Contents: Message from
Message from the Chairman --
16th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology --
Important Lava Tube Caves Found in Dong Nai Province
Southern Vietnam --
Lava Caves Near Auckland, New Zealand.
N o 6 7 November 201 3 Union Internationale de Splologie UIS Commission on Volcanic Caves e NEWSLET TER
http://www.uis speleo.org/ http://www.v ulcanospeleology.org Me ssage from the Chairman. ....... .... .............. .. ......... ........ 3 16th International Sympo s i um on Vulcanospeleology........ 4 Important Lava Tube Caves Found in Dong Nai Province Southern Vietnam . .......................... ...... .......... ... ............ .. 13 Lava Caves Near Auckland, New Zealand .......................... 16 No. 6 7 November 201 3 Contents The Commission on Volcanic Caves N ewsletter has been published q uarterly since December 22, 1993. The Newsletter is available free of charge to all members of the c o mmission, and to others who are i nterested in lava caves.
firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org MISSION STATEMENT The U.I.S. Commission on Volcanic Caves encourages exploration and scientific investigation of volcanic c aves, and hosts the International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology about every two years. COVER PHOTO An active eruption during the 1969 1971 Mauna Ulu eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawai i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai i. Photo by J.B. Judd, October 21, 1970. Photo is courtes y of the U.S Geological Survey U.S.G.S.
BRNO 2013 Current situation of the commission: The committee has a new member: Greg Middleton of Tasmania, Australia, email@example.com Chairman: Jan Paul van der Pas firstname.lastname@example.org Vice chairman: Harry Marinakis email@example.com Harry t akes care of our Newsletter. So we have now staff on three continents. During the Brno congress there were at least 5 lectures concerning volcanic caves: Bella/Gal Genetic Types of Non Solution Caves Kempe/Bosted Kahuenaha Nui a cave developed in four different lava flows Bosted et al. Keokeo L ava Tube System in Hawaii, Addison et al. Recent Investigations in the Glapagos Islands, Woo et al. Natural and Cultural Heritage Values of the Yongcheon Lava Tube. The commission received a grant from U.I.S. to cover the cost of the web side domain name. This web side is perfectly maintained by John Pint : http:// www.vulcanospeleology.org Future symposia of the commission were discussed. Next one will be on Glapagos in March 2014. Final data will be soon published. Aaron Addison gave a lecture during the congress, and answered questions during the commission meeting. Offers for next symposia are Hawaii, maybe 2016, New Mexico U.S.A., and Argentina. The Argentina symposium however would be a part o f a national congress.
16 th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology Website: http://geo1.espe.edu.ec/16th ivs galapagos/ Galpagos Islands, Repblica del Ecuador March 16 22, 2014 Hosted by ECUCAVE Caving Organization of Ecuador & Con ference Co Chairs: Theofilos Toulkeridis, Ph.D. / Aaron Addison, MSGISc
Schedule for the 16th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology Pre Symposium Expedition March 8 15, 2014 Pre symposium science, exploration and mapping expedition Details page 6. Vulcanospeleo logy Symposiu m March 16 22, 2014 Puerto Ayora, Isla Santa Cruz & I sla Isabela, Galpago s Islands Details page 7. Post Symposium Cruise M arch 24 28, 2014 Post symposium Galapagos cruise through the Galapagos Islands. Details on pages 8 through 9 There have been significant changes to the schedule and activities that were published in the previous e Newsletter.
Google maps Independent Pre Symposium Activities The host organizing team arrives i n the Galapagos I slands on March 8, 2014. The hosts can assist people who arrive early with a variety of independent tours and activities in the Galapagos Islands. All pre symposium activities and expenses are separate from the symposium and are not included in the symposium fee. P lease c ontact: Aaron Addison activities firstname.lastname@example.org Theofilos Toulkeridis activities and accommodations email@example.com Jorge A. Mahauad snorkeling and scuba firstname.lastname@example.org Pre symposium Science & Explorat ion Expedition March 8 15, 2014 There is a limited number of openings for a pre symposium science exploration and mapping expedition in Galapagos. Aaron anticipates 5 6 openings for cave survey, but if someone brings particular skill biology, vulca nology, photography to the expedition, then Aaron is open to a conversation about that. All expenses will be separate from the symposium and are TBD. Contact: Aaron Addison email@example.com
16th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology March 16 22 2014 Symposium Schedule: Please see th e symposium website for details. March 16, 2014 Sunday Fly to Baltra Island in the Galapagos then transfer to Puerto Ayora on Sant Cruz Island Evening cocktails. March 17, 2014 Monday Symposium Conferences, Posters. Dinner. March 18, 2014 Tuesday Bellavista c aving field trip BBQ on site. March 19, 2014 Wednesday Pemicias c aving field trip Dinner on site. March 20, 2014 Thursday Royal Palm caving field trip. Transfer to Isabela Island. Dinner. Caving in the Galpago Islands. Photo by Peter Sp rouse. March 21, 2014 Friday Field trip visits to the caves of Southeast Sierra Negra, or vertical trip to Triple Volcan see photo p. 11 Dinner. March 22, 2014 Saturday End of symposium Option 1 : E arly departure to Puerto Ayora Opti on 2 : Cascajo caving field trip Option 3 : G uided tour to Sulfur mines, new volcanic fields & Volcan Chico March 23, 2014 Sun day Option 1 : Transfer to Baltra airport Option 2 : P ost symposium cruise.
March 24, 2014 Day 1 Flight from mainland Ecuador Quito or Guayaquil to Baltra, with AEROGAL Airlines. Your guide conducts you to the bus and after a short 5 kilometer ride to the pier ; we board the Yacht without delay. We greet you with our first orientation and we offer a light snack. In the afternoon, we make a panga ride on Black Turtle Cove, series of mangrove surrounded coves and islets; where we can observe white tipped sharks, m arine turtles, spotted eagle rays, and yellow cow nosed rays. We board the Yacht for dinner and the first of our nightly orientations. March 25, 2014 Day 2 After breakfast, we make a wet landing on Chinese Hat Sombrero Chino, a small island off the c oast of Santiago Island, we can observe on the rocky shoreline: Galapagos penguins, eagle rays, sea lions and marine iguanas. This is an excellent snorkeling site. Optional: time for those who would like to swim, snorkel and/ or Kayak. Return to the Yacht for lunch. In the afternoon, we m ake a wet landing on Rbida, to w alk and to observe marine iguanas and sea lions, pelicans, blue footed boobies, masked boobies and brown pelicans. We walk and we arrive to a small saltwater lagoon where we can see pink fla mingos. Optional: time for those who would like to swim, snorkel and/ or kayak. We return to the Yacht for dinner and our nightly orientation. March 26, 2014 Day 3 After breakfast we make a wet landing on Sullivan Bay, a perfect place to get a feel fo r the volcanic origin of the islands. Optional: time for those who would like to swim and/or snorkel. We return to the boat for a delicious lunch. In the afternoon, we make a dry landing on Bartholomew Island, to hike to the summit; during the hike we obse rve Post symposium Galapagos Cruise M arch 24 28 2014 Jorg e A. Mahauad is the managing director of Galapagos Tip Top Diving and the Galapagos Tip Top Fleet. He is offering a post symposium cruise s 5 days/4 nights through the Galapagos Islands on the Tip Top IV yacht that includes trips to various islands, hiki ng, nature excursions, bird watching, swimming, snorkeling and kayaking. A MINIMUM OF 16 PEOPLE ARE REQUIRED. For more information and registration, p lease contact Jorge Mahauad ASAP: Jorge A. Mahauad jor firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com ------------------------------------Advanced Diving in the Galapagos Islands Recreational & Technical Diver Training Galapagos Rebreather Trips and E xpeditions Diving Support for Exploration & Research -------------------------------------www.tiptopdiving.com www.galapagosrebreathe rs.com www.advancedgalapagosdiving.com
Cruise Ma rch 26, 2014 Day 3 continued colonies of marine iguanas and lava lizards. On the summit we have an impressive view of the surrounding islands, including the eroded tuff cone of Pinnacle Rock. We return to the yacht for dinner and our nightly orientati on. March 27, 2014 Day 4 After breakfast we make a wet landing on Santa Fe Island to visit the cactus forest and a colony of land iguanas native from Santa Fe. Optional: time for those who would like to swim, snorkel and/or kayak. Return to the Yacht for lunch and sail to South Plaza, where we make a dry landing on the pier of the island, there we can enjoy the antics of the sea lions. A walk through a cactus forest allows us to observe land iguanas and a great many species of tropical birds. At the en d of the afternoon, we return to the Yacht for dinner and our nightly orientation. March 28, 2014 Day 5 After breakfast we make an early disembark on Las Bachas Beach, a place where we can appreciate a Flamingos lagoon. During all walks, your guide will be explaining details about the lives of the birds and animals. We return to the Yacht fo r disembarking on the pier at 09:00. Your guide accompanies you on the bus ride directly to the airport. THESE ITINERARIES ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE, DUE OPERATIONAL REASONS, WEATHER CONDITIONS OR BY THE AUTHORITIES OF THE GALAPAGOS NATIONAL P ARK. http://www.rwittmer.com/Galapagos cruises trips/First Class Yacht cruise Galapagos tours&travel/TipTopIV Tip Top IV yacht
Transportation 1. You must arrange your own transportation to Ba l tra airport GPS in the Galpagos 2. Commer c i al flights to Baltra GPS originate on the Ecuador mainland from either Quito UIO or Guayaquil GYE and cost about $200 to $400 round trip 3 Transfer to Puerto Ayora by taking the free bus from the Baltra airport to the ferry pier ride the ferry to Santa Cruz Island then either take the bus VERY slow or taxi up to 4 persons per truck across the island to P uerto Ayora. 4 The transfer s between Baltra and Puerto Ayora are included in the symposium fee. Google maps Puerto Ayora 5 Plan to arrive in Puerto Ayora no later than March 16, 2014 6 Do not fly into San Cristobal. 7 Commercial air carriers that fly to Baltra GPS include: Aerogal : http:/ /www.aerogal.com.ec/ LAN : http://www.lan.com/ Tame : https://www.tame.com.ec/
Symposium Registration Fee $620 per person I ncludes: 6 night's accom m odations Welcome c ocktail s Symposium Trans fer from /to Baltra airport Transport to / from the caves Breakfast l unch boxes d inners Laundry Boat transport to Isabela Island and back consider sea sickness medication Pre registration deadline is Dec 15, 2013 Extra Costs Not Included in the Symposium Registration Fee 1. Quito airport t ransit tax to Galpagos $ 10 2. Galpagos National Park entry fee $100 cash only 3. Fees for optional pre symposium activities a nd the optional tour s on March 22 are extra and not included in the symposium fee. 4. For the tour of the Sierra Negra volcano sulphur fields and Vo lcn Chico the g uide and transportation fee s are approx imately $2 5 0 and will be split equally amongst the group i.e., $2 5 per person if there are 10 people There is also a fee of $15 per person for your horse. 5. For the optional caving/tour on Marc h 22 the fee one night's lodging and food on Isabela Island are not included in the symposium fee A aron A ddison descends Triple Volcn Photo by Peter Sprouse. Lodging During the Symposium The following hotels will be used during the symposium: Hotel Espaa www.hotelespanagalapagos.com Hotel Gardn er www.hotelgardnergalapagos.com Hotel Flamingo a nd Hotel Red Booby www.hotelredbooby.com.ec
Galpagos National Park 1. Please familiarize yourself with the Rules for Visitors of the Galpagos Protected Area : http://www.galapagospark.org/nophprg.php?pa ge=turismo_reglas_visitantes&set_lang=en Money 1. The cur rency in Ecuador is U.S. dollars S mall bills such as $10 and $20 are required Bills $50 and larger will not be accepted anywhere. 2. The locals may not accept wrinkled, torn, or soiled bills. 3 In the Galpagos t here are four ATM machines in Puerto Ayora max withdrawl $100 per day per machine although you may have to search for one that is working. There are no ATM machines on Isabela. 4. On the mainland, d o not count on finding reliable ATM machines outside of major cities 5 C redit cards ar e generally accepted on Santa Cruz, but not on Isabela. Caving 1. The Galpagos caves are warm, 26 28 C 79 82 F 2. Suggested caving wear includes: T shirt, long pants for crawling or shorts over lightweight tights leather gloves, knee pads helmet and electric lights 3. Ther e will be very little crawling 4. B ring vertical gear if you plan to drop Triple Volcan 5 If you are coming from the United States, please decontaminate your gear http://whitenoses yndrome.org/topics/deconta mination PROTECT YOURSELF Blistering sun burns are possible. Bring a good sun hat, SPF 50 sunscreen zinc oxide, and a long sleeve shirt to protect yourself from the powerful equatorial sun!
In February 2013 a team of speleologists from the German Speleoclub Berlin and members of the Vietnam Academy of Sciences Institute for Tropi cal Biology visited the poorly known lava tube caves in the Tan Phu area o f Dong Nai province in southern Vietnam about 150 km NE of Ho Chi Minh City. These caves mainly occur along the National Road No. 20 from Bien Hoa to Da Lat. The caves were mentioned by various Important Lava Tube Caves F ound in Dong Nai Province Southern Vietnam by Michael Laumanns authors in the past, including the French Zoologist and Speleologist Louis Deharveng, who released a short arti cle Deharveng et al. 1995, 2 sketch maps. The caves are formed in extensive basaltic lave streams presumably of Quaternary age. These lava flows were emitted from numerous small volcanic cones in the Tan Phu, Phu Loc and Dinh Quan districts. Hang Doi 1 Km 122 Tan Phu, Vietnam Photo by Torsten Kohn
H ang Doi 3 Mieng 1 ma in segment P hoto A. Geist The 2013 team explored eleven lava tubes with a total of 1.8 km of underground passages. The longest cave found is Hang Doi 1 Km 122 This cave has several passages branching and re connecting, as well as s everal entrances. The main tube of this cave is 4 m high and 10 m wide. The 437 m long cave is seperated by a shallow roof collapse from its southern segment called Hang Doi 2 Km 122 which is 112 m long. If regarded as one single cave this tube system w ould have a total length of 559 meters. So far the longest lava tube cave known from SE Asia was Gua Lawa II Indonesia, Java, Gunung Slamet mapped to 400 m Anon. 1983. Consequently, Vietnam now hosts the new longest lava tube cave of SE Asia. Some of the Tan Phu lava tubes have a very rich cave life. Bats are abundant and form colonies of several thousands of individuals in some caves. Samples of dead bats as well as bat bones were collected for deter mination. Also various species of spiders, millipedes, centipedes, scorpions, cave crickets, flies and even a weasel like mammal were observed. There are also many different species of frogs as some of the caves are wet and contain water. Some of the Tan Phu lava tubes have a very rich cave life. Bats are abundant and form colonies of several thousands of individuals in some caves. Samples of dead bats as well as bat bones were collected for determination.
Also various species of spiders, millipedes, centipedes, scorpions, cave crickets, flies and even a weasel like mammal were observed. There are also many different species of frogs as some of the caves are wet and cont ain water. A full report in the English language, including maps and descriptions of the caves, will be published in the speleological publication series of the Speleoclub Berlin: http://www .speleo berlin.de/en_publikationen.php Sources: Anon. 1983: De Kleppers Java Karst 82. Indonesisch Flemish Expedition. Expedition Report, 64 p.; Kraainem. Deharveng, L.; Troung Quang Tam & Duong Tien Dung 1995: Explorations au centre et au sud d u Vietnam. Spelunca, 59 p. 8 10; Lyon. H ang Doi 2 Km 122 main passage P hoto T orsten Kohn Bats in Hang Gai Km 121 Photo Torsten Kohn
H ang Gai Km 121 entrance section Tan Phu, Vietnam P hoto T.Kohn Landscape Tan Phu Vietnam, with eroded volcanoes P hoto T orsten Kohn
A V isit to a Few L ava C aves a round Auckland, New Zealand by John Brush On a field trip following a recent conference o f the Australasian Cave and Karst Management Association ACKMA, which drew delegates from Malaysia, the United States and Canada as well as from Australia and New Zealand, a lucky few were able to spend two days examining lava tubes in Auckland guided by local lava cave expert, Peter Crossley. Auckland, with a population of about 1.2 million, is New Zealand s largest city. It is built around two harbours and some 50 volcanoes. Most of the volcanoes were active 24,000 35,000 years ago, but the most recent eruption, on nearby Rangitoto Island, was just 600 years ago. As Auckland grew, many l ava tubes were destroyed by quarrying, road works and building construction. Unfortunately, the tubes that remained were often regarded as convenient rubbish dumps or drains. Until recently lava tubes were not officially protected even though some were o f deep cultural significance to the local Maori people and others were of significant scientific interest. That some caves now have Kermes Cave. P hoto by John Brush
P hoto by John Brush Kitenui Cave P hoto by John Brush
some form of protection or official status is in no small part due to the efforts of Peter Crossley. Wiri Cave, the first we visited, it is arguably New Zealand s most spectacular lava tube with an in tact lining and a pahoehoe floor. It is now a site of special scientific interest and is protected by a heavy metal gate and a restricted access permit system, but its status was not always so secure. It is surrounded on 3 sides by an old quarry, and on the remaining side, proposed road works once threatened to remove the down flow end of its 290 metre length. Closer to the city centre, we visited Landscape Road Cave, which from its backyard entrance extends under ten or so suburban properties. The owne rs have incorporated the entrance into their etimes opened up to local school groups. backyard landscaping and have obtained some assistance from the city council to construct steps into the cave, which is sometimes opened up to local school gro ups. In a nearby suburb, the entrance to Kitenui Cave is a small manhole cover right beside a neighbourhood street. Just prise the cover open and there is the cave passage a few metres below. If only someone had remembered to bring a ladder. The cave i s apparently about 250m long and also extends under a number of properties. It was discovered in 2006 when utility workers broke through while excavating along the street. Next morning, a small group caught a ferry for the 15 minute trip to Rangitoto Isl and on the north side of Auckland Harbour. The island is popular Wiri Cave P hoto by John Brush
with walkers and several lava caves are signposted and have walking tracks leading to and in some cases through them. While these have some well formed lava features, including a lava fall, there are more interesting caves hidden away in thick bush on more remote parts of the island. With a local guide clutching a GPS, these are not too difficult to find. In Kermies Cave, towards the up flow end, most of the glazed lining has broken away to reveal the brilliant red, yellow and black scorias and lavas t hrough which the lava flow eroded downwards. The is more intact near the down flow end and has some nice flow lines, levees, benches, lava tide marks and a rough a a lava floor While stumbling around in the bush looking for Kermies, we came across a pit around 5m across and several metres deep. At the bottom there short sections of intact tube on either side of the collapse pit. This cave had not been previously recorded by local cavers, so it is likely more caves remain to be discovered. The Auckland area has more than 50 significant lava caves and the city could be an ideal location for a future ISV. Perhaps we should twist the arm of Peter Crossley and his colleagues. P hoto by John Brush P hoto by John Brush
Emily Davis Mike Warner