a spatial gradient of 15-30OC due to being "imprisoned" in the constant cave environment. Forty-eight individuals each of Stygonectes russetu. S. hadenoecus. Clrolanides texcnsis, Speocirolana bolisari, and an unidentified aseUid isopod were studied in a temperature-gradient apparatus under gradient and constant conditions. Only one species, C. texensis, exhibited a temperature preferendum, preferring temperatures 2_12¡C warmer than its native habitat, from which Mr. Elliott deduced that not only is this species a recent cave inhabitant, but also its ancestor was a fresh-water species from the tropics. The work is to appear in Annates de Speteologie. Biological studies underway Stewart B. Peck (Dept. of Biology, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada) is currently involved in three cave-related research projects: J) the taxonomy, biology, and evolution of cave-inhabiting I'tomaphgus beetles (Leiodidae: Catopinae); 2) the biology of cave-inhabiting harvestmen and various other arthropods; 3) and systematics, ecology, evolution, and distribution of temperate and tropical invertebrate cave fauna. Field and laboratory work completed or In progress on the third project include the following areas: tropical-Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Guatemala, British Honduras, Domi.nican Republic; temperate-Alabama, Illinois, Ontario, Nahanni Karst (Northwest Territories). Biogeography symposium A symposium on the biogeography of Appalachian cavernicoles will be held during the AAAS Annual Convention in Washington, D.C. on Friday, December 29, 1972. The program is jointly sponsored by the Society of Systematic Zoology, the Systematic Zoology Division of the American Society of Zoologists, and the National Speleological Society. Attention will be focused on ecological and geological factors that appear to have influenced distribution patterns of cavernicolous species. Information on the program may be obtained from the cochairmen: John R. Holsinger, (Department of Biology, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginiaj.vand David C. Culver (Department of Biological Sciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, lllinois). 24


Distribut;9n:' cAVES j\'ND i<4RsTr@*l;h~ '11 aUdierice composed pr,tmariIt 01 persons hsvlng a tec~nicaL;ntetest Io-ceees ,an,d ~arst.!c is rec~ivea by "the major libraHes In tpe, United State, and a\>road, and On eXl;p1\t1ge by speleological o}g"1'i~atiODS around tlje world." 1,' ,.. I ",' Policy: Manuscripr-submitted to ehe'edlmrs D)jiy be sene to other persons for revie;w, put final 'qecisions on pqbliclltioo remaiti with the edit."". )\\\tpprs ",ill be mailed ,go,lley proofs of ~d.c;lesl ~bstractll~, clisausstpn, reviews, and eq.itofiaIs J hut cor of ne,*"s nqte~ aod annotated biDJiogral'h~ unless .sp~cifiaallY requested, 'The edit~r, reserve the .right to retam act;epte,d mapuscr~pt and ~llus\ratl0hS, unless agreement 15 madefor their re~n prior to publication. II '\ ~ Reprintsi Ten .a,y,tpor's copjes are supplied 'gratis to of ar~k~si !evie~ and edieoriels, Additi'ooalautbo.r'sj copies are axailabl'e at C6St if 'o,rtIered Frior t~ pribting .( appro~illlatej1 $13,00 (lIDO) Or~er, bj,~ 'l'iij be seat-with rho galley proOlS. M.ntlScripl: The author shocla ~a&elti himlell fO a pro/e,slonal :iudienc~ lepresenring 4ifferer1~ brapdleSqf tile Give sciences. Hi~ly technical ,~tiales should coqta!n l at least a fairly r~adllb)e i~t~Othiction a~d 'su~rt1ary~ titles S?9uld, be,~concise and l1~itrve pf. the contents: Sllpheadmg, ate demabl. In longer vapers. Sctepupc nart\es ,'!topid be Clarified bYl th'eir comooop. bameswhen fust ..cited; if':none, t'l;ieil. a ,verbaCular ~uivalent' ~£the gC\lUS or lamill is ,ecQD)mended .. All m,COs\lremel\ts sM'Ild be in. meit\c ~nils, l~noV(ed ~y English ~uhtalents, if desired,.9):. nec;essa,ry fpc ind~ci~ting\ acclml(.~'Y; ~ll equatio;ns and table~ rp.ust'be thorougfijy epecked, b6th, jn fhe mahuseript and g~ley., Ma,nuseript\should be nearly typed in doubl~or rriple.')1aced lines.,,~ormals 01 recent is,ue, 6fCAVES AND KARST way be used as models. "", Pootnot(tJ and r'd!crenauJ: THese sJ;t0u.ld' use as ~heir ni~el recent iss~es of CA,VF.$ .AND KAR,ST. Aul;hors should give their'm' a$liat,ion and address exactlras it is to ap.Reat in print. Re(erFhCes should (l,")fitflin all inforniatio.rt ne~essaw f¢r locad.q:g the Item, with titles and journals ct\!hpletelY spell~d mit in rheir original j.oguage. in. eluding all ,diact1tic~H madcs" Page' ,numbers"of a~ti(:;les ap,d tptal number qf pages pt bqo~s must be inclUded: ,'l Ph%gr.phs: niaWin/ll "9n~alning f,OneS' 61;, grey ;Cand photogeapps r"!luire ~aIl-ton~ reproduction. Plintos shouid be $ub1l1,ltced as gl~siY Qlack-and-Ij'hite 'pliH1S 01 \:onsiderI able COntrast. ~arge-si~d, photOs a,fe p~~fetrea and sho)Ild cdnrain ah indic~ti6n p~"scale, unless ,diplttnsions a:te'in~cat~ iJ:;L th~'captiOl;l. I, j', I I line dr.wlngs and diagrams:' Tlieseshould he drawn' tn' india ink. All except' ~e1\lati¢ eyre dlTa.wit).gs~hould contain, a ~etdc sca1e~ o~ dimehSioqS should be provided in the caption. Ma~ification figui'es are Dot satisf~toty M<\PS, hi ll-ddit.ioa, shqu!d conrainj~n, arrow: indicadng rruen,orth or' other '4irection 'indkatQr. lettering should be done 'with caJ;e--using either c~os;deraQle aJitistfY or tI1e<:bani~l aicls. Press-on' Iet;ters r.":ve ex~ celleor results when'p~oper1y aligned. Pres"on shading and symbtjls, availah e at art, sro~, a!e al\o recommenclild. These Rnc! let\fring should be chosen with ,i)~ eXpected size /ecJutlion in mind. Final page width is, 1 jAcm (>1.5 in.). ,I' ColOI' dfawings: Drawiq!isll\tendedlp appear in plore th\lD Qn. color should mee.the Jrequi,relIJ~pts for line dt9.~ings a,b6ve and. ina~d~ti~nl ~or fnwlt il.~pellfron 11 separate sheet, refereneed by corner Qr:other.'reg1stratlon wades. Authors :will f)e pr(r vided~ith Ill). estimate of any ext,ra cOsts in'lol~e~ Speci.hh.,g,,: 'rher~ is nO 1:4~rge lor Pul>l~,'hing Ihe tbFParariop. Writers $honld lel~ns, el,hot via 'he headquartef . address ., abn~e. 0' ~673 :ral!. Ct., Wlieaf' Rj~g¢, C~' .ado 80033, .1' I


CAVE ltESEARCH AS'sOCIA TJ;:S Price List of Publications CAVES AND KARST (formerly Col VE No:rE'~): A journal .of research in ihekarslllpd cave sciences, published, bimonthly an~rcontaining technicalpapers, 'reviews, p.otes: and' annotated bibliographies of-current literature. 'I , Current Volumes Volume 14 (1972) """'''''~:'''f,.,.".:",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,:1 ." .. ,', $3,25 Volumes 14 through 16 "',.,, L".""'.".,,,,.,, .. ,,.,,,, u.,, 7,50 ~ Earlier V61wnes' Volumes 1,2,3 (each) "........ .. ..... , "" .... :", ...... ,,, .. : .. : ,, .. $1000 Volumes 41hrough 8 (eadi) ,..... ."" """ .. ,'".,,,, ",,"""" 2.00 Volumes 91/!rough 14 (each) ." """"" .. ",,,".",,,,,,,,,, ,, . 2.50 Volume 13 Oil (each) ,,,,,,, :, ,, .. .. ,,,,,i,, .. .',,, .. ,, ,, .. ,,,, 3,25 Volumes l fhrough 1.3 (1959 .197n,co)1'lplele, incl\\ding ,.' 3-year indexes' """ ....... "" .... "',, . .. ", .... ,"" ...... 26.25 Single issues .. nd indexes ... :, .. :.1,.. .... .. Pri(;~'s Qn request .. I::AVE STUDIES: Monographs in the lave sciences. /', !. I Numbers 1 II< A bound volume 00.1 .papers published B;lween 1953 and 1959,' Price $3.00 [out-of-print}, ", , Number 12: An !JthlloAfGhae%gii:al Examination 'of Sa'('wel ,Cave, by ..\.dan Eo, \' "Treganza, with figures, photographs anii''mfl.J?s. Price. $ '.~'.90. I "'. , I' tr tf Nl prices include pesiage-. Quantit.y rates tOI'3~thort and others are available on requestj Please make cheeks and money' orders payable 19 CA VE RESEaRCH A,SSOCIA,TES, 3842 Brookdale Blvd., Castro Valley, California, U.S.A. 94546. Btilisll subscribers may place their orders directly with CA VE RljSEARCH ASSOCLA rES. c/o M" Tony Old1\am, 17 Freemantle Rd., Eastville, Bristol, England BS5 6SY. I To insure prompt handling of SUbscription correspondence, please cut, op~ and enclose previous address label (corrected ff necessary) along w~thself.addre'ssed stamped. envelops. ",

Contents: Groundwater contamination from sinkhole dumps /
Thomas Aley --
From the world of speleology.
Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and
Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15)
were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In
1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete
sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells
hardbound copies of the material to support its