Inside earth newsletter: a newsletter of the Cave & Karst Programs of the National Park Service

Inside earth newsletter: a newsletter of the Cave & Karst Programs of the National Park Service

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Inside earth newsletter: a newsletter of the Cave & Karst Programs of the National Park Service
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Inside Earth
U.S. National Park Service
U.S. National Park Service
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Geology ( local )
Recreation and Tourism ( local )
Resource Management ( local )
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United States


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Contents: A word from WASO: Program overview/ Dale Pate -- Preliminary NPS cave and karst summaries / Limaris Soto -- Reports from the field: Return to OZ / Shawn Thomas, Cave Technician, Carlsbad Caverns National Park -- -- Carbidimites in Wind Cave / Marc Ohms, Physical Science Technician, Wind Cave National Park -- -- Park updates: Buffalo National River / Kayla Sapkota and Scott House -- Carlsbad Caverns National Park / Stan Allison and Shawn Thomas -- Coronado National Memorial / Jason Mateljak and Matt Stoffolano -- Grand Canyon National Park / Deanna Greco -- Great Basin National Park / Gretchen Baker -- Jewel Cave National Monument / Dan Austin -- Lava Beds National Monument / Scott House -- Ozark National Scenic Riverways -- Timpanogos Cave National Monument / Andy Armstrong -- Wind Cave National Park / Rodney D. Horrocks.
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Vol. 16, no. 2 (2013)
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Newsletter of the Cave and Karst Programs Volume 16 Number 2 Inside Earth Cave and Karst Programs National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Lily pad speleothems in the Hall of the Flyi ng Monkeys, one of the recent discoveries in the Oz area of Lechuguilla Cave, Carls bad Caverns National Park. NPS Photo by James Hunter. Contents A Word from WASO Program Overview .............................................................................................................. ....................................................... 2 Preliminary NPS Cave and Karst Summaries ...................................................................................... ......................................... 4 Reports from the Field Return to Oz .................................................................................................................. ........................................................... 6 Carbidimites in Wind Cave ..................................................................................................... ................................................... 8 Park Updates BUFF, CAVE .................................................................................................................... .......................................................... 9 CORO .......................................................................................................................... ........................................................... 11 GRCA, GRBA .................................................................................................................... ...................................................... 12 JECA ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 13 LABE .......................................................................................................................... ............................................................. 14 OZAR .......................................................................................................................... ............................................................ 15 TICA ............................................................................................................................... ......................................................... 16 WICA .......................................................................................................................... ............................................................ 17


2 Inside Earth Vol. 16 No. 2 Fall 2013 Calendar March 2014 15-22nd 16th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology, Puerto Ayora, Galpagos Islands, Ecuador, http:// symposia.html June 2014 5-15th Karst Without Boundaries hydrology conference and eld seminar, Croatia July 2014 14-18th National Speleological Society (NSS) Convention at the new NSS Headquarters, Huntsville, Alabama October 2014 19-22nd Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada March/April 2015 29-2nd George Wright Society Conference, Oakland, California http:// July 2015 13-17th NSS Convention, Waynesville, Missouri NSSConvention2015 November 2015 1-4th Geological Society of America Annual Meeting Baltimore, Maryland meetings/2015/ July 2016 17-23rd NSS 75th Anniversary Convention in Ely, Nevada https:// Submit Entries for the Calendar to A Word from WASO Signicant progress has been made on several fronts since the Spring 2013 Inside Earth was published. Travel for Technical Assistance Requests from NPS park units and a National Natural Landmark kept me busy beginning in April. I have summarized these requests below. Additionally, summaries for 30 cave and karst park units were completed by Limaris Soto du ring this time as well. To learn more about this project, please review her article in this issue of Inside Earth As we learn more about cave and karst resources found within NPS units, we hope to identify critical needs, develop project proposals with park input, and seek funding to better understand and protect our sensitive cave and karst resources. Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument Created in 2000, this new monument is rugged and remote. Administratively, the monument is operated by both the National Park Service and Bureau of Land Management. I was invited to accompany a trip to a monument cave led by Eathan McIntyre and several research paleontologists to recon several sites within the cave. Recommendations included completing a Cave and Karst Management Plan and some minor changes to protocols when entering monument caves. Wupatki National Monument Known for its pre-historic structures and ties to native cultures, Wupatki NM also contains signicant earth cracks and sinks. These features are found in the 250 million year old Permian Kaibab limestone which outcrops over a large portion of the monument. Air movement in and around these features directly connect to stories found in the Hopi Culture concerning the source of all winds and the Wind God, Yaponcha. Past practices before the monument was created placed large rocks, boulders, and other debris over and into many of the openings to prevent livestock from falling into the earth cracks. Written recommendations for monu ment actions concerning the return to more natural conditions for these features will be forwarded in the near future. Golden Gate National Recreational Area Famous for Alcatraz and spectacular views of the Golden Gate Bridge and San Francisco, Golden Gate NRA also contains numerous sea caves. I was invited to visit to get a sense of the cave resources, the overall natural setting, and the very complex management issues. I also was asked to provide guidance on information needs and to be a liaison with local cavers that already know and have information on cave areas within Golden Gate NRA. My visit generated considerable interest from local cavers, sta at Golden Gate NRA, and from resource sta at nearby Point Reyes National Seashore. Mitchell Caverns Natural Preserve (National Natural Landmark) Submitted By Dale Pate Dale Pate, NPS National Cave and Karst Program Coordinator


Inside Earth Vol. 16 No. 2 Fall 2013 3 Part of the California State Parks system located within Providence Mountains State Recreation Area (PMSRA), Mitchell Caverns was closed in the spring of 2011 due to state budgets cuts. Located within Mojave National Preserve, the preserve and cave are fairly remote and initially had no one living on the premises. This led to surface buildings being heavily vandalized along with the removal of thousands of feet of electrical cable in February 2012. The cave itself lost some electrical cable but did not appear to have been vandalized beyond the theft of cable. After the va ndalism, the State of California hired a caretaker and began the repair of facilities with the goal of reopening PMSRA and Mitchell Caverns. With the cave being closed for more than two years, the entrance area and a 15-foot blasted tunnel in the middle of the cave had debris that had fallen onto the trail. Through the NPS Pacic West Region National Natural Landmark Program Coordinator, the facility manager for Mitchell Caverns requested assistance in assessing the areas fo r potential rockfall problems before reopening the cave to the public. The entrance area showed that various animals had been active over the last two years and knocked small rocks and other debris onto the trail. The blasted portion within the cave showed that the tunneling had actually cut through an area of clay interbedded with thin layers of owstone. The blasting had shattered much of the exposed clay and owstone. It appears the tunnel was blasted through an existing tunnel that had been naturally lled with the interbedded clay and owstone. With a solid limestone roof and a well-made concrete oor, only pieces of dried cracked pieces of clay and owstone were tumbling out of the lled passage onto the trail. There was no evidence to indicate a problem from collapse, but rather the debris found on the oor had slowly built up over two years as pieces of dried clay or broken owstone fell out of the walls. Evidently, the guides and caretakers before the closure had been routinely picking up debris as it fell onto the oors. In the Upcoming Year Looking forward, my plan is to begin a more intensive look at park units with karst-related needs. In particular, I would like to look at, but not limited to: recharge basins and ow paths potential contaminant sources endemic ecosystem species and dynamics Many times, NPS park units do not contain the entire karst system. Park managers not only need to know the resources within their boundaries but what factors and resources outside the park unit boundaries may aect the resources they manage. I welcome ideas and thoughts on potential projects that we should consider. If so inclined, please email me at Two lower entrances to Mitchell Caverns. The tour route goes through the opening on the right. NPS Photo by Dale Pate.


4 Inside Earth Vol. 16 No. 2 Fall 2013 Over the last eight months, I have been working for the NPS Cave and Karst Program to develop preliminary cave and karst summaries for all NPS park units containing these types of resources. These synopses are im portant in an eort to identify and understand cave and karst resources within NPS units and include discussions on geology, archeology/ cultural resources, biology, hydrology, paleontology, hazards, threats, potential studies, the signicance of resources, and current monitoring activities. The information collected will be used to: identify any gaps or information needs for the long-term protection and conservation of these fragile and sensitive resources justify funding needs keep management informed In addition, the summaries will be also used to provide better and more accurate information for upcoming Foundation and State of the Pa rks documents. The NPS National Leadership Council (NLC) is committed to completing foundation documents for all NPS units by 2016 as part of the Park Planning and Facilities and Lands Directorate park planning portfolios. For more information on foundation documents and park planning, go to the InsideNPS summary posted at New Direction Set for Park Planning Program, visit the NPS intranet SharePoint site at PP-GMP, or contact Patrick Gregerson at 202-354-6972. The State of the Parks is part of the Inventory & Monitoring Division and intends to show the status and condition of park resources. For more about the State of the Park Reports visit their website at stateoftheparks/ The Geologic Resources Division is helping parks provide geologic pertinent information for these national level reports, including cave and karst resource management and concerns. The order in which cave and karst summary reports are created follows the queue in which Foundation and State of the Parks reports have been and will be created. To this point, 30 summary reports have been completed and include the following parks: Abraham Lincoln Birthplace NHS Antietam NB Cape Hatteras NS Cape Lookout NS Cedar Breaks NM Chickamauga & Chattanooga NMP Colorado NM Crater Lake NP Craters of the Moon NM and PRES Delaware Water Gap NRA El Malpais NM Fort Union NM Glacier NP Great Smoky Mountains NP Harpers Ferry NHP Hopewell Furnace NHS Kalaupapa NHP Kaloko-Honokhau NHP Lake Mead NRA Mammoth Cave NP Mesa Verde NP Mount Rainier NP Pecos NHP Pinnacles NM Pipe Springs NM Puuhonua O Hnaunau NHP Russell Cave NM Saguaro NP Santa Monica Mountains NRA Valley Forge NHP These summaries are mostly derived from web engine searches and information that is generally available online. In a few instances information has been obtained by doing interlibrary loans or contacting the parks. It is an eventual goal to ha ve these summaries available on the NPS Cave and Karst website, geology/caves/ An important part of the summaries that assist in the completion of the State of the Parks reports is the identication of threats and opportunities for each unit in regards to cave/karst resources. Results show that some of the threats aecting the units include: vandalism, decline in water quantity/quality, disturbance of archeological material s, rockfall hazards, and potential for sinkhole activity, among others. Based on the collected data thus far, we found that 60% (18 of 30 park units) show signs of surface/ groundwater contamination, 43% (13 of 30 park units) appear to be in need, or would benet from a cave inventory, and 20% (6 of 30 park units) contain caves/ karst species ocially listed on the Endangered Species List, with MACA having 3 listed species. So far I have reviewed 50 parks and of those 30 were found to have caves or karst and had a summary written. The NPS National Cave and Karst Program has a goal to review all units and complete summaries for th ose that are found to contain cave or karst features in the preliminary information search. These summaries will provide a better understanding of park resources and provide a reference and record of the information for the national prog ram. Then the intention will be to use the completed summaries to identify critical cave and karst related needs for parks from a national perspective. This will aid the NPS National Cave and Karst Program in categorizing projects and funding needs. Additionally, we would like to explore the concept of Karst Signicance. At this time, Karst Signicance isnt dened and doesnt have specied metrics, but one of our long-term goals is to be able to identify and assign priorities to karst areas based on these metrics. The process of calculating the karst signicance could be enabled by using GIS to better quantify the number of karst features in parks through mapping and spatial analysis. We recognize that these are forwarding thinking goals but we believe these preliminary summaries will provide a base for planning upcoming cave and karst projects. Preliminary NPS Cave and Karst Summaries A Word from WASO Submitted by Limaris Soto


Inside Earth Vol. 16 No. 2 Fall 2013 5 If you are interested in obtaining more information or have any questions or comments about cave and karst summaries for parks, please contact me at or Dale Pate at A Word from WASO NPS Units with Cave and Karst Summary Reports Based on the information collected so far, we have concluded that a total of 1,082 caves are known from the 30 studied units. Mammoth Cave NP (MACA) and Craters of the Moon NM and PRES (CRMO) have the largest number of known caves so far at 400 solution caves and 344 basaltic lava tubes, respectively. In addition, 37% (11 of the 30 park units) have solution caves. Furthermore, 23% (7 of the 30 park units) have areas of limestone or other carbonates but no known caves. These 7 parks units are: Antietam NB, Cape Hatteras NS, Cape Lookout NS, Delaware Water Gap NRA, Fort Union NM, Hopewell Furnace NHS, Mesa Verde NP, Pipe Springs NM, Saguaro NP, and Santa Monica Mountains NRA. Pie chart displaying Cave and Karst Classication of 30 Parks with Completed Reports


6 Inside Earth Vol. 16 No. 2 Fall 2013 Reports From the Field Submitted by Shawn Thomas, Cave Technician, Carlsbad Caverns National Park The 2012 discovery of the Oz section of Lechuguilla Cave, a signicant upper level extension to the cave, was accomplished via a 400+ foot technical dome climb known as the Kans as Twister. This dome was rst seen in 2007 when John Lyles pioneered a survey route beyond a tight squeeze that opened into Emerald City, named for the green minerals found within the thick, white gypsum deposits that coat this area. Beyond Emerald City lay a steep talus slope containing a massive amount of material being sourced from the tall Kansas Twister dome. James Hunter led climbs in 2007 and 2008, making progress above the talus slope but ultimately being stopped by featureless, overhanging walls. From this point, in 2009 John used a homemade apparatus consisting of a slingshot coupled with a reel of monolament in the hopes of draping a rope over a natural bridge 90 above the top of the talus slope. This attempt failed, and another year passed before a team of Art Fortini, Bonny Armstrong, and Daniel Chailloux succeeded with a similar method and used pull cords to anchor an 11 mm static climbing rope from the bridge. Using this rope, Art, along with Simeon Warner, ascended to the top of the bridge, hoping to continue the climb. Finding rotten rock walls leading up from the bridge, Art and Simeon abandoned the dome. In 2012, on an expedition led by Derek Bristol, Derek and James Hunter teamed to attempt the dome, trading climbing leads and being assisted by other team members rotating belay and survey duties. The climbers began at the bridge, immediately having to deal with the rotten rock where Art and Simeon left o. Using traditional free and aid climbing methods, Derek and James made slow but steady progress up the dome throughout the week. Dealing with poor quality rock, the climbers often relied on hooks for protection or found pockets that would accept gear after removing clay and rotten rock with hammers and nut tools. Despite the challenges of the dome, the commitment to the climb and inventive climbing techniques ultimately proved successful. On the fth day of climbing, at the very end of the day, Derek and James topped out and, along with surveyors Brian Kendrick and Roger Harris, crawled along the edge of another talus slope to reach a large black void that swallowed their lights and echoed their voices the ex plorers were looking up into Munchkinland, the 2nd largest known room in the cave. The following day, the last survey day of the trip, two teams ascended the Kansas Twister to ocially begin the survey of Oz. One team (Derek, James, John Lyles, and Adam Weaver) surveyed over 2700 in Munchkinland and the borehole beyond, while another team (Shawn Thomas, Brian Kendrick, Abby Tobin) surveryed over 800 in large side passages that led to additional domes and pits. This marked the single biggest day of survey footage in Lech since the discovery of the Far East branch in 1989. After midnight, with both teams out of food, out of water, and even running out of survey paper, but nowhere near out of cave to survey, the hard but necessary decision was made to return to camp, which marked the conclusion of survey for the 2012 expedition. The team enjoyed an impromptu celebration in camp at 4 a.m., recounting the discoveries. It was tough to wait an entire year for the return to Oz. The much anticipated follow-up expedition took place over the last week of May, 2013. A team of 12 cavers spent eight days in the Deep Seas Camp to explore lea ds in O z an d pursue additional cartographic goals in the Far West. The 2013 team roster included several returning members from the 2012 expedition Derek Bristol (expedition leader), James Hunter, John Lyles, Shawn Thomas, Abby Tobin, and Adam Weaver as well as Stan Allison, Andy Armstrong, Dan Austin, Jason Ballensky, Pete Johnson, and Rene Ohms. Five of the team members happened to be NPS cave resource employees from Carlsbad Caverns National Park (Allison and Thomas), Jewel Cave National Monument (Austin and Ohms), and Timpanogos Cave National Monument (Armstrong). Since the focus of the 2013 expedition was to explore leads in the Oz section of the cave, two teams traveled to Oz during each of the six survey days. The third team was sent to other areas of the Far West branch each day to continue work on Keel Hall and Zanzibar quadrangle goals. Among the most notable passages surveyed in Oz during the expedition was the Hall of the Flying Monkeys, named for the abundant broken formations that have fallen and been cemented into un-Return to Oz Highly decorated pool in the Hall of the Flying Monkeys, Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico. NPS Photo by John Lyles.


Inside Earth Vol. 16 No. 2 Fall 2013 7 Reports from the Field derlying owstone. Given the Oz theme, the explorers pictured the Wicked Witchs ying monkeys circling about in this passage, careening into stalactites and sending them crashing to the ground. This area is among the most decorated and fragile in the cave, with numerous pools and pool deposits (see the cover photo for this issue of Inside Earth) among the extensiv e owstone and countless colorful formations, somewhat reminiscent of the Nirvana area of the Near East. One of the amazing aspects of Lechuguilla Cave is the juxtaposition of such clean, pristine sections with areas that are among the slimiest and grittiest of any cave passage in the Guadalupe Mountains. A lead in the Hall of Flying Monkeys, for example, connected into an upper ssure passage coated in some of the thickest corrosion residue deposits (or ferro-manganese deposits, FMDs) known in the cave. Surveying these passages in dirty mode, explorers were slimed with FMDs, requiring them to spend extra time cleaning before changing into clean clothes in order to travel back through the decorated section without causing impact. In a dierent area of Oz, explorers dropped a virgin pit named the Wizards Elevator. This lead turned out to be a series of pits in a ssure complex that reminded the team of a steeper version of the Great White Way, which is located on the travel route to the Deep Seas Camp in the Western Branch. Over three survey days, the team s that explored the Wizards Elevator rigged several drops and surveyed down multiple pitches, extending the pit to almost 500 in depth. The deeper areas of the pit contain gypsum crusts and rillenkarren along the walls, as well as calcite rafts and mammilaries in places. Su rprisingly though, the pit eventually ended abruptly and did not connect to any lower levels of cave passage, despite the pit extending down to nearly the same elevation as the cave development at the base of the Kansas Twister. Another vertical lead in Oz was Yellowstone Falls, a dome-pit with a yellow owstone cascade that was discovered on the previous years expedition. The discovery team had felt cool, dry air descending from the dome. This air- ow was unlike any they had experienced elsewhere in Lechuguilla and caused them to speculate on the possibility of an unknown surface connection above Yellowstone Falls. This year, a climbing team successfully accessed the passage above this dome, and over a couple of return trips, the area was surveyed to completion, with the exception of two leads that are too delicate to enter. The James Hunter in the newly discovered Wizards Elevator pit in Lechuguilla Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park. NPS Photo by Derek Bristol. A lead climb in the Oz area of Lechuguilla Cave led to a beautifully decorated chamber found and named Tatooine. Andy Armstrong is the caver on rope. NPS Photo by Derek Bristol.


8 Inside Earth Vol. 16 No. 2 Fall 2013 Reports from the Field Submitted By Marc Ohms, Physical Science Technician, Wind Cave National Park Carbide lamps were (and some still do) used by cavers for many years as a primary light source. The operation of the lamp is quite simple. Carbide mixed with water produces acetylene gas, which is then burned for light. This involves putting the calcium carbide in the lower chamber of the lamp and water into the upper reservoir. A valve is used to control the rate at which the water is allowed to drip into the chamber containing the calcium carbide. By controlling the rate of water ow, the production of acetylene gas is controlled. This in turn, controls the ow rate of the gas and the size of the ame at the burner, (and thus the amount of light it produces). Once the carbide is used it turns into a white/grey powdery ash. It was commonplace back in the day for cavers to simply dump this spent ash in the cave. It was also common for them to concentrate this dumping at given locations, perhaps at co mmon rest stops or the like. These dumps are known simply as carbide dumps and can still be seen today in many caves. A unique formation has been given birth by this random dumping of carbide in caves. First reported by the Iowa Grotto in 1959 from a cave in Wisconsin, they were named Ca rbidimites. Since then they have been reported in a handful of caves around the world, but still remain a very rare occurrence. Carbide is calcium carbide and upon reacting with water forms calcium hydroxide. When carbon dioxide in the air reacts with the calcium hydroxide, calcite is precipitated. The calcium hydroxide gas bubbles continually form after the dumping, and move to the top of the dump, where calcite is then precipitated. This continues as long as gas is being produced. (Hill and Forti 1997) During the summer of 2012 MaryBeth Wells and the author discovered a small carbide dump containing over a dozen carbidimites within the Historic Section of Wind Cave. This is the rst report of this formation in South Dakota and only the seventh in the US. References Hill, Carol, and Paolo Forti. 1997. Cave Minerals of the World, second edition. Carbidimites in Wind Cave Some of the carbidimites discovered during the summer of 2012 in the Historic Section of Wind Cave in Wind Cave. NPS Photos by Marc Ohms. survey designation chosen for the climb was OB, and after setting station OB1, explorers couldnt resist breaking from the Wizard of Oz theme and naming the area Kenobi. A second lead climb later in the week accessed a highly decorated chamber that was named Tatooine. While no new entrances were found above Yellowstone Falls, the survey data shows this area to be among the highest in the cave the high point of Oz is only 19 feet below the elevation of Lechuguillas entrance and 44 feet below the high point of the cave. The location of Oz relatively close to the surface suggests that a surface connection is still plausible. Over the course of the week, over two miles of cave passage was surveyed and documented, including over 10,000 of virgin cave, the majority of which was discovered in Oz. This marks the most productive weeklong expedition in Lechuguilla in decades. The new discoveries were bittersweet, though, as most leads in Oz were surv eyed to completion, and no major new breakouts occurred. Some leads still remain though (mostly high leads), and teams will continue working in this area in 2014. References Allison, Stan. 2012. Park Updates: Carlsbad Caverns National Park. Inside Earth: NPS Cave and Karst Programs Newsletter, Volume 15 Number 2. Bristol, Derek. 2013 Lechuguilla Cave Far West Expedition Report: May 25 June 1, 2013. Unpublished report, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, Carlsbad, NM. Bristol, Derek and John Lyles. 2013. Lechuguilla Cave: The Discovery of Oz. NSS News, May 2013. Lyles, John and Derek Bristol. 2012. The Discovery of Oz. Rocky Mountain Caving, Spring 2012.


Inside Earth Vol. 16 No. 2 Fall 2013 9 Park Updates _______________________________________________________________________________________ Bualo National River _______________________________________________________________________________________ Submitted by Kayla Sapkota and Scott House The year 2013 was an eventful time for cave monitoring and survey. Crews from the Cave Research Foundation focused their eorts in four main areas---Big Creek, Broadwater Ho llow, Big Hollow, and Upper Bualo River oat objectives. The future of the natural resources in the Big Creek area have been a hot topic of conversation in Arkansas and the surrounding states due to the introduction of a Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation on the creek. E orts to document and survey caves in this area have been a large focus this summer. Teams completed biological monitoring and survey of Jawbone Cave (565.1 ft) and have begun the survey of Tom Barnes Cave (currently at 1,024.9 ft). In the Broadwater Hollow area, a vertical team visited a reported lead known as Blood Root Pit, surveying the 58.7 ft cave to a total vertical extent of 40.5 ft. Additionally, eorts have continued concerning the resurvey of Fitton Cave in both the Bat Passage and the Tennouri areas. Data checking yielded signicant improvements in loop closure in the Bat Passage, and continued resurvey yielded 1,846.1 ft in Tennouri this year. Monitoring and survey has been ongoing in Big Hollow for a little over a year now. To date, the following caves have been located, monitored, and mapped: Big Hollow Cave (34.9 ft), Big Hollow Pit (in progress), Big Mouth Cave (80.8 ft), Broken Stone Cave (159.6 ft), Chimney Cave, Leatherwood Sink (62.1 ft), Pretty Well (in progress), and Winding Staircase Cave #1 (in progress). ___________________________________________________________________________________ Carlsbad Caverns National Park ___________________________________________________________________________________ Submitted by Stan Allison and Shawn Thomas Cave Exploration, Survey & Cartography Lechuguilla Cave Since the last Inside Earth update, there have been three Lechuguilla Cave exploration expeditions. Lechuguilla Cave is now 138.2 miles in length. Hazel Barton led a six-person expedition to the Southwest Branch May 6-12, 2013. Hazels expedition succeeded in surveying 1.07 miles of passage, including 0.46 miles of new survey. Most work was done in the Voids area in support of Hazels cartography project. Derek Bristol led a twelve-person expedition to the Western Branch May 25June 1, 2013. An exceptional total of 2.06 miles of cave was surveyed including 1.93 miles of new survey. This is the most cave surveyed in Lechuguilla Cave on a single expedition in recent decades. Most of the survey work was accomplished in the Oz area that had been discovered in 2012. See Shawn Thomas in-depth article on the Oz discoveries elsewhere in this issue of Inside Earth Cathy Borer & Art Fortini co-led a sixperson Western Branch expedition June 13-20, 2013. Their expedition accomplished 0.70 miles of survey, including 0.40 miles of new survey. The high point (literally) of the trip was working on The Other Bear climb in the Neverland area. This climb was initiated with a slingshot to get a pilot line and then a rope over a stalagmite. Spicy aid climbing got the team higher in the dome, but they ran out of time before they were able to complete the climb. Carlsbad Cavern In June, 2013, Ed Klausner spent a week in the park to lead resurvey eorts in Carlsbad Cavern. Ed spent several days surveying and proong areas of the Big Room for his quad map and also did some work in the Lower Cave section of Carlsbad Cavern. Derek Bristol continued work on his Guadalupe Room Complex map over the Fourth of July. The highlight was discovering and climbing the 120 foot tall Spooky Chimney in the Grand Ballroom area. The Spooky Chimney was an exposed climb that led to large walking passage that was left continuing into unexplored leads at the end of the trip. Ed Klausner, Scott House and Derek Bristol of the Cave Research Foundation (CRF) led multiple survey teams in late October. Ed Klausner continued work on his Carlsbad Cavern, Big Room and Lower Cave maps. Scott House continued work on his Main Corridor map. Derek Bristol continued working in the Guadalupe Room Complex including additional survey in the Spooky Chimney area which almost connected to Hall of the White Giant but was blocked by sediment and breakdown ll. Leads still conVolunteers that helped with the resurvey of Fitton Cave in Buffalo National River. Standing from left to right: Jenn Ellis, Ethan Brown, Bryant Galloway, Jeffrey Bridgman, Kayla Sapkota; Seated: Mike Screiber. Photo by CRF.


10 Inside Earth Vol. 16 No. 2 Fall 2013 tinue in this area. The highlight of the trip took place on Halloween night when Shawn Thomas belayed Derek Bristol up a short 15 foot climb in the Sacred Ground area of the Spirit World high above the Big Room. The unassuming lead soon led to a large room approximately 100 feet in diameter and 20 feet tall, which was named Halloween Hall. Two leads appear to continue out of the room including a owstone slope leading to a dome lead. The owstone slope is covered with bat skeletons. Exploration and survey was stopped due to lack of time and will continue in February 2014. Slaughter Canyon Cave In late October, 2013, Dave West of CRF was in the park with Ed, Derek and Scott, but instead of workin g in Carlsbad Cavern, Dave led resurvey eorts in Slaughter Canyon Cave, a backcountry cave that is also used for primitive, helmet and headlamp visitor tours. Dave spent four days resurveying, resketching, and xing bad loops, both on and o the agged tour route. Dave is also working on the cartography for this cave. Spider Cave In September, 2013, Paul Burger returned to the park to continue working on leads left in the new section of Spider Cave called Gilead that Chris Amidon discovered in 2012. Paul, Stan Allison, and Shawn Thomas comprised the survey teams for three days of survey. The team attempted to push the edge of the known Gilead footprint but did not make any breakouts. While most of the external leads are now rather grim, much internal survey remains. The highlight of the trip was nding some 2.6 foot long gypsum needles. The teams surveyed a total of 0.22 miles of passage during the week, bringing the cave to a new length of 5.28 miles. Cave Research Activities Dr. Art Palmer and Peg Palmer continued their research in the Left Hand Tunnel and Lake of the Clouds region of Carlsbad Cavern in April 2013. They surveyed in the elevation and location of raft cones and folia in relation to other geologic features. This work was part of their study to interpret cave origin and subsequent deposits and weathering characteristics. Their focus is on weathering of the cave bedrock and the chemical evolution of the weathered material in order to evaluate the nature of water ow and air chemistry after the major phase of cave development. Their study has been successful in identifying several late-stage events following the main phase of cave development including inuxes of anoxic water, hydrogen sulde and possibly high concentrations of carbonic acid. While the immediate goal of this study is not paleoclimatology they plan to collaborate with other researchers who can use the information for that purpose. Pat Cicero led three Lechuguilla Cave day trips in May to assist Dr. Diana Northup with removal of her long-term human impact study slides. Pat led trips to all three branches of the cave including Park Updates An example of Ed Klausners detailed work on the Big Room quadrangle of the new and in progress map for Carlsbad Cavern.


Inside Earth Vol. 16 No. 2 Fall 2013 11 Deep Seas, Hudson Bay, Rusticles and Big Sky. Pats long term commitment to assisting Dr. Northup with her human impact study slide project is much appreciated. Dr. Diana Northup led a survey trip to Spider Cave in July 2013 to assist her students with their studies. Tammi Duncans research was intended to determine if cave microbes produced iron-chelating compounds. She was studying siderophores produced in the cave and analyzed samples for iron, manganese, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus CAS assays by leaving inoculated agar samples in the cave. Secondary minerals were obtained that appeared to be purely mineral, but actually contained many microbial communities for study utilizing SEM and genomic sequencing. Cave soil and air temperatures were recorded during sample collection. Mathew Medina worked on his project to identify microbial interactions with cave minerals in order to study microbes that masquerade as minerals. In May, Dave Decker, a PhD candidate in the Department of Earth & Planetary Sciences at University of New Mexico, collected spar (dogtooth calcite) samples from the southwest branch of Lechuguilla Cave on a day trip. Dave is using isotope and uid inclusion analysis to date the spar and link it to landform processes that were occurring at the time of the spar formation. Shawn Thomas accompanied this research trip. Cavern Lighting Project This extremely signicant project is intended to replace the aging 30+ year old Carlsbad Cavern lighting system with new transformers, cables and eventually LED lights. This is the largest project currently taking place in the entire Intermountain Region of the NPS. The rst stage of the project starts in November 2013 and will involve replacing all of the old main wires and transformers. The new wires and transformers will then be transitioned into powering the old light xtures. This rst stage of the project is scheduled to take one year and will involve working in very delicate o-trail cave areas in addition to scheduling work around cave biota such as the Cave Swallows, Brazilian Free-tailed bats and the summer maternity colonies of Cave Myotis and Fringed Myotis that inhabit the Left Hand Tunnel and Lake of the Clouds area. The Cave Resource Oce will be heavily involved in the project including presenting training to all of the contractors employees on how to safely travel and minimally impact the o-trail areas of Carlsbad Cavern through a presentation and an otrail trip in the cave. The second stage of the project which will involve replacement of the current light xtures with new mainly LED xtures and control boxes is not yet funded. Cave Resources Oce Stang Changes Stan Allison resigned as Acting Cave Specialist in September 2013 to resume his Cave Technician duties after serving as Acting Cave Specia list since June 2012 when former Cave Specialist Dale Pate moved to the National Cave & Karst Coordinator Position. Tom Bemis return from retirement ended in late July. Currently Shawn Thomas and Stan Allison are the only Cave Resource positions in the park. The reduction of the Cave Resources sta from 4 full time positions to 2 full time positions has resulted in signicantly less cave and karst related work being accomplished at Carlsbad Caverns National Park. The park is hoping to ll the Cave Specialist position in 2014. ____________________________________________________________________________________ Coronado National Memorial ____________________________________________________________________________________ Submitted by Jason Mateljak and Matt Stoolano Coronado National Memorial contains several caves, the largest of which is known as Coronado Cave. This is the only cave in the Memorial open to the public, and one of the most frequently Park Updates Stan Allison admiring 2.6 foot long gypsum needle in Spider Cave. NPS photo by Shawn Thomas.


12 Inside Earth Vol. 16 No. 2 Fall 2013 visited public caves in southern Arizona. The cave came under NPS management in 1978 with an expansion of the Memorial. Until the 1930s, it was common practice for visitors to collect formations as souvenirs. Many hund reds of formations were broken and removed by early cave explorers who did not consider the loss to future generations. Vandalism to the cave continues today, primarily in the form of spray paint, etched grati, smoke damage from res, and litter. New technology is aiding in identifying and prosecuting vandals. Two visitors vandalized the entrance of Coronado Cave with etched grati in February 2013. A well-camouaged remote wildlife camera captured their images while in the act of vandalizing the cave. Rangers working the case prepared a press release ( ), seeking assistance in identifying the pair. The press release was picked up and distributed by local newspapers and television stations and within a day, the two vandals called the Memorial to confess. Rangers then worked with the Investigative Service Branch, US Attorneys Oce and the guilty parties to nalize a restitution settlement. This vandalism monitoring and restoration eort to cover the grati worked extremely well, and is a model for future eorts at mitigating the eects of vandalism at Coronado Cave. The use of monitoring technology, and enlisting the help of the public through news organizations and social media enabled the quick resolution of the case and restoration of the grati site. Comparison photographs of the grati before and after mitigation can be seen in the InsideNPS incident report. ____________________________________________________________________________________ Grand Canyon National Park ____________________________________________________________________________________ Submitted by Deanna Greco Steve Rice has moved on to a position with the USGS in New Mexico but is looking to stay engaged in cave management at Grand Canyon NP through research. Research permits continue to be issued for cave related exploration and mapping. The park hopes have a GSA Guest Scientist position to help with cave resources as they relate to our ongoing landscape assessment and lay the groundwork for a Cave Management Plan. It will be a six month position which posted on the Geological Society of America's GeoCorp jobs page http:// allJobDescriptions.asp For GRCA cave related issues contact Deanna Greco at ___________________________________________________________________________________ Great Basin National Park ___________________________________________________________________________________ Submitted by Gretchen Baker Great Basin National Parks new park lm, Under a Desert Sky: Life in the Great Basin, was released this summer and includes information about cave life, showing cave biologist Jean Krejca looking for organisms and speaking about the fragility of caves. The Great Basin pseudoscorpion ( Microcreagris grandis ) is featured. Visitors to Lehman Cave also have the opportunity to view a real pseudoscorpion ( Microcreagris grandis ; endemic to the park) during their cave tour. A dead pseudoscorpion has been placed in a vial that interpreters can pass around to their groups. The park is investigating ways of making a longer-lasting model of the pseudoscorpion, as many visitors have made remarks about how much they enjoy seeing cave life close up. One new cave, Lone Bat Cave, was found in the park by Ben Roberts. It was surveyed to a total length of 32 feet. Although it didnt have much of interest geologically, it contained an interesting cave fauna, including a Townsends bat, pseudoscorpions (a dierent species than those in Lehman Cave), springtails, spiders, and larvae. A survey of cave en trance biota using wildlife cameras has been completed, and Park Updates Park Ranger Carolyn Hunt shows park visitors a preserved pseudoscorpion during a Lehman Cave tour. Photo credit: NPS photo by Gretchen Baker


Inside Earth Vol. 16 No. 2 Fall 2013 13 results will be presented at the National Cave and Karst Management Symposium in Carlsbad in November. Park sta took Dr. Larsen, the parks medical advisor, for a biomonitoring trip in Lehman Cave to familiarize him with the cave environment and to provide him with a better idea of what medical concerns might arise in park caves. ____________________________________________________________________________________ Jewel Cave National Monument ____________________________________________________________________________________ Submitted by Dan Austin Cave Exploration 2013 has been a productive year for exploration within Jewel Cave. Volunteer cavers have added 4.8 miles to the length of the cave thus far, with some interesting new discoveries. Jewel Cave is now 168.6 miles long. Ian McMillan led two four-day camp trips this year to the southeast section of the cave. His objectives were to survey a good lead in the Art Attack area, check leads in the TV survey beyond The End, and to continue mop up survey within an hour of camp. Hopes were high that the area beyond the Art Attack would yield some new and exciting cave passage. One team had visited the area a few years before, and they left a large lead to be explored for the next team. Due to the dicult nature of this part of the cave, it took an enthusiastic team of cavers and several years before a return trip was planned. Ians rst camp trip found nearly 900 feet of new passage beyond this lead. The cave continued in multiple directions from the end of their survey, but the team had run out of time. On Ians subsequent tr ip, a three-person team surveyed 2,577 feet in one day, continuing the lead to the North, West and South. After plotting up the new survey, it was discovered that the new passage comes within 77 feet of the Mind Blower area. A connection here would save cavers approximately 6 hours of round-trip travel time to these leads. Chris Pelczarski has led several trips into the cave recently to push leads in the Mind Blower to the South. So far, the connection to the Art Attack area remains elusive. Chris has also been surveying in the main part of Jewel, conducting mop up survey, and along the far eastern edge of the Calorie section where several promisin g leads exist with strong airow. Lydia Austin led three trips to a small upper level near Shady Acres in the main part of the cave recently. Prior to Lydias trip, only one other exploration trip had been to this area in 1967. One lead in particular here surprised everyone by producing nearly 1,000 feet of virgin passage on these trips. The area is well decorated with spectacular frostwork trays and massive rims, nearly 7 feet long in some places. She named the area Hidden Loft. Lydias husband, Dan, led a return trip to the area in November. The objective was to continue the survey o the end of Lydias discovery. The team surveyed in one lead for 9 hours, accumulating 1,168 feet of survey in virgin passage with ceilings up to 60 feet tall in some places. The entire area is now 2,047 feet long with over a dozen leads left to explore, many of them walking-sized. The proximity of these new passages to the elevator entrance (less than 1 hour) has many cavers excited about the possibilities here. Cave Research Dr. Andreas Pitsch continues his work to study cave airow patterns and climatology. He visited the park recently in November to download data from temperature loggers and a sonic anemometer that has been permanently placed at the historic entrance to the cave. Mike Wiles has recently consolidated his observations into a study called Paleohydrology and the Origin of Jewel Cave. He presented a paper and a talk at the National Cave and Karst Management Symposium at Carlsbad, NM in November 2013. Mikes study suggests a geologically recent origin of Jewel Cave, with cave development beginning just prior to the surrounding landscape reaching its modern conguration. New information has been incorporated into a conceptual model that is simple and straightforward, and geomorphically Park Updates Dan Austin near a large aragonite tray discovered in September in Hidden Loft. NPS Photo by Jen Foote.


14 Inside Earth Vol. 16 No. 2 Fall 2013 compatible with the main surface and cave features. It precludes the need for direct recharge from rainfall, hydrothermal waters rising from below, or prior development of a Mississippian karst. This conceptual model is a challenge for future researchers to nd answers that will adequately incorporate all the observations. It is a good starting point for addressing questions that, until recently, were not even known to exist. Building on previous work, the model is the next logical step toward predicting the location of undiscovered passages. It bolsters the parks ability to justify external protection actions, such as mineral withdrawals and land exchanges. The early research has already been used to justify mineral withdrawals 1990 and 2008, totaling 2,825 ha (6,983 acres); and a land exchange in 2000, that converted 148 ha (366 acres) from private to Forest Service Land. The NPS is mandated to make science-based management decisions. The better the science, the more meaningful the decisions will be. Cave Restoration This September concluded a four-year project to remove lint and wax accumulations from the historic area of the cave. The tour routes here were used to conduct candlelight tours for the past 100 years and wax drippings on the oor had begun to grow mold in some places. A restoration project was begun in 2010 to remove the foreign debris and restore the cave to its original condition. Kelly Mathis was hired as the restoration lead, and under his direction the project succeeded in its goals. During the four years that the project was conducted, 60,396 pounds of lint and wax was removed from the cave. The pr oject also utilized many volunteers who spent 942 hours helping in the eort. It is estimated that 96% of the wax was removed from the cave and lint removed from over 90% of the tour route. Currently, the park uses paran oil and LED lanterns on the historic tours to help minimize future impact on this part of the cave. Personnel Several changes to the park resource management sta have occurred within the last few months. In July, Rene Ohms accepted a position as Chief of Resource Management at Devils Tower National Monument. Kelly Mathis has also departed for a job in New Mexico with the Fish and Wildlife Service. They both will be missed greatly. Currently, Blase LaSala is volunteering to help ll needs within the division, and he will be helping out at the park until February 2014. ____________________________________________________________________________________ Lava Beds National Monument ____________________________________________________________________________________ Submitted by Scott House Lava Beds National Monument has over 750 documented lava-tube entrances, most of which represent distinctly separate caves. The bulk of the caves are formed in the Basalt of Mammoth Crater, broken down into dierent ow regimes. Other basalts host lesser numbers of caves but also in a variety of ows. Pro-bono research is helpful in this era of budget cuts. Operating under an umbrella general agreement, Cave Research Foundation helps resource management through a number of approved research projects at Lava Beds. A long term photo-monitoring project operates under principal investigators (PI) Peri and Bill Frantz. In FY13 new stations were established, archives were searched, and older photos were colorbalanced. Numerous photographs were added to the parks digital les. A project to complete the resurvey of the popular Cave Loop caves was continued by PI Liz Wol. Thousands of feet of survey were completed in FY2013 in the Ovis Paradise Alley System and in the very popular Labyrinth Cave system. Surface surveys complete loops which are carefully scrutinized for errors, particularly given the magnetic nature of the rock. Monitoring of ice cave levels is continued by PI Bill Devereaux. The monitoring protocol uses established points in caves from which to measure ice and/or water levels. Monitoring ta kes place in spring and is helpful in monitoring trends in the warming climate and its eects on the caves. PI John Tinsley is heading up a resurvey of Craig Cave with hundreds of feet surveyed in FY13. Craig Cave is one of the caves established as a baseline for the parks Inventory and Monitoring System (I&M). New surveys of caves are producing much more accurate maps; necessary for eld and lab use. Another project headed by Ed Klausner and Scott House is creating new maps of several other I&M caves. Last year Valentine Cave and Pearl Caves were nished; this year work Park Updates Rene Ohms admires a gypsum beard on the March 2013 camp trip. NPS Photo by Garrett Jorgensen


Inside Earth Vol. 16 No. 2 Fall 2013 15 will continue in Post Oce and Balcony/ Boulevard Caves. One project is in a remote area of the park, north of Hardin Butte. This is in a distinctly dierent un it. The host rock is the late Pleistocene Ba salt of the Castles which postdates the Basalt of Mammoth Crater and erupted through it. Two distinctive ow units are represented but this project involves only one, the North Castle Flow. This was a low-gradient ow and the tubes did not develop deep; most of the tubes are on the at side, seemingly having spread out like wet pancake batter pour ed on a griddle. More than 30 caves have thus far been surveyed and inventoried and a new database created to contain the information. Scott House is the principal investigator. ____________________________________________________________________________________ Ozark National Scenic Riverways ____________________________________________________________________________________ Submitted by Scott House The spring, summer and fall were moderately busy times for cave management in the Ozark National Scenic Riverways. The OZAR cave monitoring program continued strong with emphasis during the winter on bat counts and attempting to detect traces or signs of White Nose Syndrome. Over eighty cave monitoring trips were taken during FY2013, down somewhat from previous years because of budget cuts and the need to take precautions to prevent the spread of WNS; where in the past several caves might be visited over a wide area, now it is not unusual to be one and done in order to have time to bag and decontaminate all gear and clothing. While all caves are closed administratively due to WNS concerns, many of the caves continue to be entered by occasional visitors. The monitoring helps identify which caves are experiencing continued trac and how disruptive that trac might be. One continuing concern is with fewer authorized visitors going to caves, unauthorized and intentionally disruptive trac might be doing great harm particularly with cave archaeological sites. With the fall comes the opportunity to visit summer bat roosts and measure guano. One important cave, un-gated but in a remote area, may have a summer bachelor colony of more than 40,000 gray bats (M. grisescens). This number is based on the largest of numerous fresh guano piles located in the rear of the cave and accessed only by a vigorous trip involving much crawling and climbing, made more sporting by the confusing nature of the cave. Round Spring Cavern, which is developed for visitation, was closed this summer due to budget cuts; only a few environmental education tours were taken. The unfortunate closure did give us the chance to do a count of amphibians along the trail; normally aected by the presence of visitors, the numbers were much higher this year although some of these results might have been aected by a steady rainfall pattern through the spring and early summer. Monitoring in one large spring cave revealed that invasive craysh are moving into the dark zones. These craysh could impact watch species such as the blind Salem cave craysh (Cambarus hubrichti) or the blind southern cavesh (Typhlichthys subterraneus). Plans are to investigate several nearby caves and try to remove the invasives. Surveys of larger wet caves continued slowly as resources and conditions permitted. One large shallow karst spring (as opposed to the huge deep-conduit springs) was nally entered and several hundred feet mapped. This is exciting because the spring drains an area of more than six square miles of intense karst upland, almost all of which is outside the park boundaries and highly subject to disturbance. With the permission of the landowner, a property for sale adjacent to the park was investigated for caves. Two new caves Park Updates CRF member Don Dunham stands on top of a typical cave entrance in the North Castle Flow. Photos by Scott House


16 Inside Earth Vol. 16 No. 2 Fall 2013 were found including a pit that opened into several hundred feet of large passage. Survey and inventory work is continuing at that site. Cave maintenance continues in the form of installing signage on certain highpriority (well-visited) caves and maintaining gates and locks. Lastly, several CRF members attended a NCRC cave rescue training to keep them certied for any possible incidents. ___________________________________________________________________________________ Timpanogos Cave National Monument ___________________________________________________________________________________ Submitted by Andy Armstrong Division Integration It has been a busy year at Timpanogos Cave National Monument. In order to deal with a lapsed position and sequestration budget cuts, the Interpretation and Resource Management Divisions have been combined under division chief Cami McKinney. In addition to saving money, this change has allowed for better integration and communication between the divisions. In the resource management division, we see providing accurate information and help to the interpreters as one of our greatest responsibilities, and we look forward to continuing to work closely with our cave guides. Cave Management Plan The environmental as sessment for Timpanogos Caves rst ever cave management plan has been completed. Final comments were reviewed and integrated into the document last spring, and the Finding of No Signicant Impact has been sent to the regional oce and is currently awaiting the signature of the Regional Director. This plan is innovative in that it prescribes specic guidelines for our tour operations. At Timpanogos Cave, we are fortunate to not have many external threats to the cave system. In addition, there is no active exploration at the current time. The vast majority of impacts to the cave and karst system come from our own operations. This is mostly in the form of tours from May to October, but also includes RM, maintenance, and contractor use of the caves. We felt that in order to eectively manage impacts and prevent impairment, the size, frequency, and allowed behaviors on tours had to be addressed. Based on measured temperature impacts, and the international occupancy standard on which re codes are based, the number of visitors on a public tour has been reduced from 20 to 16. This allows for adherence to the international occupancy code in our smallest tour stop, Middle Cave Lake. While the cave is not a building, it has similar issues when it comes to safety and ability to evacuate in case of an emergency. The CMP also prescribes a 15-minute gap between each tour. This provision allows the caves and connecting tunnels to cool slightly between tours, contributing to better overall cave microclimate management. EPA Contaminant Testing Timpanogos Cave has been involved for two years in a region-wide eort by the EPA to look for traces of pesticides, personal care products, and waste indicators in selected national park streams, springs, and lakes. Middle Cave Lake was chosen as a sampling site in this study because the tour travels directly above this body of water on a metal bridge. We had identied this lake as our most likely site for human contamination of cave water, and this study has proven it To date, we have found caeine, Tri(dichloroisopropyl) phosphate, bendiocarb, estrogen, and other compounds in the water in small quantities. Eorts are being made to determine the source of these contaminants. The caeine and estrogen are assumed to be from urine. Tri (dichloroisopropyl) phosphate is a ame retardant found in baby products, while bendiocarb is a pesticide that has been banned from sale in the USA for over ten years! Eorts are being made to identify the source of these contaminants, and to Park Updates Dan Lamping watches Tony Schmitt descend into a newly discovered pit near Ozark National Scenic Riverways. NPS Photo by Scott House.


Inside Earth Vol. 16 No. 2 Fall 2013 17 improve the bridge to reduce the likelihood of dropped items. Restoration Camp At the end of September, Timpanogos Cave National Monument hosted our second annual Rest oration Camp. We had a total of ve volunteer over three days. Work included removing lint and mud accumulations, speleothem repair, and a thorough cleaning of the Middle Cave Lake bridge. ____________________________________________________________________________________ Wind Cave National Park ____________________________________________________________________________________ Submitted By Rodney D. Horrocks Projects We have started construction on the new airlock structure being built on the WalkIn Entrance of Wind Cave. After nearly 12 years in the planning process, this new structure will replac e the deteriorating revolving door that was built in 1991. It will also address several resource management, interpretation, maintenance, and safety issues. During the excavation for the pad, an archaeologist on site conducting the required monitoring work, discovered some 1890s medicine bottle fragments and window pane glass fragments from the trap-door cabin entrance that was built over the current Walk-In Entrance in the late 1800s. The new airlock structure is being designed and built to last for 100 years. Research Dr. Art & Peg Palmer and Jim Paces (USGS) recently presented the results of their two-year long research project during a webinar on 10/31/13. Their presentation was titled, How to Make a Cave in 340 Million years, The Geology, Origin, and Genesis of Wind Cave. Their dating of the wall crusts in the lower part of the cave revealed some fascinating details about the uctuations of the paleo water table during the glacial and inter-glacial time periods. Rod Horrocks recently gave a PowerPoint presentation titled, Development of the NPS Cave Visitor Vital Signs Monitoring Protocol at the National Cave and Karst Ma nagement Symposium in Carlsbad, New Mexico. He is currently adding gures to that protocol and preparing SOPs in preparation for the peer review process of his draft protocol. Rod recently completed a mineral evaluation of two 40-acre inholding tracts of BLM land that the park would like the BLM to transfer to the NPS. These tracts are both found within the 5,500 acre Casey property the park acquired in 2011. In his evaluation, Rod recommended that the subject tracts be classi- ed for disposal under the R&PP Act and transferred to Wind Cave National Park. Personnel Dan Austin will be working as a Physical Science Technician for the Parks Physical Science Branch of the Resource Management Division beginning on 11/7/13. Because Jewel Cave National Monument is sharing him with the park during his scheduled furlough, Dan will only be working for us one day a week through the winter months. Cave Survey & Inventory Since the last reported length of the Wind Cave survey in Inside Earth, cavers have increased the surveyed length of the cave by 0.42 miles; establishing the current length of 141.00 miles. Our on-going cave resurvey project recently got a big shot in the arm when our funding proposal to resurvey much of the pre-cave management cave survey found in the Wind Cave survey (p rimarily from the 1950-1970s) was fu nded by the NRPP program for three years, beginning in 2017. This project will hire a team of four seasonals for three consecutive years to conduct the resurvey work. Park Updates The excavated pad and forms for the footings for the new airlock being built on the Walk-In Entrance of Wind Cave. NPS Photo by Rod Horrocks.


National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Cave and Karst Program Geologic Resources Division P.O.Box 25287 Denver, CO 80235-02787 EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA Inside Earth is the newsletter for the Cave and Karst Program operated out of the Geologic Resources Division of the Natural Resource Science and Stewardship Program of the Washington Ofce in Lakewood, CO. This newsletter is published twice a year for staff, friends and partners across America. Editor Andrea Croskrey Article Contributors Dale Pate Stan Allison Limaris Soto Shawn Thomas Deanna Greco Dan Austin Marc Ohms Andy Armstrong Kayla Sapkota Rodney Horrocks Scott House Photographers James Hunter Gretchen Baker Dale Pate Jen Foote John Lyles Garrett Jorgensen Derek Bristol Scott House Marc Ohms Rodney Horrocks Shawn Thomas Comments? Write to: Inside Earth Geologic Resources Division P.O.Box 25287 Denver, CO 80235-02787

Contents: A word from
WASO: Program overview/ Dale Pate --
Preliminary NPS cave and karst summaries / Limaris Soto
Reports from the field: Return to OZ / Shawn Thomas, Cave
Technician, Carlsbad Caverns National Park --
Carbidimites in Wind Cave / Marc Ohms, Physical Science
Technician, Wind Cave National Park --
Park updates: Buffalo National River / Kayla Sapkota and
Scott House --
Carlsbad Caverns National Park / Stan Allison and Shawn
Thomas --
Coronado National Memorial / Jason Mateljak and Matt
Stoffolano --
Grand Canyon National Park / Deanna Greco --
Great Basin National Park / Gretchen Baker --
Jewel Cave National Monument / Dan Austin --
Lava Beds National Monument / Scott House --
Ozark National Scenic Riverways --
Timpanogos Cave National Monument / Andy Armstrong --
Wind Cave National Park / Rodney D. Horrocks.


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