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International Journal of Speleology

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International Journal of Speleology
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International Journal of Speleology (1964-)
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International journal of speleology
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Società Speleologica Italiana
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Societe Speleologica Italiana
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Vol. 38, no. 2 (2009)

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0392-6672 ( ISSN )
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Available online at www.ijs.speleo.itInternational Journal of Speleology International Journal of Speleology 38 (2) 93-102 Bologna (Italy) July 2009The association between bubble trails and folia: a morphological and sedimentary indicator of hypogenic speleogenesis by degassing, example from Adaouste Cave (Provence, France)INTRODUCTION Audra Ph., Mocochain L., Bigot J.-Y. and Nobcourt J.-C. 2009. The association between bubble trails and folia: a morphological and sedimentary indicator of hypogenic speleogenesis by degassing, example from Adaouste Cave (Provence, France). International Journal of Speleology, 38 (2), 93-102. Bologna (Italy). ISSN 0392-6672. Bubble trails are subaqueous features in carbonate caves, which are made by the corrosion of ascending carbon dioxide bubbles. Folia are calcite deposits resembling inverted rimstone dams in saturated pools. Based on morphological studies in Adaouste Cave (Provence, France) and on studies elsewhere in the world, we propose a new genetic model for folia, close to the model of Green (1991). The association of bubble trails and folia, occurring on overhanging walls, is interpreted to be an indicator of hypogenic degassing occurring just below the water table. The association is the result of juxtaposed processes composed of corrosion along bubble trails and calcite deposition in calcite-saturated pools.Keywords: Bubble trails, folia, carbonic degassing, hypogenic speleogenesis, Adaouste Cave Received 10 September ;2008 Revised 31 October 2008; Accepted 14 December 2008 PREVIOUS GENETICAL THEORIES Bubble trails (sometimes also designed as bubbleAbstract: 12

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International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 93-102 Bologna (Italy). July 2009 2 2 bubbles originating from Fig. 1. Bubble trails in Adaouste Cave. Corrosion is limited to the channel, whereas the rest of the wall is covered with a subaqueous calcite coating. A and D: views from below; B and C: front views (photos. J.-Y. Bigot, http://catherine.arnoux.club.fr/photo/13/adao/adao.htm)Philippe Audra, Ludovic Mocochain, Jean-Yves Bigot and Jean-Claude Nobcourt

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The association between bubble trails and folia: example from Adaouste Cave (Provence, France) Fig. 2. Folia in Adaouste Cave. Left: folia occur exclusively below overhanging walls; center: front view toward the top showing the inverted rimstone morphology; right: view from below showing the outward and downward development as inverted cups (photos. J.-Y. Bigot, http:// catherine.arnoux.club.fr/photo/13/adao/adao.htm) Cave Location Active / fossil Hydrothermalism CO2 degassing Tectonic / hydrogeology Reference Indian Burial Cave USA, Nevada F 86-119 C (TH inclusions) Emerson, 1952 Green, 1991 Halliday, 1957 Hurricane Crawl Cave USA, California A No (river cave) From upwelling phreatic Davis, 1997 Crystal Sequoia Cave USA, California Davis, 1997 Goshute Cave USA, Nevada F Halliday, 1954b Devils Hole USA, Nevada A Water table 34 C x Non karstic active extensional fault Kolesar & Riggs, 2004 Gneiss Cave USA, Utah F Calcite folia coating onto a gneiss wall Green, 1997 Bida Cave USA, Arizona Davis, 1965 Hill, 1982 Groaning Cave USA, Colorado Davis, 1973 Agua Caliente Cave USA, Arizona A Cave at 38 C McLean, 1965 Carlsbad Cave USA, New-Mexico F Carlsbad 20-25 C Basin margin Davis, 1970 Lechuguilla Cave USA, New-Mexico F Carlsbad 20-25 C Basin margin Davis, 2000 Hose, 1992 Cinco Cuevas (caverna de las) Cuba Nuez-Jimenez, 1975 Pulpo (sima del) Spain, Murcia A Water table 21 C Ferrer Rico, 2004 Bens (sima de) Spain, Murcia A Water table 21 C Ferrer Rico, 2004 Ermite (grotte de l) France, Pyrnes A Water table 19 C x syncline Bigot & Nobecourt, unpub. Adaouste (grotte de l) France, Provence A Abandoned at 11 Ma Thermal springs along Durance fault x Durance active transcurrent fault Audra et al., 2002 Pl-Vlgy Matyas-Hegy barlang Hungary, Buda Hills F Springs 20-27 C Rim of the Danube rift Takacsn Bolner, 2005 Jszef-hegy barlang Hungary, Buda Hills F Springs 20-27 C Rim of the Danube rift Takacsn Bolner, 2005 Molnar-Janos Hungary, Buda Hills A Water table 20-27 C x Rim of the Danube rift Takacsn Bolner, 1993 Matyas-Farras Hungary Takacsn Bolner, 1993 Giusti (grotta) Italy, Tuscany A Thermal spring 34 C x Forti & Utili, 1984 Piccini, 2000 Ryan Imperial Cave Australia, Queensland Jennings, 1982 Cupp-Coutunn Cave Turkmenistan F 80-170 C (TH calcite) Basin margin Maltsev, 1997 Maltsev & Self, 1993Table 1 Folia occurrences, about 25 sites worldwide International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 93-102 Bologna (Italy). July 2009

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NEW EVIDENCE IN THE ADAOUSTE CAVE Folia and bubble trails in Penitents Chamber lines); horizontal levels record past water table positions International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 93-102 Bologna (Italy). July 2009Philippe Audra, Ludovic Mocochain, Jean-Yves Bigot and Jean-Claude Nobcourt

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2 from degassing. Distribution of features originating from atmospheric corrosion and subaqueous calcite deposition Fig. 5. Interface between a carbon dioxide-rich gas pocket with walls corroded as boxwork (top) and subaquaeous calcite deposits below: folia below overhanging walls, tower cones below the caver (photo. J.-Y. Bigot)Folia bubbles 2 The association between bubble trails and folia: example from Adaouste Cave (Provence, France)International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 93-102 Bologna (Italy). July 2009

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DISCUSSION: FOLIA GENESIS AND ASSOCIATION WITH BUBBLE TRAILS, A RECORD OF THERMAL WATER-TABLE DYNAMICS Fig. 6. Left: folia bubble (photo. J.-Y. Bigot). The aperture is about 4 cm wide. Right: folia and folia bubble development by condensation-corrosion at the top of the carbon dioxide bubble and then by calcite deposition through evaporation at the base of the bubble, at the interface between gas 2 degassing; small grey arrows show subaqueous calcite particle accretion; long Dark grey arrows show the growing direction of the folia. International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 93-102 Bologna (Italy). July 2009Philippe Audra, Ludovic Mocochain, Jean-Yves Bigot and Jean-Claude Nobcourt

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2 term The association between bubble trails and folia: example from Adaouste Cave (Provence, France)International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 93-102 Bologna (Italy). July 2009

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CONCLUSION Fig. 7. Folia in Pl-Vlgy barlang, Hungary. Arrows indicate cupolas where gas bubbles are trapped and where intense corrosion showing bare permission) International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 93-102 Bologna (Italy). July 2009Philippe Audra, Ludovic Mocochain, Jean-Yves Bigot and Jean-Claude Nobcourt

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS REFERENCES Karst et splogense pignes, hypognes, recherches appliques et valorization [Epigene and hypogene karst and speleogenesis. Operative research and valorisation] Hydrothermal origin of two hypogenic karst caves in French Provence: Les cavits hypognes associes aux dpts de sulfures mtalliques (MVT) [Hypogenic cave systems related to metallic sulphide deposits (MVT)] 5 Hypogenic sediments The role of condensation-corrosion in thermal les-Bains, France Studio morfologico di due nuove cavit carsiche dellIglesiente (Sardegna Sud occidentale) [Morphological study of two new karst caves from Iglesiente (SW Sardinia)] 4 Le canyon messinien de la Durance (Provence, Fr.) : une preuve palogographique du bassin profond de dessication [The Massinian Durance Canyon (Provence, France): palaeogeographic evidence for a desiccated deep basin] 29 Observations in Bida Cave Grand Canyon National Park Folia in Carlsbad Cavern Miniature folia in Groaning Cave, Colorado Virgin passage found in Cave of the Winds Mysteries in mud: ancient frost-crystal impressions and other curiosities in Cave of the Winds, Colorado Folia in Hurricane Crawl Cave and Crystal Sequoia Cave l Extraordinary features of Lechuguilla Cave, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico The association between bubble trails and folia: example from Adaouste Cave (Provence, France)International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 93-102 Bologna (Italy). July 2009 A new hypogean karst form: the oxidation vent 147 Labor day Nevada Cave trip, 1951 Grandes cuevas y simas del Mediterrneo. m> Le concrezioni della Grotta Giusti [The speleothems of the Giusti Cave] Liquid Crystal Cave, Israel Cave minerals of the world Chemiosintesi e speleogenesi in un ecosistema ipogeo: i rami sulfurei delle grotte di Frasassi (Italia centrale) [Chemiosynthesis and speleogenesis in a hypogean ecosystem: the sulfuric gallery in Frasassi Cave (Central Italy)]1 On the origin of the folia and rims 88 The origin of folia Cuban Caves Photo Page, El Jarrito Bellamar Cave system, Matanzas province, Cuba m Basic geology of Crystal Cave, Utah 16 Basic geology of Goshute Cave, Nevada12 The Snake Creek Caves, White Pine County, Nevada 39 Mineralogy of Bida Cave, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona 15 Geology of Carlsbad Cavern and other caves in the Guadalupe Mountains 117 Folia Cave minerals of the world To Lechuguilla Depths Microbiology and geochemistry in a hydrogen-sulphide-rich karst environment169 Karst of northeastern Queensland reconsidered 4 Hypogene speleogenesis. Hydrogeological and morphogenetic perspective 1 environment on Devils Hole calcite morphology and petrology Studies of Cave Sediments: Physical and Chemical Records of Paleoclimate

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Genesis of Cave of the Winds, Manitou Springs, Colorado Cupp-Countunn Cave, Turkmenistan Cave minerals of the world Stalactites with internal and external feeding. Cupp-Coutunn cave system, Turkmenia, Central Asia A Vass Imre-barlang termszetvdelmi clu allapotfelvtel Folia found in Agua Caliente Nivelitas nuevas formaciones espeleologicas [Nivelitas, new cave formations]e Il carsismo di origine idrotermale del Colle di Monsummano (Pistoia Toscana) [The hydrothermal-origin karst from the Monsummano Hills (Pistoia Tuscany] 1 Morphological and hydrological relationship of the Tapolca lake cave Rare types of carbonate speleothems1-2 Rare speleothems found in Plvlgy cave International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 93-102 Bologna (Italy). July 2009Philippe Audra, Ludovic Mocochain, Jean-Yves Bigot and Jean-Claude Nobcourt



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Available online at www.ijs.speleo.itInternational Journal of Speleology International Journal of Speleology 38 (2) 103-109 Bologna (Italy) July 2009 INTRODUCTION Keywords Received 4 November 2008; Revised 21 January 2009; Accepted 10 February 2009 GEOLOGIC SETTING Abstract:

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International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 103-109 Bologna (Italy). July 2009 James J. Van Gundy and William B. White

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International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 103-109 Bologna (Italy). July 2009

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THE NOVEMBER, 1985, POTOMAC VALLEY FLOOD THE SEDIMENT FLUSH International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 103-109 Bologna (Italy). July 2009James J. Van Gundy and William B. White

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International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 103-109 Bologna (Italy). July 2009

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INTERPRETATION OF SEDIMENT TRANSPORT International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 103-109 Bologna (Italy). July 2009James J. Van Gundy and William B. White

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CONCLUSIONS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS REFERENCES 201 15 19(A) 174 295 40 11 15: 351 1008 214 275 32 International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 103-109 Bologna (Italy). July 2009



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Available online at www.ijs.speleo.itInternational Journal of Speleology International Journal of Speleology 38 (2) 111-128 Bologna (Italy) July 2009Cottonballs, a unique subaqeous moonmilk, and abundant subaerial moonmilk in Cataract Cave, Tongass National Forest, AlaskaINTRODUCTION Curry M.D., Boston P.J., Spilde M.N., Baichtal J.F., Campbell A.R. 2009. Cottonballs, a unique subaqeous moonmilk and abundant subaerial moonmilk in Cataract Cave, Tongass National Forest, Alaska. International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 111-128. Bologna (Italy). ISSN 0392-6672. The Tongass National Forest is known for its world-class karst features and contains the largest concentration of dissolutional caves Cataract Cave is an example of such a system. This cave hosts a unique depositional setting in which so-called cottonballs juxtaposed with extensive subaerial calcitic moonmilk wall deposit of a more conventional nature but of an extraordinary thickness and abundance. Both the cottonballs and moonmilk are composed of microcrystalline aggregates (0.20 wt.%) compared to the cottonballs (0.12 wt.%). However, the cottonballs are dominated by monocrystalline needles, whereas the moonmilk is mainly composed of polycrystalline needles. The microbial environments of both displayed similar total microbial cell counts; however, culturable microbial counts varied between the deposits and among the various media. For both, in situ cultures and isolates inoculated in a calcium salt medium a slightly higher abundance of organic carbon (0.20 wt%) compared to the cottonballs (0.12 wt%). Stable isotopic analysis revealed isotopically lighter compared to other overlying surface organic carbon sources. Due to the similarities between the deposits, we infer that both the cottonballs and moonmilk are subject to a set of related processes that could collectively be accommodated by the term moonmilk. Thus, the cottonball pool formation can be characterized as a type of subaqueous moonmilk. The differences observed between the moonmilk and cottonballs may be largely attributable to the changes in the depositional environment, namely in air or water. Keywords: cottonballs; moonmilk; USA, Alaska, Tongass National Forest; subaqueous Received 22 January 2009; Revised 3 March 2009; Accepted 5 May 2009 Abstract: 34

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International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 111-128. Bologna (Italy). July 2009 MATERIAL AND METHODSField Study Approach in situ Fig. 1. (A) Overview of the upper section side passage showing the spatial relationship of the permanent pools and moonmilk. (B) Closer view of the white and yellow moonmilk deposit forming on the sidewall of the passage. I and II indicate the sampling sites. (Photos taken by A. Martin Perez and J. Baichtal)Megan D. Curry Penelope J. Boston Mike N. Spilde James F. Baichtal Andrew R. Campbell

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International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 111-128. Bologna (Italy). July 2009 o Site Description o o oC Island, Tongass National Forest (shaded black in upper corner inset), from Baichtal & Swanston, 1996. Fig. 3. Cross sectional view showing the spatial relationships among the passages, pools, and deposits located within Cataract Cave cottonball deposits in (A) June 1991 and (B) June 2007. Numbers represent reference points to compare and contrast any changes that may have occurred such as water level or depositional growth (Photos taken by A. Martin Perez and J. Baichtal).Cottonballs, Tongass National Forest, Alaska

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and (B, D, F) Pool C. The roman numerals I, II, and III indicate the various sampling sites for the cottonballs. Arrow in (D) points toward the faint banding present associated with some of the cottonballs (Photos taken by A. Martin Perez and J. Baichtal). International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 111-128. Bologna (Italy). July 2009Megan D. Curry Penelope J. Boston Mike N. Spilde James F. Baichtal Andrew R. Campbell

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Geomicrobial Methods Cultivation o o Medium Reference Carbon Source +/+/Crystallization CFU/gArginine-Vitamin Agar Minimal Acetate Medium Acetate Starch-Casein Agar Soluble Starch, Casein Tryptone Soy Agar (1/2 Strength) Pancreatic Digest of Casein, Papaic Digest of Soybean Meal Variant 2 Sodium Lactic Acid MM, CB Variant 3 Calcium Succinate CB only CB: 3.20x10MM: 1.75x103 Maltose Variant 5 Calcium Succinate CB only Basal Salts (BS) Perrone, 2005; Spilde et al., 2005 None Perrone, 2005 Casamino acids, Dextrose, Soluble Perrone, 2005 Acetate Trace Metal Solution Perrone, 2005 None Reduced Arginine-Starch Salts w/ Vitamins Perrone, 2005 Starch, Arginine R2A (Difco) Casamino acids, Dextrose, Soluble CB: 8.06x1035Actinomycete Isolation Agar Actionomycete Isolation Agar (Difco) Hyphomicrobium Medium Atlas & Parks, 1993 Urea, methanol CB: 6.20x10MM: 1.07x103Pseudomonas Kings Medium A Atlas & Parks, 1993 Atlas & Parks, 1993 Bg-11 Atlas & Parks, 1993 Citric acid, Ferric Ammonium Citrate -Table 2. List of cultivation media, corresponding medium references, and present carbon sources within each medium that were utilized in this results for the associated media are provided in the last column in colony forming units per gram of deposit (CFU/g). Pool A Pool B Pool C H2O Temperature (oC) 8.0 (June) 8.3 (Aug.) 6.5 (June) 8.9 (Aug.) 7.0 Air Temperature (oC) pH 8.5 (Field) 8.2 (Lab) 7.7 Conductivity (mS/cm) 0.19 0.19 0.20 Salinity (ppt) 0.09 0.09 0.09 Table 1. Field measurements among the three pools. Pool (A) is a permanent pool in the lower level that contains no calcite deposition, while pools (B) and (C) are the permanent pools in the upper passage that contain the cottonball deposits juxtaposed on the moonmilk deposit. The surface temperature was 13oC (August). International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 111-128. Bologna (Italy). July 2009Cottonballs, Tongass National Forest, Alaska

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42O Hyphomicrobium o Bac Microscopy Geochemical Methods Inorganic Carbon/Organic Carbon 34 o 3 34oC oO X-Ray Diffraction o Isotopic analyses 34International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 111-128. Bologna (Italy). July 2009Megan D. Curry Penelope J. Boston Mike N. Spilde James F. Baichtal Andrew R. Campbell

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oC prior to o O RESULTSGeomicrobiology Cultivation Pseudomonas Actinobacteria Hyphomicrobium, Isolation Hyphomicrobium, Hyphomicrobium Hyphomicrobium Hyphomicrobium 4 4 Microscopy In situ Samples: Microstructure Crystalline Morphology. International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 111-128. Bologna (Italy). July 2009Cottonballs, Tongass National Forest, Alaska

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Geochemistry 3 International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 111-128. Bologna (Italy). July 2009Megan D. Curry Penelope J. Boston Mike N. Spilde James F. Baichtal Andrew R. Campbell

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not observed in association with the larger crystals (A-D). However, the presence of cellular bodies were observed on and in close proximity to addition, this photomicrograph shows further detail of the crystal growth and texture associated with the larger crystals. For photomicrograph (F), C International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 111-128. Bologna (Italy). July 2009Cottonballs, Tongass National Forest, Alaska

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International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 111-128. Bologna (Italy). July 2009Megan D. Curry Penelope J. Boston Mike N. Spilde James F. Baichtal Andrew R. Campbell

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start to become shorter and wider compared to the monocrystalline needle morphologies. (D) This photomicrograph reveals the growth of a dense morphologies due to this lack of biological features. International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 111-128. Bologna (Italy). July 2009Cottonballs, Tongass National Forest, Alaska

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OO o o DISCUSSIONCalcite Precipitation Cottonball Moonmilk Host Rock Wt.% inorganic C 9.80 9.95 10.6 Wt.% organic C 0.203 13Ccarbonate (, PDB) -7.8 -1.6 18Ocarbonate (, PDB) -8.7 -7.6 -8.8 13Corganic fraction (, PDB) -26.7 Water Content Wt.% Viable Culturable Microorganisms (CFU/g) 3.56x10 1.30x1066Table 3. Compilation of the average geochemical and microbiological results for the cottonballs, moonmilk, and host rock. Measured Calculated Temperature (oC) Water and Cottonballs 32.5 7.0 Water and Moonmilk 35.1 33.2 isotopic relationship among the cottonballs, moonmilk, host rock and organic carbon signatures. Note that for organic carbon, only the carbon signature is analyzed while for the pool waters, only the oxygen isotopic signature was analyzed. The gray elliptical area represents the typical calcite pool deposits (values from Palmer, global meteoric water line. International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 111-128. Bologna (Italy). July 2009Megan D. Curry Penelope J. Boston Mike N. Spilde James F. Baichtal Andrew R. Campbell

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3 2+ 3 2 3 CO2 2 2 International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 111-128. Bologna (Italy). July 2009Cottonballs, Tongass National Forest, Alaska

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C 2 CO2 2 2 2 2 2 2 C CO2 C 3 International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 111-128. Bologna (Italy). July 2009Megan D. Curry Penelope J. Boston Mike N. Spilde James F. Baichtal Andrew R. Campbell

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2 2 C 3 Microbial Considerations 2 4 to 3 2+ International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 111-128. Bologna (Italy). July 2009Cottonballs, Tongass National Forest, Alaska

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CONCLUSIONS Corg by ACKNOWLEDGMENTS REFERENCES 33 12(1) 1992 Speleo Digest Some Carbonate Erosion Rates of Southeast Alaska. 66 (3) Handbook of Microbiological International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 111-128. Bologna (Italy). July 2009Megan D. Curry Penelope J. Boston Mike N. Spilde James F. Baichtal Andrew R. Campbell

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Media. Karst Landscapes and Associated Resources: A Resource Assessment Origin of pedogenic and stable-isotope composition 66 Depositos minerais secundarios das cavernas Santana, Perolas e Lage Branca, municipio de Iporanga-So Paulo. Microbial life in the underworld: Biogenicity in secondary mineral formations 18 The physico-chemical evolution of moonmilk. 3 Calcite Moonmilk: Crystal Morphology and Environment of formation in Caves in the Italian Alps. Journal of 70 (5) Cave biosignature suites: Microbes, minerals, and mars. 1 Molecular evidence for bacterial mediation of calcite formation in cold highaltitude caves 25 Microbial communities associated with hydromagnesite (Altamira, Northern Spain). 16 On the 93 Calcite moonmilk in the Humpleu Cave System (Romania): The relationship between crystal morphology and cave topoclimate 29 3: Scanning electron microscopy of piliated Neisseria gonorrhoeae processed with hexamethyldisilazane. 19 Biomineralization. Processes of carbonate precipitation in modern microbial mats Deposition of calcium carbonate in karst caves: roles of bacteria in Stiffes Cave 30 in a Temperate Rain Forest. 55 Geomicrobiology. The diversity and biogeography of soil bacterial communities 103 (3) Etymology, terminology, and an Karst Hydrogeology and Geomorphology Some Causes of the Variation of the Isotopic Composition of Carbon and Oxygen in Cave Concretions. 4 Compilation of stable isotope fractionation factors of geochemical interest. Solutions, Minerals and Equilibria. Soil Fungi and Soil Fertility Actual status of the question of moonmilk.3 1: The Isotopic Geochemistry of Speleothems I. The Calculation of the Effects of Different Modes of Formation on the Isotopic Composition of Speleothems and Their Applicability as Paleoclimatic Indicators. 35 Stable Isotope Geochemistry 85: Morphology, relationship, and 63 (6) Use of Fluorochromes for Direct Enumeration of Total Bacteria in Environmental Samples: Past and Present. 58 (4) Chernobyl radiocaesium in a karst system, Marble Cave, Crimea 28International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 111-128. Bologna (Italy). July 2009Cottonballs, Tongass National Forest, Alaska

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Seasonal isotopic imprint in moonmilk from Caverne de lOurs (Quebec, Canada): implications for climatic reconstruction. 41 Aqueous environmental chemistry. Environmental Microbiology. Spectroscopic characterization of moonmilk deposits in Pozalagua tourist Cave (Karrantza, Basque Country, North of Spain)68 Palaeo-climate reconstruction from stable isotope variations in speleothems: a review 23 Large kinetic isotope effects in modern speleothems 118 Behavior and Products of Cave Microorganisms. Screening for Culturable Microorganisms from Cave Environments (Slovenia) 31 (2) Geomicrobiology of Caves: A Review 18 Mineralogical data concerning moonmilk speleothems in few caves from northern Norway 24 Moonmilk mineralogy in some Romanian and Norwegian Caves. 20 Oxygen isotope fractionation in divalent metal carbonates. 51 Cave Geology. Experimental determination of the biogenicity of moonmilk, and the characterization of moonmilk and its depositional environment in Spider Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico. Experimental determination of the biogenicity of moonmilk, and the characterization of moonmilk and its depositional environment in Spider Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico 34 (8) Electron backscatter diffraction documents randomly for biologically induced precipitation 55 20 Carbon Isotopes & Microbial Sediments Microbial Sediments Principles of Stable Isotope Geochemistry Rock milk from caves in Crimea and Abhasia. 12 22: Isotopic Ratios and Their Preservation in Carbonate 1 (1) Floating Rafts of Calcite Crystals in Cave Pools, Central Texas, USA: Crystal Habit vs. Saturation State. 74 (3) hemlock and western red cedar on microbial numbers, 88 Microbial biodiversity in Tasmanian Caves Role of Calcium Oxalate Biomineralization by Fungi in the Formation of Calcretes: A Case Study from Nazareth, Israel 63 (5) A64 (3) Terrestrial Calcium Carbonate Cycle. In: Fossil and Recent and fungal hyphae in dicotyledonous wood from the Eocene London Clay, Isle-of-Sheppey, Kent, England. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 142International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 111-128. Bologna (Italy). July 2009Megan D. Curry Penelope J. Boston Mike N. Spilde James F. Baichtal Andrew R. Campbell



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Available online at www.ijs.speleo.itInternational Journal of Speleology International Journal of Speleology 38 (2) 153-162 Bologna (Italy) July 2009Annual and transient signatures of gas exchange and transport in the Castaar de Ibor cave (Spain)INTRODUCTIONThe gases 2222 Fernandez-Cortes A., Sanchez-Moral S., Cuezva S., Caaveras J.C. and Abella R. 2009. Annual and transient signatures of gas exchange and transport in the Castaar de Ibor cave (Spain). International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 153-162. Bologna (Italy). ISSN 0392-6672. The large microclimatic stability is a basic characteristic of the subterranean karst systems and causes a high sensitivity to changes in environmental conditions. High-accuracy monitoring of Castaar de Ibor cave (Spain) determined the temporal evolution of the aerodynamic processes and ventilation rate by tracking CO2 and 222Rn levels over a twelve-month period. This cave is characterized by a very stable microclimate, with high and relatively constant radon content (the mean value is 32200 Bq/m3, roughly, and the standard deviation is 7600 Bq/m3) and a moderate and quite stable CO2 concentration (the mean value is 3730 ppm and the standard deviation is 250 ppm). Beside the general patterns of cave microclimate throughout an annual cycle, some particular microclimatic processes are described with regard to the gas exchange between the cave and the outside atmosphere. There is a complex gases from the fractures and the pore system of soil and host rock to cave atmosphere. Transient variations of tracer gas on cave air Keywords: Carbon dioxide, radon, cave aerodynamics, microclimatic monitoring, karst.. Received 11 February 2009; Revised 1 April 2009; Accepted 21 May 2009 2 partial pressure 2 in 2Abstract: 22

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International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 153-162 Bologna (Italy). July 2009Angel Fernandez-Cortes, Sergio Sanchez-Moral, Soledad Cuezva, Juan Carlos Caaveras, Rafael Abella 2 FIELD SITE 2 METHODSInstrumentation 2 2 quickly by 222 222

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International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 153-162 Bologna (Italy). July 2009Annual and transient signatures of gas exchange and transport in the Castaar de Ibor cave (Spain)Air density calculations 2 2 avs a is the is the 2 vs is saturation RESULTSPrevailing microclimatic conditions 2 2 very high level of 222 222Rn 222 et al. 2 222 ., 2 2 Fig.1. 3-D view of Castaar de bor cave showing spatial distribution of the environmental monitoring stations and depth location of the main areas.

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2 T Fig.2. Time series (daily smoothed data) of air temperature (exterior and inside cave), air density, 222Rn level and CO2 content of air within both process in Sala Nevada chamber detected by an accumulation of CO2-enriched and colder air; C; CO2 diffusion to S.Lagos from S.Nevada and temperatures and CO2 Lagos chamber coinciding with the beginning of gas recharge phase. International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 153-162 Bologna (Italy). July 2009Angel Fernandez-Cortes, Sergio Sanchez-Moral, Soledad Cuezva, Juan Carlos Caaveras, Rafael Abella

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2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 is 2 2 th 2 2222 TRANSIENT SIGNATURES OF TRACER GASESL ocal movement of tracer gases and heat exchange 2 level 2 2 2 2 Barometric control 2222 International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 153-162 Bologna (Italy). July 2009Annual and transient signatures of gas exchange and transport in the Castaar de Ibor cave (Spain)

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environmental impacts are distinguished (see text); A: fast condensation of vapor excess in Sala Nevada chamber, B: CO2 rise by gas diffusion once the prevailing air density differences are reestablished between both chambers, and C: disturbance of air temperature trend in Sala Lagos chamber because heat transfer by conduction. International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 153-162 Bologna (Italy). July 2009Angel Fernandez-Cortes, Sergio Sanchez-Moral, Soledad Cuezva, Juan Carlos Caaveras, Rafael Abella

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222 2 2 2 222 Human-induced ventilation 2/222Rn levels during two different states of air exchange cave-exterior: A; dry period of underground air renewal, and B; wet period of gases recharge. Take note the different behavior of both tracer gases during the intervals of forced ventilation by door opening and throughout the prevailing conditions of barometric depression in weather. International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 153-162 Bologna (Italy). July 2009Annual and transient signatures of gas exchange and transport in the Castaar de Ibor cave (Spain)

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222Rn levels 222 2222 2 2 2 222 into 222 222 222Rn Ra 222 fall of the 222 2 2 222Rn 222 222 222 222 222 222 of 222 2 2 2 2 IMPLICATIONS FOR A SUSTAINABLE CAVE MANAGEMENT AND SPELEOTHEMS CONSERVATION2 2 in the 2 2 2 International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 153-162 Bologna (Italy). July 2009Angel Fernandez-Cortes, Sergio Sanchez-Moral, Soledad Cuezva, Juan Carlos Caaveras, Rafael Abella

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2 CONCLUSIONS2222 2222 2222 2222 2222 2 2 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS REFERENCES Dolomite in caves: Recent dolomite formation in oxic, non-sulfate environments. Castaar Cave, Spain 205 Fisica del Clima Sotterraneo Carbon dioxide sources, sinks, and spatial variability in shallow temperate zone caves: evidence from Ballynamintra Cave, Ireland 68 Very high-frequency and seasonal cave atmosphere P-CO2 variability: Implications for stalagmite growth and oxygen isotopebased paleoclimate records 272 (1-2)International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 153-162 Bologna (Italy). July 2009Annual and transient signatures of gas exchange and transport in the Castaar de Ibor cave (Spain)

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Do the earth tides ? Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 69 (1): -60. Seasonal variations of CO2 and 222Rn in a Mediterranean sinkhole spring (Causse dAumelas, SE France) 36 (1) Carbon dioxide in karst cavity atmosphere dynamics: the example of the Aven dOrgnac (Ardeche) 333 (11) Microclimates of lAven dOrgnac and other French limestone caves (Chauvet, Esparros, Marsoulas) 26 (12) New equations for computing vapor pressure and enhancement factor 20 (12) Phnomnes Karstiques: Temprature Climate of caves Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science Radon in Caves 34 (1-2) Radon in caves: Clinical aspects 35 (2) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics CRC 84th edition adiabatic context 41 atmospheric pressure and CO2 in the cave of Lascaux using the concept of entropy of curves 32 Factor controlling measurement of radon mass exhalation rate 82 Anthropogenic CO2A case study in the Cisarska Cave (Moravian Karst, Czech Republic) Speleothems as indicators of wet and dry periods 36 (2) Spatiotemporal analysis of air conditions as a tool for the environmental management of a show cave (Cueva del Agua, Spain) 40 (38) in a low energy cave (Castaar de Ibor, Spain) using techniques of entropy of curves Radon transport in fractured porous media Experimental study in caves22 Radon transport phenomena studied in karst caves International experiences on radon levels and exposures28 (1-6) Microclimatic characterization of a karstic cave: human impact on microenvironmental parameters of a prehistoric rock art cave (Candamo Cave, northern Spain) 33 (4) geochemical CO2 exchange? 148 (6-7) High 222Rn levels in a show cave (Castaar de Ibor, Spain): Proposal and application of management measures to minimize the effects on guides and visitors 40 Cave volume computed on the behaviour of a blowing well (Tournai basin, W. Belgium)10 (3) Pressure induced temperature variations in an underground quarry 191 (1-2) Radon-222 signatures of natural ventilation regimes in an underground quarry 71 (1) Seasonal variations of natural ventilation and radon-222 exhalation in a slightly rising dead-end tunnel97 and carbon dioxide concentration in an underground tunnel176 Inorganic deterioration affecting the Altamira Cave, N Spain: quantitative approach to wall-corrosion (solutional etching) processes induced by visitors243-244 Cave air control on dripwater geochemistry, Obir Caves (Austria): Implications for speleothem deposition in dynamically ventilated caves 69 (10)International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 153-162 Bologna (Italy). July 2009Angel Fernandez-Cortes, Sergio Sanchez-Moral, Soledad Cuezva, Juan Carlos Caaveras, Rafael Abella



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Available online at www.ijs.speleo.itInternational Journal of Speleology International Journal of Speleology 38 (2) 129-138 Bologna (Italy) July 2009A terminological matter: paragenesis, antigravitative erosion or antigravitational erosion ?ON THE USAGE OF THE TERMS SYNGENESIS, PARAGENESIS, ANTIGRAVITATIVE EROSION ( LATO SENSU ) AND ANTIGRAVITATIONAL EROSION.Man gibt zuerst in Worten nach, und dann allmhlich auch in der Sache [ One substance too Antigravitative erosion and Antigravitational erosion Pasini G. 2009. A terminological matter: paragenesis, antigravitative erosion or antigravitational erosion ? International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 129-138. Bologna (Italy). ISSN 0392-6672. In the speleological literature three terms are utilized to designate the ascending erosion: paragenesis (= paragnsis, coined in 1968), antigravitative erosion (= erosione antigravitativa, coined in 1966) and antigravitational erosion (wrong English translation of the Italian term erosione antigravitativa, utilized later on). The term paragenesis should be abandoned because of the priority of the term erosione antigravitativa on the ground of the law of priority and because of its ambiguous etimology. On the other hand, the term antigravitational erosion should be forsaken in favour of the term antigravitative erosion, given the meaning that the terms gravitation and gravity have in Physics. Therefore, to designate the phenomenon of the ascending erosion there would be nothing left but the term antigravitative erosion. The antigravitative erosion process and its recognizability are illustrated. of the world, are given. It is recalled that the antigravitative erosion is a phenomenon well-known since 1942 and widely proven and supported, and that it is relatively easy in many cases to recognize the antigravitative origin of karstic passages. It is stressed that the antigravitative erosion is an important phenomenon, exclusive of the karstic caves and unique in nature.Keywords: speleogenesis, paragenesis, syngenesis, antigravitative erosion, antigravitational erosion. Received 11 November 2008; Revised 17 January 2009; Accepted 18 May 2009 erosione antigravitativa by Pasini opposite, against term erosione lato sensu i.e. both mechanical erosion erosion stricto sensu the physical dissolution chemical dissolution or corrosion stricto sensu (that of limestones antigravitative erosion it altogether lato sensu paragenesis Abstract:

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International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 129-138. Bologna (Italy). July 2009(e.g paragntique e.g. term paragenesis antigravitative erosione.g. antigravitational erosion. antigravitative is not the same as antigravitational gravity gravitation are mostly Gravitation is the Gravity the attribute antigravitative should be preferred to the attribute antigravitational as far as the ascending erosion is concerned antigravitational antigravitativa into the antigravitational, antigravitational erosion tout court erosione antigravitativa terms paragenesis antigravitative erosion. the term erosione dots represent clayey-silty sediments. Fig. 1a represents, in long section, a stretch of a normal system of phreatic tubes, developed along bedding planes and joint planes. Figs. 1b and 1c show the evolution of such galleries in an intermediate phase and at the end of the antigravitative erosion process, respectively : the phreatic = trace of the piezometric surface ; L L = local base level; c.f. = system of phreatic tubes; c.a. = system of antigravitative pseudo phreatic tubes the long sections).Giancarlo Pasini

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International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 129-138. Bologna (Italy). July 2009antigravitativa should be preferred under the law of priority because it was coined in 1966 and recalled in 1967, while the term paragnesis (or more exactly the attribute paragntique) was coined in 1968 (see paragnesis, paragntique The incorrect use of the terms syngenesis and paragenesis as speleogenetic processes in karstic caves Utilization of the terms syngenesis and syngenetic in speleological literature syngenesis with, contemporaneous to, at the same time of genesis, origin Syngenesis contemporaneous genesis, contemporaneous origin; syngenetic which has an origin contemporaneous to syngenetic caveCave developed simultaneously with the enclosing rock Cavit forme lors du dpt des roches qui la contiennent. On distingue des cavits volcaniques (par lexpansion des gaz : grottes bulle par lcoulement de la lave : cavit rhogntique) et des cavits sdimentaires primaires (grottes de rcif, cavits dans le tuf ou le travertin) rheogenetic are syngenetic caves may proceed simultaneously. galeries syngntiques normal phreatic passages or for the syngenetic passages ? the terms syngnesis and forsaken Utilization of the terms paragenesis and paragenetic in speleological literature paragenesis paragenetic alongside of, beside, by, to the side of, beyond, aside genesis, origin Paragenesis paragenetic are thus at least presence paragenesis paragenetic, syngenesis syngenetic ( epigenesis epigenetic (= subsequent remontant (galerie paragntique ou de creusement remontant epigenetic also = upon or over the terms paragenesis and paragenetic should be refused also for etimological reasons The best term to describe the ascending erosion in erosion antigravitative (e.g. antigravitative gallery, antigravitative canyon; antigravitative ceiling channel, etc Gravitationsgnge gallerie gravitazionali condotti gravitativi by other Italian antigravitative passages antigravitative erosion.THE ANTIGRAVITATIVE EROSION PROCESS lato sensu galeries syngntiques. In passage from a further erosion lato sensu passage will enlarge only upwards ( antigravitative erosion lato sensu origin to an antigravitative passage ( although antigravitative passages A terminological matter: paragenesis, antigravitative erosion or antigravitational erosion ?

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antigravitative erosion process antigravitative passage antigravitative passages are antigravitative passages antigravitative passages antigravitative passagevisible or passage; antigravitative passage practicable, silt, carved in the messinian selenitic gypsum of the Fiorini Quarry (Il in correspondence of a subhorizontal joint plane, clearly visible in the picture. Afterwards the phreatic water circulating under pressure in the small conduit, was forced by the alluvial deposits piled up and the upper walls of the conduit. This antigravitative groove is with alluvial clayey silt including rare rounded pebbles, carved in the messinian selenitic gypsum of the Fiorini Quarry (Il Farneto, Bologna, Italy). Also in this case a small phreatic conduit originated in correspondence of a subhorizontal joint plane, clearly visible in the picture. It should be noted that there are neither bedding planes nor fractures near the top of the groove. At the left of the bigger groove, further explanations see Fig. 2 a. The bigger antigravitative groove is a b Fig. 3 Antigravitative canyon of the Grotta del Tunnel, cave carved in the messinian selenitic gypsum near Il Farneto (Bologna, Italy) (Photo Edoardo Altara). This antigravitative canyon was only the passage is formed by clayey-sandy sediments, which constitute International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 129-138. Bologna (Italy). July 2009Giancarlo Pasini

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Fig. 4 a) Entrance of the "Buco delle gomme" (Photo Edoardo Altara), a subhorizontal cave in the selenitic gypsum near "Il Farneto" (Bologna, Italy) excavated by the antigravitative erosion (see crosssection AA in Fig. 4 b). Under the passable cave ( marked by "p. sediments and accidentally sectioned by a quarry is clearly visible. mainly of sandy clays, covered by a thin bed of gravel (see Fig. 4 b). The blocks of rock visible at the left of the man are due to very recent collapses. The whitish rectangular surface to the left of the door is the top of a stratum (marked by "t. s."), and evidences that the bedding planes are steeply dipping (see Fig. 4 b). The dimensions of the visible portion of this antigravitative cave are: more than 8 m in heigth, man; vadose passage antigravitative erosion antigravitative canyons antigravitative ceiling channels Antigravitative canyons antigravitative canyons (= forre antigravitative antigravitative erosion, generally vadose canyons antigravitative canyons is that in the Antigravitative ceiling channels antigravitative ceiling channels Fig.4 b) Map, long section and cross-sections of the Buco delle gomme. When the cave was in the stage of antigravitative evolution represented International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 129-138. Bologna (Italy). July 2009A terminological matter: paragenesis, antigravitative erosion or antigravitational erosion ?

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antigravitative ceiling channel Antigravitative ceiling channels Only some ceiling channels antigravitative erosion Antigravitative ceiling channels e.g. RECOGNIZABILITY OF ANTIGRAVITATIVE CAVES Paragenesis A type of cave passage development the presence of an armoring layer of sediment, such that any dissolutional enlargement is dominantly upwards. Paragenetic cave Cave passage, usually of form, believed to be created by paragenesis. Passage prove, as later sediment removal leaves a passage that looks very similar to the far more common vadose canyon. [Paragenesis] Generally, an unproven and unsupported theory. paragenesis (that from now antigravitative erosion, as proven and supported by e.g., antigravitative erosion testify that the antigravitative erosion passage formation by paragenesis is normally very branches of the caves enlarged by the antigravitative erosion and entirely preserving the antigravitative erosion, forming antigravitative canyons. recreusement antigravitative canyons the antigravitative canyons are not always totally remnants (tmoins ciments antigravitative canyons e. g., an antigravitative canyon was entirely emptied of sediments antigravitative history. antigravitative canyon ( in this antigravitative Grotta della Spipola, engraved in the messinian selenitic gypsum channel is about 110 cm wide. International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 129-138. Bologna (Italy). July 2009Giancarlo Pasini

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Table 1. Examples of karstic caves which show outstanding antigravitative erosion phenomena. For each cave are indicated: the rock in which the cave is excavated, the country in which the cave is located, its main antigravitative features (when possible), the author (or authors) who the antigravitative erosion phenomena are described or represented. Well developed antigravitative erosion phenomena have been observed also Name of the cave Country Antigravitative speleoforms Author(s) Year(s) Caves in limestones Palotraun of Eisriesenwelt Austria spectacular example of such passages [antigra-vitative canyons] Lauritzen and Lundberg 2000 p. 414 Grotte de BaraBahau in this cave there are antigravitative passages 10 m wide Renault 1961 p. 62 Grotte de Cantal France antigravitative gallery 10 m wide Renault 1968 Grotte de Cougnac Lot, France in this cave there are antigravitative galleries where the Renault 1968 Grotte de Miremont France antigravitative gallery at least 10 m wide Renault 1968 Grotte de Pcherey France Renault 1968 Grotte du Cap de la Bouiche antigravitative gallery more than 10 m wide Renault 1968 Rseau de lAven dOrgnac France.... pourrait tre cit comme example spectaculaire dune galerie paragntique de dimensions exceptionnelles [could be mentioned as spectacular example of paragenetic gallery with exceptional dimensions] Renault 1968 Grotta N.3 and Grotta N. 6 di Cala di Luna Sardinia, Italy in these caves there are well developed antigravitative ceiling channels Pasini p. 304 Svaritsen North Norway Lauritzen and Lundberg 2000 6.1. pl.6. Karlovice system Slovenia 2006 Flint Mammoth Cave System Kentucky, U.S.A. Bretz 1942 Ford and Ewers 1978 p. 232 Lowe and Waltham p. 26 Pikes Peak Cave Missouri U.S.A. Bretz Seawra Cave Pennsylvania U.S.A. Bretz 1942 p. 736 Wonder Cave Tennessee U.S.A. Bretz 1942 p. 736 Endless Caverns Virginia, U.S.A. Bretz 1942 p. 736 Bambu Karst (Lagoa Santa Area) Minas Gerais, Brazil Auler & Farrant 1996 p. 190 Jenolan Caves New South Wales, Australia Osborne 1999 Caves in marble Storsteinshola North Norway ... spectacular example of such passages [antigravitative canyons] Lauritzen and Lundberg 2000 p. 414 Caves in gypsum Buco delle Gomme Emilia Romagna, Italy fully antigravitative cave Pasini 1966 1967a pp. 33-34 pp. 33-34 pp. 83-86 p. 299 Acquafredda Spipola Cave System Emilia Romagna, Italy in just one room of this cave there are all of 12 ceiling channels, mostly antigravitative Pasini 1966 1967a pp. 17-31 pp. 21-32 pp. 83-86 p. 299 Grotta del Tunnel Emilia Romagna, Italy in this cave an outstanding example of antigravitative canyon is visible Pasini 1967a pp. 34-41 pp. 83-86 p. 299 Covadura Cave System Sorbas, Andalusia, Spain Pulido-Bosch 2003 Caves in salt Sedom Cave Israel Frumkin 1998 p. 190canyon the topmost gallery has, as a rule, topographic axes that are quite bedding planes, the joint planes and the fault planes of the bedrock a method by which paragenetic and vadose canyons can be distinguishedCONCLUSIONS antigravitative erosion is an important only Thus the "antigravitative erosion" is a phenomenon exclusive of karstic caves and unique in nature.International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 129-138. Bologna (Italy). July 2009A terminological matter: paragenesis, antigravitative erosion or antigravitational erosion ?

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Many caves display some evidence of either paragenetic development as vadose and paragenetic passages have very different geomorphic and paleoclimatic implications, and alluviation in speleogenesis and development is probably underestimated. This is partially because by their very nature, most paragenetic caves are Fig. 6 Part of anantigravitative ceiling channel in the vault of the carved in jurassic limestones (Photo Elzbieta Horczynska). In this case b aFig. 7 a) Keyhole due to normal erosion, carved in the jurassic section at the top of the impassable cave, in phreatic conditions; acted top-down (gravitative erosion). This keyhole is about 1 m high. b) Antigravitative keyhole in the Grotta Novella (Photo Ugo conduit formed in correspondence with a fracture visible in the photo -, and then developed upwards by antigravitative erosion: so, with parallel vertical walls, and, at the end, formed the hole with circular cross-section at the top. This keyhole is 90 cm high. The keyholes of bigger dimensions form in the same ways. a b and antigravitative canyons. Vadose entrenching canyons and antigravitative canyons form a pair of mirror images. They are mirrored through the water table. The meander migration vector (MMV) is shown by the heaviest arrows, and it can be determined in the upper and lower hemispheres of a stereonet, respectively. When both vectors are projected into a lower hemisphere, scallop cases (right). b) MMV plots from Storsteinshola, Kipsvik Quarries, north Norway. Left : Present-day active vadose canyon. Right : The suspected antigravitative passage. They plot as indicated in International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 129-138. Bologna (Italy). July 2009Giancarlo Pasini

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unexplored. paragenesis antigravitational erosion speleogenesis with the term antigravitative erosion paragenetic antigravitational the attribute antigravitative. terms syngenesis syngenetic in the meaning the antigravitative erosion ACKNOWLEDGMENTS gravity gravitation, REFERENCES A brief introduction to karst and caves in Brazil. 20 (3) 1 Vadose and Phreatic features of limestone caverns. 50(6) Caves of Missouri. 2(39) Osservazioni sulla morfologia dei grandi canali di volta presenti nella Galleria della dolina interna nella Grotta 72 Karstologa de yesos. Evolution of the gypsum karst of Sorbas (SE Spain). 50 Paragenesis. A Lexicon of Cave and Karst Terminology with Special Reference to Environmental Karst Hydrology. Setting. Speleogenesis: Evolution of Karst Aquifers. The development of limestone cave systems in the dimensions of length and depth. 10(3-4)International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 129-138. Bologna (Italy). July 2009A terminological matter: paragenesis, antigravitative erosion or antigravitational erosion ? Fig. 9a) Part of anantigravitative ceiling channel in the Grotte della Spipola, cave engraved in the messinian selenitic gypsum zones in the photograph). In this case a little phreatic conduit formed in correspondence of a subhorizontal bedding plane. For further explanations see Fig. 2 a. This antigravitative ceiling channel is antigravitative ceiling channel shown in Fig. 9 a. In this stretch sand, gravel and marl). Under the channel the top of the collapsed underlying gypsum bed is visible. The height of the antigravitative ceiling channel in this point is of about 60 cm.

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Karst Geomorphology and Hydrogeology Karst Hydrogeology and Geomorphology. Calindri110 paleoenvironmental implications. 23 Discussion after the report of Renault, Ph., 1961. Problmes physiques en relation avec les remplissages naturels des grottes. 5(1) Encyclopedia of Geomorphology Erosion. The Encyclopedia of Geomorphology. Glossary of Geology and related Sciences. Lexicon fr hhlenforscher. 99 Grundriss der theoretischen Spelologie. Differential diagnosis of paragenetic and vadose canyons. 21(2) Solutional and Erosional Morphology. Speleogenesis: Evolution of Karst Aquifers. Lexicon th A Dictionary of Karst and Caves.6 Karren. Encyclopedia of Caves. Lipotesi dell erosione inversa come contributo allo studio della speleogenesi. 46 A Dictionary of Geography, A Glossary of Karst Terminology. The Origin of Jenolan Caves: Chronology. 121 Osservazioni sui canali di volta delle grotte bolognesi4(1) dellerosione antigravitativa 4(1) Sullimportanza speleogenetica dell Erosione antigravitativa 4(4) Elments de splomorphologie karstique.13(1-4) Problmes physiques en relation avec les remplissages naturels des grottes. 5(1) Contribution l tude des actions mcaniques et sdimentologiques dans la splogense. 3e partie: Les facteurs sdimentologiques. 23(3) faults, collapse dolines and collector channel formation: some examples from Slovenia. International Journal of 35(1) Passages. Encyclopedia of Caves. International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 129-138. Bologna (Italy). July 2009Giancarlo Pasini



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Available online at www.ijs.speleo.itInternational Journal of Speleology International Journal of Speleology 38 (2) 139-152 Bologna (Italy) July 2009Cryogenic cave carbonates from the Cold Wind Cave, Nzke Tatry Mountains, Slovakia: Extending the age range of cryogenic cave carbonate formation to the SaalianINTRODUCTION cryogenic cave carbonate Ca-HCO3 pan.pl Keywords Received 17 March 2009; Revised 24 April 2009; Accepted 20 May 2009 Abstract: 13

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International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 139-152 Bologna (Italy). July 2009 36.0 61.0 15.61 to 14.48 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA in the internal part of the Carpathian Orogen.

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International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 139-152 Bologna (Italy). July 2009

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( Vetra ( International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 139-152 Bologna (Italy). July 2009

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International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 139-152 Bologna (Italy). July 2009

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International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 139-152 Bologna (Italy). July 2009

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-1 -1 CARBONATES IN THE JSV CAVE International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 139-152 Bologna (Italy). July 2009

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3PO 13RESULTS 13 13C O 13C 13 in the O.DISCUSSION 3 ThO International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 139-152 Bologna (Italy). July 2009

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area of the 13 13C plot (see 13C 13 with lower 13 13C O in the Sample number, location, and description Lab. No. U cont. [ppm]234U/238U [AR]230Th/234U [AR]230Th/ 232Th [AR] Age [ka] JSV-1/1 79.7 JSV-1/2 104.0 JSV-2 180.0 Sample number, location, and description 13C (, V-PDB) 18O (, V-PDB) International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 139-152 Bologna (Italy). July 2009+2.3 -2.2 +2.9 -2.8 +6.3 -6.0

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O of the yet unfrozen solution 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 0 50 100 150 200 250Age (ka BP) 18O ()JSV Cave, Slovakia Malachitdom, Germany Stratensk Cave, Slovakia BUML Cave, Czech Rep. Kielce Area, Poland International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 139-152 Bologna (Italy). July 2009

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13 13C of the HCO3of soil CO 13 13 out of CO 13 13 resulting in generally higher 13 also shows the highest 13 CONCLUSIONS International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 139-152 Bologna (Italy). July 2009

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REFERENCES Cave genesis in . 32 4 169 102 19 11 39 International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 139-152 Bologna (Italy). July 2009

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. 260 253 35 29 1 43 71 28 Kryogene Kryogene . International Journal XVI International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 139-152 Bologna (Italy). July 2009

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35 . 187 206 International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 139-152 Bologna (Italy). July 2009



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Available online at www.ijs.speleo.itInternational Journal of Speleology International Journal of Speleology 38 (2) 163-172 Bologna (Italy) July 2009Observations on the Cave-Associated Beetles (Coleoptera) of Nova Scotia, CanadaINTRODUCTION a genus Quedius Moseley M. 2009. Observations on the Cave-Associated Beetles (Coleoptera) of Nova Scotia, Canada. International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 163-172. Bologna (Italy). ISSN 0392-6672. The cave-associated invertebrates of Nova Scotia constitute a fauna at a very early stage of post-glacial recolonization. The Coleoptera are characterized by low species diversity. A staphylinid Quedius spelaeus spelaeus a predator, is the only regularly encountered beetle. Ten other terrestrial species registered from cave environments in the province are collected infrequently. They include three other rove-beetles: Brathinus nitidus, Gennadota canadensis and Atheta annexa The latter two together with Catops gratiosus (Leiodidae) constitute a small group of cave-associated beetles found in decompositional situations. Quedius s. spelaeus and a small suite of other guanophiles live in accumulations of porcupine dung: Agolinus leopardus (Scarabaeidae), Corticaria serrata (Latrididae), and Acrotrichis castanea (Ptilidae). Two adventive weevils Otiorhynchus ligneus and Barypeithes pellucidus (Curculionidae) collected in shallow cave passages are seasonal transients; Dermestes lardarius (Dermestidae), recorded from one cave, was probably an accidental (stray). Five of the terrestrial beetles are adventive Palaearctic species. Aquatic beetles are collected infrequently. Four taxa have been recorded: Agabus larsoni (Dytiscidae) may be habitual in regional caves; another Agabus sp. (probably semivittatus), Dytiscus sp. (Dytiscidae), and Crenitis digesta (Hydrophilidae) are accidentals. The distribution and ecology of recorded species are discussed, and attention is drawn to the association of beetles found in a Nova Scotia ice cave. Keywords: cave fauna, Coleoptera, beetles, Nova Scotia, Canada Received 17 March 2009; Revised 24 April 2009; Accepted 20 May 2009 Quedius spelaeus spelaeus Brathinus nitidus Aphodius leopardus [now Agolinus leopardus life history of Q. s. spelaeus G. canadensis in Abstract: 1

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International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 163-172 Bologna (Italy). July 2009Max Moseleya) almost METHODS a Threshold deep threshold dark zone a troglobite troglophile trogloxene has RESULTS Dytiscidae Agabus larsoni Nova Scotia cave records: Geographical distribution and occurrence: Cave ecology: Fig. 1. Outline map to show location of collecting sites [CB = Cave-of-the-Bats; CC = Cheverie Cave/mine; DL = Dallings Cave; FC = Frenchmans Cave; F2 = Frenchmans II; FH2 = Fairy Hole II; HC = Hayes Cave; MIC = Minasville Ice Cave; WIC = Woodville Ice Cave].

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International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 163-172 Bologna (Italy). July 2009Observations on the Cave-Associated Beetles (Coleoptera) of Nova Scotia, Canada Agabus semivittatus NS cave records: Geographical distribution and occurrence: Agabus semivittatus pers. comm. here as Agabus semivittatus. Cave ecology: Dytiscus sp. NS cave records: Cave ecology: Hydrophilidae Crenitis digesta NS cave records: Geographical distribution and occurrence: pers. comm. Cave ecology: Ptilidae Acrotrichis castanea NS cave records: Geographical distribution and occurrence: a Cave ecology: Leiodidae: Cholevinae Catops gratiosus NS cave records: Geographical distribution and occurrence: Catops gratiosus Cave ecology: Staphylinidae: Omaliinae Brathinus nitidus NS cave records: a Geographical distribution and occurrence: Brathinus nitidus pers. comm. Cave ecology:

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Staphylinidae: Staphylininae Quedius (Microsaurus) spelaeus spelaeus NS cave records: Geographical distribution and occurrence: Fig. 2.: A: Acrotrichis castanea preserved adult [Frenchmans II, 5.X.1997] (photo: C. Majka). B: Quedius s. spelaeus live adult [Cheverie Cave/ mine, 21.VII.2007] (photo: author). Fig. 3. Illustrations of Staphylinidae (photos: G. Pelletier) (3B: after Majka et al., 2006). A: Quedius s. spelaeus adult. B: Gennadota canadensis adult. C: Atheta annexa adult. D: Q. s. spelaeus, late-instar larva [All scale lines = 1 mm]. International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 163-172 Bologna (Italy). July 2009Max Moseley

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Cave ecology: Quedius s. spelaeus A late-instar Q. s. spelaeus Exallonyx Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae Gennadota canadensis NS cave records: Distribution and occurrence: Cave ecology: Atheta annexa NS cave records: Geographical distribution and occurrence: Neotoma Cave ecology: Atheta annexa is one of the most Scarabaeidae Agolinus leopardus NS cave records: pers. comm. Geographical distribution and occurrence: Agolinus leopardus Cave ecology: Dermestidae Dermestes lardarius NS cave records: Fig. 4. Broken rock embedded in deposits of partly-decomposed porcupine dung in Frenchman's Cave, Hants County, Nova Scotia. This is typical habitat for Q. s. spelaeus (photo: author). International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 163-172 Bologna (Italy). July 2009Observations on the Cave-Associated Beetles (Coleoptera) of Nova Scotia, Canada

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Geographical distribution and occurrence: Cave ecology: Latrididae Corticaria serrata NS cave records: Geographical distribution and occurrence: An Cave ecology: Curculionidae: Entiminae Otiorhynchus ligneus NS cave records: Geographical distribution and occurrence: Cave ecology: Barypeithes pellucidus NS cave records: Geographical distribution and occurrence: First Cave ecology: Sciaphus asperatus a) from a refers to O. ligneus.DISCUSSIONOverview Q. s. spelaeus A. leopardus, A. castanea, C. gratiosus Q. s. spelaeus a A. castanea Q. s. spelaeus, A. leopardus C. serrata. G. canadensis A. annexa C. gratiosus B. nitidus O. ligneus B. pellucidus, D. lardarius A. larsoni A. semivittatus Dytiscus C. digesta Predaceous terrestrial beetles Q. s. spelaeusInternational Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 163-172 Bologna (Italy). July 2009Max Moseley

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as Agonum Bembidion Trechus Lesteva pallipes Quedius mesomelinus Quedius curtipennis Quedius mesomelinus th a Lesteva pallipes Quedius curtipennis Q. curtipennis, L. pallipes Q. s. spelaeus vigorous Q. mesomelinus Q. mesomelinus are at a very early stage of repopulation following a Q. s. spelaeus Quedius s. spelaeus is Quedius spelaeus Microsaurus International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 163-172 Bologna (Italy). July 2009Observations on the Cave-Associated Beetles (Coleoptera) of Nova Scotia, Canada

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Q. spelaeus Quedius mesomelinus Leiodidae: Cholevinae C. gratiosus Ptomaphagus C. gratiosus Prionochaeta opaca C. gratiosus Guanophiles A. castanea Q. s. spelaeus, A. leopardus, C. serrata a) a Q. s. spelaeus Woodville Ice Cave Q. s. spelaeus, A. annexa, G. canadensis C. gratiosus Fig. 5. Woodville Ice Cave, map and projected elevation. Scale line = 5 m Fig. 6: Entrance of Woodville Ice Cave, Hants County, Nova Scotia (photo: author). International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 163-172 Bologna (Italy). July 2009Max MoseleyN

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b with European Alpine Kaltlcher Conservation implications Q. s. spelaeus ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Atheta annexa REFERENCES A new genus and species of Aleocharinae from a cave in Georgia (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). 39(1) Rhynchophora or weevils of North Eastern America. Notes on the American distribution of some species of Coleoptera common to the European and North American continents 72 Observations on Frenchmans Cave, Nova Scotia, and Its Fauna 29(1) A Catalogue of the Coleoptera of America North of Mexico: Pselaphidae The Botany of Ice Mountain, West Virginia 33 Subterranean ecosystems: a truncated functional biodiversity 52 Bat guano ecosystems. A new reference to Neotropical data 19 Guano Communities in Tropical Caves Ecosystems of the World: Vol. 30, Subterranean Biota Catalogue of troglobitic Staphylinidae (Pselaphinae excluded) of the world4 A review of the cavernicolous Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) of Eastern North America: Part 1. Aleocharinae 22 Predaceous Diving Beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) of the Neartic Region, with emphasis on the fauna of Canada and Alaska The Derodontidae, Dermestidae, Bostrichidae, and Anobiidae of the Maritime Provinces of Canada (Coleoptera: Bostrichiformia 1573 The weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada, II: New records from Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island and regional zoogeography 139 New Records of Canadian Aleocharinae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) Biodiversity, Biosystematics and Ecology of Canadian Coleoptera 2 The Leiodidae (Coleoptera) of Atlantic Canada: new records, faunal composition and zoogeography Biodiversity, Biosystematics, and Ecology of Canadian Coleoptera 2 The Latrididae of Atlantic Canada: new records, keys, distribution, and zoogeography Gennadota canadensis (Casey) (Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae): new records, a range extension, and bionomic notes 60(3) International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 163-172 Bologna (Italy). July 2009Observations on the Cave-Associated Beetles (Coleoptera) of Nova Scotia, Canada

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New Records of introduced species of Quedius Stephens, 1829 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) from the Maritime Provinces of Canada. 109(2) Ptilidae of the Maritime Provinces of Canada (Coleoptera): new records and bionomic notes1423 Historical Biogeography Evidence? 36(1) Invertebrate Fauna of Nova Scotia Caves 86 a Acadian biospeleology: composition and ecology of cave fauna of Nova Scotia and southern New Brunswick, Canada 36(1) b Woodville Ice Cave (Hants County, Nova Scotia) and notes on the ice caves of the Maritime Provinces 44(1) Description of the pupa and observations on the distribution, ecology and life history of Quedius spelaeus spelaeus Horn (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in Nova Scotia, Canada1226 A systematic revision and the evolutionary biology of the Ptomaphagus (Adelops) beetles of North America (Coleoptera: Leiodidae: Catopinae) with emphasis on cave-inhabiting species 145 A Review of the Distribution and Habitats of North American Brathinus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Omaliinae 82 A review of the distribution and biology of the small carrion beetle Prionochaeta opaca of North America (Coleoptera: Leiodidae: Catopinae) 83 The distribution and evolution of cavernicolous Ptomaphagus beetles in southeastern United States (Coleoptera: Leiodidae: Cholevinae) with new species and records 62 A review of the cave fauna of Canada, and the composition and ecology of the invertebrate fauna of caves and mines in Ontario 66 Systematics, distributions, and bionomics of the small carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Leiodidae: Cholevinae: Cholevini) of North America. 134 The Cave-inhabiting rove beetles of the United States (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae; excluding Aleocharinae and Pselaphinae). Diversity and Distribution. Journal of 65(1) Limplantation dune colonie terre-neuvienne au XVIIe sicle:lapport des analyses archobotanique et archoentomologique La mesure du pass: contributions la recherche en archomtrie (2000-2006). Kaltlcher im Ostalpenraum 142 Geographische Formen der Aedoeagi bei Corticaria serrata (Paykull, 1798) 3 Le attuali conoscenze sulla fauna cavernicola della Regione Pugliese 3 Laemostenus schreibersi Carabid Beetles: Ecology and Evolution, Kluwer Arachnid population patterns in underground cavities of a stony debris field (Aranea, Opliliones, Pseudoscorpionidae, Acari: Prostigmata, Rhagidiidae). 39 Revision of the tribe Quediini of America north of Mexico (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). 79 New records of Featherwing Beetles (Coleoptera: Ptilidae) in North America. 57 The place of Quedius mesomelinus (Staphylinidae) in the cavernicolous ecosystem 10 Biospologie. La Biologie des Animaux Cav Hydrologic evolution of the Edwards Aquifer recharge zone (Balcones fault zone) as recorded in the DNA of eyeless Circurina cave spiders, south-central Texas 37(4)International Journal of Speleology, 38(2), 163-173 Bologna (Italy). July 2009Max Moseley