Caves and karst: Research in speleology

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Caves and karst: Research in speleology
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Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology
Cave Research Associates
Cave Research Associates
Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation
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Geology ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )


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Contents: Geomorphology and hydrology of the sinkhole plain and Glasgow upland, Central Kentucky karst: preliminary report / Franz-dieter Miotke Hans Papenberg. Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15) were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In 1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells hardbound copies of the material to support its activities.
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Original Location:
Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation Collection
Original Version:
Vol. 14, no. 4 (1972)
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See Extended description for more information.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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K26-01038 ( USFLDC DOI )
k26.1038 ( USFLDC Handle )
13303 ( karstportal - original NodeID )
0008-8625 ( ISSN )

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\,1 CAVE RESEAR~H, A,SSOqATES l '. ,:ave Resea"GhlA:srocia,tes ,if 'a ,nonl-RIoht scientific and educaeional instirurlcn incorpai~t~ lD 195.9 t~' fottli$~ the Stu~y ana prheNacian of natural caves. Research projects and "pl.lblication~"of the Qfgattizani9rt are sup~orted primarily by private, conttiPlltiops. 411 SUl'b'<:oqtii"uf,i?~are taxco;oservatiofl pra<:e;ises establi'shed By the 'Itustees. Per,so~ int~Fested in becomi'o~ J;1lell}bers -shoul4 write ,the, Secteta't,y for information on membership. "' r'a,erjal~lor pub~cation in G~VJl~ 4~D f.AR~:t and GAVE STUDIES' is invited frorn tIle sdenfmc ~~U[*y at 1a;ge as lW~.n as G.RA. members. Authors spc,uld follow :t~e inst(U~p~onsl pt~v~ed Qerein \ [ 'it Arthur L. Lange I Scope: CA:N'ES AND,~RST ceruains f~at'Ule attides"notes, discussions, news, reviews, l editorials and annonred E)I~liographies. t\rtides should contain results of original work and-ideas, and trearmeI;lt.should be of more than looal inceresr, Mere cave descriptions' and field ttip )ilccQupts are not accepted" News notes ate c9nfined to significant current events, aqd rhufws ap.cJ anp0taced bibl'lOgrapby enpnes shq\dd treat material Ddt over' two years ald. (Continued on back inside cover) '. 'I INFdRMAT.ION FOR A:UTHORS


CA YES AND KARST Research in Speleology Volume 14. No.4 July/August 19J2 Frontispiece. The trap in Cedar Sink. GEOMORPHOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY OF THE SINKHOLE I'LAIN AND GLASGOW UPLAND, CENTRAL KENTUCKY KARST: PRELIMINARY REPORT By FRANZ-DIETER MIOTKE"' & HANS PAPENBERG* Abstract Geomorphological studies supported by the tracing of subsurface flow of water from several sinking streams on the Sinkhole Plain near Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky prove that the initial fluvial drainage pattern of the Sinkhole Plain still influences the subterranean drainage system. Part of the Sinkhole Plain surface drainage in this urea (Gardner Creek and Little Sinking Creek) flows via the subsurface to Green River, but part (Sinking Creek and Dcty Creek) drains via the subsurface to Barron River at Graham Spring, northeast of Bowling Green, These gu bgurf'ace flow paths arc significant not only because they arc proven by the first dye tests ever performed in the Sinkhole Plain, but also because they show the error of the traditionally accepted assumption that the Sinkhole Plain drains only to the Green River. Even more important is the very higb probability that part of the water supply of Mammoth Cave National Park is derived from the Sinkhole Plain and that pollu* Geoqraphisches lnstirut, Technische Unlversuat, 3 Hannover, Am Schneiderberg 50, West Germany. 25


CA VIJ'S AND KARST tion of the aquifur in areas as much as 6km south of the Park boundary and surface water farther to the south could affect the Park. The average minimum velocity for the initial pulse of dyed spores is 29mm/sec (J 05 m/hr) and the highest average minimum velocity recorded .is 49mm/sec (176 m/hr) over a distance of 21 km. It is evident that the karst drainage system of the Sinkhole Plain is not chaotic but is well aligned and organized. The Sin khole Plain is 110t formed by widespread subsoil solution of bedrock but instead has a complex fluvial-kurstic origin. Structural influence cannot be denied but has only moderate importance. Introduction The final results of this study and detailed discussion of the proof of its conclusions will be published during 1973 in a Habilitation thesis for the faculty of the Geographical Institute of the Technical University of Hannover. This preliminary report does not summarize the conclusions of a related one (MIOTKE & PALMER, 1972), and it is published so that other investigators can use some of the data obtained during the field period from October 1971 and through June 1972. The water-tracing studies described herein were conducted by both authors, but all other sections are a result of work by the sen..ior author. The Central Kentucky karst has been the subject of many publications and the best guides to its literature are by Cushman (1968), White, et al. (1970), and Quinlan (1970). From north to south, the main relief units of this area, shown in Figure J, are: a) Green River valley; b) Chester Cuesta and its dissected equivalent-a series of ridges and certain knobs; c) Pennyroyal Plain, consisting of the Sinkhole Plain in the north and east and the Glasgow Upland in the south; d) Barren River valley. The Sinkhole Plain is developed chiefly on the Upper Mississippian St. Louis Limestone; however, near Bowling Green, in the western portion of the area studied, the Sinkhole Plain is also developed on the overlying Ste. Genevieve Limestone. There the sinkhole density (number of large sinkholes per unit area) is less than-a tenth of what it is on the St. Louis at the same elevation. Although the Ste. Genevieve and St. Louis formations both consist chiefly of fairly high calcium limestone, the St. Louis Limestone is relatively less resistent to erosion. In the opinion of Quinlan (1970) the probable control of sinkhole development and distribution in this area near Bowling Green is the resistance to erosion of the impermeable Lost River Chert at the base of the Ste. Genevieve. When .it Is realized that the contact between these formations in the vicinity of Pilot Knob is mislocated by as much as .1. to 2km downdip on the published U.S. Geological Survey maps (J.F. Quinlan, oral communication, June 1972), the lithologic control of sinkhole development in this area is glaringly obvious. The general dip is to the north and northwest, although in detail the structure is much more complicated. The Chester Escarpment has formed where the major outcrop belt of the Girkin Limestone is capped by the Big Clifty Sandstone. The mean annual precipitation is 1300mm, and mean annual temperature is about l3¡C. The most important master stream in the area is the Barren River, which joins the Green River 25km northwest of Bowling Green. Green River drains only partly the Sinkhole Plain, and therefore only locally forms the regional base level for the plain. Geomorphology The drainage pattern of the south margin of the Sinkhole Plain includes severaJ sinking streams in the eastern section-Gardner Creek, Little Sinking Creek, Sinking Branch, Sinking Creek, Doty Creek-and several small unnamed creeks to the east of this area. All of them sink underground along a line that is oriented parallel to the strike. Lines of sinkholes and dry, shallow valleys with well-preserved remnants of terraces indicate the former surface-drainage pattern to the Barren River. Alluvium and highly weathered sandstone and chert colluvium occur in the dry valley bottoms and prove the 26


VOLUME 14, NO. 4 former fluvial activity on the now almost streamless Sinkhole Plain; the former surface streams were diverted underground by karst development that is believed to be prePleistocene. Sinkholes are formed by many processes, including collapse of bedrock over a cavity, collapse of soil over a cavity, subsoil-solution of bedrock, downwashing of sediment into the subsurface, or a combination of two or more of these. They are enlarged by solution and further collapse. They are mostly aligned along former valley thalwegs. The sinkholes are commonly elongate, with the longer axis usually directed sub-parallel to the former valley course. Although the sinkhole form may reflect the relative susceptibility to solution of the bedrock unit in which it occurs, the general pattern ofsinkhoJe distribution is related to the former surface drainage system that can be easily traced on topographic and geological maps and even better on aerial photographs (see also Quinlan, 1970). As the Green and Barren Rivers were entrenched, the sinkholes, caves, and the vertical extent of their development deepened. The maximum depth of sinkholes is largely controlled by the hydraulic gradient to the Barren River-as determined by the difference between the elevation of the river and the lip of the sinkholes. The actual depth is determined mainly by the efficiency of the subsurface plumbing system in transporting the collapsed and in washed material. Because the bottom of a sinkhole can be at any elevation within the local range in relief, it is not possible to trace reliably old valley systems or so-culled erosion surfaces by measuring sinkhole depths. The saddles between sinkholes of various depths, however, are relatively stable and can be used for reconstructing the paleot.opography. The saddles are lowered chiefly by erosion caused by the small amount of rain that falls on their surface and to probably a lesser extent by subsoil corrosion of bedrock. They arc therefore, the best indicator of fanner valley bottoms. Contrary to the conclusions of Quinlan and Pohl (1967) and Quinlan (.1970), the influence of several chert beds-chietly t.he Lost River Chert averaging about 2m thick (E.R. Pohl, oral communication, 1972)-011 the occurrence and form of sinkholes, appears to be of only local importance. The sediments within the Sinkhole Plain differ considerably from one physiographic area to another. The high relief areas, such as knobs, saddles and ridges, are partially covered by widespread reddish clay and silt containing transported and in situ chert fragments that are derived from the local limestone. The sinkholes and dry valleys are partially filled by alluvium consisting of clay, silt and chert pieces locally interbedded with fragments of sandstone and chert, and quartz gravels. Broad parts of the Sinkhole Plain are mantled by loess, most of which is less than O.Sm thick. The caves beneath the Sinkhole Plain have not been extensively explored, although many have been known to local people for many years. The higher cave levels there, which correspond to prePleistocene landform development (MIOTKE & PALMER, 1972), occur only in a few places around the margins of knobs (e.g., Mammoth Onyx Cave, near the town of Horse Cave) and along the Chester Escarpment. Many of the actively forming cave passages under the Sinkhole Plain have small rivers that are sometimes flooded (Hidden River Cave, Little Elk Spring Cave and many others). Most of these caves have the enlrance at the bottom of a deep sinkhole. Because of the degree of saturation of vadose water beneath the Sinkhole Plain, some of the caves there are sites of active deposition of travertine. The escarpment of the Chester Cuesta and the knobs were formed by valley erosion coupled with karstification and slope development in nearly flat-lying bedrock differentially resistant to erosion. The escarpment is best developed where the nearby karst valleys are deepest. In interst.ream areas, where tbe valleys are more shallow, the escarpment is poorly developed. As recognized by Quinlan (1970) the knobs are remnants of interstream areas between the now relict major valley lines of the Sinkhole Plain. Contrary t.o Howard (1968) they are not remnants of a cuesta tha t has since migrated northward. The escarpment of the cuesta was not formerly located far SOl1tl1 of its present position. Jts northward retreat, caused by normal fluvial and karstic processes, has been slight. The escarpment as well as the knobs, shows terraces at certain levels which are related to landform development of the whole area. 27


CA VES AND KARST Horse Calle @ i N Ydip 01 beds 5 10 m INPUTS: A. Gardner Creek (green) B. Little Sinking Creek (Fluorescein, S. Wells) C. Sinking Creek (violet) D. Doty Creek (red) TRAPS: 5. 6. 7. 8. 1. River Styx 2. Echo River 3. Turnhole 4. Houchins Ferry Spring Millhole Cedar Sink Owl Cave Graham Spring Figure 1. Flow direction of groundwater from sinking streams in the Sinkhole Plain, Central Kentucky Karst. Hydrology The Sinkhole Plain is streamless except where it is crossed by the Barren and Green Rivers and several small streams that sink near its southern margin. The sinking creeks, all of which have their headwaters on the silty and cherty Salem Limestone and underlying carbonates of the Glasgow Upland at the south margin of the Sinkhole Plain, do not sink immediately where they intercept relatively purer limestones because the alluvium they have carried into the limestone area has part.ially sealed some sinks. At the end of their surface flow course, the creeks sink along a line of swallow holes. During the dry summer season, when surface water flow nearly ceases, the sinks farther upstream, but during flood periods, when water covers the sink area completely, many of the downstream shallow holes drain water to the subsurface. Big log-jams on stream courses indicate the downstream limit of the sinkhole series. The discharge of four of these streams and Graham Spring is shown in Table 1. The springs of the area include the small, trickling springs that drai.n minor aquifers that crop out along the escarpment and ridges (e.g., Dripping Spring) and the major outlets near the deeply entrenched master streams. Many large springs are known along the Green River in t.he Mammoth Cave area, but none are known along the Barren River south of Bowling Green. Upstream from Bowling Green the divide separating the northwestward surface drainage from the southward surface drainage of the Sinkhole Plain is very close to the Barren River. The short surface streams that now north and northwestward from the divide more or less follow the dip of the bedrock. Much of this water ultimately drains to Graham Spring, located on the Barren River near Bowling Green, but its subsurface flow path is not known. 28


VOLUME 14, NO.4 Location Discharge Velocity Temperature Date (See Figure 1) (m'/sec) (m/sec) ee) (1972) Gardner Creek .072 .18 11.0 3/22 Little Sinking Creek .240 .14 14.5 3/20 Sinking Creek .031 .20 13.5 3/21 Doty Creek .002 .30 15.0 3/20 Graham Spring 6.5 .15 13.5 3/21 Table 1. Discharge measurements of selected creeks and Graham Spring, Sinkhole Plain, Central Kentucky. West of the aligned swallow holes only a few deeper sinkholes have streams flowing along their bottom. The swallow holes and springs are only short distances apart. Examples are Elk Spring, Little Elk Spring, and the sinkhole south of Sunnyside on State Highway 807. Graham Spring is, by far, the largest spring of the entire Central Kentucky Karst and it is one of the largest in Kentucky. It is situated at the eastern edge of a wide Barren River meander. The outlet, a large double cirque spring at the base of a cliff more than J Sm high, 600m-long stream. The active spring exit is a cave on the southeastern side of the cirque. Along the north side of the outlet stream are two other major springs. The eastern one is a "Blue-Hole" type spring with water boiling up, but the other emerges from a cave near the mouth of an outlet stream. Several hundred meters downstream of the outlet on the northeast side of the Barren River, another major spring occurs. The location of these springs indicates that they may receive some water from the north as well as from the larger recharge area to the east. Along the Graham Spring outlet stream, the Wisconsin terraces and the flood channel (flood plain) are well developed, just as they are along the Barren River. Several fossil spring cirques and old meanders on the Wisconsin terraces levels are well preserved nearby. North of Bowling Green a wide area south of the Chester Escarpment is characterized by old meanders, either of Rays Branch or the Barren River itself. Water tracing In order to determine at least one of the sources of water in the karst aquifers, and particularly to prove which part of the Sinkhole Plain drains to the Green River and which part drains to the Barren River at Graham Spring, dyed Lycopodium spores were injected into suspected recharge points and recovered in nets placed at springs and intervening streams. For details of the method used see DREW & SMITH (1969) and ALEY (in press). Dyed spores were placed in the sink of Gardner Creek (green spores), Sinking Creek (violet spores), and Doty Creek (red spores)-each sink getting 9.lkg of one color of spores. Net traps were set at Graham Spring and at 7 other points between the sinks and the Green River, as shown in Figure I. Samples were removed from the trapping nets at intervals of several days to obtain an estimate of the rate of water travel as well as to permit collection of a larger quantity of spores. The results are summarized in Table 2. Input at Gardner Creek Sink A small quantity of the green spores that were dumped into Gardner Creek reached the spring in Millhole sink after a travel time of less than 47 hours. The bulk of the spores passed the Millhole within] 19 hours. After 19l hours, significantly fewer spores were found in the net. A second, smaller peak of spore flow occured within 287 hours. This second increase of passing spores is probably attributable to heavy rainfall that washed most of the residual spores through the underground drainage to MillhoJe. A smaller "Data collected by T.W. Lambert, U.S. Geological Survey, Louisville, Kentucky, and published with permission of R.V. Cushman, District Chief. 29


CA VES AND KARST R R t V 4'1 -'(1 G G .1,'1 :.7 1 G {',~ G (".; G G 7.(, R R " V V '" G .'i,1! G ,,1-. G Rh'.' ~tp Sprj"~ 112.2konj I:-JI'UT (UI.Ull r;'."I""<:,,, "''''' GGG Sj"lUnj:C,,'e" .'"Iot vvv ,-,"~"'~' ,=;,<=,.'--_-',,=,,-'R:.:.:R=R"-~lJ~"~.,"~"~n""\' "'Oro"" on;";"",,,, "h"iry "I '1'''''-' (11''''/'''' l Table 2. Summary of recoveries ot dyed spores and approximate avereqe minimum velocities of groundwater movement. (Input of Spores: March 19, 1972). quantity of spores were found 407 hours after the input. From Millhole the spores passed through Cedar Sink and shortly afterward reached the Owl Cave trap on their way north to the Green River. The amount of spores found in the Cedar Sink resurgence and the stream within Owl Cave (also within Cedar Sink) is considerably lower than the quantity collected in Millhole sink. This may be explained by pending of the underground water between Millhole and Cedar Sink; the spores are temporarily trapped until a time of a more turbulent water movement, such as would occur after a heavy rain. An alternative explanation involves diversion of water along on-e or more different routes from Millhole to the Green River. It is certain, however, that Cedar Sink is almost dry during the summer when the water levels in the underground water system and the Green River are low. We interpret these low discharges to mean that the Cedar Sink spring and ponor and the Owl Cave stream are high-level flow-paths of deeper conduits in the limestone. Most of the spores apparently passed this site at a deeper water level. After additional travel time a small but readily detected quantity of green spores finally reached the Green River at Turnhole Bend Spring. The first spores arrived there after less than 287 hours. The small quantity of spores that reached this Spring suggests that sand and silt substrate in the river flood plain may filter some of the spores and that the water may flow from Millhole to other smaller springs along or beneath the Green River. The location, small size and large number of these springs precluded monitoring them. It is certain, however, that no green spores appeared

VOLUME 14, NO.4 Spring within 119 hours and attained their peak in less than 19.1 hours. They were subsequently observed in every sample collected from this site. tnput at Dory Creek Sink: The red spores from the Daty Creek input initially reached Graham Spring in less than I 1.9 hours. The bulk of the spores passed through the spring after J 19 to 287 hours (5-12 days) of travel time, and aJI of the ensuing checks also revealed red spores. The quantity of red spores exceeded the number of violet spores from Sinking Creek, indicating an easier travel route, presumably through rnore open underground passages. The straight-line flow path both from Sinking Creek and Doty Creek is initially down-dip but for most of the path it has an azimuth midway between the strike and dip of the beds. Conclusions The tracing results show conclusively that: 1) The Sinkhole Plain in the vicinity of Pilot Knob drains both to the Green River and the Barren River. It is a potential source of groundwater pollution in Mammoth Cave National Park and other intervening areas. 2) The pre-karst drainage pattern still influences the subterranean drainage. 3) Although the relationship between the pre-karst drainage pattern (physiography) and the subterranean drainage is obvious, the lack of springs occurring along Barren River southeast of Bowling Green particularly to the south of the poncrs of the sinking streams, from where the hydraulic gradient is steepest-shows that the influence on the groundwater hydrology of not only the strike and dip of the beds, but also the lithology, cannot be denied. 4) A subterranean drainage divide lies between Little Sinking Creek and Sinking Creek. s) If the subsurface flow direction of water from the several sinking streams east of Gardner Creek is similar to that from the Creek-as suggested by the map, of the piezometric surface (CUSHMAN, 1968)-it is most probably to River Styx Spring, Echo River Spring, and other springs east of Tumhcle Bend Spring; hence, part of the Water Figure 2. One of the traps in Graham Spring. 31


CA VES AND KARST supply of Mammoth Cave National Park may be polluted by water that enters the aquifer as much as 6km south of the Park boundary. Acknowledgments This research was performed under a two-year fellowship granted to the senior author by the Deutsche Forschungsgerneinschaft and was also supported by the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division (Louisville, Kentucky), and the Cave Research Foundation (Lexington, Kentucky) The authors are grateful for the cooperation of E.R. Pohl, who on several field excursions and during many discussions shared his broad knowledge and long experience regarding the geology of the area. Dr. PoW also provided laboratory equipment for the dye test study. The study was also greatly aided by R.A. and P. Watson and by National Park Service personnel at Mammoth Cave National Park who provided field guidance and equipment, and who made available their library. In particular, the help provided during field work by Chief Naturalist L. McKenzie, Park Naturalist W. Westphal, Park Rangers P. Ritter and C. Pinnix, and Messrs. L. Cook and D. Davis is gratefully acknowledged, The authors also appreciate the editorial assistance given by L. McKenzie and J.F. Quinlan. Several constructive discussions with J.F. Quinlan were a great help and undoubtedly improved this paper. Zusammenfassung Die geomorphologischen Untersuchungen, die durch die Ergebnisse Vall Farbeversuchen abgesichert werden konuten, vermochten die Bedeutung der initialen Talentwicklung zu beweisen, die noch immer das unterirdische Karstsystem beeinflusst. Nul' del' nordostliche Einzugsbereich del' westlichen Pennyroyal Plain (Gardner Creek und Little Sinking Creek) entwassert zum Green River. Der Sinking Creek und der nahe dern Barren River versinkende Doty Creek gehi:iren zum Einzugsgebiet der Graham Spring nordostlich von Bowling Green. Die erstmalig in der Sinkhole Plain durchgefUhrten Wasserfarbeversuche korrigieren die bisherige Annahme, dass die Karstebene ausschliesslich nach Norden zum Green River entwassert. Diese Ergebnisse sind urn so bedeutungsvoller als Ouellen im Mammoth Cave National Park von der nahen Karstebene gespeist werden. Es ist evident, dass das Karstentwasserungssystern der Sinkhole Plain (Xarstebene") nicht chaotisch, sondern liniert angeordnet ist. Die sogenannte Karstebene ist weder durch Schichtlosung entstanden, noch ist sie in Konkordanz mit der Schich toberflache einer resistenten Flintschicht (Lost River Chert), sondern sie hat eine komplexe FluvioKarst-Genese. Die geologische Struktur ist zwar von Bedeutung, ist jedoch nicht der Hauptfaktor der Reliefentwicklung. References ALEY,1. (in press). The water Tracer's Cookbook. C'ape Studies 14. CUSHMAN, R.V. ([968). Recent developments in hydrogeologic investigation in the karst area of central Ken lucky. International Association of Hydrologists, Memoir 8: 236-247. DREW, D.P., & D.l. Smith (1969). Techniques [OJ the tracing of subterranean drainage. British Geomorphological Research Group, Technical Bulletin. 2: 1-36. HOWARD, A.D. (1968). Stratigraphic and structural controls all landform development in the Central Kentucky Karst. National Speleological Society, Bulletin 30 (4): 95-114. LEHMANN, H. (1969). Zur Morphologie der Mitchallplaln und dcr Pcnnyroyalplain in Indiana und Kentucky. Deutscher Geographen Tag, Bad Godesberg, 1967: 359-368 (published: Wicsbaden, 1969). MIOTKE, I.'.D., & A.N. PALMER ([972). Genetic Relations be/ween Caves and Landforms ill Mammoth Cave National Park. Wurzburg, Bohler Verlag. 69 p. [Available for $2.00 from the National Park Service, Mammoth Cave National Park, Mammoth Cave, Kentucky]. QU[NLAN, .1.1"'. (J 970). Centra! Kentucky Karst. Meaneranee, tludes et Tral1aux, 7: 235253. QUINLAN, J.P. & E.R. POHL (1967). Effect or verlical shafts on slope retreat and di~section of solution escarpment and Chesler Cuesta, Central Kentucky Karst (Abstract) Geological SO~'lety of America, Special Paper 121: 450-45 [. WHITE, W.B., WATSON, R.A., POHL, E.R. & R. BRUCKER (1970). The Central Kentucky Karst. Geographical Review 60 (I): 851 [5. 32


. Di"'ib"tion, CA \lES,.AND KARS1;!, an audience composed primarily of l'd",ns having a te 1 chnica1 interest 'in: caves 'and karst. It is received bY tile major libraries in the United 'States end. abroad, and on, exchange by 'Speleological \organiuHoQ.s ~ouod the 'wodd.,. l'. I .' Policy: Ma~uscdpt sub,nitted tq the ed.itbrs mp.y be.senr to Qtller person~ for review, but final dedsipns on publicadQn remain W.ith the editors. Authors will be mailed ~ley proofs of art~des,a:bst1:;'acts> 'qi5cussio~.' i¢vlews~ and editori'als,lbut Dot o£ news Dotes and annotated bibliography unless spe l ," PhQtogr~Ph," prawiugs ~ontljiQiQg too~s p£ grey aqd phd\og..pbs lequire hall'one rep,oduetioQ. Ph6tq, ahoul<;l be su~mittee! as glossy pJaokand.",hi,e ptints 01 considerablccontrss). 'Irarge-sized ph.orQS aftlfrefeged and shptlld cp'nt~in an indicat~E)n of s¢11e, unless 9,tmens,i90s 3fe indic<\ted in the Ciption.' 'Lin~ drallling' .~d dillgra"u: These sho~le! be dJ;awn in India ink. ~ll e~r schematic, tyue drawings shoull:l ,conrai-f(a, me~ic scale, 01; dlmen,,~ohS ,should be provided" in the capti(;m. < MagnificatiqD figutes are nor sa:tisfaaory. (~Ps, iil additibb, ~bou1d CODta~~ an arrow inQita~jn'g tme north Of o~her d,ite¢rion' indicat9fr 1:ettedn'g ~hoifld be done with I care--usi~either considerable 11.r:d~try or' mechan~6il 'aids. Pres~..Qh' letters gi~e et cellent restills "(hen p,bl'etJy align:ed. Ples~,on shiding and sYPlbt,lS, .. ~ilable at ~,t score~ are' also recopune.nded.. These and, lettering should be PiOS~Q with the expected \ .size red,ilction in mind. Fibal page< width is J 1.400 (4.' in.)., ColOr dr aw i11gJ} Draw~ngs jntendetu'ate sheet, referenced by corher or other regisrratiQn marks.,*uthQrs will be provided with an estimate of any' extra costs involved.. ~. ' j Special ,harg~l.:' 'Therel. ,tIP d)arge fot publishing rhe ,e>;t o£ ... tjcI

Contents: Geomorphology and hydrology of the sinkhole
plain and Glasgow upland, Central Kentucky karst: preliminary
report / Franz-dieter Miotke & Hans Papenberg.
Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and
Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15)
were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In
1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete
sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells
hardbound copies of the material to support its