Caves and karst: Research in speleology

Caves and karst: Research in speleology

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Caves and karst: Research in speleology
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Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology
Cave Research Associates
Cave Research Associates
Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation
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Geology ( local )
serial ( sobekcm )


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Contents: The subsidence of the surface between mogotes in Puerto Rico east of Arecibo / Franz-Dieter Miotke. Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15) were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In 1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells hardbound copies of the material to support its activities.
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Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation Collection
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Vol. 15, no. 1 (1973)
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See Extended description for more information.

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CAVES AND KARST c. Research in Speleology Vol~e 15, Number 1 January/February 1973 CONTENTS I FRANZ-DIETER MIOTKE: 'The Subsidence of the Surface between Mogotes in Puerto Rico east of Arecibo ....... .. 1 Publication of CAVE RESEAROH ASSOCIATES I


, CAVE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES \ qa{re Resea'rdi Associates is a non-profit scientific and educational institution incorpcraced in 1?59 to further tHe! study and 'preservarion of.narural caves .. Research projects and publications ,of the organizarioh are supported ,primarily by private contributions. All such contribu.iions are rax-deducdible. I Membersllip in Cave Research Associates is open 'to pers~ns .of all nations who demonstrate a partisular "interest and bqckgroun:d in the cave and karst sciences, and, who ',subscribe, to the Fonservacion practises established by the Trustees. Persons interested in be("omillg' mem~krs s~ould write the Secretary fer information on membership. Material 10\ publication, in CAVES AND KARST and CAVE STUDIES is invited nom tl~e'~li:ienti6c community at large as well as C.R.A. members. Authors.should follow the iostrucdons provided .herein. r I I Trustees I Staff -r1972 I Vice President: Lee Christianson Treasurer: W. B, Martin I I, ", INFORMATION FOR AUl'HORS I I \ ; '\ Scop~: .C~~;Y:E?) AND KARST contains feature articles, notes, discussions, news, reviews, ~ editorials ana. annocared bibliographies. Articles should contain results of original work antl'ideas; and treatment should be of more than 'local interest. Mere cave descriptions and field trip 'accounts are nor kcepted. News ncres an! codfined to significant current events, and reviews and annotated bibliography entries should treat matenial not over ,twq years old. ;. ' I I, I (Continued on back inside cover)


CA YES AND KARST Research in Speleology Volume IS. No. 1 '/anuarY/February 1973 Frontispiece Aerial photograph of an area east of Miraflores showing various synchronous stages in the development of cone karst relief. The mogotes and magote ridges show as wooded hills, the suqarcane fields appear as gray flats, and the pineapple fields can be identified by the striping. (U.S. Geological Survey photo). The Subsidence of the Surface between Mogotes in Puerto Rico East of Arecibo By FRANZ-DIETER MIO:rKE' Translated by WATSON Ii. MONROe** Abstract Investigation of a small area of mogotes and intervening depressions in northern Puerto Rico shows that solution of limestone is especially active at the fool of the steep slopes of the mogotes and beneath broad plains of "blanket sands". The subsidence of the surface between the mogotes is the result of local collapse of cavities beneath the blanket sand, as well as of sheet solution. Chemical analyses made in the field of both surfacennd underground water show that there i~ little significant difference in the process of solution of limestone in the Tropics and in temperate zones, even though the morphologic features are different. "Ceographisches Institute, Tcchnischc Untversuat. 3 Hannover, Am Schneideruorg 50, West Genna ny **U.S. Geological Survey, GPO Drawer 2230. San Junn PR 00936


CAVES AND KARST Figure 1. Cross-section of the rocks of Oligocene and Miocene age in the Arecibo quadrangle. After Briggs (1968). Introduction During February and March 1969, for more than 2 months, I had the opportunity of conducting geomorphologic studies in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Jamaica with financial support from a stipend of the Student Endowment Fund of the German People and the additional financial support of the Gennan Research Foundation. I hereby acknowledge that support. I also thank W.H. Monroe of the U.S. Geological Survey, San Juan, Puerto Rico, for scientific introduction to the geologic problems of tile island and for the loan of some valuable laboratory equipment. The study area in Puerto Rico for the detailed results of this report lies east of the Rro Grande de Arecibo in the Aguada and Aymam6n Limestones. Description of the karst The northern slope of Puerto Rico is formed by limestone strata dipping toward the sea. The Tertiary limestones, Oligocene through middle Miocene in age, crop out along the northern coast in a strip up to 22km wide and about l25km long. Since the beginning of uplift in the middle Miocene, the limestone belt has undergone erosion and solution (MONROE,1960) Within the area of karst relief, many of the depressions contain fills of so-called "blanket sands", which on the average are only a few meters thick, but which here and there can reach depths of more than 30m. According to Briggs (1966) a preponderant part of the volcanic rock in the high central part of the island was transported by rivers to the lower coastal areas before the accentuated cone karst of today had been developed. Long-continued tropical weathering has decomposed the particles of volcanic rock, so that the percentage of clay and quartz has increased. In addition, this has been m.ixed with the residuum of the weathering of the locallimestone. The content of quartz ranges from 5 to 99% and the clay, from 1 to 95%; on the average a quartz/clay ratio averaging about 65:35 can be accepted. The median grain size is in the silt range. According to Hildebrand (1960), the minerals present include ferruginous kaolinitic clay, kaolinite, halloysite, anastase, boehmite, goethite, hematite, oligoclase, sanidine and other feldspars, as well as organic matter. The color of the blanket sands ranges from light-brown to dark reddish-brown. The limestone strata (Figure I) are divided into the San Sebastian and Lares (Oligocene) Cibao (Oligocene and Miocene), and Aguada, Aymam6n, and Camuy (Miocene). The Camuy Limestone crops out partially under the sea. Ground-water level in the Aymam6n Limestone is at sea level. Aquifers also have been penetrated in wells in the underlying strata of the Aguada Limestone. The limestone occurring in the drier southern part of Puerto Rico>(abouUI,OOOmmrof-rainfaJO 'is not discussed here. The succession of aopograpluc .types from the north coast to the inner mountainous area can be divided as follows: 1) The mogotes of the Aymam6n Limestone form a step above the partially swampy coastal plain and marine terraces. 2) Inland from the belt of mogotes, larger karst plains have developed. The karst plains are varied in relief by Oat but conspicuous elongated depressions in the blanket sands. 2


VOLUME j 5, NO. j Figure 2. Steep limestone walls mark the valley of the Rio Grande de Arecibo. The high terraces on limestone (middle ground) have been dissolved into small mogotes. On the flat valley floor, which here has become widened in the transition to the coastal plain, sugarcane is cultivated despite danger of inundation. In the background rise the central mountains of volcanic rock. (Author photo]. Figure 3. The mogotes in the Avmamcn Limestone tower some 30-70m above the karst plain. They are wooded in contrast to the plain, which is in cultivation predominantly for sugarcane and pineapples. (Aerial photograph by author.) 3


CAVES AND KARST 3) The cone karst in the belt of the Lares Limestone cropping out farther south has more precipitous slopes and greater differences in altitude. In the background mountains of volcanic rocks crowd together in ranges up to 1 ,OOOm high. 4) The narrow incised valley of the Ri a Grande de Arecibo (Figure 2) traverses the higher; mountainous area-of-noncalcareous rocks through-the-limestone area northward to the coastal plain. The differing heights of cone-karst terraces in the valley of the Ri a Grande de Arecibcwill not be discussed here. An area of closed depressions and small karst plains at the transition from the Aguada Limestone to the Aymam6n Limestone was investigated in detail (Figure 3). Besides detailed geomorphologic mapping, all accessible natural-water occurrences were investigated chemically. The aim of the studies was to understand the dynamics of the solution processes in as much detail as possible. Special observations were made for that purpose during the winter, which is the low-rainfall season. Repeated collection of water samples titrated immediately in the field yielded information on the variability of the dissolved lime content. From the extensive collection of examples in a limited area an attempt was made to analyze a closed system. Because the study was confined to the winter season, the conclusions are naturally not representative of the greater rainfall of the summer half of the year; still, as should be pointed out, some statements-cbased on well founded principles-scan be made about the dynamics of solution and the development of the relief in the cone karst of the area of the investigation. In order to put the problems in perspective, a small depression on the margin of an inner karst plain was closely studied as an example. The elongated depression, covered with blanket sands, is surrounded by mogotes of the Aguada Limestone, just south of the boundary with the Aymam6n Limestone. The Aguada Limestone, 90-l50m thick, is composed of fine-grained, light-colored strata of varying thickness; thin strata of quartz sandstone are present but are rare. The Aymam6n Limestone overlies the Aguada Limestone conformably. The Aymam6n is light-colored, very pure limestone 200m thick. Although hard limestone beds are also present, a chalky character is generally predominant. The higher parts of the mogotes are commonly encrusted by solution and reprecipitation of the carbonate and thus are especially hard (MONROE, 1966b). The native vegetation on the floor of the depressions has yielded here to cultivation of sugar cane and pineapples; the mogotes are covered by a dense, low forest (Figure 4). Of the annual rainfall of about l700mm.60.8%is lost by evapotranspiration, according to a calculation of the U.S. Geological Survey. Only 33.4% of the rain water in Puerto Rico flows away in streams, and 5.8% reaches the sea as groundwater. In the karst area, probably nearly 40% of the rainfall infiltrates the soil and reaches the underground aquifer. Although the larger portion of the rainfall takes part in the solution exchange prior to evapotranspiration, the entire annual precipitation should not be used in the calculation of solution rates. The content of carbon dioxide in the forest air was measured at 0.07-0.08%. The soil air of the mogote slopes contained 0.9-1.3% CO 2 The carbon dioxide in the depression soil (With the high water level only DAm beneath the surface) ranged from 1.5% to a maximum of 7.0%. Before the development of the present relief can be reconstructed, the recent processes must be understood. The most important factor in the lowering of the surface, especially in limestone terrane, is solution by water.. We must ask, therefore, what happens to, the' Tam water that reaches, the -mogotes and cockpits? It is well known that tropical-rain showers. fall with great intensitybut. seldom as extended downpours. Also "the 'area'of 'precipitation is 'Usually quitelimited. After a 20-minute shower, almost immediately the brilliant sunshine reappears. The evaporation then becomes so intense, that the ground surfaces rapidly dry. By that means dissolved limestone is partially reprecipitated on the surface (MONROE, 1966b). 4


VOLUME 15, NO 1 Figure 4. Cross-section of typical mogotes and an intervening depression, showing vegetation types. The mogotes The forest-covered mogotes are commonty sealed on top by a thick limestone crust, so that only a little water can infiltrate from the brief showers. Solution and reprecipitation of the limestone quickly interchange. Meanwhile the portion of the water that does seep into the limestone progresses downward (Figure 5). This infiltrating rain water penetrates slowly by gravity and has therefore much time for solution. When the advancing water reaches hard impermeable clayey strata, it issues as springs (in part only temporary springs) at the outcrop of these strata. The seeping water on the slopes of the mogotes trickles in small rills down to the base where it finally disappears underground. The closed depressions As contrasted to the mogotes, the unforested sandy surfaces of the depressions and karst plains are exposed to the falling rain without protection. The widely spaced pineapple plants and the sugar-cane fields impede the surface runoff only slightly. The volumes of water fall far faster than they can soak into the dry soil filled with air or water-soaked, clay-expanded soil. As the water accumulates, streams form' along the deeper margins of the depressions (See Figure 5), where the water of the basal zone of the mogotes drains off underground. As can be perceived by the formation of gullies and as can be observed during heavy rainstorms, the surficial flow transports considerable quantities of sand and clay so that the sumideros, or swallow holes, commonly become tightly plugged and the water is imponded. Water is thus forced to seep downwards through the sand in front of the sumideros. These seldom appear as open swallow holes. For the most part, the water seeps into the rubble of collapse cavities. The farmers laboriously dig out the plugged sumideros, so that even with extremely heavy rainfall the fields do not become inundated; nevertheless, impending in front of partly plugged sumideros is not rare. Permanently plugged depressions develop perennial lakes which become marshy and produce high lime hardness (up to 300 mg!J CaC0 3 ). The water that soaks into the blanket sand forms perched water tables over the more clayey layers. The inhabitants tap this water by digging wells. A part of the infiltrating water eventually reaches the underlying limestone and goes deeper. The water entering the limestone in the vicinity of the surnideros is manifestly absorbed by large, very permeable cave systems and rather quickly reaches a phreatic zone. Numerous water wells show that the water table in the Aymarn6n strata is seldom more than a few centimeters above sea level; hence, in the study area, it lies about 150m 5


CAVES AND KARST *"0""" '9 m.~2,,1 'P 2 as 2 2 2 2 2 ae 7 2 7 ;0 '." a e 2 esc 2 Sea level Water table fluctugtion zone, a few meters Figure 5. Rainfall runoff differentiated with respect to topographic location. beneath the depression surface. ,A. temporary rise of the water table follows quickly after Iocally strong rainy periods but is only a local rise. A water well in use for a long time in the 'study area became useless, because the entire casing suddenly dropped down in the ground .and could not be found again by probing. 'Obviously the casings had fallen into a cavity beneath the water surface and had been washed away. The height of the water table fluctuates several meters according to seasonal variations in rainfall. The water level rises gently inward from the coast. Recent borings in the coastal area have shown that aquifers also must exist in the Aguada strata. Whether this water has followed the bedding, or whether the aquifers are connected with the overlying Aymarnon is not known. Water chemistry In order to be able to estimate the solutional activity of the previously mentioned water discharge, the chemical properties of the different waters have been analyzed. The waters flowing on the surface of the rnogotes are still not saturated at the foot of the mogotes (Figure 6). They have a carbonate content of only 40 to 120111g/1 and thereby are still aggressive with respect to calcium carbonate (cf. CORBEL & MUXART, 1970). The water trickling slowly through the limestone of the mogotes appears in springs on the slopes and already shows a very high lime content from 220 to 300mg/I. The limestone of the mogotes (Aguada Limestone) is spongy. The passages are filled with clayey loam, so that the water seeps through only slowly. The larger through-passages are partially filled with loam, and their surfaces are covered with calcareous sinter and stalactites. The springs on the slopes of the mogotes have deposited travertine after evaporation of the lirnycvatet. In she almost .entlrely 'lime-free blanket sands "the rainwater can pick up a lime content hardly more than 20mg/1. The flowing water erodes gullies up to 1.5m deep. Shallow valleys and gullies add water to the subsiding surnideros. Because of the rapid drainage into the underground, saturation can certainly not be reached here, so that still greater quantities of lime are dissolved within the cavernous limestone on the way to the phreatic zone. 6


VOLUME 15, NO. 1 In Jamaica, water flowing into caves has substantially lower lime content (about 130 rug/I) than water flowing out (up to 250mgjl) (BROWN, 1966). Although the lime content of these cave streams is comparable in Puerto Rico with the surface streams, the lime content in the horizontal groundwater of the study area is higher (245,300mg/I). In the drier southern limestone area around Guanica the carbonate .hardness of the groundwater locallv rises to more than 450mg/l CaeD 3 (ARNOW & CROOKS, 1960; McCLYMONDS, 1967). Depressions, continuously filled with water have, according to the height of the water, from 200 to 300mgjl content of calcium and/or magnesium. Well water in the deeper blanket sand (water surface at 8m, well depth at 12m) still lies in the unsaturated range with l50mgjl. Conclusions The chemical analyses of the water and the field observations suggest the following pattern of recent formation: The beating rainfall rushes down the shallow valleys of the inter-mogote depressions and karst plains, both of which are covered with blanket sand, to the sumideros at the base of the mogotes. Rapid solution begins there not only on the surface, but also within the caves underground which enlarge and collapse. In the environs of the sumideros, this leads to subsidences and to the regression by collapse of the mogote slopes. Precipitous walls above the sumideros and rubble heaps at the foot of the mogotes are the result (Figure 7). As cave mapping in Jamaica shows (BROWN, 1966), caves are developed especially at the margins of mcgotes; this observation can be explained by the foregoing results of studies in Puerto Rico. Caves occur not only in the mogotes, however, but exist also under the depressions and, karst plains, as recent collapses clearly prove. Sinks, waterfllled dolines, and swamps in the karst plains of Biafara, Puerto Rico, as well as dry basinlike depressions within vaUey-like hollows at the bottom of blanket-saod-filled cockpits ,",'ioTol Ioole' Figure 6. Water chemistry. 7


CAVES AND KARST and karst plains are not rare. In the karst plain of Miraflores, Puerto Rico, which has developed on limestone overlying limestone (ef. PANOS & STELCL, 1968), detailed mapping showed that here the shallow valleys also are always related to bordering suntideros. Two days before my arrival and following a day of violent rainstorms a collapse sink about 15m wide and 10m deep had fallen in exactly in the middle of the road (Figure 8). In the karst-t'plain," wider collapse sinks with angular outlines still partly filled with water can be observed (Figure 9). With the increasing size of covered limefree surfaces, the relative amount of solution underground must increase, because the influx of unsaturated water upon the sumideros s~ ~~,?~ ;J ~ J = .~ ~J~) ..l.=:=="-c----:-:-c-----:;-:-:-::~ Figure 7. Drainage from the mogotes and shallow valleys into sumideros in the area filled with blanket sand between mogote ridges. Bletara. Puerto Rico closed depression moqote showing its crestline shallow volley gully sumidero steep wall with rubble heap 8


VOLUME 15, NO. 1 figure 8. Obvious proof of underground karst cavities are the occasional collapses. This collapse interrupted the road from Miraflores to Ballaia in January 1969 and occurred along the continuation of the lines of two valleys between mogetes in the karst plain 1.5km east of Miraftores. The sand cropping out above the water surface belongs to the blanket sands. (Author photo). Figure 9. Besides the deeper collapses, numerous nearly flat, undrained karst depressions, containing standing temporary or perennial water, can be observed in the level area between the moqotes and in the karst plains. In addition to the solution at the contact zone of the blanket sands with the outcropping limestone, lowering of the surface also takes place by collapse into underground cavities. {Author photo). 9


CAVES AND KARST Figure 10. The mogotes have very steep walls due to collapse and slumping in the areas of sumideros. In the rubble bank lying at the foot of the mcqotes under the wall, fragments and very large blocks of limestone are commonly found. Thick vegetation covers the sumideros, but they can be found easily if one follows to their ends the flat, shallow valleys in the blanket sands. (Author photo). Figure 11. Commonly the flat, shallow valleys in the blanket sands run from several directions to the sumideros. Within these fairly level valleys, gullies are incised up to 1.5m deep, because the unprotected surfaces between the widely spaced rows of pineapples are easily eroded by the unchecked rainwater flowing off. (Author photo). 10


VOLUME 15, NO 1 grows larger and is concentrated on the border areas and the few mogotes remaining within the karst plains, where the water flows away more rapidly. Karst plains, therefore, do not form only by sheet solution (MONROE, 1969), but also are lowered by collapse and settling phenomena of all kinds. The peripheral enlargement of the karst plains takes place not only through intensified superficial solution differentiation, but also through intensified collapse (Figure 10) at the foot of the mogotes, the place where a large part of the solution-aggressive water enters the underground (Figure 11). The aerial photograph of the karst plain east of Miraflores (Front ispiece) shows different synchronous stages in the development of the rnogote-karst relief from a former limestone surface. Whereas the dry valleys in the south-facing cuesta scarp (upper part of picture) are very short, the deep valleys north of the scarps, which follow the northeasterly dip of the Aymamon Limestone on the back slope of the cuesta, are longer. The side valleys of these longer valleys have already broken up the ridge crest into isolated buttes. The smooth widening of the valley 1100rs is perceptible in some places. The development is more substantially advanced at the sou them border of the aerial photograph, where the smooth floors of the shallow karst valleys are already dominant, whereas the ridge crests have already become completely disorganized into isolated mogotes. The low remnants of mogotes in the interior of the broad karst plains indicate by their aligned, arrangement a formerly continuous range of hills. They have been slowly, but almost entirely, wasted away from their margins inward. Unfortunately, the stratigraphy of the Aymam6n Limestone is still not known in detail, so that the variations in petrology of the ranges of hills of mogotes can not be differentiated. The fact can be read indistinctly from the aerial photograph that the karst plains are divided into parts by broad, flat drainage-ways present in the cover of blan ket sands and that in many places the blanket sands have subsided into nearly level, undrained karst depressions and collapse holes partly filled with water. The conclusion can be drawn that the results of chemical analysis presented here (lime hardness] from the Tropics shows once more a great resemblance to the analytical data from temperate zones (Compare especially SWEETINGS, 1965;.WILLIAMS, 1968; MIOTKE, 1968), and that it does not seem obvious precisely what is "the difference in principle between the limestone-solution chemistry in the tropics and in the temperate latitudes. The influence of temperature on the speed of solution of the limestone seems not to be as significant as has been believed. The free acids in "tropical water," H 2 C03 and organic acids (See the free C02 content, calculated from the NaOH-titration value in Figure 6) were found much lower than is generally accepted. Finally, the C02 content of the ground air in the Tropics does not differin principle from the values in the temperate latitudes. References ARNOW, T., & r.w. CROOKS (1960). Public water supplies in Puerto Rico. Commouweolth of Puerto Rico, water-Resources Bulletin 2, 34p. BIROr P. J. CORBEL & R. MUXART (968). Morphologic des regions calcaires ala Jamaique et a Pue;to 'Rico. France: Centre des Recherches ec Documentation Cortographiques et Geographioues, Memoires et Documents 1967; new series 4; 335-392. BRIGGS, R.P. (.1966). The blanket sands of northern Puerto Rico. Third Caribbean Geological Conference [Kingston, April 1962), Transactions: 60-69. BRIGGS, R.P. (968). Geologic map of the Areciho quadrangle, Puerto Rico. U.S. Geological Survey, Miscellaneous Geological Investigations, Map 1551. BROWN, M.e. (1966). Full Report of the 1%5"66 Karst Hydrology Expeditionto Jamaica. Privately published. Huddersfield, England. 63p. BROWN, M.e. (968). Karst t nvestigationsolong the Northwestern Margins of the Centra/Inlier, [omaica Canadian Association of Geographers, Annual Convenuou. \ 968. CORBEL, .1., & R. MUXART (1970). Karst des zones tropicales humides. Zeitsclmft fur Geomorphologic. 14 (4): 411-474. 1l


CAVES AND KARST GERSTENHAUER, A. (1966). Beitrage ZUT Geomorphologic des mittleren und nordlichen Chiapas (Mexico) untcr besondercr Bertlcksichtigung des Karsnormenschatzes. Frankfurter Geographische Heise 41. HILDEBRAND, EA. ([960). Occurrences of bauxitic clay in the karst area of north-central Puerto Rico. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 400"8 B368-B371 LEHMANN, H. (1954). Der tropische Kegelkarst auf den Crossen Antillen (Part 3 of "Das Karstphanomen in den verschiedeuen'Klimazonen]. Erdkunde 8 (2): 130-139. MeeL YMONDS, N.E. (1967). Water resources of the Guanica area, Puerto Rico, a preliminary appraisal, 1963. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Water-Resources Bulletin 6, 43p. MIOTKE, F.-D. (1968). Karstmorphologische Studien in der glaztat-uberformten Hohenstufe der "Picos de Europa", Nordspanien. Geographische Geeeuschaft, Hannover, Jahrbuch SH4. MONROE, \V.H. (1960). Sinkholes and towers in the karst area of north-eentraL Puerto Rico. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 400-8: B356-B360. MONROE, \V.H. (1966a). Stratigraphic relations and sedimentation of the Oligocene and Miocene formations of northern Puerto Rico. Third Caribbean Geological Conference (Jamaica, April 1962), Transactions: 54-59. MONROE, W.H. (1966b). Formation of tropical karst topography by limestone solution and reprecipitation. Carihbean Journal ol Science 6 (1-2): 1-7. MONROE, \V.H. (1969). Evidence of subterranean sheet solution under weathered detrital cover in Puerto Rico. Hrno, Problems otthe Karst Denudation: 111121. PANOS, V. & STELCL, O. (1968). Physiographic and geologic control in development of Cuban mogotes. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologic 12 (2): 117-173. PFEFFER, K.-H. (J 969). Charakter der Verwitterungsresiduen irn tropischen Kegelkarst und ihre Beziehung zum Formenschatz. Geologische Rundschau 58: 408-426. SWEETING, M.M., ET AL. (1965). Denudation in limestone regions: a symposium. Geographical Journal. 131. WILLIAMS, P.W. (1968). An evaluation of the rate and distribution of limestone solution and deposition in tile River Fergus Basin, Western Ireland. Australian National University, Research School o] Pacific Studies, Department of Geography, Report ozs. Errata Volume 14, NO.5: The captions for the Fronti-spiece and Figure 2 are reversed: They should read instead: "Frontispiece. One of the traps in Graham Springs;" and "Figure 2. The trap in Cedar Sink." Volume 14, No.6: Page 48: Author of 5th reference should read "THRAILKILL, JOHN" 12


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CAVE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES Price List of Publications CAVES AND KARST (formerly CAVE NOTES): A Journal of research in the karst and cave sciences; published bimonthly and containing technical pape~sl" reviews, notes, and annotated bibliographies of current literature. I Current Volumes Volume 1$ (1973) .. d dd .. d: .. :,ddddd.d d $~.25 Volumes 1 5 through 17 ,...................... 7.50 Earlier Volumes Volumes 1, 2, 3 (each) : $1.00 Volumes4through8(each) : .. : 2.00' Volumes 9 through 12 (each) 2 .. 50 Volume 13 on (each) .. ,............................. 3.25 Volumes I through 14 (1959 1972) complete, including 3year indexes" ~ 29.50 Single issues and iridexes Prices on request. 'l-Volumes 3, 6 and 9 include j-year indexes CAVE STUDIES: Monographs in the cave sciences. Numbers 1 11: A bound volume of l Lpapers published between 1953 and 19$9. Price $3.QO (out-of-print). Number 12: An Ethno-Archaeological' Examination of Sam wet Cave, by Adan E. Treganza, with figures, photographs and .maps. 'Price $2.00. ''I Number 13: Karst Hydrology of the Lower 'Maligne Basin, Jasper, Alberta, by M.e. Brown, 96 pages, 7 tables, 47 figures, 3 color plates; hardbound, in cloth. 'Price $6.75. " AU prices include postage: Quantity rates to authors and others are available ,on request. Please make checks and money orders payable to, CA VE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES, 3842 Brookdale Blvd., Castro Valley, California, U.S.A. 94546. British subscribers rnay place their orders directly with CA VE RESEARCH ASSOCIA TES, c/o Mr. Tony Oldham, ,17 Freemantle Rd., Eastville, Bristol, England BS5 6SY. To insure .prompt handling of subscription correspondence, the previous' address label or plate number must be enclosed. Please include a self-addresse,d stampe~ envelope.

Contents: The subsidence of the surface between mogotes in
Puerto Rico east of Arecibo / Franz-Dieter Miotke.
Cave Notes(vols. 1-8) and
Caves and Karst: Research in Speleology(vols. 9-15)
were published by Cave Research Associates from 1959-1973. In
1975, the Tumbling Creek Cave Foundation compiled complete
sets of the journals in three volumes. The Foundation sells
hardbound copies of the material to support its


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