Into the Heart of the Turtle: Caves, Ritual, and Power in Ancient Central Yucatan, Mexico

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Into the Heart of the Turtle: Caves, Ritual, and Power in Ancient Central Yucatan, Mexico

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Into the Heart of the Turtle: Caves, Ritual, and Power in Ancient Central Yucatan, Mexico
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A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Brandeis University Department of Anthropology, Javier Urcid, Advisor In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy, by Donald A. Slater May 2014 This dissertation examines ancient Maya cave ritual within the context of a perceived animate landscape (herein referred to as "cosmoscape") and its linkage to socio-religious power, ideology, and memory which can be enhanced temporally and spatially by the agentive dispersion of synecdochically charged fragments of material culture. Fieldwork for this project was conducted in previously undocumented caves located in the Yaxcaba municipality of Central Yucatan, Mexico. Given the cultural importance assigned to caves in Mesoamerica long before the rise of sedentary agricultural communities, it is likely that cave ideology would have been tightly woven into the fabric of the Maya belief system by the dawn of civilization. The role of caves can thus be interpreted as a source of power that would have been unquestioned - becoming part of the doxa of ancient Maya society. Working within the linked paradigm of power, agency, and cosmoscape, it becomes clear why some caves within the Yaxcaba region were incorporated into elite architectural complexes at ancient settlements. In such a location, elites had the ability to physically control these important spaces. Yet, this begs the question "did elites also control other significant caves located away from population centers in the region?" To address this inquiry, four of the 97 caves documented during this project were selected for a detailed comparison - Ikil Cave 1 and Cenote Ceh' Yax which are situated withinelite architectural complexes at ancient settlements, and Aktun Kuruxtun and Aktun Jip which are located in more peripheral settings. Similarities and differences were assessed based on the investigation of each cave's artifact assemblage, structural modifications, and spatial use patterns. In summary, this study demonstrates that there is indeed much overlap between the cultural qualities of these two subsets of caves. It thus appears that the hinterland caves of Aktun Kuruxtun and Aktun Jip were also dominated by those who had the labor resources and political clout to greatly modify these spaces, while wielding sufficient spiritual and ideological control to restrict access even when physical control was not possible. Thus, power begets power, creating a situation where those in the upper ranks of social organization gain control of significant features across diverse cosmoscape settings where they were able to access potent spiritual resources, legitimize their status, and constantly replicate this process in an effort to maintain power. keywords: Rock Art (Archaeology), Mesoamerican Archaeology, Maya Archaeology, Mesoamerican caves, Petroglyphs and Pictographs, Mesoamerican Religion, Petroglyphs, Maya Religion, Mesoamerican Cave Archaeology, and Maya Cave Archaeology.
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Description
A Dissertation
Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Arts and
Sciences Brandeis University Department of Anthropology, Javier
Urcid, Advisor In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for
the Degree Doctor of Philosophy, by Donald A. Slater May 2014
This dissertation examines ancient Maya cave ritual within the
context of a perceived animate landscape (herein referred to as
"cosmoscape") and its linkage to socio-religious power,
ideology, and memory which can be enhanced temporally and
spatially by the agentive dispersion of synecdochically charged
fragments of material culture. Fieldwork for this project was
conducted in previously undocumented caves located in the
Yaxcaba municipality of Central Yucatan, Mexico. Given the
cultural importance assigned to caves in Mesoamerica long
before the rise of sedentary agricultural communities, it is
likely that cave ideology would have been tightly woven into
the fabric of the Maya belief system by the dawn of
civilization. The role of caves can thus be interpreted as a
source of power that would have been unquestioned becoming
part of the doxa of ancient Maya society. Working within the
linked paradigm of power, agency, and cosmoscape, it becomes
clear why some caves within the Yaxcaba region were
incorporated into elite architectural complexes at ancient
settlements. In such a location, elites had the ability to
physically control these important spaces. Yet, this begs the
question "did elites also control other significant caves
located away from population centers in the region?" To address
this inquiry, four of the 97 caves documented during this
project were selected for a detailed comparison Ikil Cave 1
and Cenote Ceh' Yax which are situated withinelite
architectural complexes at ancient settlements, and Aktun
Kuruxtun and Aktun Jip which are located in more peripheral
settings. Similarities and differences were assessed based on
the investigation of each cave's artifact assemblage,
structural modifications, and spatial use patterns. In summary,
this study demonstrates that there is indeed much overlap
between the cultural qualities of these two subsets of caves.
It thus appears that the hinterland caves of Aktun Kuruxtun and
Aktun Jip were also dominated by those who had the labor
resources and political clout to greatly modify these spaces,
while wielding sufficient spiritual and ideological control to
restrict access even when physical control was not possible.
Thus, power begets power, creating a situation where those in
the upper ranks of social organization gain control of
significant features across diverse cosmoscape settings where
they were able to access potent spiritual resources, legitimize
their status, and constantly replicate this process in an
effort to maintain power. keywords: Rock Art (Archaeology),
Mesoamerican Archaeology, Maya Archaeology, Mesoamerican caves,
Petroglyphs and Pictographs, Mesoamerican Religion,
Petroglyphs, Maya Religion, Mesoamerican Cave Archaeology, and
Maya Cave Archaeology.



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cenote

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Figure 1.2. Tres Zapotes Stela D showing three individuals inside of a zoomorphic cave mouth. Redrawn by Elbis Domnguez Covarrubias (after Taube 2004:Figure 64).

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milpa

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Figure 1.10. Map showing the locations of pueblos, major caves, and ancient settlements discussed in this dissertation. Map credit: Donald A. Slater. Pueblos, Ruins, & Caves of the RegionLegend Caverns Cenotes Rockshelters Pueblos Ruins 0 4 8 12 16 2 KilometersXtogil Ikil Cave 4 a. Ikil b. Ikil Cave 1 a. Aktun Jip b. Aktun Jip 2Aktun Kuruxtun Aktun Kuruxtun Yaxcab Mopila Aktun Chen Xtelhu Calcalchen Bo Bil Xpanil Chimay Kancabdzonot Santa Mara Cenote Albornos a. Ceh Yax b. Cenote Ceh Yax a. Joya b. Joya Rejollada 1 Yaxuna Sacred Cave near Santa Mara Yaxunah Luum Tzonoot Cenote Mukel a. Rancho Alegre b. Oxolah Popola a. Popola b. Cenote Xlal Chaak Xix Cenote Aban Coordinates of the northeast corner of the map: UTM WGS 1984 16 338737m E 2301574m N

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ejido

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Figure 2.1. Local campesinos and friends from Yaxcaba at Aktun Jip. From left to right: Ediel Abram Tun Albornoz, Florentino (Noti) Cob Matu, Isauro Ruiz Tun, Donald A. Slater, and Donald R. Slater, Jr. Don Noti served as the guide on the 2009 reconnaissance mission that led to the initial documentation of Aktun Kuruxtun and Aktun Jip.

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Figure 2.2a. Google Earth satellite image of the east ejido of Popola taken at the end of the wet season on October 18, 2003. The numbers mark examples of caves visible via satellite imagery during the dry season: 1) Chaak Xix, 2) Agua Escondida, and

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Figure 2.2b. Google Earth satellite image of the east ejido of Popola taken toward the middle of the dry season on January 22, 2003. The numbers mark examples of caves visible on this image: 1) Chaak Xix, 2) Agua Escondida, and 3) Rejollada de Tres Huecos. Other similar rounded darker green patches are indicative of rejolladas

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Figure 2.2c. Google Earth satellite image of the east ejido of Popola taken late in the dry season on March 23, 2013. The numbers mark examples of caves visible on this image: 1) Chaak Xix, 2) Agua Escondida, and 3) Rejollada de Tres Huecos. Other similar rounded darker green patches are indicative of rejolladas

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Figure 2.3. Turquoise-browed Motmot ( Eumomota superciliosa) near Old Chichen Itza. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Table 3.1. Table showing locations and other basic information for all 97 caves documented during CYAC. Cave Name Cave Type CYAC Site # Year 1st Recorded Pueblo/Ejido GPS Quad GPS Northing GPS Easting Aban Cenote Cenote YaxC39 2008 Popola 16N2280130327737 Abrigo Rocoso de la Satlite 6 Rockshelter YaxC70 2010 Popola 16N2278030330473 Abrigo Rocoso de los Duendes Rockshelter YaxC53 2009 Popola 16N2276852329305 Aktun Chen Cavern YaxC89 2011 Yaxcaba 16N2273094307374 Aktun Jip Cavern YaxC4 2009 Yaxcaba 16N2275203304957 Aktun Jip 2 Cavern YaxC11 2009 Yaxcaba 16N2275157304985 Aktun Kuruxtun Cavern YaxC3 2009 Yaxcaba 16N2274906305010 Aktun Oon Pit YaxC77 2010 Yaxunah 16N2271518329622 Aktun Pech Rockshelter YaxC6 2009 Chimay 16N2275682318633 Aktun To'heil Pit YaxC78 2010 Yaxunah 16N2273810330172 Bo Bil Cenote YaxC5 2009 Chimay 16N2272106318137 Caverna San JosSascabera YaxC72 2010 Santa Mara 16N2265958326597 Ceh' Yax Sascabera 1Sascabera YaxC87 2011 Miguel Hildalgo 16N2260037325820 Cenote Albornos Cavern YaxC73 2010 Santa Mara 16N2266206326656 Cenote Cacalchen Cenote YaxC56 2010 Calcalchen 16N2271397316916 Cenote Ceh' Yax Pit YaxC43 2010 Miguel Hildalgo 16N2260194325836 Cenote de Rancho AlegreCenote YaxC44 2008 Popola 16N2276744325083 Cenote Hacienda Chak Xul Cenote YaxC30 2009 Yaxunah 16N2273788323408 Cenote Siis Bik Cenote YaxC33 2009 Popola 16N2278401330336 Cenote Tigre Pit YaxC14 2009 Popola 16N2277016328684 Cenote Weech Cenote YaxC15 2009 Popola 16N2278181329187 Cenote Xlal Cenote YaxC41 2008 Popola 16N2276508329707 Chaak Xix Rockshelter YaxC8 2009 Popola 16N2278151329504 Chan Cenote Cenote YaxC35 2008 Chimay 16N2275899319643 Chechemi CenoteCenote YaxC25 2008 Chimay 16N2275711319214 Chen Kancabdzonot Cenote YaxC34 2009 Yaxcaba 16N2277069308990 Chuun Ya' Cenote Cenote YaxC40 2008 Popola 16N2276803327583 Cruz bano Cavern YaxC79 2010 Yaxunah 16N2273040330739 Cueva Agua Escondida (east) Cavern YaxC12 2009 Popola 16N2277923330499 Cueva Agua Escondida (west) Cavern YaxC13 2009 Popola 16N2277923330499 Cueva de Guayas Rockshelter YaxC62 2010 Popola 16N2277877329984 Cueva de la Bolsa de Huesos Cavern YaxC94 2011 Yaxunah 16N2272565326502 Cueva de Ram n Rockshelter YaxC61 2010 Popola 16N2277744330099 Cueva de San Geronimo Rockshelter YaxC80 2010 Yaxunah 16N2273115330297 Cueva Jos Cavern YaxC57 2010 Calcalchen 16N2271451317046 Cueva Virgen Cavern YaxC58 2010 Calcalchen 16N2271549317021 El Abuelo Cavern YaxC60 2010 Calcalchen 16N2271468317001 Hool Na Cavern YaxC54 2009 Popola 16N2276510329581 Hueco de Kitanche Pit YaxC64 2010 Popola 16N2278014330602 Ikil Cave 1 Cavern YaxC1 2009 Yaxcaba 16N2281473310966 Ikil Cave 2 Pit YaxC90 2011 Yaxcaba 16N2281591310853 Ikil Cave 3 Rejollada YaxC91 2011 Yaxcaba 16N2281265311800 Ikil Cave 4 Cavern YaxC92 2011 Yaxcaba 16N2281769309720 Ikil Rejollada 1 Rejollada YaxC93 2011 Yaxcaba 16N2281171311787 Ikil Sascabera 1Sascabera YaxC76 2010 Yaxcaba 16N2281420311156 Joya Rejollada 1 Rockshelter YaxC10 2008 Yaxunah 16N2272253328665 Joya Sascabera 1Sascabera YaxC31 2009 Yaxunah 16N2272233328976 Kaa Pee MameyRockshelter YaxC51 2008 Yaxunah 16N2273686327726

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Cave Name Cave Type CYAC Site # Year 1st Recorded Pueblo/Ejido GPS Quad GPS Northing GPS Easting Koopiltrapech Rockshelter YaxC88 2011 Miguel Hildalgo 16N2260295324453 Kop Aktun Rockshelter YaxC81 2010 Yaxunah 16N2271490328187 Kuyul Rejollada Cavern YaxC22 2009 Yaxcaba 16N2274784306167 Luum Tz'ono'ot aka Chan Tz'ono'ot Cavern YaxC17 2009 Yaxunah 16N2274620323007 Manantial Cenote YaxC42 2009 Yaxunah 16N2272078329983 Mukel Cenote Cenote YaxC26 2008 Chimay 16N2276863319394 Nohoch Tz'aatz' Rejollada YaxC20 2009 Popola 16N2278347328300 Oxolah Cavern YaxC2 2008 Popola 16N2276864325256 Oxolah Rejollada Rejollada YaxC21 2009 Popola 16N2276746325285 Pax Tunil RejolladaRejollada YaxC36 2008 Chimay 16N2274713320478 Poos Muul Cavern YaxC7 2009 Chimay 16N2272166318077 Popola Pozo 1 Pit YaxC27 2009 Popola 16N2277770328496 Popola Pozo 2 Pit YaxC28 2009 Popola 16N2277688328571 Popola Pozo 3 Pit YaxC29 2009 Popola 16N2278209328489 Popola Tz'aatz' Rejollada YaxC24 2009 Popola 16N2276701329671 Pozo Cenote Pit YaxC38 2008 Huechembalam 16N2255697325018 Pozo Seco Pit YaxC59 2010 Calcalchen 16N2271522317024 Rejollada Aburrida Rejollada YaxC37 2008 Chimay 16N2276198318937 Rejollada de lamo Cavern YaxC66 2010 Popola 16N2278101330966 Rejollada de Guano Rejollada YaxC67 2010 Popola 16N2277819330721 Rejollada de la Satlite 1 Rejollada YaxC68 2010 Popola 16N2277947330692 Rejollada de la Satlite 2 Rejollada YaxC69 2010 Popola 16N2278055330789 Rejollada de la Satlite 9 Rejollada YaxC71 2010 Popola 16N2278583328501 Rejollada de Mamey Pit YaxC23 2008 Chimay 16N2275860319977 Rejollada de RamnRejollada YaxC82 2010 Yaxunah 16N2271701328400 Rejollada de San Asuncin Rejollada YaxC83 2010 Yaxunah 16N2272546328904 Rejollada de Tres HuecosCavern YaxC65 2010 Popola 16N2278260331092 Sacred Cave near Santa Mara Cavern YaxC16 2009 Yaxunah 16N2271688325708 Sak Che' Tz'ono'ot Cenote YaxC63 2010 Popola 16N2276555327593 San Bernardino Cenote Pit YaxC84 2010 Yaxunah 16N2272398328484 San Juan 2 Cenote Cenote YaxC45 2008 Popola 16N2276782326713 San Juan Cenote Cenote YaxC46 2008 Popola 16N2278219326967 San Lorenzo Cenote Cenote YaxC47 2008 Popola 16N2276389327441 San Pilar 2 Cenote Cenote YaxC48 2008 Popola 16N2279553326260 Sascabera de DzulesSascabera YaxC74 2010 Santa Mara 16N2268207326965 Sascabera de San PedroSascabera YaxC85 2010 Yaxunah 16N2272343327819 Sascabera San LuisSascabera YaxC75 2010 Santa Mara 16N2267966327065 Sima de Chimay Sascabera YaxC32 2009 Chimay 16N2272105319421 Ta'akbi' Ha Pit YaxC19 2009 Popola 16N2277574328807 T'o'ol Hool Cavern YaxC50 2008 Yaxunah 16N2273549327401 Tz'aatz' Yaxuna Rockshelter YaxC18 2009 Yaxunah 16N2272764326406 Xauil Cenote Cenote YaxC55 2009 Yaxunah 16N2272364330306 Xmajas Pit YaxC86 2010 Yaxunah 16N2271656328282 Yaxuna Cueva de Chupacabra Cavern YaxC95 2011 Yaxunah 16N2271687326592 Yaxuna Cueva de Metate Cavern YaxC97 2011 Yaxunah 16N2271692326548 Yaxuna Cueva de Muro Cavern YaxC96 2011 Yaxunah 16N2271634326610 Yaxuna Sascabera 1Sascabera YaxC52 2008 Yaxunah 16N2272122327986 Zo Aktun Mukel Rockshelter YaxC9 2008 Chimay 16N2276911319181 Ztitzi Ha Cenote Cenote YaxC49 2008 Popola 16N2276297327626

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Figure 3.1. Aban Cenote is the largest cenote documented during CYAC. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.2. Map of Aktun Chen. Aktun ChenYucatan, MexicoJune 2011Grade 3 Survey Compass, Clino & Disto Sabrina Simn Victor FowlerBROKEN STALACTITES & DRAPERIES FLOWSTONE SMALL STALACTITES & SODA STRAWS SLOPE DRIPLINE ENTRANCE ROCKS SOIL LEAFY DETRITUS SHARP DROP IN FLOOR HI LOW HI LOW MASONRY WALL PATHWAY TO MILPAS MAGNETIC NORTH 5 m 1 m Entrance WATER MUD STALACTITE STEPS TO POOL BROKEN STALACTITE

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Figure 3.5. View of the pool and the remains of the frame of a Post Contact water extraction mechanism at the rear of Aktun Chen.

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Figure 3.6. View of the remains of the frame of a Post Contact water extraction mechanism, steps, and iron hardware at the edge of

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Figure 3.8. The entrance to Aktun Jip. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater

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Figure 3.9. Map of Aktun Jip. 3 -21 2 -13 22009 4 -24 5 4 -74 -134 -3 4 -94 -114 44 -13 7 -1 MAGNETIC NORTH 5 m 1 mAktun JipYucatan, MexicoJuly 2009 June 2011 July 2011Grade 5 SurveyCompass, Clino & Disto Sabrina Simn Donald Slater Nathan Williams B Stickney Victor Fowler Marcus Kirby Gabriel VicencioBROKEN/PECKED FLOWSTONE BROKEN STALACTITES & SODA STRAWS FLOWSTONE COLUMN STALACTITES & SODA STRAWS SLOPE DRIPLINE ENTRANCE ROCKS SAND LEAFY DETRITUS SHARP DROP IN FLOOR HI LOW HI LOWNORIA FRAGMENT GUANO CLEARED AREA CERAMIC SHERDS BROKEN STALAGMITES & COLUMN STALACTITE WATER MUD BATS MASONRY WALL MINED AREA PECKED BASIN ARCHITECTURAL CUT STONE Entrance SURFACE COLLECTION UNITS EXCAVATION UNITS Stone steps CAUTION: Beginning of Low Oxygen zoneCATFISH PETROGLYPH STALAGMITE BROKEN STALAGMITE OP3 4 OP3 5 OP4 1 OP4 9 OP4 11 OP4 13 OP4 2 OP4 3 OP4 4 OP4 5 OP4 6 OP2 SC1 OP2 SC2 OP2 SC3 OP2 SC4 OP2 SC5 OP2 SC6 OP2 SC7 OP2SC11 OP3 SC1 OP2 SC8 OP3 SC4 OP2 SC9 OP2SC12 OP2SC17 OP2SC16 OP2SC14 OP2SC15 OP2SC13 OP2SC10 OP3 SC7 OP4 SC5 OP4 SC9 OP3 SC2 OP2 SC6 OP2 SC8 OP4 SC1 OP3SC12 OP3 SC8 OP3SC13 OP3SC19 OP3 SC9 OP3SC10 OP3SC11 OP3SC14 OP3SC15 OP3SC17 OP3SC16 2009SC4 2009SC3 OP3SC18 OP3SC18 OP3SC22 OP3SC20 OP3 SC3 OP3 SC2 OP4 SC4 OP4 SC2 OP4 SC6 OP4 SC7 OP6 SC2 OP6 SC1 2009SC5 2009SC1 2009SC2 OP4SC10 OP3 SC5 OP4 SC3 OP4SC13 OP4SC12 OP4SC11 OP9 SC1 OP9 SC2 OP7 SC1 OP11 SC1

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Figure 3.10. One of two stone circles in the entrance chamber of Aktun Jip. The stones in this example encircle an active stalagmite. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.11. A small mined pocket in Aktun Jip. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.12. A broken series of stalactites in Aktun Jip, Operation 3. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.13. A second stone circle near the entrance of Aktun Jip. Past people took great care to clear most of the rubble from this area. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.14. A small cut block found in Aktun Jip that likely originated from a stone building at a surface settlement. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.15. A collapsed wall partially blocks the narrow passage into the interior chambers of Aktun Jip at the junction of Operations 2 and 4. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.16. The Great Column of Aktun Jip. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.17. A particularly active collection of speleothems looms high above much of the cave in Operation 6. Note the basin in the foreground. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.18. One of four basins in Aktun Jip, Operation 6. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Slater, courtesy of INAH.

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Figure 3.20. View of the pathway through Aktun Jip, Operation 4 which shows the juxtaposition between a cleared area (foreground) and a rubble and debris zone along the cave wall. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.21. View from Aktun Jip Operation 7 looking north towards the staircase leading into Operation 4. The top step is pecked into the bedrock, whereas all other stairs were constructed from loose stones found within the cave. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.22. View from Aktun Jip Operation 7 looking south, past a stone wall to the east and credit: Donald A. Slater.

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which emanates from Operation 8. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.26. Speleothem removal was virtually the only evidence of human activity in Operation 11. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.27. Map of Aktun Jip 2. Aktun Jip 2Yucatan, MexicoJune 2011Grade 4 Survey Compass, Clino & Disto Sabrina Simn Victor Fowler Donald SlaterBROKEN STALACTITES SODA STRAWS & DRAPERIES FLOWSTONE COLUMN SMALL STALACTITES & SODA STRAWS SLOPE DRIPLINE ENTRANCE ROCKS SAND LEAFY DETRITUS SHARP DROP IN FLOOR HI LOW HI LOW MASONRY WALL CLEARED PATHWAY MAGNETIC NORTH 5 m 1 m SURFACE COLLECTION UNIT EntranceGUANO BATS BROKEN STALACTITE STALACTITE STALAGMITE BROKEN STALAGMITE SC1

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rejollada

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Figure 3.31a. The entrance to Aktun Kuruxtun at the south end of the rejollada Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.32. Map of Aktun Kuruxtun. Upper Mined Area Lower crawl Clear Water 7 20 WEST PETROGLYPH PANEL PETROGLYPH PANEL SOUTH PETROGLYPH PANEL PASSAGE EXCAVATED OPEN Aktun KuruxtunYucatan, MexicoJuly 2009 May 2011 June 2011 July 2011Grade 5 Survey Sabrina Simn Donald Slater Nathan Williams Victor Fowler Marcus Kirby B Stickney Gabriel VicencioBROKEN FLOWSTONE BROKEN STALACTITES & SODA STRAWS FLOWSTONE COLUMN SMALL STALACTITES & SODA STRAWS SLOPE DRIPLINE ENTRANCE ROCKS SAND LEAFY DETRITUS SHARP DROP IN FLOOR HI LOW HI LOWCERAMIC SHERDS STALAGMITE STALACTITE MUD MASONRY WALL PUUCSTYLE COLUMNETTE METATE PETROGLYPHS TORCH BURNT WOOD MINED AREA DUG OUT AREA UNIDENTIFIED WOODEN OBJECT ARCHITECTURAL CUT STONE SURFACE COLLECTION UNITS EXCAVATION UNITS WATER BATS MAGNETIC NORTH 5 m 1 m PECKED BASINCAUTION: Low Oxygen 710 7 -13 24 OP4 SC3 OP4 SC5 OP4 SC6 OP4 SC4 OP4 SC7 OP8 SC5 OP3 SC1 2009SC1 OP7SC27 OP8 SC3 OP8 SC2 OP8 SC4 OP8 SC1 OP11SC1 OP10SC1 OP10SC2 2009SC2 OP7SC26 OP6 SC4 OP5 SC3 6-2 6-8 OP4 SC1 OP4 SC8 OP4 SC2 OP6 SC7 OP6 SC8 OP6 SC9 OP6SC12 OP6SC13 OP6SC10 OP6SC16 OP6SC15 OP6SC14 OP6SC11 OP6SC17 OP6SC18 OP6 SC5 OP3 SC1 OP6 SC3 OP6 SC6 OP6 SC1 OP5 SC2 OP5 SC1 OP5 SC4 OP5 SC6 OP5 SC5 OP2SC45 OP2SC44 OP7SC13 OP7SC16 OP7SC19 OP7SC23 OP7SC12 OP7SC15 OP7SC18 OP7SC22 OP7SC25 OP7SC20 OP7SC24 OP7 SC3 OP7 SC5 OP7 SC7 OP7 SC9 OP7SC11 OP7 SC1 OP7 SC4 OP7 SC6 OP7 SC8 OP7SC10 OP7SC14 OP7SC17 OP7SC21 OP7SC2 OP2SC25 OP2SC15 OP2SC16 OP2SC17 OP2SC18 OP2SC19 OP2SC12 OP2SC13 OP2SC14 OP2 SC2 OP2 SC3 OP2 SC4 OP2 SC5 OP2 SC6 OP2SC26 OP2SC27 OP2SC28 OP2SC29 OP2SC30 OP2SC20 OP2SC21 OP2SC22 OP2SC23 OP2SC24 OP2 SC7 OP2 SC8 OP2 SC9 OP2SC10 OP2SC11 OP7 SC1 OP2SC43 OP2SC31 OP2SC32 OP2SC33 OP2SC34 OP2SC35 OP2SC36 OP2SC37 OP2SC38 OP2SC39 OP2SC40 OP2SC41 OP2SC42 OP2 4 OP2 3 OP2 8 OP7 1 OP7 2 OP7 3 OP7 8 OP7 7 OP7 6 OP7 13 OP7 11 OP7 17 OP7 9 OP7 16 OP6 2 OP6 1 OP2 1 OP2 7 OP2 2 OP2 5 OP2 6

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Figure 3.33. The vertical opening of Operation 3, or the pit at Aktun Kuruxtun, is located to the northwest of the rim of the rejollada The bottom of the pit can also be accessed from within the rejollada via a small crawl space in the northwest wall. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.34. A hollow pocket of cave formations was found by past miners in Operation 4 at Aktun Kuruxtun. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.35. Scars seen on the walls of the Great Mine at Aktun Kuruxtun are indicative of the use of at least two different types of tools picks, and as seen here, adzes. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.36. View of Operation 4 at Aktun Kuruxtun showing two levels of mining space. The

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Figure 3.37. Close-up view of a dense area of bivalve fossils in the Great Mine at Aktun Kuruxtun. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.38. Pecked basin on a small altar-like rock outcrop at the entrance to Operation 6 at Aktun Kuruxtun. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.40. A small column dominates the rear room of Operation 6 in Aktun Kuruxtun. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.41. A Puuc-style columnette displaced from a surface site rests in the main corridor halfway into the Petroglyph Chamber of Aktun Kuruxtun. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.42. The walls of the rear portion of Operation 7 at Aktun Kuruxtun are covered in a palimpsest of petroglyphs. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.43. Detail of the southern petroglyph panel in Aktun Kuruxtun Operation 7. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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the petroglyph panels. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.46. A low pathway lined on both sides with stones leads to the entrance of the crawl tube into Operation 8 at Aktun Kuruxtun. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.47. The crawl tube into Operation 8 at Aktun Kuruxtun constricts as it leads inward (behind Donald R. Slater, Jr. in the photo) leaving just enough space for a person to pass. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.48. As the crawl tube empties into Operation 8 at Aktun Kuruxtun it is also lined on both sides by small stone walls. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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metates, both of which feature ritual kill holes. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.51. View of Aktun Kuruxtun Operation 10 (lower level) and the continuation of Operation 9 (upper area). Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.52. As an extra challenge, the most claustrophobic passage in Aktun Kuruxtun, the crawl tube into Operation 11, is also choked with tree roots that stretch into the cavern. Video screen shot credit: Fabio Amador, National Geographic.

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Figure 3.53. The challenging crawl continues as one must shimmy over a pit in the middle of the narrow crawl tube. The pit drops down to the crystalline water table. Photo credit: Ryan Collins.

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Figure 3.54. The white limestone walls of Aktun Kuruxtun Operation 11 stand in stark contrast to the pool of bat guano that meanders through the chamber. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.55. Pit entrance into Aktun Oon. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.56. General view of the interior of Aktun Oon. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.57. View of Aktun Pech which is located within a shallow rejollada Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.58. A massive column rests atop a mound of breakdown inside Aktun Toheil. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.59. Map of Bo Bil. NORTH 5 m 1 mBo BilYucatan, Mexico June 16, 2009 Grade 2 Survey Sabrina Simn Donald Slater B Stickney Gabriel Vicencio SLOPE ROCKS HI LOWSHERD CLUSTER WATER METATE COLUMN SMALL STALACTITES & SODA STRAWS FLOWSTONE INSUFFICIENT SPACE TO PASS POSSIBLE LEAD SHARP DROP IN FLOOR HI LOW MANO CERAMIC VESSEL MUD FLOWSTONE ENCRUSTED FAUNAL REMAINS BATS 1-2m Deep

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NORTH 5 m 1 mBo Bil(Prole)Yucatan, Mexico June 16, 2009 Grade 2 Survey Sabrina Simn Donald Slater B Stickney Gabriel VicencioCOLUMN STALACTITES & SODA STRAWS ROCKS MUD CERAMIC SHERDS WATER GROUND LEVEL ANCIENT ROPE MARKS

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straight into the cenote Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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the millennia. Photo credit: B Stickney.

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Figure 3.65. A deep watery pit is located at the rear of the cave known as Cenote Albornos. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.69. Massive trees emanate out of the mouth of Cenote Calcalchen. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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dry cenote

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Figure 3.71. Cenote Ceh Yax is surrounded by groups of ruined pyramids and palace-like structures. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.72. Many of the buildings feature Puuc-style architectural elements such as the columnettes seen here. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.73. Sketch map of structures surrounding Cenote Ceh Yax. rf r rn r rt rb r r r r r r r r r r nn rrfn ttb

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Figure 3.74. Map of Cenote Ceh Yax. NORTH 5 m 1 mCenote Ceh Yax Yucatan, MexicoJune 2009 July 2011Grade 4 Survey Sabrina Simn Nathan Williams Donald Slater Marcus Kirby Cli Kirby Jayur Mehta Gabriel Vicencio Brent Wilkins SURFACE COLLECTION UNITS EXCAVATION UNITS SLOPE DRIPLINE ENTRANCE ROCKS SOIL LEAFY DETRITUS & VEGETATION SHARP DROP IN FLOOR HI LOW HI LOWCERAMIC SHERDS GUANO WATER MUD MASONRY WALL BROKEN METATE PETROGLYPH BOULDER TREE INCISED BOULDER BROKEN/PECKED FLOWSTONE BROKEN STALACTITES & SODA STRAWS FLOWSTONE COLUMN SMALL STALACTITES & SODA STRAWS BROKEN STALAGMITE STALACTITE CUT LIMESTONE BLOCK STALAGMITE BROKEN STALAGMITE PETROGLYPH COVERED CEILING Rectangular Petroglyph Zoomorphic Petroglyph Hourglass Petroglyphs 3 7 4 -13 OP4 SC2 OP4 SC3 OP7 SC7 OP7 SC5 OP7 SC2 OP4 SC1 OP3 SC1 OP3 4 OP3 8 OP3 7 OP7 SC8 OP3 SC2 OP7 SC9 OP7 SC4 OP7 SC3 OP7 SC6 OP7 SC1 OP6 SC1 OP6 SC2 OP6 SC3 OP2 SC1 OP2 SC2 OP2 SC4 OP2 SC5 OP2 SC3 OP2 SC6 OP3 SC8 OP2 SC8 OP2 SC7 OP2 SC9 OP2SC10 OP3 SC5 OP3 SC7 OP3 SC4 OP3 SC6 OP3 SC3 OP3SC11 OP3SC12 OP3SC10 OP3 SC9 OP3SC13 OP2SC12 OP2SC11 OP4SC12 OP4 SC4 OP4 SC8 OP4SC11 OP4 SC6 OP4 SC7 OP4 SC5 OP4SC14 OP4SC13 OP4SC10 OP4 SC9 OP5 SC1 OP5 SC2 OP5 SC3 OP5 SC4 OP5 SC7 OP5 SC6 OP5 SC5 OP3 1 OP3 2 OP3 3 OP3 6 OP3 5 OP3 10 OP3 9

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Figure 3.75. Aerial view of the circular pit entrance into Cenote Ceh Yax. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.76. Rappelling gear is necessary to enter Cenote Ceh Yax. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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platform. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.78. A stone wall lines a dug-out pit found just off of the northeast corner of the mound in Cenote Ceh Yax. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.79. View of formations and two alcoves in the lower portion of the northeastern end of Cenote Ceh Yax (Operation 3).

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Figure 3.80. Large stalagmite in Cenote Ceh Yax Operation 3. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.91. General view of the ruins of Hacienda Chak Xul. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.92. The horizontal entrance, one of three ways to enter the cenote quickly drop-off into the main pit of Cenote Hacienda Chak Xul. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.93. A historic masonry wall and well built atop Cenote Hacienda Chak Xul. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.94. Entrance into Cenote Siis Bik. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.95. Pit entrance into Cenote Tigre. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.96. Entrance into Cenote Weech. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.97. Entrance into Cenote Xlal. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.98. A modern cross shrine located just outside of Cenote Xlal. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.99. Map of Chaak Xix. Chaak XixYucatan, MexicoJune 2009 May 2011Grade 5 Survey DistoX Sabrina Simn Brent Wilkins Donald Slater Gabriel VicencioFLOWSTONE SLOPE DRIPLINE ENTRANCE ROCKS SOIL LEAFY DETRITUS SHARP DROP IN FLOOR HI LOW HI LOW MASONRY WALL MAGNETIC NORTH 5 m 1 mSTALACTITE METATE STALAGMITE COLUMN SURFACE COLLECTION UNIT BROKEN STALACTITE 2009 SC1 Haltun Haltun

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Figure 3.100. General view of the open area of the north-northwest rockshelter of Chaak Xix. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.101. Three metates are positioned around the Great Column at Chaak Xix. A fourth was possibly present at one time, completing a quincunx-style cosmogram of the Maya universe. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.102. A now dismantled wall once plugged the entrance into a small cave at the northern end of Chaak Xix. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.103. The small entrance into Chan Cenote quickly bells out into a gaping void below. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.104. Two small holes lead into the massive Chechemi Cenote below. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.105. Entrance into the cenote known as Chen Kancabdzonot. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.106. Entrance into Chuun Ya Cenote. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.107. A small wall is located just inside of the entrance to Cruz bano. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.108. The entrance of the east cave of Cueva Agua Escondida. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.109. The entrance of the west cave of Cueva Agua Escondida. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.114. Detail of the ceiling of the southern rockshelter of Cueva de Ramn showing evidence of stalactite breakage and remov

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Figure 3.115. A small stone room inside of Cueva de San Geronimo. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.116. A metate makes up part of the matrix of a collapsed wall in Cueva de San Geronimo. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.117. A now perforated wall once plugged a crawl chamber in Cueva de San Geronimo. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.118. A small, partially dismantled enclosure atop a limestone shelf in Cueva Jos. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.119. Bedrock ridge just outside of the entrance to El Abuelo. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.120. The constricted mouth of Hueco de Kitanche. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.121. General interior view of Hueco de Kitanche. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.122. The entrance to Ikil Cave 1 in the west end of a shallow rejollada as seen with a telephoto lens from the summit of Ikil Structure 1. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.123. Map of Ikil Cave 1. Ikil Cave 1Yucatan, MexicoJune 2009 June 2010 May 2011 July 2011Grade 5 Survey Sabrina Simn Donald Slater Brent Wilkins Nathan Williams B Stickney Gabriel VicencioBROKEN METATE ON SURFACE BROKEN FLOWSTONE BROKEN STALACTITES SODA STRAWS & DRAPERIES FLOWSTONE COLUMN SMALL STALACTITES & SODA STRAWS SLOPE DRIPLINE ENTRANCE ROCKS SAND LEAFY DETRITUS SHARP DROP IN FLOOR HI LOW HI LOWPUUCSTYLE COLUMNETTE DUG OUT AREA POSSIBLY ANIMAL CERAMIC SHERDS MASONRY WALL TORCH CLEARED PATHWAY MAGNETIC NORTH 5 m 1 m Lower Chamber SURFACE COLLECTION UNITS EXCAVATION EntranceZENITH OBSERVATION POINT ARCHITECTURAL CUT STONE Stone steps 5 Excavated Stone Steps Altar 5 -13 OP2 7 OP2 8 OP2 10 OP2 11 OP2 12 OP2 5 OP2 6 OP2 3 OP2 4 OP2 1 OP2 2 OP5 12 OP5 13 OP5 7 OP5 8 OP121 OP123 OP122 OP124 OP5 3 2009SC2 2009SC1 2009SC3 2009SC5 2009SC6 2009SC4 2009SC7 2009SC8 2009SC9 2009SC11 2009SC10 OP12SC12

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Figure 3.124. View of the mouth of Ikil Cave 1 and detail of the rim of the shallow rejollada after clearing of vegetation. Note that the image of the cave mouth in Figure 3.122 was taken roughly three years after this image, showing the remarkable regrowth in the area. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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leading from the rejollada (left) into the cave was unearthed during the process. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.126. A smaller and more crudely executed staircase leads from just inside of the mouth of Ikil Cave 1 down to the zenith observation area and Operation 3. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.127. A Puuc-style columnette lies within a stone circle in Ikil Cave 1, Operation 3. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.128. General view of Ikil Cave 1, Operation 3. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.129. View of the soil mound (middle) and masonry wall (left) of Operation 5 in Ikil Cave 1. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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junction of what were designated as Operations 5 (foreground) and 6 (background). Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.136. View from the summit temple of Ikil Structure 1 showing a patch of particularly lush foliage during the dry season a clear indicator of a nearby rejollada or cenote. Ground reconnaissance demonstrated that a cave (Ikil Cave 3) was indeed located there. Photo credit: Brent Wilkins.

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rejollada

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Joya Rejollada 1Yucatan, MexicoAugust 2009 May 2011Grade 5 Survey DistoX Sabrina Simn Brent Wilkins Donald Slater Scott Hutson Aline Magnoni Carrie Todd Matthew DavidsonFLOWSTONE SMALL STALACTITES & SODA STRAWS SLOPE DRIPLINE ENTRANCE ROCKS SOIL LEAFY DETRITUS SHARP DROP IN FLOOR HI LOW HI LOWCERAMIC SHERDS MASONRY WALL MAGNETIC NORTH 5 m 1 m WATER MUD FAUNAL REMAINS METATE GUANO COLUMN STALACTITE STALAGMITE PETROGLYPHS

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Figure 3.142. View of the west rockshelter of Joya Rejollada 1. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.143. Looking southward to the northern side of the 5 m tall pyramid within Joya Rejollada 1. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.145. View of the rear (west) side of the pyramid in Joya Rejollada 1. The rear of the pyramid also plugs the entrance to the north end of the west rockshelter creating what was once a sealed chamber. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.146. Now perforated wall which once plugged the south end of the chamber behind the pyramid in Joya Rejollada 1. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.147. Partially blocked entrance to a small chamber within the north rockshelter in Joya Rejollada 1. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.148. A displaced speleothem placed atop a large stalagmitic formation in the north rockshelter of Joya Rejollada 1. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.149. A small wall or rock pile constructed atop of a stalagmitic formation within the north rockshelter of Joya Rejollada 1. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.150. A partially dismantled wall once sealed a small chamber in the northeast rockshelter of Joya Rejollada 1. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.151. Entrance to Joya Sascabera 1. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.152. General view of Kaa Pee Mamey. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.153. A small crawl chamber in Koopiltrapech is partially blocked by a now perforated wall. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.154. A small pecked basin on a limestone rock within Koopiltrapech. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.155. One of three metates found just outside of the dripline at Koopiltrapech. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.156. The steep interior space of Kop Aktun. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.158. Small entrance to a cave in the southwest corner of Kuyul Rejollada. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.159. Large entrance to a cave in the southwest corner of Kuyul Rejollada. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.160. Partially blocked entrance of the south cave in the southwestern corner of Kuyul Rejollada. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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h-men

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Figure 3.166. Map of Manantial. NORTH 5 m 1 mManantialYucatan, Mexico June 2009 Grade 1 Survey Sabrina Simn Donald Slater B Stickney SLOPE ROCKS HI LOWCERAMIC SHERDS 3m Deep WATER MUD

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Manantial(Prole)Yucatan, Mexico June 22, 2009 Grade 1 Survey Sabrina Simn Donald Slater B Stickney GROUND LEVEL STALACTITES & SODA STRAWS ROCKS MUD CERAMIC SHERDS WATER NORTH 5 m 1 m

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Figure 3.171. Map of Oxolah. HISTORIC WALL HEIGHT VARIES FROM .3M TO 1.2M NORTH 5 m 1 mOxolahYucatan, Mexico June 29-30, 2009 Grade 4 Survey Sabrina Simn Donald Slater B Stickney Gabriel Vicencio BROKEN STALACTITES & SODA STRAWS FLOWSTONE SMALL STALACTITES & SODA STRAWS SLOPE DRIPLINE ENTRANCE ROCKS SAND LEAFY DETRITUS SHARP DROP IN FLOOR HI LOW HI LOWCERAMIC SHERDS HISTORIC BOUNDARY WALL PERMAMENT DATUM TR1=RAA1 GUANO BATS WATER MUD MASONRY WALL 2SURFACE COLLECTION UNITS 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 7

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Figure 3.181. Entrance into Popola Pozo 3. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.182. Interior view of Popola Tzaatz showing the steep, but navigable entrance into the pit. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.183. The pool at the west end of Popola Tzaatz. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.184. Small, partially blocked crawl chamber towards the south end of the pool in Popola Tzaatz. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.185. The deep vertical entrance in Pozo Cenote. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.186. View from just inside Rejollada de la Satlite 2. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.187. View into Rejollada de Mamey showing the rockshelter that undercuts the vertical walls of the pit. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.188. Room 2 in Rejollada de Tres Huecos. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.189. CYAC 2009 team members and local guides inside of the rejollada that contains the Sacred Cave near Santa Mara. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.190. The entrance to Sacred Cave near Santa Mara is located towards the east end of a small rejollada Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.191. The entrance into the Sacred Cave near Santa Mara is partially blocked by a now perforated masonry wall. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.193. The leafy entrance into San Bernardino Cenote. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.194. Technical gear is needed to enter and exit San Bernardino Cenote. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.195. A massive stalagmitic formation is situated just beneath the entrance to San Bernardino Cenote. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Williams.

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Figure 3.199. View of San Juan Cenote after navigating a gently sloping pathway to the water table. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.200. Entrance to San Juan Cenote 2. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.201. Entrance to San Lorenzo Cenote. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.202. Entrance to San Pilar 2 Cenote. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.204. Interior view of Sascabera de Dzules. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.205. The largest of the three entrances into Sascabera de San Pedro. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.208. Interior view of Sascabera de San Luis. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.209. Adze marks on the walls of Sascabera de San Luis demonstrate that the feature was heavily mined. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.211. Entrance to a sascabera at the northwestern end of Sima de Chimay. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.212. Vegetation choked entrance into Taakbi Ha at Popola. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.214. Stairs carved into the bedrock lead into Tzaatz at Yaxunah. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.215. Massive rockshelter at the west end of Tzaatz at Yaxunah. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.216. A season pool at the rear of the west rockshelter at Tzaatz at Yaxunah. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.217. Main entrance to the pit of Xmajas. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.219. Interior view of Xmajas. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.220. Map of the Cueva de Chupcabra. Cueva de ChupacabraYucatan, MexicoJune 2011 July 2011Grade 4 Survey Compass, Clino & Disto Sabrina Simn Donald Slater Nathan Williams Victor Fowler Travis StantonBROKEN STALACTITES SODA STRAWS & DRAPERIES FLOWSTONE STALACTITE SMALL STALACTITES & SODA STRAWS SLOPE DRIPLINE ENTRANCE ROCKS SOIL LEAFY DETRITUS SHARP DROP IN FLOOR HI LOW HI LOWCERAMIC SHERDS MASONRY WALL SOIL COLLAPSE FROM SURFACE MAGNETIC NORTH 5 m 1 m Entrance 1 Entrance 2 Entrance 3 Rubble lled ssure with goat remains Pecked ssure TURTLE CARAPACE FAUNAL REMAINS BURNT WOOD

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Chupacabra. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

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Figure 3.222. General view of Zo Aktun Mukel. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.223. Partially plugged entrance into a small crawl chamber at Zo Aktun Mukel. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.224. Three metates from Zo Aktun Mukel. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 3.225. Entrance to Ztitzi Ha Cenote. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Table 4.1. All project AMS data, given as both radiocarbon and calibrated dates, returned from the NSF Arizona AMS laboratory. Lab ID Provenience Number w/in submission Date Returned from LabMaterial Notes calAD .. (2-sigma, IntCal 09)14C age BPd13CF AA98970YaxC1.2.7.9 3 of 3 October 2012 Bone Sample DS, deer Skull AD 1670 1943125 +44-22.50.9846 +0.0054 AA96622YaxC1.5.8.91 of 16February 2012 Carbon AD 727 9701175 +35-25.80.8639 +0.0038 AA96623YaxC1.5.12.182 of 16February 2012 Carbon 791 421 BC2503 +37-25.60.7323 +0.0034 AA96624YaxC1.5.13.123 of 16February 2012 Carbon Sample 4 within vessel AD 723 7691179 +35-25.10.8635 +0.0038 AA96625YaxC3.2.6.34 of 16February 2012 Carbon Sample 1, below sascab AD 1674 1942128 +34-27.10.9842 +0.0042 AA96626YaxC3.2.6.75 of 16February 2012 Carbon Sample 1, fill below floor AD 33 2301886 +37-24.90.7907 +0.0036 AA96627YaxC3.2.6.106 of 16February 2012 Carbon AD 255 5271671 +36-26.40.8122 +0.0036 AA98968YaxC3.2.6.12 1 of 3 October 2012 Bone Sample HB1, human temporal boneAD 78 3341818 +48-12.00.7975 +0.0048 AA96628YaxC3.2.7.67 of 16February 2012 Carbon Sample C1, from floor matrix AD 425 5911549 +36-25.30.8247 +0.0037 AA96629YaxC3.2.7.128 of 16February 2012 Carbon Sample C2, sealed below boulderAD 92 3341805 +36-25.60.7987 +0.0036 AA96630YaxC3.2.7.159 of 16February 2012 Carbon Sample 3, with ceramic cluster 906 799 BC2686 +37-24.40.7158 +0.0033 AA96631YaxC3.7.1.1510 of 16February 2012 Carbon Waterlogged, with ceramic smash AD 1678 1940120 +34-26.70.9852 +0.0042 AA96632YaxC3.7.6.811 of 16February 2012 Carbon Underneath petroglyphic stalactite AD 1650 1955178 +35-25.20.9781 +0.0042 AA98969YaxC4.4.2.3 2 of 3 October 2012 Bone Human T11, thoracic vertebra AD 76 326 1826 +47-9.70.7966 +0.0048 AA96633YaxC4.4.13.412 of 16February 2012 Carbon Just beneath limestone floor AD 137 3811766 +36-27.20.8026 +0.0036 AA96634YaxC4.4.13.513 of 16February 2012 Carbon Sample 1, matrix of lower limestone floor 196 1 BC 2080 +37-24.90.7719 +0.0035 AA96635YaxC4.4.13.614 of 16February 2012 Carbon Just beneath lower limestone floor 763 414 BC2468 +37-23.90.7355 +0.0034 AA96636YaxC4.4.13.715 of 16February 2012 Carbon 893 595 BC2611 +38-26.50.7225 +0.0034 AA96637YaxC43.3.9.316 of 16February 2012 Carbon Burnt wood sealed beneath flowstoneAD 265 5351641 +36-24.40.8152 +0.0036

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Table 4.2. All project blood residue analysis data returned from the Archaeological Investigations Northwest, Inc. laboratory. Sample # Cave # Op. # Unit # Level # Cat. # Additional Provenience Object Name Feline antiserum Deer Antiserum Human Antiserum Chicken (for turkey) Antiserum Canine Antiserum NIS 1YaxC1228n/an/a Chert Prismatic Blade negativenegativenegativenegativePOSITIVEnegative 2YaxC15812n/an/a Obsidian Prismatic Blade negativenegativenegativenegativePOSITIVEnegative 3YaxC15127n/an/a Obsidian Prismatic Blade negativenegativenegativenegativenegativenegative 4YaxC11233n/an/a Obsidian Prismatic Blade negativenegativenegativenegativePOSITIVEnegative 5YaxC11233n/an/a Chert Scraper negativenegativenegativenegativenegativenegative 6YaxC1124n/an/a West sidewall collapse Obsidian Prismatic Blade negativenegativenegativenegativePOSITIVEnegative 7YaxC12009SC11n/a1 Feature 1, atop altar Chert Biface negativenegativenegativenegativenegativenegative 8YaxC12009SC11n/a3 Feature 1 Obsidian Prismatic Blade negativenegativenegativenegativenegativenegative 9YaxC12009SC11n/a6 Feature 1 Chert Biface negativenegativenegativenegativenegativenegative 10YaxC12009SC11n/a7 Feature 1 Chert Biface negativenegativenegativenegativePOSITIVEnegative 11YaxC12009SC11n/a9 Feature 1, atop altar Obsidian Prismatic Blade negativenegativenegativenegativenegativenegative 12YaxC32610n/an/a Green Obsidian Prismatic Blade negativenegativenegativenegativePOSITIVEnegative 13YaxC3275n/a Found in screen Obsidian Prismatic Blade negativePOSITIVEnegativenegativenegativenegative 14YaxC3765n/an/a Green Obsidian Prismatic Blade negativenegativenegativenegativenegativenegative 15YaxC4453n/an/a Obsidian Prismatic Blade negativenegativenegativenegativenegativenegative 16YaxC433SC10n/an/an/a Obsidian Prismatic Blade POSITIVEnegativenegativenegativenegativenegative

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Figure 4.2. Image showing units excavated to boulders or bedrock in Ikil Cave 1, Operation 2. The point of the north arrow touches a Puuc-style faade stone in Unit 2. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Cave 1, 2009 SC11. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 4.11. An eroded cut in the soil in Aktun Kuruxtun, Operation 2. This area was surface collected in 2009 as Unit SC1. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 4.12. Excavation grid in Aktun Kuruxtun, Operation 2 showing all units, except the deeper Unit 6, at a loose gravel-like sascab

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Figure 4.13. Excavations in Aktun Kuruxtun, Operation 2, Unit 7 reached a depth of almost 4m below surface level. A sledgehammer

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Figure 4.15. In Aktun Kuruxtun, Operation 6, early ceramics were more commonly found in constricted areas like this low crawl

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to excavation. It was originally hypothesized that the depression was a looters hole.

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Figure 4.18. Image showing the haltun in the bedrock to the south of column in Aktun Kuruxtun, Operation 6, after excavation. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 4.21. Excavations reached the water table in Aktun Kuruxtun, Operation 7, Units 1 (shown) and 6. Photo credit: Ryan Collins.

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Figure 4.22. Excavations exposed a crawl tube beneath the South Petroglyph Panel in Aktun Kuruxtun, Operation 7. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 4.24. View of the deepest area that was reached in the crawl tube beneath the South Petroglyph Panel in Aktun Kuruxtun. The chamber may continue, but is plugged with sediment. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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7. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 4.27. Simple pecked face found beneath the soil level, above the entrance to the crawl tube, on the lower register of the South Petroglyph Panel in Aktun Kuruxtun, Operation 7. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

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Figure 4.28. Image showing the juxtaposition of all three petroglyphs found below soil level on the South Petroglyph Panel in in original location), and an incomplete sign (on the stump of a missing stalactite to the right, indicated by the arrow). Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 541

Figure 4.29. The eastern stone circle with cleared interior space in Aktun Jip, Operation 3. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 542

Figure 4.30. Several small rocks partially encircle a larger stone uncovered in Aktun Jip, Operation 3, Unit 5, Level 2. A lens of ash can also be seen to the east and south of the stone cluster. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 543

Figure 4.31. Close-up view of the stone cluster in Aktun Jip, Operation 3, Unit 5, Level 2. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 544

removed during excavation revealing a carbon deposit below. The concentration of ash to the Slater.

PAGE 545

Figure 4.33. With all stones in the rock cluster in Aktun Jip, Operation 3, Unit 5, Level 2 removed, a dense deposit of carbon was fully revealed. The superior surface of a deeper stone cluster can be seen at the center and among the carbon deposit. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 546

Figure 4.34. After removal of the overlying layer of carbon in Aktun Jip, Operation 3, Unit 5, ranged as a quatrefoil with a prominent point of each stone facing inward. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 547

Figure 4.35. Another dense lens of carbon was found below each of the four stones of the quatrefoil of Aktun Jip, Operation 3, Unit 5, Level 3 (here shown with three of the four stones removed). Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 548

Figure 4.36. Image showing Aktun Jip, Operation 3, Unit 5 after the full removal of the layered stone and burn feature. The outline of

PAGE 552

Figure 4.37. Image looking northeast from Aktun Jip, Operation 5 toward the oxbow in the ceremonial path of Operation 4. As seen from this vantage point, in the middle of the photo the path arches upwards towards the back wall leaving an island of rubble below (indicated by the arrow). See the map of Aktun Jip for further details of the shape of the path. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 553

Figure 4.38. Small niche behind and to the side of active and inactive stalagmites in Aktun Jip, Operation 4. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 554

Figure 4.39a. Image showing the locations several features of interest in Aktun Jip, Operation 4 including a niche that contains Unit SC3 (left), the entrance to a small crawl tube (center), and the northeast corner of excavation Unit 1 (right). Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 555

Figure 4.39b. In situ a Valladolid Dichrome Incised vessel (background) found in Aktun Jip, Operation 4, Unit SC3. Note the stump of a stalagmite which demonstrates that the speleothem had been broken and removed at some point in the past. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 558

Figure 4.40. Photograph looking south showing the contour of the eastern cave wall/ceiling as it couples with the rubble zone (left) just off of the ceremonial paths straight-away (right) in Aktun Jip, Operation 4. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 559

Figure 4.41. Photograph from the same vantage point as Figure 4.40 showing the excavation of Aktun Jip, Operation 4, Unit 1, completed at a level of light red powdery bedrock. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 560

Figure 4.42. Completed excavations of all units in the rubble zone (Units 1 6 [background]), and pathway (Unit 9 [left foreground], Unit 11 [middle foreground], and Unit 13 [right foreground]) in Aktun Jip, Operation 4. Note the shallow depth of the excavations, the sascab deepest point in Units 1 6. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 563

Figure 4.43. Photograph looking east at a concentration of ceramics, human ribs, and carbon from Aktun Jip, Operation 4, Unit 2, Level 3. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 565

Figure 4.44. Image showing all completed excavations in Aktun Jip, Operation 4. The shallow trench of Units 1 6 is located directly along the wall. Units 9, 11, and 13 were situated on the path with Unit 9 in the foreground and Units 11 and 13, respectively, located southward. Note the strata of sascab

PAGE 566

Slater.

PAGE 567

Slater.

PAGE 572

Slater.

PAGE 578

Figure 4.47. Debris zone located near the rear wall of Aktun Jip, Operation 6. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 580

Figure 4.48. Location of the only artifact found in the entirety of the expansive rear chamber of Aktun Jip. The sherd was situated at the mouth of a small crawl space towards the rear of Operation 11. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

PAGE 582

Figure 4.49. A pair of historic horseback riding spurs shown in situ within a small chamber at the north end of north-northwest rockshelter at Chaak Xix. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 584

Figure 4.50. Location of the only artifact found in Aktun Jip 2. The sherd was found on a shelf protruding from the northeast side of the south column. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 586

Figure 4.51. Location of Cenote Ceh Yax, Operation 3, Unit SC1 behind a crystalline pool perched upon the lip of an elevated alcove. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 588

Figure 4.52. Image highlighting the most massive stalactite within Cenote Ceh Yax. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

PAGE 591

Figure 4.53. Alcove (background) where excavations occurred in Cenote Ceh Yax, Operation 3. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 592

Figure 4.54. Detail of purple soda straws in the alcove of Cenote Ceh Yax, Operation 3. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 593

Figure 4.55. Surface collections commence outside of the alcove in Cenote Ceh Yax, Operation 3. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

PAGE 595

Figure 4.56. Image of Cenote Ceh Yax, Operation 3, Unit 9, Level 2 prior to excavation. This image is indicative of the cobble matrix of Level 2 found throughout the operation. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 598

right of the image. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 602

Figure 4.59. Image showing the juxtaposition between the brown and black sediments in Cenote Ceh Yax, Operation 3, Unit 5, at the

PAGE 608

Figure 4.61. Cenote Ceh Yax, Operation 4, Unit SC7 (as shown here), along with the rest of the surface collection units from SC4 SC11, were located in a discrete area between the rear of a massive cluster of ceiling collapse and the back wall of the cave. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 610

Figure 4.62. Cenote Ceh Yax, Operation 5, Unit SC5 was located in a small semi-clear alcove behind massive ceiling collapse boulders towards the southwest end of the cave. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 612

Figure 4.63. Sherds were collected in Unit SC1 at the entrance to the water chamber of Cenote Ceh Yax. Photo credit: Nathan Williams.

PAGE 613

Figure 4.64. Cenote Ceh Yax, Operation 6, Unit SC3 was placed in a depression that hosts a small crystalline pool of water during rainy periods. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 616

Table 5.1. Natural and cultural features present in each cave. Presence is marked by an x. Cave NameCave Type Pool, Water Access Petroglyphys Observatory Masonry Walls Cosmogram Speleothem Removal Other Mining Hollowed Speleothem Pecked Basin Metate, Haltun, Bowl Displaced Architectural Elements Monumental Architecture Path/ Steps Altar Stone Circle Rope Marks Cross Shrine Well Aban Cenote Cenote x Abrigo Rocoso de la Satlite 6 Rockshelter Abrigo Rocoso de los Duendes Rockshelter Aktun Chen Cavern x x x x x Aktun Jip Cavern xx xxxxxxxx x x Aktun Jip 2 Cavern x x Aktun Kuruxtun Cavern xx x xxxxxx xx Aktun Oon Pit x x x Aktun Pech Rockshelter x x Aktun To'heil Pit x Bo Bil Cenote x xx x x x Caverna San Jos Sascabera x Ceh' Yax Sascabera 1 Sascabera x Cenote Albornos Cavern xx x xx x Cenote Cacalchen Cenote x x Cenote Ceh' Yax Pit xx x x xxxx Cenote de Rancho Alegre Cenote x x Cenote Hacienda Chak Xul Cenote x x x Cenote Siis Bik Cenote x Cenote Tigre Pit x Cenote Weech Cenote x Cenote Xlal Cenote x x x x Chaak Xix Rockshelter xxx x Chan Cenote Cenote x Chechemi Cenote Cenote x Chen KancabdzonotCenote x Chuun Ya' Cenote Cenote x Cruz bano Cavern x x Cueva Agua Escondida (east) Cavern Cueva Agua Escondida (west) Cavern Cueva Guayas Rockshelter Cueva de la Bolsa de Huesos Cavern x

PAGE 617

Cave NameCave Type Pool, Water Access Petroglyphys Observatory Masonry Walls Cosmogram Speleothem Removal Other Mining Hollowed Speleothem Pecked Basin Metate, Haltun, Bowl Displaced Architectural Elements Monumental Architecture Path/ Steps Altar Stone Circle Rope Marks Cross Shrine Well Cueva de Ram n Rockshelter x x Cueva de San Geronimo Rockshelter x x Cueva Jos Cavern x x Cueva Virgen Cavern El Abuelo Cavern x Hool Na Cavern Hueco de Kitanche Pit x Ikil Cave 1 Cavern xx x xx xxx Ikil Cave 2 Pit x Ikil Cave 3 Rejollada Ikil Cave 4 Cavern x x Ikil Rejollada 1 Rejollada Ikil Sascabera 1 Sascabera x Joya Rejollada 1 Rockshelter x x x x x x Joya Sascabera 1 Sascabera x Kaa Pee Mamey Rockshelter x x Koopiltrapech Rockshelter x xxx Kop Aktun Rockshelter x Kuyul Rejollada Cavern x x x Luum Tz'ono'ot aka Chan Tz'ono'ot Cavern x Manantial Cenote x Mukel Cenote Cenote x Nohoch Tz'aatz' Rejollada Oxolah Cavern x x x Oxolah Rejollada Rejollada Pax Tunil RejolladaRejollada Poos Muul Cavern x Popola Pozo 1 Pit Popola Pozo 2 Pit Popola Pozo 3 Pit Popola Tz'aatz' Rejollada x x Pozo Cenote Pit Pozo Seco Pit Rejollada Aburrida Rejollada Rejollada de lamo Cavern Rejollada de Guano Rejollada

PAGE 618

Cave NameCave Type Pool, Water Access Petroglyphys Observatory Masonry Walls Cosmogram Speleothem Removal Other Mining Hollowed Speleothem Pecked Basin Metate, Haltun, Bowl Displaced Architectural Elements Monumental Architecture Path/ Steps Altar Stone Circle Rope Marks Cross Shrine Well Rejollada de la Satlite 1 Rejollada Rejollada de la Satlite 2 Rejollada Rejollada de la Satlite 9 Rejollada Rejollada de Mamey Pit Rejollada de Ramn Rejollada Rejollada de San Asuncin Rejollada Rejollada de Tres Huecos Cavern x Sacred Cave near Santa Mara Cavern x x Sak Che' Tz'ono'ot Cenote x San Bernardino Cenote Pit x x x x San Juan 2 Cenote Cenote x San Juan Cenote Cenote x San Lorenzo Cenote Cenote x San Pilar 2 Cenote Cenote x Sascabera de Dzules Sascabera x Sascabera de San Pedro Sascabera x x Sascabera San Luis Sascabera x x x Sima de Chimay Sascabera x x Ta'akbi' Ha Pit x T'o'ol Hool Cavern Tz'aatz' Yaxuna Rockshelter x x x x Xauil Cenote Cenote x Xmajas Pit x Yaxuna Cueva de Chupacabra Cavern Yaxuna Cueva de Metate Cavern x x

PAGE 619

Cave NameCave Type Pool, Water Access Petroglyphys Observatory Masonry Walls Cosmogram Speleothem Removal Other Mining Hollowed Speleothem Pecked Basin Metate, Haltun, Bowl Displaced Architectural Elements Monumental Architecture Path/ Steps Altar Stone Circle Rope Marks Cross Shrine Well Yaxuna Cueva de Muro Cavern x Yaxuna Sascabera 1 Sascabera x Zo Aktun Mukel Rockshelter x x xx Ztitzi Ha Cenote Cenote x

PAGE 620

Table 5.2. Frequency of natural and cultural features present in each cave type. Cave Type Total Pool, Water Access Petroglyphys Solar Observatory Masonry Walls Cosmogram Speleothem Removal Other Mining Hollowed Speleothem Pecked Basin Metate, Haltun, Bowl Displaced Architectural Elements Monumental Architecture Path/ Steps Altar Stone Circle Rope Marks Cross Shrine Well Cavern 26 831 13 18623550432002 Cenote 2121 00221000201000112 Pit 15 210306000311100001 Rejollada 13 100001000000000000 Rockshelter 13 310917002611110000 Sascabera 90003 00901000000000 Total 9735 51 30 4 2315 26 16 73642115

PAGE 625

Figure 5.1. Aktun Kuruxtun, South Petroglyph Panel. Drawing by Elbis Domnguez Covarrubias.

PAGE 631

Figure 5.4a. Classic period depictions of rabbits. Detail of K511 (top) and K2733 (bottom). Drawings by Linda Schele (2000:Drawings 3539, 5501).

PAGE 632

Figure 5.4b. Depictions of dorsally concave stylized deer as depicted on Late Classic Sag Cream Polychrome vessels. Drawings by Donald A. Slater after Sylviane Boucher and Yoly Palomo Carrillo in Barrera Rubio and Peraza Lope 1999:Figure 7a, b.

PAGE 635

Figure 5.6. Aktun Kuruxtun, West Petroglyph Panel. Drawing by Elbis Domnguez Covarrubias.

PAGE 641

Figure 5.7. Series of stationary photographs of Face 9 taken from a tripod with variable lighting. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater

PAGE 644

Figure 5.8. Hieroglyphs featuring simple faces. T40 (top), T542 (middle), and T600 (bottom). Drawings by Donald A. Slater after Thompson (1962).

PAGE 646

Figure 5.9a. T542 glyph in Classic Maya scenes. Cancuen Panel 3 showing the ruler Tajchanahk seated within a pan ha or cavity of water (top). Closeup showing the T542 version of the na glyph as part of Tajchanahks name glyph in his headdress (bottom). Drawing by Luis Luin, used with permission.

PAGE 647

Figure 5.9b. T542 glyph in Classic Maya scenes. Full view and close-up of the so-called Resurrection Plate, showing a simple face atop the head of God N as he emerges from the turtle cara

PAGE 651

Figure 5.10. Sun god in cave-like solar cartouche from Dos Pilas, Structure N5-21. The deity bears kin glyphs on his arms, legs, and forehead. Drawing by Oswaldo Chinchilla Mazariegos (2006b:Figure 8.1), used with permission.

PAGE 653

Figure 5.11. Drawing 48, a Colonial period face from the cave at Dzibichen. Drawing by Donald A. Slater after Stone 1995:Figure 4-74h.

PAGE 657

Figure 5.13. Possible vulva motif from the ceiling of Aktun Kuruxtun. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 658

Figure 5.14. Petroglyphs Zoomorph 1 and Anthropomorph 4 on the ceiling of Aktun Kuruxtun. Photograph (this page) and line drawing (following page). Photo credit: Donald A. Slater. Drawing by Elbis Domnguez Covarrubias.

PAGE 661

Figure 5.15. Black-crested Coquette (top) and Zoomorph 1 (bottom). Photo by Judd Patterson, used with permission. Drawing by Elbis Domnguez Covarrubias.

PAGE 662

Photo by Justin Kerr (K2299a), used with permission.

PAGE 665

Andrea Stone (1995:Figure 4-112).

PAGE 669

Figure 5.20. Hourglass-shaped petroglyphs on the ceiling of Cenote Ceh Yax. Photo by Nathan Williams.

PAGE 678

Table 5.3. Comparative table of iconographic representations of litters discussed in this chapter. Litter Graffito or refined? Extended Hand? Holding/Reaching for Object? Shape of Litter Sun shade? Sun shade projection? Bearers Dog beneath litter? Notes Citations Cahal Pech, Str. F2/7th Graffito Yes No Stepped Yes, conical Yes, unknown element Indeterminate No Audet 2001:273, 278-279, Fig. 5 Caracol, Str. B20-2nd, front room Graffito No n/a L-shaped No n/a Yes, two or three No A. Chase and D. Chase 1987:12, 20; 2001:126, Fig.4.12 Cenote Ceh' Yax Monument 1 Graffito Yes Yes standard or other unknown object U-shaped Yes, conical Yes, unknown element Indeterminate Indeterminate This dissertation Rio Bec B, Building 1 Graffito Yes No U-shaped serpent Yes, conical No Yes, two No Anonymous 1984:81; Freidel et al 1993:Fig.7.20; Merwin and Vaillant 1932:Figure 31e La Corona, Dallas Tablet, left Refined Yes Yes holding staff Stepped Yes, flat toofYes, mouth No No Freidel and Guenter 2003; Lindley 2012:Fig.14 La Corona, Dallas Tablet, right Refined Yes Yes holding staff Stepped No n/a No No Giant effigy looming behind dignitary. Freidel and Guenter 2003; Lindley 2012:Fig.14 Tikal, Str. 5D-65, Rm. 9, E wall, bottom Graffito Yes No U-shaped Yes, conical No No, but poles shown No Lindley 2012:Fig.7; Webster 1963:Fig.12; Trik and Kampen 1983:Figure 72 Tikal, Str. 5D-65, Rm. 9, E wall, left Graffito Yes Yes holding staff Stepped No n/a Yes, two+ No Giant effigy looming behind dignitary. Kampen 1978:Fig.1; Lindley 2012:Fig.7; Trik and Kampen 1983:Figure 72 Tikal, Str. 5D-65, Rm. 9, E wall, right Graffito Yes Indeterminate Incomplete, likely stepped No n/a Unknown No Giant effigy looming. Dignitary in process of departing litter. Schele and Matthews 1998:Fig.2.34; Lindley 2012:Fig.7; Trik and Kampen 1983:Figure 72 Tikal, Str. 5D-65, Rm. 9, E wall, top Graffito Yes Yes holding staff Stepped No n/a No No Giant effigy looming behind dignitary. Freidel et al 1993:Fig.7.19; Lindley 2012:Fig.7; Schele and Matthews 1998:Fig.2.34; Trik and Kampen 1983:Figure 72 Tikal, Str. 5D-65, Rm. 9, N wall Graffito Yes Yes holding staff Stepped No n/a Indeterminate, but poles shown No Giant effigy looming behind dignitary. Lindley 2012:Fig.6; Webster 1963:Fig.11; Trik and Kampen 1983:Figure 71d Tikal, Str. 5D-65, Rm. 9, S wall, top left Graffito Yes IndeterminateU-shaped Yes, conical No No No Giant effigy looming behind dignitary, but appears to be a palimpsestic conflation of two different litter types. Schele and Matthews 1998:Fig.2.34; Lindley 2012:Fig.9; Trik and Kampen 1983:Figure 73 Tikal, Str. 5D-65, Rm. 9, S wall, middle left Graffito n/an/a U-shaped Yes, conical/hourglass No No No Dignitary not present. Schele and Matthews 1998:Fig.2.34; Lindley 2012:Fig.10; Trik and Kampen 1983:Figure 73 Tikal, Str. 5D-65, Rm. 9, S wall, middle Graffito n/an/a Stepped Indeterminate n/a No No Giant effigy looming behind dignitary. Schele and Matthews 1998:Fig.2.34; Lindley 2012:Fig.11; Trik and Kampen 1983:Figure 73 Tikal, Str. 5D-65, Rm. 9, S wall, top right Graffito Yes Indeterminate Stepped Indeterminate n/a No No Incomplete depiction. Giant effigy looming, but dignitary cannot be seen. Schele and Matthews 1998:Fig.2.34; Lindley 2012:Fig.12; Trik and Kampen 1983:Figure 73 Tikal, Str. 5D-65, Rm. 9, S wall, bottom Graffito n/an/a U-shaped Yes, conical/hourglass No No No Dignitary not present. Schele and Matthews 1998:Fig.2.34; Lindley 2012:Fig.13; Trik and Kampen 1983:Figure 73

PAGE 679

Litter Graffito or refined? Extended Hand? Holding/Reaching for Object? Shape of Litter Sun shade? Sun shade projection? Bearers Dog beneath litter? Notes Citations Tikal, Str. 5D-91, Rm. 1C, S wall Graffito n/an/a Stepped Yes, flat toof No No No Giant effigy looming. Dignitary not present. Lindley 2012:Fig.9; Trik and Kampen 1983:Figure 81a Tikal, Str. 5D-95, Rm. 1C, E wall Graffito Indeterminate n/a Stepped No n/a No No Giant effigy looming behind dignitary. Freidel et al 1993:7:19; Lindley 2012:Fig.10; Trik and Kampen 1983:Figure 82b Tikal, Temple 1, Lintel 2 Refined Yes No grasping shield and darts at chest Stepped Indeterminate n/a No No Giant effigy looming behind dignitary. Freidel et al 1993:Fig.7.18a; Lindley 2012:Fig.3; Schele and Matthews 1998:2.29b Tikal, Temple 1, Lintel 3 Refined Yes Yes manikin scepter Stepped No n/a No No Giant effigy looming behind dignitary. Freidel et al 1993:Fig.7.18b; Lindley 2012:Fig.2; Schele and Matthews 1998:2.29c Tikal, Temple 4, Lintel 2 Refined Yes Yes manikin scepter Stepped No n/a No No Giant effigy looming behind dignitary. Freidel et al 1993:Fig.7.21; Lindley 2012:Fig.4 Tikal, Temple 4, Lintel 3 Refined Yes Yes holding staff Stepped Yes, serpent Yes, Principal Bird Deity No No Lindley 2012:Fig.5 Polychrome vessel K2795 Refined Yes No U-shaped No n/a Yes, two No Dignitary in process of departing litter. Kerr n.d. Polychrome vessel K5456 Refined No, arms crossed n/a U-shaped No n/a No, but poles shown No Kerr n.d.; Reents-Budet 1994:Fig.6.23 Polychrome vessel K5534 Refined Yes No U shaped hammock No, but wearing socalled hunter's hat n/a Yes, two Yes Kerr n.d. Polychrome vessel K594, The Ratinlinxul Vase Refined Yes Yes holding rattle or small standard U-shaped hammock No n/a Yes, two Yes Kerr n.d. Polychrome vessel K6317 Refined Yes No U-shaped hammock No, but wearing socalled hunter's hat n/a Yes, two Yes Kerr n.d. Polychrome vessel K7613 Refined Yes Yes holding unknown round object U-shaped hammock No, but wearing socalled hunter's hat n/a Yes, two Yes Kerr n.d. Polychrome vessel K767 Refined Yes No U-shaped Yes, flat toof Possibly Yes, indeterminate quantity No Dignitary shown outside of litter. Kerr n.d.; Reents-Budet 1994:Fig.6.34 Polychrome vessel K7716 Refined n/an/a Stepped Yes, flat toof Possibly Yes, one No Dignitary not present.Kerr n.d. Polychrome vessel at Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Cat.# 1987.713 Refined Yes Yes sprinkling objects into bowl L-shaped open zoomorphic mouth No n/a Yes, four No Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 1987 Izapa, Stela 21 Refined No n/a U-shaped Yes, flat roof Possibly Yes, two No Dignitary in forward-facing orientation. Hohmann 1989:Fig.3 Lubaantun, ceramic figurine Refined No n/a U-shaped chair No n/a Yes, two No Dignitary in forward-facing orientation. Hohmann 1989:Fig.8

PAGE 680

Litter Graffito or refined? Extended Hand? Holding/Reaching for Object? Shape of Litter Sun shade? Sun shade projection? Bearers Dog beneath litter? Notes Citations Unprovenienced Jaina-style figurine Refined No n/a U-shaped chair No n/a Yes, two No Dignitary in forward-facing orientation. Hohmann 1989:Fig.9 Unprovenienced Jaina-style figurine Refined No n/a U-shaped chair No n/a Yes, two No Dignitary in forward-facing orientation. Hohmann 1989:Fig.10

PAGE 686

Figure 5.31. A deity seated in a zoomorphic litter. Detail from a Late Classic Maya cylinder vase, Peten, Guatemala. Photograph Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (1987), used with permission.

PAGE 689

Figure 5.32. Detail of a vessel depicting a kneeling individual holding a standard featuring a central three-dot motif. Photo credit: Justin Kerr (K7716), used with permission.

PAGE 697

ajaw. Photo credit:

PAGE 698

Figure 5.36. Petroglyph 10, Cueva Xcosmil. Drawing by Donald A. Slater after Strecker (1985:Figure 8).

PAGE 699

Figure 5.37. Classic period example of the ajaw glyph shown with two parallel lines as a nose bridge. Drawing by Donald A. Slater after Schele (2000:4108).

PAGE 700

Figure 5.38. Joya Rejollada 1 petroglyphs, including Face 2. Drawing by Elbis Domnguez Covarrubias.

PAGE 701

Figure 5.39. Petroglyphs showing simple tapering faces from Finca las Palmas (left) and Cueva Xcosmil (right). Drawings by Donald A. Slater after Weber and Strecker 1980:Plate 12 (left) and Strecker 1985:Figure 10 (right).

PAGE 704

Figure 5.41. Scratchings on the ceiling at Cenote Albornos. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 707

Figure 5.42. Ikil Structure 1 after clearing in early 2012. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 708

Figure 5.43. The mouth of Ikil Cave 1. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 710

Figure 5.44. Hieroglyphic Lintel 1 above the waybil within the summit temple of Ikil Structure 1. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 712

Figure 5.45. Reconstruction drawing of Ikil Structure 1. Image credit: Andrews and Stuart 1968:Figure 3.

PAGE 713

Figure 5.46a. Current, in-process, partial map of the site core of Ikil, highlighting the spatial relationship between Structure 1 and Cave 1. Map credit: Drawing by Aline Magnoni, mapped by Aline Magnoni, Amparo Robles Salmern, Vania Carrillo Bosh, Tanya

PAGE 714

Figure 5.46b. 3D rendering showing the juxtaposition of Structure 1, Cave 1, and its rejollada Map credit: Rendering by Donald A. Slater, mapped by Amparo Robles Salmern, Donald A. Slater, Travis W. Stanton, Aline Magnoni, and Alejandra Gmez Corts.

PAGE 715

Figure 5.46c. Contour map showing the juxtaposition of Structure 1, Cave 1, and its rejollada Map credit: Rendering by Donald A. Slater, mapped by Amparo Robles Salmern, Donald A. Slater, Travis W. Stanton, Aline Magnoni, and Alejandra Gmez Corts.

PAGE 718

Figure 5.47. Comparison of the general layout of a radial pyramid to the completion sign. Drawings by Donald A. Slater after Carlson 1981:185.

PAGE 723

Figure 5.48. View of the summit of Ikil Structure 1 from the zenith observation area within Cave 1. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 724

vation area within Cave 1. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 725

Figure 5.50. Reconstruction drawing of Ikil Structure 1 showing the position of the sunrise on the day of the solar zenith transit as

PAGE 726

Figure 5.51. View to Ikil Cave 1 from the southwest corner of the summit temple of Structure 1. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 745

Figure 5.52. Jade ornament in the form of a quincunx-style cosmogram. Object from the collection of the Museo Regional de Yucatn. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater, courtesy of INAH.

PAGE 747

Figure 5.53. Haltun from Chaak Xix. Note water drop from an active stalactite above. Further drawing connections between water related themes and imagery among the Maya are the dozens of tadpoles who call the haltun their home. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 748

Figure 5.54. Three haltuns/metates arranged around a column at Chaak Xix. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 749

Figure 5.55. A massive column surrounded by ceramic and stone vessels at Balankanche Cave. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater, courtesy of INAH.

PAGE 751

Figure 5.56. Metate

PAGE 755

Figure 5.57. Hollowed base of the Great Column at Aktun Jip. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 756

Figure 5.58. Possible smoke or speaking tube on the opposite side of the hollow in the Great Column of Aktun Jip. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 760

Cave. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater, courtesy of INAH.

PAGE 762

Figure 5.60. Stone bowl collected from Aktun Jip by a local man c. 1960. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 780

Figure 5.61. Deep grooves worn into the lip of the entrance into Bo Bil provide evidence that people entered the cave via rope in an cient times. Photo credit: B Stickney.

PAGE 789

Table 6.1. Table showing the presence and absence of each ceramic group and type: variety from all CYAC excavations and surface collections. A black circle indicates presence. All types: varieties are arranged by ceramic group. Ceramic groups are presented in approximate chronological order beginning with the earliest and moving downwards towards the most modern. Ceramic Group Chronology Ceramic Type Ikil Cave 1 Aktun Kuruxtun Aktun Jip Cenote Ceh' YaxOther Yotolin 1000 700 BC 1000 700 BC Yotolin Pattern-burnished: Yotolin Pital 900 500 BC 900 500 BC Paso Danto Incised: Unspecified Joventud 900 300 BC 900 300 BC Calabacino Mediacaa: Unspecified 900 300 BC Desvaro Chamfered: Unspecified 900 300 BC Guitara Incised: Joventud 900 300 BC Guitara Incised: Kiba 900 300 BC Guitara Incised: Unspecified 900 300 BC Joventud Red: Unspecified 900 300 BC Special Negative Red: Unspecified 900 300 BC Special Orange-on-red: Unspecified 900 300 BC Special Trickle Red-on-red: Unspecified 900 300 BC Special Unslipped Neck: Unspecified 900 300 BC Totoh Grooved: Unspecified Dzudzuquil 900 300 BC 900 300 BCBakxoc Black-and-cream-to-buff: Bakxoc 900 300 BCDzudzuquil Cream-to-buff: Dzudzuquil 900 300 BC Kuche Incised: Kuche 900 300 BC Majan Red-and-cream-to-buff: Red Painted 900 300 BC Special Fluted Dichrome: Unspecified 900 300 BC Tumben Incised: Tumben El Llanto 800 300 BC 800 300 BC El Llanto Cream: Unspecified Chunhinta 800 BC 250 AD 800 1 BC Chunhinta Black: Ucu 800 1 BC Chunhinta Black: Unspecified 800 BC 250 AD Dzocobel Red-on-black: Dzocobel 800 BC 250 AD Nacolal Incised: Nacolal 800 BC 250 AD Nacolal Incised: Unspecified 800 BC 250 AD Uchben Incised Dichrome: Uchben Tipikal 600 1 BC 600 1 BC Tipikal Red-on-striated: Tipikal Saban 600 BC AD 550 600 BC AD 550 Chancenote Striated: Chancenote 300 BC AD 300 Chancenote Striated: Chiquila 600 BC AD 550 Chancenote Striated: Unspecified 300 BC AD 300 Saban Unslipped: Becoob 300 BC AD 300 Saban Unslipped: Saban Sierra 300 BC AD 300 300 BC AD 300 Sierra Red: Unspecified Zapatista 300 BC AD 300 300 BC AD 300 Zapatista Trickle-on-cream-brown: Zapatista Unspecified Late Formative 250 BC AD 250 250 BC AD 250Caramba Red-on-red-orange: Unspecified Escobal 250 BC 250 AD 250 BC 250 ADEscobal Red-on-buff: Unspecified Unto 250 BC AD 250 250 BC AD 250 Unto Black-on-striated: Unto Dzilam 250 BC AD 400 250 BC AD 400 Dzilam Green Incised: Dzilam Polvero 200 BC AD 300 Oxolah 200 BC AD 300 Polvero Black: Unspecified Oxolah Nolo 150 BC AD 250 150 BC AD 250 Nolo Red: Unspecified Huachinango 100 BC AD 300 100 BC AD 300 Huachinango Incised-dichrome: Huachinango Xanaba 100 BC AD 500 100 BC AD 500 Caucel Trickle-on-red: Caucel 100 BC AD 250 Dzalpach Composite: Dzalpach 100 BC AD 500 Xanaba Red: Incised 100 BC AD 500 Xanaba Red: Notched 100 BC AD 500 Xanaba Red: Xanaba Alex AD 1 300 AD 1 300 Alex Orange: Alex AD 1 300Chango Black-over-red-on-buff: Shangurro AD 1 300Shangurro Red-on-orange: Shangurro AD 1 300 Special Bichrome-incised-and-punctate: Unspecified AD 1 300 Special Red Trickle-on-red-orange: Unspecified AD 1 300 Valladolid Dichrome Incised: Valladolid Chuburna AD 1 700 AD 250 700 Catoche Trickle: Catoche AD 1 700Chuburna Brown: Chuburna Dos Arroyos AD 100 500 Poos Muul AD 100 400 Caldero Buff Polychrome: Unspecified AD 100 400 Dos Arroyos Orange Polychrome: Dos Arroyos AD 100 500 Dos Arroyos Orange Polychrome: Red Interior AD 100 500 Dos Arroyos Orange Polychrome: Unspecified Poos Muul Aguila AD 100 500 AD 250 500 Aguila Orange: Unspecified AD 100 500 Ixcanrio Orange Polychrome: Unspecified

PAGE 790

Ceramic Group Chronology Ceramic Type Ikil Cave 1 Aktun Kuruxtun Aktun Jip Cenote Ceh' YaxOther Balanza AD 200 600 AD 200 600 Balanza Black: Unspecified Oxil AD 250 500 AD 250 500 Elote Striated-incised: Unspecified Timucuy AD 250 500 AD 250 500 Timucuy Orange Polychrome: Timucuy Tituc AD 250 550 AD 250 550 Tituc Orange Polychrome: Tituc Maxcanu AD 250 700 AD 250 700 Maxcanu Buff: Maxcanu AD 500 600 Silil Ribbed: Silil AD 250 700 Tacopate Trickle-on-brown: Tacopate AD 250 700 Tacopate Trickle-on-brown: Unspecified AD 500 600 Zi Black-on-buff: Unspecified Batres AD 350 700 AD 500 700 Batres Red: Batres AD 350 700 Xoclan Trickle-on-variegated-red: Xoclan Arena AD 500 700 AD 500 700 Arena Red: Arena AD 500 700 Special Trickle: Special Dzitya AD 550 700 AD 550 700 Dzitya Black: Dzitya Kinich AD 550 700 AD 550 700 Kinich Orange: K'inich Saxche AD 550 750 AD 550 750 Saxche Orange Polychrome: Saxche AD 550 750 Saxche Orange Polychrome: Unspecified AD 550 750 Xbanil Light Brown Polychrome: Unspecified Chum AD 550 1000 Oxolah AD 550 1000Chum Unslipped: Chum AD 550 1000 Halacho Impressed: Halacho AD 550 1000 Special Trickle Impressed: Special AD 600 1000 Yokat Striated: Boox AD 600 1000 Yokat Striated: Yokat Oxolah Muna AD 550 1100 Oxolah AD 550 900 Akil Impressed: Cafetoso AD 550 900 Chumayel Red-on-slate: Cafetoso AD 550 900 Dzan Composite: Cafetoso AD 550 900 Muna Slate: Cafetoso Oxolah AD 550 900 Muna Slate: Muna AD 550 900 Sacalum Black-on-slate: Cafetoso Oxolah AD 900 1100 Tekit Incised: Cafetoso Azcorra AD 600 750 AD 600 750 Azcorra Ivory Polychrome: Unspecified Dzib AD 600 800 AD 600 800 Dzib Striated: Dzib Chablekal AD 600 900 AD 600 900 Chablekal Fine Grey: Chablekal Petkanche AD 600 900 AD 600 900 Petkanche Orange Polychrome: Petkanche Teabo AD 600 1000 AD 600 1000 Teabo Red: Teabo AD 600 1000 Tekax Black-on-red: Tekax Sayan AD 700 850 AD 700 850 Sayan Red-on-cream: Unspecified Ticul AD 700 1000 Joya Rejollada 1 AD 700 1000 Tabi Gouged-incised: Unspecified Joya Rejollada 1 AD 700 1000 Ticul Thin-slate: Unspecified AD 700 1000 Ticul Thin-slate: Xelha Sisal AD 700 1100 Oxolah, A. Pech AD 700 1100 Espita Appliqu: Espita AD 700 1100 Piste Striated: Piste Oxolah, A. Pech AD 700 1100 Sisal Unslipped: Sisal Oxolah AD 700 1100 Special Modeled: Special Dzitas AD 800 1100 AD 800 1100 Balam Canche Red-on-slate: Balam Canche AD 800 1100 Balantun Black-on-slate: Balantun AD 800 1100 Chacmay Incised: Chacmay AD 800 1100 Dzitas Slate: Dzitas AD 800 1100 Timak Composite: Timak Silho Fine Orange AD 800 1100 AD 800 1100Pocboc Gouged-incised: Pocboc AD 800 1100 Silho Orange: Silho Dzibiac AD 900 1100 AD 900 1100 Dzibiac Red: Dzibiac Kukula AD 1000 1300 AD 1000 1300Kukula Cream: Kukula AD 1000 1300 Xcanchakan Black-on-cream: Xcanchakan Mama AD 1100 1550 AD 1100 1550 Mama Red: Mama AD 1100 1550 Papacal Incised: Papacal AD 1100 1550 Special Incised Punctate: Unspecified

PAGE 791

Ceramic Group Chronology Ceramic Type Ikil Cave 1 Aktun Kuruxtun Aktun Jip Cenote Ceh' Yax Other Navula AD 1100 1550 Oxolah AD 1100 1550 Hunacti Appliqu: Hunacti Oxolah AD 1100 1550 Navula Unslipped: Navula Oxolah AD 1100 1550 Yacman Striated: Yacman Panaba AD 1100 1550 AD 1100 1550Chen Mul Modeled: Chen Mul AD 1100 1550Huhi Impressed: Huhi Polbox Buff AD 1100 1550 AD 1100 1550 Polbox Buff: Unspecified AD 1100 1550 Tecoh Red-on-buff: Tecoh Oxcum AD 1550 1800 AD 1550 1800Oxcum Brown: Oxcum Sacpokana AD 1550 1800 AD 1550 1800 Sacpokana Red: Impressed AD 1550 1800 Sacpokana Red: Sacpokana AD 1550 1800 Sacpokana Unspecified Incised: Unspecified AD 1550 1800 Special Appliqu Impressed: Unspecified AD 1550 1800 Special Appliqu Incised: Unspecified AD 1550 1800 Special Impressed: Unspecified AD 1550 1800 Special Red-on-orange: Unspecified AD 1550 1800 Special Red-on-red: Sacpokana Yuncu AD 1550 1800 AD 1550 1800 Kinchil Composite: Kinchil AD 1550 1800Yuncu Unslipped: Yuncu Unspecified Post contact AD 1550 1900 AD 1550 1800 Appliqu Incised with Black Slip: Unspecified AD 1550 1800 Negative Trickle-on-black: Unspecified AD 1580 1800 Spanish Olive Jar: Middle Style AD 1800 1900 Spanish Olive Jar: Unspecified Ichtucknee AD 1600 1650 AD 1600 1650 Ichtucknee Blue on White: Unspecified Unspecified Unknown ??? ??? Bichrome Brown and black-on-unslipped: Unspecified ??? Special Black-on-buff: Unspecified

PAGE 793

Figure 6.1. Ceramic rim sherds from Yotolin Pattern-burnished: Yotolin vessels. Provenience: Aktun Kuruxtun, catalog #s YaxC3.2.7.15.48 (left and center) and YaxC3.2.7.15.106 (right). Photo credit: Ryan Collins.

PAGE 798

Figure 6.2. Ceramic sherd of the type Guitara Incised: Joventud. Provenience: Aktun Kuruxtun, catalog # YaxC3.6.SC15.2. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 801

contexts. Provenience: Aktun Kuruxtun, catalog # YaxC3.2.7.15.181. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 818

Figure 6.4. Composite image of a sherd possibly displaying two different ceramic types one on each face of the plate. Caucel Trickle-on-red: Caucel (left) and Zapatista Trickle-on-cream-brown (right). Provenience: Ikil Cave 1, catalog # YaxC1.5.8.18.2. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 823

Figure 6.5. Ceramic sherd from a Huachinango Incised-dichrome: Huachinango bowl. Provenience: Aktun Kuruxtun, catalog # YaxC3.2.6.13.55, mapped as Sherd 1. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 831

Figure 6.6. Large ceramic rim sherd of a Valladolid Dichrome-incised: Valladolid jar found in a small niche at the base of the wall in Aktun Jip, Operation 4. Provenience: Aktun Jip, catalog # YaxC4.4.SC3.2. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 834

Provenience: Aktun Jip, catalog # YaxC4.4.5.3.1. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 835

the base of the wall in Aktun Jip, Operation 4. Provenience: Aktun Jip, catalog # YaxC4.4.SC3.1. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 841

Figure 6.9. Ceramic sherd from a Timucuy Orange Polychrome: Timucuy bowl. Provenience: Aktun Kuruxtun, catalog # YaxC3.2.6.11.43. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 842

Figure 6.10. Ceramic rim sherd from a Tituc Orange Polychrome: Tituc bowl. Provenience: Aktun Jip, catalog # YaxC4.4.13.2.48. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 846

Figure 6.11. Ceramic rim sherd from a Zi Black-on-buff basin. Provenience: Aktun Jip, catalog # YaxC4.9.SC2.1. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 849

Figure 6.12. Ceramic rim sherd of a Xoclan Trickle-on-variegated-red: Xoclan jar. Provenience: Aktun Jip, catalog # YaxC4.2009.SC1.6. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 861

Figure 6.13a. This partial Sacalum Black-on-slate: Cafetoso jar was the most intact vessel recovered during CYAC. The base and the lower portion of the left side of the vessel are missing. Provenience: Ikil Cave 1, catalog # YaxC1.5.12.11.51. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 862

Figure 6.13b. Reconstruction drawing of the partial Sacalum Black-on-slate: Cafetoso jar. Provenience: Ikil Cave 1, catalog # YaxC1.5.12.11.51. Drawing by Jennifer Taschek.

PAGE 876

Figure 6.14. Ceramic sherd from a Timak Composite: Timak molcajete Provenience: Aktun Kuruxtun, catalog # YaxC3.7.11.6.40. Photo credit: Robert Clark, National Geographic.

PAGE 877

Figure 6.15. Ceramic rim sherd of a Pocboc Gouged-incised: Pocboc bowl featuring a water band. Provenience: Ikil Cave 1, YaxC1.2.3.3.25. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 882

Figure 6.16a. This shattered Mama Red: Mama jar is the most complete vessel encountered during excavations and surface collections. Although it has not yet been reconstructed, initial analysis suggests that the vessel is likely complete. The largest fragment, shown here, displays two kill holes. Provenience: Ikil Cave 1, catalog #s YaxC1.5.13.12.158. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 883

Figure 6.16b. Reconstruction drawing of the shattered Mama Red: Mama jar. Provenience: Ikil Cave 1, catalog #s YaxC1.5.13.12.147-162. Drawing by Jennifer Taschek.

PAGE 884

Figure 6.17. A seemingly complete vessel crushed beneath a log on a small shoreline (not on the island) at the waters edge at the

PAGE 887

Figure 6.18. Large ceramic sherd from a Hunacti Appliqu: Hunacti censer. Provenience: Oxolah, catalog # YaxC2.2009.SC5.1. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 891

Figure 6.19a. Complete handle from a Tecoh Red-on-buff: Tecoh ceramic jar. Provenience: Aktun Kuruxtun, catalog # YaxC3.7.8.6.28. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 892

Figure 6.19b. Partial reconstruction drawing of the Tecoh Red-on-buff: Tecoh ceramic jar including the complete handle. Provenience: Aktun Kuruxtun, catalog # YaxC3.7.8.6.28, and one additional sherd, catalog # YaxC3.7.11.6.31. Drawings by Jennifer Taschek.

PAGE 896

nience: Aktun Kuruxtun, catalog # YaxC3.6.SC6.22. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 903

Figure 6.21. Ceramic sherd from a Middle Style Spanish Olive Jar. Provenience: Aktun Kuruxtun, catalog # YaxC3.7.6.5.23. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 905

Figure 6.22. Ceramic rim sherd of a Ichtucknee Blue-on-white plate. Provenience: Aktun Kuruxtun, catalog # YaxC3.7.1.3.12. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 909

Figure 6.23. Spherical balls of clay, possibly blowgun projectiles, from Aktun Kuruxtun and Aktun Jip. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 911

used in a medicine/diving kit or as a gaming piece. Provenience: Ikil Cave 1, catalog # YaxC1.5.12.9.150. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 912

Provenience: Aktun Kuruxtun, catalog # YaxC3.7.11.4.1. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 913

Figure 6.25b. Line drawing of incised scene on sherd. Provenience: Aktun Kuruxtun, catalog # YaxC3.7.11.4.1. Drawing by Elbis Domnguez Covarrubias.

PAGE 915

Provenience: Ikil Cave 1, catalog # YaxC1.2009.SC11.5. Photo credit: Robert Clark, National Geographic.

PAGE 916

showning both chambers. Provenience: Ikil Cave 1, catalog # YaxC1.2009.SC11.5. Photo credit: Robert Clark, National Geographic.

PAGE 917

Figure 6.26c. Multi-view illustration of the head of an anthropomorphic double-chambered Taschek.

PAGE 919

Figure 6.27a. Achote Black ceramic spindle whorl featuring an incised six-spoked star design on one face. Provenience: Ikil Cave 1, YaxC1.12.3.3. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 920

Figure 6.27b. Illustration of Achote Black ceramic spindle whorl. Provenience: Ikil Cave 1, YaxC1.12.3.3. Drawings by Jennifer Taschek.

PAGE 923

Figure 6.28. The distal end of a gray chert biface displaying multiple potlid fractures. Provenience: Ikil Cave 1, catalog # YaxC1.2009.SC11.1. Photo credit: Robert Clark, National Geographic.

PAGE 924

Figure 6.29. The distal 2/3 to 3/4 of a gray chert biface. Provenience: Ikil Cave 1, catalog # YaxC1.2009.SC11.6. Photo credit: Robert Clark, National Geographic.

PAGE 925

Figure 6.30. Midsection of a gray chert biface that tested positive for canine blood residue. Provenience: Ikil Cave 1, catalog # YaxC1.2009.SC11.7. Photo credit: Robert Clark, National Geographic.

PAGE 926

Figure 6.31. Selection of obsidian blades encountered during CYAC. Provenience: From the left is a) Aktun Kuruxtun, YaxC3.2.6.10, b) Aktun Kuruxtun, YaxC3.7.6.5, c) Aktun Jip, YaxC4.4.5.3, and d) Cenote Ceh Yax, YaxC43.3.SC10. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 927

Figure 6.32. Gray chert scraper. Provenience: Ikil Cave 1, YaxC1.12.3.3. Photo credit: Robert Clark, National Geographic.

PAGE 930

Figure 6.33. Five-lobed limestone bead. Provenience: Ikil Cave 1, catalog # YaxC1.2009.SC11.2. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 931

Figure 6.34. Stone bead made from apple green jadeite or other similar greenstone. Provenience: Aktun Jip, YaxC4.4.4.3. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 933

Figure 6.35. Two views of a fragment of a possible stone bowl. Provenience: Ikil Cave 1, YaxC1.2.3.4. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 935

Figure 6.36. Composite image of four possible sastuuns Provenience: from left to right: a) Ikil Cave 1, YaxC1.5.7.2, b) Ikil Cave 1, YaxC1.5.7.9, c) Ikil Cave 1, YaxC1.5.7.12, and d) Aktun Kuruxtun, YaxC3.2.7.4. Photo credits: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 940

crown containing numerous additional cusps including a Cusp of Carabelli. Provenience: Ikil Cave 1, YaxC1.2.11.5. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 941

tooth. Provenience: Ikil Cave 1, YaxC1.2.11.5. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 943

nent 1st premolar featuring enamel hypoplasia and a centrally located odontome. Incomplete root formation suggests that the individual was approximately nine years of age at death. From top to bottom: occlusal view, buccal view, lingual view, mesial view, and distal view. Provenience: Aktun Kuruxtun, YaxC3.2.2.14. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 944

Figure 6.39. Mesial view of an upper right permanent human premolar displaying a large neck cavity. Provenience: Aktun Kuruxtun, YaxC3.2.2.14. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 945

Figure 6.40. A human radius showing evidence of the healing of a fracture. Though healed, bone fusion displays marked curvature. Provenience: Aktun Kuruxtun, catalog # YaxC3.2.7.15. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 960

Figure 6.43b. Classic Maya cylinder vase depicting a scene that includes a deer wearing a black mantle decorated with crossbones. Provenience: Dumbarton Oaks collection, catalog # PC.B.582. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater, courtesy of Dumbarton Oaks.

PAGE 967

Canis dirus

PAGE 973

Figure 6.52. Apertural view (top row) and abapertural view (bottom row) of three beads made of univalve shells of the Olividae family. Provenience: Left Ikil Cave 1, YaxC1.12.3.3; Center Aktun Kuruxtun, YaxC3.11.SC1; Right Aktun Jip, YaxC4.4.13.5. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 977

Figure 6.54. Composite image of posterior (top), lateral (center), and anterior (bottom) sides of a gorget manufactured from a large marine univalve. Provenience: Aktun Jip, YaxC4.4.6.3. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 981

Figure 6.57. Noria fragments from Aktun Jip (left) and the museum at the Convento de San Bernardino in Valladolid, Yucatan. Note the tapered superior end of both objects as well as the identical patterning of notches. Compared to the example at the Convento, only the superior half of the fragment from Aktun Jip remains. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 990

Figure 6.62. One large kick-up base of a olive green wine bottle. Provenience: Aktun Jip, YaxC4.2.SC16.2. Photo credit: Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 1007

Ikil Cave 1Yucatan, MexicoJune 2009 June 2010 May 2011 July 2011Grade 5 Survey Sabrina Simn Donald Slater Brent Wilkins Nathan Williams B Stickney Gabriel VicencioBROKEN METATE ON SURFACE BROKEN FLOWSTONE BROKEN STALACTITES SODA STRAWS & DRAPERIES FLOWSTONE COLUMN SMALL STALACTITES & SODA STRAWS SLOPE DRIPLINE ENTRANCE ROCKS SAND LEAFY DETRITUS SHARP DROP IN FLOOR HI LOW HI LOWPUUCSTYLE COLUMNETTE DUG OUT AREA POSSIBLY ANIMAL CERAMIC SHERDS MASONRY WALL TORCH CLEARED PATHWAY MAGNETIC NORTH 5 m 1 m Lower Chamber SURFACE COLLECTION UNITS EXCAVATION EntranceZENITH OBSERVATION POINT ARCHITECTURAL CUT STONE Stone steps 5 Excavated Stone Steps Altar 5 -13 OP2 7 OP2 8 OP2 10 OP2 11 OP2 12 OP2 5 OP2 6 OP2 3 OP2 4 OP2 1 OP2 2 OP5 12 OP5 13 OP5 7 OP5 8 OP121 OP123 OP122 OP124 OP5 3 2009SC2 2009SC1 2009SC3 2009SC5 2009SC6 2009SC4 2009SC7 2009SC8 2009SC9 2009SC11 2009SC10 OP12SC12

PAGE 1008

Upper Mined Area Lower crawl Clear Water 7 20 WEST PETROGLYPH PANEL PETROGLYPH PANEL SOUTH PETROGLYPH PANEL PASSAGE EXCAVATED OPEN Aktun KuruxtunYucatan, MexicoJuly 2009 May 2011 June 2011 July 2011Grade 5 Survey Sabrina Simn Donald Slater Nathan Williams Victor Fowler Marcus Kirby B Stickney Gabriel VicencioBROKEN FLOWSTONE BROKEN STALACTITES & SODA STRAWS FLOWSTONE COLUMN SMALL STALACTITES & SODA STRAWS SLOPE DRIPLINE ENTRANCE ROCKS SAND LEAFY DETRITUS SHARP DROP IN FLOOR HI LOW HI LOWCERAMIC SHERDS STALAGMITE STALACTITE MUD MASONRY WALL PUUCSTYLE COLUMNETTE METATE PETROGLYPHS TORCH BURNT WOOD MINED AREA DUG OUT AREA UNIDENTIFIED WOODEN OBJECT ARCHITECTURAL CUT STONE SURFACE COLLECTION UNITS EXCAVATION UNITS WATER BATS MAGNETIC NORTH 5 m 1 m PECKED BASINCAUTION: Low Oxygen

PAGE 1009

3 -21 2 -13 22009 4 -24 5 4 -74 -134 -3 4 -94 -114 44 -13 7 -1 MAGNETIC NORTH 5 m 1 mAktun JipYucatan, MexicoJuly 2009 June 2011 July 2011Grade 5 SurveyCompass, Clino & Disto Sabrina Simn Donald Slater Nathan Williams B Stickney Victor Fowler Marcus Kirby Gabriel VicencioBROKEN/PECKED FLOWSTONE BROKEN STALACTITES & SODA STRAWS FLOWSTONE COLUMN STALACTITES & SODA STRAWS SLOPE DRIPLINE ENTRANCE ROCKS SAND LEAFY DETRITUS SHARP DROP IN FLOOR HI LOW HI LOWNORIA FRAGMENT GUANO CLEARED AREA CERAMIC SHERDS BROKEN STALAGMITES & COLUMN STALACTITE WATER MUD BATS MASONRY WALL MINED AREA PECKED BASIN ARCHITECTURAL CUT STONE Entrance SURFACE COLLECTION UNITS EXCAVATION UNITS Stone steps CAUTION: Beginning of Low Oxygen zoneCATFISH PETROGLYPH STALAGMITE BROKEN STALAGMITE OP3 4 OP3 5 OP4 1 OP4 9 OP4 11 OP4 13 OP4 2 OP4 3 OP4 4 OP4 5 OP4 6 OP2 SC1 OP2 SC2 OP2 SC3 OP2 SC4 OP2 SC5 OP2 SC6 OP2 SC7 OP2SC11 OP3 SC1 OP2 SC8 OP3 SC4 OP2 SC9 OP2SC12 OP2SC17 OP2SC16 OP2SC14 OP2SC15 OP2SC13 OP2SC10 OP3 SC7 OP4 SC5 OP4 SC9 OP3 SC2 OP2 SC6 OP2 SC8 OP4 SC1 OP3SC12 OP3 SC8 OP3SC13 OP3SC19 OP3 SC9 OP3SC10 OP3SC11 OP3SC14 OP3SC15 OP3SC17 OP3SC16 2009SC4 2009SC3 OP3SC18 OP3SC18 OP3SC22 OP3SC20 OP3 SC3 OP3 SC2 OP4 SC4 OP4 SC2 OP4 SC6 OP4 SC7 OP6 SC2 OP6 SC1 2009SC5 2009SC1 2009SC2 OP4SC10 OP3 SC5 OP4 SC3 OP4SC13 OP4SC12 OP4SC11 OP9 SC1 OP9 SC2 OP7 SC1 OP11 SC1

PAGE 1031

Figure 7.8. Diagram of hypothetical network of enmeshed relations forged through the fragmentation, and refragmentation, of one linked across the cosmoscape through their greater whole. Diagram by Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 1034

Figure 7.9. Broad categories of some possible enmeshed relationships forged through the fragmentation and scattering of material culture across the cosmoscape. Diagram by Donald A. Slater.

PAGE 1041

Figure 7.10. Known Precolumbian contexts of speleothem deposition in the Maya region. All provenience refers to surface settlement

PAGE 1075

Archaeological Investigations Northwest, Inc. 3510 N .E. 1 22nd Ave. Portland, Oregon 97230 Vancouver Phone (360) 6967473 Phone (503) 7616605 Fax (503) 7616620 Email: ainw@ainw.com Web: www.ainw.com June 5 201 2 Donald A. Slater Phillips Academy Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology 180 Main Street Andover, MA 01810 Re: Results of Blood Residue Analysis on 16 Artifacts from Cave Sites in Yucatan, Mexico AINW Report No. 2 945 Dear Mr. Slater: At your reque st, Archaeological Investigations Northwest, Inc. (AINW), analyzed 16 artifacts from cave sites in Yucatan, Mexico. The analysis was done to identify possible blood residues using crossover immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP). There were 2 positive reactions t o two of the three antisera used in the analysis of the 16 artifacts. The CIEP technique has been widely used in forensic laboratories to determine the origin of bloodstains as evidence in criminal investigations, and has fairly recently been adapted for use in archaeology to detect protein residues on prehistoric artifacts. The CIEP technique is based on the immune (antigen antibody) reaction. Extracts of protein residues from artifacts in an ammonia solution are tested against antisera from known animals. The solutions are placed on a gel substrate and exposed to an electric current which causes the proteins to flow together. An immune reaction between the extract and the antiserum causes a precipitate to form, which is visible after being stained. A brief overview of the CIEP technique and an outline of AINWs laboratory procedures are included with this report. The CIEP tests were conducted between May 18 and June 4 201 2 by laboratory technician Monique Cushing. The extracts from the 16 artif acts were tested against cat deer, and human antisera, as well as against a non immune serum as a control. The three antisera are forensicgrade antisera manufactured by MP Biomedicals, LLC. Included with this report are a table that show s the antisera that were used in the tests and a chart that shows the species found to react with each antiserum. Standard analysis procedures began with extracting residues from the artifacts in a 5% ammonia solution. The artifact extracts were then tested against a non immune serum (NIS), in this case a solution prepared from goat serum and a 5% ammonia solution. This is done to determine if there are any contaminants or extraneous proteins that might give false positive results. The NIS is not an antiserum and the specimens should not react to it. If a reaction does occur, the extract solution is mixed with an equal volume of a 1% solution of a non ionic detergent to increase chemical bonding specificity and is run again. If the specimens still react to the NIS a fter the addition of the non ionic detergent, any reactions of those specimens to the antisera are discounted. None of the extracts analyzed for this project reacted to the non immune serum.

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June 5 2012 Page 2 Donald A. Slater, Phillips Academy, Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology Results of Blood Residue Analysis on 16 Artifacts from Cave Sites in Yucatan, Mexico AINW Report No. 2 945 As noted on the attached table, two of the artifacts reacted t o two of the antisera used in this analysis: one reacted to the cat antiserum, and one reacted to the deer antiser um The positive reactions were confirmed by repeat analysis. A summary of the positive reactions is included in a separate table attached to this report. A n obsidian prismatic blade fragment from site YaxC3 (RAL #13) tested positive to the deer antiserum. A n obsidian prismatic blade mid section from site YaxC43 (RAL #16) tested positive to the cat antiserum. None of the artifacts reacted to the human antiserum. It should be noted that the negative results from testing against the selected antisera do not preclude the possibility of a specimen retaining residues from other animals. The liquid extracts obtained from the artifacts have been frozen for storage and will be retained for one year should you wish any additional tests. Please call me if you have any questions about the analysis or this report. Sincerely, John L. Fagan, Ph.D., RPA President/Senior Archaeologist Attachments

PAGE 1077

ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS NORTHWEST, INC. BLOOD RESIDUE ANALYSIS COMPARATIVE RESULTS Project: Cave Sites in Yucatan, Mexico TYPE OF ANTISERUM RAL # SITE OBJECT MATERIAL Cat Deer Human NIS 1 YaxC1 prismatic blade chert 2 YaxC1 prism atic blade OBS 3 YaxC1 prismatic blade OBS 4 YaxC1 prismatic blade OBS 5 YaxC1 scraper chert 6 YaxC1 prismatic blade OBS 7 YaxC1 biface chert 8 YaxC1 prismatic blade OBS 9 YaxC1 biface chert 10 YaxC1 biface chert 11 YaxC1 prismatic blade OBS 12 YaxC3 prismatic blade OBS G.P. 13 YaxC3 prismatic blade OBS + 14 YaxC3 prismatic blade OBS G.P. 15 YaxC4 prismatic blade OBS 16 YaxC43 prismatic blade OBS + GEL # 2295 2296 2297 2298 GEL # 2296 2297 2298 REPEAT GEL # 2296 2296 REPEAT GEL # REPEAT GEL # Key: + = Positive; = Negative; OBS = obsidian ; G.P. = Green Pachuca

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Archaeological Investigations Northwest, Inc. 3510 N .E. 1 22nd Ave. Portland, Oregon 97230 Vancouver Phone (360) 6967473 Phone (503) 7616605 Fax (503) 7616620 Email: ainw@ainw.com Web: www.ainw.com May 2 201 3 Donald A. Slater Phillips Academy Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology 180 Main Street Andover, MA 01810 Re: Results of Additional Blood Residue Analysis Tests on Extracts from 16 Artifacts from Cave Sites in Yucatan, Mexico AINW Report No. 3082 Dear Mr. Slater: At your request, Archaeological Investigations Northwest, Inc. (AINW), analyzed the liquid extracts from the 16 artifacts from cave sites in Yucatan, Mexico. The analysis was done to identify possible blood residues from turkeys and do gs using cross over immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP). There were 6 positive reactions to the dog antiserum The CIEP technique has been widely used in forensic laboratories to determine the origin of bloodstains as evidence in criminal investigations, and has fairly recently been adapted for use in archaeology to detect protein residues on prehistoric artifacts. The CIEP technique is based on the immune (antigen antibody) reaction. Extracts of protein residues from artifacts in an ammonia solution are tested against antisera from known animals. The solutions are placed on a gel substrate and exposed to an electric current which causes the proteins to flow together. An immune reaction between the extract and the antiserum causes a precipitate to form, whi ch is visible after being stained. The CIEP tests were conducted between April 11 and May 1 201 3 by laboratory director Cameron Walker, Ph.D. The extracts from the 16 artifacts were tested against chicken and dog antisera. The antisera are forensicgrade antisera manufactured by MP Biomedicals, LLC. Included with this report are a table that show s the antisera that were used in the tests and a chart that shows the species found to react with each antiserum. As noted on the attached table, six o f the artifact extracts reacted to the dog antiser um but there were no reactions to the chicken antiserum. The positive reactions were confirmed by repeat analysis. A summary of the positive reactions is included in a separate table attached to this report.

PAGE 1085

May 2, 2013 Page 2 Donald A. Slater, Phillips Academy, Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology Results of Additional Blood Residue Analysis Tests on Extracts from 16 Artifacts from Cave Sites in Yucatan, Mexico AINW Report No. 3082 Five of the positive reactions were to samples from YaxC1 and included three obsidian prismatic blades, one chert prismatic blade, and one chert biface. One sample, a prismatic blade of green Pachuca obsidian, also tested positive to the dog antiserum and was from YaxC3. Please call me if you have any questions about the analysis or this report. Sincerely, John L. Fagan, Ph.D., R .P.A. President/Senior Archaeologist Attachments

PAGE 1086

ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS NORTHWEST, INC. BLOOD RESIDUE ANALYSIS COMPARATIVE RESULTS Project: Cave Sites in Yucatan, Mexico TYPE OF ANTISERUM RAL # SITE OBJECT MATERIAL Dog Chicken 1 YaxC1 prismatic blade chert + 2 YaxC1 prismatic blade OBS + 3 YaxC1 prismatic blade OBS 4 YaxC1 prismatic blade OBS + 5 YaxC1 scraper chert 6 YaxC1 prismatic blade OBS + 7 YaxC1 biface chert 8 YaxC1 prismatic blade OBS 9 YaxC1 biface chert 10 YaxC1 biface chert + 11 YaxC1 prismatic blade OBS 12 YaxC3 prismatic blade OBS G.P. + 13 YaxC3 prismatic blade OBS 14 YaxC3 prismatic blade OBS G.P. 15 YaxC4 prismatic blade OBS 16 YaxC43 prismatic blade OBS GEL # 2017-3 2017-4 GEL # 2017-6 REPEAT GEL # 2 017-5 2017-7 REPEAT GEL # 2017-8 REPEAT GEL # 2017-9 Key: + = Positive; = Negative; OBS = obsidian ; G.P. = Green Pachuca

PAGE 1090

Cave # Op. # Unit # Size (meters) Notes YaxC1 2009 SC1 1x2 YaxC1 2009 SC2 1x2 YaxC1 2009 SC3 1x2 YaxC1 2009 SC4 1x2 YaxC1 2009 SC5 north 1x2 YaxC1 2009 SC5 south 1x2 YaxC1 2009 SC6 1x2 YaxC1 2009 SC7 1x2 YaxC1 2009 SC8 east 2x2 YaxC1 2009 SC8 west 2x2 YaxC1 2009 SC9 .5x.5 YaxC1 2009 SC10 .25x.5 YaxC1 2009 SC11 3x5 YaxC1 12 SC12 .5x.5 YaxC2 2009 SC1 n/a Single sherd retrieved YaxC2 2009 SC2 .5x.5 YaxC2 2009 SC3 .5x.5 YaxC2 2009 SC4 1x2 YaxC2 2009 SC5 2x2 YaxC2 2009 SC6 1x2 YaxC2 2009 SC7 1x2 YaxC2 2009 SC8 .5x.5 YaxC2 2009 SC9 .5x.5 YaxC3 2009 SC1 1x3 YaxC3 2009 SC2 1x2 YaxC3 2009 SC3 n/a Single C14 sample retrieved YaxC3 2009 SC4 n/a Single C14 sample retrieved YaxC3 2 3 1x1 Undug unit in excavation grid YaxC3 2 4 1x1 Undug unit in excavation grid YaxC3 2 8 1x1 Undug unit in excavation grid YaxC3 2 SC1 2x2 YaxC3 2 SC2 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC3 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC4 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC5 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC6 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC7 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC8 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC9 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC10 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC11 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC12 1x1

PAGE 1091

Cave # Op. # Unit # Size (meters) Notes YaxC3 2 SC13 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC14 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC15 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC16 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC17 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC18 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC19 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC20 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC21 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC22 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC23 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC24 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC25 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC26 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC27 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC28 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC29 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC30 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC31 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC32 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC33 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC34 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC35 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC36 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC37 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC38 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC39 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC40 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC41 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC42 1x1 YaxC3 2 SC43 n/a Irregular shape in small alcove YaxC3 2 SC44 .25x.25 YaxC3 2 SC45 1x2 YaxC3 2 SC46 .5x.5 YaxC3 3 SC1 1x1 YaxC3 4 SC1 1x1 YaxC3 4 SC2 .5x1.5 YaxC3 4 SC3 .5x.5 YaxC3 4 SC4 .5x.5 YaxC3 4 SC5 .5x.5 YaxC3 4 SC6 1x1 YaxC3 4 SC7 1x1

PAGE 1092

Cave # Op. # Unit # Size (meters) Notes YaxC3 4 SC8 1x1 YaxC3 5 SC1 1x1.5 YaxC3 5 SC2 .5x.5 YaxC3 5 SC3 1x2 YaxC3 5 SC4 2x2 YaxC3 5 SC5 .5x.5 YaxC3 5 SC6 .5x.5 YaxC3 6 SC1 1x2 YaxC3 6 SC2 1x2 YaxC3 6 SC3 3x3 YaxC3 6 SC4 .5x1 YaxC3 6 SC5 2.5x2.5 YaxC3 6 SC6 1x1.5 YaxC3 6 SC7 1.5x2 YaxC3 6 SC8 1x1 YaxC3 6 SC9 .5x.5 YaxC3 6 SC10 1x1.5 YaxC3 6 SC11 1x1 YaxC3 6 SC12 .5x1 YaxC3 6 SC13 .5x.5 YaxC3 6 SC14 1x1 YaxC3 6 SC15 .5x.5 YaxC3 6 SC16 1x1 YaxC3 6 SC17 1x1 YaxC3 6 SC18 2x3 YaxC3 7 SC1 1x1 YaxC3 7 SC2 1x1 YaxC3 7 SC3 1x1 YaxC3 7 SC4 1x1 YaxC3 7 SC5 1x1 YaxC3 7 SC6 1x1 YaxC3 7 SC7 1x1 YaxC3 7 SC8 1x1 YaxC3 7 SC9 1x1 YaxC3 7 SC10 1x1 YaxC3 7 SC11 1x1 YaxC3 7 SC12 1x1 YaxC3 7 SC13 1x1 YaxC3 7 SC14 1x1 YaxC3 7 SC15 1x1 YaxC3 7 SC16 1x1 YaxC3 7 SC17 1x1

PAGE 1093

Cave # Op. # Unit # Size (meters) Notes YaxC3 7 SC18 1x1 YaxC3 7 SC19 1x1 YaxC3 7 SC20 1x1 YaxC3 7 SC21 1x1 YaxC3 7 SC22 1x1 YaxC3 7 SC23 1x1 YaxC3 7 SC24 1x1 YaxC3 7 SC25 1x1 YaxC3 7 SC26 1x2 YaxC3 7 SC27 .5x.5 YaxC3 8 SC1 1x2 YaxC3 8 SC2 1x2 YaxC3 8 SC3 1x2 YaxC3 8 SC4 .5x.5 YaxC3 8 SC5 .5x.5 YaxC3 10 SC1 1x2 YaxC3 10 SC2 1x2 YaxC3 11 SC1 .5x.5 YaxC4 2009 SC1 2x2 YaxC4 2009 SC2 n/a Single bone retrieved YaxC4 2009 SC3 n/a Single C14 sample retrieved YaxC4 2009 SC4 n/a Single sherd retrieved YaxC4 2009 SC5 n/a Single C14 sample retrieved YaxC4 2 SC1 1x1 YaxC4 2 SC2 1x1 YaxC4 2 SC3 1x1 YaxC4 2 SC4 1x1 YaxC4 2 SC5 1x1 YaxC4 2 SC6 1x1 YaxC4 2 SC7 1x1 YaxC4 2 SC8 1x1 YaxC4 2 SC9 1x1 YaxC4 2 SC10 1x1 YaxC4 2 SC11 1x1 YaxC4 2 SC12 .5x.5 YaxC4 2 SC13 .5x.5 YaxC4 2 SC14 .5x.5 YaxC4 2 SC15 .5x1 YaxC4 2 SC16 .5x.5 YaxC4 2 SC17 .5x.5 YaxC4 3 2 1x1 Undug unit in excavation grid YaxC4 3 6 1x1 Undug unit in excavation grid

PAGE 1094

Cave # Op. # Unit # Size (meters) Notes YaxC4 3 8 1x1 Undug unit in excavation grid YaxC4 3 SC1 1x1 YaxC4 3 SC2 .5x1 YaxC4 3 SC3 .5x1 YaxC4 3 SC4 1x1 YaxC4 3 SC5 .5x.5 YaxC4 3 SC6 .5x.5 YaxC4 3 SC7 2x2 YaxC4 3 SC8 .5x.5 YaxC4 3 SC9 .5x1.5 YaxC4 3 SC10 1x1 YaxC4 3 SC11 .5x.5 YaxC4 3 SC12 .5x.5 YaxC4 3 SC13 .5x.5 YaxC4 3 SC14 .5x.5 YaxC4 3 SC15 .5x.5 YaxC4 3 SC16 .5x1 YaxC4 3 SC17 .5x.5 YaxC4 3 SC18 1x1.5 YaxC4 3 SC19 .5x.5 YaxC4 3 SC20 .5x.5 YaxC4 3 SC21 1x2 YaxC4 3 SC22 .5x.5 YaxC4 4 SC1 1.5x2 YaxC4 4 SC2 1.5x2 YaxC4 4 SC3 .5x.5 YaxC4 4 SC4 .5x2 YaxC4 4 SC5 1x1 YaxC4 4 SC6 1x1 YaxC4 4 SC7 1x1 YaxC4 4 SC8 .5x.5 YaxC4 4 SC9 1x1 YaxC4 4 SC10 .5x.5 YaxC4 4 SC11 .5x1 YaxC4 4 SC12 .5x.5 YaxC4 4 SC13 .5x.5 YaxC4 6 SC1 1x1.5 YaxC4 6 SC2 1x1 YaxC4 7 SC1 .5x.5 YaxC4 9 SC1 .5x.5 YaxC4 9 SC2 1.5x1.5 YaxC4 11 SC1 .5x.5

PAGE 1095

Cave # Op. # Unit # Size (meters) Notes YaxC6 2009 SC1 n/a Single sherd retrieved YaxC7 2009 SC1 n/a Single sherd retrieved YaxC8 2009 SC1 n/a Small artifact cluster retrieved YaxC10 2011 SC1 n/a Single sherd retrieved YaxC11 2011 SC1 n/a Single sherd retrieved YaxC43 2 SC1 1x1 YaxC43 2 SC2 1x1.5 YaxC43 2 SC3 .5x.5 YaxC43 2 SC4 1x1.5 YaxC43 2 SC5 .5x.5 YaxC43 2 SC6 2x2 YaxC43 2 SC7 1x1.5 YaxC43 2 SC8 1x1 YaxC43 2 SC9 .5x.5 YaxC43 2 SC10 2x2 YaxC43 2 SC11 1x1.5 YaxC43 2 SC12 1x1 YaxC43 3 1 2x2 Undug unit in excavation grid YaxC43 3 2 2x2 Undug unit in excavation grid YaxC43 3 3 2x2 Undug unit in excavation grid YaxC43 3 4 2x2 Undug unit in excavation grid YaxC43 3 7 2x2 Undug unit in excavation grid YaxC43 3 8 2x2 Undug unit in excavation grid YaxC43 3 SC1 .5x1.5 YaxC43 3 SC2 .5x.5 YaxC43 3 SC3 1.5x2 YaxC43 3 SC4 1x1 YaxC43 3 SC5 1x1.5 YaxC43 3 SC6 1x1.5 YaxC43 3 SC7 1x1.5 YaxC43 3 SC8 1x1 YaxC43 3 SC9 1.5x1.5 YaxC43 3 SC10 .5x1 YaxC43 3 SC11 1x1 YaxC43 3 SC12 .5x.5 YaxC43 3 SC13 .5x.5 YaxC43 4 SC1 .5x1 YaxC43 4 SC2 .5x.5 YaxC43 4 SC3 .5x1.5 YaxC43 4 SC4 .5x.5 YaxC43 4 SC5 1x1 YaxC43 4 SC6 1.5x.2

PAGE 1096

Cave # Op. # Unit # Size (meters) Notes YaxC43 4 SC7 1.5x2 YaxC43 4 SC8 .5x2 YaxC43 4 SC9 1x1 YaxC43 4 SC10 .5x.5 YaxC43 4 SC11 2x3 YaxC43 4 SC12 .5x1 YaxC43 4 SC13 .5x1 YaxC43 4 SC14 .5x1.5 YaxC43 5 SC1 1x3 YaxC43 5 SC2 1x1 YaxC43 5 SC3 1x1 YaxC43 5 SC4 .5x.5 YaxC43 5 SC5 .5x1.5 YaxC43 5 SC6 .5x.5 YaxC43 5 SC7 .5x.5 YaxC43 6 SC1 1x1.5 YaxC43 6 SC2 1x1 YaxC43 6 SC3 1x1 YaxC43 7 SC1 1x1.5 YaxC43 7 SC2 1x1.5 YaxC43 7 SC3 .5x1.5 YaxC43 7 SC4 .5x1.5 YaxC43 7 SC5 1x2 YaxC43 7 SC6 .5x1.5 YaxC43 7 SC7 .5x.5 YaxC43 7 SC8 1x1 YaxC43 7 SC9 .5x.5

PAGE 1098

Cave # Op. # Unit # Last Level Excavated Size (meters) Screen Mesh (inches) YaxC1 2 1 8 1x1 1/4 YaxC1 2 2 10 1x1 1/4 YaxC1 2 3 6 1x1 1/4 YaxC1 2 4 7 1x1 1/4 YaxC1 2 5 7 1x1 1/4 YaxC1 2 6 9 1x1 1/4 YaxC1 2 7 10 1x1 1/4 YaxC1 2 8 7 1x1 1/4 YaxC1 2 10 6 1x1 1/4 YaxC1 2 11 10 1x1 1/4 YaxC1 2 12 3 1x1 1/4 YaxC1 5 3 3 .5x.5 1/6 YaxC1 5 7 18 1x1 1/6 YaxC1 5 8 18 1x1 1/6 YaxC1 5 12 18 1x1 1/6 YaxC1 5 13 17 1x1 1/6 YaxC1 12 1 7 1x2 1/6 YaxC1 12 2 4 1x1 1/6 YaxC1 12 3 6 1x1 1/6 YaxC1 12 4 6 1x1 1/6 YaxC3 2 1 2 1x1 1/6 YaxC3 2 2 14 1x1 1/6 YaxC3 2 5 3 1x1 1/6 YaxC3 2 6 16 1x1 1/6 YaxC3 2 7 19 1x1 1/6 YaxC3 6 1 2 2x2 1/6 YaxC3 6 2 2 2x2 1/6 YaxC3 7 1 16 1x1 1/6 YaxC3 7 2 13 1x1 1/6 YaxC3 7 3 7 1x1 1/6 YaxC3 7 6 15 1x1 1/6 YaxC3 7 7 7 1x1 1/6 YaxC3 7 8 7 1x1 1/6 YaxC3 7 9 3 1x1 1/6 YaxC3 7 11 6 1x1 1/6 YaxC3 7 13 Wall-fall cleanup only 1x1 1/6 YaxC3 7 16 7 1x1 1/6 YaxC3 7 17 3 1x1 1/6 YaxC4 3 4 3 1x1 1/6

PAGE 1099

Cave # Op. # Unit # Last Level Excavated Size (meters) Screen Mesh (inches) YaxC4 3 5 5 1x1 1/6 YaxC4 4 1 5 1x2 1/6 YaxC4 4 2 4 1x2 1/6 YaxC4 4 3 4 1x2 1/6 YaxC4 4 4 4 1x2 1/6 YaxC4 4 5 4 1x2 1/6 YaxC4 4 6 4 1x2 1/6 YaxC4 4 9 3 1x1 1/6 YaxC4 4 11 10 1x1 1/6 YaxC4 4 13 10 1x1 1/6 YaxC43 3 5 4 2x2 1/6 YaxC43 3 6 3 2x2 1/6 YaxC43 3 9 4 2x2 1/6 YaxC43 3 10 4 2x2 1/6

PAGE 1101

SKULLCHARCOALFEATURE 1 C ROOTIkil Cave 1Operation 2 Units 7 and 11 Feature 1Pascale Meehan Sabrina Simn Donald Slater MAGNETIC NORTH 0 5 10 cmUNIT 11 UNIT 7

PAGE 1102

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PAGE 1103

Hollow in altar Ikil Cave 1Operation 12 Unit 7 Feature 1Pascale Meehan Sabrina Simn Donald Slater MAGNETIC NORTH 0 10 20 cm Speleothem beneath altar Natural altar Hearth stone

PAGE 1104

FLOWSTONEFLOWSTONE North 2 1 3 4 8 5 7 6 50 cm 10 cmROCK ROCK ROCK ROCK ROCKIkil Cave 1Yucatan, MexicoJune 2009Plan View of 2009 Unit SC11 Sabrina Simn Donald SlaterLIMESTONE BEAD ANTHROPOMORPHIC FIPPLE FLUTE, CATALOG #5 A. CHERT BIFACE FRAGMENT, CATALOG #1 B. OBSIDIAN PRISMATIC BLADE FRAGMENT, CATALOG #9 CHERT BIFACE, CATALOG #7 CERAMIC FRAGMENT, GROUP CHUM, TYPE YOKAT STRIATED: YOKAT, CATALOG #8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8OBSIDIAN PRISMATIC BLADE FRAGMENT, CATALOG #3 CHERT CORE, CATALOG #4 CHERT BIFACE, CATALOG #6ALTARHOLLOW TO HEARTHHEARTH ALCOVE BENEATH ALTARIK-A11 SURVEY STATION BROKEN SPELEOTHEM

PAGE 1105

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