First international cave management symposium: proceedings [held at] College of Environmental Sciences, Murray State University, July 15-18, 1981

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First international cave management symposium:  proceedings [held at] College of Environmental Sciences, Murray State University, July 15-18, 1981

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First international cave management symposium: proceedings [held at] College of Environmental Sciences, Murray State University, July 15-18, 1981
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International Congress of Speleology
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First International Cave Management Symposium proceedings, Eighth International Congress of Speleology
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Mylroie, John Eglinton, 1949---
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Eighth International Congress of Speleology College of Enviromental Sciences, Murray State University, July 15-18, 1981Introduction -- Opening Address: History of Cave Management Symposia in the United States of America -- An Overview / Robert R. Stitt, President, NSS -- Papers Presented at the First International Cave Management Symposium, July 15-17, 1981, Murray State University, KY, USA -- Cave Management for the Endangered Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) and Gray Bat (Myotis grisescens) / John T. Bray -- The Guacharo Cave / Dr. Eugenio de Bellard-Pietri -- Karst Cave Management Modelling in the Transvaal / Frances M. Gamble -- Problems of Management of Transvaal Caves / Frances M. Gamble -- The Resource Potential of Transvaal Caves / Frances M. Gamble -- A Cooperative Program for the Conservation and Management of Cave Resources on Most Missouri Public Lands / James E. Gardner and Treva L. Gardner -- The Conservation of Cave Invertebrates / Francis G. Howarth -- Cave Management: The Bureau of Land Management Approach / J. B. "Buzz" Hummel -- Expedition - Cango 78 / reported by M. Schultz -- Interpretation as a Primary Tool in Cave Conservation and Management /Edward E. Wood, Jr. -- Papers Presented at the Eighth International Congress Conservation/Management Session, July 19, 1981, Rowling Green, KY, USA -- Die Eingriffe in die Hohle Von Postjons im Lichte des Umweltschutzes / Dr. Frances Habe -- Cave Closing as a Conservation Method / Gyula Hegedus -- Fraser Cave: Tasmania's Archeological Library of Congress / Gregory J. Middleton -- Management of a Biological Resource: Waitomo Glowworm Cave, New Zealand . / Chris Pugsley -- Cave Conservation in the United States of America: An Overview in 1981 / Robert R. Stitt -- Photomonitoring as a Management Tool / Peter J. Uhl -- The Evolution of the Virginia Cave Commission / John M. Wilson, Robert W. Custard, Evelyn W. Bradshaw and Phillip C. Lucas -- Program with Abstracts of the First International Cave Management Symposium -- Cave Invertebrates Specialist Group Inaugural Meeting, Agenda .
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Eighth International Congress of Speleology
College of Enviromental Sciences, Murray State
University, July 15-18, 1981Introduction --
Opening Address: History of Cave Management Symposia in
the United States of America --
An Overview / Robert R. Stitt, President, NSS --
Papers Presented at the First International Cave
Management Symposium, July 15-17, 1981, Murray State
University, KY, USA --
Cave Management for the Endangered Indiana Bat (Myotis
sodalis) and Gray Bat (Myotis grisescens) / John T. Bray --
The Guacharo Cave / Dr. Eugenio de Bellard-Pietri --
Karst Cave Management Modelling in the Transvaal /
Frances M. Gamble --
Problems of Management of Transvaal Caves / Frances M.
Gamble --
The Resource Potential of Transvaal Caves / Frances M.
Gamble --
A Cooperative Program for the Conservation and Management
of Cave Resources on Most Missouri Public Lands / James E.
Gardner and Treva L. Gardner --
The Conservation of Cave Invertebrates / Francis G.
Howarth --
Cave Management: The Bureau of Land Management Approach /
J. B. "Buzz" Hummel --
Expedition Cango 78 / reported by M. Schultz --
Interpretation as a Primary Tool in Cave Conservation and
Management /Edward E. Wood, Jr. --
Papers Presented at the Eighth International Congress
Conservation/Management Session, July 19, 1981, Rowling Green,
KY, USA --
Die Eingriffe in die Hohle Von Postjons im Lichte des
Umweltschutzes / Dr. Frances Habe --
Cave Closing as a Conservation Method / Gyula Hegedus --
Fraser Cave: Tasmania's Archeological Library of Congress
/ Gregory J. Middleton --
Management of a Biological Resource: Waitomo Glowworm
Cave, New Zealand / Chris Pugsley --
Cave Conservation in the United States of America: An
Overview in 1981 / Robert R. Stitt --
Photomonitoring as a Management Tool / Peter J. Uhl --
The Evolution of the Virginia Cave Commission / John M.
Wilson, Robert W. Custard, Evelyn W. Bradshaw and Phillip C.
Lucas --
Program with Abstracts of the First International Cave
Management Symposium --
Cave Invertebrates Specialist Group Inaugural Meeting,
Agenda .



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EighthInternationalCongressofSpeleologyFIRST INTERNATIONAL CAVE MANAGEMENT SYMPOSIUMPROCEEDINGSJOHNE.MYLROIEEDITORMurrayStateUniversityCollegeofEnvironmentalSciencesJuly15-18,1981

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CoverdrawingbyM.ElaineLeefroma photpgraphbyArthurN.PalmerCopyright 1983byJohnE. My roie

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TABLEOFCONTENTSAcknowledgementsIntroduction..OpeningAddress: History ofCaveManagementSymposiain the UnitedStatesofAmerica--AnOverviewRobertR.Stitt,President,NSS....3............5.11Papers PresentedattheFirstInternationalCaveManagementSymposium,July 15-17,1981, StateUniversity,KY,USA.......gCaveManagementfor the Endangered Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalisJandGrayBat(MYatisgrisescensJ .JohnT.BrayTheGuacharoCave..........................25Dr.EugeniodeBellard-PietriKarstCaveManagementModelling in the Transvaal29FrancesM.GambleProblemsofManagementof TransvaalCaves35FrancesM.GambleTheResource Potential of TransvaalCaves. FrancesM.Gamble.43A CooperativeProgramfor the ConservationandManagementofCaveResourcesonMostMissouri Public Lands. ...................51JamesE.GardnerandTrevaL.GardnerTheConservationofCaveInvertebrates...FrancisG.Howarth.57CaveManagement:TheBureau ofLandManagementApproach...............65J.B."Buzz"HummelExpedition Cango78. reportedbyM.SchultzInterpretationasa PrimaryToolinCaveConservationand'anagement........ .......EdwardE.Wood,Jr.Papers Presentedatthe Eighth International Congress Conservation/r'1anagementSession, July19,1981,RowlingGreen,KY,USA.DieEingriffeindieHohleVonPostjonsimLichte des Ul1JNe ltschutzes. ................Dr.FrancesHabeCaveClosingasa ConservationMethodGyulaHegedusFraserCave:Tasmania's Archeological LibraryofCongress. Gregory J. Middleton.71...79 .AS .87.93.99Managementof a Biological Resource:NewZealand Chris PugsleyWaitomoGlowwormCave,............107CaveConservation in the United States ofAmerica:AnOverviewin1981........ .....RobertR.StittPhotomonitoringasaManagementTool. Peter J.UhlTheEvolution of the VirginiaCaveCommission.....JohnM.Wilson, RobertW.Custard,EvelynW.BradshawandPhillipC.LucasProgramwith Abstracts of theFirstInternationalCaveManagementSymposium.Attendee AddressListof theFirstInternationalCaveManagementSymposiumCaveInvertebra tes Speciali s tGroupI naugura 1Meeting,Agenda.......115 12) 129 135 167170

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A<:::KlU\ILEIX;EMENrS TheFirstInternationalCave Management Symposiumcouldnothave beenheldifitwerenotfortheeffortsofmycolleaguesontheSteeringCommitteeoftheEighthInternationalCongressofSpeleology,who worKed toputtheentireinternationalprogramtogether.Patricia FinK andtheTennesseeValleyAUthorityassistedintheplanningandlogisticsoftheSymposium.Inaddition,thefaculty,staffandstudentsofMurrayStateUniversityprovidedtheskillsandresourcesto allow theSymposiumtobeheldontheircampusinJuly,1981.Special thanks inthisregardmust gotoPhilDeaver,DirectoroftheContinuing Education Office,Gary Boggess,DeanoftheCollegeofEnvironmentalSciences,GenaWilson,secretaryoftheDepartJnentofGeosciences,andKayCravens and BeckyLatson,students.TheproductionoftheProceedingsoftheFirstInternationalCave Management Symposium wasmadepossiblebytheCommittee onInstitutionalStudiesandResearchgrantnumber776,whichprovidedthesupport tor thecollectionandeditingoftnedataherein,andtheCollegeofEnvironmentalSciences, Gary Boggess, Dean, whichprovidedthesupportfortheprintingofthedocument. Tnepreparationofthemanuscriptwas done oyGenaWilson,secretaryoftheDepartmentofGeosciences.LayoutanddraftingofthefinaldraftwasassistedoythediligenteffortsofBrianAshley, Becky Latson,RandyPearson,BrucePhillips,andJamesVanDyke,studentsintheGeosciences Pro:Jram. AdeepsenseofappreciationexistsforthepeoplewhohelpedsponsortheSymposium,andthenworkedselflesslytoseethattheeffortsofthatSymposiumarepreservedinthisdocument.1

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INTRODUCTIONJohnMylroieTheFirstInternationalCave Management Symposium washeldatMurrayStateUniversity,Murray,KentuckyfromJuly15to July 17,1981.Forty-ninepeoplefromtwelvecountriesonsixcontinentsparticipatedintheSymposium,producingatrueinternationalperspectiveoncavemanagement. Atotaloftwenty-twopresentationsand onepaneldiscussionprovideda meansofformalinformationexchange,whileextensiveinformalactivitieswerescheduledtoallowarelaxedatmospherefortradingideasandexperiences.Ofthetwenty-twopresentations,elevenhavebeengatheredhereaspapers.AfurthersevenpapersarebeingreproducedfromtheConservation/ManagementSessionofthe8thInternationalSpeleologicalCongress,heldonJuly19,1981.Bycombiningthesymposiumandsessionpapersinonevolume,theinternationalcavemanagementeffortrelatingtothe8thCongresscanbeunified.Inadditiontothemanuscriptsfromthesymposiumandthesession,thesymposiumprogramwithabstractsisincludedasachaptertohelpcompletethep1cture.Alistofattendeesandtheiraddressesisincludedasachapteraswell.ThefinalchaptercontainstheagendaoftheinauguralmeetingoftheCaveInvertebratesSpecialistGroup(CISG),heldatMurrayStateUniversityonJuly13to15,1981.TheCISGisadivisionoftheSpeciesSurvivalCommissionoftheInternationalUnionfortheConservationofNatureandNaturalResources.FurtherinformationconcerningtheCISGcanbeobtainedfromDr.FrankHowarth,B.P.BishopMuseum,P.O.Box19000-A,Honolulu,HI96819.TheideaofanInternationalCave Management Symposium wasfirstraisedattheNationalCave Management SymposiuminCarlsbad,NewMexicoinOctober,1978.Afterdiscussions,MurrayStateUniversitywasselectedasthesite,andpreparationsbegan.ThegoaloftheInternationalSymposium wassimilartothatoftheNationalSymposium(seealsoRobStitt'sopeningaddress"HistoryofCave Management SymposiaintheUnitedStatesofAmerica:anOverview"inthisvolume),togathertogetherpeoplewithcavemanagementinterestsfromthecommercial,government,conservationist,industrialandsportarenastoshareconcerns,outlooks,ideasandmethods.TheaddedattractionoftheInternationalSymposium wasthechancetoexchangeinformationbetweencountriesaswellasthevariouscavemanagementinterests;ReflectingbackonboththeInternationalSymposium andthe8thCongress,itseemsthatpeopletheworldoversharethesameworriesandviewsoncavemanagementasAmericansdo.Muchmoreheartening,however,waslearningoftheirsuccessesandtheirmethods,whichmayleadtobettercavemanagementinNorth Hopefully,someAmericanideaswillprovehelpfultothosefromoverseas.The endresultofallofthisappearstobethatthecavesoftheworldwillbebetteroff,atleastabitanyway,becauseofthismeetingofpeople.Ifnothingelse,thefellowshipofdiversepeopledrawntogetherovertheircommoninterestincaveswillpromoteunderstandingamongnationsaswellasthe ofcaves.3

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OPENINGADDRESSHISTORYOFCAVEMANAGEMENTSYMPOSIAINTHEUNITEDSTATESOFAMERICA--ANOVERVIEWROBERTR.STITT National Society14179thAve. West WA98119USA ABSTRACT The term "cave management I.intheUnited Statu of America includuthe .anagement ofallcaves,includingvildcaveland Ihov cave I by avarietyofmanagerl:cavers,privatelandownerl, governmentagencielonboththeFederal andStatelevell,foravarietyofpurpOlel,includinaprelervation,recreation,tourism,andindultrialulel.Cave management intheU.S.A. undoubtedly beganinthelaltcenturyaaprivatecave ownerl beganexhibiting them tothepublic,butitvalnotuntilthemiddleofthetwentiethcenturythatcaverl--activeulerlofcavea--and cave owner.,primarilyinthevarioul,tateandfederalaaencielmanaaina landcontainingcave" begantocarryonaseriouldialogue about cave manaaement.ThildialogueledtothefirltNationalCaveManaaement Sympolium inAlbuquerque,Nev Mexico inthefallof1975.Theapproximately one hundredattendee.producedthefir.tof many volumelof Iympolium proceedinal and began aleries which ha.culminatedinthi.InternationalCaveManaaement Symposium.Since Albuquerquein1975,national Iympolia have been heldinMountain Viev, Arkansas in1976,8ig Sky, Montanain1977,Carllbad,NevMexicoin1978, and MaMmoth Cave, Kentucky in1980.In1979, many reaionalsymposia were held,andthiltradition carried oninto1980and1981.Formal cave managementintheUnitedStatesprobablybeganwiththeopeningofthefirstcommercial cavesintheearlypartoftheNineteenthCentury.TheestablishmentofcaveNationalParks andMonumentsintheearlyTwentieth Centuryledtotheassumptionofcave managementtechniquesbyagenciesoftheFederalGovernment,aswellassomestateandlocalgovernmentalbodies.BythetimeoftheadventoforganizedspeleologyintheU.S.(inthe1940's),however,therewaslittlecommunicationamongthevariousagencies,corporations,andindividualsmanagingcaves.Each group managed cavesfortheirown5goalsandpurposes,andtherewasagenerallackofinformationtransferandcoordination.Although asizablebodyofinformationonspeleologybegantoappearintheliterature,therewerefewwrittenmaterialsdealingwiththesubjectofcave management perse.MembersoftheNationalSpeleologicalSocietybecameinterestedintheproblemsofcaveconservation(asopposedtostrictpreservation)intheearly1950's,and began workingwithlandowners andagenciestofurthertheirgoalsofwiseuse.Bythelate1960'scavershaddiscoveredthatiftheydidthework, andactivelyinvolved

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6themselvesincavemanagement,thattheycouldhaveasignificantinfluenceonthecavemanagementpoliciesofvariousFederalagencies,especiallyonthelocallevel.NewMexicocavers, particular,beganworkingwithlocalofficialsintheBureauofLand Management(BLM),NationalParkService(NPS),andForestService(USFS)toactivelymanagecavesinSoutheasternNewMexico.Itsoonbecamecleartomanycaversthattherewas aneedforcommunicationamongcaversandagenciesengagedincavemanagement.Ibelievethattheideaforacavemanagement symposiumbeganwhen agroupofNewMexicocavers,ofwhomI wasone,ponderedthequestionofhowtoencouragecommunicationamongcavemanagersovera fewbeersinBillBishop'slivingroominAlbuquerqueinthefallof1973.How,weasked,couldwegetvariouscavemanagerstalkingtooneanother,aswellastous?Theanswerseemedtobe:getthemtogetherinthesame roomtodiscusstheproblemsofcavemanagementandsharetheirsolutionswithoneanother.A Symposium!MammothCave seemedlikea goodplacetohaveone--orperhapsCarlsbad?I wasintheprocessofmovingtoNewYork.Tomysurprise,severalmonthslaterIreceiveda phonecallfromDonSawyeroftheBLMlsRoswellDistrict--atthetimeprobablytheFederalemployeemostconcernedwithcavemanagement.Donreportedtomethathisagency,withactivesupportfromthestateoffice,waspreparingtosetup acavemanagement symposiumforthefallof1975.Would I bewillingtohelpout?Duringtheensuingmonthsweburnedupthephonelinesformanyhours.Donunfortunatelyhadtoretireduetomedicalproblemsbeforethesymposiumactuallyoccured,butotherBLMpeoplecarriedon,and concertwithrepresentativesfromotherfederalagenciesinNewMexico,cavers,andcommercialcaveowners,finallyinOctoberof1975producedthefirstsymposiuminAlbuquerque.SponsoredbytheNationalSpeleologicalSociety,theCaveResearchFoundation,theBureauofLand Management,theU.S.ForestService,theNationalParkService,andtheNationalCavesAssociaton, th2 AlbuquerqueSymposiumconcentratedonprovidingtoabout100participantsabasicoverviewofcavescienceandmanagementmethods.TheprogramwasbrokenupintothecategoriesofCaveResources;ResouceManagement;VisitorManagement;Safety&Rescue;Cave ManagementAids;andObjectives,PoliciesandPlansofAgencies.Theproceedings,publishedbySpeleobooks,providedageneraloverviewofthefieldandbecame abasicreferencesourceoncavemanagement.ParticipantsintheAlbuquerqueSymposiumfeltstronglythatanothersymposiumshouldbeheldinthefollowingyear,andaninvitationwasextendedfromtheUSFSmanagementofBlanchardSpringsCavernsinArkansastoholdthe1976 Symposiumnearthere.SoitwasthatwegatheredagaininthefallofthatyearatnearbyMountainViewforwhatwasturningouttobethesecondannualsymposium.BasedonsuggestionsfromAlbuquerqueparticipants,theprogramhereconcentratedoncavemanagementapproachesandtechniquesinfourareas:carryingcapacityofcaves;caveinventory,valuation,andassessment;subsurfacemanagementasa componentofgenerallandmanagement solublerocklandscapes;andthemanagementofcommercialandhighvaluecaves.Thethirdannualsymposium,heldatBigSky,MontanainOctober1977,concentratedonthedevelopmentof

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cavemanagementtoolsandtechniques--ahow-tosession,asitwere.Particularemphasiswasgiventothemanagementofnon-limestonecaves:lavatubes,icecaves,andglaciercaves.The1978SymposiumheldatCarlsbad,NewMexico,becameapracticesession.Afterdiscussingvariousaspectsofinventorytaking,theparticipantswenttothefieldandactuallyinventoriedcaves.Atthatsymposium,itwasdecidedtoskip1979foranationalsymposium,andinsteadtoencourageregionalsymposiaaimedatmorein-depthanalysisoflocalproblems.Atleastthreeofthose(Western,RockyMountain,andEastern)wereheldduringthefa11-winter-springof1979-80.The1980NationalSymposiumwasaprecursorofthis1981InternationalSymposiumatMurray,KentuckyheldinconjunctionwiththeInternationalCongressofSpeleologyatBowlingGreen,Kentucky.Thecavemanagementhaveprovedtheirvalueinsymposiaseveralways.Theyhaveprovidedaforumforcavemanagerstomeetanddiscusstheirmutualproblems.Theyhaveenabledthepublication,inconciseform,ofalargebodyofworksoncavemanagement.Theyhaveencouragedanongoinginterestincavemanagementonthepartofalargenumberoflandmanagers,cavers,andcaveowners.Therearesomesignificntimprovementsthatshouldbemade,however.Inparticular,theparticipationofprivatelandownersandcommercialcaveoperatorsshouldbeencouragedmore.Morepromptpublicationofproceedingswouldputinformationintotheuser'shandssooner.Theparticipationoftheacademiccommunityshouldbeencouragedtoagreaterdegree.Becauseagencypersonnelworkingwithcavesseemtochangefrequently,therewillcontinuetobeaneedforeducationandinformationexchange.Therearepressingproblemsofcavemanagementwhichremain.Thesefactorsshouldleadtoalongseriesofsuccessfulsymposiainthefuture.7

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Papers PresentedattheFirstInternationalCaveManagementSymposium,July 15-17, 1981,MurrayStateUniversity, Kentucky,USA9

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CAVEMANAGEMENTFORTHEENDANGEREDINDIANABAT(MYOTISSODALIS)ANDGRAYBAT(MYOTIS.GRISESCENS)JOHNT.BRADYTeamLeader,Indiana/GrayBatRecoveryTeamSt.LouisDistrict,CorpsofEngineersINTRODUCTIONTheIndianabatandgraybatbothhavebeendesignatedasendangeredspeciesbytheU.S.FishandWildlifeService,andareprotectedundertheEndangeredSpeciesActof1973,asamended(U.S.FishandWildlifeService,1978).TheIndiana/GrayBatRecoveryTeamwasappointedbytheU.S.FishandWildlifeServicetopreparearecoveryplanforthegraybatandrevisetherecoveryplanthatwaspreparedfortheIndianaBatin1976(Engel,etal.,1976).DistributionTheIndianabatisfoundinthemidwesternandeasternUnitedStates,fromextremenorthernFloridanorthtoVermont,Michigan,Wisconsin,westtoIowa,ArkansasandeasternOklahoma. ThewinterrangeisprimarilyinMissouri,Indiana,Kentucky,andTennessee.GraybatpopulationsarefoundmainlyinAlabama,northernArkansas,Kentucky,MissouriandTennessee,buta fewoccurinnorthwesternFlorida,westernGeorgia,southeasternKansas,southernmostIndiana,southernandsouthwesternIllinois,northeasternOklahoma,northeasternMississippi,westernVirginiaandpossiblywesternNorthCarolina(Hall,1981;Tuttle,1979).11HabitatRequirements1.IndianaBat.Dependingonlocalweatherconditions,IndianabatsareinhibernationfromOctobertoAprilwithsomearrivingatthehibernaculaassoonasearlySeptember(LaVal,etal.,1977).Indianabatshavespecificrequirementsforhibernation,generallychoosingroostsiteswithincavesormineswhichhavestabletemperaturesof4to8Callowingthebatstomaintaina lowmetabolismandconservefatreservesuntilspring(Humphrey,1978).Thebatsusuallyhibernateinlarge,denseclustersofabout300batspersquarefoot(Hall,1962;Engel,etal.,1976;Clawson,etal.,1980).Currentstudiesindicatethatfemalesformnurserycoloniesmostlyinriparianandfloodplainareasofsmalltomediumsizedstreams(Humphrey;etal.,1977;Cope,etal.,1978;Sparling,etal.,1979;GardnerandGardner,1980).Riparianhabitatwasfoundtobeoccupiedfrommid-Mayuntilmid-September(Humphrey,etal.,1977).2.GrayBat.Thegraybat1S,perhaps,themostrestrictedtocavehabitatsofanyU.S.mammal(HallandWilson,1966;BarbourandDavis,1969;Tuttle,1976a).Withrareexceptions(Hays and Bingham,1964),itroostsincavesyear-round.

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12ReasonsforDeclineSummercaves,especiallythoseusedbymaternitycolonies,arenearlyalwayslocatedwithinakilometerofriversorreservoirs(rarelymorethan4km)overwhichthebatsfeed(Tuttle,1976b).Becauseofhighlyspecificroostandhabitatrequirements,fewerthan5percentofavailablecavesaresuitableforoccupationbygraybats(Tuttle,1979).Coloniesmoveseasonallybetweenunusuallywarm(14-25C)andcold(6-11C)caves.(SeeFigure1.)Humandisturbanceisthemostseriouscauseofpopulationdeclineforbothspecies.HibernatingIndianaandgraybatsarevulnerableandcanlooseasmuchas10to30daysoffatsupplyperdisturbance(Tuttle,pers.comm.). Graybatsarealsovulnerableinmaternitycaveswhenflightlessyoungareonroostsandthousandsmaydiefrom asingledisturbance.Most humandisturbanceistheresultofpeoplewhodon'tknow anybetter,buttherearealsocasesofdeliberatevandalismagainstbothspecies.Wordingwillvaryfromcavetocave,dependingonthehistoryofuseofthecavebybothbatsandpeople.Iflawenforcementofficialsaretohaveastrongcaseagainstviolators,thesignmustcontainawarningmessagesimilartothatoftheupperhalfofthesignshowninFigures2 and3.Allsignsshouldincludeinterpretivemessages,asexemplifiedbytheone Cave Nanagement Signs,fences,andgatesmayberequiredtoreduceoreliminatehumandisturbanceatIndianaandgraybatcaves.Generally,Indianabathibernaculashouldbeclosedtohumanentrybetween1Septemberand 30April.Figure1 shows whenthedifferenttypesofgraybatcavesshouldbeclosed.1.Signs.At acavewhichisinfrequentlyvisited,oreasilyobservedbyitsowner,asignalonemaybeadequatetopreventdisturbance.Undercertaincircumstances,asignmightcallunnecessaryattentiontoacave, 1n whichcasethemanagementagencymightoptforplacementofthesigninsidethecave.Signsmustbeofdurableconstructionandfixedsolidlyinplaceto m1n1ID1Ze vandalism,andshouldnotbeplacedwherebatmovementorairflowmightbeimpeded.They must belocatedwherepotentialviolatorscanseethem,andshouldbeplacedjustbehindthegateorfenceifsuchastructurehasbeenerected.collapse,especiallyinabandonedmines,carelesshandlingofbatsbybiologists,commercializationofcaves,exclusionofbatsbypoorlydesignedgates,changesincavemicroclimatebyopeningofadditionalentrancesorblockingairflowbypoorlydesignedgates,floodingofcavesbyreservoirs,clearingofforests,andpesticidepoisoning.reasonsforpopulationareflooding,ceilingOtherdeclinesMostwintercavesaredeepandvertical;allprovidealargevolume belowthelowestentranceandactascoldairtraps.A muchwidervarietyofcavetypesareusedduringspringandfalltransientperiods.Insummermaternitycoloniesprefercavesthatactaswarmairtrapsorthatproviderestrictedroomsordomedceilingsthatarecapableoftrappingthecombined bodyheatfromthousandsofclusteredindividuals(Tuttle,1975;Tuttleand 1978). allseasons,malesandyearlingfemalesseemlessrestrictredtospecificcavesandroosttypes(Tuttle,1976a).

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shown onthelowerhalfofthesign Figures2and3.ThesigninFigure2isusedatgraybatsummercaves Missouri,andisespeciallysuitableformaternitycaves;Figure3isusedatIndianabathibernacula.Theinterpretivemessagehasbeenmodifiedforcertainothertypesofgraybatcavesasfollows:(1)forgraybathibernaculaliThegraybat,anendangeredspeciesthathibernatesinthiscave,mustsurvivethewinteronstoredfat.Whendisturbed,theyarouse,usingupthisfat.Batsthathavebeenarousedtwoorthree times maydiebeforeinsectsonwhichtheyfeedareagainavailableinspring."(2)cavesinyearroundusebygraybatsgraybat,ahighlybeneficialendangeredspeciesthatoccurs thiscavethroughouttheyear, intolerantofdisturbance.Inthesummer,babybatsmayfalltotheirdeathsifdisturbed.Inthewinter,batsmayarousefromhibernation,usingupthestoredfattheyneedtosurviveuntilspring."At somecavesvisitorentrymaybepermittedduringseasonswhenbatsarenotpresent.Asmallersigncontainingthatmessage,plus13KEEPOUTOFMATERNITYANDBACHELORCAVESKEEPOUTOFKEEPOUTOFHIBERNACULAHIBERNACULAILACATATIONIIPREGNANTIEMERGE EMERGE YOUNGENTERENTERBORNBEGINHIBERNATIONHI BER00 CJ(J TOFLY0Q IIIIII IIII,I IJANFEBMARAPRMAYJUNJULAUGSEPOCTNOVDECFigure 1.Annualchronology of the graybat grisescens),showingseasonswhencaves should notbevislted.Somematernityandbachelor coloniesnaturallyleavetheircavesasearlyas 1 August annually,andatsuch locations entryispermissablethereafter.

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14Figure2.Walning sign usedona graybatmaternity cavebythe Missouri Department of Conservation.

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Figure 3.WarningsignusedonasIndianabathibernaculumbythe Missouri Department of Consermation.15

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16informationonhowtoobtainakeytoagatedcaveorotherpertinentdetails,mightencouragethecooperationofspelunkers.Incaseswhereacaveislocated apublicusearea,themanagementagencymaywishtousea moredetailedinterpretivemessage.Forexample,asignwiththefollowingwordingwaspostedatBlowingWind Cave, NationalGrayBatSanctuaryinnorthernAlabama:BLOWINGWINDCAVEWildlifeSanctuary-UnauthorizedEntryProhibitedI'ThiscaveisacriticalhabitatforendangeredGray andIndianaBatsaswellasforthreatenedEasternBig-earedBatsandtheTennesseeCaveSalamander.Asaresultofhumandisturbance,allofthesespecieshavedecreaseddramaticallyinnumbers,requiringprotectionfromunauthorizedentry.WhenthiscavewaspurchasedbytheU.S.FishandWildlifeServicein1979,populationsofallbuttheGrayBatwerenearlyextincthere,andeventhisspecieshadbeenreducedtolessthanhalfofformernumbers.GrayBatshavedeclinedby morethan54percentthroughoutmuchoftheirrangeinthelast yearsalone.Duetothiscave'suniquestructureandstrong,seasonallyreversingairflowpatterns,itisthemostimportantsummercaveknownforgraybats.Itcontainsroughlyaquarterofallknowngraybatsandthecolonyhereisthelargestanywhere.Withcarefulprotectionitishopedthat"thiscolonywillsoonrecovertoformernumbers(between250,000and500,000).Thesebatsareverybeneficialanddeservingofhumanunderstandingandprotection.Individualsofteneat3000ormoreinsectsinasinglenight,includingmanyharmfulkindssuchasmosquitos.Insects,eatennightlybythewholecolonynumberroughlyabillionandweighmorethanatonISincethousandsofthesebats diefromasingleill-timeddisturbanceoftheirroost,humanentryintothiscavemustbecarefullycontrolled.Pleasehelpus them.Youarewelcometoquietlywatchtheemergenceandreturnofthesebatsatduskand dawneachday fromAprilthroughSeptember(flightsareespeciallyimpressiveinJulyandAugust);however,penaltiesforunauthorizedentrybeyondthisgate,orothermolestationofendangeredspecies,rangeuptofinesof10,000and/orimprisonment.AlsoitisillegaltodamageFederalproperty.ForfurtherinformationyoumaycontacttheWheelerNationalWildlifeRefuge,P.O.Box1643,Decatur,AL35602.11

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r rro:> OJ OJtil tilOJ s:::s::: OJI>,.c OJOJtil tilOJ s:::s::: OJ 1-OJ n.,....OJS > Srouu E roC:::: Cl til+->s-"OSOJ osZU+->0ro+-> o "0..s::: OJ 0...+->-U OJ>,s....+-> OJ,.... s OJa u..s:::s:::+->u..c1: .,.... u.. 17

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182.Fences.Althoughfencesmaynotaffordthesamelevelofprotectionassteelgates,thepresenceofafencemakesitclearthatunauthorizedentryisillegal.Fencesmaybelessexpensivethan gates, butareeasiertoclimborcut.Nevertheless,somecavesareimpracticaltogate,duetosizeorconfigurationofentrances,orbecausegatingwouldresultinprobableabandonmentofthecavebybats.Chain1ink,oarbed-wire-toppedfences(Figure4),withpostssetinconcretearebest.Barbed-wireshouldnotextendintoflightspacerequiredbybats.Severalfenceshaveprovedhighlyeffectiveinreducinghumandisturbance,permittinggraybatmaternitycoloniestoincreasegreatlyinsize.Fencesalsohavebeenusedsuccessfullytoprotectcaveswithfloodedentrancesadjacenttoreservoirs(Figure5).3.Gates.Gatesmustbeusedonlywithextremecaretoavoiddetrimentaleffects.Theyshouldnotbeusedatgraybats'summercavesunlessfreeflightspacecanbeprovidedabove.Theyshouldnotbehorizontalorusedinentrancessmallerthan6feetindiameter.Gatesinsmallentrancesaremostlikelytorestrictairfloworincreasebatvulnerabilitytopredation(Tuttle,1977;TuttleandStevenson,1978),leadingtoabandonment bythebats.Weldedsteelbargatesprovidethemostsecuremeansofpreventinghumanentryintoacave.Eventhebest-designedandwell-builtgatecanbevandalized.Routineinspectionswillidentifydamage sothatrepairscanbemadepromptly.Eachgatemust bedesignedspecificallyforthecavetobeprotected,consideringnumbersofbats,typeofcolony,airflow,andentrancesizeandshape.Inspiteofthenumberofvariablesinvolved,certaingeneralizationsaboutgatedesigncanbemade.Gatesshouldbeconstructedofsteelbarsofsufficientsizetobeinvulnerabletoboltcutters.Steelbars3/4-inchtoI-inchindiameter(ASTM*A242)arerecommended.Allweldsshouldbemadecarefully,usingarcweldingequipment.Accessopeningsingatesshouldbeconstructedtothesamestandards,withthemostdurablehinges,hasps,andlocks.Inasituationwherevandalismseemslikely,weak-linkdesignmaybeemployed.Thelock,hasp,orsomeothereasilyreplaceableportionofthegateshouldberelativelyweak sothatvandalswillnottrytobreachthemainbodyofthegate.Locksshouldbechosenwithcare,asmanycommontypesareextremelyeasytoforceopen.Freeendsofallbarsshouldbegroutedintosolidrock.Insomecaves,itmaybenecessarytopouraconcretefooting(althoughitshouldnotriseaboveoriginalgroundlevel),ortodigthrougha deepclayorgravelfilltoreachtheunderlyingfloor.Openingsingatesthroughwhichbatsareexpectedtoflyshouldbeapproximately6inchesverticallyandatleast24incheshorizontally.Lengthsgreaterthan24inchesbetweenverticalbarsincreasetheprobabilitythatthebarscanbespreadbyuseofhydraulicjacks.Unfortunately,asimpleverticalgate(Figure6)seldomcanbeconstructed at acavewithasinkholeentrance.Horizontalgateshavetwoseriousdrawbacks:(1)batsarereluctanttoflyupthroughsuchagate;(2)ahorizontalgatemaybecomeblockedwithdebris,preventingentryandexitbybats,aswellasblockingnormalairflow.Asolutionisprovidedby a"cage"

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Figure5.FenceerectedatHambrickCave,Alabama,bythe Tennessee Valley Authority.Fenceislocated approximately30feetfromcave entrance (Photo Credit Tennessee Valley Authority). 'C

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N o Figure 6. GreatScottCavegate erectedbythe Department of Conservation (Photo Credit -R.Clawson)

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Figure' 7. BearCavegate(a cage "gate)erectedbytheMissouri DepartmentofConservation (PhotoCredit-R. Clawson}N.......

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Althoughgatesthatcoverentireentrancesmayprovidemaximumsecurity,theiruseshouldberestricted.Pregnantgraybatfemalesandfemaleswithyoungapparentlywillnotflythroughthem.Untilafullgatecanbedesignedthatprovesacceptabletograybatsusingmaternitycaves,suchcavesmust be"half-gated."Ahalf-gateispracticalonlyinalargecaveentrance,whereitextendsfromthefloorpartwaytotheceiling.Itshouldallowadequatespacethroughwhichbatsmayfly(atleast3feetofspace22gate,similartoFigure7.thatshowninandpreferablymore,dependingonentrancewidthandcolonysize).Itisrelativelyeasytoclimboverahalf-gate thetopisdesignedtomakethe'climbdifficult(Figure8).Fullgateshaveoneadditionallimitationwhichcannotbe overcome bythehalf-gatedesign.Graybatsareapparentlyverysensitivetoanygate -or otherstructureplacedacrossasmallentrance(lessthan6feetindiameter).Onesuchcave, whengated,waspromptlyabandoned by abachelorcolonyof40,000batsthathadbeenpresentthepreviousyear. SPACE ..I.,!s":'"' I6" '\2A" r \\\I\ /\ / \. / "\../'........."".v SCALE'SIDEVIEW90'POINTEDTIPSFigure 8.Drawingof a gate withfreeflightspace, adaptedfromBlackwellCaveGate,U.S.ArmyCorpsof Engineers,KansasCityDistrict.

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(1)TheRecoveryTeam,appropriateRegionalDirectoroftheU.S.FishandWildlifeService.(2)U.S.FishandWildlifeService,Region4,(4)TennesseeValleyAuthority,OfficeofNaturalResources,DepartmentofArmyCorpsofLouisandKansasThefollowinggroupsandagencieshavehadthemostexperiencewithbatcavemanagement, andcanbeconsultedforadvicewhen managementactionsarebeingplanned: (3) MissouriConservation,(5)U.S.Engineers,St.CityDistricts.5.Levees.The KansasCityDistrict,CorpsofEngineershassuccessfullyusedanearthenleveetoprotectagraybatcavefromfloodingatHarryS.Truman LakeinMissouri.Caremustbetakentopreventwaterfrombackingupintothecave,behindthelevee.4.RestrictApproachtoCave.Fewpeoplefindcaveswithouttheaidoftrailsandroads.Obliterationofjeepandfoottrailsmaygreatlyreducehumantraffictothecaves.TheTennesseeValleyAuthorityhasblockedboatapproachestotwoofitscaves,preventingaccess.Otheropportunitiesforrestrictingapproachmaypresentthemselvesatspecificcavesites.6.ResourceGroups and.\gencies.Nomodificationshouldbe 'madetoeitheranIndianabatorgraybatcavewithoutconsultingtheLITERATURECITEDClawson,R.L.,R.K.LaVal,andW.Carie.ofhibernatingMyotissodalisin61:245-253.1980.Clustering }lissouri. J.behaviorHamm., Cope,J.B.,Richter,A.R.,and D.A.Sear1ey.1978.AsurveyofintheBigBlueLakeprojectareainIndiana.JosephMuseum,EarlhamCollege,Richmond,Indiana.batsMooreEngel,J.M.,etale1976.RecoveryPlanfortheIndianabat.FishandWildlifeService,Washington,D.C.,34pp.U.S.Gardner,J.E.,andT.L.Gardner.1980.DeterminationofpresenceandhabitatsuitabilityfortheIndianabat (}lyotis sodalis)andgraybat(Myotisgrisescens)forportionsofthelower6.6milesofMcGeeCreek,McGeeCreekDrainageand LeveeDistrict,PikeCounty,Illinois.St.LouisDistrict,CorpsofEngineers,St.Louis,Missouri.Hall,E.R.1981.The mammalsofNorthAmerica.JohnWileyandSons,NewYork,1:1-600and90.Hall,J.S.1962.AlifehistoryandtaxomonicstudyoftheIndianabat,Myotissoda1is.ReadingPublicMus. andArtGallery,Sci.Publ.,12:1-68.

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24Hall,J.S.,andN.ofthegray75:317-324.Wilson.1966.SeasonalpopulationsandmovementsbatintheKentuckyarea.Amer.MidlandNat.,Hays,H.A.andD.C. Bingham.1964.Acolonyofgraybats southeasternKansas.J.Hamm.,45:150.Humphrey,S.R.,1978.Status,winterhabitat,andmanagementoftheendangeredIndianabat,Myotissodalis.FloridaSci.,41:65-76.Humphrey,S.R.,A.R.Richter,andJ.B.Cope.1977.SummerhabitatandecologyoftheendangeredIndianabat,Myotissodalis.J.Hamm.,58:334-346.R.L.Clawson,W.Caire,L.R.Wingate,andM.L.LaVal.Anevaluationofthestatusofmyotinebats theMeramecParkLake and Union LakeProjectareas,U.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineers,St.LouisDistrict,LaVal,R.K.,1977 proposedMissouri.136pp.Sparling,D.W.,Sponsler,M.,andT.Hickman.1979.LimitedbiologicalassessmentofGalumCreek.CooperativeWildlifeResearchLaboratory,SouthernIllinoisUniversity,Carbondale,Illinois.Tuttle,M.D.,pers.comm.MilwaukeePublicMuseum.1975.Populationecologyofthegraybat(Hyotisgrisescens):factorsinfluencingearlygrowthanddevelopment.Occas.Papers Nus. Nat.Hist.,Univ.Kansas,36:1-24.1976a.Populationecologyofthegraybat(Myotisgrisescens):philopatry,timingandpatternsofmovement,weightlossduringmigration,andseasonaladaptivestrategies.Occas.PapersMus.Nat.Hist.,Univ.Kansas,54:1-38.grisescens):volantyoung.1976b.Populationecologyofthegraybat(HyotisfactorsinfluencinggrowthandsurvivalofnewlyEcology,57:587-595.1977.Gatingasa meansofprotectingcavedwellingbats.NationalCave Management SymposiumProceedings,1976(T.AleyandD.Rhodes,eds.),Speleobooks,Albuquerque,NewMexico.1979.Status,causesofdecline,and managementofendangeredgraybats.J.wildl.Mgrnt.43:1-17.Tuttle,M.D.,andD.E.Stevenson.1978.Variationinthecaveenvironmentanditsbiologicalimplications.NationalCave Nanagement SymposiumProceedings,1977.(R.Zuber,etal.,eds),AdobePress,Albuquerque,NewMexico.U.S.FishandWildlifeService.1978.threatenedwildlifeandplants.43(238):58031,11December1978.ListofendangeredandFederalRegister.

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THE r,UACHARO CAVEDR.EUGENIODEBELLARD-PIETRIApartado80210PradosDelEste,CaracasVenezuela108AbstractGuacharo CaveisVenezuela'slargestcavern(10,200metersexplored).Thetouristsector(about1,200meters)harborsthelargestknowncolonyofoilbirdsintheworld(about19,000)andhasaninterestingfauna(rodents,bats,spiders,centipedes,andmiriadsofinsects).Duetothefactthatthebirdsbringseedsintheircropsandregurgitatethem,thecavern'sHumboldtHall(759 mlong)holdsa numberofseedlingforestsduringthebreedingseason.Thetouristsectorcanbedividedinthreesuccessivesections:a)Humboldt'sHall,b)theHallofSilence(240 mlong),c)thePreciousHall(100mlong).Thebeautifulcavernhasbeendevelopedfortourismhavinginmind twoparameters:(1)keepthecaveaswildandasnaturalaspossible,(2)givethevisitorsminimumadequatefacilities.Forthis,arockslabwalkway1,500mlongwithfourwellspacedand ampleareasand a numberofnaturalrockbridgeswereconstructed.Allpossibleeffortwasputincamouflagingasbestandassafelyaspossiblethefullwalkway.Norailingsofanysortappearandstepsonlywhennecessary.Duetothebirds,noelectriclighthasbeeninstalled.Theresultshavebeenrewarding:65,471visitorssawthecaveduring1979.Noaccidentshavebeenreportedandwheelchairsfordisabledcanreach400 minHumboldtHall.Avisitorwithtwoartificiallegsmanagedwithreasonableeasethefulltouristdevelopment.Guideswithgasolinelanternsleadthetourists.IntroductionBesidesitsspectacularcrystals,speleothemsofeveryvarietyandcolor,gypsumriver,etc.,theGuacharo Caveisanincrediblefaunaandflorasanctuary.Itscolonyofsome19,000guacharobirds(oilbirds,SteatorniscaripensisHumb.)liveinthefirsthallandhavebeenfullyprotectedsince1949providing,.withoutquestion,oneoftheparamountattractionsofferedbynaturetothevisitingtourists(deBellard,1979).TheGuacharoCave, byfarthelargestsofarexploredinVenezuela(10,200metersknownsofar)and,withoutquestion,oneofthemostcompletecavernstobeseenanywhereintheworld,wasfirstseenbyEuropeansin1657(deBellard,1960).Exploredby Humboldtin1799(Humboldt,1956),Codazziin1835(Codazzi,1835)andbythe Speleological GroupoftheVenezuelanSocietyofNaturalSciencesinamethodicaland waystartingin1951(de Bellard, 1968),thecave'sfirst "ector nowcalledlithetouristsector"hasbeenvandalisedsince1900,perhapsearlier.25Bothplanstopowerfulin1953and1974,absurdilluminatethecavernwithlightswerepreparedand

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26TheProjectTheprincipalaimsofthenewprojectwere:engineered.The1953projectwasrapidlystoppedafterthebirdslefttheirnestsbyhundredsandbegantoabandonthecavern.The1974project,disregardingthepreviousexperience,includedtheconstructionofamassiveconcretewalkwayallthroughthetouristsector(some1,500meters).Alarmed bytheinformationreceived,theVenezuelanGovernment'sMinistryoftheAmbient and RenewableNaturalResourcesandtheSpeleologicalGroupoftheVenezuelanSocietyofNaturalSciences,workinginajointteam,stoppedaltogethertheirresponsibleprojectwhichwouldhaveprobablywipedouttheguacharocolonythere,sofarthelargestcolonyofSteatornisknownintheworld,andseverelyaffectedthetroglobitesandtroglophilesofthecave(Ad Honorem Commission,1975).(2)togivethevisitorsofthecavethem1n1mumadequatefacilitiesandsafety.Thesecondlap,600meterslongand2meterswide,coversthesecondhalfofHumboldt'sHallrightuptoWiththesetwoparameters1nmind,the Goernment projectwascarriedoutandexecutedasfollowsbythealreadymentionedMinistryoftheAmbient,theMinistryofAgricultureandLivestockand,principally,bytheNationalParksInstitute(InstituteNacionaldeParques1980).DuringJuly1976aspeciallydesignedlimestoneslabwalkway wasconstructed.withoutrailings,banistersorlightsofanysort,andtheuseofbridges(overthecavernrivulet)andstonestepswasreducedtotheabsoluteminimum. Thefirstlap,easilycoveredeven1nwheelchairs,permitstheV1s1tortoenterHumboldt'sHall(759meterslong)uptothehorizontaldepthof400meters.Thousandsofguacharobirdsliveinthenooks,crevicesandbalconiesofthissectorrightuptotheceiling,some40to45metersabovetherivulet.The walkwayis2meterswidebutwidensconsiderablytoformsmallplazasinsixselectedsites.Foursomewhatcamouflagedbridgesspanthecavernrivulet.Althougheasilyidentifiable,thewalkways andplazasmadeoflimestoneslabsmatchverywellthesurroundingrockfallandthereforefitinperfectlywiththenaturalstructureseenallaround.Awellhiddenwaterlineallowstheclean1ngofthewalkwayforthefullinitial400meters,thussimplifyingthemaintenance.Thisfirstspanrequiredthehandlingof3,026cubicmetersofrock,guano andearthatthecostofU.S.$42.000(at1976rates).thecavernasnaturalandasphysically(1)tokeepwild,unspoiledpossible;Theexperienceneverthelesshelpedtopointoutthattheverylargenumbersofvisitorsenteringthecavethen(40,264in 1974; 46,241in1975)would welcome andapplaudanyreasonabletouristdevelopmentmadeinthecave.ThisviewwasjointlyappreciatedbytheabovementionedMinistryand bythespeleologistsandconservationistsoftheVenezuelanSocietyofNaturalSciences.Sobothinstitutionsplannedanddevelopedamasterprojectaimedatthebettermentofthewildconditionsstilltobefacedbyallvisitorsenteringthecavern.

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27TheResultsfeelthatthisphilosopnyoftokeepthismagnificentaswildlookingasitwasbackin1657,givesthetheadditionalthrillingovertheopenareas,got dirtyinthemud,wettothekneesintherivulet,andinadvertentlykilledthousandsofallsortsoftroglobites,troglophiles,guanobiesandplantsgrowingfromtheseedsdroppedbytheguacharobirdsafterfeeding.The socalled"caverats"(HeteromysanomalusandProechimysguyannensis)werescarceandfisheswererarelyseenintherivulet.Nowadaysthecavernremindsthosewhoenteredthirtyormoreyearsago,oftheveryscenestheysawbackinthelate1950's:millionsofinsectslivealloverHumboldt'sHall;spiders,centipedes,millipedesandrodentshavemultiplied;fishesofthecavernstreamarenolongerararesightandbeautifuldenselittleseedlingforestsoflaurelsandpalmsgreetthevisitorswiththeirpaleyellowleavesandpallidstems,amostunforgettablesightforthosewhovisitthecaveduringthebreedingseasonoftheguacharobirds. areconductedbyguidesusingColeman 300candlepowergasolinelamps(whicheventuallywillbesubstitutedbyadequateandsturdyelectriclamps)andareinstructedtostayatalltimesonthewalkway andplazas.During1979,visitorscametoseethisspectacularcavernfromalloverVenezuelaand fromoverseas,andtheirnumbersummed65,471.AlthQughthewalkway andplazasareextremelysimpleand somewhatcamouflaged,noaccidentshavebeenreportedsofarand avisitorwithtwoartificiallegsmanagedwithacceptablediscomforttowalkthefull tourist sector,thatis,1,800 meters. WetryingcavernpossiblyvisitorsofthefullworkscavemountedtoThecompletemeterslongandofsome4,500sincethecavernfloorandirregular-andnotlimitedtoathe latter walkedallThetotalcostdevelopedinthe O.S. $123,000.walkway 1,800Occupiesanareasquaremeters.Before, was unevenisi-tors were cert:ain trail, Thismagnificentlydesigned hasgivenimmediateandmost unexpected dividends.thesmallcrevicewhichconnectswiththesecondhallofthecave,knownastheHallofSilence(some 240meterslong).Inthissector,limestonegravelwasusedandcompactedforbetterfooting.Twobridgesspantherivuletinthispartand253cubicmetersofrock,guano,earthandgravelhadtobehandled.Footstepsweremadeinsitewiththeoriginalrocksfoundand alargeplazawaserectedatthepointwhereHumboldtturnedbackfinalizinghisvisitofSeptember18,1799.Asimplemarbleslabwith a briefinscriptonmarkstheplaceandconstitutestheonlynon-natural jtem inthecavern.Thecostofthissecondlapmountedtou.S.59,000(1977rates).Thethirdandlastlapwasdevelopedfromtheentrance totheHallofSilenceuptothe oftheBreasts,theveryextremecornerofthetouristsector,itselfthefinalroomofthe Hall(some 100meterslong).Thisspanis800meters long, hassevenbridgesandthewalkwayissomewhatreducedincomparisonwiththeprevious Forty-eightcubicmetersof gravelandearthhadtobe bandIed inthispart, qnd thecostofthethird lap mountedtou.S. (at1977rates).

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28experienceofavisittoaverylargenaturalanduntouched,semi-virgincave,a nowadaysraresightifweconsiderthetouristcavernsopenallovertheworld.Ifweaddtotheprevious'statementthefactthatvisitorstotheGuacharo' CavearriveallthewayfromCaracascityonanasphaltedroadthatallowsthefinestcarstoparkwithin80metersofthe hugecaveentrance,wefeelwehave managedtogivea mostunusualexperiencetoanycaverandnaturalistthatcomestothisgrandiosecavern.Ifonlytheindispensableartificialelementsareincorporatedintonaturesoastoguaranteeaverysafevisitto.prudentandaveragelycarefulvisitors,thetwoprinciplescanbekeptandexercisedtothebenefitofNatureandman'sunbendingdesiretoknowmore.BibliographyAdHonorem CommissionfortheStudyofallthingspertinenttoAlexandervon HumboldtNationalMonument(GuachaioCave);1975:FirstReportDec.1975.Bull.No.132-133,Socied.Venez. deCienc.Natur.,Vol.XXXII.Caracas.Pages661-682.deBellard-Pietri,Eugenio:1960:96Socied.Venez. deCienc.139.liLaCuevadelGuacharo",Bull.Natur.Vol.XXI,Caracas.No. Page deBellard-Pietri,Eugenio:1968:liLaCuevadelGuacharo",MondoSotterraneo,1967,Udine,Italy,pages19-31.deBellard-Pietri,Eugenio:carip'ensis,H.),especieVenez. deCienc.Natur. Guacharo{Steatornisamenazada",Bull.No. 136Socied.Vol.XXXIV,Caracas.Pages223-237.Codazzi,Augustin:1835:liLaCuevadelGuacharo",Gac.July1835.deVenez.,Humboldt,Alexandervon:1956:"ViajealasRegionesEquinoccialesdelNuevoContinente",2ndedit.Vol.II,Bibliot.Venez. deCult.,BuenosAires. 79-81.InstitutoNacionaldeParques:1980: Humboldt, CuevadelGuacharoliCaracas."MonumentoNaturalAlejandrodeOfficialbrochureforvisitors.

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KARSTCAVEMANAGEMENTMODELLINGINTHETRANSVAAL fRANCES M.GAMBLE Dept. ofGeography&EnvironmentalStudiesUniversityoftheWitwatersrand1JanSmuts Ave. Johannesburg 2001SouthAfricaAbstractThenecessityfora management modelforuse in Transvaalkarstcaveareas is evidentfromtheoccurrenceofbothintentionalandunintentionalexploitationofcaveresources.Suchmodellingiscomplex,dependingonthespecificregionsndtheindividualcavetowhichitisapplied.Theconcernofthepaper is withthegeneralrequirements,natureandfeasibilityofsuchmodelling.Bothphysicalandsocialenvironmentalconsiderationsareincorporated.The modelisbasedonthemostextremeconditionsofsusceptibilitytodisturbanceofacavesystem,that is on astaticcave.Itsnaturevariesfromdescriptivetomathematical.Thesuccessofthemodelasa managementtool is dependentuponitsflexibilitypermittingmodificationforindividualapplicationsandeaseofinterpretation.Manyofthegeneralprinciplesaretransferabletocavesinotherrocktypesand/orinothergeographicalregions.IntroductionModelsaretoolsused scientificresearchorinplanningandcontroltorepresentreality.Theyaresubjectiveapproximationsconsistingof"asimplifiedstructuringofrealitywhichpresentssupposedlysignificantfeaturesorrelationshipsinageneralizedform"(HaggettandChroley,1969,p.22).Theyarevaluableinthattheyobscuremuchofthe.detailofthesystem,allowingthebasiccomponentsofrealitytodominate,thusfacilitatingunderstandingandbehaviourpredictionofthesystem(Lee,1973).Modelshavebeenusedintheenvironmentalfieldforaboutthelast20years(Deininger,1973),wheretheyhaveachievedsomemeasureofsuccess(Vansteenkiste,1978).Resourcesystemsarealwaysmodelsorabstractionsandsimplificationsofreality.Theyhavegreatpotentialvalue, if onlytocomparedecisionswiththeoptimumsituation(O'Riordan,1971).29Todatetherehavebeenfewattemptstomodeltotalenvironmentalsystems(Deininger,1973;McHarg,1973;Spofford,1973).Karstcaveecosystemshavebeenparticularlyneglected.Systemsofclassifyingcavesaccordingtotheircontentsandhazardshavebeendevised(Larson,1980;Trout,1978).Severalstudies,asforexampleintheWaitomoareaofNewZealand(Nelson,1975),haveprovidedrecommendationsforimprovementstoindividualcaves.Forssel1(1977)andStitt(1977)haverespectivelyconsideredcarryingcapacity in relationtomanagement, andthehumansurfaceandsubsurfaceimpactoncavesbasedonthecountrysidemodelproposedbyNicholson(1972).Amodel,whileusedasareferenceoridealsituation,mustincludesome compromiseintermsofindividualapplications,whiledemandingthatdisturbanceofthesystemisminimized.Suchmodelling

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30isascomplexastheecosysteminquestion,butisessentialintheoptimizationofanynaturalresource,particularlythoseofafinitenature. itisastepwhich1Sfrequentlyomitted,althoughitisonlyoncea modelhasbeentestedagainstrealitythatitcanbeusedwithanyconfidence.ThekarstcaveresourcepotentialintheTransvaalislimited,requ1r1ngappropriateplanningand management. Management must embracethewholeecosystemandnotonlyisolatedfacets.Althoughcavesapproximateclosedsystems,cognizancemust betakenofthesurroundingsystemsuponwhichtheyaredependent.Theintentionofthepresentpaperistoexaminethegeneralobjective,requirements,natureandfeasibilityofsuchamodel,asitappliestotheTransvaalsuiteofkarstcaves.Manyofthegeneralprinciplesareapplicableinotherkarstregions.ConstructionandObjectivesoftheModel Theconstructionofdynamicenvironmentalmodelsinvolvesfourfundamentalstages(Devereaux,1978;Vansteenkiste,1978):Thedeterminationof. model-objectives,requirementsandstructurebasedonavailableexperience.Parameteridentificationanddevelopmentofastrategicmanagementplan.Thedesignandinstallationofmonitoringcontrolsystems,andtheinitiationofaction.Theobjectivesdefined1n akarstcavemanagement modelshouldbedesignedtoinitiatecomprehensiveplanningforenvironmentalquality(McHarg,1973),andthereafter providetheguidelinesforfuturemanagementpractices.Theyshouldbeidealisticwhilemaintainingsompdegreeofrealism. The idealofreversingtheecosystemstopristineconditionsisobviouslyunrealisticinthissituation.Morejudiciouswould betheoptimizationoftheresourcethroughitswiseuse,tendingtowardsmultipurpose use,thushelpingtoalleviatelanddemands.Anyalterationoftheexistingbiologicalandgeologicalfeaturesofacavemusttherebybeminimized(Palmer,1980).Such apolicyallowsforthreelevelsofcavedisturbance,eachbeingselectivlyencouraged.Theselevelsaretheundisturbedecosystem,thecontrolledorlimitedaccesssystem,andthecommerciallydevelopedcave.Intermsofanoptimizationpolicyemphasisisonthefirsttwocategories,with-limitedbutimportantrecognitionofthethirdina fewselectedcases.Undernocircumstancesshoulduncontrolledexploitationoftheresourcebetolerated.Suchobjectivesaredemandingonthenatureofthemodelforsuccessfulresourcemanagement.RequirementsoftheModel any model dependentresourceThe model must be comprehensiveinallrespects.Itmust encompass Therequirementsofinvolvingecosystemsareuponthenatureandpotentialoftheecosystem.Thevalidationofthemodel 1S themostdifficultstep.initsconstructionbecauseofthepaucityofavailabledata,particularlyforatotalenvironmentalsystem.-Validationofthemodel bytestingitagainstreality.

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planningandenvironmentalqualityconsiderations,aswellasthetotalenvironment,includingbothphysicalandsocialaspects.InthecaseofcavernsystemsthedisturbanceofthephysicalenvironmentbyMan(aspartofthesocialenvironment),intentionallyorunintentionally(Figure1)istheprimaryconcernofthemodel.Thesecanonlybeincorporatedintoatotalecosystemmodel byusingappropriateindividualsubsectionswithintheframeworkofthetotalmanagement model. Theintentionofthemodelmustbetoallowforthemostextremecase,thatofasackcavewithrestrictedentry,asituationtypicalofmostTransvaalcaves.Suchanecosystemisparticularlyvulnerabletoanydisturbance,themajorcontrolsbeingatmosphericandhydrological.ThisvulnerabilityisenhancedinTransvaalcavesbylimitedrockporosityandpassagedimensionsresultinginpoorventilation.The model mustbebasedontheexistingmanagementstructureconsistingofinvolvedparties,andmachinerysuchascommercialcontrolandlegislation.Withinthisframeworkallowancemustbemadeforthreeexistinglevelsofmanagementnational,provincialandindividualclubs,cavesandspeleologists.Theseshouldbeviewedasimportantfoundationsforthecreationofawarenessamongstboththegeneralandinvolvedpopulation,anduponwhichoverseasexperiencesmaybebased.31 Subsul'face ISurfaceDisturbanceoftheCavern Atmosphere llildEcosvstem._----------11----------'---. IUnintentionalIntentionalII Alteration: e.!;. pathways,airandwaterpercolationPesticides,hervicides:destructionofecosystemConstruction:e.g.blastingalterventilationHydrologicalschemes: e.!;. boreholesdehydrationSewagedisposal:con tamination,gasaccumulationHumanvisitor:heat,moisture,CO2 ,compaction, forei!;n materialsGate:alterationofairflowand troRloxene activityEnlargingaccesspoints:alterationofairflowdehydrationMiningandquarrying:accessfromsurfacedehydrationTouristamenitiese.g.walls,stairs:percolation andquarrying:alterationofairflowdehydrationTouristfacilities, e.R. lights,heat:photosynthesis Foreign materials:bacteria,fungi Enlarging accesspoints:alterationofairflowdehydrationFigure1: and UnintentionalDisturhanceof the CavernEcosystem bySubsurface Intrusion andAl.teration

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32It is essentialthatthemodelshouldembraceanunderstandingofthebiophysicalenvironmentinvolved.Relativelylittleisknownaboutcavemanagement(Gallagher,1980),asituationwhichnecessitatesimmediateameliorationthroughresearch.The modelmustbeasobjectiveaspossible.The model mustbedynamic,beingcontinuallyimprovedaccordingtothelatestknowledge andexperiencegained.Thisisinaccordancewiththedynamicsoftheecosystemitself The modelmustbeflexible1nthateachsystem is toagreaterorlesserdegreeunique.However,thisflexibilityshouldnotsupersedethemanagementobjectivesofthemodel.The model mustbestringentinitsprovisionofcontrollingguidelinesforallaspectsoftheresource.However, abalancemust besoughtinordertopreservetheflexibility.Easeofinterpretation,facilitatingutilizationandcommunication,isessentialinordertooptimizethemodelasa managementtoolforbothlaymen andexperts.However,theoversimplificationwhichreducesthevalueofthemodel must beavoided.Theserequirementsforakarstcavemanagement modelmayappearidealistic.Intermsoftheobjectivesofthemodeltheyareessentialpremisesuponwhichtowork.Inrealitysome compromisehastobeaccepted,buttheseatleastwouldprovidetheinitialguidelines.TheNatureoftheModelInaccordancewithothermodelsofenvironmentalsystems,a modelofkarstcavemanagementrequiresanheuristicapproach (Vansteenkiste, 1978),usingsmallerunits. in itsconstruction,butbeingvalidated,insituagainstacompletesystem.The modelshouldessentiallybeanalytical,butshouldincludesystemsanalysisand 1nappropriatesections.Someofthemajormodellingproblemsareencounteredindefiningandquantifyingenvironmentalqualitiesandotherpublicpolicyobjectives(Deininge,1973).Initsoverallframeworkthemodel wouldcomprisea numberofbothdescriptiveand.mathematicalsections.Thedescriptivesectionsarethemostsubjectiveandhencearetheweakestlinkinsuchatool. They pertainforexampletotheproblemofvandalism.Theymustbeminimized,butareessentialmembersastheyprovidetheonlymethodofincludingsuchsystemfeatures.Inaddition,theyareprobablythemosteasilyinterpretedsectionsofthemodel,andassucharevital,particularlytothenon-specialist.Numericalsectionsaremoreprecise,thereforemoreobjective,andareconsequentlythemostvaluablemodellingtechniques.Theyaredependentuponexactmeasurements,forexampleoftemperature,humidityandcarbondioxide.Onthebasisofthesemeasurementsvariouscharacteristicsmaybecalculated.Thencevisitorhazardsandecosystemimpactsmaybeinterpreted,priortocompliancewiththeremainderofthemanagementobjectives.Descriptiveandmathematicalcomponentscontributetoonemajormanagementmodel.Theflexibilityofthemodelistherebyenhanced,whileitssubsectionstringencyispreserved.Theapplicationofthemodelwillvaryaccordingtothenatureoftheindividualecosystem.Ingeneralstringencywillbereducedinmostsystemsasvulnerabilityisdecreasedthrough

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ventilationormanagementpolicy.InmostinstancesintheTransvaalapplicationwillvarythroughlargersystemsasconditions,forexampleinentrancezones,aredifferentfromthoseindeepcaveareas.FeasibilityofSuccessfulModellingSuccessfulmodellingofecosystmsisessentialinsoundmanagementpractices,butthefeaturesrequiredtorenderamodelsuccessfulareseveralandcomplex.Theflexibilityofthemodelisperhapsthemostimportantconsideration.Bothinitselfandinitsapplicationandusageitmustbeversatile.Withoutthisfeaturearigidmodelisoflittleuse.Itprovidesnoguidanceandallowsnoexception.The modelitselfmaybeperfect1nitsstatedform,butmaycollapsecompletelywithineffectiveorinappropriateutilization.Manmustderivetherelationshipsandselecttheinputsforthemodel(O'Riordan,1971).Theeffectivenessofthisprocessisafunctionoftheframeworkwithinwhichitisbeingused,aswellasoftheobjectivityoftheuser.Withoutabackgroundofsoundecologicaland managementprinciplesinthisutilization,themodelcannotbesuccessful,throughnofaultofitsown. Thedynamicsofecosystemsdemandthatmanagmentmodelsshouldalsobedynamic.Theincorporationofresearchresultsintothemodel mustbetimely,veryoftenadifficultundertakingintermsofdataprocessingandofcommunicationofmodification.ThefeasibilityofkarstcavemanagementmodellingintheTransvaalisdependentonthemodelitselfandthecompetencyoftheuser,1nobjectiveinterpretationandimplementaton.The modelisregardedasafeasiblenecessityfortheoptimizationoffiniteresources.Itssuccessfuluseispossibledependingupon humanobjectivityatallstagesof.developmentandutilizationofthemodel.Itsoverallsuccess1Sdirectlyrelatedtounderstandingofthecomplexityoftheecosystem.ConclusionAtthepresenttimethereisnosinglesolutiontothecavemanagementproblem.Theonlycertainmethodisonewhichisapplicabletoasinglecaveataparticularmomentintime(Wilmut,1972).However,itmaybeconcludedthata management modelisessentialfortheoptimizationofthekarstcaveresourcepotentialintheTransvaal.Itssuccessdependslargelyonthecomprehenisvenessandflexibilityofthemodel,and ontheecologicalobjectivityoftheresourcedeveloper.Anenvironmentalmanagement modeliscomplex.Itmayappeartobetotallyimpractical,butthecompensationsintermsofthebenefitsderivedtherefromfaroutweightheproblems.Thereareproblemsinthedevelopmentandutilizatonofanysuchtool,butthetaskisnotimpossible.The modelbuildingandassociatedmanagementpracticesarelong-termundertakingswhichwillbenefitboththephysicalandsocialcomponentsoftheenvironment.33

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34ReferencesDeininger,R.A.,1973:Systemsanalysisforenvironmentalpollutioncontrol.Deininger,R. A.(Ed.):Modelsforenvironmentalpollutioncontrol.ArborScience,AnnArbor.3-18.In:AnnDevereaux,R.,1978:Management: Aworkingdefinition.NationalCave Management Symposium,1977,BigSky,7-10.Forssell,S.,1977:Theconceptofcarryingcapacityandhowitrelatestocaves.NationalCave Management Symposium,1976,MountainView.1-5.Gallagher,T.,1980:Caves andsurfacelandmanagement.FarWest Cave Management Symposium,1979,Redding,67-69.Haggett,P.andChorley,R.J.,1969:Models,paradigmsandthenewgeography. In Chorley,R.J.andHaggett,P.(Eds.):Models 1n geography,Methuen, London.22-41.Larson,L.,1980:ForestService,Region5,Evolvingpolicyoncavemanagement.FarWest Cave Management Symposium,1979,Redding.73-79.Lee,C.,1973:Modelsinplanning.Pergamon,Oxford.142pp.McHarg,II.L.,1973:Planningproceduresandtechniquesforconservationinthenaturallandscape.Planningforenvironmentalconservation,InternationalSymposium,Pretoria.53-67.Nelson,C.S.,1975:Threecavesaregold m1nes. NewZealandSpeleologicalSoc.Bulletin.374-395.Nicholson,M.,1972:Theenvironmentalrevolution.Penguin,Hardmondsworth.432pp.O'Riordan,T.,1971:Perspectivesonresourcemanagement.Pion,London.183pp.Palmer,J.,1980:Karstresources,theirmanagement anddevelopmentinSequoiaand Kings CanyonNationalParks.FarWest Cave Management Symposium,1979,Redding.93-97.Spofford,W.O.,1973:Totalenvironmentalqualitymanagementmodels.In:Deininger,R.A.(Ed.):ibid.403-436.Stitt,R.,1977:Humanimpactoncaves.NationalCave Management Symposium,1976,MountainView.36-43.Trout,J.,1978:Acaveclassificationsystem.NationalCave Management Symposium,1977,BigSky.19-23.Vansteenkiste,G.c.(Ed.),1978:Modelling,identificationandcontrol 1n environmentalsystems.NorthHolland,Amsterdam,1025pp.Wilmut,J.,1972:CaveConservation-alostcause?CaveScience,49.17-24.

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PROBLEMSOFMANAGEMENTOFTRANSVAALCAVESFRANCESM.GAMBLEDept.Geog.andEnvironmentalStudiesUniversityoftheWitwatersrand1JanSmutsAve.,Joannesburg2001SouthAfricaAbstractThe managementofkarstcavesisinterpretedastheprocesswhichoptimisestheresourcepotentialofthecave.Thisprocesvariesconsiderablybetweencaves,from anundisturbedecosystemtocommercialdevelopment.Theproblemsinvolvedissuchmanagementareconsiderable.TheyvaryfromcommonproblemsofawarenesaofinvolvedpartiesandexploitationoftheresourcetoproblemsmorespecifictotheTransvaalarea.Theselatterincludeaspectssuchasculture,populationdiatributionandminingpracticea.Contrarytotheseproblematherearefewcurrentpositiveaspectstomanagement.Itisimperativethatthemostpressingoftheproblems,inthefieldsofawareness,distributionandadministration,shouldbeminimizedassoonaspossible.Theproblemsofmanagementarenotseenasbeinginaurmountable,butratheraslong-termundertakingsonthepartofallconcernedparties.IntroductionDuringthelast15years,ManIspreceivedneedforcontrolhasledtoachangeinapproachtothenaturalenvironment.Conservationhasbecomestrategicmanagement,theprocesswherebyapredeterminedobjectiveisobtained(Devereaux,1978).Thisinvolvesthewiseuseoroptimizationofresources(Usher,1973),includingrawmaterials,amenities,recreationandscientificinterest(Black,1964).Suchanapproachiseffectivelya compromiseprovidingthebestmeansofservingallinterests(Wilmut,1972),butisessentialparticularlywherefiniteresourcesareinvolved.Problemsofawarenessandimplementationofsuchmanagementareconsiderablethroughouttheworld,butareperhapsmostcriticalinthedevelopingnationswheredegradationoftheenvironmentisserious.35Awarenessofboththeproblemsassociatedwiththemanagementofkarstcavesandofthenecessityformanagementofkarstcavesisarelativelynewconcerninvolvingfewofthegeneralpopulation.Thegeneralinaccessibilityandecosystemstabilityofkarstcavesaresuchthatfewpeoplerecognizetheirfragilityorresourcepotential.IntheTransvaalcavenumbers andlocations,andpopulationawarenessnecessitatemanagementoftheecosystems.Theirpotentialisconsiderable,butonlyinasfarasitisrecognizedandoptimized.Asthepopulationpressuresincrease(currentlyatapproximately3.5%p.a.),sodothepressuresontouristamenitiesandthereforeonwildernessareas.Inordertoavailfuturegeneratonsofthecaveresource,theproblems

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inherentinsound managementpracticesmustbeminimized.TheseproblemsarenotuniquetotheTransvaalarea,butservetoillustratethosewhichmustbeacknowledgedandthoseofpriority.ThenecessityforandproblemsconfrontingthesuccessfulmanagementofTransvaalkarstcaveareexaminedinthepresentpaper.Thepossiblemethodsofovercomingsuchhindrancesarealludedto.Thegeneralprinciplesaretransferabletootherkarstcaveareas.Thenecessityformanagementofkarstcavesisobviousonlytothosepersonsactivelyinvolvedinscientificstudiesorrecreationalpursuitswithincaveecosystems.Amongstthesefewitisgenerallyacceptedthatmanagement 1S necessaryinordertoderivethebestpossiblevaluefromthesite,althoughthisvalueisrelativedependingupontime,placeandcircumstances(Whitfield,1980).36TheNecessityManagementforKarstCavedestructionofspecimensordata(Hamilton-Smith,1967).Each cave ecosystemmustberecognizedasanindividualresourcewhichhasalimitedcarryingcapacityintermsofdisturbancetotheecosystem.Itis,accordingtothecarryingcapacitythateachsystemmustbemanagedinordertoachieveoptimalreturns.Theobjectivesofthemanagementprogrammustbeclearlydefinedintermsofthelevelofimpactacceptabletothecavemanager(Fletcher,1980).Ideallythisshouldentailareversalofecosystemdamagetopristineconditions(Ela,1976),requiringtheintegrationofthecaveandsurfaceareamanagementplans.Suchisseldompossibleand a compromisesituationhastobeaccepted.Thecaseformanycavesistoolateastherehavebeenfewpositiveactions.Consequentlythesituationnowisbasicallyoneofrescueasavailablepreventivemeasuresareinadequate.ThePresentStatusofTransvaalCave Management Caves form oneofthebestandpossiblelastwildernessresources(Stitt,1976)availabletoManbut.' un11ke naturalareastheirextentcannotbeincreased(Wilmut,1972).TheybelongtoallMen,whoareentitledtoatleastalimitedshareoftheirresourcevalue.Withtheincreasingdemandforoutdoorrecreation,andthereinagrowthinthenumberofcaversandotherinterestedpersons(Clawson,1966'Hamilton-Smith,1967;Wilmut,1972):managementisessential.Manhasnomoralnorethicalrighttodeprivefuturegenerationsoftheresource,throughdamagewhichmarsbeautyandisirreparable,orwhichdeprivessocietyofknowledgethroughtheThepresentstatusofkarstcavemanagementintheTransvaalisbaseduponnationalandprovinciallegislationof1978-1979,pertainingtothedefacementandpreservationofcaveformations.Indirectlythisactprotectsmostoftheecosystemasitrelatestoatmosphericdisturbanceandtheintroductionofforeignmaterials.Theprovinciallegislationforms asubsectionoftheNatureConservationOrdinancefortheTransvaal,andassuchfallswithinthejurisdictionofthatDepartment.IthasnotyetbeentestedbutisstronglysupportedbyspeleologistsandNatureConservationofficials.

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Apartfromthesepersonsandtheassociatedlegalcontrol,variousotherpartiesareorshouldbeinvolvedinthemanagementoflocalcaves(Table1).Mostcaveowners,publicorprivate,exercisesomecontrolovertheircaves(Larson,1977).Inallinstancesatpresent,managementtendstobesporadicanduncoordinated.Thegeneralpublic,fromamongstwhomproblemsofthecasualvisitorarederived,arenotinvolved.Wherepartiesareawareoftheimplicationsofdisturbance,stepsarebeingtakentominimizedamagetotheecosystemwhileatthesametimepromotingthewiseuseoftheresource.Problemsaregreatestwherecommercialgainisinvolved.Inthethe'wild'cavesthereisPARTYDepartmentofWaterAffairs,ForestryandEnvironmentalConservationNationalParksHistoricalMonumentsDepartmentofDefenseHomelandGovernmentsPeri-urbanBoardProventialNatureConservationEnvironmentalOrganizationsUniveraityScientists GemandMineralClubs.GemstoneRetailersPrivateProperty Owners evidenceofwearandtearfromcavers,stillata lowlevelasmostcavesaresubjectedtolessthanfourvisitorspermonth.Incertainparticularlyvulnerableinstancescaveshavebeengatedtopreventfurtherwantondestruction.Thehesitancyofthelocalpopulationtoventureundergroundisanadditionalpositivefactor,withoutwhichdisturbance is likelytohavebeenmuchgreater.Thischaracteristicextendstomostprivatecaveowners,whoarealsohesitantaboutpromotingthedisturbancebyothersoftheirsubsurfaceproperty.Theisolatednatureofmanyindividualcavesalsoassiststosomeextent in theirprotection.Permitstoenterforestand water reservesActorotectin f res Actprotectinindiidualsites Sterkfntein Cave PermitstoentermilitaryareasPermitstoenterDeterrentnoticesatcaves and controlConservationareas SouthAfricanWildlifeSocietyRestrictedaccesstositesConservation SpeleothemsuppliesSubjectivecontrol Sudwala37Table 1. Parties toWhomCaveManagementisofConcernin the Transvaal

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38Cooperationandcommunicationbetweeninvolvedpartiesisoneofthemostvitalaspectsofmanagement.Locallythissituationisadvantageousinthatthereissomecooperationbetweenmostcaveowners,scientists,speleologists,theprovincialauthoritiesandconservationists.Thepresentmanagementsituation1Soneofalackofcoordination,basedmainlyonlimitedawareness.Themachineryexistsfortheinitiationofa managementprogram,andtheofficialsarereceptivetoadvice.However,thereremainseveralproblemstothesuccessfulmanagementofTransvaalcaves.ManagementProblemsintheTransvaalThesuccessfulmanagementofkarstcaveresourcesisa complextask.Itinvolvesbothtangibleandintangibledisturbances.Surfaceandsubsurfaceintrusions,bothintentionalandunintentional,mustberecognizedandcontrolledaccordingtothemeritsofeachcave.ThisisobviouslyparticularlydifficultwherepopulationpressuresarehighFigure1.MorphologicalTypesAssociated with the Dolomite. (1) Plateau type, (2) Escarpment type, (3) Bushveld type, (4)VaalRiver type.Theescarpment topography (2)isparticularlybrokenandinaccessible.(After: MartiniandKavalieris, 1976).correspondingwithcomplexsurfacealterationsandmultiplesubsurfacedisturbances.Therearetwobasicconsiderationsinthemanagementofkarstcaves(Godfrey,1976),namelythedestructionoftheresourceitselfandthemanagementofpeople,bothofwhichareinterrelated,themore soattheactualmanagementstage.IntheTransvaaltheseproblemsmaybegroupedintofourmainareas.Geographicalconsiderations:GeographicalproblemsaresomeofthemostdifficulttocontrolintheTransvaalastheyarealliedtodistributionandtopolitics.Themajorconcentrationsofcavesareremotefromthemainpopulationcenters,andcorrespondwithareasofroughterrain(Figure1).Theresultantlimitedaccessibilityfurthercomplicatedbythesurfaceclimateandvegetationcharacteristics,and bythesmallandinaccessiblenatureofthecavesthemselves,rendersthemparticularlydifficulttocontrol. :

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39particularlyasitisirreplaceableandunextendable.Pollutionofthesystemorofthesurroundingenvironment,particularlywaterandatmosphere,aremajorproblems.Theyareusuallylong-termandinitiallyunnoticed,resultinginthedestructionofhabitatsespeciallythoseoffaunawhichbyvirtueoftheirsmallnumbersarealreadyendangered(Stitt,1976).TheoccurrenceofDaughtersofRadon,highcarbondioxideconcentrations,Histoplasmosisandotherphysicalhazardsarealsoregardedasmanagementproblems.Allofthesefactorscontributetothecarryingcapacityofthesystem.biologicaltotheitself,PhysicalandconsiderationsrelatedestructionoftheresourcePhysicalconsiderations:ManyofthedolomiteareasoccurwithintheindependenthomelandsofVenda, Lebowa,GazankuluandBophuthatswana(Figure2).Thissituationrendersdecentralizedadministratonandcontrol,aswellasappreciationoftheproblem,majorissues.Currently,onlytheTransvaaland Lebowaauthoritiesappearconcernedaboutsomeofthecaveswithintheirjurisdictionbothbeingdirectlyinvolvedthroughpossessionandatleastpartialrecognitionofa numberofvaluablecaveresources. 6!3SOUTllNOAOLE122]GAZANKULU[I]]!,OI'HUTI1ATSWANAc:JKAHGW.uoeE:::!VENOA91. __ .. '00 ..... Figure 2.TheLocation ofHomelandAreasin the Transvaal.

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Socialconsiderations:PerhapsthemosturgentproblemfacingthesuccessfulmanagementofTransvaalcavesisthatoflackofknowledgeandawareness.Aswithallotherfacetsoftheenvironment,concernisslowtoberealized,andisgenerallymanifestonlyincertaincenters.Thisleadstoafailureonthepartofmostpersonstorecognizethesignificanceofthecaveresource(Nielandetal,1980).Inaddition,becauseofthelackofinformationandunderstandingaswellasthehasteusuallyinvolvedinresourcedevelopment(Fletcher,1980)thedetailsofdisturbanceareunappreciated.Hence much damageresults.Theeducationprocessisslowinsuchasituationandtimeisoftheessenceinanysuccessfulmanagementprogram.Thedispersion,diversityandnoninvolvementofthegeneralpopulationrenderstheirawarenessofandconcernforthekarstcaveresourcealmostnon-existent.Threesmallspeleologicalgroupsintheareaprovidelittlecontactwithpersonswhoareactivelyinvolvedorconcerned.Thethreetouristcavesaretakenforgranted,andthereislittlemoreconcernfortheissueingeneral.Inaddition,speleologyisnotrecognizedasascience(Hubart,1976),andthushaslittleofficialsupport.AsUsher(1973)concludes,thereforeperhapsthemostvitalpartofany managementprogramistheeducationoftherecreationaluser.Thiswouldobviouslybe mosteffectivethroughtheuseofsoundinterpretationprograms.Atthesametimehowever,theshortdurationofinterestbyconservation-committedspeleologistsdoesnotprovidecontinuityforany managementprogram.Allresourcemanagementproblemsarerelatedtotheincreasedleisuretimeandmobilityofthepopulation.Theresultisanincreasedrecreationaldemand fromboththegreatertotalpopulationandthechangedcharacteristicsofsocietyitself.Thesituationisfurthercompounded bythepaucityofkarstcavesintherestofSouthAfrica.Mostoftheever-increasigSouthAfricanpopulationand manyforeignvisitorsareforcedtorelyupontheTransvaalcaves.Relatedtotheproblemoflackofawarenessisthoughtlessexplorationresultinginabuseoftheresource.Thisappliestoboththecasualvisitorandthetrainedspeleologist.Wear andtearonthesystemisdependentuponorganizationandcontrol. More severeistheintentionaldestructionwhichresultsfromspeleothemcollection.Industrialandconstructionimpacts,whichhaveeconomic andpoliticalbacking,aremore"difficulttocombat,butprecedentsintermsofthepreservationofscientificsiteshavebeensetthroughouttheworld.Localproblemsarealsorootedintheculturaldiversityofthearea.PeoplesofatleastsixBlackandfourWhitegroupseachwithitsownlanguage,beliefs,traditionsandsuperstitionsoccupythearea.OftheseonlythewhiteEnglish-speakingpeoplesarereallyinvolved,thusrenderingnumberslimitedandmanagementpracticesfew.Economicsofcontrolandexploitationareinvolvedinallmanagementproblems.Aresourcewhichprovidesan economicreturnisfrequentlyconsideredmorevaluablethanonewhichhasnoobviousreturnorrequiresinvestment.Inaddition,the oflargesums oncontrolorothermanagementmeasures is oftenregardedasbeingoflimitedvaluebecauseofthelowpriorityratingoftheresource.

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Managementprogramconsiderations:Asoundmanagementprogramcanonlysucceedwithplanning,controlandeffectiveimplementation.Managementprogramproblemsareessentiallythoseoftrainedmanpowerandexpertise,althoughotherproblemssuchaseconomicscannotbeignored.Themajormanpowersource1Snatureconservationofficialsandactivespeleologists.Expertise1Srequiredinitiallyforcompilingacomprehensivecaveresourceinventory.Thereaftermanagementalternativesmustbeconsideredandpriorities'established,accordingtothepre-determinedmanagementobjectives.Legalprotectionisofparticularimportanceatthisstage.Noneoftheseproblems1Smutuallyexclusive.Theymustbeconsideredforthetotalsuiteofcaves,andforindividualsystems.Theyaremultipleandcomplex,farexceedingtheprevailingpositivefactors.Withenlightenedleadershipandthecorrectcontrolstheyarenotinsurmountable.Givenasoundmanagementframeworkwhichrecognizesthenecessityfor themosturgentproblemiseducation,whichmustformanintegralpartoftheon-goingmanagementprogram.Theinitialinputmustberapidandthereaftermustbelong-termanddynamic,andmustinterpretthecaveresourceasaviableportionofthetotalenvironment.ConclusionTheproblemsofkarstcavemanagementaresimilarthroughouttheworld,althougheachareahascertainuniqueaspects.IntheTransvaalthebasishasbeenlaidforfuturemanagementprograms.Allconcernedpartiesmustbeinvolvedinordertoenhancethecooperationandcommunicationpotentialofspecialists.Recognitionoftheurgencyforacomprehensive,dynamic,long-termplanfortheentireresourceisvital,andwillprovideguidelinesfortheindividualsystems.Thegreaterthedelaythegreaterthepotentialproblemsforfuturemanagementinitiationandprogress.41AcknowledgementTheassistanceofMr.Sticklerinpreparingtheisacknowledged.REFERENCESP.J.diagramsBlack,G.P.,1964:TheconservationofcavesinBritain.Studies1nSpeleology,1,1.16-21.Clawson,M.,1966:Economicsandenvironmentalimpactsofincreasedleisureact1v1t1es.In:Darling,F.F.andMilton,J.P.,(Eds.):FutureenvironmentsofNorthAmerica.NaturalHistoryPress,NewYork.246-260.Devereaux,R.,1978:Management:aworkingdefinition.NationalCaveManagementSymposium,1977,BigSky.7-10.

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42Ela,T.,1976:'Cave managementproblemsoftheNationalParkService.Cave Management Symposium,1975,Albuquerque.13.NationalFletcher,M.,1980:Specialconsiderationsinthemanagementoflimestonecaves.FarWest Cave Management Symposium,1979,Redding.33-35.Godfrey,C.,1976:Cave managementproblemsoftheBureauofLand Management.NationalCave Management Symposium,1975,Albuquerque.16.Hamilton-Smith,E.,1967:Conservation.Helictite.22-30.Hubart,J.M.,1976:Theneedforpreservingcavesandundergroundsites1nBelgium.WilliamPengellyCaveStudies,27.3-16.Larson,C.,1977;Reporton workshopsession1:carryingcapacityofcaves.NationalCave Management Symposium,1976,MountainView.12-14.Martini,J.Int.andKavalieris,I.,1976:J.Speleol.,8.229-251.ThekarstoftheTransvaal(SouthAfrica).Nieland,J.,Neiland,L.,andBenedict,E.,1980:Specialmanagementconsideratonsoflavacaves.FarWest Management Symposium,1979,Redding,29-32.Stitt,R.,1976:Wildernesscavemanagement.NationalCave Management Symposium,1975,Albuquerque.53-56.Usher,M.b.,London.1973:394.Biologicalmanagement andconservation.Chapman andHall,Whitfield,P.,1980:Canadiancavemanagementplans.FarWest Cave Management Symposium,1979,Redding.84.Wi1mut,J.,1972:Caveconservation-alostcause?CaveScience,48.17-24.

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THERESOURCEPOTENTIALOFTRANSVAALCAVESFRANCESM.GAMBLEDept.Geog. andEnvironmentalStudiesUniversityoftheWitwatersrand1JanSmuts Ave.Johannesburg2001,SouthAfricaAbstractTheresourcepotentialofkarstcavesintheTransvaalisassessed iu termsofboththepositiveandnegativeaspectsofinteractioubetween Man andthecaveenvironment.Cavesintheareahavehadusesvaryingfromplacesofshelter,tosourcesoffertilizerandtotouristattractions.Superimposedonthesepositiveaspectsoftheecosystemsarethehazardsto Man, whichareofvaryingsignificanceindifferentcaves.ThesenegativefeaturesincludetheoccurrenceofHistoplasmaspores,andofhighconcentrationsofbothcarbondioxideandofradon.Withrecognitionofthebalancebetweenthepositiveandnegativeaspectsoftheresource,andwithsound managementpractices,thepotentialoftheindividualcaveecosystemsmayberealized.Thispotentislwillincreaseovertimeaspopulationpressuresonwildernes.areasiucreaseandasculturesadapttochangesinlifestyle.ItisimperstivethereforethatthetotalresourcepotentialofthecavesystemsintheTransvaslshouldbeacknowledged,andthattherebymismanagementoftheresourceshouldbeavoided.IntroductionResources,constitutingmaterialswhichareusefulorvaluabletoMan (ijaggett, 1975)havebeenrecognizedthroughoutthetimeManhasbeenonthesurfaceoftheearth.O'Riordan(1971,p.3)haspointedoutthatthisconceptisnowmorecomplex,beingrathera"functionalrelationshipthatexistsbetweenMan'swants,hisabilities,andhisappraisalofhisenvironment".Theyvaryinnaturefromthedominantfiniteresourcestoscarcerrenewableresources.BeingrestrictedintheirusefulnessbyMan'sabilities, havebothpositiveandnegativevalueswiththeformerpredominatingandrenderingthemofvalue.Itisthisrelationshipbetweenthepositiveandnegativeaspectsofaresourcewhichdeterminesitspotentialusefulness.43Thegoalsinvolvedinassessingresourcepotentialarerelatedtotheimprovementofenvironmentalqualityorthemoreequabledistributionofsocialwelfare(O'Riordan,1976).Inparticular,inthecaseofnaturalresourcessuchaskarstcaves,thismustrelatetotheoptimizationofwildernessareasessentialforleisure-timepursuits.Karstcavesasshelteringplaces,andsubsequentlywithmorediverseuses,havebeenrecognizedasresourcesforaboutthelastthreemillionyears.Theirpotentialislimitedaccordingtotheirfinitenature.IntheTransvaal,SouthAfrica,approixmately300cavesareknowninthePrecambrianMalmaniDolomite,atruedolomiterichinmanganeseandiron.Theyaredistributedinan

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44arcuatebelt(Figure1)surroundingtheBushve1dIgneousComplex, andaredatedashavingopenedasmuchas3.7millionyearsago(Partridge,1973).Theareaislocatedina summerrainfallregion,varyingfromsemi-aridtosub-tropical1ncharacter.TheintentionofthepresentpaperistoexaminetheresourcepotentialofTransvaalkarstcaves.Thepastandpresentusesoftheecosystemsareconsideredpriortoassessingthefuturesituation.Boththepositiveandnegativeaspectsoftheresourcesareconsideredinanattempttoarriveatafairevaluation.Managementpracticesarealludedtointhelightofthefutureresourcepotential.TransvaalKarstCaveResourcesKarstcavesintheTransvaaltendtobelimitedinoccurrenceanddimensionvaryingfromsystemsbarelypenetrabletoMantoamaximumof11kmofpassage.Entrancesvaryfromsingletomultiple,and fromsinkholetowalk-inorcraw1way. Thecavesarecharacterizedbycollapsefeatures,byold,largely-inactivesta1actiticdecorationwithapredominanceofaragonite,and by agenerallackofwater.Deepcavetemperaturesapproximate18 C andrelativehumiditiesof98%.Thecavesarecharacteristickarstcaveecosystems,butduetolimitedpassagedimensionsandporosityofthehostrock,tendtobeverystableandhenceveryvulnerable. Figure1.TheDistribution of theMalmaniDolomite inwhichthe KarstCavesof the Transvaal. South Africa, occur(afterTruswell, 1977).

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Mostofthecavesoccurinareasremotefromcentersofpopulation(Figure2),andarethemselvesgenerallyoflimitedaccessbecauseoftheirsmalldimensions.Inaddition,theculturesoftheAfrikaansnationandofthelocalAfricantribeshavebeenresponsibleforlimitingthefulldevelopmentofcavernresourcepotential.Bothgroups,particularlythelatter,aresuperstituousoftheundergroundworldandhencearereluctantifevenwillingtoventureinwards.Theresourcepotentialofakarstcaveorofasuiteofcavesisdependentuponsystemcharacteristicsand uponitsrelationshiptodevelopers.Thepotentialofthesystemitselfislimitedbyitscarryingcapacity, PERSOHSPERIIM'm20 O 10-205-10 2.'-1 LEIIlITHAN2.' Figure2.includingitsaccessibility,and byitsthresholdandresilienceleveltodisturbance(Krutilla,1971).Theoccurrenceofobstaclessuchashealthhazardsandofculturallimitationsacttolimitacave'spotential.Theuseofresourcesisalsoinextricablyboundtoenvironmentalperceptionandcognition (Simmons, 1974),whichinturnaredependentupon knowledge andawareness.Environmentalresourcepressuresandthequestionofsupplyand demandarealsofundamentalinthedeterminationofresourcepotential.AllthesefactorsaredeterminantsofcavernresourcepotentialintheTransvaal.UsesofTransvaalCaves: Forthelastthreemillionyears45TheDistribution of Population in the Transvaal.

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46Transvaalcaveshavehadvaryinguses,typicalofthosethroughouttherestoftheworld.Thesehaverangedfromplacesofshelterandsourcesofmineralsandotherrawmaterials,torecreationalcentresandnaturallaboratories.Optimizationoftheresourcehashoweverbeenlimitedparticularlybyinaccessibility,lackofawarenessandculturalconsiderations.Thelocaluseofaccessiblecavesandespeciallyofentranceareashasbeenextensiveasplacesofshelterthroughoutthehistoryof mankind. TheearliestknownhominidfossilshavebeenexcavatedftomcavesitessuchasSterkfontein.Subsequentlymanycaveshaveprovidedplacesofrefugeforthelocalpeoplesduringtimesofconflict,asatMakapansgatandSudwaladuringthemid-nineteenthcentury.Currentlycavesinremoteareasareusedbyguerrillasforshelterandarmscaches.Thelocalpeopleshavehadmanyadditionalusesforthedolomitecaves.Theserangefromburialsitestowitch-doctor'sretreats.TheRainQueenoftheVendapeoplereportedly inacave.Medicinalsubstancesarefrequentlystoredunderground.Mostcavesareattributedwithstrangemysticalqualitiesandwiththepresenceofancestralspirits.TheKrugarMillionsareyetrumoredtobeburiedinacave.Moretragically,inmanyfarmingareascavesremainimportantrefusepits.Alocalgamereserveusesacaveonitspropertyasthelairforitsleopard.OnoccasionsoneofthewesternTransvaalgoldminesdumpsslimesintoacaveonitsproperty.Assourcesofmineralsthecavesarelimitedinvalue.Depositsarenotgenerallyeconomicallyviable,althoughcalcitewasminedforbuildingpurposesearlyinthiscentury.Dolomiteisquarried,sometimesintrudingintocavesystems,forfluxfortheironandsteelindustry.Guanoisremovedintermittentlyforfertilizer.Oneofthemostprofitablesourcesofincome fromcavesinrecentyearshasbeenthesaleofspeleothems.Waterwhichdoesoccurinthelocalcavesismainlyofwater-tableorigin,andisoccasionallyusedforirrigation.TheaestheticattractionandconsequentrecreationaluseofTransvaalcavesstartedin1904withguidedtoursofSterkfontein.ThisventurehadachequeredcareeruntilitwastakenoverbytheUniversityoftheWitwatersrandin1958.EchoandSudwalacaveswereopenedtothepublicduringthe1960s.Speleologicalorganizataionshavebeenactiveintheareasince1956,andcurrentlythreesmallgroupsoperate.Theyareconcernedmainlywiththesportingandconservationaspectsofthescience.Otherpartiesincludingnatureconservationandwildlifesocietieshaverecentlybecomeinterestedinthecaveresource,foreducationalandprotectionpurposes.ItispresentlyintherecreationalspherethatthemajoruseismadeofTransvaalcaves.Naturallaboratorieshaveflourishedinlocalcavesinthepalaeontological,archaeological,geomorphologicalandgeologicalfields.Morerecentlyclimatological,batandenvironmentalstudieshavebeenundertaken.Thebiologicalresourcesareapparentlyfairlyextensive,butlittleworkhasbeendoneinthisfieldsofar.Manyoftheseundertakingshaeresultedindamagetotheecosystem1n somecasesirrevocable.Planhavebeenmootedforfutureoilstorage1n someofthecav rn u

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dolomite.Inaddition,morereliancemustbeplacedonthewaterresourcesforincreasingfoodproduction.Themajorfutureresourcepotentialofthissuiteofcavesliesmainlyintherecreationalandscientificfields.TherearepresentlyplanstoopentwofurthercavestothepublicWolkbergtotourists,andoneon anaturereserveforeducationalpurposes.Howeverthismethodofwildernessoptimizationinthefaceofincreasingpressurescanonlyprovideavaluableresourceifitiscarefullymanaged.Balancedagainsttheseusesofcavesmustbetheproblemsinvolvedinthedevelopmentoftheresource.NegativeaspectsofTransvaalcaverndevelopment:ThenegativeaspectsofthecaveresourcearenotuniquetotheTransvaalarea,butpossiblyoccurwithvaryingrelationshipstothoseinotherregions.Theyarerelatedtoboththedamagecausedtotheecosystembyintrusion,eitherdirectorindirect,andthedetrimentalimpactofthecavesystemonthehumanvisitor.Untilitreachesextremeproportionswhentheecosystem,andthereforetheresourceitself,isdestroyed,disturbanceofacaveisperhapstheleastobviousoftheobstaclestoresourcedevelopment.Inmostinstancesthisresourcepotential,oratleastthedetail,cannotberecoupedbecauseofthelongtimeperiodsinvolved.Theoccurrenceofinkholesupondewateringofcompartmntswithm1n1ngoperationshasrultdinspectaculardamageinthWstRandarea.The townofBank wasabandonedin1971aftrmajorsubsidence.Instabilitywithinacavesystem,accentuatedbylongundisturbedperiods,isacommonfeatureevidencedbyrockbreakdown andboulderchokes.Inexperiencedpersonsendeavouringtonegotiatesuchfeaturesarethemostexposedtothesedangers.Inexperiencedpersonsfallingorbecominglostwithinacavearepossiblythemostfrequentlyencounteredhazards.Theentranceareasofcaves,especiallysinkholes,mayintermittentlyhostpoisonoussnakessuchascobras,whichareusuallymorehazardousforhavingfallenintothecave,beingunabletoescapeandbeingshortoffood.Diseasescontractableby humansincludeBenignPulmonaryHistoplasmosis,whichhasbeenresponsibleforatleastthreedeathsintheTransvaalduringthelastfiveyears-generallythroughincorrectdiagnosis.Howeverinmostcasesanimmunitytotherecurrenceofthediseaseistheresult.Fungalskininfections,believedtobeSporotrichosis,forwhichthereispresentlyno knowncure,haveoccurredasisolatedcasesduringthelasttwoyears.Hypothermiaandexhaustionarepossibilitiesinallcavesunderconditionsofprolongedexposure,prolongedsubmersionorinjury.Themostcommonofthehazardousgasesrecordediscarbondioxide.Concentrationsofupto3.5% by volumehavebeenmeasured,althoughthesemaybeexceededunderpoorventilationconditions.Suchconcentrationsareparticularlyhazardoustotheinexperiencedvisitor,suchasthelocalfarmerattractedby guanodeposits,whoisunfamilarwiththephysicaleffectsandassociatedhazardsofthegas.Recentpreliminarystudiesoftheoccurrenceoftheradioactive,-emittingDaughtersofRadonhaveindicatedthatprolongedexposuretotheatmosphereincertaincavescouldbedangerous.Workinglevelsofupto1.6havebeenrecordedduringspringintheremoteareasf47

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48somecaves.Itisanticipatedthattheselevelscouldincreaseduringsummer whenventilationisdecreasedandisusuallyoutwardindirection.Thesenegativeaspectsareobviouslyofparticularsignificancetospeleologists,scientistsandtouristcavepersonnel,who,throughprolongedexposure,aresubjectedtoconsiderablerisk.Theyareoflittleconcerntotheoccasionaltouristvisitortoacave.TheResourcePotentialofTransvaalCavesInassessingthepotentialofanyresource,thepositivefeaturesofthatresourcemustbebalancedagainstthosewhich are negative.Inordertodothiseffectively,cavesmustbeconsideredindividuallyandasmembersofthegeneralsuiteofcavesinthearea.WhenconsideringthesuiteofknownTransvaalcavesitisapparentthattheyareadefiniteresource.However,theresourcevaluevariesbetweencaves,withonepositiveaspectusuallyprevailing.Whenaestheticallyattractivecavesarereasonablyaccessible,severalhavebeenorarebeingdevelopedfortourists.Suchhighintensityrecreationaluse,whileusuallydevastatingtheecosystem,isbeneficialforthewildernessexperienceofrecreation,theeducationalandthecommercialventures,andthusthesacrificeoftheecosystemmayincertaincircumstancesbe deemedworthwhile.Otherswhichareparticularlyvulnerableordangeroushavebeengatedtopreventvandalismoraccidents.Scientistsandspeleologistsfindothercavesattractiveforresearchortheathleticandpsychologicalchallengesprovided.A numberofcavesaresubjectedtolimiteddisturbance,oriftheyarepresentlyunknowntovirtuallynodisturbance,inordertopromotetheecosystemitself.Theresourcepotentialmustincreaseastheincreasingpressuresofpopulation,andleisuretime,andthereducedculturalbarriersplacegreaterdemands onkarstcavewildernessareas.Thesewillbebothintentionalandunintentionalpressuresintheformofdirectintrusionintothecaveanddisturbancethroughsurfacealterations.TheveryoccurrenceofkarstcavesintheTransvaal-indolomiteandunderlowrainfallconditionsdictateslimitationstotheresource.Thenumber,magnitudeandaccessibilityofthecavesareall bythehazardswhichareprevalenttoagreaterorlesserdegreeinallofthem.Suchfactorsareseldomencouragingtovisitors.Withsufficienteconomicorotherincentives,thelevelofresourcedevelopmentcanbehigh,althoughitcanbecontainedbyscientificmanagementthrougheducationandsoundadministration.DespitethenegativeaspectsoftheTransvaalcaveresource,thepotentialforuseremainshigh.Differencesbetweencavesmustcontinuetoberecognizedinordertooptimizetheirindividualpotentialwhichmust,ofnecessityincreaseovertime.Withsound practices,damagetotheecosystemscanbecontained,andtheexposureofvisitorstohazardsmaybecontrolled,bothleadingtooptimizationofthetotalresource.ConclusionTheresourcepotentialofTransvaalkarstcavesisconsiderable,butmustberecognizedintermsofindividualsystemsaswellasintermsoftheknownsuiteofcaves.Itmustbefurtherrecognizedintermsofthebalance

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betweenthepositiveandnegativeaspectsoftheresource.AlthoughthekarstcaveresourcehasbeenvariouslyusedintheTransvaalforthelastthreemillionyears,thefutureincreasedpressuresanticipatedwilldictatethattheseusesarelimitedmainlytotherecreationalandeducationalfieldsandthatduecognisanceistakenofthevarioushazardsinvolved.Suchcanonlybedonewithintheframeworkofsoundenvironmentalmanagement,accordingtowhichtheresourcepotentialisoptimized.Educationandawarenessarethebasicrequirementsforsuchadministration.49Acknowledgement TheassisanceofStricklerinpreparingisacknowledged.Mr.theP.J.diagramsREFERENCESHaggett,P.,1975:Geography:a modernsynthesis.2nd Ed. London, 194pp.HarperandRow,Krutilla,J.V.,1971:Evaluationofanaspectofenvironmentalquality:CanyonrevisitedResourcesfortheFutureReport,No.93,Washington.Hells7pp.Partridge,T.C.,1973:GeomorphologicaldatingofcaveopeningatMakapansgat,Sterkfontein,SwartkransandTaung.Nature.246,5428.75-79.O'Riordan,T.,1971:Perspectivesonresourcemanagement.Pion,London. 183pp.O'Riordan,T.1976:Environmentalism.Pion,London. 373pp. Simmons, I.G.,1974:Theecologyofnaturalresources.Arnold,London. 424pp.Truswell,J.F.,1977:ThegeologicalevolutionofSouthAfrica.Town, 218pp.Purnell,Cape

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ACOOPERATIVEPROGRAMFORTHECONSERVATIONANDMANAGEENTOFCAVERESOURCESONMOSTMISSOURIPUBLICLANDSJAMESE.GARDNERANDTREVAL.GARDNERNaturalHistorySectionMissouriDepartmentofConservationP.O.Box 180JeffersonCity,MO65102ABSTRACTThe Mark TwainNationalForest,MissouriDepartmentofConservation,NorthCentralForestExperimerltStation-Columbia,MissouriandMissouriDepartmentofNaturalResourcesrecognizedtheneedforacomprehensivecavemanagementprogram.SinceOctober,1978,theseagencieshave beenengagedinacooperstivelyfundedcaveinventoryproject.Sincetheinitiationofthestudy,valuabledataonMissouricavesresourceshasbeengathered.BeforetheprojectiscompletedinAugust,1982,stepstoprovideprotectionfora numberofcaveswillbetaken.Duringtheinventorythusfar,211 U.S.ForestServicecaves,62DepartmentofNaturalResourcescavesand 62DepartmentofConservationcaveshavebeeninventoried.Thereremainsapproximately80cavesonthecombinedagencieslandstobe found andinventoried.Cavesarereadilyacquiredbythethreecooperatorsofthestudyforendangeredspeciesandasnaturalfeatures. Two caves in MissourihavebeendesignatedasMissouriNaturalAreassoastopreserveexamplesofcaveecosystemsforfuturestudyandenjoyment.Inaddition,severalothercaveshave beenincludedassignificantfeaturesandothersarebeingconsideredforsuchdesignation.Informationprograms,training,andpublicparticipationprojectsandprogramshavehelpedtoelicitneededsupportforcaveconservationandprotection.Missourihasstrivedtoproduceaqualitycaveinventorywhichshouldidentifysomeofitscaveheritageasaqualityresource.CompletionofthecooperativeprojectshouldcontributetoabetterunderstandingofcaveresourcesonMissouripubliclandsandprovidesuccessfulsolutionstocavemanagementproblems.INTRODUCTIONofcavesinrecenttimeshasresultedinthedeteriorationofsomeMissouricaveresources.Thisfact,combinedwiththeneedtoaccessandevaluatecavesonpubliclandspromptedacooperativecaveresourcesinventory.Missouriisknownnationallyasthecavestate.AccordingtoVineyard(1981)over4,200cavesareknowninMissouriandmorearebeingdiscoveredeachyear.CavesareanintegralpartofMissouri'snaturalresourceandoutdoorheritage,butlikeallenvironments,cavesfaceirreversibledegradation.Increasinglyheavy,uncontrolleduse51BeginninginOctober,1978,cooperativeprojectwassignedtheinto

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52effectbytheMissouriDepartmentofConservation,Mark TwainNationalForestandtheNorthCentralForestExperimentStation-Columbia,Missouri.TheMissouriDepartmentofNaturalResourcesjoinedasacooperatorintheprojectinSeptember,1980,whiletheNorthCentralStationwithdrewfromtheproject.Theinventory-isscheduledtocontinuethroughAugust31,1982.Missouri'scaveinventoryprojectwasinitiatedundertheMissouriDepartmentofConservation'sDesignprogram.Funds fromtheDesignprogramwerematchedbytheU.S.ForestServiceandDepartmentofNaturalResourcestosupportthiscooperativestudy.ThisfirsttimecooperativestudyofferedachancetoidentifyandrecordsomeofMissouri'scavewildlifeandheritagefeatures,aswellasachancetoplanforthefutureandleavefortomorrow'sgenerationsthebeautyandenjoymentpossibleinaquality.caveenvironment.CavesareanabundantresourceinMissouriandthereisanimportantneedfortheirprotection.Thereareclearincentivesforthecooperativecaveproject.Theseincentivesaregearedtowardtheendgoalofconservationand managementofcaveresourcesfor scientificstudyandhabitatpreservation.Someofthesegoalsof.thecaveinventoryprojectarediscussedbelowingreaterdetail.DELINEATIONOFCAVERESOURCESSeveraltractsoflandwereboughtspecificallyfortheircavesandothertractshadcavesasincidentalstootherfeatures.TheMissouriDepartmentofConservationcurrentlyowns 74caves,includingsomerecentlypurchasedcavesusedbyendangeredspeciesofbats(discussedindetailunderNaturalAreasandRareandEndangeredSpecies).Othercaveswhichcouldnotbeacquiredwereleased,sothatresponsiblemanagementpracticescouldbeproperlyexecuted.TheDepartmentofNaturalResourceshaspurchasedcavesandcavetractsandcurrentlymanagesover90cavesintheMissouriStateParkSystem.Theirmostrecentacquisitionwas OnondagaCave,aregisteredNationalNaturalLandmark.ThismostrecentlyacquiredStateParkcontainsseveralothercaves,oneofwhichisCathedralCave,rankedtenthlongestinMissouri.McDowell Cave,nowapartofLakeoftheOzarksStatePark,isanimportantcavetothegraybat(Myotisgrisescens).Thereareapproximately243cavesfoundon Mark TwainNationalForestlands,andtheyhavegivenprioritytothepurchaseofcavesandcavetractsashabitatforfederallylistedthreatenedandendangeredspecies.Inconclusion,theownershipandongoingacquisitionofcavesforprotectivemanagement bybothstateandfederalagencieshasbecome arealityinMissouri.WILDLIFERESEARCHAnimportantincentiveofthecaveinventoryprojectwastopromotewildliferesearch.Theobjectivewastowidenthescopeofcaveresearchprogramsandemphasizebasicresearchonrare,endangered,and non-gamespecies.Theultimategoalwastoidentifyandestablishprotectedareasforrareandendangeredspeciesofbats,certainfishesandcrayfishes,aswellasothercaverelatedfauna.Protectivemanagementofcavesandcaverelatedresourcescannotbesuccessfullyaccomplishedwithoutfirstidentifyingtheelementsofthecaveenvironment,andthisrequiresaninventory.Although

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53comprehensiveinscope,theprimaryobjectiveofthestudywastoproduceabiologicalinventoryofthecooperativeprojectcaves.Limitedbytechniques,timeandseasons,itwashopedthatsporadiccollectionsofquantitativedatasuchasspeciesoccurrenceanddistributionwouldidentifyareasofresearchneed.Theinformationcollectedwouldalsomakeitpossibletodeveloppreliminarycavemanagementpractices.salamandershaveaddedsignificantlytoourknowledgeoftheseanimals.Thetremendousamountofdatageneratedbysuchalargescalebiologicalinventorymadeitnecessarytostoretheinformationon acomputerprogram.Thisdatabasesystemwillmakesuchalargeamountofdatamorecomprehensibleandwillaidindevelopingmoreintensifiedresearchon non-gamecavefaunainMissouri.arecaveonlyTheMissouriDepartmentofConservationandMissouriDepartmentofNaturalResourcescooperativelyadministersastatewidenaturalareassystem.Recently,theMark TwainNationalForesthasjoinedbyagreementtoregisterqualifyingareasontheirlands.Cavenaturalareasreceivedspecialmanagementconsiderationswhichweredesignedtoprovidetotalprotectiontothecave.Forexample,onecavenaturalareawasclosedtopublicuse.The delicateecosystemremainsundisturbedandisrestrictedtoscientificstudy.OthercaveNaturalareasarebroadlydefinedasvirtuallyundisturbedecologicalcommunitiesorgeologicsites,representingMissouri'snaturalheritageofplants,animalsandgeology.Underthisdefinition,a numberofcavesqualifiedfornaturalareadesignation.Atpresent,twocaveshavebeendesignatedcavenaturalareasand morecavesareplannedtobedesignated.Asectionofonecaveisbeingconsideredfornominationasauniquegeologicnaturalarea.Iftheportionofcaveissodesignated,itwillbethefirstofitskindinMissouri.ANDRAREANDNaturalAreasNATURALAREASENDANGEREDSPECIESVertebratespecieswereusuallynotcollected,butexamined,identified,recordedandleftunharmed.Over50speciesofvertebrateanimalshavebeenidentifiedfromthecavesunderstudy.Additionaldistributionpatternsandpopulationrecordsofspeciessuchasthesoutherncavefish(Typhlichthyssubterraneus),thegraybat(Myotisgrisescens)andseveralspeciesofDataweregatheredonallspeciesfoundinstudycaves,althoughspecialemphasiswasgiventofederalandstatelistedendangeredspecies.Representativecollectionsof speciesweremadeandarebeingidentifiedbyprofessionaltaxonomiststhroughouttheUnitedStatesandinCanada.Atotalof242speciesofinvertebrateshavebeenidentifiedfrom some3,100specimenscollectedfromstudycavesduringthecourseoftheinventory.Theseinvertebratecollectionshave 1n somecasegeneratedtaxonomicstudiesofcertainspecies.Forexample,16ofthespeciescollectedduringtheinventorywereundescribedspecies,newtoscience.Someinvertebratespeciesnotonlyrepresentstatedistributionalrecords,butareinsomecasesveryrestrictedinoccurrence.Oftentimestheseanimalsrestrictedtoaparticularsystemandoccasionallyknown from asinglecave.

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54naturalareaswillundoubtedlybeopentopublicuse,butonlyundercontrolledaccess.Managementofcavesasnaturalareashasservedtopermanentlyprotectsuchareasandpreservefaunalcommunitiesandsignificantgeologicalfeatures.'Theycanbethoughtofaslivingmuseums.RareandEndangeredSpeciesLargelyduetoMissouri'scavemanagementprograms,29 knownbatcavesenjoysomelevelofprotection(LaVal andLaVal,1980).Fourteenofthecavesweregatedorfencedand 19. cavesweresignposted.Twenty-twoofthesecavesareownedormanaged bystateorfederalagenciesinMissouri.CavesLnMissouriprovide4hibernacu1aand 9maternitysitesforthegray'bat(Myotisgrisescens)and 13hibernacu1afortheIndianabat(Myotissoda1is).Theprotective management ofbatcavesinMissouriisessentialtograyandIndianabatpopulation'sbecauseofsuchagreathabitatdependencybythetwospecies.Forexample,onestateownedcavehousesmorethan50%oftheknownwinterpopulationofgraybats.Somenewadditionalmaternitycavesandhibernacu1ahavebeenidentifiedduringthecaveinventory.Hopefully,immediatestepscanbemadetoprotectthesecaves.Protectivemanagementofcavesforfederallylistedthreatenedandendangeredspecies,orstatelistedrareandendangeredspecieshasbeenaverysuccessfulapproachtoprotectionofthecavesystemasawhole.Also,theagencieshaverecognizedtheimportanceofprotectingcavefish,salamandersand .allformsofaquaticandterrestrialcavelifenotincludedon astateorfederallist.INFORMATIONPROGRAMSUserawarenessandeducationwasnecessarytogainsupportforcaveconservationand managementprograms.CooperationandsupportfromtheMissouriSpeleologicalSurveyInc.was agreatassettoMissouri'scavemanagementprograms,butyet,therewasstillmuchtobe donetoelicitsupportofthegeneralpublic.ThecaveinventoryhastriedtoaddthecallforcaveconservationthrougharticlesintheMissouriConservationist.Aslide/tapeprogramentitled"UnderstandingMissouriCaves"isalsobeingproduced.TheDepartmentofNaturalResourceshasespeciallyledthewayintheareaofdirectpubliceducationaboutcaves.TwoMissouriStateParknaturalistsleadinterpretivecavetoursatthreestateparks,concentratingoncavesystems,protectionandmanagement.Also,environmentaleducation,caveworkshopsandclassesareconducted.Forexample,livingskillsclassesareledintoDevilsIceboxCaveatRockbridgeMemorialStateParkannually.OtherpublicawarenessandeffortsofthecaveinventoryprojectwereparticipationLnspe1eo10gyworkshops,symposiaandstateandregionalcavemanagementmeetings.Ateachingaidintheformofacompletespe1eo10gylessonwillsoonbeavailable.Futureplanswill,hopefully,includeahandoutcardonMissouri's"CaveResourcesAct",whichwasdraftedandheavilysupportedbytheMissouriDepartmentofNaturalResources,andDivisionofGeology and LandSurvey.Additionaltelevisionprograms,printedmaterialsandpublicationsaboutcavesandcaveresourceswillservetofurthereducatethepublicabouttheneedforcaveconservation.

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55SUMMARYthecavecooperatorspurchaseforrareand/oroftheforofFromthedatathatmostcaveswillconconsumptiveforWiththeaidinventoryprojecthaveselectedcavestheprotectionendangeredspecies.Themajorgoalsofthecaveinventoryprojectweredirectlyrelatedtowildlife naturalareas,rareandendangeredspeciesandinformationprograms.Theultimateobjectivewastodevelopacomprehensivecaveconservationand managementprogram.Sincetheprojectconception October,1978,inventoriesof211U.S.ForestServicecaves,62DepartmentofNaturalResourcecavesand62DepartmentofConservationcaveshavebeencompleted.Thereremainsa combinedtotalof80cavestobefoundandstudiedbeforetheprojectdeadlineofAugust31,1982.ThecooperativecaveinventoryprojectinMissouriwaspartofasignificantincreaseinstateandfederalinvolvementincaveconservationandmanagement.ThecooperativeprojectisfundedbytheMissouriDepartmentofConservation,Mark TwainNationalForestandMissouriDepartmentofNaturalResources.BetweenOctober,1978andSeptember,1980theNorthCentralForestExperimentStation-Columbis,alsoprovidedsupportivefunding.ThroughtheMissouriNaturalAreasSystem,qualifyingcaveshavebeendesignatednaturalareasandreceivedspecialprotectivemanagement.Morecavesarebeingconsideredfornominationasnaturalareas.considerations.weregathered,remainopenrecreationaluse.Developmentofasuccessfulcaveconservationprogramwasdependentuponplanningandmanagementoftheresource.Thecooperativecaveinventorywastheavenuethroughwhichinformationonbiology,paleontology,archeology,geology,hazardsandpublicuseofcaveswasgathered.Thisinformation,collectedandrecordedinacomprehensibleandsystematicform,providedthebasisforaresponsiblemanagementprogram.Givenarecognizedneedfora morecomprehensiveandthoroughcavemanagementprograminMissouri,thecooperativecaveinventorybecamethatmuchmoreimportant.The managementrecommendationsresultingfromanalysisoftheinventorydataweretosolveproblemsforwhichtherehadbeennopreviousguidelines.Fromsuccessfulresearchcomesuccessfulmanagementtechniquesandasoundconservationprogram.Theprincipalcooperatorsinthecaveinventoryhaveforyearsrecognizedtheneedforsuchastudy,andinsomecaseshaveinitiatedspecificresearchprojects.Forexample,beginningin1976,theMissouriDepartmentofNaturalResourcesconductedaparkresourcesinventory.Thisstudyestablishedbothalocationandresearchbaseforitscaves.RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENTOneoftheultimateobjectivesofthecaveinventoryprojectwastodevelopspecific managem2nt recommendationsbasedontheelementsindentifiedduringthesurvey.Eachelementofcontent(biology,geology,etc.),hazardsandpublicusewasevaluatedforeachcave.Cavescontainingfragileecosystemsorotheruniquefragileresourceswerestronglyrecommendedforprotection.Rareandendangeredspeciesreceivedspecialmanagement

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56Thecaveinventoryhasidentifiednew andexcitinginformationonMissouricavefauna.Fromtheover3,100specimensthathavesofarbeencollected,16provedtobespeciesnewtoscience.Theseadditionalbiologicaldatahaveservedasabaselinestudyformorein-depthcaveresearch.Cavesareapartofourwild,naturalheritageand must beprotectedforthefuture.CaveconservationawarenessprogramsinMissouritakeon manyforms,butthecooperatorseffortshaveservedtoenlightenthepublictotheneedforcaveprotection.SuccessfulcavemanagementprogramsarestillintheirinfancyinMissouri.Thecooperatorsofthecaveinventoryprojectareworkingtogethertowardthecommongoalsofconservation,protection,enjoymentandenhancementofMissouri'scaveresources.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSTheinitialportionoftheMissouricaveinventoryprojectwasfundedcooperativelybytheMark TwainNationalForest,NorthCentralForestExperimentStation-Columbia,MissouriandtheMissouriDepartmentofConservaton.Thesecondportionofthestudywasfundedby Mark TwainNationalForest,theMissouriDepartmentofNaturalResourcesandtheMissouriDepartmentofConservation.WegreatlyacknowledgethecooperationoftheMissouriSpeleologicalSurvey,Inc.fortheloanoftheircaveinformaton.Onoccasionsomeofitsmembersgenerouslyprovidedvoluntaryhelp.WearedeeplyindebtedtotheresearchandcooperatingscientistsoftheSystematicEntomologyLaboratory,USDA,andtocooperatingscientistsonthestaffoftheDepartmentofEntomology,SmithsonianInstitution.Additionally,wewishtoextendoursincerethankstoeachandeverytaxonomistwhogenerouslyprovidedidentifications.ManythanksaredueElizabethCook,withoutwhosegeneroushelpandplanningthecomputerizedcavefaunaprogramswouldnothavebeenpossible.Mr.WilliamL. Mr.PaulW.Nelson,Dr.BerniceA.Tannenbaum,Dr.JamesH.Wilsonand Mr.JohnE.Wyliecriticallyreviewedthismanuscriptandprovidedmanyhelpfuleuggestions.Last,butcertainlynotleast,ourdeepestappreciationisextendedtothemanypeopleinU.S.ForestServiceandDepartmentofConservationdistrictofficesandMissouriDepartmentofNaturalResourcesStateParksfortheirvaluableassistanceinfieldwork.LITERATURECITEDLaVal,RichardK.andMargaretK.LaVal.1980.EcologicalStudiesand ManagementofMissouriBats,withEmphasis onCave-DwellingSpecies.TerrestrialSeries8.MissouriDepartmentofConservation,JeffersonCity,Missouri.Vineyard,JerryD.Survey,Inc.1981.CatalogoftheCavesofMissouri.MissouriSpeleological239pp.

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THECONSERVATIONOFCAVEINVERTEBRATESFRANCISG.HOWARTHB.P.BishopMuseumP.O.Box19000-AHonolulu,HI96819ABSTRACTThesometimesbizarreadaptationsthatrestrictobligatecaveanimalstoalifeincaves,coupledwiththeirisland-likehabitat,havereinforcedtheassumptionthatcaveanimalsaresomehowfragileandthereforeleadanendangeredexistence.Althoughmanycaveanimalsundoubtedlyareendangered,thedevelopmentofmanagementrecommendationsfortheirconservationishampered bythelackofgoodecologicaldataconcerningtherequirementsofthespecies.Forexample,whatfactorslimitcaveanimaldistribution;whatarethesignificantperturbations;andhowdothesecauserarityandendangerment?Experimentalecologicalstudiesincavesaredifficultsinceinfewotherhabitatsismansoclearlyanintruderthaninthesubterraneanworld.Cavesareafragilewindowthroughwhichmancanvisitandstudythefaunathatlivesintheuniqueenvironmentwithincavernousrock.Manycavesthreatenedbylandusechangeshaveneverbeensurveyed,andtheirbiologicalresourcesremainunknown.Indeed,ithasonlybeenwithinthelastdecadethatbiologistshsverealizedthathighlyspecializedcaveinvertebratesliveinlavatubesandintropicalcaves.Thefollowingarelomeofthemajorthreatstothecaveecosystem:1)miningactivities,2)landusechangessuchasdeforestationandurbanization,3)alterationofgroundwaterflowpatterns.4)wastedisposalandpollution,5)localextirpationoftrogloxenes(afoodsource).6)theintroductionofnon-nativespecies,and 7)directhumandisturbancefromvisitation.Whileitisprobablynotnecessarytoconvincecaversandspeleologistsofthevalueofconservingcaveinvertebrates,itisusefultoreiteratesomeoftheimportantjustifcations(seealsoOrsak,1981;Pyle,etaI,1981;andIliffe,1979).First,becausetheyarethere.Thereisastrongmoralandethicalstandardthatallspeciessharingourplanethavearighttoexist.Second,aesthetics:There somethingaboutblind,palecavecreaturesthatpiquesthecuriousityofbothlaymen andbiologists.Thatsuchanimalsexistatallseemsincredible.Suchinterestcertainlymaybeusedtogenerateadesiretoconservespecies.Third:Caveecosystemsprovideauniquehabitatforevolutionary57andecologicalresearch.Thestudyoftheadaptationsofcavespeciestotheirenvironmenthasgreatpotentialforprovidinginsightsintogeneralevolutionaryprocesses.Fourth:Asenvironmentalindicators.AlargeproportionoftheU.S.andtheworld'spopulationreliesonsubterraneanaquifersforitsdomesticwater.Nativeaquaticanimalsprovidereadymadeindicatorsofwaterquality.Lossofaspeciesthroughpollutionwouldindicateaseriousdegradationofthewatersupply.Fifth:Caveshavemanyotherintrinsicandextrinsicvalues,ofcourse,andtoprotectacaveforitsgeological,archeological,educational,recreationalorothervaluesshouldprovidesomeprotectionforitsfauna(Schmidt,1965).

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58Althoughadditionalpragmaticvaluescouldbecited,wemayhavemoresuccess in the public sphereifwerelymore onthemoralandaestheticvalues.In1977 IproposedthattheU.S.FishandWildlifeServiceplacetheno-eyedbig-eyedhuntingspider(AdelocosaanopsGertsch,Lycosidae)andits marorpreyspecies,theblindterrestrialamphipod(SpelaeorchestiakoloanaBousfieldandHowarth,Talitridae)onthefederalendangeredandthreatenedspecieslistsrespectively.Duringthereviewprocessthebureaucrats in Washingtonheldaspecialworkshoptodetermineaquotaonhowmany amphipodsthespiderwouldbeallowedtoeat!Thisledtothepoliticalcartoon(Figure1)whichappeared in theMIAMIHERALD,inFlorida.Clearlythesetwoanimalshavebeenlivingtogetherformillenia,andthefactthatoneofthemeatstheother is nottheperturbationcausingrarity.Infact,fromanecologicalperspectivethequestionwhichshouldhavebeenaskedtoensurethesurvivalofbothspeciesis:"Howcanwemaintainthepopulationoftheamphipodsothat it canfeedthespider1"Thecartoonillustratesbureaucraticandpopularignoranceofbasiccavebiology.Therealsolutionfortheconservationofrareinvertebrateslies in anecosystemorhabitatapproach.Ifthehabitatofaspeciesisprotectedthatspeciescanusuallytakecareofitself.However, if itshabitatisalteredsothatitnolongersupportsthatspeciesthroughitslifecycle,thespecies is doomedtodisappearnomatterwhatstepsaretakenotherwise.Whyarecaveinvertebratesrareandendangered?Inspiteofthewidespreadassumptionthatcaveanimalsarefragile,Ibelievethatnospeciesofplantoranimalisinherently"fragile".Evolutionarytheorypredictsthatspeciesareadmirablyadaptedtotheirnaturalenvironment.Extinctionsarecausedbynovelperturbations.Theresponseofagivenspeciestoa newperturbation is correlatedwiththetype,timing,andseverityoftheperturbation;however,mostimportantly,theperturbationmustbedefinedastheorganismperceivesit.Forexampleasevereflood in acaveduringthenormalfloodseasonmaynotbeasdetrimentaltoacavecommunityasarelativelyminorfloodoccurringatanunusualtime,orevenasanabsenceofafloodduringthenormalperiod.Certainlytheextinctionofspecies is anaturalphenomenon. However,thequickeningpaceofman-inducedextinctionsshouldhaveeveryoneconcerned.Thefollowingarethemajorthreatstothecaveecosystem.1)Mininglimestoneandbasaltforcement,cinder,buildingstone,andotherproducts,suchasatBatuCaves,Malaysia,aswellasfromthedisturbancecausedbytheminingofmaterialsfoundincaves,e.g.guano.2) Landusechangesinthevicinityofcaves,forexample,urbanization,deforestation,roadconstruction,waterimpoundments,andotherconstructionactivities.3)Alterationofgroundwaterflow:forexample,impoundmentsthatfloodcaves,removalofgroundwaterforurbanandagriculturaluse,orchannelizationofsurfacewater.

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4)Pollutionfromwastewaterand sewagedisposalaswellastheuseofcaveentrancesasgarbageandoffaldumps;the"outofsight,outofmindphilosophy";includingoilspills,oilwellleaksandroadrunoff.5)Introductionofexoticplantsandanimals.Numerousfacultativecaveanimalshavebeenspreadby man.Thesenon-native bothobligateandfacultative,maypervadeandoftendisrupttheecosystem unpredictableways.6)Thelocalextirpationorextinctionoffoodsourceanimalsandplantssuchascaveroostingbats,cavecrickets,and,atleastinHawaii,certaintrees.Thisthreatclearlyrelatestolandusechangesinthevicinityofcavesalreadymentioned,aswellastothenextone,number7.7)Disturbancefrom humanvisitation.Thislastperturbationneedselaboration,foritseffectsareprobablyleastunderstood,andyetdisturbanceseriouslyaffectsagreaternumberofcaves.Actualcollectingofspecimens 59 IfWE'REat--)Il1EHlDN-lGFKED5Ft.CIESl-16T, Wt'V GOT ID STICK ToGETI-\ER ,,Figure 1.Theproposalthatthetwocave animalsfromKauaibeprotected under the U.S. Endangered SpeciesActattractedsomeattentionsinceonespecies,the amphipod,isthe major prey of the otherspecies.thespider.This cartoon,whichwascreatedbyMr.BillKitchen, appearedonthefrontpageof theMIAMIHERALD,Florida,on7December,1977.

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60SOLUTIONS:isnowinan Only adecade cave terrestrialspec1es,toexistalmostCavebiologyexpansivephase.specializedparticularlywerethoughtThetoppriorityfortheconservationofcaveinvertebratesistoconductthorough'biologicalinventoriesandecologicalstudiesinthreatened'caves.Inmanyinstancestherarityofcavespeciesiscorrelatedmorewiththerarityofcavebiologiststhanwiththeactualanimalpopulations.Thereisanurgentneedforbiologicalsurveysasnewcaveareasandnewspeciesarebeingdiscoveredregularly.Theinventorymust belinkedtoaninformationretrievalsysteminordertoanalyzeandutilizethedata.In.spiteofthedifficultiesinfindingpotentiallygoodcavesandfield' I wasfortunatetohavebegunsurveyinHawaiibeforeorganizedsportcavingdevelopedthere.Myfielddataoncaveanimaldistributionshowthat,otherfactorsbeingequal,speciesdiversityandpopulationlevelsofinvertebratesincavesisinverselyproportionaltothelevelofvisitationand humandisturbance.Forexample,immaturesofboththecixiidp1anthopperandtheSchrankiamothfeedsolelyonrootswhichpenetratethecaveroofandareparticularlysensitivetodisturbance.Iftherootsarebumpedordamaged,manynymphsfalltothefloor.Inpassageswhererootsdonotreachthef100r,1thenymphsmaynotfindsuitableroots,andtheystarve.Steppingonroots that doreachthefloormaykilltheirdistalportionstherebystarvingthenymphsalreadyfeedingon them.Asaresultthepopulationsofthesetwospeciesandtheirpredatorsoftenreflectthelevelofhumandisturbance.probablya mino.r factorexceptforsomeconspicuousspecies.Thecaveenvironmentshareswithotherdiscretehabitats,suchasmontane bogs andsanddune.s, avulnerabilitytotramplingandphysicaldisturbance.However,thesurfacebiologistoftenneedsonlytogo100-200m away from awellworntrailinordertolayouthisstudyplotsinarelativelyundisturbedsite.Ontheotherhand,sincethecaveisadiscretevoidinrock,thecavebiologistisrestrictedtothesamepassagesaseveryothervisitor.Unlesshecanexercise'unusualcontroloveraccess,hecancountonhisstudyareasbeingcrawledthrough,trampled,orevenvandalized.Furthermore,tobaccosmokecontainsapowerfulinsecticidewhich,intherelativelyenclosedcaveatmosphere,challenges,ifnotkills,manycaveinvertebrates..Inadditionthesmoke fromtorchesandcigarettslowerstherelativehumidity,furtherjeopardizingtheterrestrialspecies.Hazardousrefusesuchascarbideandbatteriesleftincavesbyvisitorsaddsanotherthreattocavelife.Fortunately,withfewexceptions,thedisturbancefrom humanvisitationisreversible,thatisthecavefaunaoftenrecoversintimeafterhumandisturbanceceases.

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exclusivelyintemperatelimestonecaves.Recentdiscoveriesinbothlavatubesandcavesinthetropicshaveshatteredthatassumption(Howarth,1980).Diversefaunasarenow knownfromtheGalapagos,Hawaii,NewGuinea,Thailand,Sarawak,CentralAmerica,theGreaterAntilles, tropicalSouthAmerica.Thusthescopeandhorizonsofbiospeleologyhavemorethandoubledinthepasttenyears.Biospeleologymaybe300yearsbehindsomeotherbiologicalsciences.Forexample, specialistsarecurrentlyformulatingconservationstrategiesforSouthAmericanmonkeys.Cavebiologists,ontheotherhand,willfirstneedanexpeditiontoSouthAmericatofindthecave animals, thendescribethemandworkouttheirecologicalneedsbeforeconservationstrategiescanbeintelligentlyproposed.However,we maynothaveeven20yearstocatchupwithotherconservationgroups,ifweaccepttheprojectionsofcontinuingenvironmentaldegradation(NationalResearchCouncil,1980).Manythreatenedcavesandcaveareashaveneverevenbeeninventoried,andtheirbiologicalresourcesremainunknown. There isalsoanurgentneedforecologicalstudies,especiallyexperimentalecologicalprojectsthataredesignedtodetermine(1)whatspecificfactorslimitcave animal distribution;(2)whatthecriticalperturbationsare;(3)howthesecauserarityandendangerment;and(4)whatmitigativemeasureswillbeeffective.Obviouslyweneedtoknowtheecologicalrequirementsofthespeciesconcerned.Withoutthisinformationtheestablishmentofareserveormanagementrecommendationsforaspeciesmaynotbenefitthatspecies.Forexample,Harrison(1964),establishedtheworld'sfirstearwigreserveinNiahGreatCave,Sarawak,inordertopreseveapopulationofthebizarre,rareearwig,ArixeniaesauJordan,arepresentativeofa smail, poorlyknownbutextremelyinterestingsuborderofearwigs.Visitationtothisroomwasrestricted,aridthecollectingofearwigsfromthefloorwasprohibited.Althoughtheintent highlyadmirable,subsequentresearchonthebiologyofthisspecieshasshownthatitisobligatelyassociatedwiththenakedbat,CheiromelestorquatusHorsfield,andthatearwigsfoundonthefloorinthe"earwigsanctuary"hadbecomeseparatedfrom their hostsandthereforeweredoomed.Thisfirst"earwigsanctuary"nomatterhowwellmaintainedandpolicedcouldnothavehadanypotentialwhatsoeverforthesurvivalofthespeciesforwhichitwascreated.Maintainenceofadequatepopulationsofthehostbatisthemostlogicalmanagementstrategy(Marshall,1977).A similar exampleconcernstheTexasblindsalamander, rathburriiinEzell'save,SanMarcos,Texas(Davis,1972;Byers,1977).ThemajorpopulationofthesalamanderlivesintheEdwardsAquifer(Longley,1978)andthemajorthreatsarepollutionanddrawdownofthewatersupply.ThepopulationsinEzell'sCavemakeslittle,ifany,contributiontothesurvivalofthespecies,butthissmall,protectedpopulationcouldbeusedasaresearchandeducationfacilitytoenhancesurvivalandpublicawarenessofboththemainpopulationanditsnumerousassociatedcaveinvertebrates.As Iemphasizedearlier,themajorlong-termstrategyintheconservationofcaveinvertebratesistheprotectionofsuitablehabitats.Nootherstrategywillwork,althoughimmediatethreatssometimes shortterm61

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62solutions.Protectionofthehabitatmayincludetheestablishmentofformalreservesaswellasagreementswithlandownersandmanagersfortheresourcesundertheircare.Cavereservesmustbeofsufficientsizetosupporttheecosystem.Inaddition,theyshouldincludeassociatedsurfaceandundergroundenvironmentsthatarevitaltothecavespecies.Examplesincludeoverlyingforeststhatprovidefoodeitherdirectlyintothecaveorforforagingtrogloxenes,majorbatforaginghabitats,andwatershedsthatsupplywaterinsufficientquantityandquality.Manyresearchers(myselfincluded)feelthatthemajorpopulationsofmostcavespeciesliveinthevoidswithintherockandenterhuman-sizecavepassagesonlywherefoodandenvironmentalconditionsallow.Othersfeelthatthemajorpopulationsoccur1ncavesbutthattheanimalscanusethesmallervoidstomigratebetweencaves.A fewanimalsarethoughttoliveonlyincavesandnottobeabletoexploitthesmallervoids.Eveniftheanimalslivemostly1nthe smallervoidswithincavernousrock,theonlywindowsopenformantoenterandstudysuchfaunaarecaves,andrarelymines.Ifthecavesaredestroyedorsoalteredthattheirfaunaisdestroyedbuttheanimalssurvivewithinunenterablevoidsoutofreachofboththebiologistandthelaypublic,thentheanimals,inaveryspecialandnarrowsensecouldbeconsideredextinct.Forevenifthepopulationliveson,thefactmightremainforeversecret.Wemightconsidersuchcavefaunasthenas"biologicalphenomena",likethemonarchbutterflyroosts,buffaloherds,andbatflights,wherethespeciesitselfisnotendangeredbuta phenomenonassociatedwiththespeciesishighlyendangeredand1Sspectacularenoughtowarrantprotection.Protectionisnowbeingsoughtforthemonarchroosts,butitistoolateforthephenomenalbuffaloherds.Underthisphilosophy.cavereservesspecificallyforpopulationsofspectacularcaveanimalsareaworthwhileandlogicalgoalforconservationists.Inordertomanagesuchreserveswestillneeddetailedecologicaldataontheanimal'srequirements.Educationisanotherlong-termstrategywhichcanaidinfindingsolutionstoconservationproblems.Unfortunately,educationcanhavecapriciousresults,foronehard-corevandal,armedwiththeadditionalknowledgefromaneducationalprogram,canirreversiblynegatethebeneficialactivitiesof100goodpeople.Thetwo-edgedswordcreatedbyeducationisarealdilemmaforwhichwemustfindasolution(Wilmut,1972;Day,1980).Incaseswherethereisastrongnegativecorrelationbetweenthelevelofhumanvisitationandthenumberofspeciespresent,recreationalcavingshouldbediscourageduntiladequateprotectionofrepresentativecavesisassured.Unlikeotherconservationgroupswhichoftenpublicizetheircute,fuzzycrittersinordertogeneratepublicsupport,wemustbemuch morerestrainedinpopularizingthecavefauna:becausetheincreaseinpubliccuriousityleadstoanincreaseincavevisitation.Thisisaparadox,foriftheexistenceoftheseanimalsisnotmadepublic,thentheirhabitatsmaybedestroyedthroughignoranceduringchangesinlanduse.Wemustsolvethisparadox.Howdoesonesens1t1zecaverstorespecttheresourceswithincaves?Myexperiencehasbeenthatitis

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fairlyeasytoinstillaconservationethicwithinthesphereofinterestofanindividualbutmuch moredifficulttoinstillsuchafeelingacrossmanydisciplinesinanyoneindividual.IhaveintroducedmanyHawaiianbiologiststothewondersofHawaiiancaves,andallhavebeenquicktoagreewithmyownconservationfeelingsonthebiologicalresources,butsomehavebeenslow,evenrecalcitrant,tounderstandthattheremightbeotherresourcesinthecavesandblithelytramplethrougharcheological,geological,orotherwonders.Conversely,geologistsandarcheologistshavequicklygraspedthesignificanceofcaveresourcesintheirownfieldonlytotrampleunknowinglythroughbiologicalresources.Suchsensitivityseemstoaccrueonlyafterlongexperienceincaves,thatisonlyaftertheexplorerhasseenthedegradationofcaveresourcesforhimselfdoesherealizeheispartoftheproblem.Unfortunately,therearenotenoughcavesforeverybeginningexplorertolearnthislessononhisown.Onarecentfieldtripwithabiologistwhoquicklybecameimpressedwiththecave-faunaandwhocarefullyavoidedbreakingtreerootsordisturbingtheanimals,Ipointedoutsomerathernicesandcastlesbuiltinthevolcanicashbydrippingwater.HisreactiontothisrelativelyrarephenomenoninHawaiiancaveswastosuddenlystomp andkickhiswaythroughthewholedisplaysaying:"Sandcast1eslTheylooklikejustpilesofsandtomeI"Iprotestedhisactionsrathervehemently,butIamafraidthatIdidnotconvincehimthatsandcastlesincaveshaveanyuseoraestheticvalue.InanotherinstanceI wasina newlydiscoveredpristinecavewithoneofthemosteffectiveconservationistsinHawaiiwhoisalsoanastutefieldbiologist.Hehadgottenaheadofme, andimaginemyshockwhen Iroundedacornerinthecavepassageand came uponthewordSHITwrittenin10-cmhighblacklettersinasmallpatchofwhitecaveslime.Icaughtupwithhim andgavehimmylectureagainonhowgraffittibegetsgraffittiincaves,buthe wasquiteunconvincedbecausehefeltthatitwasnotagraffito he wasmarkingthelocationofasmallpileofratdroppingswhichhad someinterestinginsectson them andfurthermorethiswas apristinecavewithoutgraffittianditwasunlikelythatgraffittiartistsorvandalswouldfindit.Bothofhisargumentswerepatentlyfalseofcourse,andaftersomeconsiderationIerasedthewordeventhoughitvirtuallydestroyedtheremainsofarathernicepatchofslimeanditsinhabitants.EventhoughIremainsomewhatskepticalofmanyeducationprograms,showcavesmightprovidealogicalforumforpubliceducationdisplays.Iproposethatcavebiologistsencourageandassistprivateandpublicshowcavemanagers creatingeducationaldisplaysoncavelife.Thesedisplayscouldincludecave animals innaturalsurroundingsintheirnativecaves,eitherinterrariaorpeepholeswithinthecave.Ibelievethattherewould be economicgainsforprivateshowcaveoperators.Withwellexecuteddisplaysmuchbeneficialpublicitycouldaccrue,besidesthemajorspinoffofhavingthemanagerslearntobetterunderstandandappreciatetherichresourcesundertheircare.Unfortunately,wewould beinmuch worsetroubleifshowcavemanagersstartedexchangingfauna.Infactthatprospectmust beguardedagainst.SinceMammothCaveisvirtuallythetypelocalityofcavebiologyinNorthAmerica,andtherichnessofitsfaunaisknownworldwide amongbiologists,theNationalParkServicecouldsetanexampleineducatingvisitorstothewondersofcaveanimals.63

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64LITERATURECITEDByers,AnneM.1977.LetThemLive,AsamplingofthespeciestheConservancyhassavedfromextinction.ConservancyNews27(4):8-18.endangeredTheNatureDavis,WilliamK.1971.Ezell'sCave:1870-1970.In:(E.L.LundeliusandB.H.Slaughter,editors)NaturalHistoryofTexasCaves.pp.94-99.Day,Kenrick,L.Editorial.Harrisson,Tom.GreatCave.1980.CaveConservation:Whyhavewefailed?GuestNationalSpeleologicalSocietyNews38(8):176-178.1964.BorneocaveswithspecialreferencetoNiahStudiesinSpeleol.1(1):26-32.Howarth,F.G.1980.Thezoogeographyofspecializedcaveanimals:abioclimaticmodel.Evolution34(2):394-406.Ililffe,ThomasM.1979.Bermuda'scaves:anon-renewableresource.EnvironmentalConservat.ion6(3):181-186.Longley,Glenn.1979.SubterraneanaquaticfaunaoftheEdwardsaquiferinTexas,asindicatedbysamplesfromwellsandsprings.Abstractofpapergivenat1978NSSConvention,NewBraunfels,Texas.NSSBulletin41:111.Marshall,AdrianG.1977.Theearwigs(Insecta:Dermaptera)ofNiahCaves,Sarawak.The SarawakMuseumJ.XXV(46ns):205-209.NationalResearchCouncil,Committee onResearchPrioritiesinTropicalBiology.1980.ResearchPrioritiesinTropicalBiology.NationalAcademyofSciences,Washington.116p.Orsak,LarryJ.1981.IntroductiontotheProceedingsandanUpdate onTerrestrialArthropodConservation.Atala6(1-2):1-18.Pyle,R.,M.Bentzien,andP.Opler.1981.Insectconservation.Ann. Review Entom.26:233-258.Schmidt,VictorA.1965.ProblemsofCaveConservation 1n theU.S.A.StudiesinSpeleology.1:82-88.Wilmut,J.1972.Caveconservation---alostcause?CaveScience:J.BritishSpeleol.Assoc.6(49):17-24.

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CAVEMANAGEMENTTHEBUREAUOFLANDMANAGEMENTAPPROACHJ.B."BUZZ"HUMMELRecreationPlannerRoswellDistrictBureauofLand ManagementP.O.Box 1397Roswell,NM88201ABSTRACTThi8paperdea18withtheBureauofLand Management'8phil080phyandmethodsofmanagingcaveresource8onpublicland8intheUnitedStstes.Ourapproachisba8icallyconservation/preservationoriented,withtheobjectiveofmanagingcaveresource8incoordinationwithothernaturalre80urceprograms.Thisobjectiveisaccomplishedthroughthepreparationofcompreheosivelanduseplans.BACKGROUNDRecentmanagementdirectionwasgiventotheBureauthroughtwoactsofCongress,theMultipleUse Actof1964 andtheFederalLandPolicyand Management Actof1976.Thesecongressionalmandateschangedfederallandmanagementgoalsfrom adisposalpolicytooneofretentioninpublicownership.1946.TheGeneralLandOfficewas formed byCongressin1812,todisposeofpublicdomainlandsandenforceminerallaws,whiletheGrazingServicewascreatedin1934toadministergrazingonpubliclands.Congressionalfundingcurrentlyemphasizesmanagingmineralresourcesforenergyproduction,andenhancingrangelandresources.TheBureau'srecreationprogramisbut one ofmanyresourceprogramswhicharesubordinatetonationalpriorities. 1n young whentheBLMisarelativelyfederalagencythatwas formedtheGeneralLandOfficeandGrazingServicewerecombined TheBureauofLand Management,alsoreferredtobythelesscumbersometitleofBLM, 1S theUnitedStates'largestresourceconservationagency.Wehaveexclusivemanagementresponsibilityforabout357millionacres(145millionhectares)or56percentofallfederallyadministeredlands.Thislandareaisabout21/2timeslargerthanthecountryofFrance.TheselandsareownedincommonbyallcitizensoftheUnitedStates,andconsistofareaswhichwerenottransferredtootherfederalagenciesoracquiredbystatesorindividualcitizens.BLMadministeredlandsdonotincludeNationalParksorForests,andaremainlylocatedinelevenwesternstatesandAlaska.65

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AcomprehensiveBLMrecreationpolicyisstillinthedevelopmentalstages,butourdraftpolicymayindicateeventualprogramdirection.Recreationmanagementisintendedtobeservice-oriented,whichisaccomplishedbyenhancingvisitorexperiencesorprotectingresourcesandvisitors.Recreationalvalues,includingcaveresources,arebeingmanagedunderthebroadprinciplesofmultipleuseandsustainedyield.By1969throughthedevotedeffortsofaBureauemployee,DonSawyer,theframeworkforanationallevelcavemanagementpolicywasformulated.AlthoughallofDonisrecommendationswerenotimplementedatthenationallevel,hewassuccessfulinbringrecognitiontocaveresourcevaluesandestablishingprogramfunding.PresentlytheBLMisactivelymanagingcavesinthefourwesternstatesofOregon,Wyoming,CaliforniaandNewMexico.Cave andotherrecreationalresourceswerenotconsideredtobe aBureaumanagementresponsibilityuntilthemid 19601s.ItwasatthistimethatmembersofthecavingcommunitycontactedtheRoswell,NewMexicoDistrictOfficeofBLMandinformedthemthatarancher,wholeasedfederallandsforgrazing,haddeniedthemaccesstoacavelocatedonhislease.ThisincidentbroughtaboutanawarenessbyBLMofthisuniqueresource.TheSouthwestRegionoftheNationalSpeleologiclSociety(N.S.S.)aidedtheBLMinobtainingadditionalinformationwhichrevealedtheextentofcaveresourcesonpubliclands,andpointedoutthatmining,vandalismandrockcollectingwererapidlydestroyingmanyofthesecaves.66MANAGEMENTPHILOSOPHYAtthistimeBureau-widepolicyspecificallyaimedthereisnoorguidelinesatcavemanagementandnofederalstatutesorregulationswhichaddresscaveresourceprotection.Forthesereasons,localizedBLMmanagementeffortsweredevelopedusinga"seatofthepants"approach.BLM'srecreationmanagementphilosophyisnottooverdeveloprecreationsitesbyfillingeveryspacewithcampunits,tablesandtoilets;norisittobuildthemintoexistence.bydrawinginthepublicwithlavishcampgrounds.Therecreationmanagementphilosophyisaimedatenhancingandprotectingvalueswhicharepresentlybeingenjoyedbytherecreationist.The manageraccomplishesthisgoalby managingthenaturalresourcesetting,andtheactivitieswhichoccurwithinit.ThisgeneralphilosophyisalsorepresentedinBLMlscaveresourcemanagementprogram.Developmentsmadeinthecaves,suchastrailsandgates,areforthepurposeof.protectingvisitorsorcaveresources, which alsoenhancesvisitorexperiences.Fullscalecavedevelopment or commercializatonto benefit thecasualvisitorQrtouristisprovidedbytheNational Park Serviceortheprivatesector.CavingorganizationsincludingtheN.S.S.,CaveResearchFoundation(C.R.F.)and othersplayed animportantpartin developing thismanagementapproach.MANAGEMENTMETHODSRecreation emphasisfluctuatesdueto changes invalue.foraparticular suchaswilderness inventory, Therecreationprogrammustalsocompeteforfundswithotherhigherprioritycommodityresourceprograms.Asaresultofthisyeariyvariationinfunding,managers arerequired touseinnovative approaches inordertomaintaincave Program integrity.Wehavedealtwiththisfunding

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isdone on Eachcavemanagementintrinsicevaluationinafourproblembysharingourstewardshipwithcaveuser-groups.Byestablishingacloseworkingrelationshipwiththesegroupsweareabletodraw on themforassistancewithon-the-groundmanagement.StrongpublicinvolvementandvolunteerworkhasprovidedtheBureauwithessentialinformationandassistance.Thisapproachhasalsobeenbeneficialinprovidinggrassrootssupportandservesasabaseforinformationexchange.Basiccavemanagement acase-by-casebasis.requiresaseparateevaluationbaseduponitsvalues.Cave managementandplansaredevelopedstepprocess:1.Identification/ownershipofcaveresource;2.Caveinventory,includingclassificationandreport;3.Managementevaluationanddecisionscompleted;4.Implementationofmanagementdecisions.Whenacavehasbeendeterminedtobeonfederallandaninventoryofphysicalandbiologicalresourcesisperformed.Inventoryisdonetodeterminethehazardsandresourcecontentswhicharepresent.Thisinformationisusedtoestablishcavemanagementclassesandservesasadatabaseformanagementdecisions.Thesemanagementdecisionsandprotectivemeasuresarebaseduponthefragilityofphysicalorbiologicalresourcesandthemagnitudeofhazardswhicharepresent.Implementationmayinvolvebothon-the-groundactions(gating)andadministrativeactions(permitrequirements).Theintensityandcomplexityofmanagementneededforanyparticularcaveisbasedonthepotentialforman-causedactionswhichmayimpactitsintegrity.Thisconceptmaybetterbeexplainedgraphicallyusingmanagementmodels.EXAMPLE1 Eachoftheboxesinexample1(seefigure1)representa managementconsiderationwhichmaydealwithaspecificcave.Thesizeofeachboxisindicativeofitsimportance,(bigproblem-bigbox).Thediversityornumberofmanagementconsiderations(boxes)isdepictedbytheconfigurationofthemodel.Themainmanagementconsiderationsthatareintrinsictoanycaveconsistofthecontentsandhazardspresent.Thesefactorsprovidethecoreofthemodelwhileothermanagementconsiderations,shownasextremitiesofthemodel,maybelessimportantornonexistentataparticularcave.EXAMPLE2 Example 2(seefigure2)representsacavewiththefollowingmanagementconsiderations:ithasfewhazardsbuthascontentsofsomeinterestwhichdeserveprotection;thecavehasbeenknown bythepublicfora numberofyearsandisreadilyaccessiblebyanimproveddirtroad;oilandgasdevelopmentistakingplaceinthesameareaasthecave.EXAMPLE3 Example 3(seefigure3)representsacavewiththeleastcomplex managementconsiderations:ithasone room, asinglepassageandissmall;ithasnoformationsandlittleanimallife,butmaybeofarcheologicalinterest;accessisnotdifficultandthecaveisknowntothepublic.67

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68Ascanbeseenfromthepreviousexampleseachcavemayrequireadifferentlevelofmanagement.Wearepresentlyusingathree-tieredapproachwhichislistedintheorderofmanagementinvolvement:CAVEMANAGEMENT1.Administrativemeasures;2.Regulatoryactions;3.Physicalcontrols.Administrativemeasuresinvolvetheleaststringentformofmanagement. Theycouldincludesigning,patrolling,publicinvolvement,tours,cavetalks,brochures,orotherformsofpubliccontact.Thisleveliswherepublicinvolvementandeducationisanimportantfactorandcanbebuiltthroughadministrativeoutreachprograms.Where'administrativemeasuresareinsufficienttoprotecttheresourceorvisitor,regulatoryactionscanbetaken.Theseactionsmayinvolvetherequirementforcaveentrancepermits,passageandenforcementofstateorfederallaws,legalclosuresandsigning.Ifadministrativeandregulatoryactionsfailorarenotsufficienttomeetmanagementneedsthenon-the-groundmeasuresmayberequired.Physicalcontrolsmayalterthenaturalsetting,couldimpairsomeresourcesinthecaveandshouldonlybeusedwhenabsolutelynecessary.Forexample,installationofagatetoprotectspeleothemsmayinhibitthemovementofabatcolonyaswellashaveeffectsuponthecave'smicroclimate.Nocavemanagementprogramwillworkwithoutpublicsupport,whichisthemostimportantfactor.BLMhasachievedthissupportbysharingstewardshipwiththepublic.Wehavea goodworkingrelationshipwiththeorganizedcavingcommunitytheirinvolvementandvolunteerworkhasandcontinuestoprovideafoundationforourprogram.SURFACESIZEUSEOFPROBLEMSCAVEOTHERPUBLICFACTORSCAVEHAZARDSAWARENESSCONTENTSPRESENTCONSTRUCTIONCAVECOSTSLOCATIONCONFLICTSEASEWITHOFOTHERACCESSRESOURCESEXAMPLE1

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PUBLICAWARENESSRESOURCECONFLICTSCAVEHAZACONTENTSR05EASELOCATIONOFACCESSEXAMPLE2CAVE i CONTENTSR EXAMPLE369

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EXPEDITION-CANGO78DAVECROMBIE,DAVELAND,CHARLESMAXWELL,ANDBRIANRUSSELLReportedbyM.SchultzINTRODUCTIONInDecember,1977,a lowcrawlwasfoundattheextremeendofCangoIII.ItwasexploredandsurveyedbyD.EllisandD.Landduringacavingtripthatlasted26hoursandresultedin290 mofnewpassage.DuringtheoriginalofCangoIIIaverysurveywasproducedtoapproximatelengthdirectionofthecave.explorationsimplelineestablishtheandgeneralbethatwewouldbe"lockedin"bythesumpthatexistsbetweenCangoIIand CangoIII.Onceinsidethecavewewouldbecommittedtostayingthereuntilthesurfacepartycameinand pumpedoutthewaterinthesump.Togetvalueformoney,anundergroundstayoffourdayswasplanned,thiswouldallowsufficienttimeforadetailedsurveyofthecaveandmaybetimeoverforcontinuingwiththeexplorationwork.Thecrawlwasrevisited June,1978,andextendedfor90mbeforeitterminatedina complexjunctionarea.Thereareavarietyofpossiblesolutionsastothewayoutofthisareabutnoobviousrouteisapparent.TheneedtojointheexistingsurveysofCango IandIItoonedetailingthecrawlandterminalareabecamevitaliffurtherexplorationofthecavewastobebasedon alogicalapproachratherthanon randomwanderings.Theinitiallinesurveyindicatedtheamountofworkthatwouldberequiredtoproduceadetailedsurveyofthemainroutethroughthecave,allthatremainedwastofindasuitableteam.Thepartywastoconsistof4-5cavers,whowould beenthusiasticenoughtospendseveraldaysundergroundandbeabletoworkwelltogether.Byfarthemostsoberingfactoroftheplannedventurewould71Likemostexpeditions,determiningtheneedsandplanningthemechanicsoftheventurebecame moreofatraumaticexperiencethananythingweencounteredonceinthecave.The moreinvolvedwebecameinthedetailedplanningthemoretheequipmentlistescalated.ThecrawlbetweenCangoIIandIII some 150 m in lengthand is ofthewetvariety,hencenotonlywouldtheequipmenthavetobekeptdrybuttheactualsizeofthepackswouldhavetobesmallenoughtopassthroughthecrawl.Onthe29thAugustD.Crombie and E.RusselldrovetoOudtshoorn,takingwiththemalltheequipment.C.Maxwell andmyselfweretoflyfrom CapeTownearlythefollowingmorning.At11:15a.m.onthe30thAugustweenteredthecaveandbeganthechoreoftransportingallourequipmentthroughsome 1100 mof

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72cavetothesiteofourbasecamp.Duringthefollowing100hourstheteamprovedtobeextremelycompatibleandfullofenthusiasmfortheproject.DetailsfromtheExpeditionlogshowthatsome 160man-hourswerespentonthesurvey,thisdoesnotincludethecalculationsandplottingcarriedouteachevening.Fromtheonsetoftheventureithadbeendecidedthatthesurveyshouldbeofthehighestaccuracypossible.Thishadtobecounter-balancedagainsttheconservationofthecaveofcourse.Thereweretobenoindiscriminatewanderingsthroughthecavejusttoobtainwidthofangle,hencethesidewallsofthecavewere,inmanycases,notvisitedowingtodamagethatwouldhavebeencausedtothecaveformations.Whilstonthesubjectofcaveconservation,I mustadmitthatourprolongedstayinCangoIIImusthavehad someeffectonthecave.However,wechoseourbasecampsitetocoincidewithanareainthecavethatwouldhaveaminimaleffectonthemaincave.Nolitterwasleftbehindandwetookgreatcarenottogo anywherethatwasnotnecessaryduringthecourseofourwork.ThepartyfeltthatourfourdaystayinCango was afarbetterpropositionthanhavingtomakeseveraltripsofshortdurationintothecaveforthepurposeofobtainingthesurvey.GENERALRESUME30thAugust,1978(FirstDay) Dave LandandCharlesMaxwellarrivedatOudtshoornAirportat8:30a.m.andweremet bytheothertwo team members, Dave Crombie andBrianRussell,whohadbeguntocarrythegeneralequipmentandfoodintothecavethepreviousday,assistedbythreeMunicipalemployees.OntheirwaytoCangothepartyvisitedtheTownClerkofOudtshoorntodiscusstheitinerarydrawn up bytheteamleader,DaveLand,andthesafetyandcommunicationssystemstobeusedduringthefivedaysstayinthecave.Thepartyturnedtheirbackson a warmclearwinter'sdayat11:30a.m.andenteredthecave,eachpersoncarryinghispersonalgearand,afterastrenuousjourneythroughCango I, CangoIIandthestreampassage,ladenwithequipment,thebasecamp wassetupinthehighlevelpassagejustbeforethefirstbigchamberinCangoIII.Alltheequipmentwasthroughthestreampassageby2:30p.m.Eagertogetstarted,thepartydidaquickrecceandbegantopositionthesurveybeacons.Beacon 1 waslocatedatthebottomoftheladderatthestartofthefirstbigchamber("Krakatoa")withbeacon8attheIntrusiveDyke andbeacon12about10 mpasttheAlpineRoom.TheairatthecampfeltbetterthaninCangoIIbutthesymptomsofafairlyhighCOcontentintheairwerestillnoticeable,suchasincreasedbreathingandpulserateandincreasedtirednessafterphysicalexertion,althoughrestingdidaffordsomerelief.Theparty'stimewasfullytakenupwithsurveyandexplorationduringthetimeunderground,but'itisunfortunatethatthetimeandequipmentwerenotavailabletomonitorcarbondioxidelevels,temperature,andrelativehumidityinvariouspartsofthecavetoserveasacomparisonwithCango I and Cango II, aswellasa meansofrecordingtheselevelsatthebeginningandtheendofthetriptoascertaintheparty'seffectontheenvironment.Breathingratesandpulseratescouldalsohavebeen

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monitoredduringact1v1tyandresttoascertaintheenvironment'seffectontheparty.Thiswillmakeaninterestingandusefulprojectduringfuturetripsintothecave.Althoughthecarbondioxidelevelwasfairlyhighthepartystillmanagedtofunction well, bothmentallyandphysically,sleepwelland wake uprefreshed. Nobody sufferedfromheadacheswhileunderground.At4:00p.m.atechnicianinstalledthetelephonelinkfromthesumpinCangoIItothebasecampwhichwastobetheonlycontactwiththeoutsideworldoncethepumpatthesumpbetweenCangoIIandthestreampassagewasswitchedoffandthepassagewasonceagainsealedbywater.EveryeveningaMunicipalemployeewouldcomethroughthecavetothetelephonetomakecontactwiththebasecamp.Asan_dditionalsafetyfactorasmallaqualunganddivingmaskwereleftinCangoIIInearthesumptoenableonepersontogetthroughthefloodedsumpandstartthepumporgetassistance.Onthefirstnightsupperwaspreparedamidhighsp1r1tsandenthusiasm,althoughtheOptimusbenzinestovewouldnotoperatewithoutmuch pumping,indicatingthepoorqualityoftheairinthecave.Throughoutthestayinthecaveeverybodyateheartilyandthefoodwastastyandhighinenergyvalue.Waterfromthecavewasusedforcookinganddrinkingandwasfoundtobeverypalatable.By11:00p.m.everyonewasfastasleep,thankfulfortheplasticgroundsheetsandinflatablebeds.31stAugust(SecondDay) Thepartyaroseat6:15a.m.andleftthecampat8:00a.m.withday-packsoffood,waterandsurveyequipment,returningat6:00p.m.afterafullday'swork.Itwasalreadybecomingevidentthatmuchtimeandenergywastobesavedbysleepinginthecaveratherthanmakingseveraldaytripsinandoutagain.Soonthepartygotintoa smoothsurveyingroutineundertheguidanceofthesurveyor,DaveCrombie,andduetothecompatibilityoftheteammembers,themoraleremainedashighastheproductivityduringthe100hoursspentunderground.Oncethesurveybeacons,consistingofwoodendowelswithreflectivetapeand numberedtags,werelocated,twocaverswouldtapethedistanceandmeasurethehorizontalandverticalangles,estimatingtheheightoftheroofabovethebeacon.Theothertwocavesrecordeddetailsofsidechambers andmeasuredhorizontalandverticalanglesanddistancestoeachsideofthemainchamber.Where a tapedmeasurementwouldhavecausedunnecessarydamagetothefloororformations,thedistancewasestimatedandrecordedassuch.Sketchesweremadeoftheextremitiesofthechambers,togetherwithsinkholes,columnsandothercalciteformationsandsidesystems.Varioussinkholesandsidesystemswereexploredornotedforfutureexploration.Duringthedaythesurveyprogressedfrombeacon12tobeacon21.Itwasnotedthatthecaverswerebecomingaccustomedtotheairandwereperformingbetterthroughouttheday.Intheevening,whilefoodwasbeingprepared,thelampswereputoncharge,theday'ssurveywasreduced,usinganH.P.25programmablecalculator,andplottedandnoteswerewritten.By11:00p.m.everyonewas soundasleep.73

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741September(ThirdDay)Afterrisingat6:00a.m.the'partyleftat8:00a.m.andreturnedtothecampat3:30p.m.toawaitatelephonecheckat4:00p.m.Afteralightlunch,atthebeginningofthelongcrawl("Pilgrim'sPassage")nearbeacon27,thesurveyprogressedthroughtobeacon40 fromwhereasurveyhadalreadybeendonetothelastchamber("FaaChamber")inJune,1978.Aftersupperasurveywas done frombeacon1,backpastthecamptowardsCangoII,ontheupperleveluntilfurtherprogresswasstoppedbythesamecollapsethatwasfoundattheendofCangoII.Inaddition,anupperpassagejustbeforethiscollapsewasexplored,resultingindeeplycuthandsduetosharpcalcitecrystals.Onceagainsleepcameeasilytoeveryoneby11:00p.m.2nd September (FourthDay)BeingaSaturdaymorningitwasdecidedtomake alatestart,risingat7:30a.m.andleavingthecampat8:00a.m.Some sectionswerecheckedandlooseendstiedup.Theareaonthesouthsideofthelargechamber("IcePalace"oppositethe"AlpineRoom") wasexploredandabeautifullydecorateddrysteampassagewasfoundrunningapproximatelyparalleltothemainsystem,withanentrancenearbeacon12,slightlybacktowardsbeacon11.Therunningstreampassagewasexploredfromthefixedladderjustbeforethebasecampforabout100metrs,climbing along highclaybanksthatdroppeddowntothenarrowstreambelow.Furtherprogresswashaltedby ablockageonbothlevels.Everyoneintheparty'wasfeelingathomeinthecaveandthebasecamp waslikea "home from home". Thegeneralatmospherewasverypeacefulandtheprolongedperiodoftotaldarknessandquiet,farfrombeingoppressive,wasfoundtoberelaxingandcomforting.Theonlyslightlyunnervingthinginthecavewasthe"creakingrock"attherubbleslopeatthestartof"Krakatoa".Thiswas alargerockhangingfromtheroofabout4mindiameterandprobablyweighinga fewtonsthat,inthesilenceofthecave,couldbeheardcreakingeverso ?ften and,oncloserinspection,finecrackscouldbeseenrunninghorizontallythroughit.Thisrockwasrightabovebeacon1,whichwassurveyedinrecordtimeI3rdSeptember(FifthDay)Asthemainsurveywascomplete,themorningwasspentexploringtwosinkholesinthefirstbigchamber (IIKrakatoa"). Thefirstsinkwent down,throughaclayholeintoabeautifulstreampassagethathadwater,butnotrunningwater,init.Inanapproximatelyeasterlydirectionawaterfilledsump wasfoundandintheoppositedirectionthestream.passagebecametight.Thesecondlinkledtoacontinuationofthisstreampassage,decoratedallaroundwithcalciteformations,he1ictitesandcrystals,thatwasexploredforabout100m,atwhichstageitsplitintotwo morelevels,allunderthemainsystem.Thegoingwasslowandoftenpainfulinthisstreampassageandtimeranoutwiththefrustatingknowledgethattheend hadnotyetbeenreached.Fromthemapitcanbeseenthatmany moresinkholeswerefoundinthecave,indicatingthepresenceofthisorotherstreampassagesfurtheron.Thekeytothecave,thepresentrunningstreampassage,remainedevasiveandwasnotrelocatedfurtheron.Thesinkjustbefore"Pilgrim'sPassage"had

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Sadly,thebasecamp waspackedupandthepartywas met by adeputationconsistingoftheTownClerk,theMayorofOudtshoorn,a numberofMunicipalemployeesandthreeS.A.S.A.members,whichmadethetripoutaneasyone.TheentranceofCango wasreachedby3:00p.m.andthefirstfewbreathsoffresh,snow-capped,mountaina1rwasanunforgettableexperience,chargingmindandbodywithlong-forgottenenergy.Animportantaspectwasthefactthat,duetoacommonandimportantgoalsetfortheexpeditionandthelackofsparetime,thetimewentquicklyandtheenthusiasmneverwaned.previouslybeenfoundtogoalthoughthiswouldhaveidealplacetorelocatethestreampassage.nowhere,beenanrunningnearestcentimeter.Stationsweremarkedwithhalfmeterlong,4mmdiameter,woodendowels.Anadhesivestripofredreflectivetape,12mmwideand 20mmlong,wasattachedtothetopofeachdowel andorientedatrightanglestothelineofthetraverseforeaseofsubsequentlocationofthestations.Withourelectricminerslampstheseareeasilyvisibleatdistancesupto30m.Beyondthatandupto50 mthetapecanstillbeseen.Surveyreadingswererecordedinhardcoveredtachyometerbooks,usingFgradepencilswhichwerefoundtomaintanasharppointwhilenotbeingsohardastodamagethemoistpaper.Sketchesandnoteswererecordedinringboundnotepads(110mmx 180 mm).Newbookswereusedeachdaytoguardagainstdamagetoorlossofpreviouslygatheredinformation.75ThateveningabanquetwasheldintheCango CavesRestaurantandtheTownClerkwaspresentedwiththeroughsketchof700 mofCangoIII,theresultofanextremelysuccessfulexpedition,madepossiblebythecombinedeffortsofS.A.S.A.andtheOudtshoornMunicipality.THESURVEYThemainobjectiveoftheexpeditionwastocompleteasdetailedasurveyofCangoIIIascouldbeobtainedwithoutunduedamagetothedelicatelydecoratedareasofthecave.Allfourmembersoftheteamwereactivelyinvolvedinsurveying,withtwoconcentratingonthemaintraverseandtwogatheringdetailinformation.Thesurveyequipmentusedconsistedoftwocompass/clinometersets(usingSuuntoKB-14/360compassesandSuuntoPM-5/360clinometers1nspeciallymadehousings)whichwerereadtothenearesthalfdegreeandplasticcoatedsteeltapesreadtotheStationswereselectedatpointsofchangealongthelengthandadditionalstationswereusedsothat the maximumdistancebetweenanytwodidnotexceed50m.Allthestationsweresetoutandlabelledbeforereadingsweretaken.Onepersontookobservationsfrom onestation,sightingon alightheldattheadjacentstationbytheotherperson.Readingsweretakeninbothdirectionsovereachlegofthetraverseresultinginareliableandaccuratesetofresults.Theday'sreadingswerereducedeachevening,usingaprogrammablecalculator.Thepositionofthestationsthuscalculatedwereplottedon alargesheetofgraphpaperwhileinthecave,providinganadditionalcheckonthereadings.Becauseofthesechecksitwasalsopossibletomonitortheperformanceoftheteamunderthoseconditions.The same amountofwork was doneeachday andqualitywasmaintainedatanextremelyhighlevel.Thegradeofthesurveycarriedoutinthemannerdescribedisclassifiedat6D(B.C.R.A.grading).Indeed,

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76CONCLUSIONGango78iscomplete,thesurveyisdrawn(seeFigure1)andisevidenceofwhat can beaccomplishedforaverymoderatecapitaloutlay.Ifsuccess'is"doingwhatyousetouttodo",thenGango 78wassuccessfulineveryway.Inthesedaysofsuperlativeachievementsour100hoursstayinacaveis,probably,oflittleconsequence,thefactthatitisaSouthAfricanrecordis,howeverworthyofnote.IfGangogetsmuchlongerandincreasinglymorearduousthenundergroundbivouacswillbecometheorderofthedayratherthantheexception.Thefinaldrawingupofthemapwasmadeaftertheexpeditionbyagainplottingtheco-ordinatesofeachstationonhighqualitygraphpaper.Detailinformationwasthenplottedfromtheframeworkofthemaintraverseandthenatracingwasmadeofthisanddetailshowingformationtypeandphysicalcharacteraddedlast.2.Foodandsomeequipmentwasplacedinfoursquare20litreparaffintins,speciallymodifiedbytheuseofayachtingtypeplasticbulkheadhatchinthebase,whiletheoriginalhandlewasusedforcarryingpurposes.Asledwasconstructedfroma1.6romthicksheetsteeltoenabletwo20litre tobepulledalongthestreampassage.Thesecontainerswerewaterproofandalsoservedasatableatthecamp.3.Surveyequipment,stoves,pots,rope,spadesandtoolswerecarriedinaspecially made aluminumtube300mmindiameter,1meterlong,fittedwithwaterproofendsandaconeatoneendtofacilitatedraggingthroughthe passage.Thiscontainerwasextremelyrugged,butwascumbersoneandheavy.1.Personalgearwastakeninbyeachindividualinamilitarytypekitbag,linedwithaheavyplasticbag,withitemssuchassleepingbagsalsoinsmaller bagstoprovideadditionalwaterproofing.CangoIandCangoII,andalsobesafelyconveyedthroughthewet,lowstreampassagebetweenCangoIIandCangoIII.Thesizeofpackagewaschosentooptimizecarryingeffortandnumberoftrips.Eightmen-loadswereused.Threedifferenttypesofpackageswereused.overoutthemiaclosureonthetraverseatotalof1900m(950metersandback)was3.20m.The"lockedin"syndrome,causedbytherefillingofthesump,provedtobepurelyapsychologicalfactorduringtheplanningstage,onceundergroundnooneshowedsignsofanydistressoverthefactthattherewasanaturalbarrierbetweenourselvesandthesurface.Infact,ithadapositivereactionratherthananegativeone-weevenwentcavingafterdinner!!TRANSPORTOFFOODANDEQUIPMENTThegearhadtobepackedinsucha waythatitwouldbereasonableeasytohandlethroughThefoodchosenwastobenutritious,pleasantandappealingtoallandabletolastwithoutrefrigerationforthedurationoftheexpedition.Thiswasachievedbycarefulselectionofavarietyoffoods.Thequantitywastobe

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xxv5!(;:;." -0 .!2:E. a.;;2 o _,....... ..... o ":: (J a uJ0IgIII 0 >-IIIIII uJ>
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78sufficienttosustainthepartyforfourdays,withanadditionalday'ssuppliestospare.(ThefoodcostR49-S0whilethevalueofthefoodleftoverafterthestayinthecavewasP13-00).TwoOptimusbenzinestovesweretaken,butitwasfoundthatduetothepooratmosphereonlytheonewhichcouldbepressurizedwithapumpwouldburn.Cookingliquidsweretransferredfrompottopotbeforeeventuallybeingusedinthepreparationoffoodandbeingeaten.Nocookingorwashing-upwaterwasdisposedofinthecaveasaresultofthistechnique,andonlyasmallquantitywascarriedoutafterwards.

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INTERPRETATIONASAPRIMARYTOOLINCAVECONSERVATIONANDMANAGEMENTEDWARDE.WOOD,JR.Chief,InterpretationandResourceManagement, Lehman CavesNationalMonument (NPS),Baker,NVAbstractEffectiveinterpretationcan be avaluabletooltoaidspeleologistsinthepresentationandperpetuationofcaveresources.Sinceamajorityofpeopleareonlyoccasionalvisitorstocavesandtheyconfinetheirvisitstocommercialorshowcaves,theburdenofdemonstratingthevalueoftheundergroundrealmliesalmostentirelywiththeinterpretivepresentationsavailableatshowcaves.Aconcertedeffortmust bemaintainedbythemanagersofshowcaves to demonstrateahighlevelofconcernforconservaitonoftheirresourceaswellasincavesingeneral.Fromtheinltantavisitorarrivesatacave,heisinfluencedbyeveryaspectoftheoperation--thegrounds,thefacilities,theinterpretivestaffandtheresourceitself.Tobeeffective,interpretationmustprogressbeyondthehypothesizedspeleogenesiaof formations andincludeentertainingelementsaswell.Spontsneity,enthusiasmandexpertiseofinterpretersbecomesparamount. A reviewofsometechniquesinuseatshowcavesintheUnitedStatesdemonstrate.thatcreativitydoeenothavetobeeacrificedinachievingtheconservationtheme..Speleologistscanexpecttobeabletorallysupportforcaveconservationonlybyfosteringagenuineappreciationthroughoutthegeneralpopulationforthecomplexityoftheforcesaffecting.caves. When cavesbecomeimportantreaourcestoeveryone,thejobofconservingthemwillbecomeeasier.Caveconservation is aconcernofonlyasmallsegmentoftheworld'spopulation.Infact,a majority ofpeoplehaveneverexperienced"wildcaves"thesearelefttotheadventurers.Howdoesoneanswerthecommonquestion:Whygocaving?Foraspeleologist,cavesarenaturallaboratoriesprovidingconditionsnotfoundelsewhereandfortherecreationalcavertheyarenewfrontiersorchallenges.But,whatdotheyofferthegeneralpublic?Untilthoseofuswhofeelthatcavesshouldbeconservedcanrealisticallyanswerthesequestionsintermsthatareacceptabletopeoplewhoknownothingaboutspeleology,caveswillsuccumbtootherdesiresofmankind.Theywillbelosttomineralinterests,energyprojects,developers,rockhounds andother79groupswhodonotorwillnotconsidercavesintheirplanning.Inthedawnofhumanhistory,cavesprovideda much moremeaningfulresourcethantheydotoday.Earlycivilizationsfoundcavestoofferamultitudeofuses:shelterfromhostileweatherconditions,protectionfrompredators,coldstorageforsuppliesandevenaplacetoexpressthemselvesthroughdrawingsonthewalls.Aspeoplebecame moreinventivetheybegantoconstructtheirownsheltersthatextendedfromthecaveentranceandfinally,entirelyonthesurface.Cavesbegantobeignoredandanelementofmysteryandintriguebecameattachedtodiscussionsofcaves.Thestrange,differentworldofthesubterraneanrealmbecamethe

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80subjectoffolkloreandexaggeration.Gradually,apprehensiondevelopedintofearandmostpeopletodayfindlittleofvalue,shortofnoveltytomakecavesandcaveresourcesworthconserving.Thefactthatcaveresourcesarefragileanddependentonsurfaceforcesmakestheirpreservationadifficultbattle,especiallywithoutstrongsupportofthepopulation.Asspeleologists,wecanscreamaboutcavedestructionallwewant,butwithoutpublicsupport,ourenergyiswastedaswelosebattleafterbattle.Theanswerlies1nanalternateoffensive:thecultivationofaconservationethicandcaveappreciationinthegeneralpubic.Wemustexercisegreatcarehowever,inattemptingtoreachourgoal.Wecannot,norshouldwe,expecttoconverteveryman,womanandchildintoanavidcaver.Todoso,wouldjeopardizetheresourcesfromanotherangle--overuse.Wemustproceedwithamoderatedoutlookandtrytoconveytothepublicthatcavesareimportantnon-renewableresourcesandshouldbepreservedforthefuturegenerations.Unfortunately,bringingcavestothesurfacethrough ler.tures, publicationsandphotographswillnothavemucheffectonpeople'sthinking.Itisonlythroughpersonalexperiencethatweseemtogainsignificantinsight.Thus,weneedtotaketheworld'spopulationcaving!Ofcoursesuchafeatisimpossible,butitdoesposeachallenge.Probablythebestwayforthegeneralpublictoexperienceacaveisinacommericalorshowcave.Thehardshipsandhazardsarereducedandtherouteisgenerallytailoredtomakeitaneasytripforeveryone.Showcavesarenotthreateningtomostpeopleandrepresentanovelformofentertainmentformany.Ifwemanagetogetapersontotakeacavetour,wehaveacaptiveaudiencethismaybeouronlychancetoconvincehimofthevalueofcaveresources.Iamnotsuggestinga Ilhardsell"butratherasubtleindoctrination.Onlyanexpertinterpretercanconveyourmessageinsucha mannerthatitisabsorbedandimplanted.Whenacavevisitorcomesoutbubblingwithenthusiasmandexcitementovertheresource,wehavemadeanotherconvert.Theycan hardly waittoseeanothercave--sometimestheywanttogobackthroughagain!Itisveryrewardingto.guidestoknowthattheyhaveaccomplishedsuchafeat.Onethingmustbekeptinmindthroughoutthisdiscussionandthatis:avisitorcanbejustasrapidlyturnedofftocavesby apoorguide.Infact,itisprobablyeasiertoinfluencepeoplenegativelythantodeveloptheirenthusiasm.Wemayonlygetonechancetoconvertawould-becaveenthusiastandwemustbesurethatweputourbestpeople(interpreters)wheretheycanconversewiththemostvisitors.Thisisaheavyresponsibility,butgoodinterpretersrallytothechallenge.Actually,theeffectivenessofanyinterpretiveprogramliesultimatelywiththeindividualinterpreter'sattitude,traininganddesire.Asimportantascaveinterpretationis,allshowcavesintheUnitedStatesdonotoperatewiththesameemphasisplacedoninterpretation.Differentparameterscauseinterpretivepresentationstovaryagreatdeal.Truecommercialcavesarebusinessesandtheirowners must make aprofittocontinuetheiroperations.Overheadandexpensesmustbekepttoa minimumtoenabletheseownerstokeeptheiradmissionspricetoalevelthatthevisitorwill pay.

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Somecavesfindtheeasiestwaytoreduceexpendituresistopay low wages totheguides.Suchpracticestendtorecruitlessthanqualifiedindividualstofilltheinterpretivepositionsandtheentireprogramsuffers,andsodoestheconservationcause.Iamnotimplyingthatallcommericalcavesoperateinthismannerbutrather,where aprofitorbustsituationexists,itismoreprevalent.Governmentorpubliclyownedcavestendtooperateatorbelowabreak-evenlevel.Thus,whiletheadmissionspriceisusuallylower,thesubsidizingofoperationsbypublicfundsenablesthesecavestoput morefundsintotheinterpretiveprogram.Thishasa markedeffectonboththephilosophyandthetechniquesemployed interpretation.Interpretationgearedtoastrongconservationthemeisdeemedinappropriateby manycommercialoperatorsandtoooftenanyconservationconveyedtovisitorsismore byaccidentthanbydesign.Most haverealizedthatinordertoprotecttheirinvestment,theymustcurtailsomepracticesthathavehistoricallybeenprofitable.Suchpracticesasthesellingofspeleothemsintheirgiftshopshavebeencontrarytotheperpetuationoftheirowncaves.Thisistrueevenifthesalesitemsareimportedfrom acalcitemine(acaveminedforitssaleablespeleothems)becauseitencouragesvisitorstostealformationsduringtoursbecausetheserocksaremarketable.Interpretationofacaveisnottotallylimitedtothetouroftheunderground.Wellkeptgrounds,informativeexhibitsandfriendlystaffmemberssetthemoodandincreasethevisitorlsresponsivenesstotheinterpretivepresentation.Longwaitsandlargecrowdsshouldbeavoidedwheneverpossibleasthesefactorstendtonegativelyaffectvisitors.Acavemanagershouldplaceastrongemphasisonpleasingthe"customer"ifhewantstosucceed.Thisistruewhetherthereisaprofitincentiveornot.Ihaveheardheateddiscussionsbetweencommercialcaveowners andpubliccavemanagersastothevirtuesoftreatingvisitorswell.Suchargumentsaretotallyridiculous,becausebothgroupscanonlysurvivebyservingthepublic.Inorderforaninterpretiveprogramtomeetourgoalofimplantingacaveconservationethicineveryvisitor,itmustaddresstheneedsofthatvisitoraswell.Manypeoplefindscienceandscientificexplanataionstobeboringandeventhreatening,soscientifictheorymustbetemperedwithentertainmentaswell.Whiledifferenttypesofentertainmentappealtodifferentgroupsofpeople,onetechniqueisuniversalenthusiasm.Enthusiasmisinfectiousandaninterpreterwhocanfosterenthusiasminseveralmembersofatourwillsoonhavetheattentionofthewholegroup.Theenthusiasmofaguideisnotsomething tQat canbetaught,butisaresultofacombinationoftraining,understanding,polish(self-confidence)andmostofall,loveofpeopleandthecave.Someguidesmayneverreachthislevelbutitshouldbethegoalofeverycavemanagertokindlethistraitinallinterpreters.AsIhavestatedpreviously,interpretivetheoryvariesgreatlyfromcavetocaveand whatmaybeveryeffectiveatonecavemaybetotallywrongatanother.Throughmyobservationsata numberofcavesthroughouttheUnitedStates,Ihaveobservedtwodistinctapproachesemergingascontrollingfactors.Iclassifythemasthecommonplaceapproachandtheuniqueapproach.81

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82The commonplaceapproachattemptstorelatethecavetoexperiencesvisitorshavehadinothersituationsintheirlives.Practicesthatfallintothiscategoryincludewhat ItermIIfantasytoursllThisisatourthatdescribesspeleothemsaslookinglikeanotherobject;e.g.astalagmitethatlookslikeababy'sbottle,astalactitethatlookslikeapencilorarockthatassumestheshapeofa famousperson'sprofile,etc.Alsointhiscategory,Iincludethecoloredlightshows, wax museumfigurinesandpipedmusic.Allthesetechniquesattempttoentertainthevisitorbypresentingthecavetripasanextensionofeverydayoccurrences.Unfortunately,thisapproachhasatendencytonegatethevalueofthecaveasaresourcebecausepeopletendtogroupitwithotherIIsideshows.1ITheuniqueapproach ontheotherendofthescale.Cavesaretreatedasuniqueandmysteriousworksofnature.Thesetoursaremoresensualexperiencesthestillness,thedampness andthefragilityareallemphasized.Oftenthegreatageandthelackofadequateexplanationsarepresentedtoencouragethevisitortoacquireaquestioningattitudeandanintellectualcuriosityabouttheexperience.Someinterpretersattempttohavetheirgroupsimaginehowthefirstexplorersmusthavefelttheiruncertainty,theirfearsandreservations.Inthiscategory,I wouldalsoincludetheorganizedspelunkingtours,historicaltoursandcandlelighttours.Asanapproachtocaveconservation,thisgroupoftechniqueshasastrongpositiveemphasisbecauseifwecangetvisitorstotreatcavesasuniquerealms,theywilltendtovieweachcaveasaseparate,valuableresource.Inpractice,eachtourwillhaveelementsofbothapproachesbutwilltendstronglytowardoneortheother.Asanadditionalmeasure,wemustconsiderthevisitors'attitudetowardthetouraswell.Ifwecanagreethatenthusiasmisaworthwhilegoal,thenwecanextendtheclassificationintoagridanddefineone endofanaxisaslIenjoyablell(includingenthusiasm)andtheotherendasdistracingornotenjoyable.Variousfactorswillaffecttheplacementofatouronthisgrid.Forexample,avisitor haswaitedalongtimeforatourisalreadyhoveringtowardthenon-enjoymentendoftheaxis.Incontrast,avisitorwhofindsthereceptionistfriendlyandtheexhibitspleasingmaybewellonthewaytowardtheenjoyableend.Generally,theinterpreterwholeadsthetourwillbefacedwithagroupthathasalreadybeenconditionedbeforethetourbegins.Theguidecanmovethegroupalongthegridonlybyoverpoweringthepreviousinfluences.Asfarasconservationthemesareconcerned,thebettertoursareup andtotheright(seeFig.1).There-are nonumericalvaluesassignedbecausetheplacementofthegridissubjectiveratherthanobjective.Philosophically,thereisnomeasureofenjoyment,onlyobviousenthusiasmordisinterest.Also,thereisnothingtokeepa commonplaceexperiencefrombeingenjoyable,Ihavesimplymade apersonalvaluejudgementthatthecommonplacedoesnotpermittheconservationthemeaswellasauniqueexperience.Conservationthemescanalsobedemonstratedinotherways.Forexample,thetouchingofcaveformationsdiscolorsthem andreducestheirgrowth.At LehmanCaves,weemploy a boxofpiecesofbrokenspeleothemsattheentranceandpassthem amongthemembersof

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thetourgroupwiththeunderstandingthattheyhavebeengiventhechancetofeel"real"formationsandtheyshouldnottouchanyinthecave.Thepracticeseemstoworkquitewellalthoughtherearestillsomeindividualswhofinditnecessarytotoucha "wet oneII.Othercaveshavetouchstonesalongthetourrouteandtheseareutilizedinmuchthesamemanner.Effectivelighting anotherwayshowcavescanmaketheirtoursmoreenjoyable:themoreindirectlightingused,themoreintriguingthecaveappears.Providingthevisitorwithamapofthecavehelpsmostpeopleunderstandwheretheyhavebeenandtheunderstandingthatoftenthesurfacegiveslittlesignofthecaveresourcebelow.Anytechniquethatmakes avisitorthink,willaidintheconservationcause.Butthemostimportantofallistheguide.Insummary,themosteffectivewaytofostertheconservationofcaveresourcesisbypresentingeverycavevisitorwithanenjoyableandmeaningfulexperience,therebyspreadingtheburdenofthepreservationethictoeveryone.Only byfosteringagenuineappreciationthroughoutthegeneralpopulation,forthecomplexityanduniquenessoftheforcesaffectingcaves,canspeleologistsexpecttobeabletorallysupportforcaveconservation.Whencavesbecomeimportantresourcestoeveryone,thejobofconservingthemwillbecomeeasier.83
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Papers Presentedatthe EighthInternationalCongress Conservation!ManagementSession, July 19, 1981,BowlingGreen, Kentucky,USA85

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DIEEINGRIFFEINDIEHOHLEVONPOSTOJNS1MLICHTEDESUMWELTSCHUTZESDR.FRANCESBABESpeleologicalAssociationofSlovenija-Yugoslavie,Postojna,YugoslavieAbstractPostojnaCavei.thelonge.tJugoslavecavewhichhasalreadybeenopentovisitorsforonehundredandsixtyyears.Itisuniqueregardingitsmorphologic,hydrologic,andbiospeleologicspecialties,andworld-famedregardingitskarstformationrichness.Thatiswhyitisprotectedlikeafirstclassmonument.Therefore,everyinterferenceinthiscaveregionisexceptionallydelicate,nobodybutthestaffofthePostojnaCave andofficialsecurityinstitutionsmaydecideonit.Mylecture.howstheunusualrichnessofthe karst formationsinthecaveswhich had -stthetimewhenthenumberofvisitorswa.constantlyrising-tomakewaytotouristroutesandlatertoone anddoubletrackedrailwaylinewhichwaslaidin1872.Atthesametimethelecturedealswithinterferinginthecaveworldtoimprovetheroutesinthecave,toplacetheelectricbodiesinitandtoestablishthebiospeleological.tationinthecave,andspeciallytoerectadministrationbuildingandadjustthecaveentrances.The mostdifficultproblemwashowtolaydownthedoubletrackedcircularrailwayline,which would makeitpossiblethecavetoacceptupto12,000visitorsa daywithoutinterferingwiththesinteredcavegalleries.SignaturesonthewallsofenteringpassagewaysofthePostojnaCavesupplyproofthatthecavehadbeenalreadyknown andvisitedinthe13thcentury.AccordingtothereportofGermanbiologistJ.Seumein1803,suchvisitshadonlybeenoccasional.AtsuchoccasionsabundleofstrawhadbeenburntintheenteringpartabovetheundergroundriverPivka.Upto1918thecavehadbeenopentopublicunprotected,unlitandwithnoguides.WhenthenativemanLuka Cecin1818haddiscoveredtheinteriorpartsofthecaveuptoCalvary(nowcalledGreatMountain),thecavesuddenlybecamethecenterofthekarsttourism.OwingtofavorablesitingalongtheEuropeanhighwaytoTrieste,thecavehasbecomewidelyknown, andhasbecomethegeneralconceptionofthe87undergroundworld.Immediatelyafterthecavehadbeendiscovered,aspecialCave Commissioncloseditinordertoprotectitfrombeingrobbedofdripstoneformations.The CommissionhadsomeenthusiasticforwardingagentsinitsfirstsecretaryJosephJersinovicandindistrictengineerAlojzSchaffenrath;theybouthfoundanexcellentexplorerofthePostojnaCaveundergroundworldintheCountFrankHohenwart.Schaffenrath'swork washisoutlinedrawingofthefirstartificialpassageintothecavethatcameintoexistencein1819 andisstillinusenow,whiletheoldestentrancewasclosedupwithbricksbythecaveadministration.TomakethenewlydiscoveredpartofthecaveaccessibleSchaffenrathhadthefirstwoodenbridgebuiltacrossthe

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88riverPivkaintheGreatHalland arockystaircasecarvedintonearlytheverticalwallabovetheriverPivka.In1830FrankHohenwartpublishedtheremarkable intothePostojnaCaveforvisitors";intheendofthebookheadded19copperplates.Fromtheseplatescanbeseen,howrichofdripstoneformationsofthebottomofthecavestillwereatthattime.Establishingthetouristpathsinthecave,theyboth,thescientistHohenwart andthepracticionerSchaffenrathaswell,werecooperatingclosetogether.Rockyblockswereremoved fromthewayandputdownintorockycavitiesanddepthssothatthecavepathhasbecomepassable.Atthattimeonlyanarrowpathwasgoingthroughthecavewhichwasessentiallymadebetterinthemiddleofthepastcentury.Thecavegroundrichinstalagmites,hasmainlyremainedundamaged,asthepathswererunningclosetothewallsandalltheunevenpathswereovercome by somestairs.Oneofthehardestplaceswasattheoverturnedpillar,wheretouristshadtocreep.Puttinginorderthepathsthroughthecave,theminersfromIdrijhahadhelpedimmensely;theyhadtopiercesomenarrowpassagesinordertolinkuptheneighboringcavegalleries.ToprotectthecavefrombeingdamagedtheCave Commissionforbadetobreakupthedripstoneformations(stalagmitesandstalactites)andcarrythem away -immediatelyafterthecavehadbeenpubliclyopened.Asthisnaturaldecorationwasbeingimmensely demanded bypeople,theCave Commission madethesalelegal.Sofromnowonthedripstoneformationswerebeingcutoffinthesidecavepassagesnotvisitedbytouristsunderthecontrolofthecavesecretaryand werebeingsoldinthestallsinfrontofthecave,assouvenirs.ItwasthespeleologistL.A.PerkohavingbecomesecretaryoftheCave Commissionin1909,whoagainforbadesellingthedripstoneformationsasearlyasbeforethefirstworldwar.Unfortunatelystillafterthesecondworldwareachtenmillionthandlatereachfourteenmillionthvisitorwasgivenapedestalledstalagmiteasasouvenirwhichnowadaysisseverelyforbidden.TwovisitstoPostojnahavestimulatedtheCave Commissiontoarrangethecaveforvisitorsassplendidlyastheycould.Inthemiddleofthe10thcenturythefamousViennaspeleologistA.Schmidlcametoseethecaveandafterhim -in1857 -theAustrianemperorFrancJosephcametoopentherailwayVienna-Trieste.The Commission had a newbridgebuiltacrosstheundergroundriverPivkaandFrancJosepscave(nowLittleCave)connectedwiththeEmperorFerdinand'sCave (now OldCave).ThegoldenageofkarsttourismbeganinPostojnain1863 when AntonBlobocnikbecametheCaveSecretary.A newpathwasconstructedtoGreatMountain(CalvaryMountain),allthepathswereprotectedbyrailfence.From someroadmaterialinfrontoftheCave and frommaterialofaburiedcavepassageaspaciousplateauplantedwithtreeswasbuilt.Thiswasthenewentrance,nowservingastheexitoutofthecave,whichgotanenormous,monumentalirongatein1866.Forvisitors-invalidsandforremarkableguestsMr.Globocnik'hadsedanchairsmade.In1872thefirsttrackofthecaverailway,2260 mlong,wslaid,whichstartedatthe"Pulpit"(seetheplan,figure1)andendedundertheGreatMountain.Twocoaches-eachofthemhavingtwoseatsdrawn bycaveguidesbegantooperateonthisrailway.Buildingupthecaverailwaywasthegreatestandalsothemostfataleventforthecave:thebeginningofasuccessiveprocessinwhichthedripstonerichnesswasbeingdestroyedonthe

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u:GIlm' : SmJACIJSKINACRl' S1tuAtion.plaDPOSTOJNSKEJAMEderHI\hl. von Ponoj"DA K Planinsk.i jdllli
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90cavefloorandhasslowlyspreadalloverthecavefloor.FromtheHohenwart'sguide-bookcontainingSchaffenrath'splates,itisclearenoughthattheverydripstonerichnessofthecavefloorischaracteristicofthePostojnaCave.DripstoneformationsonGreatMountain,inVaricolouredGallery,'CrystalGalleryandinsomesidepassagesgiveaclearproofofthat.SotheCaveAdministrationwasforcedtosacrificethefloordripstoneformationsinordertohelptourismtoadvance.The EmperorFerdinand'sCave (now The Old Cave) wasrobbedofallitsstalagmites,asthefloorhasbeenlevelleddown. MostoftheseremovedstalagmiteswerefinallyusedassupportingwallsforthecaverailwayortofillinsomedeepholesoreventodecoratethegardensofPostojnacitizens(J.Sajovic,1974,24).AtthesametimeallthestairsonGreatMountainweretakenaway byremovingapartofthefloorstalagmitesand byexcavatingthepath.AconnectingpassageinFranzJoseph'sCave (nowLittleCave) wasbrokenthroughaswelland sothiscaverichofdripstoneformationshasbeenincludedinthevisitingarea.PeoplecouldwalkfromthefootoftheGreatMountain,throughLittleCavestothecrossroadsintheOldCaves;heretheycouldtakethetrainagaintogetoutofthecave.Intheyear1911-12therailwaywasextendedtotheverycaveentrance.In1914thefirstpetrol-poweredenginestartedtodrive;asthetrafficwasincreasing,thecavebegantobefilledwithsoot.Theentranceplatformwasintheplacewhereadministrationcavebuildinghasbeenerected.In1922a morepowerfulenginewasput 1n action("Orenstein")thatcoulddrive25smallcoachescarrying150visitors.In1928administrationbuildingwaserected-inthewallclosetotheentrance,behinditenteringrailwaystationwascutintothewall.Asthenumberofvisitorswaspermanentlyinreasing,theCaveAdministrationwasforcedtoputanendtoeverypersonwalkingtotheGreatMountainin1903andletvisitorsgo bytrain.Inthisway338visitorscouldbeconveyedby3enginesatatime.Increasingnumbersofpeopleinthecavehascausedgrowingpollutionofthedripstoneformations.DripstoneformationsintheOld Caveshavebeengettingcoveredwithsoot,badsmellofpetrolandmistyvaporhavealarmedvisitors.Becauseofallthesethingsthebiospeleologicalstationinentrypartsofthecavethefirstbiospeleologicalinstitutionofthiskindintheworldhadstoppedworking.UnfortunatelyagreatdealofcavefaunahadbecomeextinctandhavepreservedsolelyinthelowerpartsontheundergroundriverPivkaandintheBlackCave(PratnerE.,1968,74).RecentlyeveninundergroundPivkaCave astrongdeclineoftypicalcaveanimalshasbeennoticedamong themishumanfish(Proteumanguinus)whichonlylivesinsomesidecrevices.In1959electricbattery-poweredenginewasestablishedintheCave.Foroverhalfamillionvisitorsayearitwasindispensabletoconstructadoubletrackcaverailwayby makinganartificialtunnelontheentryplatformin1964.Nextin1967a422meterslongtunnel(sacrificialtunnel)undertheGreatMountaincameintoexistencebehindthecircularcloverleafsectionandanentrystationundertheConcertHall.Withthoseadditionalarrangementsthepresenttrafficsysteminthecavecamefinallytoanend.Thedailycapacityhasrisentotherateof1500visitors.Thesearrangementswereurgent,forinthelastyearsthecapacityofthevisitorshasrisento900,000a

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inlaidintowallsinthewaythattheywereinvisibleanddidn'tinconvenienceanyone.InterestsofmakinguseofthecaveandprotectingtheenvironmenthavesharplybeenconfrontedwithinthePostojnaCave.Todaysstateofaffairsinthecaveisverygoodexampleofcompromisebetweentheeconomicaluseofthecaveandtheneedtoprotectitsbeautyandthecaveitself.Fromtheverybeginningofthecavewehavehadtodealwiththetendencytomakebetteruseofthecaveononehand,andtoprotectitontheotherhand.Immediatelyafterthecave'sinteriorpartshadbeendiscovered,thecavewasclosedinordertobekeptsafefromthedangerthatitsdripstoneformationsmightbebrokenoff.HappycooperationbetweenthebiologistHohenwartandpracticionerSchaffenrathhaspositivelyresultedinboth,protectingtheenvironmentandarrangingthecaveaswell.TheInstituteforprotectingnaturalmonumentsSRSthatdidtheplanning,speleologistsand CaveAdministrationcollectivelypublishedauniquepublicationamongthetouristcavesoftheworldin1978:"FullequipmentofthePostojnaCaveII("CelostnaopremaPostojnskejame")offeringalargedocumento,ftextandpictures.Inthebookthereare:geomorphologicalandbiospeleologicaloutlineofthecave,historyoftourism,interferencesinthecave,descriptionofurbanarrangementsinthecave,analysisofthecaveplaces(rooms)andregulationofthecaveappliances.Thesechaptersarefollowedbyaninterestingitemaboutthecaveconcerningitsprotectionandaproposalforitscommonverification.Intheendthebookiscompletedby aphotocatalogofinterferences(improvements)thathavebeenperformedinthecave.year,80%ofthembeingforeigners.Themaintouristtradeisconcentratedinsummer, fromMaytoSeptember.Withso manyvisitorsinthecaveitoftencomesaboutbreakingstalagmitesandstalactitesinspiteofthegreatcare.Afterthesecondworldwarover200attemptsofstealingthedripstoneformationshavebeenregistered,chieflyintheBeautifulCaves,whichwerediscoveredin1891 andopenedtovisitorsin1925.Inthisverycavedripstoneformationshavehadtobesecured(protected)byironfencecoatedwithplasticsubstance.Thelastimprovement(interfering)inthecavehasebeenmadeinentrancepartofthecaveintheGreatHall;herethevisitorswillbeabletouseaspecialdeepenedpassagetogetoutofthecave.In1926thePostojnaCave waslinkedupwiththeBlackCave byanartificialtunnel500meterslong.MaterialthingsfromthetunnelwereputdownintheGreatHalloftheBlackCave,sothatstalagmiteswhichwereformerlyupto12metershighnowarejuttingoutsolelya fewmetersfromthelevelledrubblefloor.Inthesame waytheBlackCave waslinkedupwiththePivkaCave by ahundredmeterslongartificialtunnel.Veryunusualinterferinginthecaveareawasitsillumination.OriginallytheCave waslitbytorchesandcandles,thicklayersofsootweredepositdonthedripstonearea.Thatwaswhyin1825theCaveAdministrationforbadetolightenthecavewithtorches(Hohenwart,1830,1/8).Electriclighting,broughtintousein1884,wasinconvenienceingthevisitorsbecausetheelectricconduitwassimploydrawn ongallerywalls.Notearlierthaninthe30yearsofthe20thcenturytheelectricwireswereTheexcellentbookmayserveasexampleofhowtheancaves91

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92shouldbepreparedfortouristtraffic(visits)andhowitshouldbeprotected;chieflybecauseitcontainsmuchusefuladvicefortouristcavearrangement.

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CAVECLOSINGASACONSERVATIONMETHODGYULAHEGEDUSEotvosUtea5H-1067Budapest,HungaryAbstractCavecl08ingmaybenecessaryincertaincircumstances.The8einclude:1)preservationofnature;2)8cientificpurposes;2.1)speleologicalresearch;2.2)useofthecaveenvironment;2.3)useofthecavesituation;3)utilization;3.1)showcaves;3.2)medicinalcaves;3.3)economicuses;3.3.1)water;3.3.2)othereconomicuses;4)protectionofhumanlife.Caveclosingmaybetotalorpartial,and/orpermanentortemporary.Caveclosingmayserveseveralgoalsatonce.CaveclosingmU8tbecarefullyplannedanddesigned.Itisimportantnottodisturbthenaturalenvironment,ventilation,andairflow.Theclosingshouldnotinterferewith animal migration,ortheflowofwaterintooroutofthecave.Theentranceshouldremainasnaturalaspossible.Thematerialusedtoclosethecaveshouldblendwiththenaturalsurroundings.Thegateshouldbedifficulttodestroyorbreach.CaveclosinginHungaryisbrieflyreviewed.IntroductionCaveclosingisanintothenatureconditionsofcaves.necessaryevilsituations.Thispapersomeoftheconditionscaveclosingmaybejustified.interventionandnaturalItisaincertainwilldiscussunderwhichusefulorbutveryfragilepisolites.Itisimpossibletodescendtheshaftswithoutdestroyingsomeoftheformations.HideoutHolewas documentedthoroughly,andthenclosed.Thepubliccanenjoythecavethroughwrittenandphotographicaccounts.PreservationofNatureWell-decoratedcavesmaybeclosedinordertopreservetheiroriginalcondition.Suchcavepreservesmaybevisitedonly"atcertainintervalsforscientificpurposes.InHungary,onesuchcaveistheHideoutHolewhichwasdescribedbyDr.AttilaKosaintheSeptember1975NSSNews. TheHideoutHoleismade upofshaftswhosewallsarecoveredwithexceedinglybeautiful,93Insomeinhabitedareas,cavesmaybeclosedinordertoindirectlyprotectnature.Cavesthatareleftopen,especiallyverticalcaves,maybeusedtodisposeofdeadanimalsorrubbish.Suchdisposalendangersanyunderlyingcaves,andmayaffecttheentirekarstgroundwatersystem.ScientificPurposesCavesmaybeclosedforavarietyofscientificpurposes.Insuchcases,

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94theonlypeoplewhomayvisitthecavewouldbequalifiedscientists.Suchresearchcavesareclosedtoprotecttheirnaturalconditions,andtoprotectexperimentsandinstrumentsfromdeliberateoraccidentaldamage.Thereareseveralcategoriesofcavesclosedforscientificpurposes.Speleologicalresearch.Aclosedcavemaybeusedforspeleologicalresearch.Thiswouldincluderesearchoncavegeology,biology,hydrology,meteorology,andpaleontology.mayonlybevisitedduringcertainseasonsorduringcertainpartsoftheday.The numberofvisitorsmaybelimited,becausebodyheatfromlargenumbersofpeoplecouldwarmtheairofthecave,andcausethe J.ce tomelt.Showcavesalsohave varJ.ous technicalinstallationsandsafetyappliancessuchaslightsandelevators.Iftheseareusedinanunworkmanlikemanner,damageoranaccidentmayresult.Therefore,showcavesmustalsobeclosedtoprotectman-madefeatures.UtilizationShowCaves.Showcavesoffereveryoneanopportunitytoseethewondersoftheundergroundworld.Showcavesareusuallywell-decoratedandwell-known,sotheymustbeclosedtoprotecttheformationsfromvandals.Useofthecavesituation.Aclosedcavemaybeusedforresearchthatisnotatallcave-related.Researcherscanuseacaveasanisolatedplacetoobservetraceelements,ortomeasurethetransmissionofradiationthroughstone.Useofthecaveenvironment.Acavemaybeclosedinordertousesomeofitsspecialqualitiesliketotaldarkness,constanttemperature,andconstanthumidity.Thesimplicityandconstancyofthecaveenvironmentmakecavesintouniquenaturallaboratories.InBudapest,theHungarian.WaterResearchInstitute(VITUKI)usedtheSt.IvanCaveasalaboratoryformanyyears.AtthebiologicallaboratoryinHungary1sBaradlaCave,mostoftheresearchisdone onplantsandanimalsthatarenotcave-adapted.MedicinalCaves.Somecavesareusedformedicinalpurposes.Thesecaveshavetobeclosedtopreventdamagetothecave'scurativeeffects.Oftenonlyalimitednumberofpeoplemayusethecaveforsomerestrictedperiodoftime.Too manypeoplemaywarmorotherwiseaffectthecaveairenoughtodamagethecurativepowersofthecave.Medicinalcavesmustbecloselymonitoredtomaintaintheminacleanconditionwithunvaryingtemperatureandhumidity.Economicuses.Someclosedcavesareusedforeconomicpurposes.Theonlypeoplewhoareallowedtovisitthesecavesarepeoplewhoperformworkorservicesinthecaves.OtherEconomicUses.Caveshaveothereconomicusesthatrangefrom mushroom-growingandcheese-agingtotheuseofcaveairforairconditioning.ThemicroclimateofWaterSupplies.Somecavesareclosedtoprotectdrinkingwatersupplies.Insomecases,water J.S obtainedatthecaveentranceoratacavestreamresurgence.Watermayalsobeobtainedataspringthatisfedbycavestreamsandsinkholes.Thecavesandsinkholesthatformpartoftheundergroundwatershedmaybeclosedtoprotectwatersupplies.cavesdeserveaspecialInsomecases,icecavesIcemention.

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95inthecave.Cave ontheHungary andjustsuchagate.Caveclosinghastobecarefullythoughtoutanddesigned.Theclosingshouldnotbadlyalterthenaturalenvironmentofthecave.Theclosingshouldnotchangethenaturalventilationorairflowwithinthecave.Thiscouldbeespeciallyimportantincaveswithpoisongas.Theclosingshouldnotrestrictthemovementsofanimals(suchasbats)thatliveinthecave.Theclosingshouldalsonotinterferewiththemovementofwaterintoandoutofthecave.Caveclosingmayserveseveralgoalsatonce.Closinga showcavemayalsoserveagoalofpreservation.Thepurposeofacaveclosingmaychangewithtime.The Matyas CaveinBudapestwasoriginallyclosedtopreventcaveaccidents.Later,ageophysicallaboratorywasestablishedinthecave,andanareainthecavewasseparatelyclosedoff.Ifpossible,thecaveentranceshouldnotbeimportantlyaltered.Itisdesirabletobuildanyphysicalbarriersinsidethecaveratherthanattheentranceorsurface.Thisisnotalwayspossible,ofcourse.Thegateshouldbeofadesignand Caveclosingmaybepermanentortemporary.Ifthenecessaryresearchorexcavationshavebeencompleted,aclosedcavemaybereopenedtothepublic.Acavemaybeclosedsothatitcanbereopenedeasilyorwithgreatdifficulty.Afterexplorationanddocumentationhavebeencompleted,acavemaybeclosedpermanently.Perhapsthiscavewillnotbevisitedfordecades,untilcavescienceshaveadvanced,and newresearchcanbeperformed.internationalboundaryTheBaradla-DomicaboundarybetweenCzechoslovakiahasCaveclosingmaybetotalorpartial.Apartiallyclosedcaveisacavethatremainsopentoqualified,competentvisitors.Showcavesarepartiallyclosedatorneartheirentrancesatalltimes.Iftheclosingisforscientificorconservationpurposes,itmaybeadequatetocloseonlypartsofthecave.Ifthecaveissituatedonaninternationalboundary,withentrancesintwocountires,itmaybenecessarytohaveagateontheSomecavescontainpoisonousgas,most commonlycarbondioxide.Visitorswhodonotexpectsuchgasmaygetaheadache,giddiness,orretchingthatcanresultinanaccidentordeath.Suchcavesmayhavetobeclosedtopreventsuchaccidents.Itiscommonforcaverstofindthecarcassesofanimalsthathavefallenintopotholes,sinkholes,andverticalcaves.Carelessadultsandchildrenmayalsofallintosuchholes,especiallywhentheentrancesareobscuredbybrush.Insomecases,cavershavetocloseverticalcavesbybuildingacoverorfence.Non-caversmayventureintocaves,losetheirway,extinguishtheirlights,andsufferaccidents.Accidentsaremostcommoninlargercavesandmazecaves.Onewaytopreventsuchaccidentsistoclosefrequently-visited'caves.InHungary,caversclosedallofthecavesinandaroundBudapestwheresuchaccidentswerelikelytohappen.Organizedcaverscanrequestkeystothecavesfortouristandtrainingtrips.ProtectionofHumanLifecavesmaybeusefulinstoringandpreservingagriculturalproducts(vegetables,fruits,saplings).Thecavemayalsobeusedforstoragesimplybecauseitisenclosedandprotectedfromtheelements.

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96constructionthatconformsasmuchaspossiblewiththecaveenvironment.Finally,thegateorbarriershouldbebuiltsothatitisdifficulttobreachordestroy.ThisdiscussionwillconcludewithabriefreviewofcaveclosinginHungary.Thereareabout1300 knowncavesinHungary.Ofthese,34areclosedtoprotectnaturalfeatures.Thereare8cavesclosedforscientificreasons.Theresearchcavesinclude5usedforspeleologicalresearch,2usedforArchivederHohlevonPostojnatheconstant cave environment,and 1usedforitsisolatedenvironment.Thereare10 showcavesinHungary,andfourcavesthatareusedformedicinalpurposes.Threecavesareclosedtoprotectsourcesofdrinkingwater.Onecave(20mlong)isusedforanothereconomicpurpose;tostoresaplings.Atotalof12caveshavebeenclosedtoprotectcasualvisitorsfromaccidents.ThetotalnumberofclosedcavesinHungaryis53outof1300orabout4%.LITERATUREChronikderAdelsbergergrotte(angefangen1882)Globocnik,A.,1910.MeineErinnerungenausAdelsbert1863-1885.ManuscriptHabe,F.,1966.PostojnskajamainPredjamavdeluG.Seumejaizleta1802(DieHohlevonPostojnainderArbeitG.SeumeausdemJ.1802).Nase jame8,66-69,LjubljanaHabe,F.,1974.Postojnskajama,barometerjugoslovanskegaturizma(Postojnskajama,thebarometerofYugoslaveturism).Nase jame16,93-100,LjubljanaHabe,F.,-Safevic,J.,1980.RazvojosvetlitveturisticnePostojnskejameinnjenvplivnadrugeturisticnejame vsvetu(Entwick1ungderBeleuchtunginderSchauhohlevonPostojnaundihrEinflussaufandereHohleninderWelt).ZivljenjeintehnikaXXXI/9,10-17,Ljubljana.Hohenwart,F.,1830-32.WegweiserfurdieWandererinderberuhmtenAdelsbergerundKronprinzFerdinads-GrottebeyAde1sbertinKrain,I.,1-16.WienLapajne,1967.AusderChronikderAdelsbergerGrotte,6-52,LaibachPerco,G.A.,Gradenigo,S.,1952.PostumiaeIesuecelebrigrotte,VedizionerivedutadaFrancoAnelli.3-138,PostumiaGrotte

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Pretner,E.,1968:ZivalstvoPostojnskejame(DieFaunaderRohlevonPostojna.150letPostojnskejame,59-78.Sajevic,J.,1972.RazvojprometavPostojnskijami(EntwicklungdesVerkehrsinderRohlevonPostojna).Proteua,7-8,PostojnaSajevic,J.,1974.jZascitnemereprituristicnemurejanjuPostojnskejame TheProtectionMeasuresofTouristicArrangementsofthePostojnaCave (German Summary). Nase jame16,17-23,LjubljanaScchmidl,A.,1854.DieGrottenundRohlenvonAdelsberg,Lueg,PlaninaundLaas,1-316,WienSibenik,M.,1968.PregledobiskaPostojnskejame(UbersichdesBesuchesinderRohlevonPostojna1818-1968).150letPostojnskejame,188-1968,37-40,Ljubljana97

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FRASERCAVE:TASMANIA'SARCHEOLOGICALLIBRARYOFCONGRESSGREGORYJ.MIDDLETON*P.O.Box269SandyBay,7005Tasmania,AustraliaABSTRACTTheinlandregionofsouthweat Taamania wasconsidered,inethnographicevidence,tohavebeenunoccupieduntiltwoartifsctdiscoverieswere madeearlyin1981.Oneofthese,FraserCave,hasbeenshowntobeamongthemostsignificantarchaeologicalsitesinAustraliaandtherichestinTasmania.Despiterecentinclusioninanationalpark,thefutureofthecavei.uncertainbecauseofplansforahydro-electricdevelopment.BACKGROUND1.EXPLORATIONHISTORYInthe1.4millionhectaresoftheSouthwestConservationArea,whichoccupiesaboutonefifthofAustralia'sislandstate(seeFigure1)thereisonlyonepermanenttownthehydro-electricconstructionvillageofStrathgordon.RoadaccessisonlypossibleviatheStrathgordonRoad andtheLyellHighway -apartfromthesecorridorsand twohydro-electricimpoundmentstheregionisatemperatewildernessofinternationalsignificance.TheinaccessibilityoftheareaandtherelativeabundanceofcavesandkarstinTasmania(Jennings,1975)hasmeantthattheSouthWesthasonlyrecentlyreceivedanyseriousattentionfromspeleologists.Proposalstobuildasecondhydro-electricscheme ontheGordonRiverfocusedattentionontheareaandin1974theSydneySpeleologicalSocietyconductedthefirstofaseriesofexpeditionstotheGordon andFranklinRivers(Hawkins,KiernanandMiddleton.1974).Thistripdemonstratedtheextentofthelimestoneandconfirmeditsspeleologicalpotential,leadingtofurthertripsin1974/75,1976,1977 and 1978(Middleton,1979b).Onthe1977tripKevinKiernandiscoveredF34,asignificantcavewhichwas namedFraserCaveaftertheAustralianPrimeMinister(Middleton,1979b).Thelargercaveswerenamedafterleadingpoliticianstofocusattentiononthecaves,theareaandthethreatstothem fromproposedhydro-electricimpoundments.2.ARCHEOLOGYNumerousshellmiddensonthesouth-westTasmaniancoastlineindicateAboriginalmanfrequentedtheareaandtheverylimitedethnographicrecords(notablyG.A.Robinson'sdiaries-Plomley1966)showthatthecoastalstripwaspopulated,albeitsparsely,until1834 whenRobinsoninducedthelastofthoseremainingtoleave.Such workashasbeendoneinthecoastal*Presenteda.ttheArcheology/PaleontologySession,July21, 198199

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100---BoundaryofSouthwestConservationArea :x: o 0 o NZ};;!J'Y Tasmania Fig.1SOUTHWESTTASMANIAAUSTRALIAo102050km

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Kiernan'ssubsequentdiscoveriesinFraserCave(Kiernan,1981a,b,c)yieldedanoccupationsitesorichthatNationalParksandWildlifeServicearcheologist,DonRanson,describeditas"anarcheologicallibraryofCongress"(Ranson,1981).Commissionspentperhaps1milliononscientificstudiesofthearea,itfailedtoscheduleonecentforarcheologyILargelyasaresult,theNationalParksandwildlifeServiceorganizedanexpeditionintotheareainJanuary1981whichresultedinthedramaticdiscoverynear-themouthoftheDenisonRiver,by RhysJonesandDonRanson,ofastonecoreand a numberofflakes(Harris,1981;Middleton,inpress).Thiswasconvincingevidenceofhumanhabitationoftheinlandriversregion,thoughthereissomedoubtastowhetherthissitefitsthepre-rainforest(lastglacial)hypothesis(Kiernan,1981b).Charcoalassociated theseartifactsisyettobedated.middens(e.g.Vanderwal1978)indicatestheyarerelativelyrecent(hundreds'to3,000yearsold)anduntilthepresentfindstherewas noarchaeologicalevidenceofAboriginalmanhavingoccupiedanypartoftheinlandsouth-west.Thiswas assumedtobebecauseofthedenserainforestanditsrelativelackofedibleplantsandanimals.Thereare,however,briefhistoricalreferences,suchassurveyorJamesCalder'snoteof"twonatives'huts,veryrecentlyabandoned"(Calder1849)nearatributaryoftheupperFranklinRiver.Althoughnotstrictlyinthe"SouthWest",tworecently-locatedarcheologicalsitesinsouthcentralTasmaniaindicateancientoccupationoftheinland.In1975 MurrayandGoedefoundartifactsinacaveintheFlorentineValley(atributaryoftheeasterly-flowingDerwentRiver)datedat20,000+yearsBP(Murray,Goede&Bada1980).ThePleistocenedatesuggestedthatthepre-Holocenevegetationmayhavebeenmoreamenabletohumanoccupationthanhadpreviouslybeensupposed.FRASERCAVE,F34DISCOVERYATWOSTAGE101SubsequentlyCorbettreportedfindingstonetoolson ahillabove Queenstown(Corbett1980)andKeirnan(1980)foundothers 1n amorainenearQueenstown.Presumablytheseweredepositedbeforetheestablishmentoftherainforestwhichcoppersmeltingremoved fromthisvicinityinthelastcentury.In1979theTasmanianHydro-electricCommission its'EnvironmentalStatement'onitsproposedhydro-electricdevelopmentoftheLower GordonFranklinRivers(HEC1979).WhiletheCommission'sstatementtherein,that:"Thereareno knownarchaeologicalsitesintheprojectarea"wasnotstrictlyafalsehood,itfailedtoacknowledgethatno onehaslookedforthem.WhiletheF34 wasdiscovered(orre-discovered,sinceitprovedtohavelongbeenfrequentedbyAboriginalpeople)byKevinKiernanonJanuary13,1977(Middleton,1979b) byfollowingaminordryvalleybackabout30 m fromtheFranklinRiver.Hesubsequentlybrieflydescribeditas"consistingofa numberofimpressiveinterconnectedentrancesleadingtoasizeablepassage,containinggoodstalactites,rimstonepoolsand athickdepositofbonesinabankofcaveearthII(Kiernan, 1977) (seeFigure2).Whileitoccurredtotheoriginalsurveypartythatthedepositwaslargeandrichinbones,ananthropologicaloriginwasnotseriouslycontemplatedatthetime(andnoexamimationforstonetoolswasmade).Kiernanandtheauthor

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102visitedthecaveagaininFebruary1978 on afurthercave-locatingtrip(Middleton,1980)butagainmade nodetailedexaminationofthebonedeposit.However, whenvisitingthecave February1981,Kiernanrealizedthatbecauseofitslocationneitherstreamtransport,naturalpitfallnormarsupial dencouldsatisfactorilyexplaintheboneaccumulation(Keirnan,1981a).Thistimeheprobedtheclaywithapocketknifeandfoundapieceofstoneunmistakablyworked byanancienthand.Almostimmediatelymany more becameobviousand henoticedthatmostofthelargebonesweresplitand somewereburnt.It1samazinghowthehiddenmaybecomeobviousoncetheeyebecomesattunedtoit asubsequentbriefexaminationshowedthatthefloorofthecavewasliberallyscatteredwithstonetools.The IIlargebonedepositllwhichwasrecordedin1977ascoveringlessthanfoursquaremeterswasnowseentoextendtoabout100squaremetersandtobeperhapstwometersthick(Kiernan,1981c).Coming sosoonaftertherevolutionaryDenisonRiverdiscovery,theFraserCavefindbrokelikeabombshellontheTasmaniancommunity andnewspaperheadlinessuchasIIFindHailedasTutankhamanofTasmanianCaveArchaeologyll(Sydney MorningHerald17.2.81)echoedaroundthecountry.Supportersofthehydro-electricproposalwhichwouldfloodthesiteandmostoftherestofthelimestoneareacalledforan"independentexpertassessmentllTHEFRASERCAVESITE TheextentofthecaveandgeneralareaoftheoccupationdepositareshowninFigure2.The bonedepositliesmainlyonthewesternsideofthechamberbutstonetoolsarepresentthroughoutthedaylightarea.Anexcavationcarriedoutwithinthemaindepositduringan8-dayNationalParksandWildifeServiceexpeditioninMarch 1981(Harris,1981,Kiernan,1981a,Middleton,inprep.)underthesupervisionofDonRansonandRhysJonesyieldedresultswhichstaggeredtheseveteransofTasmanianarcheologicalfieldwork.About acubicmeterofmaterialyieldedaconservativelyestimated100,000bone andstonefindsandindicateda phenomenal 150millionitemsforthewholedepositundoubtedlyAustralia'sarchaeologicallyrichestlimestonecave,andprobablyrankingintheworld1s"topten"(Ranson1981).Theexcavationitself,preliminarybynature,wasconfinedtoametersquarepitwhichwas dugapproximately1metertobedrock.Thematerialwasexcavatedin5cmspits,followingthegrossstratigraphy,and was wetsievedthrough3mmmesh.Allfindswerekept.Thesectionshowed,inthelowerthird,hearthsmixedwithclay.Thelowestlevelwithartifactshadbeendatedat19,0001,100yearsBP(ANU2785).Themiddlethirdwas composedofsmall,angular,limestoneblockswithoccasionalhearths.Theupperthirdwas a complexofinterleavinghearthssealedbycalcitedeposits.ThefullrangeofCdateshavenotyetbeenreportednorhasapollensequencebeenconstructed.Aworkinghypothesiswouldsuggestthatthelayeroflimestoneblocksrepresentsfrostfracturingduringtheheightofthelast glaciation, Thebasaldepositswereformedduringslightlywetterpreglacialconditions,whilstthe upper depositsshowincreasedoccupationpost-glaciallywhichwasprobablybroughttoahaltbytheinvasionoftherainforestabout8000 ago.

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Stan 12 tool matl2rial andbonescovermuchof thl2 floorof the I2ntrancl2 chamberFig.2FRASERCAVE F34 Franklin RiverS-WTasmaniaBasedon SSS MapNo593 SurveyedGM.KP 13JAN77andmodifiedMAR81 Scall2 o2 6B rom ,! ,'. \\ "'.'.",:: I .;:' I ,I.I\,I,0excavationI,Mar.'BlIII,'low ,roofI '.I 103

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104Aninitialanalysisofthefindsreveals:(1)Bone BonesofMacropusrufogrisiuspredominate(c.95%)withthelowermaxillaeandlimbbonesmaking upthemajorcomponent.'Mostofthelimbbonesshowcharacteristicspiralfractures,indicatingtheywerebrokenopenformarrow.Otheranimalspresentwerewombat (4%),thylacine,echidnaandanasyetunidentifiedmouse.Thefaunalremainssuggestsanextremelytighttargettingstrategywiththecavebeingusedasabasecampforthehuntingofwallaby.(2)StonePreliminarystudysuggeststhatthestonecomponentrepresentsatypicalTasmanianindustrycomposedofpebblecoressteepedgedandconcavescrapers,retouchedflakesandflakesexhibiting"nibbling"throughuse.Theflake-to-toolratiosuggestsahighlevelofonsitemanufacturingandmaintenanceofstonetools.Ofinterestarethevariedmineraltypesused,suggestingacomprehensiveknowledgeofthelocalgeologybytheinhabitants.Of interestisthecollectionof"Darwinglass",animpactiteassociatedwithameteoritecratersome 40kIDtothenorthwest.IMPLICATIONSThepresenceofartifactsclearlyindicatesprehistoricoccupationofthisregion.Presumablyitwasthenmorehospitablethaninveryrecenttimeswhenitappearsnottohavebeeninhabited.Therichnessofthedepositindicatesacontinuityorfrequencyofoccupation,oranintensityofuse,greaterthananypreviouslyrecordedfromanAustraliancave.Thefactthatthebonesarenearlyallofonespeciesindicatesahighlyspecializedandconsistenthuntingstrategyoveraremarkablylongperiod.Likewise,thereappearstohavebeenverylittlevariationintoolmakingtechnology(althoughavarietyofrocktypeswereemployed)duringtheentireperiodrepresentedbythedeposit.Thedateof19,000BPindicatesthatmanwaslivinginthisregionbeforethe.lastglacialmaximum(determinedbyKiernanas18,800500BP(ANU2533)Kiernan,1980),thoughthestandarddeviationof1,100yearsmeanstheoccupationcould have post-datedtheactualmaximum.Nevertheless,thesiteiscertainlyamongthethreeoldestknownoccupationsitesinTasmania.FUTUREPROSPECTSUndoubtedlytheFraserCavedepositisoneofthemostimportantarcheologicalsitesinAustraliaand demandsfurtherintensiveresearch.Itcanalsobeassumedtherewillbeothercaveswithoccupationaldebrisintheregionandthesemust belocatedandstudied.AlthoughtheStateGovernmenthasresolvedtosparetheFranklinRiver,andhasresolvedtobuildanalternativehydro-electricscheme,theGordon aboveOlga,(whichwould

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stillfloodtheDenisonRivermouthsiteandotherarcheologicallyprospectivevalleys)andhascreateda195,000hectareWildRiversNationalParkoveralmosttheentireFranklincatchment,thesiteremainsunderthreatofhydro-electricdevelopment.TheverypowerfulHydro-electricCommissionhasneverpreviouslyhadoneofitspropoosalsmodifiedandhasnotacceptedtheGovernment'srefusaltoagreetotheproposedGordon-below-Franklindam. The Commissionhasthefullsupportofthe(conservative)oppositionandoftheUpper House(LegislativeCouncil).Infact,theCouncilhasnowtwicerejectedtheGovernment'sbillfortheGordonaboveOlgascheme andtheStateissufferingacontinuingparliamentarycrisisasthereisnoformalwayofresolvingthedeadlock.105REFERENCESCalder,J.E.,1849.MacquarieHarbour.SomeAccountoftheCountrybetweenLakeTas.J.N.A.Science,3(6):415-429.St.ClairandCorbett,K.D.1980.Tasmania.Pap.ARecordofAboriginalImplementSitesintheQueenstownArea,&Proc.Roy.Soc.Tas.,114:35-39.Harris,S.1981.AnIntroductiontotheFraserCaveDiscovery.12(4):67-71.SouthernCaves,Hawkins,R.,Kiernan,K., & Middleton,G.1979.ReconnaissanceTriptoLimestoneAreasontheGordonandFranklinRiversinSouthWestTasmania.J.Syd.Speleol.Soc.18(7):177-190.Hydro-ElectricCommission.StageTwo. AppendixV:1979.ReportontheGordonRiverPower DevelopmentDraftEnvironmentalStatement.H.E.C.:Hobartp.80.Jennings,J.N.1975.HowWellOffisAustraliaforCaves andKarst?A.W.(Ed.OProc.TenthBiennialConf.A.S.F.,AustralianFederation:Sydneypp.82-90.(in)Graham,SpeleologicalKiernan,K.1977.CavesofthewildWesternRivers.J.4:14-17.Tas.WildernessSoc.,Kiernan,K.Tasmania.1980.unpub.PleistoceneGlaciationoftheCentralWestCoastRange,thesis,DepartmentofGeography., Qniversity ofTasmania.Kiernan,K.1981a.DaysinaWilderness.SouthernCaver,12(4):72-78.Kiernan,K.1981b.WildernessSoc.ArchaeologyintheWesternRiverValleys.16:3-4.J.TasmanianKiernan,K.1981c.PreliminarynotesandfirstthoughtsonthedepositscontainedwithinalimestonecavernontheLowerFranklinRiver,SouthwesternTasmania.(TWSfieldnotesFeb.81unpub.9pp).

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106Middleton,G.J.1979a.WildernessCavesoftheGordonFranklin System.UniversityofTasmaniaCentreforEnvironmentalStudies.OccasionalPaper11.110pp.Middleton,G.J.1979b.S.S.S.FranklinRiverExpedition1977.J.Syd.Speleol.Soc.,23(3):51-91.Middleton,G.J.Speleol.1980.S.S.S.Franklin(Rubber Ducky)Expedition1978.Soc.,24(3):53-75.J.Syd.Middleton,G.J.(inpress).FirstGordonRiverArchaeologicalExpedition1981.J.Syd.Speleol.Soc.Middleton,G.J.(inprep.)FranklinRiverArchaeologicalExpedition,1981.Murray,P.F.,Goede,A.,and Bada,J.L.1980.PleistocenehumanoccupationatBeginnersLuck Cave,FlorentineValley,Tasmania.Archaeol.Phys.Anthrop.Oceania,15(3):142-152.Plomley,N.J.B.1966.FriendlyMission:theTasmanianJournalsand George Augustus Robinson1829-1834.TasmanianHistoricalAssociation:Hobart.PapersofResearchRanson,D.1981.CaveArchaeologyThe TasmanianPotential.12(4):87-95.SouthernCaver,Vanderwal,R.L.FentonJ.Melbournepp.1978.PrehistoryandArchaeologyofLouisaBay(in)Gee,H.TheSouthWest Book.AustrailianConservationFoundation:17-21. &

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MANAGEMENTOFABIOLOGICALRESOURCEWAITOMOGLOWWORMCAVE,NEWZEALANDCHRISPUGSLEYDepartmentofBiologyUniversityofWaterlooOntario,CanadaN2L3G1AbstractIn1975theWaitomo CavesResearchProgram,amultidisciplinarystudy,wasinitiated.ThisactionresultedfromtherecognitionthataftermorethaneightyyearsoftouristtraffictheGlowwormCave was showingsignaofadeterioratingnaturalenvironment.Aspartoftheprograma atudy oftheecologyoftheglowwormpopulationwascarriedout,theaimbeingtoeatablishmanagementprocedurestoenauretheirlongtermsurvival.It was concludedthatclimateand foodwerethekeyfactorsforthemaintenanceofalarge,healthyglowwormcolony.AfungalpathogenTolypocladiuminflatum(Moniliales)thrivedinthewarm,humidconditionsfoundinthecaveinsummer, andcausedasignificantreductioninthenumberofglowwormlarvae.Reasonsfortheclosureofthecaveforthreemonthsin1979arediacuased.Itwaarecommendedthatthealmostcontinousairflowthroughthecavebereducedbysealingthetopentrance,exceptwhenventilation waa vitalduringtimeaofpeaktouriattraffic.IntroductionWaitomo Caveshasbeenapopularinternationaltouristattractionsincetheturnofthecentury.Thekeytoit'ssuccessisthesilentboatrideacrosstheGlowwormGrotto,beneaththestar-likedisplayofglowwormlights.TheNewZealandglowworm (Arachnocampaluminosa(Diptera:Mycetophilidae))isthelarvaeofadelicategnat,itsblue/greenbioluminescencebeingproducedbyanorganattheposteriorend.Thelarvasuspendsitselffromthecaveroofinatransparentmucustubefromwhichithangsthreads,adornedwithdropletsofstickyfluid.Somelarvaeproduceover100ofthese107"fishinglines"whichareusedtocatchtheflyinginsectson itfeeds(Richards1960).TheNewZealandTouristHotelCorporation(THC)isresponsibleforthemanagementoftheGlowworm Cave(Fig.1)andsurroundingscenicreserves.In1975itbecamecleartomanyinterestedgroupsthatthenaturalenvironmentofthecavewasshowingdefinitesignsofdeterioration.Thisresultedintheformation,andfundingbytheTHC,ofamultidisciplinaryresearchgroup,consistingofscientistsfromuniversitiesandgovernmentresearchdepartments.Thetermsofreferencewerelitoprovidefromscientifically

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108sounddata,practicaladvicetotheMinisterofTourismonproceduresthatwouldensurethelongtermconservationoftheWaitomotouristcaves".Basedontheresultsofapreliminaryreport,problemsrequiringresearchwereidentified.InmostcasestheTHCsponsoredpostgraduatestudentsatuniversitieswhoweresupervisedby membersoftheresearchstudygroup.Meetingstodiscussprogress,managementrecommendationsandfutureplanswereheldtwiceayear.Ofprimeimportancetothesuccessfulmanagementofthecave,wastolearnmoreabouttheecologyofthe glowworm, thelongtermsurvivalofwhichwascrucialtothewholetouristoperationatWaitomo.Othertopicsincludedintheresearchprogramwere:cavecleaning,cavevisitorsandcalcitecorrosion,controlofthe1ampenf1ora,cavelightingpracticesandplantgrowth,WaitomoStreamcatchmentmanagement,hydrologicalandsedimentologicalprocessinthecave,cavemicroclimateandglowwormfungaldisease.Theaimofthispaperistosummerizethemainfindingsfromthestudyofglowwormecology,andtoemphasizemanagementproblemsandrecommendationsmadetoreversetherecentdeclineinglowwormnumbers.MethodsFortnightlyfieldV1S1tStoWaitomoweremadeduring1978and1979.Caveclimatewasmonitoredusingmaximum/minimumthermometers,thermohygrographsandevaporationpans,placedatsitesthroughoutthecave.Foodsupplywasmonitoredinseveralways.Stickytraps,madefromstainlesssteelsheetscoatedwithanadhesivegrease"Tang1e-trap"weresuspendedatvariouspointsinthecaveroof.OntheGlowwormGrottolake(Fig.1),emergencetrapswereusedtoquantifyinsectsemergingfromaquaticlarvaefromthelakebottom.Tofollowtheglowworms'lifecycle,0.1mquadratsweremarkedoutatrandom ontheGrottoroofandwalls,andobservationsmadeoftheenclosedareas.ThetotalnumberofglowwormlightscountedindifferentareasofthecavewasusedtofollowFigure 1. Locationmapandisometric diagram of theGlowwormCaveshowingtouristroute (nos.1-6).

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overallpopulationchanges.ResultsClimate:TheclimateintheGlowwormcaveshows muchgreatervariabilitythanwouldnormallybeexpected 1n atypicalcaveenvironment.Two ma1n factorsareresponsible:heatgeneratedbytheelectriclightingandtourists;andtheeasewithwhichthecaveatmospheremixeswiththesurfaceair.Typicallyinwinter,whenthecaveiswarmerthanthesurface,coldairflowsintothelowerentranceandiswarmed andmoistenedbyitspassagethroughthecave.Warmairthereforeblowsoutoftheupperentrance(Fig.2b).Besidesloweringtemperatures,this"winter"aircurrentcausesthedryingoutofthecavewalls,i.e.therateofevaporationincreases.Insummertheairflowreverses(Fig.2a).ComparisonwithRichards'(1956,1960)climaticdata,showsthattheclimatewas much moreuniformthen,thanithasbeeninrecentyears.Atthattime,anduntil1975,asoliddoorpreventedthefreeflowofairbetweenthetwoentrances(Figs.2c,d).Glowwormlifecycleandmortality:Anannuallifecycleoccursinthecave(Fig.3).Peakglowworm numbersoccurinspring,droppingrapidlythroughsummertoa lowin109 o Cool air r.:::JW.,.m air ..Aircurreat.Wallomostr m mHat.lr HIII.ld.Figure2.Diagramstoillustratetypical climatic conditions in theGlowwormcave withandwithout top entrance open. a.'Summer'conditions1977-80, b. 'Winter' conditions 1977-80, c. 'Surrrner' conditions predictediftop entrance sealed, d. 'Winter' conditions predictediftop entrance sealed.

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110autumnandwinter.DuringthestudythenumberofglowwormsintheGrottofell(fig.4).OneofthemaincausesofmortalityamongstlarvaeandpupaeisafungaldiseaseTolypocladiumsp.(Moniliales),whichinsummerresultsintheappearanceofwhitecadaversonthecavewalls.PreliminaryexperimentsshowthatthegrowthrateofthisfungusincreasesrapidlyovertherangeoftemperaturesreachedintheGrottoinsummer.Othercausesofmortalityincludecannibalism,practicedmainlybyearlylarvalstages,andpredation py opiliones(harvestmen).FoodThemajorityofthefoodsupplyconsistsoffreshwaterinsects(mainlychironomidmidges),whichemergefromaquaticlarvaeonthemuddy b9ttom ofthestream(Fig.5).Fewinsectsenterthecavefromoutside,mostenteraslarvaecarriedintothecavebythestream.rhefactthatglowwormsusuallyflourishinthecaveisalmostcertainlyrelatedtotheabundanceoffoodprovidedbythecavelakes,whichactastrapsforaquaticinsectsdriftingdownstream.Veryfewglowwormsoccurawayfromthestreampassages,thosethatdomustrelyoninsectsflyingfromtheseFigure 3. Life cycle of theNew Zealand GlowwormArchnocampaluminosa (Skuse) (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) in theWaitomoGlowwormCave1977-1980.

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E Is..o,;2 winter 11178 a,.nu"e. 11178-711winter111711."."mer 111 Figure 4. Decline inthe glowwormpopulationona section ofthe GlowwormGrotto wall 1977-80. GlllWW.... mlirgttolake bottom withbenthlolIIunalSIoQ..Walt"mglitr ..m I.nraeAlIT,urrent. Food InH'Cta EmergenceFigure5.Diagramto the ecologicalrelationshipsin theGlowworm GriJHo

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112areas.Aircurrentsmaywellplayanimportantroleindistributingfoodinthecave.DiscussionDuringthewinterof1979thecavewasclosedforthreemonthswhentheglowwormdisplaywasinadequateasatouristattraction.The excellentt butinaccesibledisplayintheDemonstrationChamber(Fig.1)downstreamoftheGrotto,indicatedthatotherpartsofthecavewereunaffected.AlthoughtheglowwormpopulationintheGrottoisusuallylowinwinter,thiswasnotthemainproblem.Itwasthatthefew glowwormsthatwerepresentintheGrottoroofhadstoppedglowing.Theonlyexplanationforthisunusualbehaviourwasthatitcoincidedwithverydryconditionsinthecave.Cave glowworms t unlikethosethatliveinthebush,havenodefenseagainstdesiccation,inthattheycannotretreatfromdryairbyretreatinginto"burrows".Thereisapossibilitythatlarvaemayturnofftheirlightsinresponsetohighevaporationrates.However,thishypothesisstillawaitsexperimentalverification.Thecauseofthegeneraldeclineintheglowwormdisplayinrecentyearsisbecauseofa numberofcomplexinteractingfactors,someofwhicharediscussedbelow.Anadequatefoodsupply1SprovidedbytheWaitomoStream,butfutureplanningshouldensurethatanychangesinthecatchmentdonotjeopardizetheglowworms'foodsource.Theeffectsofaircurrents,andperiodicdesiltingoperationstokeeptheGrottonavigable,mayhoweverupsetthedistribution,quantityandseasonalavailabilityoftheglowworms'foodsupply.ThefungaldiseaseispresentinothercavesintheWaitomo districtt butcadaversarerare.WhatlittleisknownoftheecologyofthefungisuggeststhatintheGrotto,acombinationofdraughts,tocarrytheairbornespores,highsummer andrelative humiditYt makeforidealconditionsinwhichitcanflourish.Manyofthecurrentproblemscanbelinkedtothechangeinclimate,causedinpartbytheopeningofthetopentrancein1975.Theinstallationoftheopengrillwas donetorelieveanearlierproblem,thatofthebuildupofcarbondioxideandstaleairinthecavewhentouristtrafficwashigh.Theincreasedventilationandthere-routingoftourpartiesaway fromtheOrganLoft(Fig.1),themainproblemarea,hasbeensuccessful.However,thedecisiontoerectthegrillwas madebeforethefullconsequencesofitsaffectoncaveclimateandtheglowwormpopulationwererealized.Thisexemplifiestheimportanceofresearchingtheeffectsofanymanipulationofthecaveenvironment,beforeandafter,itisputintoaction.Toresolvethecaveventilationproblem,aresearchprogramwasstartedtostudycavemeteorology.Untiltheresultsofthisworkareknown,plansforfurthermodificationofthetopentrancehavebeenheldinabeyance.Itwas recommendedthatthetopentrancebekeptsealedunlesstouristtrafficwashighenoughtowarrantventilatingthecave.The Waitomo Cavesresearchprogramhasnowbeenrunningforsixyears.TheliaisonbetweentheTHCmanagementandresearchershasbeenexcellent.Thecavesarealreadyrecoveringfromtheproblemsoftheearly1970's,asresultsandrecommendationsfromthestudygrouphavebeenputintopractice.The

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interest andhelpgiventoresearchwork,byTHCstaffandlocalpeople,hasresultedinanincreasedawarenessoftheproblemsfacingcavemanagement.ThisknowledgebasedintheWaitomo community,maywellbethemosteffectivedefenseagainstfuturedeclineintheglowwormpopulation,ordeteriorationinthecaveenvironment.113REFERENCESRichards,AolaM.1956.ThelifehistoryandecologyoftwoofRhaphidophoridaeinWaitomoCaves.UnpublishedPh.D.UniversityofVictoria,Wellington,NZ.speciesThesis,Richards,AolaM.1960.ObservationsontheNewArachnocampaluminosa(Skuse)1890.Trans.88,pp.559-74.ZealandR.Soc.glowwormNZ,V.

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CAVECONSERVATIONINTHEUNITEDSTATESOFAMERICAANOVERVIEWIN1981ROBERTR. STITT 14179thAve. WestSeattle, HA 98119AbstractGrowingoutofariaingenvironmentalawarenessinAmericainthe1960's,caveconservationactivistshaveworkedhardtoobtainprotectionforcavesduringthe1970's.Effortahaveconcentratedinseveralareas;educationofcavers,cooperationwithgovernmentlandmanagementagenciesidentificationofandfightingagainstenvironmentallyunsound project; affectingcavesandkarst,inclusionofcavesintheNationalWildernessPreservationSystem,ownershipand managementofcavesbycavers.obtainingpassageofstatecavepreservationlaws.andinonecaseanofficialStateCave Commission. andprotectionofendangeredspeciesofcavelife.Americanspeleologistshavechosenalow-profilepath.avoidingthatpublicmedia andshunningcontactwiththegeneralpublic.Thisostrich-styleapproachmayhavereducedtheeffectivenessofcaveprotectionattempts.buthascertainlypreventedcavingfrom becoming awidelypopularsportwhichmightresultinthedestructonofmany.ifnotmost.caves.OrganizationsmostactiveincaveconservationeffortshavebeentheNationalSpeleologicalSocietyanditsmanylocalchapters.andtheCaveReserachFoundationwithitscloserelationshipswithFederalagencies.Theeffortsofthousandsofindividualcavers.workingonthelocallevel.areprobablyresponsibleforthesuccessesthathaveresulted.inspiteofalackofstrongdirectionfromthenationallevelafter1975.In1966,VictorA.Schmidt,whowasatthattimeChairmanoftheCommittee onConservationoftheNationalSpeleologiclSociety,outlinedthestatusofAmericaneffortsatcaveconservationinanarticleinStudiesinSpeleo1ogy(Schmidt,1965).Inthatarticle,Schmidtlistedseveralproblemsofimportance:bothprofessionalandcasualvandalism,theovercollectionofbiota,pollutionofgroundwater,andunexplaineddecreasesinbatpopulations.Henotedatrendtowardsincreasingdestructionofcavesbypublicworksprojects,suchasdams andhighways,andfinallyhepredictedthatthemajorproblemsofprotectingcaveswereyettobefaced.WhenSchmidtwrotein1966,theNationalSpeleologicalSociety(NSS)hadabout2500 members,representing,itwassupposed,abouthalfthecaversintheU.S.The115world'slongestcavewasstillinbitsandpiecesawaitingconnection.Inspiteof25yearsofattemptstoconvincetheAmericanpublicthatcaveswereimportantanddeservedprotectionthemessagestillhadn'tgottenacross.Intothisworldof1966 emergedtheAmericanandworldwideenvironmentalmovement. Lawswerepassedtoprotecttheenvironment.ConservationactivistswithintheNSSbeganpushingformoreaction.Caversstartedputtingtheireffortsintofightingconservationbattlesandattemptingtosavecavesfromtheoutsideworld.Upuntilthistime,Americancavershadprobablybeenmostconcernedandoccupiedwithsavingcavesfromthemselves.TheadoptionoftheNSSConservationPolicy,in1960,presentedastrongconservationethicastheacceptedmodeofcaving.Butputtinginto

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116practicewhattheConservationCommitteepreachedwas aslowprocess,almostdependingon acompleteturnoverofthemembershipandconstantexposuretothemessage.But bythebeginningofthe1970's,thebattlehadbeenwon--atleastwithintheNSS. AlmostallNSScaversacceptedandpracticedthehighstandardsoftheNSSConservationPolicy.Inthoseinstanceswherethepolicywasbrokenormisinterpreted,peergrouppressureledtoacceptanceoftheattitudes.Inthelate1960s,however,caveconservationistsbegantorealizethattoomanypeoplecavingwouldeventuallyleadtodestructionofmany,ifnotmost,caves.Withthegrowingself-awarenessofconservationcame agrowingsensethatifthepublicdidn'tknowaboutcaves,itwouldlimitthepotentialfordamage fromgroupsoutsideorganizedcaving.Sointheearly1970'sitbecameofficialNSSpolicytoseekno new members andespeciallytodonothingtoencouragethegeneralpublictogocaving.Theresultofthispolicywasthatthegeneralpublicdidnotrecognizecavesasbeingvaluable,andthustheproblemofobtainingprotectionforthem becamethatmuchharder.Asmanypeoplepointedouttheproblemdidnotgo away,itjustwentunderground.CoupledwiththeenvironmentalmovementintheU.S.wasanincreasingawarenessofoutdoorrecreationalactivities,andanincreasingparticipationinsuchsportsasmountainclimbing,hiking,andinspiteoftheeffortsoforganizedcaverstokeepitundercovercaving.Especiallyinareascontainingmanycaves,hordesofyoungpeople--rangingfromBoyScoutstoschoolgroups--venturedundertheground.Cavesthattheyknewaboutwerevandalizedextensively.AgrowingawarenessofthisproblemhasledtheNSSinthelastfewyearstomodifyitsmembershiprecruitmentpolicies,butnotwithoutsomecontroversy.Inspiteoftheprotestationsoftheradicalsecrecyadvocates,theNSSnowisattemptingtherecruitalllIexistingcaversllintotheorganization--notonlytogaintheirsupportforcaveprotection--buttoexposethemtohighstandardsandidealsofcavingandcaveprotection.Whileloweringtheirpublicprofile,caveconservationistsraisedtheirprivateone.Since,inthewesternpartofthecountryinparticular,themajorityofcavesareowned byvariousgovernmentagencies,caveconservationistsbegantoworkcloselywithpublicagenciestoinfluencepolicyandencouragegoodcavemanagementpractices--includelimitationofaccess,gatingofsignificantcaves,andinsomecasescommercialization.Theeffortsofmanylocalgroupsledtoprogressivepoliciesonthelocallevel,anditwassoonrecognizedthattherewas aneedforcommunicationamongcavemanagersandthecavingpublic.ThisledtothefirstNationalCave Management SymposiumatAlbuquerque,NMin1975--sincefollowedbyannualsymposiathroughoutthenation.Thesesymposiahaveproducedmuchcommunicationandthepublicationofseveralvolumesofproceedings(Speleobooks,1976,1977;Zuberetale1978,Wilson&Lewis,1982).Thedialoguehasfinallymoved consideringwhetherweshouldsavecavestohowtogoaboutit.Althoughthebulkofthework ontheInterstateHighwaySystemwascompletedinthe1960ls(atleast ruralareas),continuingeffortsatcontrolofthenation'swaterwaysbyvariousfederalagencieshavecontinued.Caveconservationistshavemettheseprojectswithvaryingresponses.

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InthecaseofNewMelonesDamandreservoirinCalifornia,caversdecidedtoattemptthepathofcooperation.ByworkingwiththeU.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineerstoidentifycaveswhichwould beadverselyaffectedbythereservoir,andhelpingtomitigatethepotentiallossofcavesandendangeredspecies,membersoftheNewMelonesConservationTaskForcewereabletoobtainthecreationofseveralcavepreservesandtherelocationofanendemicspeciesofspidertoanotherlocale.Thusthelossofsomecaveswillbeoffset,hopefully,bythepreservationofotherswhichmightnothaveeverbeenprotectedwithoutthepresenceofthedam. AttheotherendofthespectrumtheMeramecConservationTaskForcefoughtsuccessfullytostoptheMeramecDamprojectinMissouri,whichwouldhaveinundatedover100caves.Otherconservationbattleshaveinvolvedstripmines,uraniummines,andthecontinuingbattleforwildernessprotection.WiththepassageoftheWildernessActin1964(seereferences),theAmericanCongresscommittedfederallandmanagementagenciestoa'review,withintenyears,ofallexistingwildernesstodetermineifitshouldbepreservedbystatutepermanently.Cavershad workedhardforpassageoftheWildernessAct andnowwerefacedwiththemonumentaltaskofidentifyingwhichpotentialwildernessareascontainedcavesand whichshouldbesupportedforinclusionintheNationalWildernessPreservationSystem (NWPS).EffortswereinparticularconcentratedonthetwomostimportantcaveNationalParksMammothinKentuckyandCarlsbadinNewMexico.AlthoughtheWildernessActdoesnotspecificallymentioncaves,itwassoonconcluded(byconservationistsatleast)thatitdidnotexcludethem.Anda newconceptwasdeveloped--undergroundwilderness.TheideawasfirstproposedformallyatapreliminarywildernessplanningmeetingatMammothCaveNationalParkin1967 bytheNSS.AlthoughthesurfacelandsinMammothCaveNationalParkarenotconsideredsuitableforinclusionintheNWPSbecausetheyhavebeenrecentlyfarmed,theundergroundportionsoftheparkarestillofwildernessquality.WhynotincludejusttheundergroundpartoftheparkintheNWPS?Thiswouldprovideadditionalprotectionforthecaves,raisethestandardsofcare,andassurethattheworld'slongestcave(asitbecamefiveyearslater)wasadequatelyprotectedand managed.Unfortunatelythefederalagencieshavefoughtagainstthisconceptateveryopportunity.Althoughtheyhavebeenforcedtoacknowledgethelegalityandpracticalityoftheidea,theyhavenotyetcreatedanyundergroundwildernessareas.Thusthebattlestillgoeson.AtCarlsbadCavernsNationalPark,however,wherethesurfaceareasareofwildernessquality,largeportionsoftheParkhavebeenincludedintheNWPS,andthusmanyofthecaveshavebeenprotectedaswilderness.IntheEasternpartofthecountrymostofthelandis privateownership,andcavershaveworkedwithprivatelandownerstoassurecontinuedaccessandinsomecaseshaveactuallytakenovermanagementofcaves,installinggatesandattemptingtolimitaccessbypeer-grouppressure.Butthishasnotbeencompletelyeffective.Thus manycaversandorganizationshaveacquiredcaveswhichtheyaremanagingthemselvesascavepreserves.TheNSSowns twocavesSheltaCaveinAlabama andMcFailsCaveinNewYork.TheButlerCaveConservationSocietywas117

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118formedinthe1960'stoownandmanagethelongestcaveinVirginia(Hess,1977).TheNortheasternCaveConservancyhasrecentlyacquiredKnox CaveinNewYork.Manyothergroupsofcaveshavepooledtheirresourcestopurchaseand manageothercavesandcavesystems.TherearenospecificFederalcaveprotectionlaws,althoughcavesandcavefeaturesareprotectedunderstatutesaimedatotherproblems,suchastheWaterPollution,'EndangeredSpecies,andAntiquitiesActs.However, manystateshaveenactedcaveprotectionlegislationsincethelate19thCentury,when Wyoming,andColoradoenactedlawstoprotect Untilthe1960'ssuchlawswereusuallyappledspecificallytoshowcaves.Beginninginthe1960'scavers,speleologists,andcaveconservationistsbecame moreactiveinseekingcaveprotectionlaws,and bytheendofthe1970'salmostalloftheimportantcavestateshaveadequatelaws--Kentuckybeingthemajorexception.Theselawsusuallygobeyondmerelyprohibitingvandalismandalsoprotectcavesfrompollutionandprotectcavelife.Whethertheyaretrulyeffective,ofcourse,isanotherquestion, S1nce thereislittlepublicpressurefortheirenforcementandunlessavandaliscaughtintheactitisdifficulttoobtainaconvictioninthecourts.ThepassageofadequateprotectionlegislationremainshighonthelistofprioritiesforcaveconservationistsintheU.S.,however(Fiack,1980).CaversinthestateofVirginiahaveaccomplishedthemost.TheVirginiacaveprotectionlawpassedintheearly1960'swasthefirstofthemorecomprehensivelawsand becamethemodelformanyothers.Inthelate1970's,caversworkedhardfortheestablishmentofaStateCave Commissiontoreviewthislaw,andthisCommissioneventuallyrecommended, andthelegislaturepassed,a morecomprehensivelaw.AlthoughtherehasbeenlittlefundingbytheState,thelifeoftheCommissionhasbeenextendedanditcontinuestomonitorthestatusofcavesinVirginiaand workfortheirprotection(StateofVirginia,1979).Manystateshavelawsprotectingendangeredspecies,butthemostimportantmeansofprotectionisthroughtheFederalact.Severalspeciesofbatsandcaveinvertebratesandfisharecurrentlysoprotected,andothersareintheprocessofdesignation.SpeleologistshavecontinuedtoworkwiththeofficeofEndangeredSpeciestoidentifyandobtaindesignationforendangeredandthreatenedspeciesofcavelife.Currently,effortsarecontinuingtoobtainlistingfortheKentuckyCaveShrimp,Palaemoniasganteri,which is foundinlimitednumbersonly 1n MammothCaveNationalPark,andisthreatenedbypollutionfromthenearbysinkholeplain.InspiteoftheeffortsofJimQuinlanatMammothCaveNationalPark,TomAleyattheOzarkundergroundlaboratory,and manyothers,thepublicstillhaslittleknowledgeofthecomplexitiesofkarstenvironmentalproblems.Landplannersinkarstareasstilloverlookwhat seemstospeleologiststobe mostelementary--thatjustputtingsomethingundergroundwillnotnecessarilygetridofit.Changingpublicattitudesbyeducationhasbeenaslowandfrustratingprocess.But whentheU.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency,in 1981,treatskarstterrainanditsspecialanddifficultproblemsasatrivialcaseindevelopingitsProposedGroundWaterProtectionStrategy,one wondersjusthowmuchprogresshasbeenmadeininformingthevery

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peoplewhoshouldbeeducatingthepublic.Inworkingforprotectionofcavesandrelatedfeaturescaveconservationistshavealwaysfacedthemisconceptiononthepartofthepublicthatcavesaredarkplacesharboringevilandundeservingofpublicprotection.Infact,thecavingestablishmenthaspromotedthisimage,becauseithasbeenlegitimatelyfearedthatifthepublicgreatlyappreciatedcavestheywouldwishtovisitthem andthusinadvertant1ycausetheirdestruction.BecausetheU.S.hasbeenarelativelyaffluentcountry,withalargenumberofcaves,therehasbeenarelativelylargenumberofshowcavesthathaveprovidedsomeopportunityforpublicvisits.Withtheexceptionofa few government-owned showcaveswhichhaveaccentedenvironmentaleducation,untilrecentlytheshowcaveexperiencehasusuallybeenmoreofanentertainmentexperienceandhaslackedaneducationorientation.Publishedcavebookshavetendedtobethe"Guide"type,whichhasmade themcontroversialintheeyesofthecaving andhasusuallycausedthemtobeofhighcirculationbutlimitedvalue 'promotingcaveconservation.Mosthigh-quality"caveappreciation"booksthathavecirculatedintheU.S.A.haveoriginatedinEurope.OrganizationsactiveincaveconservationeffortshaveincludedtheNSS,withitsmanylocalchapters,theCaveResearchFoundation,principallyinvolvedinresearchandeducationbutalsoconcernedaboutconservation,and avarietyofgeneralconservationorganizationsincludingtheSierraClub,theAudubonSociety,theFriendsoftheEarth,theNationalParksandtheConservationAssociation,andtheWildernessSociety.TheNSS,withitsoverfivethousandmembersandmanylocalchapters,hasprobablycontributedthemosttothecauseofcaveconservationthroughitsattemptstosupportandencouragelocalactivistsintheirbattlesand thecommunicationsaffordedbyitsnationalpublicationsandlocalchapternewsletters.The CaveResearchFoundationhasworkedhardtodevelopclosetieswithvariousFederalagenciesinfurtheranceofitsresearchgoals,particularlyatMammothCaveNationalParkinKentucky.AtthesametimeCRFleadershaverealizedthatwithoutpreservationoftheresourcethattheywouldbeunabletostudyit.AlthoughCRFtookarelativelylowprofileuntilrecently,withinthelastthreeyearsithasvocallyspokenoutwithrespecttoimportantissuesatMammothCave andinotherareas.Otherconservationorganizationshavegenerallytendedtogivesupporttocaverelatedconservationissueswhenrequested,buthavegenerallynottakentheinitiative.TheNatureConservancy,however,haspurchasedandpreservedmanycaves.Mostconservationsuccessesthathaveoccurredhavebeenduetothehard-workingeffortsoflocalcaverswhohavebecomeconvincedthatwithouttheireffortsto'interveneinanissuethatthecaveswouldsuffer.Althoughthepronouncementsofvariouscaveconservationists(includingmyself)havetendedtoviewthefuturewithapprehension,Ifeelcautiouslyhopefulthatanincreasingnumberofcaveswillbepreservedandprotected.Thetrendinrecentyearsforincreasingcavercontrolofcavesthroughownershipisonehopefulsign.IncreasedawarenessandactivityonthepartofFederalandStatelandmanagers119

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120hasresultedina moreenlightenedmanagementofgovernmentownedcaves.Andthereisalargebodyofconcernedcaverswhowillcontinuetobevigilantandtodealwithissuesastheycomeup.Thecombinationofimprovedstatelaws,selfregulationonthepartofcaversandscientists,andanefforttohaltpublicsalesofspeleothemsviaeconomicboycottandpeergrouppressurehassucceededtoacertainextentinreducingthevandalismproblems.Averyconservativeattitudetowardscollectionprevails,especiallywithregardtobats.Althoughpopulationdeclinescontinue,theincreasedawarenessonthepartofthecavers,scientists,andtheFederalgovernmenthavebeenhopefulsigns.Ultimately,however,therealconservationofAmericancavesdependsnotonlyoncontinuedvigilanceonthepartofcaveconservationists,butanimprovementofthepublicimageofcavesandcaverelatedfeatures,whichwillrequireincreasedpubliceducationREFERENCESabouttheneedforcaveconservationandprotection.Ascaversareabletotakemanagementofcavesintotheirownhands,theywillbebetterabletocontrolthatmanagement.Eventhoughthiscontrolwillrepresentonlya fewofthemorethan20,000cavesintheU.S.,atleastsomeofthemwillbepreserved. The restofthecavesmaysurvivealso,invaryingdegrees.Mostofthetrafficistothosecaveswhicharewellknown, andalthoughthesecaveswillcertainlybesubjecttodestructionanddegradation,othersthatarelesswellknownwillberelativelyprotected.Butthisputstheresponsibilityevenmorestronglyonthosewhoownandprotect,andpresumablymanagewell,thosecaveswhichcaversdocontrol.Only byincreasedvigilanceandeffortsonthepartoftheconservationcommunitywillweassurethattherearesomerelativelyundamaged,wildernesscavesexistinginthenextcentury.Fiack,James."Cave LawsoftheU.S.," theFarWest Cave Management SymposiumProceedings(1980).Hess,JohnW., "TheButlerCave-SinkingCreekSystem CaveConservationSociety,"in1976NationalSymposiumProceedings(1977).and CavetheButler Nanagement ReportoftheVirginiaCommission ontheConservationofCavestotheGovernorandtheGeneralAssemblyofVirginia.House DocumentNo.5,Richmond(1979).Schmidt,V.A.,"ProblemsofCaveConservationintheU.S.A.,"Studies Speleology,Volume1,Parts2-3,December1965,p.82ff.Speleobooks,1976.NationalCave Management SymposiumAlbuquerque,NewMexico,1975.Speleobooks,P.O.Albuquerque,NM87105,146p.Proceedings,Box12334,

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Spe1eobooks,1977.NationalCave Management Symposium Mountain ViewArkansas,1976.Spe1eobooks,P.O.Albuquerque,NM87105, 106p.Proceedings,Box12334,121UnitedStatesEnvironmentalProtectionAgency, IIProposed Ground WaterProtectionStrategy.1IWashington(980).WildernessActof1964,78Stat.890(1964),16U.S.C.1131etseq.(965).Wilson,R.C. andLewis,J.J.,1982.NationalCave Managemnt SymposiaProceedings,Carlsbad,NewMexico, 1978 andMammothCave, Kentucky1980.PygmyDwarfPress,505RooseveltSt.OregonCity,OR97045, 234p.Zuber,R.,Chester,J.,Gilbert,S. and Rhodes,D.,1978.NationalCave Management SymposiumProceedings,Big SkyMountain,1977.AdobePress,P.O.Box12334,Albuquerque,NM87105, 140p.

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PHOTOMONITORINGASAMANAGEMENTTOOLPETERJ.UHLBox244,Larami, WY 82070AbstractCavephotomonitoringisatermusedtodescribeprecisephotographsofselectedpointswithinthecavetakenon aregularbasis.Thesephotographscanbeuaedforinventory,asarecordofchangeandasabasisofinformationformanagementdecisions.Thesystemdiscussedhasevolvedfromthe work ofothers,fromfouryearsofuseinHorsethiefCave,Wyomingplustwoadditionalyearsofmonitoringinthesamecavebytheauthor. Items tobeconsideredare:typesofequipment;locationofphotopoints;camerasetup;filmprocessingandanalysesofphotographstogiveobjective;permanentandrepeatableresults.Some examples oftheresltsareobviousatacasualglance,whileothersrequireathoroughknowledgeofthesystemandthesubjectmatterinordertobediscerned.Asa mansgementtool,photomonitoring seems tohsvefoundfavorwithcaversandbothprivateand governmentcavemanagersduetoitsobjectivity,permanence,repeatabilityand lowcost.DefinitionandObjectivesCavephotomonitoringcanbedefinedasaseriesofprecisephotographsofselectedpointswithinthecavewhicharetakenon aregularbasis.Thesephotographscanbeusedforinventory,asarecordofchangeandasabasisofinformationformanagementdecisions.Acaveinventoryinwrittenform,orevencombinedwithanaccuratemapisofteninadequate.Writtendescriptionscanbelong,ambiguousandoftenincorrect.Aphotograph,ifwelltaken,iscompact,tothepointandaccurate.However, aphotographwithoutwrittencommentaryissubjecttotheinterpretationoftheviewerandhisexperiencewiththesubject.Also,photographsusedforinventory123purposesarealmostuselessunlesstheycanberelatedtoamapofthecavesothatpreciselocationscanbeestablished.Forinventory,acombinationofphotographsandwrittencommentaryrelatedtoanaccuratemapshouldcovertheneedsofthecavemanager.Asarecordofchangewithinthecave,photographscannotbeexcelled.Writtendescriptionscanvarydependingontheauthorandcannotapproachthedetailedaccuracyofphotos.Onaprecisephotograph,measurementscanbe madewhichmaybeundetectedbythehumaneye.Also,changescanbe showngraphicallyby acomparisonwithpreviousphotos.Photographs,writtenreportsandanaccuratemapareimportantcavemanagementtools.Thephotosarea

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permanentrecordofthecavewhen managementpersonnelarechangedandcanbeduplicatedpreciselybyanyone,regardlessoftheirinterestsortraining.The sameseriesofphotos,takenatintervalsoveraperiodoftime,canprovideanobjectiveviewofthecavewhichisvirtuallyimpossiblewithwrittenrecords.Aftertheinitialphotographsaretakenandanalyzed,anupdateontheconditionsinthecavecanbeobtainedbyrepeatingthesameseriesofphotosatanylaterdate.Theuseofphotographscanbeaninexpensivemethodofobtainingconsistentdatawithoutextensive tra1n1ng ofunfamiliarindividuals 1n methodsofcaveinventory.ThesystemdescribedhasbeenusedbytheWorland,WyomingDistrictoftheBureauofLand Management and wasdevelopedoverafouryearperiod.Allofthemethodsdiscussedhavebeentried,and,whennecessary,modifiedtogiveusableresults.EquipmentCamera -Asinglelensreflex35mmcameraisusedduetoitsavailability,compactness,reliability,andsimplicity.LensAstandardlensforthe35mmSLRcamers(i.e.;50mm)wasfoundtoworkbestformostofthemonitoringphotos.Awideangle(28-35mm)lensmaybeusefulincertainsituations.TripodThetripodisessentialforproperlylocatingandorientingthecamera.Itmust besturdyand compacttowithstandtheabuseoftravelthroughthecave.Film-Formonitoringphotosacolorprintfilmseemstobethebestchoice.Colorprintsshowchangesinsizeandshapeaswellascolorchangesinthecave.Printsarealsoeasilycomparedanddirectmeasurementscanbe made fromthem.Blackandwhiteprintsarelessexpensivebutsubtlechangesinthecaveenvironmentmaybehardertodetect.Changessuchasaccumulationofdustonformationsandthepresenceofmoistureonthewallsorfloorofapassageshow up muchbetterincolor.Transparenciesarenotrecommendedbecauseofthedifficultyofviewingthem andtheproblemofmakingmeasurementsonthem.Plumb bobusedtolocatethecameradirectlyoverthephotopointmarker.Tape -A50or100footsteeltapeorequivalentisnecessarytomeasuredistances.Caremustbetakentorecordtheunitsofmeasurementorconfusionwillresultsuchasmistakinginchesfortenthsofafootormetersforfeet.Ifitbecomesnecessarytoconvertfrom oneunittoanother,itshouldbedonebeforehand,notwhilesettingupthephotointhecave.BruntonCompass -Abruntoncompassorothermethodofascertainingbearingandinclinationisnecessarytoorientthecameraandstrobe.Aswiththetape,besureunitsofmeasurementareconsistentandthecompassiscalibratedthesameasforpreviousphotographs.GreyCard-Astandardphotographicgreycardand/orcolorscaleshouldbeincludedineachphotoasreferenceforfilmprocessing.Inadditionthereshouldbespaceforascaleandphotoidentificationinformatin.DataForms -All data foreachphotoshouldbeincludedon astandardizedform(Figure1)andanotebookshouldbeincludedforadditionalwrittencommentary.Copiesofpreviousdataandphotos-Itwasfoundusefultohavecopiesofthepreviusphotosaswellasthedataforeachphotopointwhensettingupthecameraforsubsequentphotos.Strobe-Astrobehasbeenfoundtobethemostreliableandmosteconomicalsourceofillumination.Thestrobeshouldhaveanopenflashprovisionandcanbeeithermanualorautomatic.Anautomaticstrobe

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seemedtoprovidemoreconsistentresultsthanamanualoneinmostsituations.Cablerelease Acablereleasewhichcanbelockedopen necessaryforbestresults.CarryingBoxAlloftheequipmentwiththepossibleexceptionofthetripodwillfitinasurplus.50caliberammunitionbox,whichisreadilyavailableandprovidesexcellentprotectionfor'theequipment.Moreorlessprotectionmayberequireddepending thecavebeingphotographed. Itemsusedingeneralphotographysuchassparebatteriesforthecameraandstrobe,lenscleaningequipmentandotheritemsshouldbeincludedasnecessary.125 LOCATION' ..:J(DATE';'0 SUBJECT' C,etrb"d."J.(II<,f? I --CAMERA'-t2A'''.:fFILM'Gf/ f./ -Lf...8' __ ___ .4__SPEED __ .3 __ .4 __LEN3toSUBJECT' Dis1.7 '..;:>" Brng. /c?9 Inc. 0$8D HEIGHTof LENS'0"'..;;" GREY SCALE LOCATION' '/dw/'1 LIGHTING TYPE _____.4 __FLASHES .1_1 __ "2 ___ 03___.4___ PPto FLASH' Inc. +':;;7D FLASH10 SUBJ.,Dist.""c8'" 8rng. -4Z_D _Inc. -.2 7 <> LOCATION'TO .. Di.t ..;76 'f'"Brng.1/'DNOTES'_/..:1"'/1Dr ..._,-_._-----_._._. "---------_._----FoloFO'm /5,1980Figure1.

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126AdditionalEquipmentforSettingPhotopointsBrassMarkersThematerialusedtomarkphotopointsisa3/8inchdiameterbrassrod1/2to1inchlong.Othermarkerscould'beusedaslongastheyarepermanentandcanberelocatedoveraperiodofseveralyears.HammerandDrillA hammer and a3/8inchstarrdrillareusedtodrillaholedeepenoughtoplacethemarkersalmostflushwiththesurface.AdhesiveAluminumsolderwasusedtofixthebrassmarkersintheholes.MethodsPhotopointscanbeselectedtomonitormostaspectsofcaveuse. canbemonitoredfordeterioration,formationscanbecheckedfordeteriorationordamage andenvironmentalconditionssuchaswaterlevelsorbatpopulationscanbemonitored.Whenthesubjectisdetermined,thecameraissetup onthetripodandorientedforthebestview,theplumb bobisusedtolocatethephotopointonthefloorand abrassmarkerisinstalled(Figure2).Theelevationofthelensabovethemarkerisnoted.Apointisselectedforthestrobetogivetheoptimumilluminationandthispointisalsorecordedusingdistance,bearingandinclinationsfromthemarker.Itisalsousefultohavedistancesfromthephotopointand fromthestrobetothesubject.Ifthecaveissurveyed,thephotopointmarkerisconnectedtoaconvenientsurveystationwithcompass andtapetoaidintherelocationofthemarker.Ifthecaveisunsurveyed,distanceandbearingfromthemarkertoatleasttwodistinctlandmarksshouldberecorded.Thephotographisthentakenandinformationoncamerasettingsinrecorded.ForthefirstseriesofmonitoringFigure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4.

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paotoiraphs itmaybenecessaryto theexposurestodeterminethebestone.Asubsequentseriesofphotoscanbetakenfromthesame ofphotopointsbyusingtherecordeddatatore-establishthecameraandstrobeinanidentical pOiition.All photographsshouldbeprocessedandprintedbyacompetentphotolab.Thegreycardand/orcolorscalecanbeusedasachecktodeterminethatallprintsareprocessedtothesamestandards.Allphotographsshouldbe analyzed assoonaspossibleandawrittenreportoneachphotopointprepared.Thereportshouldincludeanyinformationdiscernedfromthephotographplusanyinformationincludedinthewrittenfieldnotes.ExamplesThefirstexample froma Wyomingcave.Figure3wastaken 1970beforethephotomonitoringsystemwasbegun,butwastakenfromnearlythesamelocationasthephotopointwhichwasestablishedin1975.Figure4wastakenfromthephotopointin1979andshowsconsiderableenlargementofthe passaie opening.Inthecolorprintsalargeamountofdustaccumulationonthewallscanalsobedetected.Thesecondexamplewastohaveshowntrafficacrossthepool.Figure5was taken in1977whileFigure6wastakenin1978andshowsthatlittletraffichascrossedthepoolastherearenomarksordirtonthewall.However,thewaterlevelinthepoolhasrisenseveralinches.Insubsequentyears,thewaterhasrecededtoitsformerleveland,asyet,nosignsoftraffichaveappeared.Figure 5. Figure 6.127Thereexamplesarenumerousofmonitoringotherphotos

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128showingincreaseduseofareas ot thecaveasdeterminedbytrailwidthanddepth.Inanotherexample.anareaofflowstonehasbeenobserved.bytheuseofmonitoringphotos.tohavebecome moreactiveoveraperiodofseveralyears.Otherphotosshowthe offormationsfrom oneyeartothenext.Summary andConclusionsTheuseofprecise.repeatablemonitoringphotographs.alongwithothermanagementtools.hashelpedmanagersmakecriticaldecisionsaffectingthecaveenvironment.ThissystemhasbeenusedbytheBureauofLand ManagementinWyomingandasimilarsystemhasbeenusedinthepastbyprivatecaveowners.Theexpanded use ofcavephotomonitoringshouldbeencouagedtoaidmanagersinmakingdecisionsinvolvingcaveuseandwillprovideavaluablerecordofcaveswhichmaybeviewedbyfuturecaveusersandmanagersalike.BibliographyLarson.Charles1977.Photographyasa Cave ManagementTool.NationalCave Management SymposiumProceedings.BigSky.Montana.,1975.CavePhotography,NationalCave Management SymposiumProceedings,Albuquerque.NewMexico.122(Abstract).Stout,DavidWyoming.Montana.1977.APhotomonitoringSystemforHorsethiefCave,NationalCave Management SymposiumProceedings,BigSky104:107.Uhl,Peter1979.Photomonitoring.Notesand CommentsoftheNorthernRockiesRegionalCave Management Symposium,Lovell.Wyoming.5-6.

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THEEVOLUTIONOFTHEVIRGINIACAVECOMMISSIONJOHNM.WILSON,ROBERT W. CUSTARD,EVELYN W. BRADSHAWANDPHILLIP C.LUCASP.O.Box 25594 Richmond,VA23260AbstractTheVirginiaCommission ontheConservationand UseofCaves wasestablishedbytheVirginiaGeneralAssemblyin1978.ItpublishedareporttotheGovernorandtheGeneralAssemblyinlessthanayearwithnodirectappropriationandthenceasedtoexist.ThisStudyCommission recommendedthatapermanentCave Commission beestablishedandthiscameaboutinatwo-stepprocess.AftermuchnegotiatingwiththeleadershipoftheGeneralAssembly,thatbodyapproveda oneyearCommissionwith8,000.00infunds.Thisbudgetmadeitpossibleforaccomplishingmanythingson ascaleneverbeforedoneintheCave community.Onerecommendation,The CaveProtectionAct,containedseveralmajorimprovementsovertheoldlaw,includingthebanningofSpeleothemsalesandlimitationofcaveownerliability.SomeoftherecommendationsofthisCommissionaredescribedinthispaper.The CaveProtectionAct wasapprovedoverwhelminglybytheGeneralAssemblyin1980withlittleopposition,butseveralamendments,thatprotecttherightofthecaveownertousehisorhercaveasheorsheseesfit,wereadded.In1980theCave Commission was made apermanentStateAgencyaspartoftheDepartmentofConservationand EconomicDevelopment.However, noadditionalfundngwasprovided.SincenooperatingfundsarenowavailablefortheCommission,interestedcavers formed theVirginiaCaveConservancytoprovidea meansoffunding,notonlyfortheCommissionbutalsoforencouragingtheownershipand managementofcaves.ThisCaveConservancywillseektoraisefundsfrompublicsolicitationandfund-raisingprojectssuchasbingoanddues.Thefundswillgotosupportcaveacquisitionand managementaswellastoassistorganizationssuchastheVirginiaCave Commission.Theideaofacavecomm1SS1on wasfirstsuggestedin1970toacaverinRichmond.Hedidnotagreethatgettingthestateinvolvedwithcavesandcavingwouldbea goodidea.However,withinseveralyears,a fewcaverswerefoundwhoagreedthatacavecommissionwould be adesirablethingand by1975,thewheelshadbeensetinmotionthroughVirginiaStateDelegateBillAxse11e.Togetherwesetup acommitteetostudytheproblemsofcaveconservationandtheroleofthestateindealingwithcaveconservation.129The newcommitteewas composedofcavers,alegislator,representativesofseveralappropriatestateagenciesandrepresentativesofcommercialcavesinVirginia.Aftertwomeetings,itbecameapparentthatthestateagencieswerenotinfavorofaddingadditionaldutiestotheiragencies.This,apparentlybecausetheyfeltthattheGeneralAssembly wouldnotfundanythingofthisnature,andtheydidnotwishtohaveanyadditionalworkwithoutadditionalfundings.

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130So,thecaversweretoldbytherepresentativeoftheagencythatbeforetheiragencycouldsupportanyon-goingstateactivitytoprotectcaves,wewouldhavetothoroughlydocumentalmosteverythingaboutcavesinVirginia.Thisrequestwas beyondourresourcestoaccomplishinanyreasonablelengthoftime.Theywereinformedofourlimitationsbutsaidtheycouldnothlep,otherthantosupplyuswitha copyofJohnHolsinger'sbook,DescriptionsofCavesinVirginia.Uptothat'point,thecommercialcaverepresentativeshadnot,inanysignificantway,opposedwhatthecaversweretryingtodo.Sincethecurrentrouteappearedtobeunproductive,thedecisionwas madetogostraighttotheGeneralAssemblywithourideas.DelegateAxsellewasaskedtodraftapreliminaryresolution,JointHouseResolution10.Adraftcopy wassenttoeveryoneonthiscommittee:commercialcaveowners,agencyheads,etc.,plusalltheNSSchaptersinVirginia,andaskedfortheirsupportandsuggestions.Nosuggestionscamein.Asaresult,Axsellesetup apublicmeetingwiththeRulesCommitteepriortothestartofthe1977sessionoftheGeneralAssemblyinordertogetanyinputfromtheRulesCommitteeandotherinterestedpeople.Severalchangesweresuggestedatthismeetingincludingthedeletionofthewordt1overcommercialization"fromthewhereas.Weagreedtothat,andafterthathearing,representativesofcommercialcavesneveragainspokepubliclyagainstanyofourresolutionsatanyhearingoverthenextthreeyears.Theonecommercialcaverepresentativewhospokeagainsttheresolutionatthathearingin1975opposedtheconceptofcommissionsingeneral.Hewasopposedtoanycavecommissionbecausehebelievedthatitwouldleadtogovernmentregulationofcommercialcaveoperations,eventhoughtheresolutionprohibitedthis.ThisindividualcontinuedtoopposethecommissiontotheendandtriedunsuccessfullytogettheVirginiaChamberofCommercetoopposetheresolution.Wedonotthinkthatearlyoppositionoftheonecommercialcaverepresentativehadanyeventualeffectonhowlongittooktogettheresolutionpassed.InVirginia,manylegislatorsbelievethatbadlawsandbadresolutionsareworsethannolawsatall.So, whenthereisa newconceptproposed,theGeneralAssemblytendstotakeitstimewhileconsideringallaspectsoftheproposedlaw.ThreeorfouryearsistypicalforbillsandresolutionsofthistypetobepassedinVirginia.ThiswasparticularlytrueforthiscommissionsinceitwasnotonlyanewconceptforVirginia,buttothebestofourknowledge,itisthefirstcommission ever establishedintheUnitedStatestostudyoveralluseandconservationofcaves.Thecaveresolutionwascarriedoverin1977andthenpassedin1978.ThevoteintheHouse was76to7.Itwas amended bytheSenate(fundsdeleted)andpassed40to0;theHousethenpassedtheSenateversion.Resolutionsdonotrequirethegovernor'ssignaturesothecommitteewasapprovedasofthefinaldayoftheGeneralAssemblyinMarch,1978.Wefoundthatmanycaversdidnotunderstandtheconceptofcommissionsingeneral,eventhoughthevastmajorityoflawsinVirginiagotherouteofeitherLegislativeStudyCommitteeorCommissions.Wehadtoconvincecaversthatultimatelythegoalofprotectingcaveswould bebetterservednotsolelybycaveprotection

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laws,butbyanongoingstructureofcommissionsandagencieswhosepurposeistoprotectcaves,educatepeople,andevenmanage somecaves.Itisunlikelythatpunitivelawsalonecanadequatelyprotectcaves.Itisdesirabletohavepeoplewithinstategovernmentwhowillcomeupwithpositivesolutionstoproblemsandbeabletoreactquicklywhenthreatstocavesbecomeapparent.Thisprocessofworkingforthesupportofcaversbegantogetresultsinlate1977,when numerouscaversbegantocontacttheirdelegates.But,ultimatelythecommissionwaspassedbecauseDelegateAxsellewasabletoconvinceJohnWarrenCook,SpeakeroftheHouseandchairmanoftheRulesCommitteetogivethecommissionatry.Ibelievethat1978 wasthefirstyearthatthecommissioncouldhavebeenestablishedunderthecircumstances.WorkandRecommendationsoftheVirginiaCommission ontheUse andConservationofCaves TheVirginiaCommission ontheConservationandUseofCaves wastomake areporttothegovernorandtheGeneralAssembly;dothisinlessthanayearwithnodirectappropriationandthenceasetoexist.Thatiswhathappened;its43pagereportwaspublishedandwenttotheGovernorandtheGeneralAssemblywiththreemajorrecommendationsandextensivebackgroundmaterial.The CaveProtectionActcontainedseveralmajorimprovementsovertheoldlaw,includingthebanningofspeleothemsalesandlimitationofcaveownerliability.Someoftherecommendationsofthiscommissionaredescribedonthenextfewpages.SaleofSpeleothemsAmajorrecommendationofthecommissionwasthatVirginiajoinWestVirginiaandMarylandinbanningthesaleofspeleothemsortheirexportfromtheCommonwealthforsaleelsewhere(seeproposedVirginiaCaveProtectionAct,AppendixIII).Byelimatingthisincentiveforremovingthesemineralformationsfromcaves,muchvandalismshouldbestopped.InformationontheprovisionsoftheStatecaveprotectionlawshouldbewidelydisseminated,perhapsbysignspostedincaveentrances,towarnvandalsthattheiractivitiesareunlawful.LimitationofCave OwnerLiabilityThe Commission recommendedthatcaveownersbeabsolvedfromliabilityintheeventofanaccidentintheircave.Personsenteringacavewouldthenhavetodosoattheirownriskexceptatcommercialcaveswhereanadmissionfeeispaid.TheprovisionsoftheproposedCaveProtectionAct(See III)willpermittheuseofcavesforrecreationalandscientificpurposeswithoutimposingunwarrantedliabilitiesuponthecaveowner.'ProposedPermanentCave Commission The Commission recommendedestablishingapermanentVirginiaCave Commission composedofelevenmembers,servingthree-yearstaggeredterms(SeeproposedlegislationcreatingtheCommission).Mostofthemembersshouldbepersonsactiveandknowledgeableinthemanagement,exploration,studyandconservationofcaves.Expertiseinthefieldsofcavebiology,geology,archeology,paleontology,history,andrecreationmayberepresented.Virginia'scavesrepresentaunique,limited,andnon-renewablenatural 131

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132resourceofgreatscientific,historic,educational,economicandrecreationalvalue.Vandalismandpollutionarerapidlydestroyingthisresource.InordertopreventVirginia'sspeleanwildernessfrombeingdestroyedwithinourlifetime,immediatestepsneedtobetakentoprotectVirginia'ssignificantcaves.The Commission recommendsthatapermanentCave Commission becreatedtoassistStateagenciesindealingwithcave-relatedproblems,thata new, morecomprehensiveCaveProtectionActbeenacted,andthattheVirginiaResearchCenterforArcheologybegrantedaspecialappropriationforthe1980-82bienniumtoconductatwo-yeararcheologicsurveyofVirginiacaves.EstablishmentofaTemporaryCave CommissionandPassageoftheCaveProtectionAct TheStudyCommission recommendedthatapermanentCave Commissionbeestablished.Thiscameaboutina twostepprocess.AftermuchnegotiatingwiththeleadershipoftheVirginiaGeneralAssembly,thatbodyapproveda oneyearCommissionwith8,000.001nfunds.Thisbudgetmadeitpossibletoaccomplishingmanythingson ascaleneverbeforedoneinthecommunity.The CaveProtectionAct wasapprovedoverwhelminglybytheGeneralAssemblywithlittleoppositionbutseveralamendmentsthatprotecttherightofthecaveownertousehisorhercaveasheorsheseesfit.AspublicinterestinoutdoorrecreationcontinuestogrowandlanddevelopmentacceleratesintheintermontanevalleyswestoftheBlueRidge,increasedpressurewillbeputonVirginia'slimitedandfragilecaveresources.Inordertopreservetheuniqueeducationalrecreational,scientific,historicandeconomicvalueofVirginia'scavesandkarstareas,theCommonwealthneedstomake acontinuingcommitmenttosafeguardthisspeleanwilderness.ApermanentCaveCommission,composedofconernedcitizens,workinginconjunctionwithotheragenciesoftheCommonwealth,appearstobethemosteffectivevehicleforfocusingtheattentionofbothgovernmentandthepubliconthisgoal.

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EIGHTHINTERNATIONALCONGRESSOFSPELEOLOGYFIRSTINTERNATIONALCAVEMANAGEMENTSYMPOSIUMPROGRAMMURRAY STATE UNIVERSITYJULY15 -18,1981135

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136WelcomeStatementEvents.Calendar.AbstractsofPresentations.Facilities.Campus Map.Acknowledgements.TABLEOFCONTENTS .," 123.5.28.29.30

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WELCOMEWelcometotheFirstInternationalCave Management Symposium.Bygatheringtogetherinterestedindividualsfromacrosstheworld,thisSymposiumhopestoproduceanexchangeofideas,conceptsand methodsthatwillleadtotheimproved managementofcaves.Cavesarearesource,onethathasmanyuses.Asaresource,cavesmustbecarefullymanaged,tomaximizetheirutility,yetpreservethemforfuturegenerations.Cavesarevariouslya part oftourism,industry,scientificstudy,wildernessrecreationandhabitatpreservation.Thelargevarietyofinteractionsbetweenmanandcavesrequiresmanydifferentstrategies.TheFirstInternationalCave Management Symposiumbringstogetherrepresentativesofthestate,thepublic,commercialenterprise,conservationgroups,scientistsandsportsmeninthefirstmeetingofitstypeinvolvingworld-wideparticipation.RepresentativesfromeverycontinentexceptAntarcticaarepresent.Notonlyistherealargecrosssectionofspecificinterests,butthevastdiversityofbackgroundswilladdtotherichnessandcross-fertilizationofthesymposium. MurrayStateUniversityishonoredtobehosttothisSymposium. TheUniversityhasputpartofitsdormitoryand FoodServiceatourdisposal,aswellasthenewUniversityCenter,andtheHancockBiologicalStation.Pleasefeelfreetoroamaboutthecampus, andutilizeitsmanyresources,suchasthelibrary,swimmingpool,ArtGalleryandbookstore.Ifthereareanyquestions,pleaseaskanyone ontheSymposiumstaff.Sincerely,JohnE.MylroieSymposiumDirector137

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138EVENTSThe Symposiumhasbeendesignedtoprovidethebestpossibleconditionsfortheexchangeofideas.Withthisin mind, wehavetriedtoprovideacomfortable,relaxedatmosphereina numberofdifferentsettings.ForaquickviewoftheeventsoftheSymposium,seethecondensedscheduleofeventswhichfollowsthisdiscussion.The Symposiumofficiallybeginsafterdinnerat19:30onJuly15th,intheBanquetRoomofWinslowCafeteria(seecampusmapattheendoftheprogram),whereawineandcheesesocialwillbeheld.Thiswillallowaninformalatmos'pherewheretheSymposiumparticipantscangettoknoweachother,andwhereUniversityofficialscanmakebriefwelcomingremarks.AkeynotetalkwillbegivenbyRobStitt,formerCaveConservationCommitteeChairmanoftheNationalSpeleologicalSociety,andcurrentlythePresident-electoftheSociety.Afterhispresentation,thesocialwillcontinue,butsinceJuly15thwillhavebeenalengthytraveldayformostparticipantswehavenotplannedaverylongevent.Thursday,July16thinitiatesthepresentationsessions,beginningat8:30.Eachspeakerwillhave30minutesforthepresentationanddiscussion.Alongcoffeebreakandalonglunchperiodareincludedtohelpusstayonscheduleandprovideampletimeforinformaltalk.At15:30,Dr.GeorgeHuppertoftheUniversityofWisconsin-LaCrossewillmoderateapaneldiscussioninvolvingawidecrosssectionofcavemanagementinterestsandbackgrounds.Formoredetails,checkunder"Huppert"intheAbstractlist.Followingdinner,therewillbethreeoptionsforparticipants:on afieldtriptoanearbycave;2)goonatourtotheMid-AmericaSensingCenter,asatelliteimageryprocessingandresearchfacility;relaxonyourown.Detailsof1 and 2abovewillbeavailableThursday'ssessions.1)go Remote3)orduringOnFriday,July17th,thesessionswillcontinue,muchasonThursday.Atapproximately16:00,wewilltransporttheparticipantstotheHancockBiologicalStationonKentuckyLakeforabeerandbarbecuepicnic.Thiswillincludeboating,swimming,volleyball,and atourofthestation.Thepicnicwillcontinueuntilthelastpersongivesup.PeoplewhohavetoleaveearlyforBowlingGreenwilldepartinearlyeveningfromthestation.TheremainderwillreturntoMurrayStateUniversity.OnSaturdaymorning,July18th,wewillariseearlyandbeontoBowlingGreenby 8:00, arrivingtherebeforeopeningceremoniesapproximately11:00to12:00,dependingonactualdeparturetime.ceremoniesstartat13:00.)theroad(arrivingOpeningAProceedingsvolumeofthisSymposiumwillbepublishedafteroftheCongress.ThisisacompletelyseparateProceedingsfromthatfortheCongressitself.PeoplemakingpresentationsshouldseeDr.toobtainthedetailsofmanuscriptsubmissions.theendproducedMylroie

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139SCHEDlJLESaturday Fr idayThursday lIednesday5July1Julv16luI v 17JuJy188:00Dorm BreakfastDonn Breakfa_cnToynBre.lkfast 8:)0 Talk Stebbins 8:)0 TalkCambleIII DepartforBo"l1ng Grecn9:00Arrival.Talk Brady9:00Talk (Benedict)9:30BeginTalk Ca"'ble I9:30ITalk SchultzII10:00to----Break------10:00 --Break---------10:)0CollectTalk -Whitfield 10:30Talk-Hovanh11:00inTalk-SchuitzI !I:OO Talk SchultzIII11:)0Nashville TalkFink11:)0Talk-BenedictTalkAddis12:00 '-I 12:00-----------Lunch------------13:)0TalkOedl13:30Talk-StittII14:00DepartHashvilleTalk-CacbleII14:00Talk-Gardnerfor Hurray 14:30Talk Steiner&lIaggoner 14:30TalkGoodbar 15:00 ---------Break----------J5:00TalkdeBellard-fletr l15:30Dar ..Check-InPanel (Huppert)15:30 -----------Brp..k---------forparticipants16:00 16:00Social n t Hancock Bic]uslcalStation16:3016:30 17:00---Dlnner--------Dlnner---------17:0017:)017:3018:00CaveFieldTrip18:00-or-18:30Tourof I-tARC 18:3019:0019:0019:30 lIine &CheeseSocial j! 19:)0Earl.ydeparturefor Uelco.e, Introduction IBowltog Green0:00TalkbyRobStitt I I I....,. 2

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140ABSTRACTSOFPRESENTATIONSTheabstractsofthepresentationstobe madearelistedonthefollowingpagesbytheauthor'sname,inalphabeticalorder.Beloweachabstractistheauthor'sname andthetimeofthetalk'spresentation.Peoplepresentingmorethanonetalkhavethem numberedwithaRomannumeral.AlltalkswillbepresentedintheUniversityCenterAuditorium,onthetopflooroftheCenter.Signswillbepostedtoassistyouinlocatingthe auditorium. Theremaybechangesin the schedulethatoccurrathersuddenly,assomepeoplemaynotattend,orthere.maybelatearrivals.Anychangeswillbeannouncedassoonastheyareknown.THEPETTIBONEFALLSKARSTAREABIRTHPLACEOFTHENATIONALSPELOLOGICALSOCIETYRobertAddisBoardofDirectors,NSS81SouthShoreRoad Cuba,NY14727Pettibone Fa11$ Caveisasmall,190 mlongcavelocatedinasmall outcrop ofmarbleintheBerkshireHillsofwesternMassachusetts.Amajoreffortisbeingmounted bytheNSStoacquireandpreservethecaveandthesurroundingkarstarea.Themagnitudeoftheeffortgreatlyexceedstheapparentworthofthecave,butreflectstheimportanceofthecavetotheoriginsoftheSociety.Inaddition,theacquisitioneffortrepresentstheviewthatcavesareapartoftheenvironment,andthiscavecannotbeusefullyprotectedwithoutcontrolofsomeofthesurroundingarea.Thekarstareaisanisolatedarea,andcontainsonthesurfaceauniqueecology,initselfvaluable,independentofthecave.A numberofdifferentstrategieshavebeenutilizedduringtheacquisitonprocess,and awidevarietyoforganizationsandindividualshavebecomeinvolved.Theentiresituationrevealsthecomplexityofcaveacquisitionand management,evenwhendealingwithan"insignificant"cave.ADDIS12:00THURSDAY

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THEGUACHAROCAVEDr.EugeniodeBellard-PietriApartado80210 -PradosDelEsteCaracas,Venezuela108GuacharoCaveisVenezuela'slargestcavern(10,200metersexplored).Thetouristsector(about1,200meters)harborsthelargest known colonyofoilbirdsintheworld(about19,000)andhasaninterestingfauna(rodents,bats,spiders,centipedes,andmyriadsofinsects).Duetothefactthatthebirdsbringseedsintheircropsandregurgitatethem,thecavern'sHumboldtHall(759mlong)holdsanumberofseedlingforestsduringthebreedingseason.Thetouristsectorcanbedividedinthreesuccessivesections:a)Humboldt'sHall,b)theHallofSilence(240mlong),c)thePreciousHall(100mlong).Thebeautifulcavernhasbeendevelopedfortourismhavinginmindtwoparameters:(1)keepthecaveaswildandasnaturalaspo":sible,(2)givethevisitorsminimumadequatefacilities.Forthis,arockslabwalkway1,500mlongwithfourwellspacedandampleareasandanumberofnaturalrockbridgeswereconstructed.Allpossibleeffortwasputincamouflagingasbestandassafelyaspossiblethefullwalkway.Norailingsofanysortappearandstepsonlywhennecessary.Duetothebirds,noelectriclighthasbeeninstalled.Theresultshavebeenrewarding:65,471visitorssawthecaveduring1979.Noaccidentshavebeenreportedand fordisabledcanreach400minHumboldtHall.Avisitorwithtwoartificiallegsmanagedwithreasonableease,thefulltouristdevelopment.Guideswithgasolinelanterns thetourists.DE BELLARD-PIETRI 15:00FRIDAY141

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BRADY142CAVEMANAGEMENTFORTHEENDANGEREDINDIANABAT(MYOTISSODALIS)ANDGRAYBAT(MYOTISGRISECENS)JohnT.BradyTeamLeader,Indiana/GrayBatRecoveryTeamU.S.Army Corps ofEngineers210TuckerBoulevard,NorthSt.Louis,Missouri63101 TheIndianabatandthegraybatareprotectedbytheEndangeredSpeciesActof1973.Bothspecieshaveexperiencedsignificantpopulationdeclines 'in recentyearsprimarilycausedby human ofIndianabathibernationcavesandgraybathibernationcavesandnurserycaves.Only arelativelyfewcaveshavethenecessarymicroclimaticconditionsthatareacceptabletothesetwospecies.EffortshavebeenmadetoprotectthesecriticalcavesbytheRecoveryTeam,theU.S.FishandWildlifeService,and numerousfederalandstateagencies.Managementoptionsincludepublic ofcaves,postingofwarningsigns,anderectionoffencesandgatestoexcludehumanentry.Specificationsforconstructingfencesandgatesthatwillnotinterferewithbatuseofcavesarepresented. 'I 9:00THURSDAYI

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TVA'SROLEINCAVEPROTECTIONANDMANAGEMENTPatriciaA.FinkTennesseeValleyAuthority-RegionalNaturalHeritageProjectDivisionofLandandForestResourcesNorris,TN37828TheTennesseeValleyAuthority(TVA),anindependentcorporateagencyoftheFederalgovernment,isknownprimarilyforitschainoflakesanditsgenerationofinexpensiveelectricity,butisalsochargedwiththeresponsibilityoffurtheringtheproperuse,conservation,anddevelopmentofthenaturalresourcesoftheTennesseeValleyRegion.TheTVARegionalNaturalHeritageProjectisadatabaseofsignificantnaturalfeatures,whichincludescaves.Thisdatabaseisusedtolocateandpreventconflicts betyeen sensitivenaturalresourcefeaturesandproposeddevelopmentprojects.TheRegionalHeritageProjecthasalsobeeninvolvedintheprotectionofcavesthroughcavegating,andthecreationofprotectedSmallWildAreas,hassupportedcave-relatedresearch,andparticipated cavemanagementsymposiums.FINK11:30THURSDAY143

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144PROBLEMSOFMANAGEMENTOFTRANSVAALCAVESFrancesM.GambleDept.ofGeographyandEnvironmentalStudiesUniversityoftheWitwatersrand1JanSmuts AvenueJohannesburg2001SouthAfricaThe managementofkarstcavesisinterpreted'astheprocesswhichoptimizestheresourcepotentialofthecave.Thisprocessvariesconsiderablybetweencaves,fromanundisturbedecosystemtocommercialdevelopment.Theproblemsinvolvedinsuchmanagementareconsiderable.TheyvaryfromcommonproblemsofawarenessofinvolvedpartiesandexploitationoftheresourcetoproblemsmorespecifictotheTransvaalarea.Theselatterincludeaspectssuchasculture,populatondistributionand mining practices.Contrarytotheseproblemstherearefewcurrentpositiveaspectstomanagement.Itisimperativethatthe pressingoftheproblems,inthefieldsofawareness,distributionandadministration,shouldbeminimizedassoonaspossible.Theproblemsofmanagementarenot'seenasbeinginsurmountable,butratheraslong-termundertakingsonthepartofallconcernedparties. GAMBLE I9:30THURSD1\"I ...

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THERESOURCEPOTENTIALOFTRANSVAALCAVESFrancesM.GambleDept.ofGeographyandEnvironmentalStudiesUniversityoftheWitwatersrand1JanSmuts AvenueJohannesburg2001SouthAfricaTheresourcepotentialofkarstcavesintheTransvaalisassessed termsofboththepositiveandnegativeaspectsofinteractionbetweenManandthecaveenvironment.Cavesintheareahavehadusesvaryingfromplacesofshelter,tosourcesoffertilizerandtotouristattractions.SuperimposedonthesepositiveaspectsoftheecosystemsarethehazardstoMan,whichareofvaryingsignificanceindifferentcaves.ThesenegativefeaturesincludetheoccurrenceofHistoplasminspores,andofhigh ofbothCarbonDioxideandofRadon. Withrecognitionofthebalancebetweenthepositiveandnegativeaspectsoftheresource,andwithsoundmanagementpractices,thepotentialoftheindividualcaveecosystemsmayberealized.Thispotentialwillincreaseovertimeaspopulationpressuresonwildernessareasincreaseandasculturesadapttochangesinlifestyle.ItisimperativethereforethatthetotalresourcepotentialofthecavesystemsintheTransvaalshouldbeacknowledged,andthattherebymismanagementofthe shouldbeavoided.GAMBLEII14:00THURSDAY145

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146KARSTCAVEMANAGEMENTMODELLINGINTHETRANSVAALFrancesM.GacbleDept.ofGeography andEnvironmentalStudiesUniversityoftheWitwatersrand1JanSmuts AvenueJohannesburg2001SouthAfricaThenecessityfora management modelforuseinTransvaalkarstcaveareasisevidentfromtheoccurrenceofbothintentionalandunintentionalexploitationofcaveresources.Suchmodellingiscomplex,dependingonthespecificregionandtheindividualcavetowhichit is applied.Theconcernofthepaperiswiththegeneralrequirements,natureandfeasibilityofsuchmodelling.Bothphysicalandsocialenvironmentalconsiderationsareincorporated.The modelisbasedonthemostextremeconditionsofsusceptibilitytodisturbanceofacavesystem,that is on astaticcave.Itsnaturevariesfromdescriptivetomathematical.Thesuccessofthemodelasa managementtoolisdependent npon itsflexibilitypermittingmodificationforindividualapplicationsandeaseofinterpretation.Manyofthegeneralprinciplesaretransferabletocavesinotherrocktypesand/or in othergeographicalregions.GAMBLEIII8:30FRIDAY

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ADESIGNFORCONSERVATIONANDMANAGEMENTOFCAVERESOURCESONMISSOURI PUBLICLANDSJamesE.Gardner*andTrevaL.Gardner***WildlifeBiologist,NaturalHistorySectionMissouriDepartmentofConservationP.O.Box180JeffersonCity,Missouri65102**ProjectAssistant,NaturalHistorySectionMissouriDepartmentofConservationP.O.Box180JeffersonCity,Missouri"65102TheMissouriDepartmentofConservation,MarkTwainNationalForest,DivisionofParksandHistoricPreservationandNorthCentralForestExperimentStation-Columbia,Missouri,recognizedtheneedforacomprehensivecavemanagementprogram.TheDepartmentofConservation'sDesignforConservationplanprovidedtheinitiativeforacooperativelyfundedcaveinventoryproject.SincetheinitiationofthecaveinventoryinOctober,1978,valuabledataonMissouri'scaveresourceshavebeengathered.Stepstoprovideprotectiontoanumberofcaveshavealreadybeentakenandmanagementplanshavebeeninitiatedforadditionalcaves.TheDesignplan was amajorsteptowardmanagementanaenhancementofcaveresourcesonpubliclandsinMissouri.ThroughDesigndirectives,severalCa"1eShavebeenpurchasedtoprovideprotectionforendangeredspecies. Two caveshavebeendesignatednaturalareassoastopreservecaveecosystemsforstudyandfutureenjoyment.Morecavesarebeingconsideredfornaturalareas.FundingthroughDesignhasbroughtaboutinventoriesandresearchonnon-gamecaveanimals.Informationprogramsandpublicawarenesseffortshavehelpedtoelicitneededsupportforcaveconservationandprotection.Completionofthecooperativecaveinventoryshouldbringaboutabetterunderstandingofspeleo-resourcesonMissouripubliclandsandhopefullyprovidesuccessfulsolutionstomanagementproblems.Missourihassetaprecedentforaqualitycavemanagementandconservationprogram.ThroughDesignprogramslikethecaveinventory, canbetterprotectsomeofitlscaveheritageasaqualityresource.GARDNER llf ;00 llWRSDAY 147

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148CAVEMANAGEMENT,ABUREAUOFLAND APPROACHJames GoodbarandJ.B.HummelBureauofLand ManagementRoswellDistrictOfficeP.O.Box 1397Roswell,NewMexico88201ThispaperdealswiththeBureauofLandManagement'sphilosophyandmethodsof caveresourcesonpubliclandsintheUnitedStates.Ourapproachisbasicallyconservation/preservationintegratinguniquecaveresourceswithothernaturalresourcecombinedcomprehensivelanduseplan.GOODBAR14:30FRIDAYorientedtowardprogramsintoa

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T1:E CONSERVATIONOFCAVEINVERTEBRATESbyFrancisG.HowarthB.P.BishopMuseum,P.O.Box19000-A,Honolulu,HI,USA,96819 Thesometimesbizarreadaptationsthatrestrictobligatecaveanimalstoalifeincaves,coupled theirisland-likehabitat,havereinforcedtheassumptionthatcaveanimalsaresomehowfragileandthereforeleadanendangeredexistence.Althoughmanycaveanimalsundoubtedlyareendangered,thedevelopmentof management recommendationsfortheirconservationishamperedbythelackofgoodecologicaldataconcerningtherequirementsofthespecies.Forexample,whatfactorslimitcaveanimaldistribution;whataretheperturbations;andhowdothesecauserarityandendangerment?Indeed,experimentalecologicalstudiesincavesaredifficultsinceinfewotherhabitatsismansoclearlyanintruderthaninthesubterraneanworld.Cavesarefragilewindowsthroughwhichmancanvisitandstudythefaunathatlivesintheuniqueenvironmentwithincavernousrock.Furthermore,ithasonlybeenwithinthelastdecadethatbiologistshaverealizedthathighly caveinvertebratesalsoliveinlavatubesandintropicalcaves.Indeed,manycavesthreatenedbylandusechangeshaveneverbeensurveyed,andtheirbiologicalresourcesremainunknown. The followir.; aresomeofthemajorthreatstothecaveecosystem:1)miningactivities,2)landusechangessuchasdeforestationandurbanization,3)alterationofgroundwaterflowpatterns,4)wastedisposalandpollution,5)localextirpationoftrogloxenes(afoodsource),6)theintroductipnofnon-nativespecies,and7)directhumandisturbancefromvisitation.HOWARTH10:30FRIDAY149

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150PANELDISCUSSIONONCAVE HANAGEMENT ModeratedbyGeorgeHuppertDepartmentofGeographyTheUniversityof Wisconsin LaCrosseLaCrosse,Wisconsin54601Apanelwillbeselectedfromtheattendees,representingthecross-sectionofinterestandbackground.Thisshouldprovideinformativesession. Some oftheanticipatedtopicsinclude:1.Whatarethemajorproblemsofcavemanagement1.nthedifferentcountriesrepresented?2.Whatexistingcavelawsaretherein -the variouscountriesdotheywork?3. What istheroleof couunercial cavesaretheyahelporahinderancetomanagement?4.Whatexactlyisthedefinitionofcavemanagement,howfararewewillingtogoinordertoreachthosegoals?s.Whatdoesthefutureholdforcavemanagement?6.Howcan WL besteducatethepublic to thevaLueofcaves?greatestaveryAnyother topicsrelatedLt.)caveTuanageh.l.ent.,ill. alsobediscussed. This discussion is plannedon informal,fullp<1LCicipation event.

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SPECIAL MANAGEHENT CONSIDERATIONSOFLAVACAVESJamesNieland,*LibbyNieland,**andEllenBenedict, Ph.D.# *RecreationAssistant,St.HelensRangerDistrict Box 9,St.HelensR.S.,Cougar, lilA 98616 **NSS, Box9,St.HelensR.S.,Cougar, WA 98616#DepartmentofBiology, Pacific University,ForestGrove,OR97116Uniquefeaturesoflavatubecavesareonlybeginningtoberecognized.Foryearstheyhavebeenrelegatedtoa"step-child"relationshiptolimestonecaves.Evennowfewspeleologistsstudylavacaves;mostregardthemassterilecuriosities.Uniquefeaturesoflavacavesarelittlestudiedorremainunidentified.Likelimestonecavestheypossessawealthofvaluableinformationtogeologists,biologists,archeologists,paleontologists,andhistorians. Management problemsariseprimarilyfromafailureto.recognizetheirsignificance.For yearsnthey havebeenlefttomanagethemselves.Asaresulttheyhavebeendynamited,dugup,usedastrashdumps,spraypainted,andtheirformationsremovedbyrockcollectors.Fireshavebeensetinguanodeposits,caveanimalstrappedorkilled,anddelicatesandformationstrampledintooblivionbycarelessvisitors.LavatubecavesoccurmostlyinthewesternUnitedStates;nearlyallarefoundwestofthecontinentaldivide,primarilyonpubliclyownedland.Theburdenofmanagement,therefore,fallsmostlyongovernmentagencies.Inthepast,managementhasmostlybeenundertakenwithoutconsiderationofallpotentialeffectsuponthecaves.Thishasoftenresultedinunnecessarydamage.Twocaves,LavaRiver Cave,Oregon, andApeCave,Washington,hadatonetimecelicatesandcastles.Bothcaves were developedsothepubliccouldeasilyviewthesefeatures.Ittookonlyafewyearstotramplethesesand intorouuded sand humps.Toeffectivelyevaluateandmanagecave rcsou=ces, mustbeinventoriedfortheirfeaturesandsignificance. decinionsneedtobe made accordingly.A ofmanagement and alternativesareavailable.Many lava cavesarelocatedfarfromhuman hc)itationand arethusprotectedbyobscurity. These arebest managed by beingallol.ed to remain obscure with aslittleattentionbeing tothem as possible.Caveswithahistoryofusearetheones tha t warr.::mt most management concern.Thesehavebeenmanagedina number ofways. They have been gatedwithaccessbeinggrantedtogroupswithanagency guide, andtheyhavebeencommercialized,ordevelopedforself-guidedtours. Caves of special significancehavebeenincludedinnationalmonuments,in federal researchnaturalareos,orplacedunderspecialusepermitsforGcientificstudies.Thechallengeishowtogetaway froD!the"band-aid"approachtolava caveDU:l.n':ll:;ement.b BENEDICT 11:30FRIDAY---151

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152PROTECTIONOFICECAVESDr.FriedErichOedlGetreidegasse21AS020SalzburgAustriaIntheNorthernAlpstherearenumerouscavesinwhichicecanbefoundthewholeyearover.Someoftheseareopentothepublic.Themajorityofthemaresocalleddynamicicecaveshavingatleasttwoentrances.Withtheexampleofthe (Salzburg,Austria)somespecialproblemsappearinginthisice ere' dealtwithinthispaper.Ingeneral,protectionofstalagmitesandstalacitesandothercavesubstancesagainstwantonorcarelessdestructionisthemaintaskofcaveprotection,assuchdestructionscannotberepairedbynatureduringoneormore humangenerations.Inicecaveshowever,thereisacontinuousalternationoftheicenotonlyaccordingtotheseasonbutalsofromyeartoyear.Icecaveprotectionshouldthereforecoveralltaskstomaintainthenaturalrhythmoficeinthecave.Theterm"dynamicicecave"incontrasttotheterm"staticicecave"wasoriginallychosenduetoconsiderablenaturalcaveventilationbeingresponsibleforicealterationwithinthecave.Consequences explorationsresultingfromhumaninterferencein alterationarediscussed.Resultsofexplorationsoveraperiodofmorethan100yearsinthis cave, whichwasopenedtothepublicmorethan60yearsago,permittogiveareportonexperiences made there.Inotherconcernsitisreferredtofutureexploration.It ismade clear that mair.tenanceofcavetemperature,cave andwater flowareofdecisiveimportance.Thepaper dealsvithqUtsH_ol1s of andmaintenanceofpassagesforthepublicand the0ffpct of largeEcale visitsonthelifeoficeandonthecleanlinesswithin thecave.Fin311y questionsofsuitablecaveilluminationare discussed.

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TI{EBLUE-GREENALGAEINTHECANGOCAVESSYSTEMHansOosthuizenSouth Africa Duringthepastfewyearsthegrowthofblue-greenalgaeincreaseddramatically1nthetouristpartoftheCangoCavessystem.Thehighhumidityof95%andthehightemperatureof18degreesC+,causedby bodytemperatureandelectricallightshasproducedanidealstateforthegrowthoftheblue-greenalgaewascreated.153Fluorescentlightsarenotpracticalforuseinthisconsequentlythemoreconventionaltypeoflightsareused,settingheatintotheatmospheretostimulatethegrowthofthealgae.cave,freeandmoreTheuseoffiltersforalllightsinthecavesystemwascarriedoutwithsuccess,butcausedacommercialandgarisheffectinthecave.Useofa4%formalinsolutiontobesprayedonthef0rmationsprovednegative.Experimentswithasolutionofbutyl-alcoholconcentratebymeansofabrushprovedsuccessfulasthealgaewasremovedquiteeasily,leavingtheformationsfreeofalgae.ExperimentsstartingduringFebruary1979andformationstreatedstillclearofalgaegrowth.butyl-alcoholobtainedthebestresultswithoutthemselves.uptodate,havelefttheAnundilutedmixtureof damagin; theformationsThedestruction efected bythealgaecanbeextensive.Solutionsofbutyl-alcoholandepsomsaltsisproducingpositiveresultswiththe"rejuvenation"oftheso-called"dead Iormations". IREAD_B_Y_:_M_' C_'T_'_S_C_H_'U_L 12__1_1-J 9:30FRIDAY

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154EXPEDITION 78ReportedbyMichaelC.T. Schultz TownClerk/Director,CangoCaves P.O. Bcx225OudtshoornSouthAfricaTheCangoCavescanbeconsideredasthree points,CangoI,II,andIII.TheexplorationofCangoIIInecessitatedadetailedsurveytorelatefeaturesinCangoIIIwiththoseinCangoIandII.ThesituationiscomplicatedbyasumpbetweenCangoIIandIIIthatmustbepumpedoutto allow accesstoCangoIII.Four1978,andbasecamrexited.team.caverswereestablishedinacampinsideCangoIlIonAugust30,thesumpwasallowedtosealthemin.TheysurveyedoutoftheiruntilSeptember3,1978,whenthesumpwaspumpedoutandtheyAtotalof1,900mwassurveyed(950moutand950mback)bytheTheexpedition represonts inventoryingacavethatisbeing theurnque difficul tiE''> sedasaresourceofadequately

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REPORT 0: THECAVEINVERTEBRATESPECIALISTGROUPSSC!IUCN13-15JULY,1981R.E.Stebblings,ChairmanChiropteraGroup,SSC/IUCNTheInstituteofTerrestrialEcology WoodExperimentalStationAbbotsRipton,HuntingdonEnglandPEll2LSTheInternational Vnion forConservationofNatureandNaturalResources,headquarteredinGland,Switzerland,wasfoundedin1948asanindependent,international,non-governmentalorganizationinordertopromotescientifically-basedactiondirectedtowardsthesustainableuseandconservationofnaturalresources.Atpresent,IUCNhas444votingmembersin106countries,thesemembersbeingStates(52),governmentagencies(114)andnon-governmentalorganizations(278).ThemembersmeettrienniallyataGeneralAssemblytodeterminepoliciesandbroadelementsofIUCN'sprogram.AmajorproportionofthedevelopmentandexecutionofIUCNprogramsisdonebythesixcommissionswhicharecomposedofvolunteerexpertsintheirfield.TheS.peciesSurvivalCommission(SSC)ischargedwiththeresponsibilityforconservationprogramsconcerningthreatenedspeciesoffaunaandflora.TheworkoftheSSCislargelydonebyspecialistgroups.These groups, nownumberingapproximately60,havetraditionallyaddressedendangeredspecies problems bytaxonomicgroups,e.g.,theBearGroup,theChiropteraGroup,andthePrimateGr.oup.TheCaveInvertebratesSpecialistGroupisoneofthefirstgroupsthat ahabitat.155TheInaugralmeetingofthe Cave InvertebratesSpecialistGroupwasatMurrayStateUuiversity,July13-15,1981.Areport00thatmeeting,onthegoalsoftheSpecialistGroupwillbepresented.STEBBLINGS8:30THURSDAYheldand

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156"SHOWCAVES-EDUCATIONALENTERTAINMENTFORFRonTTHROUGHPROMOTIONANDMANAGEMENT"JackSteinerLookoutMountainCaverns,Inc.LookoutMountainScenicHighwayChattanooga,TN37409JoeWaggonerLost Sea, Inc.Route2Sweetwater,TN37837ThisseminarwillbegivenbyJoeWaggoner, ManagerofLost Sea, Jack Steiner, PresidentofRubyFalls,bothofwhichareprivatelyownedcaves.and showJackSteinerwillmake apresentationonthepromotionaltechniquesofRubyFallsandgivesomeinsightintovariousadvertising usedbythemandothershowcaves.Joe waggoner willpresentthemanagementandconservationtechniquesusedby showcaveoperatorsandthedailyresponsibilitiesandproblemsthatareincurred.JackSteinerwillthenendtheShow Cave tioD wi th "Why Profit?". i STErNER&WAGGONERIL14;30

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HISTORYOFCAVE XANAGEHENT SYMPOSIAINTHEUNITEDSTATESOF ANERICA ANOVERVIEWRobertR.StittPresident-elect,NationalSpeleologicalScoiety14179thAve. WestSeattle,WA98119 Theterm"cave managenent" intheUnitedStatesofAmericaincludesthemanagementofallcaves,includingwildcavesandshowcavesbyavarietyofmanagers:cavers,privatelandowners,governmentagenciesonboththeFederalandStatelevels;foravarietyofpurposes,includingpreservation,recreation,tourism,andindustrialuses.Cave managementintheU.S.A.undoubtedlybeganinthelastcenturyasprivatecaveownersbeganexhibitingthemtothepublic,butitwasnotuntilthemiddleofthetwentiethcenturythatcavers--activeusersofcaves--andcaveowners,primarilyinthevariousstateandfederal managinglandcontainingcaves,begantocarryonaseriousdialogueaboutcavemanagement.ThisdialogueledtothefirstNationalCave Management Symposium 1n Albuquerque,NewMexicointhefallof1975.TheapproximatelyonehundredattendeesproducedthefirstofmanyvolumesofsymposiumproceedingsandbeganaserieswhichhasculminatedinthisInternationalCave Management Symposium.SinceAlbuquerquein1975,nationalsymposia beenheldinMountainView,'Arkansasin1976;BigSky,Montanain1977;Carlsbad,NewMexicoin1978;andMammothCave,Kentuckyin1980.In1979,manyregionalsymposiawereheld,andthistraditioncarriedoninto1980 and1981.STIIT: OPENINGADDRESS 20:00 \.}EDNESDAY 157

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158UNDERGROUNDWILDERNESSACONSERVATIONPRINCIPLESANDA TOOLRobertR.Stitt14179thAve. WestSeattle,WA98119USAwiththepassageoftheWildernessActin1964,theCongressoftheUnitedStatesofAmericaestablishedtheNationalWildernessPreservationSystemfortheprotectionofnaturallandsintheU.S.A.Caveconservationistshavearguedformanyyearsthatcaves,becauseoftheiruniquenature,couldandshouldbeincludedintheNationalWildernessPreservationSystemwithoutfurtherstatutoryauthority.Theyhaveintroducedtheconceptof"undergroundwilderness"todescribewhatmanyconsidertobetheworld'slasttruewilderness--completelyuntouched,inmanycases,bythehandofman.AlthoughtodatenocaveshavebeenincludedintheSystemon their ownmerits,someFederalagencieshaveacceptedthevalidityoftheconcept,buthavedeclinedtoaskCongesstoimplementit.Thispaperwilderness,thediscussionofthepresentsaworkingandlegaldefinitionofundergroundapplicationoftheconcepttocave?reservation,and aprospects for obtainingsuchapplicationinthefuture.[STInIII13: '30 FRIDAYJ .._-,--

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ISOTOPE STUDIESONA SELECTED STALAGHITE IICAVE,OUDTSHOORNJ.C.VogelNaturalIsotopesDivisionNPRLPretoriaAslenderstalagmitestanding273cmhighatthefurtherendoftheCangoIIcave was selectedforadetailedisotopicinvestigation.Thealmofthestudy was toobtainarecordofenvironmentaltemperaturechangesduringthepast40,000years oy the0-18/0-16ratiosandC-14contentsofthesuccessive growth levelsoftheatalagmite.Foursections(0-50em,50-99em,165-195cm,195-225emmeasuredfromthetopdown)ofthestalagmitehavebeenanalyzed.Eightsamplesfromtheavailablesections were datedbymeansofC-14.Theresultsrevealthefollowinggrowthpattern:Thebase1Sapproximately34,200yearsold,withagrowthrateof5cm/l000years,followedbyastagnationperiod,thengrowthtothepresentat16cm/l000years. We havelocatedaconfinedgroundwateraquiferinthesouthernCapeinwhich the ageofthewaterincreasesregularlyfromthepresentbacktonearly30,000yearsago.Samplesfromthisaquiferhaveprovideduswithacontinuousrecordofthe0-18/0-16contentofprecipitationsincethemiddleoftheUpperPleistocene.Byusingthisdataand0-18measurementsonthestalagmitethefollowingtentativechangesln temperature havebeencalculated:1595,800yrsB.P.14,000yrsB.P.30,000yrsB.P.READBY:SCHULTZIII+1.5C-6C-5C11:00FRIDAY

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160CAVE MANAGEHE-NT INBRITISHCOLUMBIA,CANADAPhil Hhitheld VancouverIslandCaveoftheGroup521WestInnesStreetNelson,B.C.CANADAV1L3J2BritishColumbia's948,847kmareacontainsawidevarietyofsolution,volcanic,glacier,littoralandtaluscaves.Lioestonekarstiswelldistributed,butonlyportionsofthemoreaccessiblesouthernareashavebeenexploredtodate.Reportsof up to700limestonecavesmakesthiscategorythemostprevalentand cavetypeintheProvince.Most knowncaveandkarstfeaturesoccurinareasofCrown(i.e.federalorprovincialgovernment)jurisdictionorforestconlpanyownership.Priortothe1960's,onlythe Nakimu CavesinGlacierNationalParkhadreceivedany managementattention.However,withtheadventoforganizedcavinggroupsinthe1960's,newexplorationsanddiscoveriesbroughtbothahigherpublicprofileforcavesandpressurebycaversforgovernmentcaveconservationmeasures.In1976,ParksCanadabeganareassessmentofitspoliciesontheNakimuCaves,whichhadbeenclosedtothepublicsince1940.Threeyearslater,theBritishColumbia Governmentbeganaprocesstoproducebroadpoliciesoncavemanagement. Thoughitreceivedinputfrom awiderangeofcavers,interestgroups,industriesandgovernmentagencies,theprocesssufferedinitiallyfrompoormanagementandadecadeoldschismintheProvincialcavingcommunity.InspiteofoneprominentBritishColumbiacavingorganization'srefusaltocontributetotheprocess,apolicystatementwaseventuallyreleasedinMay1981.Meanwhile,theMinistryofForests,theProvincesmajorlandmanagementagency,hadpreparedaspecificmanagementplanforone important caveunderitsjurisdictionandhasstartedwork on ageneralmanagementpolicyforallcavescnCrownforestlands.Althoughthesegovernemnt initiatives aresignificant,oneofthemostimmediateimpedimentstoeffectivecavemanagement in BritishColumbiaremainsthelackof communicationandcoordinationamongcavers.Thisproblemhas reduced overall caver credibility hasweakenedtheeducationaleffectivenessofthecaveconservationlobby. W1ITFIELD 10:30THURSDAY

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THE M,ERICAN CAVECONSERVATIONASSOCIATION CAVE AMERICAJohnM.WilsonRichmondAreaSpeleologicalSocietyP.O.Box25594Richmond,VA23260RecentlytheRichmondAreaSpeleologicalSocietyCRASS)tooktheinitiativetohelpestablishtheAmericanCaveConservationAssociation(ACCA).Thisistobe a membershipassociationforbothindividualandorganizationsinterestedinowning,managingandprotectingcaves.Itisourhopethatthisorganizationcanworkincooperation with allotherorganizationsinterestedin cave conservation.TheACCA interestedinidentifyingcavesthatare needofprotection,thenlocatingthemeans bywhichthiscanbedone,byprivatelandowner,governmentagency,scientificorganizationsandcavingsocieties.Byworkingwithexistingcavemanagemententities,andfacilitatingtheir work, theACCAbelievesthatasignificantcontributioncanbemadetothesafeguardingandpreservationofcavesintheUnitedStates.WILSON12:00FRIDAY161

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162INTERPRETATION AS A TOOLINCAVECONSERVATIONANDMANAGEMENTEdward E. Wood,Jr.Chief,InterpretationandResourceManagement LehmanCavesNationalMonument (NPS)Baker,NV,USAEffectiveinterpretationcanbeavaluabletooltoaidspeleologists in thepresentationandperpetuationofcaveresources.Since 3. majorityofpeopleareonly occasiona1visitorstocavesandtheyconfinetheirvisitstocommercialorshowcaves,theburdenofdemonstratingthevalueoftheundergroundrealmliesalmostentirelywiththeinterpretivepresentationsavailableatshow caves. Aconcertedeffortmustbemaintainedbythemanagersofshowcavestodemonstrateahighlevelofconcernforconservationoftheirresourceaswellasincavesingeneral.Fromtheinstantavisitorarrivesatacave,heisinfluencedbyeveryaspectofthecperationthegrounds,thefacilities,theinterpretivestaffandtheresourceitself.Tobeeffective,interpretationmustprogressbey one thehypothesized speleogenesis. offormationsandincludeentertainingelementsaswell.Spontaneity,enthusiasmandexpertiseofinterpretersbecomesparamount.AreviewofsometechniquesinuseatshowcavesintheUnitedStatesdemonstratesthatcreativitydoesnothavetobesacrificedinachievingtheconservationtheme.Only byfosteringagenuineappreciation population,ofthecomplexityoftheforceseffectingcaves,canexpecttobeabletorallysupportforcaveconservation.Whenimportantresourcestoeveryone,thejobofconservingthemeaS1er.thegeneralspeleologistscavesbecomewillbecome Roo BY:9:00

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FACILITIES A campusmaphasbeenprovided(seefollowingpages)toassistyou locatingthevariousplacesontheUniversitycampus.SpecificallymarkedarethelocationoftheUniversityCenter,wherethepresentationswillbemade; WinslowCafeteria,wherethemealswillbeservedandwherethewineandcheesesocialat19:30onJuly15thwillbeheld;HartHall,theresidenceforCongressparticipants;and LowryCenter,wheretheMARCtourwillbegivenat19:30onJuly16th.Ifyouhaveanyproblemslocatingfeaturesonthecampus,askoneoftheSymposium organizers, oranyofthestudents,facultyorstaffaroundyou.TheUniversityCenteristhehuboftheSymposium.It openfrom7:00to22:00duringtheSymposium.Itcontainsabookstorewithalargedisplayofitems,whichisopenfrom7:30to15:30.Therearethreeareastogetfoodinthecenter:theSweetShoponthesecondfloor,open10:00to14:00;oralunchroomonthesecondflooropen7:00 t9 14:00;and adiningroom onthefirstflooropenfrom18:00to22:00.PleasenotetherearenoeatingfacilitiesintheUniversityCenterbetween14:00and18:00.ApostofficeisavailableintheCenter,openfrom7:30to14:30,andtheCentercontainsloungingareas,awell-equippedgame room,andstereoheadphones.Amoviewill De shown onThursdayeveningintheauditorium.Allmealsarecoveredintheregistrationfee,andareservedatthedininghallatWinslowCafeteria.Symposiumparticipantsmayeatelsewhereiftheychoose,butcannotbereimbursedformealsmissedatthecafeteria.Mealtimesare:breakfast,6:30to8:30;lunch,11:00to13:00;dinner16:30to18:00.KEYTOLOCATIONSONTHE CAJ1PUS MAP163 Alphabetical liating Agr1cu11ur-1IJs.hopbuUdt"'i624Aprhed6r.d Building l'.1bc.kbumaulding t9 Nof"th 4 &.alnes5SCM .,h 5C.vrnan P .."",lkln58C.4ITHr:a/rhBuHdiOC)CAntrillKUling"""CooJlngPlAnt 20 Ce-tamiUl..6borbtory 22 O.v"t1411 46 Courtlt'Ioo6d1l)}4.!J A700 ...,1' B 800 til;' C 800 o !.()() E 900Wllf f 400\rIlfr, 200 w .... H 100 unIt t 300 un"J1000 :Jt\lt KllOO U'\1t L 1200 U"lltCurdnnRJcMlOn.v40.nHouwb81-1". Arh Centlid'I.!JEat1vCatl.... 62 nlLOotN'hH..n41.... f s.utoFOo""h.6!1Pt..nruhft:f 1 F' .".:tnH.. II -&."lGelll"MGrnrtC"... '11 H.,owwllo..onFt.id6JH .. -.('WII"'''-'''''')OJ'!"'''''S4.h......b"C...HoWlrt.nSO"""""'nhMJ404....Jottu..-,......:, I t-bWlOOBuildJng 21 Industr,... 1 F.dUClUIOilauUdlng J6 Audllorlum 1417 ComleYB.VoJUI')Il.l.tll 37 MSUL"bo,...,ory<'1M[}.".morl'l,,,f1on Fann MurphyVon 61 N..nHe"",U.Ptt>p(.>Ydulc.n!Il'k)lulcompkt 67 :"4ollhfann5.5N-lt1nTcnnhcourtsb9{p,..,tcknl'.hotno.rJ 1Ord ....,.,H.'\!I 30 Ph"uclllPI."."Comolex 52 PooIU'.Sp.-c,""C"lktcuo,"Uhf..,,., 7 R..:".,AJrn43t; R .. .&qAi\Field 27 t"'... 11 .NP.lChrT'QntlHAil47ant!. 26 mt'v"QllldLN\..(.rtll.., JJ StMnT"Hnl\. 41 .. \If Alloltknl 2 Sp.ocINl:r1..x:.t'onBul:ldlf'C) J2 Spt""'1"'"....>611ol'lS........erl!)I\.::,.fvbbf .. ..""onl.#TW1ll 11 ..flCCY J2 tt...lSl.\oolntool'1" (".,..,In2'1Lnl..."'l\/'Poo-ot.... ...11OnhOW.lrd, .. lfl lit' ....,..., I)W.lh !f"lUW,'"I"WroA1'('''''1611,'1'l.vM"... k........ t l dl'....""",llor'1.i.1J.'i\/. .. .. ,t-l,,11b\4',,,,-t)w f .J.t .,.....4.JV. .. h. II,., IIW'4Ih........V-UI"I".)NumericZlI listing1 OakhtUltrro:1:d.:nt'lhl)(T'l"J 2 H,)!1 (;)oJmlnl1.:all\,.oillen) 3 Wraln<1 Mu.wum54 4 8usJm.'UNorlh S B\nloC'\.S South6 H ... lI7 PogceCollalions library8 Lo-IY C .....'t'f 9 H"l1 to F.1:uhyH.'lll 11 ;:)Iubbhheld)rr.\onum..nl12')o..-claJlthJCot"""IJUlI4I... lJ V.al.,di..ltJ tIbr SJY' 14 Ww:llAu.lllooumISOoyt.FlnC'Alt..Cmfa 16 indusfrl.'(duc31h>nUUlkhn'1 17 Appltcd T Khnoloo:.-v Bu:ldlng 18 Well .. 19 lil...:ktk.n1.oMc0l:BulldlOCJ 20 CmllaJt_-..""'9.AdCoolingPlanl 21 "6ow:0f'IBYlldll"lq 22. ecr........olAbof.lory24Aqncvh....,'Shop bUilding 2.\Swtw"lf'l2b$urlty"""JfIT\4IkA'l..."9 27 1, .. 1d21tIino"tJ.wc.,2'1l).\I...-."lly.lu Ord .....,. J1 W., .. ,bHAll32')11"at""",,,,1".01"lJ'iWt\&,Moo\o,'"tuld(IrotvH....nAJ .. na :n Muon,""1.lIt""''''''4',""'1.:r, H .."...".,\..)Ji""'It J loun urnlK 1100umt L 1200 or"Ill46OAt"41 H ..II 48 F,an4l,ltot--t.1l 49 s,x""l<'Holl..""H..rtH.JJtloUlJngOHkcS2Ph\o-...KAJPt.n,\Volr<.-r'\IUCIoV....-..dEAfJO'.ll"'1lClm,....Lsbrofa .. wy andl:Nmon""'.ltOnto_NOli" Farm !J.bt"...,..." f ....llb.llII..",.:vtCIlIT"Wl.. I :....-rvwnt:i... .... "..1"'...... .,.1\1"'--',I.1Ih.,.."1 , t.",..,.y\ .. It.:l ... lyC1 .... liF\o.od<:..,......to'...,,"' .. ..iM..." .... onf\";oIi......hbNaIt'IHo\.lM"t\l1.........1f....-...... .., ...".,w.bdl),....,.,.....b"l:-.....ou...

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164HARTHALL WINSLOW UNIVERSITY CENI'ER LOWRY CENl'ER (MARC) "M,,:,yCMIPUS!""'IIVERSIlMURF.AY STATEu --

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSAsDirectoroftheSymposium, Iwouldliketoacknowledgeand thank themanypeopleandinstitutionsthathavehelpedmakethissymposiumhappen.AppreciationgoestotheEighthInternatonalCongressofSpeleologyandalltheorganizersandworkersassociated therein, forwithouttheCongresstherewouldbeno Symposium.Additionally,aheartywelcome andthankyoutotheparticipantsandpresenterswhoattendedtheSymposium,andaddedtheirideasandenergiestotheevent.Again,withoutyoutherewouldbe no Symposium.Finally,andmostimportant,averydeepthankstoMurrayStateUniversityandallthestaff,facultyandstudentswhoworkedsohardtoprovidea warm, stimulatingandproductiveatmosphere.SpecialthanksheregotoPhilDeaver,DirectorofContinuingEducation;ChuckHulick,DirectorofHousing;JoeDyer,DirectorofFoodServices;andDave Kratzer, DirectoroftheUniversityCenter.AfinalwordofgratitudetoBeckyLatsonandGena Wilson, whokeptthewholethingtogether.165

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FIRSTINTERNATIONALCAVEMANAGEMENTSYMPOSIUMREGISTRATIONLIST167BobAddis81SouthShoreRoad Cuba,NY14727AlbertAnavy 6121E.16thStreetTucson,AZ85711MicaAnavy 6121 E.16thStreetTucson,AZ85711JohnAsh Box13WaitomoCavesNewZealandEllenBenedict8106 S. E.CarltonStreetPortland,OR97206EarlBiffle26Lake RoadFenton,MO63026JohnBradyIndianaBat/GrayBatRecoveryTeamU.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineers210TuckerBlvd.NorthSt.Louis,MO63101 KayCravenDepartmentofGeosciencesMurrayStateUniversityMurray,KY42071Dr.EugeniodeBellard-PietriApartado80210PradosDelEsteCaracas,Venezuela108PatriciaFinkBox 664Norris,TN37828RichardFranzFloridaStateMuseumUniversityofFloridaGainesville,FL32611FrancesM.GambleDepartmentofGeographyUniversityoftheWitwatersrandJohannesburg,2001SouthAfricaJamesE.Gardner#30RollaGardensRolla,MO65401TrevaL.Gardner#30RollaGardensRolla,MO65401EmileGhanenP.O.Box 3636Beirut,LebanonJames GoodbarRoute2 Box 478BRosewell,NM88201FrancisG.HowarthB.P.BishopMuseumP.O.Box 19000-AHonolulu,HI96819 N.HuppertDepartmentofGeographyUniversityofLaCrosseLaCrosse,WI54601YolandaIliffeBermudaBiologicalStationSt.GeorgeBermudaTomIliffeBermudaBiologicalStationSt.GeorgeBermudaIakovosKarakostanoglouDepartmentofGeologyMcMasterUniversityL8S4M1HamiltonOntario,Canada

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168SameKarkabiMinistereduTourismeBeirut,Lebanon BeckyLatsonDepartmentofGeosciencesMurrayStateUniversityMurray,KY42071 EvaLechnerSchwarzstr.16SalzburgAustriaArthurT.LeitheuserFloridaStateMuseumMuseumRoadGainesville,FL32611GregoryJ.MiddletonP.O.Box 269 Sandy Bay, 7005Tasmania,AustraliaJerzyMikuszewski00719St.Zwierzyniecka11/17WarsawPolandHerbertMrkos 50RudolfZellergasseA1238 WienAustriaHeinrichMrkos 50RudolfZellergasseA1238 Wi enAustriaBarbaraMunsonRoute9 Box 106McMinnville,TN37110JohnE.MylroieDepartmentofGeosciencesMurrayStateUniversityMurray,KY42071AnnelisOedlThumeggerstr.24AS020SalzburgAustriaAlanC.ParkerP.O.Box 7057NewOrlenas,LA70186PhilPitchford5667HartHallMurrayStateUniversityMurray,KY42071CraigRudolphRoute10,Box 5280Nacogdoches,TX75961MichaelC.T.SchultzP.O.Box 255Oudtshoorn,6620SouthAfricaGordonSmithRoute3,Box 150FloydsKnobs, IN 47119JudySmithRoute3,Box 150FloydsKnobs,IN47119 R.E.Stebbingslnst.TerrestrialEcologyAbbotsRiptonHuntingdon,EnglandJackSteinerRoute4Chattanooga,TN37409RobStitt14179thAvenue WestSeattle, WA 89119Shun-IchiUenoDept.Zool.,NationalScienceMuseum3-23-1Hyakunin-ChoShinjuku,Tokyo 160JapanJoeE. WaggonerRoute1LostSeaPikeSweetwater,TN37874RichardL.Wallace3601N.FountaincrestDriveKnoxville,TN37918

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EridaWerlClaudiaSchossl6233 KrarnsachAustriaBettyWheeler1313 VineLaCrosse,WI54601PhilWhitfield521 WestInnesStreetNelson,B.C. Canada VIL3J2JohnM.WilsonBox 7017 Richmond,VA23221169

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170INTERNATIONALUNIONFORTHECONSERVATIONOFNATUREANDNATURALRESOURCES:SPECIESSURVIVALCOMMISSION:CAVEINVERTEBRATESSPECIALISTGROUPInaugralMeeting,MurrayStateUniversity,Murray,Kentucky,12-13July1981ProvisionalAgendaIntroductionNotethatunderappropriatetopicsnotedbelow(Action)arequestismadetoattendeesindicatingspecificactionstheyshouldundertakepriortothemeetingandbepreparedtoreportonatthemeeting.1.BackgroundonIUCNandSSC2.PurposeofGroup(a)Productionofactionprogram.(b)ScopeofinterestandrelationshipwithotherSSCgroupsandspeleologyorganizations.3.Membership(a)Sizeofgroupshouldremainmanageable(10-15).Eachmembershouldenlistthesupportofacadreofexpertcorrespondents.Action(b)Pleasebringtothemeetingalistofnamesandaddressesofpossiblenew membersand/orcorrespondents.(c)TermsofReference(draftattached).4.CommunicationsMostoftheworkofthegroupwillbeofnecessitybycorrespondence.Thechairmanwillprepareanddistributeanewsletteratleastannually.Meetingsmaybecalledonlyunderspecialcircumstances.5.ReviewoftheConservationStatusofCaveInvertebrateSpeciesthroughouttheWorldActionPleasecomepreparedtomake astatementaboutthesituationwithinyourareaofexpertise,bothgeographicallyandtaxonomically.Addressconservationproblemssuchasmining,landusepractices,sensitivityofcavefaunatovisitation,andtheproblemofpublicizingcavelocations.6.ResearchNeeds(a)Scopeoftheproblem.(b)Reasonsforendangermentandstrategiesforamelioratingtheirimpacts.(c)Carryingcapacityofcaves.(d)Biologicalsurveysofpoorlyknownbutthreatenedcaveareas.(e)Ecologicalstudies.

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7.Selectionofcriteriafordeterminingprioritiesforconservationaction(a)Defineterms--endangered,threatened,rare,etc.(b)Methodsofdocumentationofcavefaunadistributionandassessmentofpossiblethreats.(c)Specialconservationmeasuresshouldbetakenfor:(1)Especiallyrichcave:areaswhichareundermajorthreat,(2)Threatenedcaveareaswhichhavebeenpoorlysurveyed,(3)Extremelylocalizedendemicspecies,(4)Uniquespecies,(5)Caveswhichincludeothersignificantresources.8.DevelopActionPlan(a)ThegroupshouldpreparealistofspeciestobeincludedimmediatelyintheIUCNRedDataBook.(b)Thegroupshouldoutline5-10projectsandrankaccordingtopriorityoffunding.Action(c)Pleasecomeprepared \\li thalistofspecieswhichyouthinkcanbe included in the RedDataBookwithoutfurtherstudy.Pleaseincludeanoutlineofknownthreatstotheexistenceofthespeciesandanyconservationmeasuresinprogressorproposedtoprotectit.Action(d)Youmaysubmitoneormoreconservationproposals,includingapreliminarybudget,fordiscussionamongthegroup.9.AnyOtherBusinessFrancisG.Howarth18April1981171


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