Journal of cave and karst studies

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Journal of cave and karst studies

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Journal of cave and karst studies
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Journal of Cave & Karst Studies
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Continues NSS bulletin (OCLC: 2087737)
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Vol. 63, no. 3 (2001)

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Copyright 2001 by The National Speleological Society Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 • 83 James U.L. Baldini Morphologic and dimensional linkage between recently deposited speleothems and drip water from Browns Foll y Mine,Wiltshire,England. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 63 (3):83-90. The internal structure of stalagmites has been scrutinized intensely over the past few decades because of the potential paleoclimatic records contained within (Allison 1926; Gascoyne et al. 1981; Genty & Quinif 1996; McDermott et al. 1999; Railsback et al. 1994). However,understanding the external morphology may assist in the elucidation of the processes responsible for speleothem development and consequently aid in the establishment of linkages between climate and speleothem climate proxies. Few recent studies have focused on the morphology of speleothems. Allison (1923) attempted to classify stalagmites into 32 different types according to drip rate,air circulation,solute concentration,temperature,and relative humidity. Allison (1923) postulated that drip rates that allow the drop of water to equilibrate with the cave atmosphere on the ceiling of a cave would preclude stalagmite formation. Franke (1965) attempted to classify different stalagmites according to temporal changes in the drip rate. Franke also recognized that changes in a speleothem’s morphology could reflect climatic change. Curl (1972,1973) formulated mathematical relationships predicting the minimum diameter of stalagmites and stalactites. Gams (1981) recognized that progressive increase in size of a stalactite would result in a corresponding decrease in stalagmite size due to the increased surface area on the stalactite from which degassing could occur. Dreybrodt (1996) used a computer program to model stalagmite growth and morphology. With the exceptions of Allison,Franke,Gams,Curl,and Dreybrodt,previous researchers have considered stalactites and stalagmites separately and have largely ignored the external morphologies of speleothems. This study attempts to view stalactites and stalagmites as an integrated system where changes in stalactite morphology directly affect the formation of the stalagmite. Because the dimensions of the stalagmite are dependant on the drip rate and chemistry of the water feeding it,the size and nature of the stalactite might affect the morphology of the associated stalagmite. The principal objective of this study is to establish relationships between the dimensions of recently deposited speleothems with the characteristics of the precipitating water. LOCATIONThis study was conducted at Browns Folly Mine,Bathford, Wiltshire,in southwestern England (Fig. 1). Browns Folly Mine was opened in 1836 for extraction of building stone. The mine was worked until 1886,when all of its entrances were closed. Mining in nearby mines ceased in 1904,and vegetation re-established itself at that time. For the last 94 years,the secondary woodland that developed was left undisturbed as part of a local nature reserve. The entrances to Browns Folly Mine remained closed until cavers re-opened them in the 1970s, ensuring that speleothems inside the mine developed without human interference for a long period during their growth (Baker et al. 1998). The mine is located at the crest of Bathford Hill at ~150 m msl. The mine was excavated at a uniform depth below the surface (5-15 m),increasing the likelihood that all drip water is meteoric percolation water rather than water derived from fracture flow within the aquifer. Precipitation is almost evenly distributed throughout the year,although increased evapotranspiration during the summer results in reduced water infiltration and lower drip rates (Baker et al. 1999). The surface above the mine is covered by a thin brown rendzina soil (Genty et al. 2001). The sampling site is a series of rooms located ~300 m from the nearest entrance (Fig. 2). The area is replete with thousands MORPHOLOGIC AND DIMENSIONAL LINKAGE BETWEEN RECENTLY DEPOSITED SPELEOTHEMS AND DRIP WATER FROM BROWNS FOLLY MINE,WILTSHIRE,ENGLANDJAMESU.L. BALDINI1Department of Geology,Geography-Geology Building,University of Georgia,Athens,GA 30602-2501 USA Dimensional measurements of juvenile speleothems from Browns Folly Mine,Wiltshire,SW England, indicate that rapid drips preferentially deposit calcite on the stalagmite rather than the stalactite. The ratio of stalagmite volume to stalactite volume,termed a speleothem volume ratio (SVR),increases with increasing drip rate. Rapid drip rates result in a reduced period of CO2degassing on the ceiling,and consequently less calcite deposition and smaller stalactites. However,extremely low drip rates appear to have an insufficient flux of HCO3-and Ca2+to deposit significant amounts of calcite on the roof of the cave. The drip rate most conducive to stalactite deposition is 0.02 mL/min. A positive feedback mechanism resulting in a preferential increase in calcite deposition on the stalactite through time is hypothesized to exist. The relationship between stalagmite basal diameter and drip rate is very significant (r2= 0.44,p = 6.31 x 10-14,n = 99). It may,therefore,be possible to reconstruct paleo-drip rates and subsequently infer paleoclimate. 1 Currently at the Department of Geology,University College Dublin,Dublin 4,Ireland.

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84 Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 MORPHOLOGICANDDIMENSIONALLINKAGEBETWEENRECENTLYDEPOSITEDSPELEOTHEMS of actively growing stalactites and stalagmites (Fig. 3). The air temperature at the sampling site has been recorded as 10.0 0.4C with no seasonal variability,and the humidity close to 100%. PCO2within the mine has been measured in the range of 0.0035-0.0040 atm,with no significant seasonal variations (Baker et al. 1998). The host bedrock is the Bath Oolite limestone,a subdivision of the Jurassic Great Oolite Series. It is an oolitic grainstone composed predominantly of calcite with much primary porosity and localized well-developed secondary porosity. Miners referred to the stone as “freestone”because of its lack of fossils and flaws,and because it can be cut freely in any direction without fear of splitting in an undesired fashion (Price 1984). Browns Folly Mine was chosen for this study for three reasons:1) The speleothems within the mine have formed within the last 152 years. This removes many of the problems inherent in speleothem studies,such as the possibility of significant climate change; 2) The history of the surface vegetation is known. The ages of the speleothems are not certain,but because vegetation re-established itself in 1904,vegetation has probably been constant for most of their development; 3) The sheer abundance of juvenile speleothems increases the likelihood of obtaining a wide array of drip rates and water chemistries. METHODOLOGYSPELEOTHEMDIMENSIONSSpeleothem dimensions were measured using a caliper. The diameters were measured at the base (the point of attachment of the speleothem to the roof or floor),at the place where the most conspicuous width change took place,and near the tip of the speleothem. The height of each speleothem was also measured with a caliper. Stalactites showing evidence of breakage were noted as such. A very fragile,translucent framework of calcite with euhedral crystal terminations was assumed to represent undisturbed stalactites,while an unusually thick layer of calcite with no crystal terminations suggested that the stalactite had been broken at some point in time. A few small curtains were present,and because they had roughly boxlike shapes,the length,width,and height were measured. Any other slightly anomalous formations were noted and appropriate measurements were taken. The vast majority of stalactites were soda straws (Fig. 3a),and most of the stalagmites had well-developed cylindrical shapes (Fig. 3b). The volume of calcite contained within the stalagmites and stalactites was calculated using equation 1,derived from the volume formula for a truncated cone. This equation was determined to best quantify the volume of a speleothem using a reasonable number of measurements. volume = 1/3 ( h1)(R2 base+ R1 2+ RbaseR1) +1/3 (h2h1)(R1 2+ R2 2+ R1R2) +(1/3 (htotalh2)R2 2) (1) Where: h1= height from base to first radius measurement (mm) h2= height from base to second radius measurement (mm) Rbase= radius at the base of speleothem (mm) Figure 1. Location and map of Browns Folly Mine in southwestern Great Britain (5123' N,222' E; Baker & Genty 1999). Only major passages are represented on this map. Several rooms exist adjacent to these major passages that are not shown on the map. The study area is in one of these rooms. Figure 2. Photograph of stalagmites growing on clasts left in the mine when mining ceased. Stalactites are extremely abundant and are randomly distributed on the ceiling. No preferential development of stalactites along joints was noted.

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Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 85 BALDINI R1= first radius measurement,at height h1(mm) R2=second radius measurement,at height h2(mm) Most of the stalactites are soda-straws and have the characteristic hollow central cavity. The approximate volume of this void has been subtracted from the volume derived using equation 4.1 to arrive at the actual volume of carbonate deposited. The central canal is assumed to be a cylinder with a diameter of 3.0 mm extending the length of the stalactite. The mean value for stalactite volume after the correction for the central canal was 91% of the mean value for the uncorrected data set. DRIPWATERCOLLECTIONDrip water samples were collected from Browns Folly Mine June 25-30,1998,using a collection device constructed of a small polyethylene funnel inserted through a slit in the base of a waxed paper drinking cup. The cup acted as a support and brace for the funnel. A clear plastic bowl (15 cm diameter, 5 cm height) was used as a stand in order to provide a horizontal surface on which a 10 dram (36.9 mL) glass collection vial could be placed. The waxed cup was placed over the plastic stand and the collection vial,with the bottom of the funnel suspended over the collection vial. The device was placed directly underneath the stalactite,usually directly over the stalagmite. Occasionally the stalagmite was in a precarious position,so a pile of rocks was used to support the device. The stalactite was observed until a drop of water formed on the tip, and then the drop was followed through the air into the collection device to ensure the device was in fact directly underneath the correct stalactite. Upon verification of the functionality of the device,the time of placement was recorded in a logbook. The device was left undisturbed for several hours. The time of collection and the height of water in the vial were noted. In several instances,the collection device was left too long, resulting in the vial overflowing. In these cases,the actual time between consecutive drips was counted using a stopwatch. Times between drips were also obtained for speleothem pairs, defined as a stalactite and its corresponding stalagmite,whose Figure 3a (left). View looking down on a typical stalagmite in Browns Folly Mine. Figure 3b (right). Photograph of typical stalactites found within the mine. Very thin,crystalline calcite at the tips of soda straws indicated that the stalactite had not been broken. A small ribbon stalactite can be seen on the bottom right of the picture.

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86 Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 MORPHOLOGICANDDIMENSIONALLINKAGEBETWEENRECENTLYDEPOSITEDSPELEOTHEMS collection vials had not overflowed,thus allowing the volume per drip to be calculated. From the volume per drip,determined to be a constant 0.0749 mL/drop (n = 18,S.D.=7.04 x 10-5),the drip rate in mL/min was calculated for the overflow vials. For the vials that did not overflow,the volume of the water collected was determined using the volume formula for a cylinder,volume = radius2x height x The radius was the radius of the collection vials,a constant 12 mm,and the height was the height of the collected water within the vial. This volume was then divided by the appropriate time to determine the drip rate. Drip rates are expressed in milliliters/minute instead of the commonly used drips/minute in order to report more clearly the volume of water that actually reaches the speleothems. Total hardness,pH,and alkalinity were measured after the collection of the sample vials using Aquachek test paper having the following ranges:total hardness 0-425 ppm,pH 6.48.8,total alkalinity 0-240 ppm. The test strips precluded obtaining very precise measurements,resulting in a large number of identical values. However,the accuracy may have benefited from the test strips because the measurements were obtained in situ The water samples were treated with hydrochloric acid and then analysed for cations using a Thermo Jarrell-Ash 965 Atomcorp ICP spectrophotometer at the University of Georgia. All water chemistries were extremely constant throughout the suite of waters sampled,and no meaningful relationships were drawn between water chemistry and any other parameters. Thus,the water chemistry will not be discussed in detail in this paper (tabulated as an internet archive on the JCKS website: http:www.caves.org/pub/journal/volume63). RESULTSSPELEOTHEMDIMENSIONSStalactites in Browns Folly Mine have a mean basal diameter,defined as the diameter of the stalactite at the attachment point to the ceiling,of 14.31 mm (S.D. = 5.943) and a mean height of 28.1 mm (S.D. = 18.561) (Fig. 4a). Stalagmites have a larger mean basal diameter of 60.170 mm (S.D. = 22.056), and are shorter (mean height = 15.641 mm,S.D.=11.987) (Fig. 4b). The stalagmites have highly variable basal diameters, while the stalactites have relatively constant diameters. The diameter of the stalactites tips is extremely uniform,with a mean of 5.491 mm and a standard deviation of 0.791 mm. DRIPRATESDrip samples were obtained during a precipitation event three days in duration during an otherwise dry summer. The average drip rate for actively dripping speleothems was 0.768 mL/min (S.D.=5.33),and is highly skewed to the right. The maximum drip rate recorded was 54.29 mL/min. There were Figure 4a. Stalactite height plotted against stalactite basal diameter. Stalactites apparently can either be wide or tall, but not both simultaneously. Figure 4b. Stalagmite height plotted against stalagmite basal diameter. No clear trend is evident.

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Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 87 BALDINI five speleothem pairs that were dry during the sampling period. The average volume of a drop of water was obtained by using the following formula: volume = R x T /60(2) Where: R = drip rate calculated from collected water in vial (mL/min) T = time between consecutive drips (sec/drop) The average drop of water had a volume of 0.0749 mL (n = 18,S.D.=7.04 x 10-5),not including two values of 0.1393 mL and 0.0987 mL that were clear outliers in the data set. The precision of this average is remarkable,and serves as a good quality control for the collection of drip water. The only variable in the preceding equation that could have any significant error associated with it is the R term,derived from the amount of drip water captured by the collection device. If significant amounts of drip water had missed the collection funnel or splashed out,the numbers obtained for the volume of a drop of water would be too low. The extremely low standard deviation is an indication that essentially no drip water was lost during collection. CALCITESATURATIONINDICESSaturation indices for calcite for the drip water were calculated using the field alkalinities and the Ca2+concentrations. The mean saturation index for calcite for the sampled drip waters was 0.7 .5 with a standard deviation of 1.0,where equilibrium for calcite is at a saturation index of 0.0. The highest saturation index was 1.8,and the lowest was –0.9. Water that was supersaturated with respect to calcite composed 64 of the 96 samples. The mean Ca2+concentrations of all the drips sampled was 1.28 mmol/L (n = 93,C.V. = 21.7%),which is 40% lower than the mean Ca2+concentrations obtained for seventeen drips in the mine by Baker et al. (1998) of 2.20 mmol/L and a C.V. of 15%. This may be due to the greater number of samples and the wider range of drip types observed in this study. RELATIONSHIPSWITHINTHEDATADIMENSIONALRELATIONSHIPSEmpirical observations within Browns Folly Mine suggest that the most rapid drip rates produce the largest speleothems. Drip rate appears to exert considerable control on stalagmite volume. The p-value for a regression line through the logtransformed data (Fig. 5) indicates that the relationship between stalagmite volume and drip rate is significant (r2= 0.304,n = 105,p = 1.09 x 10-9). Stalagmite volume ( ) is therefore approximated with: = 10(0.503(log R ) + 5.116)(3) where: R = drip rate in mL/minute During the first day of sampling,some large flowstone deposits were observed underneath dry stalactites. During the precipitation event that began on the second day,these large stalagmites were no longer dry but were being fed by rapidly dripping water. Sites that exhibited this sort of flashy discharge were avoided in the drip sampling in order to minimize uncertainty due to temporal variations in drip rates. Stalagmites formed under lower drip rates,less than ~0.1 mL/min,tended to be elongated cylinders. Conversely,the five stalagmites formed by the most rapidly dripping water (>1 mL/min) were broad and flat,the largest being over a meter wide. Stalagmite basal diameter (w) does increase with increasing drip rate (Fig. 6) according to equation 4 (r2= 0.44, p = 6.31 x 10-14,n = 99): Figure 5. Log stalagmite volume versus log drip rate (r2= 0.30,p = 1.09 x 10-9,n = 105). Figure 6. Log stalagmite width versus log drip rate (r2= 0.44,p = 6.31 x 10-14,n = 99). Stalagmites with problematic dimensions are not included in this chart.

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88 Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 MORPHOLOGICANDDIMENSIONALLINKAGEBETWEENRECENTLYDEPOSITEDSPELEOTHEMS w = 10(19.3(log R ) + 67.5)(4) The stalagmite basal diameter indicates the lateral extent drip water flows along the floor of the mine before completely equilibrating with CO2in the mine air. The more rapid the drip rate,the more rapidly the water flows from the center and onto the flanks of the stalagmite,resulting in a wider stalagmite. The drip water will degas completely on the stalagmite, depositing carbonate until the water is no longer saturated with respect to calcite. Therefore,the volume of a stalagmite is predominantly dependent on the amount of Ca2+and HCO3-transported to it through time. If drip water chemistry remains constant,a larger volume stalagmite is clearly the result of more rapid drip rates. In some situations the drip may be sufficiently rapid to cause the resultant speleothem to deviate from the classic stalagmite morphology and become a flowstone. The large flowstones observed underneath dry drips are likely to have extremely rapid,ephemeral discharges during precipitation events. Derivation of paleo-drip rates for ancient stalagmites may be possible utilizing equation 4. Drip rates are often correlative with net amounts of meteoric precipitation or infiltration (Baker et al. 1997; Genty & Deflandre 1998; Sanz & Lopez 2000),therefore equation 4 may also have applications for paleoclimatic reconstruction. The distribution of calcite in stalactites is apparently more complex than in stalagmites (Fig. 4 a,b). An incipient soda straw develops by the degassing of CO2from the periphery of a drop of water. Upon reaching a critical mass determined by gravity,fluid density,surface tension,and drop volume (Curl 1972),the drop falls,breaking the thin veneer of calcite at its lowermost point (Allison 1922). The same sequence is repeated with successive drips,until a soda straw stalactite is formed. Blockages of the central canal diffuse water radially along crystal boundaries and subsequently result in lateral growth. Figure 4a demonstrates that stalactites are either long or wide, suggesting that insufficient calcite deposition has occurred to produce a stalactite that is both. Either vertical stalactite growth continues unimpeded,or a blockage of the central canal preferentially encourages lateral over vertical growth. Previous research (Baker et al. 1999; Genty et al. 2001) has demonstrated that the drips within Browns Folly Mine vary seasonally depending on water availability,and different drips have different response times to rainfall events. Good statistical correlations exist between speleothem morphology and drip rate despite using drip rates measured only once,in June. This may be because many of the drips sampled had a low coefficient of variation during the course of the year. Some that responded rapidly to a rainfall event were sampled during the period of rapid flow,when most calcite deposition would take place,explaining the correlation with morphology. More drip rate measurements,particularly in the winter,would be very useful and may raise the r2values. SPELEOTHEMVOLUMERATIOSThe ratio of stalagmite volume to stalactite volume,henceforth known as the speleothem volume ratio (SVR),quantifies the spatial distribution of precipitated carbonate in a speleothem pair. The speleothem volume ratio increases with increasing drip rate (r2= 0.237,p = 1.85 x 10-7,n = 103) (Fig. 7),suggesting that a reduction in the amount of time water spends on the stalactite increases the amount of carbonate deposited on the stalagmite. Carbonate deposition on the stalactite removes Ca+2and CO3 -2from the drip water,reducing the amount of raw materials that will reach the stalagmite,consequently producing a smaller stalagmite. As drip rates increase,the amounts of raw materials that can be potentially deposited on the stalagmite also increase,creating a larger stalagmite. The average measured stalagmite in the mine was 214 times larger than the average measured stalactite. It has been proposed that the rate of stalactite growth increases throughout their development (Gams 1981),while stalagmite growth rates must necessarily decrease. Increased stalactite volume increases the period of drip degassing on the stalactite resulting in more calcite deposition. This is essentially a positive feedback mechanism that culminates in large stalactites whose drips are already equilibrated with respect to calcite when they reach the stalagmite,precluding any further stalagmite growth. Support for this hypothesis would be provided if measured SVRs of ancient speleothems in caves are less than 214. If this hypothesis is correct,paleoclimatic interpretations based on stalagmite stable isotopes,trace elements,or layer thicknesses must be corrected for the gradual,systematic decrease in calcite deposition on the stalagmite. STALACTITEMORPHOLOGYThe vast majority of the stalactites in the mine are of the soda-straw variety; therefore,the only dimension that differs Figure 7. Log speleothem ratio versus log drip rate (r2= 0.237,p = 1.85 x 10-7,n = 103). If either the stalagmite or the stalactite was not present in a speleothem pair,that "pair" is not included in the chart. Speleothems with drip rates of 0.00 ml/minute are not included in this chart.

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Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 89 BALDINI greatly from one stalactite to another is the height. When height is plotted against drip rate,a weakly significant (p-value = 0.03987) inverse relationship is evident (Fig. 8). The data as a whole indicate a decrease in stalactite height with increasing drip rate. Limits as to how long a stalactite can form at certain drip rates appear to exist (Fig. 8). Low drip rates produce a short stalactite because,although most of the degassing occurs on the stalactite,not enough carbonate has been transported to the stalactite during the course of its existence to create a long stalactite. As drip rate increases,the amount of Ca2+and dissolved CO2transported to the stalactite increases,creating a longer stalactite. However,eventually a drip rate is reached that moves water away from the stalactite prior to significant degassing of CO2,reducing the amount of carbonate precipitated on the stalactite. The drip rate that seems to most favor the longest stalactites is ~0.02 mL/minute. Stalactites measured in Browns Folly Mine have an average diameter of 5.49 mm (S.D. = 0.79 mm) at their tip,a number wholly consistent with the theory that the smallest possible diameter of calcite soda-straw stalactites on earth is 5.1 mm (Curl 1972). The smallest consistently measured diameter of a soda-straw was 5.0 0.5 mm across the tip. Soda-straw stalactites with this tip diameter comprise a majority of the specimens sampled (66%). Only one soda-straw measuring less than 5.0 mm was found,and it measures 4.0 mm across the tip. The reasons for this anomaly are unknown; no egregious differences between this stalactite and others were noted. CONCLUSIONSEvidence obtained from Browns Folly Mine suggests that degassing of CO2and subsequent deposition of CaCO3on a stalactite reduce a spelean drip waterÂ’s ability to further deposit calcium carbonate on the stalagmite. Slower drip rates increase the amount of time that a drop spends on a stalactite, resulting in increased stalactite sizes and decreased stalagmite sizes. Speleothem volume ratios,defined as the ratio of stalagmite volume to stalactite volume,increase in value with increasing drip rates,supporting the hypothesis that slow drip rates favor deposition of available CaCO3on the stalactite. The existence of a positive feedback mechanism resulting in increased stalactite growth rates and decreased stalagmite growth rates through time is hypothesized. Therefore, speleothem volume ratios in ancient caves should be lower than those of younger speleothems,though an exhaustive study is clearly necessary. Paleo-drip rate estimates based on speleothem volume ratios of ancient speleothems in natural caves may have applications in paleoclimatological studies. Stalactite height is at its greatest at drip rates of ~0.02 mL/minute,suggesting this drip rate is sufficiently rapid to transport raw materials to the growing lattice,and is sufficiently slow to allow for enough degassing of CO2to deposit calcite. A stalactite growth exclusion zone demarcating the limits for stalactite heights is a result of drip rate,drip chemistry,and the maximum possible age of the stalactites. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI would like to extend my sincere appreciation to the faculty at the Department of Geology,University of Georgia,for assisting with this project,and particularly to Dr. L. Bruce Railsback for his tireless editing,invaluable suggestions,and thorough review. I also thank Dr. Andy Baker for providing information regarding the mine and for his valuable input throughout the course of this project. A sincere thank you to my field assistant,Lisa Baldini,without whose assistance and insights this project would never have been completed. I would also like to thank Dr. Frank McDermott for comments on the manuscript and helpful discussions. Suggestions from an anonymous reviewer were extremely useful and greatly improved the paper. Figure 8. Stalactite length plotted against drip rate. The stippled area is a stalactite growth exclusion zone,which represents stalactite lengths that are impossible given the drip rates,water chemistries,and age of the stalactites. Extremely high drip rates do not seem to favor the formation of long stalactites. A longer period of degassing on the roof of the mine is believed to be responsible for the increase in stalactite length with decrease in drip rate. Drip rates that are too low,however,do not transport enough carbonate and Ca2+to the roof to favor the deposition of long stalactites.

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90 Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 MORPHOLOGICANDDIMENSIONALLINKAGEBETWEENRECENTLYDEPOSITEDSPELEOTHEMS REFERENCESAllison,V.C.,1923,The growth of stalagmites and stalactites: Journal of Geology,v. 31,p. 106-125. Allison,V.C.,1926,The antiquity of the deposit in JacobÂ’s Cavern:American Museum of Natural History, Anthropological Papers,v. 19,p. 204-225. Baker,A.,Barnes,W.L. & Smart,P.L.,1997,Variations in the discharge and organic matter content of stalagmite drip waters in Lower Cave,Bristol:Hydrological Processes,v. 11,p. 1541-1555. Baker,A.,Genty,D.,Dreybrodt,W.,Grapes,J.,& Mockler, N.J.,1998,Testing theoretically predicted stalagmite growth rates with Recent annually laminated samples: Implications for past stalagmite deposition:Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta,v. 62,p. 393-404. Baker,A.,Mockler,N.J.,& Barnes,W.L.,1999,Fluorescence intensity of speleothem forming groundwaters: Implications for palaeoclimate reconstruction:Water Resources Research,v. 35,p. 407-413. Baker,A. & Genty,D.,1999,Fluorescence wavelength and intensity variations of cave waters:Journal of Hydrology,v. 217,p. 19-34. Curl,R.L.,1972,Minimum diameter stalactites:Bulletin of the National Speleological Society,v. 34,p. 129-136. Curl,R.L.,1973,Minimum diameter stalagmites:Bulletin of the National Speleological Society,v. 35,p. 1-9. Dreybrodt,W.,1996,Chemical kinetics,speleothem growth, and climate, in Lauritzen,S-E (ed.) Climate change:The karst record:Karst Waters Institute Special Publication #2. Franke,H.W.,1965,The theory behind stalagmite shapes: Studies in Speleology,v. 1,p. 89-95. Gams,I.,1981,Contributions to morphometrics of stalagmites:Proceedings of the International Congress of Speleology,v. 8,p. 276-278. Gascoyne,M.,Ford,D.C.,& Schwarz,H.P.,1981,Late Pleistocene chronology and paleoclimate of Vancouver Island determined from cave deposits:Canadian Journal of Earth Science,v. 18,p. 1643-1652. Genty,D.,Baker,A.,& Vokal,B.,2001,Intraand inter-annual growth rate of modern stalagmites:Chemical Geology,v. 176,p. 191-212. Genty,D.D. & Deflandre,G.,1998,Drip flow variations under a stalactite of the Pere Noel cave (Belgium):Evidence of seasonal variations and air pressure constraints:Journal of Hydrology,v. 211,p. 208-232. Genty,D. & Quinif,Y.,1996,Annually laminated sequences in the internal structure of some Belgian speleothems:Journal of Sedimentary Research,v. 66,p. 275-288. McDermott,F.,Frisia,S.,Huang,Y.,Longinelli,A.,Spiro,B., Heaton,T.H.E.,Hawksworth,C.J.,Borsato,A.,Keppens, E.,Fairchild,I.J.,van der Borg,K.,Verheyden,S.,& Selmo,E.,1999,Holocene climate variability in Europe: Evidence from -18O,textural and extension-rate variations in three speleothems:Quaternary Science Reviews,v. 18,p. 1021-1038. Price,E.,1984,The Bath Freestone Workings:Bath,U.K.,The Resurgence Press. Railsback,L.B.,Brook G.A.,Chen,J.,Kalin,R.,& Fleisher, C.,1994,Environmental controls on the petrology of a late Holocene speleothem from Botswana with annual layers of aragonite and calcite:Journal of Sedimentary Research,v. A64,p. 147-155. Sanz,E. & Lopez,J.J.,2000,Infiltration measured by the drip of stalactites:Ground Water,v. 38,no. 2,p. 247-253.



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Copyright 2001 by The National Speleological Society Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 • 91 Kurt A. Buhlmann A biological inventory of eight caves in northwestern Georgia with conservation implications. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 63 (3):91-98. Georgia is a cave-rich state,with most caves occurring in two distinct physiographic regions,the Cumberland Plateau and the southwestern Coastal Plain. Caves in the Cumberland Plateau lie primarily in the counties of Dade,Walker,and Chattooga. A comprehensive inventory of Georgia caves was conducted in 1967 (Holsinger & Peck 1971). Reeves et al. (2000) reported additional faunal records. Other scattered references to the cave fauna of Georgia can be found in Loomis (1939: millipeds),Hubricht (1943:amphipods),Chamberlin & Hoffman (1958:millipeds),Hyman (1954:planarians),Barr (1965,1981:beetles),Cooper (1968:salamanders),Holsinger (1969,1978:amphipods),Cooper & Iles (1971:fish),and Peck (1973:beetles). Dearolf (1953),Nicholas (1960),and Holsinger & Culver (1988) provide checklists of species and reviews of the regional biogeography of cave faunas. The goals of this study were to conduct biological inventories for cave-adapted species of northwest Georgia caves that were under state management responsibility and receive varying levels of recreational use,and/or were believed to have significant biodiversity and conservation value. Results may be useful in the development of cave management and conservation plans and will contribute to knowledge of the distribution and biogeography of Georgia’s cave fauna. METHODSBetween 15 July and 14 October 1995,biological inventories were conducted in 8 caves within northwestern Georgia’s Cumberland Plateau. Five caves were examined on Pigeon Mountain in Walker County:Pettijohns Cave [PJ] on 15 July (a),5 August (b),and 14 October (c); Anderson Springs Cave [AS] on 30 July (a) and 6 August (b); Ellisons Cave [EC] on 29 July; Nash Waterfall Cave [NW] on 5 August; and Pigeon Cave [PC] on 16 July (a) and 30 July (b). One cave was examined in Chattanooga Valley in Walker County:Fricks Cave [FC] on 16 September. Two caves were examined in Cloudland Canyon State Park at the base of Lookout Mountain in Dade County:Case Cave [CC] and Sittons Cave [SI],both on 26 August (a) and 17 September (b) (Fig. 1). The study followed methods used by Holsinger & Peck (1971) and Buhlmann (1992). Cave habitats sampled included streams,drip pools,phreatic lakes,decaying wood,cave walls, and mud banks. Bait,usually liver cat food,was left in terrestrial habitats and checked on a return visit. Aquatic fauna in cave streams and drip pools were collected with small aquarium dip nets and suction tubes; baited containers were set in deep pools. The first inventory of each cave included a search for all representative habitat types and collection of organisms. A second visit was made to some caves 1-2 weeks later to collect specimens from the bait stations and revisit selected habitats. Four caves (PC,AS,CC,and SI) were each visited twice during this study. Three caves (FC,EC,and NW) were visited once and 1 cave (PJ) was visited 3 times. Invertebrates were preserved in 70% ethanol for later identification. Only a minimum number of specimens were collected for species identification. Invertebrate taxa were sorted and shipped to recognized experts of the various taxonomic groups (see ACKNOWLEDGMENTS) where they remain or have been deposited in museum collections. Data were collected on habitats,species abundance,and human disturbance. Simply documenting presence or absence was the greatest level of detail attainable for many species. Nomenclature used in the 1Current address: Conservation International,Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, 1919 M Street,NW,Suite 600,Washington DC 20036 USA K.BUHLMANN@conservation.org A BIOLOGICAL INVENTORY OF EIGHT CAVES IN NORTHWESTERN GEORGIA WITH CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONSKURTA. BUHLMANN1University of Georgia,Savannah River Ecology Laboratory,Aiken,SC 29802 USA A 1995 biological inventory of 8 northwestern Georgia caves documented or re-confirmed the presence of 46 species of invertebrates,35 considered troglobites or troglophiles. The study yielded new cave records for amphipods,isopods,diplurans,and carabid beetles. New state records for Georgia included a pselaphid beetle. Ten salamander species were in the 8 caves,including a true troglobite,the Tennessee cave salamander. Two frog,4 bat,and 1 rodent species were also documented. One cave contained a large colony of gray bats. For carabid beetles,leiodid beetles,and millipeds,the species differed between the caves of Pigeon and Lookout Mountain. Diplurans were absent from Lookout Mountain caves,yet were present in all Pigeon Mountain caves.A comparison between 1967 and 1995 inventories of Pettijohns Cave noted the absence of 2 species of drip pool amphipods from the latter. One cave had been contaminated by a petroleum spill and the expected aquatic fauna was not found. Further inventory work is suggested and the results should be applied to management strategies that provide for both biodiversity protection and recreational cave use.

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92 Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 BIOLOGICALINVENTORYOFEIGHTCAVESINNORTHWESTERNGEORGIA Results follows Peck (1998),unless other literature was required. Cave organisms were classified into one of four categories of cavernicoles (Barr 1963a,1968). Troglobites (TB) are obligatory cave species with morphological adaptations for the cave environment and do not exist in surface environments. Troglophiles (TP) may frequent caves and are capable of completing all stages of their life cycle within a cave,but also occur in surface habitats. Trogloxenes (TX) are species that may use cave environments seasonally or for portions of their life cycle, yet must also be in association with surface environments. Accidentals (AC) are those species that are often found in caves but generally exist there only temporarily. Results focus on troglobitic and troglophilic species,with some exceptions. RESULTSClass Turbellaria (flatworms),Order Tricladida,Family Kenkiidae: Sphalloplana sp. (TB):PJ(a). One specimen was collected in a pool at the base of a waterfall. The specimen may be Sphalloplana georgiana (Hyman) which was described from a cave in Dade Co.,GA (Hyman 1954). Class Malacostraca,Order Isopoda (isopods),Family Asellidae: Caecidotea cyrtorhynchus Fleming and Steeves ( TB):PJ(a); NW; AS(a,b). Individuals were especially abundant in the out-flowing,permanent stream in AS. Caecidotea sp. (undescribed or possibly Caecidotea catachaetus Fleming and Steeves (TB):EC; SI(b). Specimens were collected in a pool in the drying cave stream in SI. Two species of aquatic troglobitic isopods are currently known from GA, C cyrtorhynchus and C. catachaetus (Fleming & Steeves 1972). Lirceus sp. (TP):NW. Specimens were collected from drip pools. Family Ligiidae : Ligidium elrodi Packard (TP):EC; PC(a). This terrestrial species was found around the entrance to NW. L. elrodi are perhaps becoming adapted to cave life (Schultz 1970). They inhabit wet,damp places,including the margins of springs and streams. The specimens found at NW are L. elrodi hancockensis (Schultz) (J. Lewis,pers. comm.). Family Trichoniscidae: Amerigoniscus sp. (possibly undescribed,TB):CC(a); SI(a). Prepared dissections of this terrestrial isopod did not match known species from the area (J. Lewis,pers. comm.). Miktoniscus sp. (probably Miktoniscus alabamensis Muchmore,TP):PC(a). M. alabamensis is a widely ranging species known from AL,FL,and VA (Muchmore 1964). Order Amphipoda (amphipods),Family Crangonyctidae : Crangonyx antennatus Packard (TB):FC; SI(b); PJ(a); AS(a,b). Specimens in FC and AS were collected from streams with cobble bottom. Specimens from SI and PJ were collected from mud-bottomed streams. C. antennatus is widespread,and recorded from caves in southwest VA,eastern TN,northwestern GA,and northern Alabama (Holsinger & Culver 1988). Stygobromus minutus Holsinger (TB):NW. One specimen was collected in a drip pool. The species was previously collected from mud-bottomed drip pools in PJ (Holsinger 1978). Order Decapoda (crayfishes),Family Cambaridae: Cambarus sp. (TX):EC; SI(a,b). Several specimens were observed in cave streams,but no troglomorphic species were found. Class Arachnida,Order Pseudoscorpiones (pseudoscorpions) No specimens were found. Troglobitic species of pseudoscorpions have been previously found in Chattooga,Dade,and Walker County,GA caves (Holsinger & Peck 1971),but not in any of the caves investigated during this study. Order Acari (parasitic mites) unknown sp. (AC):PC(a); CC(a); NW; FC. Several genera of mites were collected,but all are believed to represent surface species carried into caves by bats. Holsinger & Peck (1971) reported a cave-adapted mite from PJ. Order Opiliones (harvestmen),Family Phalangodidae: Bishopella sp. (TP):PC(a); EC; NW; CC(a,b); SI(b); FC; PJ(c). Adult and juvenile specimens of Bishopella were collected in seven caves during this study andReeves et al (2000) subsequently collected Bishopella in AS. Bishopella have well-developed eyes and have been collected occasionally from epigean habitats (Goodnight & Goodnight 1960). The genus Bishopella likely includes several species that have been reported as Phalangodes laciniosa (Crosby & Bishop ) from northwestern GA caves,including SI,PJ,and also northern AL and central TN caves (Holsinger & Peck 1971). Order Araneae (spiders),Family Agelenidae: Calymmaria sp. (TP):NW. Adults of both sexes were collected and may represent Calymmaria cavicola (Banks),a species described from other Walker Co. caves,as well as caves in TN and AL (Heiss 1982). Family Amaurobiidae: Coras juvenilis Keyserling(TX?):FC. Female and immature specimens were collected and apparently represent a state record for the species (M. Draney, pers. comm.). C. juvenilis has not been reported from caves,although congeners ( Coras cavernorum Barrowsfrom NC and Coras taugynus Chamberlin from AL) have been found in caves (Muma 1946). Figure 1. General location of eight caves inventoried during the study (in ellipses):A. Cloudland Canyon State Park (Case Cave [CC] and Sittons Cave [SI]); B. Chattanooga Valley (Fricks Cave [FC]); C. Pigeon Mountain (Pettijohns Cave [PJ],Anderson Springs Cave [AS],Ellisons Cave [EC],Nash Waterfall Cave [NW],and Pigeon Cave [PC]).

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Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 93 BUHLMANN Family Leptonetidae: Leptoneta sp. (TP):PJ(a,c). Immature specimens were collected. Leptoneta is represented in the western and southeastern U.S. by ~35 species; many are cave dwellers (Roth 1993). Holsinger & Peck (1971) collected an undescribed Leptoneta in PJ. Family Linyphiidae: Phanetta subterranea (Emerton) (TB):PC(a); FC; SI(a). Phanetta is a monotypic genus (Millidge,1984). It has been reported from caves in PA,MD,WV, VA,TN,KY,IL,IN,and AL (Peck & Lewis 1978; Roth 1988). P. subterranea is known from GA caves in Floyd,Walker,and Dade Co.,including SI (Holsinger & Peck 1971). Family Mysmenidae: Maymena ambita (Barrows) (TX ):EC. This spider is not a strict cave-dweller. It has been found in caves in AL,TN,and KY (Gertsch 1960),as well as one other Walker Co.,GA cave (Holsinger & Peck 1971). Family Nesticidae: Nesticus sp. 1 (TB):PC(a); AS(a). This was a small,eyeless purple spider (M. Draney,pers. comm.). More specimens are needed. Nesticus sp. 2 (TP):CC(a,b). Several species of Nesticus with restricted ranges are known from caves in TN and VA (Holsinger & Culver 1988; Coyle & McGarity 1991) and recent genetic analyses indicate considerable genetic divergences among recognized taxa within the genus Nesticus (Hedin 1997). Distributional data from Hedin (1997) and a report by Reeves et al (2000) of Nesticus georgia in Sittons Cave (SI) indicate that these specimens from CC may represent N. georgia Gertsch. Family Tengellidae: Liocranoides sp. (TP):PJ(a,c); AS(a). The specimens are likely Liocranoides gertschi Platnick (Platnick 1999). Specimens of this spider previously reported from several Walker County caves (Holsinger & Peck 1971) as Liocranoides unicolor Keyserling,are likely L. gertschi. Family Tetragnathidae: Meta menardi (Latreille) (TP):NW; PC(a); FC. This orb weaver was frequently seen in some cave entrances. It is also found under bridges,in damp ravines,and hollow logs (Marusik & Koponen 1992; M. Draney,pers. comm.). Reeves et al. (2000) reported Meta from FC and SI. Family Theridiidae: Achaearanea porteri (Banks)(TX):FC. This spider has been recorded from MD to TX (M. Draney,pers. comm.). The previous GA records are not from caves (Levi 1955). Class Diplopoda (millipeds) Order Spirostrepida Family Cambalidae: Cambala hubrichti Hoffman(TX):FC. These large pinkish-gray millipeds were abundant on gray bat ( Myotis grisescens ) guano in FC. C. hubrichti is also known from caves in western SC (Chamberlin & Hoffman 1958). Order Chordeumatida Family Cleidogonidae: Pseudotremia eburnea Loomis(TB):CC(a,b); PJ(b); EC. P. eburnea was described from a cave in Dade County,GA (Loomis 1939; Chamberlin 1946), and was reported from CC by Shear (1972) and from PJ by Holsinger & Peck (1971). Reeves et al. (2000) reported P. eburnea from several additional Georgia caves. Pseudotremia sp. 1 (TB):NW. These female specimens probably represent P. eburnea ,but could be a different species (R.L. Hoffman,pers. comm.). Pseudotremia sp. 2 (TB):SI(a). Holsinger & Peck (1971) also collected an undescribed Pseudotremia from SI. Pseudotremia aeacus Shear(TB):PC(a,b). P. aeacus was described from a cave in Dade Co.,GA (Shear 1972); the PC specimens may represent a new subspecies (R.L. Hoffman,pers. comm.). Family Trichopetalidae: Scoterpes austrinus Loomis (TB):PJ(c); EC; NW; AS(a,b); SI(b). S. austrinus was previously found in several caves,including PJ (Holsinger & Peck 1971), and as well as caves in DeKalb Co.,AL (Loomis 1943). Scoterpes sp. (TB):NW; PC(a,b); FC; CC(b). These specimens are perhaps S. austrinus or represent a new species. Holsinger & Peck (1971) suggested that at least two subspecies (or species) of Scoterpes exist in GA caves. Additional specimens,specifically adult males,are required (R.L. Hoffman,pers. comm.). Order Polydesmida Family Xystodesmidae: Cherokia georgiana Bollman(AC):PC(a). Specimens were collected at the entrance to PC. C. georgiana is not usually considered a cave inhabitant. Class Chilopoda (centipedes) Order Lithobiomorpha Family Lithobiidae: Typhlobius ?caecus Bollman (TX?):FC. The posterior end of a female lithobiid centipede was found. An intact adult male would be very valuable since records for cave-dwelling centipedes are scarce and their status as troglobites has not been determined (R.L. Hoffman,pers. comm.). Class Insecta,Order Collembola (springtails),Family Entomobryidae: Pseudosinella christianseni Salmon(TB):PJ(a,b,c); PC(a); EC; NW; AS(a,b); FC; CC(a,b); SI(a,b). Springtails were found in every cave visited and were often abundant around damp and decaying wood. P. christianseni is an artificial taxon that will eventually be split into a series of species,all of which are highly troglomorphic (K. Christiansen,pers. comm.). Pseudosinella n. sp. (TP):EC; NW; PC(a); FC. Pseudosinella n. sp. is not troglomorphic,but all of the P. n. sp. specimens collected are the same species (K. Christiansen,pers. comm.). Family Isotomidae: Folsomia candida Willem(TP):PJ(b). F. candida is an opportunistic troglophile and has been recorded from caves over a wide area of the United States (Christiansen 1982). Family Tomoceridae: Tomocerus bidentatus Folsom(TP):EC; NW; PC(a); CC(b). T. bidentatus is a common and widespread collembolan in caves in the eastern U.S. It is lightly pigmented with small eyes (Christiansen 1982; Holsinger & Culver 1988). Order Diplura (diplurans or bristletails),Family Campodeidae: Litocampa sp. “P”(TB):PJ(a,c); EC; AS(a,b); PC(a); NW; FC. Diplurans were found on undisturbed mud banks. Litocampa sp. “P”was previously known only from PJ and a cave in Chattooga Co.,GA. This study found five new cave localities for this possible Georgia endemic (L. Ferguson,pers. comm.). Litocampa are not known from CC and SI. Three Litocampa species are known from GA caves (Ferguson 1981). The species designation of “P” corresponds with a coding system for unnamed species (L. Ferguson,pers. comm.). Order Orthoptera,Family Rhaphidophoridae (cave and camel crickets): Ceuthophilus gracilipes (Haldeman)(TX):The common “camel”cricket was found in the entrances of all 8 caves. Hundreds of camel crickets were observed under a ledge at the entrance to PC(b). C. gracilipes occurs throughout the eastern United States in forested habitats as well as cave entrances and no systematic effort was made to collect them. Euhadenocecus puteanus Scudder(TP):PC(a); EC; AS(a); FC; CC(a). E. puteanus is widely distributed throughout the Appalachian region and the Interior Low Plateaus and is closely associated with cave environments (Holsinger & Culver 1988). It has been recorded from GA caves in Dade, Walker,and Polk Co. (Holsinger & Peck 1971). Order Diptera (flies),Family Heleomyzidae: undetermined Heleomyzidae (TP):These flies were observed on the ceilings and damp walls near the entrance zones of all caves. No systematic effort was made to collect cave flies. Order Coleoptera(beetles),Family Carabidae (ground beetles) : Pseudanophthalmus georgiae Barr (TB):PJ(a,c); EC. One of the PJ specimens collected was white. Holsinger & Peck (1971) collected this species,undescribed at that time,in PJ and Mountain Cove Farm Cave. It is also known from Blowing Springs Cave (Barr 1981). The EC specimen represents a new cave record for P. georgiae Pseudanophthalmus fulleri Valentine(TB):SI(a). P. fulleri was previously known from SI (Barr 1981). It was also collected in several Dade and Walker Co. caves by Holsinger & Peck (1971) and Reeves et al. (2000) and is also known from caves in Hamilton Co.,TN. Family Leiodidae (scavenger beetles) : Ptomaphagus fiskei Peck (TB):PJ(a,b,c); EC; PC(b); AS(a,b). P. fiskei was especially abundant at bait stations in PJ. P. fiskei appears to be restricted to Pigeon Mountain. According to Peck (1973),no Ptomaphagus are known from caves in the valley between Pigeon and Lookout Mountains. No Ptomaphagus were found in FC. Ptomaphagus whiteselli Barr (TB):CC(a,b); SI(a,b). P. whiteselli was previously known from SI (Barr 1963b) and CC (Peck 1973). It is the only Ptomaphagus known from caves between Sand and Lookout Mountains in DeKalb Co.,AL and Dade Co.,GA (Peck 1973). Family Pselaphidae (pselaphid beetles) : Batrisodes sp. (TX):PC(a). The specimens may be Batrisodes globosus (LeConte),a widely distributed species in eastern North America and record-

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94 Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 BIOLOGICALINVENTORYOFEIGHTCAVESINNORTHWESTERNGEORGIA ed from caves in AL,GA,and VA (Barr 1964; Park 1947; Holsinger & Peck 1971). Speleochus sp. (TB):PC(a). PC produced the only specimen of this undescribed species known from GA. The genus Speleochus is only known from central TN,northeast AL,and Walker Co.,GA (T. Barr,pers. comm.). Species in this genus seem rare and they appear to be most abundant during cold,wet weather (Jan-Feb) when they may be more easily observed because their interstitial habitats are flooded. (T. Barr,pers. comm.). Family Staphylinidae (rove beetles) (TX) : Staphylinid beetles were collected in PJ,NW,PC,and FC and are in the possession of T. Barr. Staphylinid beetles were commonly found at bait traps. None of the species known are restricted to caves (Holsinger & Culver 1988). Class Osteichthyes,Order Perciformes,Family Cottidae: Cottus bairdi (mottled sculpin,TX):FC. Several sculpins were observed in the FC stream; 1 was collected and dissected,but no food items were found in the stomach. Class Amphibia,Order Anura (frogs and toads),Family Ranidae: Rana palustris LeConte (pickerel frog,TX):EC; AS(a); NW. 5 frogs were observed inside the entrance to EC; 1 frog each was found in AS and NW. Pickerel frogs have been commonly observed inside VA caves (K.A. Buhlmann,pers. obs.). Rana clamitans Latreille (green frog,AC):EC; NW. 1 frog each was found near the entrances in EC and NW. Unlike pickerel frogs,green frogs are not commonly reported from caves. OrderCaudata(salamanders) Family Plethodontidae : Gyrinophilus porphyriticus (Green) (northern spring salamander,TP):PJ(a); EC; AS(a,b); PC(a,b). The PJ specimen was a pale larva that was re-absorbing its gills. 1 adult individual was observed in the cave stream in EC. An adult and a larva were each observed in AS. In PC(a) 4 larval individuals and 1 adult were observed in the cave stream. Also in PC(b),2 very large larval individuals were collected at the back of the cave,370 m from the entrance,in the terminal siphon. These very pale larvae with seemingly reduced eyes were deposited in the U.S. National Museum of Natural History,Washington D.C. (USNM 497685,497686). Gyrinophilus palleucus McGrady (Tennessee cave salamander,TB):FC. 4 larval individuals were observed in the caveÂ’s out-flowing stream and 1 specimen was collected (USNM 497687). The nearest AL records for G. palleucus are ~16 km west of Chattanooga Valley on the AL/GA line near Rising Fawn,GA (Godwin 1995). Cooper (1968) reported a GA specimen but the locality is uncertain. The FC specimens confirm the presence of G. palleucus in GA (Buhlmann & Wynn 1996). Eurycea lucifuga Rafinesque (cave salamander,TP):All individuals reported were observed and not collected:PJ(a),3 adults; PC(a),2 adults and several larvae in the cave stream; EC,1 adult and several larvae in cave stream pools; AS(a),9 adults and AS(b),5 adults; NW,5 adults; CC(a,b),1 adult each; SI(a), 4 adults and SI(b),1 adult. Cave salamanders are often encountered in caves throughout the Appalachian and Cumberland regions. Eurycea longicauda (Green) (longtail salamander,TX):All individuals reported were observed,not collected:AS(a),4 adults and AS (b),5 adults; FC,1 adult. Longtail salamanders,although closely related to cave salamanders ( E. lucifuga ),are occasionally,although not commonly found in caves. Plethodon glutinosus (Green) (slimy salamander,TX):EC; PJ(b); AS(a,b); NW; CC(a). In EC,64 slimy salamanders were seen inside the Historic Entrance in the first 50 m,and an additional 81 salamanders were seen between 51-60 m of this entrance. 20 more were observed inside the New Entrance to EC,totaling 165. 10 slimy salamanders were seen at the entrance to PJ(b); 9 were seen in AS(a) and 4 were observed in AS(b); 2 were observed in NW; and 1 was observed in CC(a). The large numbers of P. glutinosus in the entrance to Ellisons Cave seemed unusual and warrant further study. Plethodon dorsalis (Cope) (zigzag salamander,AC):PJ(c). 1 specimen was observed 10 m inside the entrance. Plethodon serratus Grobman (southern redback salamander,AC):AS(b). 1 adult was observed at the entrance. Plethodon petraeus (Wynn,Highton,and Jacobs) (Pigeon Mountain salamander,TX):PJ(b). 1 very large adult was observed at the entrance. Plethodon petraeus was expected in larger numbers around the entrance to PJ. It was apparently very abundant around the PJ entrance when it was first discovered (Wynn et al. 1988),but may since have been collected for the pet trade (A. Wynn,pers. comm.). Incidental to the cave inventory,another location for P. petraeus was discovered,representing the northernmost locality for this Pigeon Mountain endemic. The locality is not reported here in order to protect the population. Desmognathus fuscus (Green) (northern dusky salamander,AC):PC(a); EC; NW. At PC,several individuals were found near the entrance under rocks in the in-flowing cave stream. 2 salamanders were observed at the entrance to EC and 1 was observed at the entrance to NW. Pseudotriton ruber (Latreille) (red salamander,AC):PC(b); AS(a,b). In PC,2 adult red salamanders were seen in the cave stream. In AS(a),1 adult was observed and in AS(b),2 adults were observed. Red salamanders are not usually considered cave associates. Class Mammalia,Order Chiroptera ( Bats),Family Vespertilionidae: Pipistrellus subflavus (Cuvier) (eastern pipistrelle,TX):PJ(a),1 observed; PC(a),1 obs; EC,68 obs; AS(a),36 obs; FC,several obs; SI(a),1 obs. and SI(b),5 obs.Eastern pipistrelles are the most common cave bat in eastern North America (Harvey 1992). They usually hang singly in the warmer parts of the cave. Martin & Bearden (1990) reported P. subflavus to be abundant in both EC and AS during inventories conducted Jan 1989-Feb 1990. Myotis lucifugus (LeConte) (little brown bat,TX):EC,1 was observed. Myotis grisescens (Howell) (gray bat,TX):FC; SI(b). At FC,a bachelor colony of 10,000-15,000 individuals was observed. At SI(b),4 gray bats were observed,2 were females. Large piles of guano in FC indicate that the cave has been used by gray bats for many years. FC is relatively pristine,and has been closed to caving for nearly 30 years (A. Padgett,pers. comm.). Gray bats are listed as federally Endangered and ~95% of the global population of gray bats hibernates in 8 caves in TN,MO,KY,AL,and AR (Harvey 1992). The 4 gray bats observed in SI likely represent individuals on migration (C. Hobson,pers. obs.). However,a gray bat stain on the ceiling indicates that SI may have historically harbored a gray bat maternity colony. Myotis septentrionalis (Trouessart) (northern long-eared bat,TX):CC(a),1 long-eared bat was observed; SI(b),3 male long-eared bats were observed. Order Rodentia (gnawing mammals),Family Cricetidae: Neotoma floridana (Ord) (eastern woodrat,TX):Although no woodrats were observed during the study,their presence within each cave was recorded as active or historic after investigating droppings and nests:PJ,historic; EC, active; PC,active; NW,active; CC,historic. No woodrat sign was found in AS, FC,and SI. Woodrat populations have been declining in the northeastern United States and the species is monitored by several state Natural Heritage Programs(C. Hobson,pers. comm.).COMPARISONOFTHE1967 AND1995STUDIESOFPETTIJOHNSCAVEThe most comprehensive Georgia cave study was conducted in 1967 and one of the caves studied was PJ (Holsinger & Peck 1971). A comparison of the 1967 and 1995 studies found some faunal differences in PJ,primarily with regards to missing aquatic fauna in 1995 (Table 1). Stygobromus minutus and S. dicksoni ,amphipods that inhabit drip pools (Holsinger 1978) were not found in 1995,nor were they found by Reeves et al (2000). The 1967 study also reported terrestrial isopods,pseudoscorpions,and cave-adapted mites,none of which were found by the 1995 study. Pseudoscorpions and mites are often difficult to detect in caves,yet terrestrial isopods ( Amerigoniscus ) should have been found by the methods used in 1995. The milliped, Cambala hubrichti ,collected in 1967, was not found in 1995. Interestingly,this study found C. hubrichti abundantly in FC where it appeared to be associated with gray bat ( M. grisescens ) guano deposits. The 1995 study documented an additional species each of troglophilic spider, collembolan,and beetle from PJ,although all are known from other caves.

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Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 95 BUHLMANN DISCUSSIONSPECIESANDDISTRIBUTIONA total of 46 invertebrate taxa were identified during the study. Of those,21 are considered troglobites,14 are troglophiles,and the remainder were classified as trogloxenes (9) or accidentals (2). Harvestmen ( Bishopella sp.) and springtails ( Pseudosinella sp.) are believed to represent several different species and further taxonomic work is needed. Other collected specimens,mainly non-troglobitic,have been given to others who are working with the material (W. Reeves, Clemson Univ.). The pselaphid beetle ( Speleochus sp.) was found only in Pigeon Cave and represents a new,undescribed species for Georgia. The amphipod, Stygobromus minutus collected in NW,was previously known only from PJ (Holsinger 1978),but was not found there during this study. Possible new species of millipeds were also collected in NW and Pseudotremia sp. 2 is a possible endemic to SI. An undescribed springtail ( Pseudosinella ) was collected in three of the Pigeon Mountain caves,as well as in FC. The dipluran ( Litocampa sp. “P”) was previously known only from PJ,but was found in all Pigeon Mountain caves studied,as well as FC. EC yielded a new cave record for the beetle, P. georgiae For vertebrate species,10 salamanders,2 frogs,1 fish,4 bats,and 1 rodent were encountered. In FC,the Tennessee cave salamander ( Gyrinophilus palleucus ) was re-confirmed as a component of Georgia’s fauna and a large population of federally endangered gray bats ( Myotis grisescens ) was found. Caves on Pigeon Mountain contained more species than the caves studied in Chattanooga Valley or on Lookout Mountain (PJ=17,EC=17,NW=17,PC=17,AS=14,FC=13,CC=13,and SI=11). The faunas of the Pigeon Mountain caves were similar,although several species were found in only 1 or 2 caves. However,faunal composition differed between the caves of Pigeon and Lookout Mountains. The terrestrial isopods ( Amerigoniscus sp.) were found only in the 2 Lookout Mountain caves. Conversely,diplurans ( Litocampa sp. “P”) were found in all Pigeon Mountain caves and FC,but not the Lookout Mountain caves. The leiodid beetles were represented by 2 species with P. fiskei occurring in 4 of 5 Pigeon Mountain caves,while P. whiteselli was found in both Lookout Mountain caves. The troglobitic carabid beetles showed a similar 2 species distribution,with P. georgiae occurring in 2 Pigeon Mountain caves,and P. fulleri being found in CC. The apparent absence of both Pseudanophthalmus and Ptomaphagus from FC is interesting in terms of biogeography. Peck (1973) had previously hypothesized that the cave-adapted beetles may be restricted to the flat-bedded limestones of the Appalachian Plateau. Peck’s hypothesis would explain the absence of beetles in FC and is also supported because different leiodid and carabid beetles are found on Lookout and Pigeon Mountains. The habitats within each cave may determine the faunal composition. AS has an out-flowing cave stream that originates within Pigeon Mountain and contained large populations of aquatic isopods ( C. cyrtorhynchus ),as well as some amphipods ( C. antennatus ). Similarly,SI contained a large out-flowing stream and stygobitic crustaceans were also noted, although in smaller numbers. Few aquatic cave organisms were found in caves that contained in-flowing streams,notably EC and PC. Small drip pools were noted in NW and contained the amphipod, S. minutus ,known previously only from PJ,as well as an undescribed isopod ( Lirceus sp.),and illustrate the importance of these habitats. CC has deep connections to phreatic water and a 2.5 m change in water level was noted between the two visits. The phreatic lakes of CC were previously known to contain amphipods,isopods,and cave fish (A. Padgett,pers. comm.). Limited observations indicate that cave fish and Tennessee cave salamanders are most likely to be found in Georgia caves that have connections to phreatic waters. Cave stream mud banks represent habitat for many of the terrestrial invertebrates. Flooding streams deposit organic material that is scavenged by leiodid beetles,diplurans,millipeds and collembolans. The untrampled mud banks in AS and FC contained the largest numbers and diversity of terrestrial cave fauna. MANAGEMENTIMPLICATIONSAll 8 caves inventoried are in public ownership or protected by private owners. Four of the Pigeon Mountain caves are on the Crockford-Pigeon Mountain Wildlife Management Area (CPMWMA) and 1 is immediately adjacent in private ownership. Cloudland Canyon State Park (CCSP) on Lookout Mountain contains CC and SI. The Georgia Department of Natural Resources owns both CPMWMA and CCSP and The TABLE 1. A comparison of invertebrate troglobites (TB) and troglophiles (TP) collected from Pettijohns Cave, Walker County,Georgia,during June 1967 (Holsinger & Peck 1971) and this study,July-October 1995. Names used by Holsinger & Peck are given in parentheses. SPECIESHolsinger & Peck,1971This StudySphalloplana sp.X Caecidotea cyrtorhynchus X (as Asellus sp.)X Amerigoniscus sp.X (as Caucasonethes sp.) Crangonyx antennatus XX Stygobromus minutus X (as Stygobromus sp.) Stygobromus dicksoni X (as Stygobromus sp.) Microcreagris sp.X Rhagidia sp.X Bishopella sp.X (as Phalangodes laciniosa )X Leptoneta sp.XX Liocranoides sp.X Pseudotremia eburnea XX Scoterpes austrinus XX Cambala hubrichti X (as Cambala minor ) Pseudosinella christianseni X (as Pseudosinella hirsuta )X Pseudosinella n. sp .X Folsomia candida X Litocampa sp. PX (as Plusiocampa sp.)X unidentified HeleomyzidaeX (as Amoebalaria defressa )X Pseudanophthalmus georgiae X (as Pseudanophthalmus sp.)X Ptomaphagus fiskei X (as Ptomaphagus sp.)XTOTALS1715

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96 Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 BIOLOGICALINVENTORYOFEIGHTCAVESINNORTHWESTERNGEORGIA Southeastern Cave Conservancy owns FC. Therefore,the opportunity exists to effectively manage all of these caves for both biodiversity protection and recreation. PJ is probably the most frequently visited recreational cave in Georgia. As many as 350 people have visited the cave in one month and as many as 75 on a given weekend (Georgia DNR, unpubl. data). There are many passages and although all receive human traffic,some are more heavily used than others. The greatest numbers of collembolans and diplurans were found in PJ rooms and passages that contained signs of heavy human use and garbage. It is unknown if the presence of additional food resources results in increased populations of cave fauna or if it serves to attract and concentrate cave organisms. If it serves to concentrate organisms,then are populations ultimately reduced by trampling? These questions could be addressed with future research. Few bats were observed in PJ and more Pigeon Mountain salamanders were expected based on discussions with biologists who had observed them in the past. Overall,PJ contained a great diversity of cave life,particularly terrestrial species. Aquatic organisms seemed rare in PJ,perhaps a result of trampling in drip pools and streams. No amphipods ( Stygobromus sp.) were found during this study in PJ,yet two drip pool species, S. dicksoni and S. minutus were recorded previously (Holsinger & Peck 1971). However,not all stream passages were explored and refugia may exist,particularly in the less traveled passages. Protection of certain passages might provide refugia for cave organisms while continuing to provide recreational opportunities for cavers. Stygobromus dicksoni is also known from several caves in northeastern AL and northwestern GA (Holsinger 1978; Reeves et al. 2000). CC was heavily abused during the 1960s as indicated by dates on discarded soda cans and batteries. The entrance to CC is currently gated with a steel pipe tunnel and solid door. The gate should be re-designed because it alters air flow and prevents access to bats. The expected aquatic fauna in CC was absent. The large,deep phreatic pools of CC should have yielded populations of troglobitic amphipods and isopods,which were present in the early 1970s (A. Padgett,pers. comm.). A cave fish ( Typhlichthes subterraneus ) had been collected from CC in 1971 and was deposited in the University of Georgia Natural History Museum,Athens. This study detected petroleum in the cave stream and mud sediments. A truck carrying petroleum products wrecked on Highway Rt. 136 in the late 1970s on Lookout Mountain above CC (A. Padgett,pers. comm.). It is probable that this spill accounts for the lack of aquatic cave fauna in CC and illustrates the fragile nature of cave ecosystems and the difficulty in protecting them. The remaining caves studied did not appear to have any significant management concerns. Periodic monitoring should occur to assess long term trends in cave faunal populations. FC was the most pristine cave visited and is significant in terms of its fauna and should be a high priority site for long-term cave biodiversity protection in Georgia. There are many limestone caves in northwestern Georgia. Further inventory and research should address the protection of the landscape around caves (e.g.,Aley & Aley 1991) in order to protect cave habitats and fauna (e.g.,Fong 1995; Jacobson 1995). Caves are unique natural habitats and contain endemic and rare species. Further study of the biota and ecology of Georgia caves is therefore warranted. ACKNOWLEDGMENTSFor providing critical review of the manuscript I thank J.R. Holsinger,S.J. Taylor,J.J. Lewis,J.B. Jensen,and two anonymous reviewers. For identifying specimens I thank:T.C. Barr, K.A. Christiansen,D.A. Crossley,M. Draney,L.R. Ferguson, R.L. Hoffman,J.R. Holsinger,J.J. Lewis,S.B. Peck,D. Ubick, and A.H. Wynn. Cavers and biologists who participated on one or more field trips included:C. Anderson,J. Bearden,M. Branch,L. Clarke,J.P. Demuth,G. Eck,C.A. Hobson,N. Holcomb,T. Holcomb,K. Huffines,R. Kappel,J.A. Ott,J. Ozier,A. Padgett,K. Padgett,M.A. Pilgrim,J. Respess,D. Sorrell,S. Sotona,D. Wohl,G. Yanochko,H. Young,and S. Young. A. DeBiase and B. Taylor of SREL allowed use of their laboratory for sorting specimens. A. Padgett,N. Holcomb,and J. Bearden of the Georgia Department of Natural Resources provided logistical support. Financial support was provided by The Athens Speleological Society,The Georgia Speleological Survey,The Dogwood City Grotto,The Clayton County Cavers,The Chattanooga Grotto,The Southeastern Region of the NSS,and the Georgia DNR. Manuscript preparation was supported by the University of GeorgiaÂ’s Savannah River Ecology Lab through Contract #DEFC09-96SR18546 with the U.S. Department of Energy and the Center for Applied Biodiversity Science,Conservation International. I thank the owners for access to caves on their property (PC,FC) and for allowing access to state-owned caves that required crossing private property. Finally,I thank J.R. Holsinger for encouraging me to undertake this project. REFERENCESAley,T. & Aley.,C.,1991,Delineation and hazard area mapping of areas contributing water to significant caves, in Cave Management Symposium,Bowling Green,Kentucky, p. 1-10. Barr,T.C.,Jr.,1963a,Ecological classification of cavernicoles: Cave Notes,v. 5,p. 9-12. Barr,T.C.,Jr.,1963b,Studies on the cavernicole Ptomaphagus of the United States (Coleoptera:Catopidae):Psyche,v. 70, p. 50-58. Barr,T.C.,Jr.,1964,Non-troglobitic Carabidae (Coleoptera) from caves in the United States:ColeopteristÂ’s Bulletin,v. 18,p. 1-4. Barr,T.C.,Jr.,1965,The Pseudanophthalmus of the Appalachian Valley (Coleoptera:Carabidae):American Midland Naturalist,v. 73,p. 41-72.

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Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 97 BUHLMANN Barr,T.C.,Jr.,1968,Cave ecology and the evolution of troglobites:Evolutionary Biology,v. 2,p. 35-102. Barr,T.C.,Jr.,1981, Pseudanophthalmus from Appalachian caves (Coleoptera:Carabidae):The engelhardti complex: Brimleyana,v. 5,p. 37-94. Buhlmann,K.A.,1992,A Natural Heritage Inventory of seven cave beetles of the genus Pseudanophthalmus and an assessment of their respective habitats,Virginia Natural Heritage Technical Report # 92-30,14 p. Buhlmann,K.A. & Wynn,A.H.,1996,Geographic distribution: Gyrinophilus palleucus in Georgia:Herpetological Review,v. 27,p. 147-148. Chamberlin,R.V.,1946,On some millipedes of Georgia: Entomological News,v. 1946 (June),p. 149-152. Chamberlin,R.V. & Hoffman,R.L.,1958,Checklist of the millipedes of North America:Bulletin U.S. National Museum,v. 212,p. 1-236. Christiansen,K.A.,1982,The zoogeography of cave Collembola east of the Great Plains:NSS Bulletin,v. 44,p. 32-41. Cooper,J.E.,1968,The salamander Gyrinophilus palleucus in Georgia,with notes on Alabama and Tennessee populations:Journal of the Alabama Academy of Sciences,v. 39, p. 182-185. Cooper,J.E. & Iles.,A.,1971,The southern cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus ,at the southeastern periphery of its range:NSS Bulletin,v. 33,p. 45-49. Coyle,F.A. & McGarity,A.C.,1991,Two new species of Nesticus spiders from the southern Appalachians (Araneae, Nesticidae):Journal of Arachnology,v. 19,p. 161-168. Dearolf,K.,1953,The invertebrates of 75 caves in the United States:Proceedings:Pennsylvania Academy of Sciences,v. 27,p. 225-241. Ferguson,L.M.,1981,Systematics,evolution,and zoogeography of the cavernicolous campodeids of the Genus Litocampa (Diplura:Campodeidae) in the United States [Ph.D. thesis]:Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,374 p. Fleming,L.E. & Steeves,H.R.III.,1972,Two new species of troglobitic asellids from the United States:American Midland Naturalist,v. 87,p. 245-249. Fong,D.W.,1995,Technical/Agency Draft Recovery Plan: Madison Cave Isopod ( Antrolana lira ):U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Gertsch,W.J.,1960,Descriptions of American spiders of the family Symphytognathidae:American Museum Novitates, 40 p. Godwin,J.C.,1995,Reassessment of the historical localities of the Tennessee Cave Salamander ( Gyrinophilus palleucus ) in Alabama,Alabama Natural Heritage Program Final Report,32 p. Goodnight,C.J. & Goodnight,M.L.,1960,Speciation among cave Opilionids of the United States:American Midland Naturalist,v. 64,p. 34-38. Harvey,M.J.,1992,Bats of the eastern United States,Arkansas Game and Fish Commission,46 p. Hedin,M.C.,1997,Speciational history in a diverse clade of habitat-specialized spiders (Araneae:Nesticidae: Nesticus ):Inferences from geographic-based sampling: Evolution Biology,v. 51,p. 1929-1945. Heiss,J.S.,1982,A systematic study of the spider genus Calymmaria [Ph.D. thesis]:University of Arkansas,159 p. Holsinger,J.R.,1969,Biogeography of the freshwater amphipod crustaceans (Gammaridae) of the central and southern Appalachians,The distributional history of the biota of the southern Appalachians,Part I. Invertebrates:Blacksburg, Virginia Polytechnic Institute Press,p. 19-50. Holsinger,J.R.,1978,Systematics of the subterranean amphipod Genus Stygobromus (Crangonyctidae),Part II. Species of the eastern United States:Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology,v. 266,p. 1-144. Holsinger,J.R. & Culver,D.C.,1988,The invertebrate cave fauna of Virginia and a part of eastern Tennessee: Zoogeography and Ecology:Brimleyana,v. 14,p. 1-164. Holsinger,J.R. & Peck.,S.B.,1971,The invertebrate cave fauna of Georgia:NSS Bulletin,v. 33,p. 23-44. Hubricht,L.,1943,Studies on the Nearctic freshwater Amphipoda,III:American Midland Naturalist,v. 29,p. 683-712. Hyman,L.H.,1954,North American triclad Turbellaria:Three new cave planarians:Proceedings U.S. National Museum, v. 103,p. 563-573. Jacobson,T.R.,1995,Technical/Agency Recovery Plan:Cave Crayfish ( Cambarus aculabrum ),U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service,Jackson,25 p. Levi,H.W.,1955,The spider genera Coressa and Achaearanea in America North of Mexico (Araneae,Theridiidae), American Museum Novitates no. 1718,33 p. Loomis,H.F.,1939,The millipedes collected in Appalachian caves:Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology,v. 86,p. 165-193. Loomis,H.F.,1943,New cave and epigean millipedes of the United States,with notes on some established species: Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology,v. 92,p. 373-410. Martin,R.A. & Bearden,J.,1990,An examination of bat populations in caves located on the Crockford-Pigeon Mountain Wildlife Management Area,Georgia Department of Natural Resources,p. 6. Marusik,Y.M. & Koponen,S.,1992,A review of Meta (Araneae,Tetragnathidae),with descriptions of two new species:Journal of Arachnology,v. 20,p. 137-143. Millidge,A.F.,1984,The erigonine spiders of North America. Part 7. Miscellaneous genera (Araneae,Linyphiidae): Journal of Arachnology,v. 12,p. 121-169. Muchmore,W.B.,1964,New terrestrial isopods of the genus Miktoniscus from the eastern United States (Crustacea: Isopods:Oniscoidea):Ohio Journal of Science,v. 64,p. 5157.

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98 Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 BIOLOGICALINVENTORYOFEIGHTCAVESINNORTHWESTERNGEORGIA Muma,M.H.,1946,North American Agelenidae of the genus Coras Simon; American Museum Novitates,no. 1329,p. 20. Nicholas,B.C.,1960,Checklist of the macroscopic troglobitic organisms of the United States:American Midland Naturalist,v. 64,p. 123-160. Park,O.,1947,Observations on Batrisodes (Coleoptera: Pselaphidae),with particular reference of the American species east of the Rocky Mountains:Chicago Academy of Sciences Bulletin,v. 8,p. 45-132. Peck,S.B.,1973,A systematic revision and the evolutionary biology of the Ptomaphagus (Adelops) beetles of North America (Coleoptera; Leiodidae; Catopinae),with emphasis on cave-inhabiting species:Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology,v. 145,p. 29-162. Peck,S.B.,1998,A summary of diversity and distribution of the obligate cave-inhabiting faunas of the United States and Canada:Journal of Cave and Karst Studies,v. 60,p. 18-26. Peck,S.B. & Lewis,J.J.,1978,Zoogeography and evolution of the subterranean invertebrate faunas of Illinois and southeastern Missouri:Bulletin of the National Speleological Society,v. 40,p. 39-63. Platnick,N.I.,1999,A revision of the Appalachian spider Genus Liocranoides (Araneae:Tengellidae):American Museum Novitates,no. 3285,p. 9-13. Reeves,W.K.,Jensen,J.B.,& Ozier,J.C.,2000,New faunal and fungal records from caves in Georgia,USA:Journal of Cave and Karst Studies,v. 62,p. 169-179. Roth,V.D.,1988,Linyphiidae of America North of Mexico. Checklists,synonymy and literature cited:Gainesville, Florida,American Arachnological Society. Roth,V.D.,1993,Spider genera of North America with keys to families and genera,and a guide to literature:Gainesville, Florida,American Arachnological Society. Schultz,G.A.,1970,Descriptions of new subspecies of Ligidium elrodi (Packard) comb. nov. and notes on other isopod crustaceans from caves in North America (Oniscoidea):American Midland Naturalist,v. 84,p. 3645. Shear,W.A.,1972,Studies in the milliped order Chordeumida (Diplopoda):A revision of the family Cleidogonidae and a reclassification of the order Chordeumida in the New World:Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology,v. 144,p. 151-352. Wynn,A.H.,Highton,R.,& Jacobs,J.F.,1988,A new species of rock-crevice dwelling Plethodon from Pigeon Mountain, Georgia:Herpetological Review,v. 44,p. 135-143.



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December 2001 Volume 63 Number 3 ISSN 1090-6924A Publication of the National Speleological SocietyJOURNAL OF CAVE AND KARST STUDIES

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EditorLouise D. HoseDepartment of Environmental & Chemical Sciences Chapman University Orange,CA 92866 (714) 997-6994 Voice (714) 532-6048 FAX hose@chapman.eduProduction EditorJames A. PisarowiczWind Cave National Park Hot Springs,SD 57747 (605) 673-5582 pisarowi@gwtc.netBOARD OF EDITORS AnthropologyPatty Jo WatsonDepartment of Anthropology Washington University St. Louis,MO 63130 pjwatson@artsci.wustl.eduConservationVacant See announcement on page 105.Earth Sciences-Journal IndexIra D. SasowskyDepartment of Geology University of Akron Akron,OH 44325-4101 (330) 972-5389 ids@uakron.eduExplorationAndrea Futrell987 Dow Creek Road Pembroke,VA 24136 (540) 626-5349 karstmap@hotmail.comLife SciencesSteve TaylorCenter for Biodiversity Illinois Natural History Survey 607 East Peabody Drive (MC-652) Champaign,IL 61820-6970 (217) 333-5702 sjtaylor@inhs.uiuc.eduSocial SciencesMarion O. SmithP.O. Box 8276 University of Tennessee Station Knoxville,TN 37996Book ReviewsErnst H. KastningP.O. Box 1048 Radford,VA 24141-0048 ehkastni@runet.rduProofreaderDonald G. DavisJOURNAL ADVISORY BOARDDavid AshleyRane Curl Andrew FlurkeyJohn Ganter Douglas MedvilleJohn Mylroie Diana NorthupArt Palmer Elizabeth White Journal of Cave and Karst Studies of the National Speleological SocietyVolume 63 Number 3 December 2001 CONTENTSMorphologic and dimensional linkage between recently deposited speleothems and drip water from Browns Folly Mine, Wiltshire,England James U.L. Baldini 80 A biological inventory of eight caves in northwestern Georgia with conservation implications Kurt A. Buhlmann 91 First records of freshwater oligochaetes (Annelida,Clitellata) from caves in Illinois and Missouri,USA Mark J. Wetzel and Steven J. Taylor 99 Cave Science News 105 Proceeding of the Society:Selected Abstracts 2001 NSSConvention in Mount Vernon,Kentucky 107 Index Volume 63 119The Journal of Cave and Karst Studies (ISSN 1090-6924) is a multi-disciplinary,refereed journal published three times a year by the National Speleological Society,2813 Cave Avenue,Huntsville,Alabama 35810-4431; (256) 8521300; FAX (256) 851-9241,e-mail:nss@caves.org; World Wide Web:http://www.caves.org/~nss/. The annual subscription fee,worldwide,by surface mail,is $18 US. Airmail delivery outside the United States of both the NSS News and the Journal of Cave and Karst Studies is available for an additional fee of $40 (total $58); The Journal of Cave and Karst Studies is not available alone by airmail. Back issues and cumulative indices are available from the NSS office. POSTMASTER:send address changes to the Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,2813 Cave Avenue,Huntsville, Alabama 35810-4431. Copyright 2001 by the National Speleological Society,Inc. Printed on recycled paper by American Web,4040 Dahlia Street,Denver,Colorado 80216 Cover: Pristina leidyi Smith,1896 (Annelida:Oligochaeta:Nadidae),an aquatic oligochete. This individual (body length,excluding proboscis,1.72 mm) was collected from soft sediment of a cave stream in Fogelpole Cave,Monroe County,Illinois,in September 1999. The slide-mounted specimen (deposited in the INHS Annelida Collection) was photographed at 100x on an Olympus BX-50 compound microscope,and the image was digitally enhanced. Photograph by Steven Taylor,Illinois Natural History Survey.



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INDEXVOLUME63 118 • Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 INDEX TO VOLUME 63 OF THE JOURNAL OF CAVE AND KARST STUDIESIRAD. SASOWSKYANDELAINESINKOVICHDepartment of Geology,University of Akron,Akron,OH 44325-4101 USAKEITHD. WHEELAND2191 Mountain View Ave.,State College,PA 16801 USA This index covers all articles and abstracts published in volume 63 numbers 1,2,and 3. Selected abstracts from the 2001 Society meeting in Mount Vernon,Kentucky are included. The index has three sections. The first is a Keyword index,containing general and specific terms from the title and body of an article. This includes cave names,geographic names,etc. Numerical keywords (such as 1814) are indexed according to alphabetic spelling (Eighteen fourteen). The second section is a Biologic names index. These terms are Latin names of organisms discussed in articles. For articles containing extensive lists of organisms indexing was conducted at least to the level of Order. The th ird section is an alphabetical Author index. Articles with multiple authors are indexed for each author,and each author’s name was cited as given. Citations include only the name of the author,followed by the page numbers. Within an index listing,such as “Bats”,the earliest article is cited first. KEYWORDINDEX Accident Benton,J.,p.116-116 Brucker,R.W.,p.116-116 Halliday,W.R.,p.116-117 Adaptation Roman,L.L.,and Adams,G.L.,p.108-108 Adobe Illustrator Olsen,J.,p.118-118 Agana Spring Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Age Baldini,J.U.L.,p.83-90 Grady,F.,p.117-117 Agricultural Seadler,K.,Groves,C.,Glennon,A.,and Taylor,R., p.115-115 Air Jernigan,J.W.,and Swift,R.J.,p.3-8 Albino Neely,D.A.,and Mayden,R.L.,p.108-108 Almagosa Spring Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Aluminum Sulfates Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Alunite Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Amorphous Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Amorphous Silica Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Anderson Springs Cave Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Anthropology Al-Shanti,M.,p.110-110 Aquatic Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Aquifers Samani,N.,p.33-40 Florea,L.J.,and Wicks,C.M.,p.59-66 Aragonite Green,D.J.,p.48-49 Archaeology Varnedoe,W.W.,and Lundquist,C.L.,p.107-107 Crothers,G.,Swelund,C.,and Ward,R.,p.107-107 Diaz-Granados,C.,and Duncan,J.R.,p.107-107 Fenton,J.,Mink,P.,and Neumeyer,S.,p.107-107 Pritchard,E.,p.107-107 Larson,D.,and Larson,E.B.,p.111-111 Arkansas Varnedoe,W.W.,and Lundquist,C.L.,p.107-107 Art Varnedoe,W.W.,and Lundquist,C.L.,p.107-107 Bosted,A.,p.117-117 Artifacts Crothers,G.,Swelund,C.,and Ward,R.,p.107-107 Asmari-Jahrum Formation Samani,N.,p.33-40 Atrazine Taylor,S.J.,Wetzel,M.J.,and Webb,D.W.,p.109-109 Seadler,K.,Groves,C.,Glennon,A.,and Taylor,R., p.115-115 Awesome Cave Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Bacteria Fowler,R.,Groves,C.,and Sahi,S.,p.108-108 Bahamas Mylroie,L.,p.113-114 Balcones Fault Zone Schindel,G.M.,Johnson,S.,Donnelly,A.C.,and Kreitler,C.W.,p.115-115 Ballads Brison,D.N.,p.116-116 Banded Sculpin Smith,K.L.,and Adams,G.L.,p.109-109 Barnes Smith Cave Ferguson,L.M.,p.108-108 Barton Creek Cave Larson,D.,and Larson,E.B.,p.111-111 Bats Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Batteries Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Beetle White,M.J.,p.109-109 Behavior Cooper,R.L.,Li,H.,Listerman,L.R.,Kellie,S.P.,Cole, J.L.,Hopper,H.L.,and Greer,J.,p.107-108 Smith,K.L.,and Adams,G.L.,p.109-109 Belize Larson,D.,and Larson,E.B.,p.111-111 Biology Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Adams,G.L.,Adams,S.R.,Phillips,A.L.,and Burr, B.M.,p.107-107 Cooper,R.L.,Li,H.,Listerman,L.R.,Kellie,S.P.,Cole, J.L.,Hopper,H.L.,and Greer,J.,p.107-108 Ferguson,L.M.,p.108-108 Fowler,R.,Groves,C.,and Sahi,S.,p.108-108 Neely,D.A.,and Mayden,R.L.,p.108-108 Romero,A.,and Paulson,K.M.,p.108-109 Romero,A.,Romero,A.,Lelonek,M.N.,and Stropnicky,K.C.,p.109-109 Smith,K.L.,and Adams,G.L.,p.109-109 Taylor,S.J.,Wetzel,M.J.,and Webb,D.W.,p.109-109 White,M.J.,p.109-109 Romero,A.,p.116-116 Biospeleothem Luiszer,F.G.,p.113-113 Bison Varnedoe,W.W.,and Lundquist,C.L.,p.107-107 Black House Mountain Cave System Simpson,L.,Lugannani,S.,and Bryan,T.R.,p.112-112 Black Scorpion Cave Al-Shanti,M.,p.110-110 Black Wall Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Black,Malcolm Halliday,W.R.,p.116-117 Blind Romero,A.,p.116-116 Blindness Romero,A.,and Paulson,K.M.,p.108-109 Romero,A.,Romero,A.,Lelonek,M.N.,and Stropnicky,K.C.,p.109-109 Blowing Fern Cave Simpson,L.,Lugannani,S.,and Bryan,T.R.,p.112-112 Blowing Springs Cave Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Bona Spring Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Bones Al-Shanti,M.,p.110-110 Book Brucker,R.W.,p.116-116 Halliday,W.R.,p.116-117

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INDEXVOLUME63 Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 119 Boxwork Karmann,I.,Sanchez,L.E.,and Fairchild,T.R.,p.41-47 Branchwork Florea,L.J.,and Wicks,C.M.,p.59-66 Brazil Karmann,I.,Sanchez,L.E.,and Fairchild,T.R.,p.41-47 Browns Folly Mine Baldini,J.U.L.,p.83-90 Buck Creek Florea,L.,p.112-112 Buckeye Creek Cave Neely,D.A.,and Mayden,R.L.,p.108-108 Buffalo Varnedoe,W.W.,and Lundquist,C.L.,p.107-107 By-product Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Caja de Agua Downey,K.,p.110-110 Canastra Group Karmann,I.,Sanchez,L.E.,and Fairchild,T.R.,p.41-47 Carbon Dioxide Green,D.J.,p.48-49 Carbonate Aquifers Worthington,S.R.,Schindel,G.M.,and Alexander,E.C., p.115-115 Carbonate Cover Islands Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Carbonate Island Karst Model Mylroie,L.,p.113-113 Carlsbad Cavern Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Turin,H.J.,Plummer,M.A.,Newton,B.T.,Phillips, F.M.,and Campbell,A.R.,p.115-115 Carlsbad Caverns National Park Richards,J.M.,p.112-112 Turin,H.J.,Plummer,M.A.,Newton,B.T.,Phillips, F.M.,and Campbell,A.R.,p.115-115 Cartography Thrun,R.,p.54-54 am Ende,B.A.,Bernal,J.,and Witzgall,C.,p.117-118 Olsen,J.,p.118-118 Case Cave Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Cave Atmospheric Monitoring Jernigan,J.W.,and Swift,R.J.,p.3-8 Cave Distribution Shofner,G.A.,Mills,H.H.,and Duke,J.E.,p.67-75 Cave Illustrator Olsen,J.,p.118-118 Cave Use Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Olsen,C.O.,p.116-116 Caverna Dos Ecos Karmann,I.,Sanchez,L.E.,and Fairchild,T.R.,p.41-47 Cayo District Larson,D.,and Larson,E.B.,p.111-111 Cedar Hill Cave Grady,F.,and Hubbard,Jr.,D.A.,p.117-117 Cedar Sink Glennon,A.,Groves,C.,and Coons,D.,p.111-112 Celestite Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Center For Cave And Karst Studies Crawford,N.C.,p.112-112 Central Basin Shofner,G.A.,Mills,H.H.,and Duke,J.E.,p.67-75 Ceramic Clay Florea,L.J.,and Wicks,C.M.,p.59-66 Cerro Rabon Anderson,T.E.,and Kane,S.,p.110-110 Characterization Worthington,S.R.,Schindel,G.M.,and Alexander,E.C., p.115-115 Chattanooga Valley Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Chicxulub Barton,H.A.,p.110-110 Chlorine-36 Turin,H.J.,Plummer,M.A.,Newton,B.T.,Phillips, F.M.,and Campbell,A.R.,p.115-115 CIKM Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Class V Injection Wells Ogden,A.E.,Ogden,L.R.,and Powell,B.E.,p.114-114 Cloudland Canyon State Park Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 CO2Davis,D.G.,p.49-50 Baldini,J.U.L.,p.83-90 Coconut Crab Cave Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Colorado Luiszer,F.G.,p.113-113 Commercial Douglas,J.C.,p.116-116 Comparison Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Compass Olsen,J.,p.118-118 Composite Islands Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Computer Olsen,J.,p.118-118 Computers am Ende,B.A.,Bernal,J.,and Witzgall,C.,p.117-118 Condensation Green,D.J.,p.48-49 Conduits Florea,L.J.,and Wicks,C.M.,p.59-66 Florea,L.,p.112-112 Confining Units Orndorff,R.C.,and Weary,D.J.,p.114-114 Conservation Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Richards,J.M.,p.112-112 Coral Cave System Florea,L.,p.111-111 Cornstarch Cave Simpson,L.,Lugannani,S.,and Bryan,T.R.,p.112-112 Cottonwood Cave Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Country Music Hall Of Fame Ibberson,D.,p.117-117 Crandallite-beudantite Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Crayfish Cooper,R.L.,Li,H.,Listerman,L.R.,Kellie,S.P.,Cole, J.L.,Hopper,H.L.,and Greer,J.,p.107-108 Crevice Cave Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Cricket White,M.J.,p.109-109 Cross-spectrum Function Samani,N.,p.33-40 Crystallites Green,D.J.,p.48-49 Cuba Downey,K.,p.110-110 Cueva de la Guira Downey,K.,p.110-110 Cueva de Santa Catalina Downey,K.,p.110-110 Cultural Values Douglas,J.C.,p.116-116 Culvert Richards,J.M.,p.112-112 Cumberland Mountains Shofner,G.A.,Mills,H.H.,and Duke,J.E.,p.67-75 Cumberland Plateau Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Curiosities Douglas,J.C.,p.116-116 Cusp Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Dahl Abulhol Pint,J.J.,and Alshanti,M.,p.111-111 Dahl Murubbeh Al-Shanti,M.,p.110-110 Dahl Sultan Pint,J.J.,and Alshanti,M.,p.111-111 Dating Diaz-Granados,C.,and Duncan,J.R.,p.107-107 Grady,F.,p.117-117 Deep Caves Turin,H.J.,Plummer,M.A.,Newton,B.T.,Phillips, F.M.,and Campbell,A.R.,p.115-115 Demography Adams,G.L.,Adams,S.R.,Phillips,A.L.,and Burr, B.M.,p.107-107 Depigmentation Romero,A.,and Paulson,K.M.,p.108-109 Desert Pint,J.J.,and Alshanti,M.,p.111-111 Dickite Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Dietary Composition Smith,K.L.,and Adams,G.L.,p.109-109 Dimensional Baldini,J.U.L.,p.83-90 Discussion Green,D.J.,p.48-49 Davis,D.G.,p.76-76 Distance Bartholomew,R.V.,p.118-118 Diversity Fowler,R.,Groves,C.,and Sahi,S.,p.108-108 Dolomite Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Orndorff,R.C.,and Weary,D.J.,p.114-114 Drawings Diaz-Granados,C.,and Duncan,J.R.,p.107-107 Drinking Water Seadler,K.,Groves,C.,Glennon,A.,and Taylor,R., p.115-115 Drip Water Baldini,J.U.L.,p.83-90 Drought Schindel,G.M.,Johnson,S.,Donnelly,A.C.,and Kreitler,C.W.,p.115-115 Dunbar Cave Ferguson,L.M.,p.108-108 Dunes Al-Shanti,M.,p.110-110 Dye Worthington,S.R.,and Smart,C.C.,p.115-116 E-Babuel Barton,H.A.,p.110-110 Education Crawford,N.C.,p.112-112 Edwards Aquifer Schindel,G.M.,Johnson,S.,Donnelly,A.C.,and Kreitler,C.W.,p.115-115 Worthington,S.R.,Schindel,G.M.,and Alexander,E.C., p.115-115 Egypt Halliday,W.R.,p.110-111 Electronics Cole,R.,p.109-109 Elevation Mylroie,L.,p.113-113 Ellisons Cave Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Emergency Pease,B.,p.110-110 Endangered Species Schindel,G.M.,Johnson,S.,Donnelly,A.C.,and Kreitler,C.W.,p.115-115 Endless Cave Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32

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INDEXVOLUME63 120 Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 England Baldini,J.U.L.,p.83-90 Epigean Cooper,R.L.,Li,H.,Listerman,L.R.,Kellie,S.P.,Cole, J.L.,Hopper,H.L.,and Greer,J.,p.107-108 Epikarst Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Equations Worthington,S.R.,and Smart,C.C.,p.115-116 Equipment Cole,R.,p.109-109 Bartholomew,R.V.,p.118-118 Erosion Davis,D.G.,p.76-76 DuChene,H.R.,and Martinez,R.,p.77-78 Erratum Davis,D.G.,p.54-54 Escambray Mountains Downey,K.,p.110-110 Evaluation Worthington,S.R.,and Smart,C.C.,p.115-116 Evaporation Samani,N.,p.33-40 Green,D.J.,p.48-49 Turin,H.J.,Plummer,M.A.,Newton,B.T.,Phillips, F.M.,and Campbell,A.R.,p.115-115 Evolution Ferguson,L.M.,p.108-108 Romero,A.,and Paulson,K.M.,p.108-109 Romero,A.,Romero,A.,Lelonek,M.N.,and Stropnicky,K.C.,p.109-109 Experimental Florea,L.J.,and Wicks,C.M.,p.59-66 Roman,L.L.,and Adams,G.L.,p.108-108 Exploration Al-Shanti,M.,p.110-110 Anderson,T.E.,and Kane,S.,p.110-110 Aspery,S.,and Adkins,D.,p.111-111 DeBlois,S.,p.111-111 Florea,L.,p.111-111 Extinct Grady,F.,and Hubbard,Jr.,D.A.,p.117-117 Eye Romero,A.,Romero,A.,Lelonek,M.N.,and Stropnicky,K.C.,p.109-109 Fairy Cave Luiszer,F.G.,p.113-113 Fallout Shelter Olsen,C.O.,p.116-116 Farmers Cave System Aspery,S.,and Adkins,D.,p.111-111 Faults Florea,L.,p.111-111 Fauna List Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Feeding Smith,K.L.,and Adams,G.L.,p.109-109 First Record Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Fish Romero,A.,and Paulson,K.M.,p.108-109 Romero,A.,Romero,A.,Lelonek,M.N.,and Stropnicky,K.C.,p.109-109 Romero,A.,p.116-116 Fisher Ridge Cave System DeBlois,S.,p.111-111 Flank Margin Mylroie,J.,Mylroie,J.,Jenson,J.,and Wexel,C., p.113-113 Flank Margin Caves Reece,M.A.,Mylroie,J.E.,and Jenson,J.W.,p.114-114 Flashlights Pease,B.,p.110-110 Florida am Ende,B.A.,Bernal,J.,and Witzgall,C.,p.117-118 Floridan Aquifer Worthington,S.R.,Schindel,G.M.,and Alexander,E.C., p.115-115 Flowpaths Florea,L.J.,and Wicks,C.M.,p.59-66 Floyd Collins Symposium Benton,J.,p.116-116 Brison,D.N.,p.116-116 Brucker,R.W.,p.116-116 Halliday,W.R.,p.116-117 Ibberson,D.,p.117-117 Snyder,D.H.,p.117-117 Snyder,D.H.,p.117-117 Fogelpole Cave Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Folia Green,D.J.,p.48-49 Downey,K.,p.110-110 Food Availability Roman,L.L.,and Adams,G.L.,p.108-108 Fracture Karmann,I.,Sanchez,L.E.,and Fairchild,T.R.,p.41-47 Framework Orndorff,R.C.,and Weary,D.J.,p.114-114 Freshwater Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Taylor,S.J.,Wetzel,M.J.,and Webb,D.W.,p.109-109 Fricks Cave Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Frostwork Davis,D.G.,p.49-50 Froude Number Florea,L.J.,and Wicks,C.M.,p.59-66 Gating Jernigan,J.W.,and Swift,R.J.,p.3-8 Diaz-Granados,C.,and Duncan,J.R.,p.107-107 Richards,J.M.,p.112-112 Gene Sequences Fowler,R.,Groves,C.,and Sahi,S.,p.108-108 Geochemistry Florea,L.J.,and Wicks,C.M.,p.59-66 Baldini,J.U.L.,p.83-90 Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Taylor,S.J.,Wetzel,M.J.,and Webb,D.W.,p.109-109 Lane,J.,and Covington,M.,p.111-111 Seadler,K.,Groves,C.,Glennon,A.,and Taylor,R., p.115-115 Turin,H.J.,Plummer,M.A.,Newton,B.T.,Phillips, F.M.,and Campbell,A.R.,p.115-115 Geography Shofner,G.A.,Mills,H.H.,and Duke,J.E.,p.67-75 Geology Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Samani,N.,p.33-40 Karmann,I.,Sanchez,L.E.,and Fairchild,T.R.,p.41-47 Green,D.J.,p.48-49 Davis,D.G.,p.49-50 Davis,D.G.,p.76-76 DuChene,H.R.,and Martinez,R.,p.77-78 Baldini,J.U.L.,p.83-90 Al-Shanti,M.,p.110-110 Barton,H.A.,p.110-110 Downey,K.,p.110-110 Lane,J.,and Covington,M.,p.111-111 Florea,L.,p.111-111 Florea,L.,p.112-112 Hoffelt,J.,Anderson,W.S.,and Jones,S.,p.113-113 Kambesis,P.,p.113-113 Luiszer,F.G.,p.113-113 Mylroie,J.,Mylroie,J.,Jenson,J.,and Wexel,C., p.113-113 Mylroie,L.,p.113-113 Ogden,A.E.,Ogden,L.R.,and Powell,B.E.,p.114-114 Olson,R.,and Krapac,I.G.,p.114-114 Orndorff,R.C.,and Weary,D.J.,p.114-114 Reece,M.A.,Mylroie,J.E.,and Jenson,J.W.,p.114-114 Richardson,J.,Croft,L.A.,Islas,J.,Fryer,S.,Caulkins, C.A.,Ballard,J.,Fogle,C.A.,Littell,P.D.,Veler, M.,Tibbs,J.A.,and Crawford,N.C.,p.114-115 Schindel,G.M.,Johnson,S.,Donnelly,A.C.,and Kreitler,C.W.,p.115-115 Seadler,K.,Groves,C.,Glennon,A.,and Taylor,R., p.115-115 Worthington,S.R.,Schindel,G.M.,and Alexander,E.C., p.115-115 Grady,F.,and Hubbard,Jr.,D.A.,p.117-117 Grady,F.,p.117-117 Geomorphology Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Karmann,I.,Sanchez,L.E.,and Fairchild,T.R.,p.41-47 Shofner,G.A.,Mills,H.H.,and Duke,J.E.,p.67-75 Geophysics Richardson,J.,Croft,L.A.,Islas,J.,Fryer,S.,Caulkins, C.A.,Ballard,J.,Fogle,C.A.,Littell,P.D.,Veler, M.,Tibbs,J.A.,and Crawford,N.C.,p.114-115 Georgia Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Geothite Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Ghasrodasht Fault Samani,N.,p.33-40 Gibbsite Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 GIS Shofner,G.A.,Mills,H.H.,and Duke,J.E.,p.67-75 Fenton,J.,Mink,P.,and Neumeyer,S.,p.107-107 am Ende,B.A.,Bernal,J.,and Witzgall,C.,p.117-118 Glen Dean Limestone Hawkins,W.,Glennon,A.,Groves,C.,and Ek,D., p.112-113 Glenwood Caverns Luiszer,F.G.,p.113-113 Goshute Cave Green,D.J.,p.48-49 Davis,D.G.,p.49-50 Granite Holler,Jr.,C.,p.116-116 Great Onyx Cave Olsen,C.O.,p.116-116 Green Bottle Cave Simpson,L.,Lugannani,S.,and Bryan,T.R.,p.112-112 Green Monster Cave Hoffelt,J.,Anderson,W.S.,and Jones,S.,p.113-113 Greenbrier River Neely,D.A.,and Mayden,R.L.,p.108-108 Groundwater Ogden,A.E.,Ogden,L.R.,and Powell,B.E.,p.114-114 Schindel,G.M.,Johnson,S.,Donnelly,A.C.,and Kreitler,C.W.,p.115-115 Growth Baldini,J.U.L.,p.83-90 Guadalupe Mountains Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Green,D.J.,p.48-49 Davis,D.G.,p.49-50 Davis,D.G.,p.76-76 DuChene,H.R.,and Martinez,R.,p.77-78 Guam Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Guano Al-Shanti,M.,p.110-110 Olson,R.,and Krapac,I.G.,p.114-114 Gunung Ngalu Seribu Lane,J.,and Covington,M.,p.111-111 Gustafsons Cave Varnedoe,W.W.,and Lundquist,C.L.,p.107-107 Gypsum Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 H2S-H2SO4Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Habitat Schindel,G.M.,Johnson,S.,Donnelly,A.C.,and

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INDEXVOLUME63 Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 121 Kreitler,C.W.,p.115-115 Habitat Use Adams,G.L.,Adams,S.R.,Phillips,A.L.,and Burr, B.M.,p.107-107 Hamon Sink Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Hawaii Kambesis,P.,p.113-113 Hazards Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Helictites Downey,K.,p.110-110 Hestmannen Holler,Jr.,C.,p.116-116 Highland Rim Shofner,G.A.,Mills,H.H.,and Duke,J.E.,p.67-75 Historiography Romero,A.,p.116-116 History Crothers,G.,Swelund,C.,and Ward,R.,p.107-107 Ferguson,L.M.,p.108-108 Douglas,J.C.,p.116-116 Holler,Jr.,C.,p.116-116 Olsen,C.O.,p.116-116 Romero,A.,p.116-116 Benton,J.,p.116-116 Brison,D.N.,p.116-116 Brucker,R.W.,p.116-116 Halliday,W.R.,p.116-117 Ibberson,D.,p.117-117 Snyder,D.H.,p.117-117 Snyder,D.H.,p.117-117 Hongos Piedras Downey,K.,p.110-110 Hubbards Cave Pritchard,E.,p.107-107 Hydrated Halloysite Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Hydrobasaluminite Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Hydrogeology Florea,L.J.,and Wicks,C.M.,p.59-66 Florea,L.,p.112-112 Hawkins,W.,Glennon,A.,Groves,C.,and Ek,D., p.112-113 Hoffelt,J.,Anderson,W.S.,and Jones,S.,p.113-113 Mylroie,J.,Mylroie,J.,Jenson,J.,and Wexel,C., p.113-113 Ogden,A.E.,Ogden,L.R.,and Powell,B.E.,p.114-114 Orndorff,R.C.,and Weary,D.J.,p.114-114 Schindel,G.M.,Johnson,S.,Donnelly,A.C.,and Kreitler,C.W.,p.115-115 Turin,H.J.,Plummer,M.A.,Newton,B.T.,Phillips, F.M.,and Campbell,A.R.,p.115-115 Worthington,S.R.,Schindel,G.M.,and Alexander,E.C., p.115-115 Worthington,S.R.,and Smart,C.C.,p.115-116 Hydrographs Samani,N.,p.33-40 Hydrology Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Samani,N.,p.33-40 Hypogean Romero,A.,p.116-116 Hypogene Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Hyporheic Zone Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Illinois Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Adams,G.L.,Adams,S.R.,Phillips,A.L.,and Burr, B.M.,p.107-107 Taylor,S.J.,Wetzel,M.J.,and Webb,D.W.,p.109-109 Illinois Caverns Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Illite Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Indian Diaz-Granados,C.,and Duncan,J.R.,p.107-107 Inventory Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Crothers,G.,Swelund,C.,and Ward,R.,p.107-107 Iran Samani,N.,p.33-40 Island Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Mylroie,J.,Mylroie,J.,Jenson,J.,and Wexel,C., p.113-113 Mylroie,L.,p.113-113 Mylroie,L.,p.113-114 Reece,M.A.,Mylroie,J.E.,and Jenson,J.W.,p.114-114 Isotopes Turin,H.J.,Plummer,M.A.,Newton,B.T.,Phillips, F.M.,and Campbell,A.R.,p.115-115 Jackpot Cave Glennon,A.,Groves,C.,and Coons,D.,p.111-112 Janum Spring Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Jarosite Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Jugornot Cave Florea,L.,p.111-111 Kaolinite Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Karstification Shofner,G.A.,Mills,H.H.,and Duke,J.E.,p.67-75 Kaumana Cave Kambesis,P.,p.113-113 Kentucky Jernigan,J.W.,and Swift,R.J.,p.3-8 Carstens,K.,p.107-107 Crothers,G.,Swelund,C.,and Ward,R.,p.107-107 Ferguson,L.M.,p.108-108 Fowler,R.,Groves,C.,and Sahi,S.,p.108-108 Aspery,S.,and Adkins,D.,p.111-111 DeBlois,S.,p.111-111 Florea,L.,p.111-111 Glennon,A.,Groves,C.,and Coons,D.,p.111-112 Walden,B.,and Walden,K.,p.112-112 Florea,L.,p.112-112 Hawkins,W.,Glennon,A.,Groves,C.,and Ek,D., p.112-113 Olson,R.,and Krapac,I.G.,p.114-114 Seadler,K.,Groves,C.,Glennon,A.,and Taylor,R., p.115-115 Worthington,S.R.,Schindel,G.M.,and Alexander,E.C., p.115-115 Benton,J.,p.116-116 Brison,D.N.,p.116-116 Brucker,R.W.,p.116-116 Halliday,W.R.,p.116-117 Ibberson,D.,p.117-117 Snyder,D.H.,p.117-117 Snyder,D.H.,p.117-117 Kentucky Office Of State Archaeology Fenton,J.,Mink,P.,and Neumeyer,S.,p.107-107 Kijahe Xontjoa Anderson,T.E.,and Kane,S.,p.110-110 Krueger-Dry Run Cave Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Laboratory-scale Florea,L.J.,and Wicks,C.M.,p.59-66 Lake Cumberland Aspery,S.,and Adkins,D.,p.111-111 Land Use Seadler,K.,Groves,C.,Glennon,A.,and Taylor,R., p.115-115 Laser Bartholomew,R.V.,p.118-118 Laurel Cove Hoffelt,J.,Anderson,W.S.,and Jones,S.,p.113-113 Lava Tubes Kambesis,P.,p.113-113 Leach Vat Olson,R.,and Krapac,I.G.,p.114-114 Lead Taylor,S.J.,Wetzel,M.J.,and Webb,D.W.,p.109-109 Lechuguilla Cave Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Green,D.J.,p.48-49 Davis,D.G.,p.49-50 Davis,D.G.,p.76-76 Richards,J.M.,p.112-112 Turin,H.J.,Plummer,M.A.,Newton,B.T.,Phillips, F.M.,and Campbell,A.R.,p.115-115 LEDs Cole,R.,p.109-109 Pease,B.,p.110-110 Legend Holler,Jr.,C.,p.116-116 Level Data Worthington,S.R.,Schindel,G.M.,and Alexander,E.C., p.115-115 Light Romero,A.,Romero,A.,Lelonek,M.N.,and Stropnicky,K.C.,p.109-109 Lighting Cole,R.,p.109-109 Pease,B.,p.110-110 Lineaments Karmann,I.,Sanchez,L.E.,and Fairchild,T.R.,p.41-47 List Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 List,Cave Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 List,Fauna Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Little White Cave Ferguson,L.M.,p.108-108 Locating Richardson,J.,Croft,L.A.,Islas,J.,Fryer,S.,Caulkins, C.A.,Ballard,J.,Fogle,C.A.,Littell,P.D.,Veler, M.,Tibbs,J.A.,and Crawford,N.C.,p.114-115 Long Caves DeBlois,S.,p.111-111 Looters Diaz-Granados,C.,and Duncan,J.R.,p.107-107 Lost River Cave Richardson,J.,Croft,L.A.,Islas,J.,Fryer,S.,Caulkins, C.A.,Ballard,J.,Fogle,C.A.,Littell,P.D.,Veler, M.,Tibbs,J.A.,and Crawford,N.C.,p.114-115 Maharlu Basin Samani,N.,p.33-40 Majors Cave Mylroie,L.,p.113-114 Mammoth Cave Jernigan,J.W.,and Swift,R.J.,p.3-8 Crothers,G.,Swelund,C.,and Ward,R.,p.107-107 Ferguson,L.M.,p.108-108 Fowler,R.,Groves,C.,and Sahi,S.,p.108-108 Olson,R.,and Krapac,I.G.,p.114-114 Worthington,S.R.,Schindel,G.M.,and Alexander,E.C., p.115-115 Benton,J.,p.116-116 Mammoth Cave National Park Carstens,K.,p.107-107 Hawkins,W.,Glennon,A.,Groves,C.,and Ek,D., p.112-113 Olsen,C.O.,p.116-116 Map Shofner,G.A.,Mills,H.H.,and Duke,J.E.,p.67-75 Mapping Richardson,J.,Croft,L.A.,Islas,J.,Fryer,S.,Caulkins, C.A.,Ballard,J.,Fogle,C.A.,Littell,P.D.,Veler, M.,Tibbs,J.A.,and Crawford,N.C.,p.114-115 Marble Karmann,I.,Sanchez,L.E.,and Fairchild,T.R.,p.41-47

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INDEXVOLUME63 122 Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 Mariana Islands Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Martin Ridge Cave Glennon,A.,Groves,C.,and Coons,D.,p.111-112 Matagua Spring Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Mathematical Jernigan,J.W.,and Swift,R.J.,p.3-8 Mauna Loa Kambesis,P.,p.113-113 Maze Florea,L.,p.112-112 McKeever Cave Hoffelt,J.,Anderson,W.S.,and Jones,S.,p.113-113 Melrose Caverns Grady,F.,p.117-117 Mercury Taylor,S.J.,Wetzel,M.J.,and Webb,D.W.,p.109-109 Mertz Cave Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Meshing am Ende,B.A.,Bernal,J.,and Witzgall,C.,p.117-118 Metabolic Roman,L.L.,and Adams,G.L.,p.108-108 Metals Taylor,S.J.,Wetzel,M.J.,and Webb,D.W.,p.109-109 Metamorphic Karmann,I.,Sanchez,L.E.,and Fairchild,T.R.,p.41-47 Meteorology Jernigan,J.W.,and Swift,R.J.,p.3-8 Mylroie,L.,p.113-114 Mexico Anderson,T.E.,and Kane,S.,p.110-110 Barton,H.A.,p.110-110 Mica Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Microgravity Richardson,J.,Croft,L.A.,Islas,J.,Fryer,S.,Caulkins, C.A.,Ballard,J.,Fogle,C.A.,Littell,P.D.,Veler, M.,Tibbs,J.A.,and Crawford,N.C.,p.114-115 Microorganisms Fowler,R.,Groves,C.,and Sahi,S.,p.108-108 Mill Hole Glennon,A.,Groves,C.,and Coons,D.,p.111-112 Mine Pritchard,E.,p.107-107 Mineralogy Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Green,D.J.,p.48-49 Davis,D.G.,p.49-50 Luiszer,F.G.,p.113-113 Olson,R.,and Krapac,I.G.,p.114-114 Minimize Schindel,G.M.,Johnson,S.,Donnelly,A.C.,and Kreitler,C.W.,p.115-115 Mining Crothers,G.,Swelund,C.,and Ward,R.,p.107-107 Mississippian Graphics Diaz-Granados,C.,and Duncan,J.R.,p.107-107 Missouri Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Diaz-Granados,C.,and Duncan,J.R.,p.107-107 Smith,K.L.,and Adams,G.L.,p.109-109 Taylor,S.J.,Wetzel,M.J.,and Webb,D.W.,p.109-109 Orndorff,R.C.,and Weary,D.J.,p.114-114 Mixing-zone Downey,K.,p.110-110 Model Jernigan,J.W.,and Swift,R.J.,p.3-8 Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Florea,L.J.,and Wicks,C.M.,p.59-66 Molloy Hollow Hoffelt,J.,Anderson,W.S.,and Jones,S.,p.113-113 Montmorillonite Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Morphologic Baldini,J.U.L.,p.83-90 Morphology Mylroie,L.,p.113-113 Reece,M.A.,Mylroie,J.E.,and Jenson,J.W.,p.114-114 Muchroom-shaped Downey,K.,p.110-110 Mudgetts Cave Davis,D.G.,p.76-76 Munitions Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Music Brison,D.N.,p.116-116 Ibberson,D.,p.117-117 Mystery Cave Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Nacimiento del Rio Oropan Anderson,T.E.,and Kane,S.,p.110-110 Nash Waterfall Cave Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 National Park Davis,D.G.,p.76-76 National Parks Jernigan,J.W.,and Swift,R.J.,p.3-8 Carstens,K.,p.107-107 Crothers,G.,Swelund,C.,and Ward,R.,p.107-107 Ferguson,L.M.,p.108-108 Richards,J.M.,p.112-112 Hawkins,W.,Glennon,A.,Groves,C.,and Ek,D., p.112-113 Olson,R.,and Krapac,I.G.,p.114-114 Seadler,K.,Groves,C.,Glennon,A.,and Taylor,R., p.115-115 Turin,H.J.,Plummer,M.A.,Newton,B.T.,Phillips, F.M.,and Campbell,A.R.,p.115-115 Olsen,C.O.,p.116-116 Benton,J.,p.116-116 Native American Diaz-Granados,C.,and Duncan,J.R.,p.107-107 Natroalunite Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Network Florea,L.J.,and Wicks,C.M.,p.59-66 Neural Structure Cooper,R.L.,Li,H.,Listerman,L.R.,Kellie,S.P.,Cole, J.L.,Hopper,H.L.,and Greer,J.,p.107-108 Nevada Green,D.J.,p.48-49 New Mexico Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Green,D.J.,p.48-49 Davis,D.G.,p.49-50 Davis,D.G.,p.76-76 DuChene,H.R.,and Martinez,R.,p.77-78 Turin,H.J.,Plummer,M.A.,Newton,B.T.,Phillips, F.M.,and Campbell,A.R.,p.115-115 New Trout Cave Grady,F.,and Hubbard,Jr.,D.A.,p.117-117 Grady,F.,p.117-117 Newsreels Snyder,D.H.,p.117-117 Ngalu Moeko Moeko Lane,J.,and Covington,M.,p.111-111 Niagara Falls Worthington,S.R.,Schindel,G.M.,and Alexander,E.C., p.115-115 Nineteenth Century Douglas,J.C.,p.116-116 Nitrates Olson,R.,and Krapac,I.G.,p.114-114 Nitrogen Cycle Fowler,R.,Groves,C.,and Sahi,S.,p.108-108 No Can Fracture Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Nordstrandite Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Norway Holler,Jr.,C.,p.116-116 Notches Reece,M.A.,Mylroie,J.E.,and Jenson,J.W.,p.114-114 Nuclear Olsen,C.O.,p.116-116 Oaxaca Anderson,T.E.,and Kane,S.,p.110-110 Oil Production Hawkins,W.,Glennon,A.,Groves,C.,and Ek,D., p.112-113 Old Kentucky Cave Florea,L.,p.111-111 Opal Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Organic Luiszer,F.G.,p.113-113 Owl Cave Carstens,K.,p.107-107 Ozark Plateaus Orndorff,R.C.,and Weary,D.J.,p.114-114 Ozark-St. Francis Varnedoe,W.W.,and Lundquist,C.L.,p.107-107 Packrat Luiszer,F.G.,p.113-113 Pagat Cave Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Paleo-sea Cave Holler,Jr.,C.,p.116-116 Paleohydrology Baldini,J.U.L.,p.83-90 Reece,M.A.,Mylroie,J.E.,and Jenson,J.W.,p.114-114 Paleontology Al-Shanti,M.,p.110-110 Grady,F.,and Hubbard,Jr.,D.A.,p.117-117 Grady,F.,p.117-117 Pathways Luiszer,F.G.,p.113-113 Peneplanation Karmann,I.,Sanchez,L.E.,and Fairchild,T.R.,p.41-47 Pennyroyal Plateau White,M.J.,p.109-109 Pennywinkle Spring Hoffelt,J.,Anderson,W.S.,and Jones,S.,p.113-113 Periodicity Samani,N.,p.33-40 Pesticide Seadler,K.,Groves,C.,Glennon,A.,and Taylor,R., p.115-115 Pettijohns Cave Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Photography Bosted,A.,p.117-117 Photoperiod Roman,L.L.,and Adams,G.L.,p.108-108 Physiological Responses Cooper,R.L.,Li,H.,Listerman,L.R.,Kellie,S.P.,Cole, J.L.,Hopper,H.L.,and Greer,J.,p.107-108 Pictographs Varnedoe,W.W.,and Lundquist,C.L.,p.107-107 Picture Cave Diaz-Granados,C.,and Duncan,J.R.,p.107-107 Pigeon Cave Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Pigeon Mountain Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Piggy Cave Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Pirbanow Spring Samani,N.,p.33-40 Pockets Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Point Cloud am Ende,B.A.,Bernal,J.,and Witzgall,C.,p.117-118 Pol-Brengi Spring Samani,N.,p.33-40

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INDEXVOLUME63 Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 123 Pollution Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Hawkins,W.,Glennon,A.,Groves,C.,and Ek,D., p.112-113 Seadler,K.,Groves,C.,Glennon,A.,and Taylor,R., p.115-115 Post,Edward Snyder,D.H.,p.117-117 Postcards Snyder,D.H.,p.117-117 Predator Prey System White,M.J.,p.109-109 Prehistoric Pritchard,E.,p.107-107 Prey Size Smith,K.L.,and Adams,G.L.,p.109-109 Program Schindel,G.M.,Johnson,S.,Donnelly,A.C.,and Kreitler,C.W.,p.115-115 Pseudokarst Kambesis,P.,p.113-113 QTRACER Florea,L.J.,and Wicks,C.M.,p.59-66 Quartz Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Quartzite Karmann,I.,Sanchez,L.E.,and Fairchild,T.R.,p.41-47 Radioactive Turin,H.J.,Plummer,M.A.,Newton,B.T.,Phillips, F.M.,and Campbell,A.R.,p.115-115 Rainfall Samani,N.,p.33-40 Rains Kambesis,P.,p.113-113 Rancieite Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Rangefinder Bartholomew,R.V.,p.118-118 Recent Baldini,J.U.L.,p.83-90 Red Bud Cave Simpson,L.,Lugannani,S.,and Bryan,T.R.,p.112-112 Redmond Creek Cave Walden,B.,and Walden,K.,p.112-112 Reevaluation Neely,D.A.,and Mayden,R.L.,p.108-108 Regenerated Romero,A.,Romero,A.,Lelonek,M.N.,and Stropnicky,K.C.,p.109-109 Regeneration Olson,R.,and Krapac,I.G.,p.114-114 Reply Davis,D.G.,p.49-50 DuChene,H.R.,and Martinez,R.,p.77-78 Reproduction Adams,G.L.,Adams,S.R.,Phillips,A.L.,and Burr, B.M.,p.107-107 Rescue Benton,J.,p.116-116 Snyder,D.H.,p.117-117 Residues Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Resistivity Richardson,J.,Croft,L.A.,Islas,J.,Fryer,S.,Caulkins, C.A.,Ballard,J.,Fogle,C.A.,Littell,P.D.,Veler, M.,Tibbs,J.A.,and Crawford,N.C.,p.114-115 Reynolds Number Florea,L.J.,and Wicks,C.M.,p.59-66 Rim Green,D.J.,p.48-49 Rimstone River Cave Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 rRNA Fowler,R.,Groves,C.,and Sahi,S.,p.108-108 Rue-Pine Hills Ecological Area Adams,G.L.,Adams,S.R.,Phillips,A.L.,and Burr, B.M.,p.107-107 Rupestrian Art Varnedoe,W.W.,and Lundquist,C.L.,p.107-107 Rutherford County Ogden,A.E.,Ogden,L.R.,and Powell,B.E.,p.114-114 Rye Cove Ferguson,L.M.,p.108-108 Sabak Ha Barton,H.A.,p.110-110 Sacred Meaning Diaz-Granados,C.,and Duncan,J.R.,p.107-107 Saipan Mylroie,J.,Mylroie,J.,Jenson,J.,and Wexel,C., p.113-113 Salem Plateau Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Saltpeter Olson,R.,and Krapac,I.G.,p.114-114 San Salvador Island Mylroie,L.,p.113-113 Sand Cave Benton,J.,p.116-116 Brucker,R.W.,p.116-116 Halliday,W.R.,p.116-117 Snyder,D.H.,p.117-117 Sandstone Orndorff,R.C.,and Weary,D.J.,p.114-114 Saudi Arabia Al-Shanti,M.,p.110-110 Pint,J.J.,and Alshanti,M.,p.111-111 Scalelessness Romero,A.,and Paulson,K.M.,p.108-109 Scales Romero,A.,and Paulson,K.M.,p.108-109 Schist Karmann,I.,Sanchez,L.E.,and Fairchild,T.R.,p.41-47 School Ogden,A.E.,Ogden,L.R.,and Powell,B.E.,p.114-114 Scuba Barton,H.A.,p.110-110 Sculpin Neely,D.A.,and Mayden,R.L.,p.108-108 Smith,K.L.,and Adams,G.L.,p.109-109 Sea Level Mylroie,L.,p.113-113 Reece,M.A.,Mylroie,J.E.,and Jenson,J.W.,p.114-114 Sediment Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Fowler,R.,Groves,C.,and Sahi,S.,p.108-108 Florea,L.,p.112-112 Luiszer,F.G.,p.113-113 Sediments Taylor,S.J.,Wetzel,M.J.,and Webb,D.W.,p.109-109 Olson,R.,and Krapac,I.G.,p.114-114 Serdab Al Aqrab Al Aswad Al-Shanti,M.,p.110-110 Sewer Kambesis,P.,p.113-113 Sierra Madres Anderson,T.E.,and Kane,S.,p.110-110 Sierra Mazateca Anderson,T.E.,and Kane,S.,p.110-110 Simazine Seadler,K.,Groves,C.,Glennon,A.,and Taylor,R., p.115-115 Simple Carbonate Islands Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Sinkhole Distribution Shofner,G.A.,Mills,H.H.,and Duke,J.E.,p.67-75 Sinkholes Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Florea,L.J.,and Wicks,C.M.,p.59-66 Ogden,A.E.,Ogden,L.R.,and Powell,B.E.,p.114-114 Siouan Oral Traditions Diaz-Granados,C.,and Duncan,J.R.,p.107-107 Sittons Cave Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Soda Cans Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Software Olsen,J.,p.118-118 Solute Florea,L.J.,and Wicks,C.M.,p.59-66 Southeastern Ceremonial Complex Diaz-Granados,C.,and Duncan,J.R.,p.107-107 Species,New Ferguson,L.M.,p.108-108 Speleogenesis Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Karmann,I.,Sanchez,L.E.,and Fairchild,T.R.,p.41-47 Davis,D.G.,p.76-76 DuChene,H.R.,and Martinez,R.,p.77-78 Barton,H.A.,p.110-110 Florea,L.,p.111-111 Florea,L.,p.112-112 Mylroie,J.,Mylroie,J.,Jenson,J.,and Wexel,C., p.113-113 Speleogens Reece,M.A.,Mylroie,J.E.,and Jenson,J.W.,p.114-114 Speleothems Green,D.J.,p.48-49 Davis,D.G.,p.49-50 Baldini,J.U.L.,p.83-90 Al-Shanti,M.,p.110-110 Downey,K.,p.110-110 Luiszer,F.G.,p.113-113 Spencer Mountain Hoffelt,J.,Anderson,W.S.,and Jones,S.,p.113-113 Spring Cavefish Adams,G.L.,Adams,S.R.,Phillips,A.L.,and Burr, B.M.,p.107-107 Springs Samani,N.,p.33-40 Stable Turin,H.J.,Plummer,M.A.,Newton,B.T.,Phillips, F.M.,and Campbell,A.R.,p.115-115 Stemler Cave Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Stomachs Smith,K.L.,and Adams,G.L.,p.109-109 Stream Flow Kambesis,P.,p.113-113 Streams Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Taylor,S.J.,Wetzel,M.J.,and Webb,D.W.,p.109-109 Structure Orndorff,R.C.,and Weary,D.J.,p.114-114 Sulfur Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Summan Plateau Pint,J.J.,and Alshanti,M.,p.111-111 Sungai Kuantan Lane,J.,and Covington,M.,p.111-111 Sungai Sangkiamo Lane,J.,and Covington,M.,p.111-111 Surprise Cave Pint,J.J.,and Alshanti,M.,p.111-111 Survey Thrun,R.,p.54-54 Aspery,S.,and Adkins,D.,p.111-111 DeBlois,S.,p.111-111 Florea,L.,p.111-111 Bartholomew,R.V.,p.118-118 Szonot Nohoch Barton,H.A.,p.110-110 Taxonomic Status Neely,D.A.,and Mayden,R.L.,p.108-108 Temperature Jernigan,J.W.,and Swift,R.J.,p.3-8 Mylroie,L.,p.113-114 Temple Falls Cave Simpson,L.,Lugannani,S.,and Bryan,T.R.,p.112-112 Tennessee Shofner,G.A.,Mills,H.H.,and Duke,J.E.,p.67-75 Pritchard,E.,p.107-107

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INDEXVOLUME63 124 Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 Ferguson,L.M.,p.108-108 Ferguson,L.M.,p.108-108 Simpson,L.,Lugannani,S.,and Bryan,T.R.,p.112-112 Hoffelt,J.,Anderson,W.S.,and Jones,S.,p.113-113 Ogden,A.E.,Ogden,L.R.,and Powell,B.E.,p.114-114 Tennessee Cave Survey Shofner,G.A.,Mills,H.H.,and Duke,J.E.,p.67-75 Terrace Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Texas Davis,D.G.,p.76-76 DuChene,H.R.,and Martinez,R.,p.77-78 Schindel,G.M.,Johnson,S.,Donnelly,A.C.,and Kreitler,C.W.,p.115-115 Worthington,S.R.,Schindel,G.M.,and Alexander,E.C., p.115-115 Thunder Run Cave Hoffelt,J.,Anderson,W.S.,and Jones,S.,p.113-113 Todorokite Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Torghatten Holler,Jr.,C.,p.116-116 Tracer Florea,L.J.,and Wicks,C.M.,p.59-66 Tracing Ogden,A.E.,Ogden,L.R.,and Powell,B.E.,p.114-114 Worthington,S.R.,and Smart,C.C.,p.115-116 Trampling Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Transport Florea,L.J.,and Wicks,C.M.,p.59-66 Troglobites Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Troglophiles Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Tropical Mylroie,L.,p.113-113 Mylroie,L.,p.113-114 Tuberculosis Sanatorium Crothers,G.,Swelund,C.,and Ward,R.,p.107-107 Tyuyamunite Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Unaka Mountains Shofner,G.A.,Mills,H.H.,and Duke,J.E.,p.67-75 Under-reported Fenton,J.,Mink,P.,and Neumeyer,S.,p.107-107 Underwater Barton,H.A.,p.110-110 Unparalleled Romero,A.,and Paulson,K.M.,p.108-109 UPM Cave Pint,J.J.,and Alshanti,M.,p.111-111 Urine Luiszer,F.G.,p.113-113 Valley & Ridge Shofner,G.A.,Mills,H.H.,and Duke,J.E.,p.67-75 Van Buren County Hoffelt,J.,Anderson,W.S.,and Jones,S.,p.113-113 Vandals Diaz-Granados,C.,and Duncan,J.R.,p.107-107 Vent Green,D.J.,p.48-49 Virginia Ferguson,L.M.,p.108-108 Grady,F.,and Hubbard,Jr.,D.A.,p.117-117 Grady,F.,p.117-117 Vision Romero,A.,Romero,A.,Lelonek,M.N.,and Stropnicky,K.C.,p.109-109 Volcanic Mylroie,J.,Mylroie,J.,Jenson,J.,and Wexel,C., p.113-113 W Highland Rim Shofner,G.A.,Mills,H.H.,and Duke,J.E.,p.67-75 Wadi Degla Protected Area Halliday,W.R.,p.110-111 Wakulla Spring am Ende,B.A.,Bernal,J.,and Witzgall,C.,p.117-118 Wall Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Wall Pocket Karmann,I.,Sanchez,L.E.,and Fairchild,T.R.,p.41-47 Warren County Pritchard,E.,p.107-107 Water Quality Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Taylor,S.J.,Wetzel,M.J.,and Webb,D.W.,p.109-109 Hawkins,W.,Glennon,A.,Groves,C.,and Ek,D., p.112-113 Wayne County Walden,B.,and Walden,K.,p.112-112 Wells Ogden,A.E.,Ogden,L.R.,and Powell,B.E.,p.114-114 Wells Cave Florea,L.,p.112-112 West Virginia Neely,D.A.,and Mayden,R.L.,p.108-108 Grady,F.,and Hubbard,Jr.,D.A.,p.117-117 Grady,F.,p.117-117 Western Kentucky University Crawford,N.C.,p.112-112 Whigpistle Cave Glennon,A.,Groves,C.,and Coons,D.,p.111-112 Whinding Stair Cave Grady,F.,and Hubbard,Jr.,D.A.,p.117-117 Whistling Teapot Pint,J.J.,and Alshanti,M.,p.111-111 Wiltshire Baldini,J.U.L.,p.83-90 Windy River Cave Hoffelt,J.,Anderson,W.S.,and Jones,S.,p.113-113 Withdrawal Schindel,G.M.,Johnson,S.,Donnelly,A.C.,and Kreitler,C.W.,p.115-115 Worms Per Unit Volume Taylor,S.J.,Wetzel,M.J.,and Webb,D.W.,p.109-109 Wormhole Cave Grady,F.,and Hubbard,Jr.,D.A.,p.117-117 Yaal Utzil Barton,H.A.,p.110-110 Yucatan Barton,H.A.,p.110-110 Yucatan Aquifer Worthington,S.R.,Schindel,G.M.,and Alexander,E.C., p.115-115 Zagros Orogenic Belt Samani,N.,p.33-40 BIOLOGICNAMESINDEX Acari Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Actinopterygii:Cottidae Neely,D.A.,and Mayden,R.L.,p.108-108 Agelenidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Amaurobiidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Amphibia Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Amphipoda Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Annelida Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Taylor,S.J.,Wetzel,M.J.,and Webb,D.W.,p.109-109 Anura Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Arachnida Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Araneae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Asellidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Astyanax Fasciatus Romero,A.,Romero,A.,Lelonek,M.N.,and Stropnicky,K.C.,p.109-109 Bootherium Bombifrons Grady,F.,and Hubbard,Jr.,D.A.,p.117-117 Cambalidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Cambaridae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Campodea Cookei Ferguson,L.M.,p.108-108 Campodeid Dipluran,New Ferguson,L.M.,p.108-108 Campodeidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Carabudae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Caudata Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Chilopoda Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Chiroptera Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Chordeumatida Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Cleidogonidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Clitellata Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Coleoptera Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Collembola Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Cottidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Cottus Bairdi Neely,D.A.,and Mayden,R.L.,p.108-108 Cottus Carolinae Neely,D.A.,and Mayden,R.L.,p.108-108 Roman,L.L.,and Adams,G.L.,p.108-108 Smith,K.L.,and Adams,G.L.,p.109-109 Crangonyctidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Cricetidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Cryptobranchus Alleganiensis Grady,F.,p.117-117 Darlingtonea Kentuckensis White,M.J.,p.109-109 Decapoda Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Dero Taylor,S.J.,Wetzel,M.J.,and Webb,D.W.,p.109-109 Dero Digitata Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Dero Nivea Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Diplura Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Ferguson,L.M.,p.108-108 Diptera Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Enchytraeida Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Enchytraeidae Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104

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INDEXVOLUME63 Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 125 Entomobryidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Forbesichthys Agassizi Adams,G.L.,Adams,S.R.,Phillips,A.L.,and Burr, B.M.,p.107-107 Geomys Grady,F.,p.117-117 Hadenoecus Cumberlandicus White,M.J.,p.109-109 Haplotaxida Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Haplotaxidae Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Haplotaxis Taylor,S.J.,Wetzel,M.J.,and Webb,D.W.,p.109-109 Haplotaxis Cf. Gordioides Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Heleomyzidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Insecta Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Isopoda Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Isotomidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Kenkiidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Leiodidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Leptonetidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Ligiidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Limnodrilus Taylor,S.J.,Wetzel,M.J.,and Webb,D.W.,p.109-109 Limnodrilus Cervix Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Limnodrilus Hoffmeisteri Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Limnodrilus Udekemianus Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Linyphiidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Litocampa Ferguson,L.M.,p.108-108 Lumbriculida Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Lumbriculidae Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Malacostraca Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Mammalia Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Microtus Ochrogaster Grady,F.,p.117-117 Mylohyus Fossilis Grady,F.,p.117-117 Mysmenidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Naididae Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Neaphaenops Tellkampfi White,M.J.,p.109-109 Nesticidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Oligochaetes Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Taylor,S.J.,Wetzel,M.J.,and Webb,D.W.,p.109-109 Opiliones Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Orthoptera Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Phalangodidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Phenacomys Intermedius Grady,F.,p.117-117 Pisces:Characidae Romero,A.,Romero,A.,Lelonek,M.N.,and Stropnicky,K.C.,p.109-109 Plethodontidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Plusiocampa Ferguson,L.M.,p.108-108 Polydesmida Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Pristina Jenkinae Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Pristina Leidyi Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Pristina Sp. Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Pristinella Taylor,S.J.,Wetzel,M.J.,and Webb,D.W.,p.109-109 Pselaphidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Ranidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Rhaphidophoridae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Rhyacodrilus Taylor,S.J.,Wetzel,M.J.,and Webb,D.W.,p.109-109 Rhyacodrilus Cf. Sodalis Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Rhyacodrilus Falciformis Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Rhyacodrilus Subterraneus Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Rodentia Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Spermophilus Tridecemlineatus Grady,F.,p.117-117 Staphylinidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Synaptomys Borealis Grady,F.,p.117-117 Tengellidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Tetragnathidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Theridiidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Tomoceridae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Trichoniscidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Trichopetalidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Tricladida Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Tubifex Taylor,S.J.,Wetzel,M.J.,and Webb,D.W.,p.109-109 Tubifex Tubifex Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Tubificida Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Tubificidae Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Turbellaria Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Varichaetadrilus Taylor,S.J.,Wetzel,M.J.,and Webb,D.W.,p.109-109 Varichaetadrilus Angustipenis Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Varichaetadrilus Sp. Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Vespertilionidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Xystodesmidae Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 AUTHORINDEX Adams,G.L. Adams,G.L.,Adams,S.R.,Phillips,A.L.,and Burr, B.M.,p.107-107 Roman,L.L.,and Adams,G.L.,p.108-108 Smith,K.L.,and Adams,G.L.,p.109-109 Adams,S.R. Adams,G.L.,Adams,S.R.,Phillips,A.L.,and Burr, B.M.,p.107-107 Adkins,D. Aspery,S.,and Adkins,D.,p.111-111 Al-Shanti,M. Al-Shanti,M.,p.110-110 Alexander,E.C. Worthington,S.R.,Schindel,G.M.,and Alexander,E.C., p.115-115 Alshanti,M. Pint,J.J.,and Alshanti,M.,p.111-111 am Ende,B.A. am Ende,B.A.,Bernal,J.,and Witzgall,C.,p.117-118 Anderson,T.E. Anderson,T.E.,and Kane,S.,p.110-110 Anderson,W.S. Hoffelt,J.,Anderson,W.S.,and Jones,S.,p.113-113 Aspery,S. Aspery,S.,and Adkins,D.,p.111-111 Baldini,J.U.L. Baldini,J.U.L.,p.83-90 Ballard,J. Richardson,J.,Croft,L.A.,Islas,J.,Fryer,S.,Caulkins, C.A.,Ballard,J.,Fogle,C.A.,Littell,P.D.,Veler, M.,Tibbs,J.A.,and Crawford,N.C.,p.114-115 Bartholomew,R.V. Bartholomew,R.V.,p.118-118 Barton,H.A. Barton,H.A.,p.110-110 Benton,J. Benton,J.,p.116-116 Bernal,J. am Ende,B.A.,Bernal,J.,and Witzgall,C.,p.117-118 Bosted,A. Bosted,A.,p.117-117 Brison,D.N. Brison,D.N.,p.116-116 Brucker,R.W. Brucker,R.W.,p.116-116 Bryan,T.R. Simpson,L.,Lugannani,S.,and Bryan,T.R.,p.112-112 Buhlmann,K.A. Buhlmann,K.A.,p.91-98 Burr,B.M. Adams,G.L.,Adams,S.R.,Phillips,A.L.,and Burr, B.M.,p.107-107 Campbell,A.R. Turin,H.J.,Plummer,M.A.,Newton,B.T.,Phillips, F.M.,and Campbell,A.R.,p.115-115 Carstens,K. Carstens,K.,p.107-107 Caulkins,C.A. Richardson,J.,Croft,L.A.,Islas,J.,Fryer,S.,Caulkins, C.A.,Ballard,J.,Fogle,C.A.,Littell,P.D.,Veler, M.,Tibbs,J.A.,and Crawford,N.C.,p.114-115 Cole,J.L. Cooper,R.L.,Li,H.,Listerman,L.R.,Kellie,S.P.,Cole, J.L.,Hopper,H.L.,and Greer,J.,p.107-108 Cole,R. Cole,R.,p.109-109 Coons,D. Glennon,A.,Groves,C.,and Coons,D.,p.111-112 Cooper,R.L. Cooper,R.L.,Li,H.,Listerman,L.R.,Kellie,S.P.,Cole, J.L.,Hopper,H.L.,and Greer,J.,p.107-108

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INDEXVOLUME63 126 Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 Covington,M. Lane,J.,and Covington,M.,p.111-111 Crawford,N.C. Crawford,N.C.,p.112-112 Richardson,J.,Croft,L.A.,Islas,J.,Fryer,S.,Caulkins, C.A.,Ballard,J.,Fogle,C.A.,Littell,P.D.,Veler, M.,Tibbs,J.A.,and Crawford,N.C.,p.114-115 Croft,L.A. Richardson,J.,Croft,L.A.,Islas,J.,Fryer,S.,Caulkins, C.A.,Ballard,J.,Fogle,C.A.,Littell,P.D.,Veler, M.,Tibbs,J.A.,and Crawford,N.C.,p.114-115 Crothers,G. Crothers,G.,Swelund,C.,and Ward,R.,p.107-107 Davis,D.G. Davis,D.G.,p.49-50 Davis,D.G.,p.54-54 Davis,D.G.,p.76-76 DeBlois,S. DeBlois,S.,p.111-111 Diaz-Granados,C. Diaz-Granados,C.,and Duncan,J.R.,p.107-107 Donnelly,A.C. Schindel,G.M.,Johnson,S.,Donnelly,A.C.,and Kreitler,C.W.,p.115-115 Douglas,J.C. Douglas,J.C.,p.116-116 Downey,K. Downey,K.,p.110-110 DuChene,H.R. DuChene,H.R.,and Martinez,R.,p.77-78 Duke,J.E. Shofner,G.A.,Mills,H.H.,and Duke,J.E.,p.67-75 Duncan,J.R. Diaz-Granados,C.,and Duncan,J.R.,p.107-107 Ek,D. Hawkins,W.,Glennon,A.,Groves,C.,and Ek,D., p.112-113 Fairchild,T.R. Karmann,I.,Sanchez,L.E.,and Fairchild,T.R.,p.41-47 Fenton,J. Fenton,J.,Mink,P.,and Neumeyer,S.,p.107-107 Ferguson,L.M. Ferguson,L.M.,p.108-108 Ferguson,L.M.,p.108-108 Florea,L. Florea,L.,p.111-111 Florea,L.,p.112-112 Florea,L.J. Florea,L.J.,and Wicks,C.M.,p.59-66 Fogle,C.A. Richardson,J.,Croft,L.A.,Islas,J.,Fryer,S.,Caulkins, C.A.,Ballard,J.,Fogle,C.A.,Littell,P.D.,Veler, M.,Tibbs,J.A.,and Crawford,N.C.,p.114-115 Fowler,R. Fowler,R.,Groves,C.,and Sahi,S.,p.108-108 Fryer,S. Richardson,J.,Croft,L.A.,Islas,J.,Fryer,S.,Caulkins, C.A.,Ballard,J.,Fogle,C.A.,Littell,P.D.,Veler, M.,Tibbs,J.A.,and Crawford,N.C.,p.114-115 Glennon,A. Glennon,A.,Groves,C.,and Coons,D.,p.111-112 Hawkins,W.,Glennon,A.,Groves,C.,and Ek,D., p.112-113 Seadler,K.,Groves,C.,Glennon,A.,and Taylor,R., p.115-115 Grady,F. Grady,F.,and Hubbard,Jr.,D.A.,p.117-117 Grady,F.,p.117-117 Green,D.J. Green,D.J.,p.48-49 Greer,J. Cooper,R.L.,Li,H.,Listerman,L.R.,Kellie,S.P.,Cole, J.L.,Hopper,H.L.,and Greer,J.,p.107-108 Groves,C. Fowler,R.,Groves,C.,and Sahi,S.,p.108-108 Glennon,A.,Groves,C.,and Coons,D.,p.111-112 Hawkins,W.,Glennon,A.,Groves,C.,and Ek,D., p.112-113 Seadler,K.,Groves,C.,Glennon,A.,and Taylor,R., p.115-115 Halliday,W.R. Halliday,W.R.,p.110-111 Halliday,W.R.,p.116-117 Hawkins,W. Hawkins,W.,Glennon,A.,Groves,C.,and Ek,D., p.112-113 Hoffelt,J. Hoffelt,J.,Anderson,W.S.,and Jones,S.,p.113-113 Holler,Jr.,C. Holler,Jr.,C.,p.116-116 Hopper,H.L. Cooper,R.L.,Li,H.,Listerman,L.R.,Kellie,S.P.,Cole, J.L.,Hopper,H.L.,and Greer,J.,p.107-108 Hubbard,Jr.,D.A. Grady,F.,and Hubbard,Jr.,D.A.,p.117-117 Ibberson,D. Ibberson,D.,p.117-117 Islas,J. Richardson,J.,Croft,L.A.,Islas,J.,Fryer,S.,Caulkins, C.A.,Ballard,J.,Fogle,C.A.,Littell,P.D.,Veler, M.,Tibbs,J.A.,and Crawford,N.C.,p.114-115 Jenson,J. Mylroie,J.,Mylroie,J.,Jenson,J.,and Wexel,C., p.113-113 Jenson,J.W. Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Reece,M.A.,Mylroie,J.E.,and Jenson,J.W.,p.114-114 Jernigan,J.W. Jernigan,J.W.,and Swift,R.J.,p.3-8 Jocson,J.M.U. Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Johnson,S. Schindel,G.M.,Johnson,S.,Donnelly,A.C.,and Kreitler,C.W.,p.115-115 Jones,S. Hoffelt,J.,Anderson,W.S.,and Jones,S.,p.113-113 Kambesis,P. Kambesis,P.,p.113-113 Kane,S. Anderson,T.E.,and Kane,S.,p.110-110 Karmann,I. Karmann,I.,Sanchez,L.E.,and Fairchild,T.R.,p.41-47 Kellie,S.P. Cooper,R.L.,Li,H.,Listerman,L.R.,Kellie,S.P.,Cole, J.L.,Hopper,H.L.,and Greer,J.,p.107-108 Krapac,I.G. Olson,R.,and Krapac,I.G.,p.114-114 Kreitler,C.W. Schindel,G.M.,Johnson,S.,Donnelly,A.C.,and Kreitler,C.W.,p.115-115 Lane,J. Lane,J.,and Covington,M.,p.111-111 Larson,D. Larson,D.,and Larson,E.B.,p.111-111 Larson,E.B. Larson,D.,and Larson,E.B.,p.111-111 Lelonek,M.N. Romero,A.,Romero,A.,Lelonek,M.N.,and Stropnicky,K.C.,p.109-109 Li,H. Cooper,R.L.,Li,H.,Listerman,L.R.,Kellie,S.P.,Cole, J.L.,Hopper,H.L.,and Greer,J.,p.107-108 Listerman,L.R. Cooper,R.L.,Li,H.,Listerman,L.R.,Kellie,S.P.,Cole, J.L.,Hopper,H.L.,and Greer,J.,p.107-108 Littell,P.D. Richardson,J.,Croft,L.A.,Islas,J.,Fryer,S.,Caulkins, C.A.,Ballard,J.,Fogle,C.A.,Littell,P.D.,Veler, M.,Tibbs,J.A.,and Crawford,N.C.,p.114-115 Lugannani,S. Simpson,L.,Lugannani,S.,and Bryan,T.R.,p.112-112 Luiszer,F.G. Luiszer,F.G.,p.113-113 Lundquist,C.L. Varnedoe,W.W.,and Lundquist,C.L.,p.107-107 Martinez,R. DuChene,H.R.,and Martinez,R.,p.77-78 Mayden,R.L. Neely,D.A.,and Mayden,R.L.,p.108-108 Mills,H.H. Shofner,G.A.,Mills,H.H.,and Duke,J.E.,p.67-75 Mink,P. Fenton,J.,Mink,P.,and Neumeyer,S.,p.107-107 Mylroie,J. Mylroie,J.,Mylroie,J.,Jenson,J.,and Wexel,C., p.113-113 Mylroie,J.,Mylroie,J.,Jenson,J.,and Wexel,C., p.113-113 Mylroie,J.E. Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Reece,M.A.,Mylroie,J.E.,and Jenson,J.W.,p.114-114 Mylroie,L. Mylroie,L.,p.113-113 Mylroie,L.,p.113-114 Neely,D.A. Neely,D.A.,and Mayden,R.L.,p.108-108 Neumeyer,S. Fenton,J.,Mink,P.,and Neumeyer,S.,p.107-107 Newton,B.T. Turin,H.J.,Plummer,M.A.,Newton,B.T.,Phillips, F.M.,and Campbell,A.R.,p.115-115 Nixon,R.L. Nixon,R.L.,p.117-117 Ogden,A.E. Ogden,A.E.,Ogden,L.R.,and Powell,B.E.,p.114-114 Ogden,L.R. Ogden,A.E.,Ogden,L.R.,and Powell,B.E.,p.114-114 Olsen,C.O. Olsen,C.O.,p.116-116 Olsen,J. Olsen,J.,p.118-118 Olson,R. Olson,R.,and Krapac,I.G.,p.114-114 Orndorff,R.C. Orndorff,R.C.,and Weary,D.J.,p.114-114 Paulson,K.M. Romero,A.,and Paulson,K.M.,p.108-109 Pease,B. Pease,B.,p.110-110 Phillips,A.L. Adams,G.L.,Adams,S.R.,Phillips,A.L.,and Burr, B.M.,p.107-107 Phillips,F.M. Turin,H.J.,Plummer,M.A.,Newton,B.T.,Phillips, F.M.,and Campbell,A.R.,p.115-115 Pint,J.J. Pint,J.J.,and Alshanti,M.,p.111-111 Plummer,M.A. Turin,H.J.,Plummer,M.A.,Newton,B.T.,Phillips, F.M.,and Campbell,A.R.,p.115-115 Polyak,V.J. Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Powell,B.E. Ogden,A.E.,Ogden,L.R.,and Powell,B.E.,p.114-114 Pritchard,E. Pritchard,E.,p.107-107 Provencio,P. Polyak,V.J.,and Provencio,P.,p.23-32 Reece,M.A. Reece,M.A.,Mylroie,J.E.,and Jenson,J.W.,p.114-114 Richards,J.M. Richards,J.M.,p.112-112 Richardson,J. Richardson,J.,Croft,L.A.,Islas,J.,Fryer,S.,Caulkins, C.A.,Ballard,J.,Fogle,C.A.,Littell,P.D.,Veler, M.,Tibbs,J.A.,and Crawford,N.C.,p.114-115 Roman,L.L. Roman,L.L.,and Adams,G.L.,p.108-108 Romero,A. Romero,A.,and Paulson,K.M.,p.108-109

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INDEXVOLUME63 Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 127 Romero,A.,Romero,A.,Lelonek,M.N.,and Stropnicky,K.C.,p.109-109 Romero,A.,Romero,A.,Lelonek,M.N.,and Stropnicky,K.C.,p.109-109 Romero,A.,p.116-116 Sahi,S. Fowler,R.,Groves,C.,and Sahi,S.,p.108-108 Samani,N. Samani,N.,p.33-40 Sanchez,L.E. Karmann,I.,Sanchez,L.E.,and Fairchild,T.R.,p.41-47 Sasowsky,I.D. Sasowsky,I.D.,Sinkovich,E.,and Wheeland,K.D.,p. 119-128 Schindel,G.M. Schindel,G.M.,Johnson,S.,Donnelly,A.C.,and Kreitler,C.W.,p.115-115 Worthington,S.R.,Schindel,G.M.,and Alexander,E.C., p.115-115 Seadler,K. Seadler,K.,Groves,C.,Glennon,A.,and Taylor,R., p.115-115 Shofner,G.A. Shofner,G.A.,Mills,H.H.,and Duke,J.E.,p.67-75 Simpson,L. Simpson,L.,Lugannani,S.,and Bryan,T.R.,p.112-112 Sinkovich,E. Sasowsky,I.D.,Sinkovich,E.,and Wheeland,K.D.,p. 119-128 Smart,C.C. Worthington,S.R.,and Smart,C.C.,p.115-116 Smith,K.L. Smith,K.L.,and Adams,G.L.,p.109-109 Snyder,D.H. Snyder,D.H.,p.117-117 Stropnicky,K.C. Romero,A.,Romero,A.,Lelonek,M.N.,and Stropnicky,K.C.,p.109-109 Swelund,C. Crothers,G.,Swelund,C.,and Ward,R.,p.107-107 Swift,R.J. Jernigan,J.W.,and Swift,R.J.,p.3-8 Taborosi,D. Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Taylor,R. Seadler,K.,Groves,C.,Glennon,A.,and Taylor,R., p.115-115 Taylor,S.J. Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Taylor,S.J.,Wetzel,M.J.,and Webb,D.W.,p.109-109 Thrun,R. Thrun,R.,p.54-54 Tibbs,J.A. Richardson,J.,Croft,L.A.,Islas,J.,Fryer,S.,Caulkins, C.A.,Ballard,J.,Fogle,C.A.,Littell,P.D.,Veler, M.,Tibbs,J.A.,and Crawford,N.C.,p.114-115 Turin,H.J. Turin,H.J.,Plummer,M.A.,Newton,B.T.,Phillips, F.M.,and Campbell,A.R.,p.115-115 Vann,D.T. Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Varnedoe,W.W. Varnedoe,W.W.,and Lundquist,C.L.,p.107-107 Veler,M. Richardson,J.,Croft,L.A.,Islas,J.,Fryer,S.,Caulkins, C.A.,Ballard,J.,Fogle,C.A.,Littell,P.D.,Veler, M.,Tibbs,J.A.,and Crawford,N.C.,p.114-115 Walden,B. Walden,B.,and Walden,K.,p.112-112 Walden,K. Walden,B.,and Walden,K.,p.112-112 Ward,R. Crothers,G.,Swelund,C.,and Ward,R.,p.107-107 Weary,D.J. Orndorff,R.C.,and Weary,D.J.,p.114-114 Webb,D.W. Taylor,S.J.,Wetzel,M.J.,and Webb,D.W.,p.109-109 Wetzel,M.J. Wetzel,M.J.,and Taylor,S.J.,p.99-104 Taylor,S.J.,Wetzel,M.J.,and Webb,D.W.,p.109-109 Wexel,C. Mylroie,J.E.,Jenson,J.W.,Taborosi,D.,Jocson, J.M.U.,Vann,D.T.,and Wexel,C.,p.9-22 Mylroie,J.,Mylroie,J.,Jenson,J.,and Wexel,C., p.113-113 Wheeland,K.D. Sasowsky,I.D.,Sinkovich,E.,and Wheeland,K.D.,p. 119-128 White,M.J. White,M.J.,p.109-109 Wicks,C.M. Florea,L.J.,and Wicks,C.M.,p.59-66 Witzgall,C. am Ende,B.A.,Bernal,J.,and Witzgall,C.,p.117-118 Worthington,S.R. Worthington,S.R.,Schindel,G.M.,and Alexander,E.C., p.115-115 Worthington,S.R.,and Smart,C.C.,p.115-116



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Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 • 105 CAVESCIENCENEWS CAVE SCIENCE NEWS CONSERVATION EDITOR NEEDED BY JCKS The Journal of Cave and Karst Studies seeks a new Associate Editor of Conservation. The responsibilities of the Associate Editors include soliciting articles,arranging for appropriate reviews of papers in their fields of expertise, working with authors to prepare their manuscripts for publication,making recommendations concerning acceptance and rejection of submitted papers,and assisting the Editor in gathering material for the non-refereed section of the Journal Advice from the Associate Editors,along with the Journal’s Advisory Board,is commonly solicited on editorial policy decisions. The Journal desires a pro-active caver with contacts in the cave and karst conservation and management community,and experience in scholarly publishing. Interested candidates are asked to send a letter of interest by February 1,2002,to the editor at:Hose@chapman.edu. EBAY CHANGES ARTIFACTS POLICY TO HELP PROTECT SPELEOTHEMS IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT:On Saturday,September 1st, eBay changed their Artifacts Listing Policy to include speleothems I want to thank everyone who spoke with and/or emailed eBay Community Watch over the past two years to help eliminate the listing of speleothems. It’s evident your comments did not go unnoticed. Two of the Community Watch comments I received were “if we only knew the state and federal laws”and,“the auction ended before we could delist the item.”Approximately 2 weeks before Convention,I mailed the Chairman of the Board,President,Vice-president and General Counsel of eBay a copy of all of the Federal laws and state statutes regarding the protection of speleothems and caves. When I returned from Convention,I had a message to call the General Counsel. For a week we discussed cave conservation,eBay politics,and how their Artifacts Policy could be changed. Below is an annotated copy of the new eBay Artifacts Policy with the changes in bold italics (http://pages.ebay.com/help/community/png-artifacts.html): Artifacts,Grave-Related Items and Native American Crafts Many artifacts ,cave formations (speleothems,stalactites and stalagmites) and grave-related items are protected under federal laws such as, The Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988, and the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act. eBay cooperates with the Department of the Interior, Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Indian Affairs and Federal Bureau of Investigation in determining what items may lawfully be sold under these laws. Please follow these general guidelines when listing related items on eBay. Artifacts Artifacts taken from any federal,state,public Department of Interior (NPS,BLM,USFWS) and Department of Agriculture Agencies (USFS), Native American land,or battlefield are prohibited for sale. Cave Formations The sale of speleothems,stalactites and stalagmites taken from caves on any federal land is prohibited by federal law. See The Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988. Many states also prohibit the sale and/or removal of speleothems,stalactites and stalagmites taken from caves. Please be sure your item complies with all applicable laws before listing it for sale. The revised policy,however,does not prevent speleothems from occasionally being listed. There are over 300,000 items on daily and the eBay Community Watch Team cannot check them all. Cavers still must monitor the auctions,and,if we find a cave formation for sale,immediately email eBay Community Watch found under Contact Rules and Safety (http://pages.ebay.com/help/basics/select-RS.html),referencing the item and the new Artifacts Policy. I have been advised when we do this,eBay Community Watch will immediately contact the seller and have the item delisted. This system is not perfect; however,eBay has made a stand for cave conservation and together we can make a difference. KARST FRONTIERS:FLORIDA AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTS THEKARSTWATERSINSTITUTECONFERENCESERIESMARCH6-10,2002 The Karst Waters Institute will host another of their excellent special topic meetings in spring 2002. This interdisciplinary conference will focus on exploring the biology,chemistry,and geology of Cenozoic carbonate aquifers in Florida,and in related environments around the World. Oral sessions will be invited,abstracts for the poster session can be volunteered. Total participation is planned at 100-120 people. For more information contact:mylroie@geosci.MsState.edu or 662-325-8774. HESS APPOINTED EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA The Geological Society of America recently announced that NSS member and karst hydrogeologist Jack Hess will become their Executive Director on December 15,2001. Hess wrote his Pennsylvania State University PhD dissertation on the hydrology of the Mammoth Cave,Kentucky area under the direction of Will White. He has spent most of his career associated with the Desert Research Institute at the University of Nevada,most recently serving as Director of the Institute. YAHOO CHANGES AUCTION POLICY TO HELP PROTECT SPELEOTHEMS IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT:On November 1st,Yahoo changed their Auction Listing Policy to include speleothems The Yahoo’s policy is simple and can be found at http://user.auctions.shopping.yahoo.com/html/guidelines.html. After eBay change their policy on September 1st,I sent a similar detailed document to their General Counsel Matt Robinson and two weeks later we developed the below policy. Although it is not perfect,the policy is one that can be enforced by the Yahoo Auction Team. Items that are prohibited by Yahoo! It is the responsibility of both the seller and the buyer to ensure that the items listed for auction and bought by the winning bidder are appropriate for sale under all applicable laws and regulations. In addition,every item listed on Yahoo! Auctions must be consistent with Yahoo!'s policies,as determined in Yahoo!'s sole discretion. Yahoo! expressly reserves the right to,but has no duty to,refuse,reject or remove any listing in Yahoo!'s sole discretion. There are some things that you may not list or sell under any circumstances. These include: 14. Speleothems,stalactites and stalagmites from caves on federal land or as prohibited by state or federal law. The revised policy,however,does not prevent speleothems from occasionally being listed. There are over 100,000 items on daily and the Yahoo cannot check them all. Cavers still must monitor the auctions,and,if we find a cave formation for sale,immediately email Yahoo found under Auction Abuse http://add.yahoo.com/fast/help/us/auct/cgi_abuse referencing the item and the new Policy. I have been advised when we do this,Yahoo will immediately contact the seller and have the item delisted. The two largest Internet Auction Companies,eBay and now Yahoo,have taken a position for cave conservation and speleothem protection. Together we can all make a difference. Tom Lera Liaison for International Speleothem Protection,NSS servation Committee

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106 Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 CAVESCIENCENEWS OBITUARYGEORGEHUPPERTNSS 7717 Dr. George Huppert,Conservation Editor of the Journal of Cave and Karst Studies,died on October 14,2001,in a head-on car crash in the Roosevelt Lake area near Globe,Arizona,while exploring prior to the National Karst and Cave Management Symposium held in Tucson. George was a prolific writer on cave and karst conservation and management topics,and had spent many years of service to the National Speleological Society (NSS),the NSS Cave Conservation and Management Section (CCMS),the American Cave Conservation Association (ACCA),the International Union of Speleology (UIS), and most of the National Cave and Karst Management Symposia. He was 56 years of age at the time of his death,and is survived by his wife Betty J. Wheeler,one son,3 nephews,and 2 nieces. In his life,George accumulated six university degrees in Geography,Geology and related subjects. He read two or more newspapers daily,and several hundred books,professional journals,and magazines per year. George was devoted to the study of the earth and nature,with an insatiable thirst for knowledge. He wrote most of the dissertations for his advanced degrees on cave related topics,including Papoose Cave in Idaho and a Survey of Cave Conservation in America. He joined the University of Wisconsin at La Crosse in 1979, and became Professor of Geography and Earth Science. He was twice voted Chair of the Department of Geography and Earth Science. George's caving included trips to hundreds of caves (905 that he recorded) in many parts of the U.S.; and to caves in Canada,Jamaica, San Salvador Island (Bahamas),Cuba,England,France,Australia, China,Hong Kong,Hawaii,Hungary,Czech Republic,Slovenia,and Brazil. He was particularly delighted to visit the "Kras" area of Slovenia,which is the first area of solutional caves scientifically described ("type-section"),and where groundwater resources are fragile. (This work defined what is now known as a "karst" area.) George was also honored to visit the famous Lascaux Cave in France. This famous cave,with Paleolithic drawings and paintings of animals, is one of 16 sites named together as the "Decorated Grottoes of the Vezere Valley" and is designated a United Nations Educational, Scientific,and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Site. The drawings and paintings in the cave are exceedingly fragile and,therefore,visitation is extremely restricted. George spent thousands of hours volunteering in the NSS and other organizations. He was a founder and officer of the American Cave Conservation Association,and a founder and President of the NSS Cave Conservation and Management Section. He was at various times a Director of the Section,and was the coordinator for the NSS Convention Conservation Session for many years. He was a Fellow of the NSS,and was the 1996 recipient of the NSS Conservation Award, given each year to an individual who,through specific actions,has demonstrated an outstanding dedication to the cause of cave conservation. Ironically,George was a prime mover in convincing the Conservation and Management Section to continue to present the old style NSS Conservation Award to Internal Organizations after the NSS changed their award to an Individual Award; George chaired the Section Awards Committee for many years. At the time of his death,George was an Adjunct Secretary of the UIS Bureau,and served for a time as the US Delegate to the UIS. Prior to 1996,he served on the International Geographical Union Commission on Sustainable Development & Management of Karst Terrain. George attended and presented papers at many of the National Cave Management Symposia,on topics ranging from Underground Wilderness to Cave Laws to Show Cave Owners Perceptions of the NSS. He was co-editor of the Proceedings for the 1987 meeting at Rapid City. At the time of his death,he was collaborating with Tom Lera on a book on Cave Protection Laws. There is no doubt that George will be sorely missed,not only by his family and friends,but also by the entire cave conservation community. [A George Huppert Memoriam Page has been established on the NSS CCMS Web Site at http://www.caves.org/ccms/huppert/] Rob Stitt (with inputs from Betty Wheeler,Arthur Clarke,and Abel Vale). BCI STUDENT SCHOLARSHIP DEADLINE IN DECEMBER Approximately 15 grants ranging from $500 to $2,500 will be made in 2002,to support research that helps document batsÂ’roosting and feeding habitat requirements,their ecological or economic roles, or their conservation needs. Students enrolled in any college or university,worldwide,are eligible to apply. Projects must have bat conservation relevance. The application deadline for 2002 scholarships is 15 December 2001. Application information and forms are available on our web page at http://www.batcon.org/schol/schol.html or email aengland@batcon.org or write to: Bat Conservation International Student Scholarship Program P.O. Box 162603 Austin,TX 78716-2603 USA



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Copyright 2001 by The National Speleological Society Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 • 99 Mark J. Wetzel and Steven J. Taylor First records of freshwater oligochaetes (Annelida,Clitellata) from caves in Illinois and Missouri,USA. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 63 (3):99104. The fauna of Illinois and Missouri caves has been the subject of several faunal surveys (Craig 1977; Gardner 1986; Lewis 1974; Lewis et al. 1999; Peck & Lewis 1978; Peck & Christiansen 1990; Webb et al. 1993). While several of these studies listed edaphobitic oligochaetes (families Acanthodrilidae,Komarekionidae,Lumbricidae,and many Enchytraeidae),none reported the presence of aquatic Oligochaeta. Illinois’epigean aquatic oligochaete fauna includes 86 species in 44 genera representing seven families (Wetzel 1992),some of which are from karst springs (Webb et al. 1995; Webb et al. 1996,1998b). Aquatic oligochaetes are poorly known in Missouri,but a similar degree of diversity is expected to occur there. Elsewhere in North America,records of aquatic oligochaetes from cave streams are sparse (e.g.,Brinkhurst 1986; Cook 1971,1975; Holsinger & Culver 1988; Kathman & Brinkhurst 1984; Reeves & Reynolds 1999; Reeves et al. 2000),but phreatic and hyporheic habitats are known to harbor a variety of aquatic oligochaetes (Gibert et al. 1994; Rodriguez 1996; Rodriguez & Coates 1996; Strayer 2001; Strayer et al. 1995),including a new family of freshwater annelids (Parvidrilidae: Parvidrilus strayeri Ersus,1999) recently described from the hyporheic zone of a spring-fed stream (Ersus 1999). Culver et al (2000) noted that the under-representation of groups such as the aquatic oligochaetes in published accounts might alter our understanding of the taxonomic pattern of cave biodiversity in the United States. We examined aquatic oligochaetes collected from the fine sediments of streams in several of the longest caves in Illinois and Missouri (Middleton & Waltham 1986) in conjunction with studies of the fauna and water quality of caves in the karst areas of southwestern Illinois and southeastern Missouri (Taylor & Webb 2000; Taylor et al 2000). SITEDESCRIPTIONSAquatic oligochaetes were obtained from four caves in Illinois:Fogelpole Cave,Illinois Caverns,and Krueger-Dry Run Cave (all in Monroe County) and Stemler Cave (St. Clair County) (lengths:>24 km,8.8 km,~11 km,and 1800 m, respectively [Webb et al. 1998a]),and from four caves in Perry County,Missouri:Crevice Cave,Mertz Cave,Mystery Cave, and Rimstone River Cave (lengths:45.5 km [Middleton & Waltham 1986; Walsh 1997],~2.9 km [Vandike 1985],~25.7 km [Walsh 1997],and 22.6 km [Middleton & Waltham 1986], respectively). All of these caves are situated in well-developed sinkhole plain karst terrain in the Salem Plateau (Fig. 1),where the dominant land use is row-crop agriculture (corn,soybeans, wheat). Other prominent land uses include hay fields,livestock pastures,woodlots,rural housing,and farmsteads. The urbanized area associated with Perryville,Missouri,is within the drainage basin of Crevice and Mertz caves (Vandike 1985) and extensive rural development associated with the growth of the St. Louis metropolitan area threatens karst groundwater quality of the Illinois sites (Panno et al. 1996,1999; Taylor et al. 2000). METHODSThe Illinois caves were sampled on a monthly basis from early February 1999 through early January 2000. Perry County,Missouri,caves were sampled on 5 July (Crevice Cave and Mertz Cave),20 June (Mystery Cave),and 6 September (Rimstone River Cave) 1998. During each visit,three (six in Mystery Cave) samples were taken from the dark zone of each cave in near-shore,silty sediments in pools of the main stream passages by pushing a 4.7 cm diameter clear plastic tube into the substrate to a depth of 5 cm. Core samples were placed in Whirl-Pak™ bags,fixed in 10% buffered formalin for at least FIRST RECORDS OF FRESHWATER OLIGOCHAETES (ANNELIDA,CLITELLATA) FROM CAVES IN ILLINOIS AND MISSOURI,USAMARKJ. WETZELANDSTEVENJ. TAYLORIllinois Natural History Survey,Center for Biodiversity,172 N.R.B.,607 E. Peabody Drive,MC-652,Champaign,IL 618206917 USA MJW:mjwetzel@uiuc.edu; SJT:sjtaylor@inhs.uiuc.edu Aquatic oligochaetes were collected from the fine sediments of eight cave streams in Illinois and Missouri from June 1998 through January 2000. Five families,9 genera,and 15 taxa are reported. Rhyacodrilus subterraneus (Tubificidae) represents a new state record for Illinois,and 10 species— Dero digitata,D. nivea, and Pristina leidyi (Naididae) and Limnodrilus cervix,L. hoffmeisteri,L. udekemianus, Rhyacodrilus falciformis,R. sodalis,R. subterraneus ,and Varichaetadrilus angustipenis (Tubificidae)— represent new state records for Missouri. Of the species collected, Haplotaxis cf. gordioides (Haplotaxidae), P. leidyi ,and L. hoffmeisteri,R. falciformis,R. subterraneus ,and Tubifex tubifex (Tubificidae) have previously been reported from caves in North America. These are the first published records of freshwater oligochaetes in caves of Illinois and Missouri.

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100 Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 FIRSTRECORDSOFFRESHWATEROLIGOCHAETES(ANNELIDA,CLITELLATA) FROMCAVESINILLINOISANDMISSOURI 48 hours,then rinsed with water before transferring to 70% ethanol for temporary storage. Oligochaetes were picked from samples and carefully cleaned of minute sand and detrital material,processed through an ethanol series,washed in punctilious ethanol,placed in an ethanol/xylene solution for 30 minutes,then mounted in Permount™ on standard microscope slides under cover slips. Compound microscopes equipped with Nomarski Differential Interference Contrast were used for identification. Identifications and distribution data follow the original descriptions of Sperber (1948),Brinkhurst (1978), Brinkhurst & Jamieson (1971),Brinkhurst & Wetzel (1984), Klemm (1985),Kathman & Brinkhurst (1998),and Collado & Schmelz (2000). All specimens are deposited in the Illinois Natural History Survey (INHS) Annelida Collection, Champaign. RESULTSOligochaetes representing 5 families,10 genera,and 15 distinct taxa were identified from the samples (Table 1). Of the 1582 specimens examined,many were fragments of whole specimens,and the majority of specimens were sexually immature. Thus,much of the material could not be identified. A few undetermined specimens representing the oligochaete families Enchytraeidae,Lumbriculidae,and Naididae (genus Pristina ) were collected,plus a single specimen of another clitellate annelid group,the Branchiobdellida. No edaphobitic oligochaetes were present in any of the sediment samples. DISCUSSIONOf the 13 oligochaete species determined from this material,one represents a new record for Illinois and 10 represent new records for Missouri (Table 1). Although most of the caves have been previously sampled for aquatic fauna,all oligochaete species collected during this study represent first records for the caves in which they were found. SPECIESACCOUNTSHAPLOTAXIDAEHaplotaxis cf gordioides (Hartmann,1821). This species is the only recognized haplotaxid occurring in North America north of Mexico (Kathman & Brinkhurst 1998). We refer to this taxon with “cf”because the species limits within the genus Haplotaxis are not clear,there is a large size range between the largest and smallest specimens of Haplotaxis cf gordioides and the pattern of dorsal chaetae is variable. Although other Haplotaxis species have been described from sexually mature individuals elsewhere in the world (Brinkhurst 1988),no fully mature specimen of H. cf gordioides has been reported from North America. The limited and seemingly disjunct distributional information for H. cf gordioides and other haplotaxids is likely an artifact of collecting effort,particularly since the majority of records are from groundwater habitats (cisterns, wells,springs,caves,hyporheic and phreatic waters) (Brinkhurst 1986; Kathman & Brinkhurst 1998; Strayer 2001). Cook (1975) reported H. gordioides from a cave in West Virginia,and Kathman & Brinkhurst (1984) reported it from a cave in Tennessee. NAIDIDAEDero digitata (Mller,1773),a cosmopolitan species,is common and widespread in surface waters throughout North America. Dero nivea Aiyer,1930,a cosmopolitan species,is uncommon but widespread in surface waters throughout North America. Pristina jenkinae (Stephenson,1931),although widespread in surface waters throughout North America,is collected only occasionally. Pristina leidyi Smith,1896,a cosmopolitan species,is uncommon but relatively widespread in surface waters throughout North America. This species was recently reported Figure 1. Karst terrain of southwestern Illinois and southeastern Missouri. All caves sampled (triangles) lie in the shaded sinkhole areas (Panno et al. 1999) in the labeled counties.

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Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 101 WETZELANDTAYLOR from caves in South Carolina (Reeves & Reynolds 1999; Reeves 2000). TUBIFICIDAELimnodrilus cervix Brinkhurst,1963 is widespread and commonly collected in surface waters throughout North America,and has been introduced into Europe and Asia. Although commonly collected from organically enriched habitats (Kathman & Brinkhurst 1998), L. cervix is not as tolerant of environmental extremes as is Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparde. Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparde,1862,a cosmopolitan species,is perhaps the most commonly collected freshwater oligochaete worldwide. It occurs in a wide variety of surface water habitats,reaching very high abundance in organically enriched areas often with Tubifex tubifex (Brinkhurst 1975, 1996). The most commonly collected oligochaete during this study,the presence of L. hoffmeisteri may reflect organic enrichment associated with fecal contamination in the study area (Taylor et al. 2000). Kathman & Brinkhurst (1984) reported L. hoffmeisteri from caves in Tennessee. Limnodrilus udekemianus Claparde,1862,a cosmopolitan species,is found in organically polluted waters as well as oligotrophic habitats. It is widespread but rarely abundant in surface waters throughout North America (Klemm 1985). Rhyacodrilus falciformis Bretscher,1901,a rare Holarctic groundwater species,was first reported in North America from a creek on Vancouver Island,British Columbia (Brinkhurst 1978); this species has since been documented from Cascade Cave (Vancouver Island),the Hudson River in New York (Brinkhurst 1986),from Fraction Run,a small groundwaterinfluenced stream in Will County,Illinois (Wetzel 1992),and Montana (Kathman & Brinkhurst 1998). The collection of R. falciformis from Mystery Cave extends its range to the south and is the second report of this species from a cave in North America. Rhyacodrilus cf. sodalis (Eisen,1879),considered widespread but rare in North America,is of somewhat uncertain taxonomic status because of variability in morphology (Brinkhurst & Cook 1966; Kathman & Brinkhurst 1998; Klemm 1985). Cook Table 1. Aquatic Oligochaeta (Annelida,Clitellata) collected from caves in southwestern Illinois and southeastern Missouri from 1998 to 2000. Order Lumbriculida Family Lumbriculidae unidentified specimens++ Order Haplotaxida Family Haplotaxidae Genus Haplotaxis Hoffmeister,1843 Haplotaxis cf. gordioides (Hartmann,1821)++ Order Enchytraeida Family Enchytraeidae unidentified specimens ++ Order Tubificida Family Naididae Genus Dero Oken,1815 Dero digitata (Mller,1773) +++ Dero nivea Aiyer,1930 ++ Genus Pristina Ehrenberg,1828 Pristina jenkinae (Stephenson,1931)+ Pristina leidyi Smith,1896++++ Pristina sp. ++ Family Tubificidae Genus Limnodrilus Claparde,1862 Limnodrilus cervix Brinkhurst,1963 +++ Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparde,1862 ++++++++ Limnodrilus udekemianus Claparde,1862 ++ Genus Rhyacodrilus Bretscher,1901 Rhyacodrilus falciformis Bretscher,1901 ++ Rhyacodrilus cf. sodalis (Eisen,1879) ++ Rhyacodrilus subterraneus Hrabe,1963 ++++++ Genus Tubifex Lamarck,1816 Tubifex tubifex (Mller,1774) + Genus Varichaetadrilus Brinkhurst & Kathman,1983 Varichaetadrilus angustipenis (Brinkhurst & Cook,1966)+++++ Varichaetadrilus sp. + Fogelpole Cave Krueger-Dry Run Cave Illinois Caverns Stemler Cave Crevice Cave Mertz Cave Mystery Cave Rimstone River Cave Illinois New Record Missouri New Record

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102 Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 FIRSTRECORDSOFFRESHWATEROLIGOCHAETES(ANNELIDA,CLITELLATA) FROMCAVESINILLINOISANDMISSOURI (1975) reported R. sodalis from a cave in West Virginia. Rhyacodrilus subterraneus Hrabe,1963,a rare Holarctic groundwater species,was first reported in North America from a hyporheic habitat in New York by Strayer & BannonO’Donnell (1988). More recent records document its occurrence in Tennessee (Kathman & Brinkhurst 1998),and in hyporheic habitats in Alabama,Kentucky,New York,Ohio, Tennessee,and Virginia (Strayer 2001). During their studies, Strayer (2001) and Strayer & Bannon-O’Donnell (1988) noted that R. subterraneus was the most widespread and commonly collected hyporheic tubificid; despite its abundance,they collected no mature specimens. Although most specimens were collected from deeper sediments by Strayer (2001)—supporting its status as an interstitial specialist (Hrabe 1963)—Strayer (2001) occasionally collected it from surface stream sediments,as did Timm et al (1996). Our specimens,all immature, extend the known range of R. subterraneus farther west in North America Tubifex tubifex (Mller,1774),a cosmopolitan species that is not commonly encountered,is locally abundant in habitats of marginal water quality—pristine alpine and subalpine lakes (Klemm 1985),the bottoms of large,unproductive,oligotrophic lakes (e.g.,Lake Superior),grossly polluted and organically enriched sites with low oxygen tensions,and aquatic habitats supporting few other species (Brinkhurst 1996). In areas with heavy organic pollution, T. tubifex is usually associated with L. hoffmeisteri ,where the two species are often the dominant oligochaetes or even the dominant or exclusive benthic invertebrates (Brinkhurst 1996). Brinkhurst (1970) also suggested that T. tubifex may prefer situations in which other species find it difficult to survive—either because there is too little active decomposition,or too much. Tubifex tubifex is widespread in North America and has been reported from a cave in Virginia (Holsinger 1966). Varichaetadrilus angustipenis (Brinkhurst & Cook,1966), an uncommon but widespread Nearctic species east of the Mississippi River and east of Manitoba (Kathman & Brinkhurst 1998),has recently been reported from California (Kathman & Brinkhurst 1998) and Arizona (Wetzel et al. 1999). The senior author has identified V. angustipenis from numerous springs and springruns in Illinois (Webb et al 1995; Webb et al 1996,1998b),from Montezuma Well in Arizona (Wetzel et al. 1999),and from resurgence springs of the Edwards Aquifer in Texas (unpublished records,INHS Annelida Collection). Extensive collecting in Illinois and other states and provinces in North America by the senior author has failed to produce V. angustipenis from habitats other than those associated with or influenced by groundwater. The collection of V. angustipenis from Crevice and Mertz caves in Missouri represents a new record for the state. An aberrant (developing?) specimen of the genus Varichaetadrilus ,probably attributable to V. angustipenis ,was collected from Mystery Cave. The abundance of new records in this study emphasizes the paucity of available information on North American aquatic Oligochaeta in caves. In reviewing the faunal studies of caves in Illinois and Missouri,and several studies of North American cave faunas (Franz et al 1994; Holsinger 1963,1966; Holsinger & Culver 1988; Holsinger & Peck 1971; Kathman & Brinkhurst 1984; Lewis 1983; Peck 1988; Reeves et al. 2000),few species-level identifications of aquatic annelids were included among the extensive lists of reported taxa. Our data indicate the presence of a diverse and relatively abundant aquatic oligochaete fauna in Midwestern cave streams associated with loess-covered karst terranes developed in Ordovician and Mississippian age bedrock (Panno et al. 1999). Aquatic clitellate annelids should receive careful consideration in ecological studies of cave environments because they comprise a significant and prevalent component in aquatic cave communities. ACKNOWLEDGMENTSFunding for this research was supported in part by the U.S. Department of the Interior-Fish & Wildlife Service,Illinois Department of Transportation,Illinois Department of Natural Resources,and the Illinois Natural History Survey. We thank G. Adams,J. Angel,L. Brennan,R. Haley,C. Hespin,J. Kath, C. Lee,D. Mahon,B. Molano-Flores,P. Moss,S.V. Panno,G. Resch,J. Roberts,G. & G. Schropp,H. Stuck,D. Tecic,M. Tiritilli,R. Toomey,K. Victory,S. Langowski,D.W. Webb, C.P. Weibel,P. Wightman,and R. Young for their assistance with field work in Illinois and Missouri caves. We also thank H. Stuck and W. Borchert for laboratory assistance,and D.W. Webb,C.P. Weibel,C.A. Phillips,G.A. Levin,D.L. Thomas, S.V. Fend,D.C. Ashley,and one anonymous reviewer for assistance with this manuscript. REFERENCESBrinkhurst,R.O.,1970,Distribution and abundance of tubificid (Oligochaeta) species in Toronto Harbour,Lake Ontario:Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada,v. 27,p. 1961-1969. Brinkhurst,R.O.,1975,Oligochaeta, in Parrish,F.K.,ed.,Keys to the water quality indicative organisms of the southeastern United States:Cincinnati,OH,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,Office of Research and Development, Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory,p. 6985. Brinkhurst,R.O.,1978,Freshwater Oligochaeta in Canada: Canadian Journal of Zoology,v. 56,no. 10,p. 2166-2175. Brinkhurst,R.O.,1988,A taxonomic analysis of the Haplotaxidae:Canadian Journal of Zoology,v. 66,no. 10, p. 2243-2252. Brinkhurst,R.O.,1996,On the role of tubificid oligochaetes in relation to fish disease with special reference to the Myxozoa:Annual Review of Fish Diseases,v. 6,p. 29-40.

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Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 103 WETZELANDTAYLOR Brinkhurst,R.O. & Cook,D.G.,1966,Studies on the North American Aquatic Oligochaeta. III:Lumbriculidae and additional notes and records of other families:Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia,v. 118, no. 1,p. 1-33. Brinkhurst,R.O. & Jamieson,B.G.M.,1971,Aquatic Oligochaeta of the world:Buffalo,New York,University of Toronto Press. Brinkhurst,R.O. & Wetzel,M.J.,1984,Aquatic Oligochaeta of the world:Supplement:Canadian Technical Report of Hydrography and Ocean Sciences no. 44,p. v+101. Collado,R. & Schmelz,R.M.,2000, Pristina silvicola and Pristina terrena spp. nov.,two new soil-dwelling species of Naididae (Oligochaeta,Annelida) from the tropical rain forest near Manaus,Brazil,with comments on the genus Pristinella:Journal of Zoology,London,v. 252,p. 509-516. Cook,D.G.,1971, Trichodrilus allegheniensis n. sp. (Oligochaeta,Lumbriculidae) from a cave in southern Tennessee:Transactions of the American Microscopical Society,v. 90,no. 3,p. 381-383. Cook,D.G.,1975,Cave-dwelling aquatic Oligochaeta (Annelida) from the eastern United States:Transactions of the American Microscopical Society,v. 94,no. 1,p. 24-37. Craig,J.L.,1977,Invertebrate faunas of caves to be inundated by the Meramec Park Lake in eastern Missouri:NSS Bulletin,v. 39,no. 3,p. 80-89. Culver,D.C.,Master,L.L.,Christman,M.C. & Hobbs,H.H., III.,2000,Obligate cave fauna of the 48 contiguous United States:Conservation Biology,v. 14,no. 2,p. 386-401. Ersus,C.,1999, Parvidrilus strayeri ,a new genus and species,an enigmatic interstitial clitellate from underground waters in Alabama:Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington,v. 112,no. 2,p. 327-337. Franz,R.,Bauer,J. & Morris,T.,1994,Review of biologically significant caves and their faunas in Florida and south Florida:Brimleyana,v. 20,p. 1-109. Gardner,J.E.,1986,Invertebrate fauna from Missouri caves and springs:Natural History Series,Missouri Department of Conservation. Gibert,J.,Danielopol,D.L. & Stanford,J.A.,1994, Groundwater ecology:San Diego,California,Academic Press. Holsinger,J.R.,1963,Annotated checklist of the macroscopic troglobites of Virginia with notes on their geographic distribution:National Speleological Society Bulletin,v. 25, no. 1,p. 23-36. Holsinger,J.R.,1966,A preliminary study of the effects of organic pollution of Banners Corner Cave,Virginia: International Journal of Speleology,v. 2,p. 75-89. Holsinger,J.R. & Culver,D.C.,1988,The invertebrate cave fauna of Virginia and a part of eastern Tennessee:zoogeography and ecology:Brimleyana,v. 14,p. 1-162. Holsinger,J.R. & Peck,S.B.,1971,The invertebrate cave fauna of Georgia:National Speleological Society Bulletin, v. 33,no. 1,p. 23-44. 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Lewis,J.J.,Moss,P.L. & Tecic,D.L.,1999,A conservation focused evaluation of the imperiled troglobitic fauna of the sinkhole plain karst of southwestern Illinois:The Nature Conservancy. Middleton,J. & Waltham,T.,1986,The underground atlas a gazetteer of the world cave regions:Great Britain,Robert Hale Ltd. Panno,S.V.,Krapac,I.G.,Weibel,C.P. & Bade,J.D.,1996, Groundwater contamination in karst terrain of southwestern Illinois:Illinois State Geological Survey Environmental Geology Series Report,v. 151,p. 1-43. Panno,S.V.,Weibel,C.P.,Wicks,C.M. & Vandike,J.E.,1999, Geology,hydrology,and water quality of the karst regions of southwestern Illinois and southeastern Missouri:ISGS Guidebook 27,Champaign,Illinois State Geological Survey. Peck,S.B.,1988,A review of the cave fauna of Canada,and the composition and ecology of the invertebrate fauna of caves and mines in Ontario:Canadian Journal of Zoology, v. 66,p. 1197-1213. Peck,S.B.,1989,The cave fauna of Alabama:Part I. The terrestrial invertebrates (excluding insects):NSS Bulletin,v. 51,p. 11-33. Peck,S.B. & Christiansen,K.,1990,Evolution and zoogeography of the invertebrate cave faunas of the Driftless Area of the Upper Mississippi River Valley of Iowa,Minnesota, Wisconsin,and Illinois,U.S.A.:Canadian Journal of Zoology,v. 68,p. 73-88. Peck,S.B. & Lewis,J.L.,1978,Zoogeography and evolution of the subterranean invertebrate faunas of Illinois and southeastern Missouri:NSS Bulletin,v. 40,no. 2,p. 39-63. Reeves,W.K.,2000, Caecidotea carolinensis (Isopoda: Asellidae):First record of a stygobite from South Carolina: Journal of Cave and Karst Studies,v. 62,no. 1,p. 8-19.

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104 Journal of Cave and Karst Studies ,December 2001 FIRSTRECORDSOFFRESHWATEROLIGOCHAETES(ANNELIDA,CLITELLATA) FROMCAVESINILLINOISANDMISSOURI Reeves,W.K.,Jensen,J.B. & Ozier,J.C.,2000,New faunal and fungal records from caves in Georgia,USA:Journal of Cave and Karst Studies,v. 62,no. 3,p. 169-179. Reeves,W.K. & Rrynolds,J.W.,1999,New records of cavedwelling earthworms (Oligochaeta:Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Naididae) and other annelids (Aeolosomatida,Branchiobdellida and Hirudinea) in the southeastern United States,with notes on their ecology: Megadrilogica,v. 7,no. 10,p. 65-71. Rodriguez,P.,1996, Stylodrilus californianus n. sp.,a new lumbriculid (Annelida:Oligochaeta) from North America: Hydrobiologia,v. 333,p. 161-164. Rodriguez,P. & Coates,K.A.,1996,A new American Stylodrilus species (Lumbriculidae,Oligochaeta): Canadian Journal of Zoology,v. 74,no. 1,p. 92-96. Sperber,C.,1948,A taxonomical study of the Naididae: Zoologiska Bidrag fran Uppsala,v. 28,p. 1-296. Strayer,D.L.,May,S.E.,Nielsen,P.,Wollheim,W. & Hausam, S.,1995,An endemic groundwater fauna in unglaciated eastern North America:Canadian Journal of Zoology,v. 73, no. 3,p. 502-508. Strayer,D.L.,2001,Ecology and distribution of hyporheic microannelids (Oligochaeta,Aphanoneura,and Polychaeta) from the eastern United States:Archiv fr Hydrobiologie,v. 131,no. 3,p. 493-510. Strayer,D.L. & Bannon-OÂ’Donnell,E.,1988,Aquatic microannelids (Oligochaeta and Aphanoneura) of underground waters of southeastern New York:American Midland Naturalist,v. 119,p. 327-335. Taylor,S.J.,Webb,D.W. & Panno,S.V.,2000,Spatial and temporal analyses of the bacterial fauna and water,sediment, and amphipod tissue chemistry within the range of Gammarus acherondytes :Illinois Natural History Survey Center for Biodiversity Technical Report,v. 2000,no. 18, p. 1-115. Taylor,S.J. & Webb.,D.W.,2000,Subterranean Amphipoda (Crustacea) of IllinoisÂ’Salem Plateau:Spatial and temporal components of microdistribution:Illinois Natural History Survey Center for Biodiversity Technical Report,v. 2000, no. 27,p. 1-62. Timm,T.,Ersus,C. & Lundberg,S.,1996,New and unusual records of freshwater Oligochaeta from the Scandinavian peninsula:Nordic Journal of Freshwater Research,v. 72,p. 15-29. Vandike,J.E.,1985,Movement of shallow groundwater in the Perryville karst area,southeastern Missouri,Water Resources Report:Rolla,Missouri,Missouri Department of Natural Resources,Division of geology and Land Survey. Walsh,J.,1997,Selected Ordovician,[sic] & Devonian age caves,caving the stratigraphic successions of Missouri Part II, in Taylor,R.L.,ed.,Exploring Missouri caves A guidebook for the 1997 Convention of the National Speleological Society,Sullivan,Missouri,June 23-27, 1997:Huntsville,Alabama,National Speleological Society,Inc.,p. 145-184. Webb,D.W.,Taylor,S.J. & Krejca,J.K.,1993,The biological resources of IllinoisÂ’caves and other subterranean environments:Illinois Natural History Survey Center for Biodiversity Technical Report,v. 1993,no. 8,p. 1-168. Webb,D.W.,Wetzel,M.J.,Reed,P.C.,Phillippe,L.R. & Harris,M.A.,1995,Aquatic biodiversity in Illinois springs: Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society,v. 68,no. 2 suppl,p. 93-107. Webb,D.W.,Wetzel,M.J.,Reed,P.C.,Phillippe,L.R. & Young,T.C.,1996,Biodiversity,hydrogeology,and water quality of 10 karst springs in the Salem Plateau Section of Illinois, in Davis,M.,ed.,Research on agricultural chemicals in Illinois groundwater:Status and future directions VI. Proceedings of sixth annual conference,Illinois Groundwater Consortium,Makanda,Illinois,March 27-28, 1996:Carbondale,Southern Illinois University,p. 146-185. Webb,D.W.,Page,L.M.,Taylor,S.J. & Krejca,J.K.,1998,The current status and habitats of the Illinois Cave Amphipod, Gammarus acherondytes Hubricht and Mackin (Crustacea: Amphipoda):Journal of Cave and Karst Studies,v. 60,no. 3,p. 172-178. Webb,D.W.,Wetzel,M.J.,Reed,P.C.,Phillippe,L.R. & Young,T.C.,1998,The macroinvertebrate biodiversity, water quality,and hydrogeology of ten karst springs in the Salem Plateau Section of Illinois,USA, in Botosaneanu, L.,ed.,Studies in crenobiology The biology of springs and springbrooks:Leiden,The Netherlands,Backhuys Publishers,p. 39-48. Wetzel,M.J.,1992,Aquatic Annelida of Illinois:Introduction and checklist of species:Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science,v. 85,no. 1 & 2,p. 87-101. Wetzel,M.J.,Oberlin,G. & Blinn,D.W.,1999,The aquatic Oligochaeta (Annelida:Clitellata) of Montezuma Well, Arizona:A near thermally constant limnocrene: Southwestern Naturalist,v. 44,no. 4,p. 514-518.


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Cras efficitur magna et sapien varius, luctus ullamcorper dolor convallis. Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Fusce sit amet justo ut erat laoreet congue sed a ante.

CHICAGO

Phasellus ornare in augue eu imperdiet. Donec malesuada sapien ante, at vehicula orci tempor molestie. Proin vitae urna elit. Pellentesque vitae nisi et diam euismod malesuada aliquet non erat.

WIKIPEDIA

Nunc fringilla dolor ut dictum placerat. Proin ac neque rutrum, consectetur ligula id, laoreet ligula. Nulla lorem massa, consectetur vitae consequat in, lobortis at dolor. Nunc sed leo odio.